Sample records for spot type filiat

  1. Considerations on the socio-affective filiation in the brazilian law


    Bezerra, Christiane Singh; UNIPAR-Paranavaí; Lima, Maria Aparecida Singh Bezerra de; UNIPAR-Paranavaí / CESUMAR


    The socio-affective filiation represents one of the great innovations in the array of paternal family law and consecrate the equality among children. The analysis of the characteristics, the requirements and the way how socioaffective filiation consubstantiates, brings to family relations a new specie of filiation not anticipated in the new Brazilian Civil Code. This type of filiation, although not disciplined, has been supported by the doctrine nad the paternal jurisprudence. A filiação s...

  2. La filiation et l’aide médicale à la procréation Filiation and medical assistance to procreation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Cadoret


    Full Text Available L’aide médicale à la procréation permet une procréation aussi proche que possible du processus naturel de fabrication d’un enfant en s’appuyant sur les éléments de base de la procréation, substances (sperme et ovule. A partir de cette base technique, chaque société va dire les combinaisons obligatoires pour aboutir à une filiation et transcrire une donnée naturelle de la procréation en une donnée sociale. Comment se passe cette transcription ? Que nous dit-elle du passage de la transformation du corps et de la sexualité en parenté ? Y aurait-il d’autres montages possibles de la filiation ?Medical assistance to procreation allows for procreation which is as close as possible from the natural process of the making of a child by relying on basic elements of procreation i.e. substances (sperm and ovum. From this technical basis, every society determines the combinations required to establish a filiation and transcribes a natural data of procreation into a social data. How is this transcription produced? What does it tell us about the transformation of the body and sexuality into parenthood? Would there be other possible constructions of the filiation?

  3. Filiation et écriture de l'Histoire chez Patrick Modiano et Monika Maron


    Maurud Müller, Hélène


    This study deals with the relationship between filiation and the writing of history in the works of two contemporary authors, the French author Patrick Modiano and the German novelist Monika Maron. Both authors approach history mainly through family romance. First, the two authors are situated in their respective literary environment, and some key notions are developed in detail, such as autobiography, autofiction, and family romance. On that basis, the fictional characters that bear marks of...

  4. The terminal vibration of laser spot tail in dual channel type linear CCD (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Cheng, Deyan; Shi, Yubin; Zhang, Jianmin


    A special phenomenon about laser spot tail in dual channel type linear CCD is studied. In the CCD, the charges packets in odd and even number pixels are respectively transferred by two channels, in which, the threshold difference of surface full well induces the length difference of spot tails. So, the terminal vibration of spot tail is caused. A simulation of this phenomenon is given and qualitatively validated by the experiment results of laser irradiating a dual channel type linear CCD. In the experiment, the phenomenon has been used to estimate relative size of surface full well thresholds in two channels of CCD.

  5. Le droit musulman en pratique : genre, filiation et bioéthique Islamic Jurisprudence in Practice: Gender, Filiation and Bioethics

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    Corinne Fortier


    Full Text Available Les modifications récentes des Codes de statut personnel ou pénal de certains pays musulmans qui touchent en particulier au mariage, au divorce, à l’adultère et aux crimes d’honneur réinterrogent les notions fondamentales que sont la dot, le lien conjugal, l’autorité des hommes, le contrôle de la sexualité des femmes. De plus, les réformes législatives liées à « l’adoption », aux procréations médicalement assistées, au désaveu et à la reconnaissance de paternité, à l’usage de tests ADN, font apparaître le rapport du biologique et du social dans la détermination de la filiation en islam. Par ailleurs, les nouvelles questions de bioéthique comme la contraception, l’avortement, ou encorele don d’organes, ont amené les juristes musulmans à émettre des avis juridiques (fatâwâ sur ces questions inédites en puisant leurs réponses dans l’esprit des textes de droit musulman classique. Le droit musulman (fiqh loin d’être intangible et immuable, comme on a tendance à le penser, se situe dans une dynamique pragmatique et évolutive permanente ainsi que le montre la diversité des avis juridiques produits par les juristes musulmans sur des questions sans cesse renouvelées.Recent modifications of personal status and of penal codes in some Muslim countries question fundamental patriarchal ideas and practices about marriage such as bridewealth, conjugal relations, male authority and sexual control of women. These modifications specifically concern weddings, divorce, adultery, and honor crimes. Furthermore, legislative reforms connected to «adoption», medically assistedprocreation, denial or recognition of paternity, use of genetic tests, illustrate the relation of biological and social in the determination of filiation in Islam. Besides, new questions of bioethics such as contraception, abortion, or organ donation, have led Muslim jurists to express legal opinions (fatâwâ on these new questions while

  6. From Founding Father to Pious Son: Filiation, Language, and Royal Inheritance in Alfonso X, the Learned

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    Ryan Szpiech


    Full Text Available The influence of King Alfonso X of Castile (reg. 1252–1284 has been so wide that modern historians have stressed Alfonso’s foundational role as a ‘father’ of many Castilian cultural institutions and areas of writing, including prose literature, science, the legal code, and vernacular historiography. This paper argues that the modern focus on Alfonso’s foundational, ‘fatherly’ role, while logical in the context of modern literary historiography, is at odds with Alfonso’s own medieval view of himself as a ‘son’ and heir, one who inherited rather than founded cultural institutions. It proposes that a reorientation of Alfonsine studies according to this medieval worldview, one focused less on Alfonso’s innovations and foundations and more on his continuty with and dependance on his forebears, will permit a clearer portrayal of Alfonso’s importance in medieval literary history. To this end, it explores Aflonso’s representation of himself as the ‘son’ of his father, King Fernando III, in the prologues to his scientific translations, in his encomium of his father known as the Setenario, and in song 292 of his Cantigas de Santa María. A reading of these examples is offered as a first step towards the study of filiation and ‘sonship’ in the vast Alfonsine historiographical and legal corpuses.

  7. Eternal hate and conscience: on the filiation between Freudian psychoanalysis and sixteenth and early seventeenth century Protestant thought. (United States)

    Westerink, Herman


    In his seminar on ethics Jacques Lacan suggests there exists a "filiation or cultural paternity" between Freudian psychoanalysis and a "new direction of thought" that starts with Luther's conceptualization of God's eternal hate of man, and is then futher continued in Calvinism. In this article this thesis is explored. The author argues that there is not only a familiarity between the Protestant doctrines of predestination and Freud's reconstruction of prehistoric events and primal scenes, but also that Lacan's views on conscience formation and his elaborations of the complexity of moral decisions resembles Calvinist thought on civil and spiritual conscience, and the longing for restoration of a lost image of God.

  8. Measurements and comparison of focal spot sizes of two types of x-ray tubes installed in simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, C.; Sorell, G.; Hille, N.


    Full text: Measurements of the effective focal spot size of two types of X-ray tubes installed in radiotherapeutic simulators (TOSHIBA and VARIAN-Ximatron) are presented. As recommended in ACPSEM Quality Assurance Protocols for Diagnostic X-ray Equipment [Heggie and Petty, APESM, Vol.8 No.1 1985], the effective focal spot size of X-ray tube is vital in determining the maximum resolution of radiographic and fluoroscopic images. Hence, the quality of clinical performance of diagnostic equipment is depended to a large extent upon the accuracy in measuring and maintaining the focal spot size of the X-ray tube and regular QA program. In determining the shape and the dimension of the effective focal spot that is located within the X-ray tube and can not be measured directly, a method developed by Spiegler and Breckinridge [Spiegler and Breckinrige, Radiation Physics, Vol. 102 Mar. 1972] was used. By irradiating a lead star pattern which is placed in a divert X-ray beam between the tube and a negative film, a magnified radiographic image of the test pattern can be obtained from a standard X-ray film. The actual shape of the effective focus is determined by tracing the locus of the image intensity inversion of the radial pattern where that is occurring when only a certain condition of spatial variation from a central ray-line is met. Then, the dimension of the focal spot can be calculated. In this measurements, three different test patterns (Typ 9/1, 5 deg Vertex Angle 0.03 mm Pb, Typ 9-2 deg-360 0.05 mmPb and Typ 9 Teilung 2 deg 0.05 mm Pb) with same diameter of 45 mm are used. Results from a series measurements which were carried out repetitively under same working condition of both simulators indicate that the effective focal spots of these two tubes are of similar rectangular shape. However, the dimensions of the focal spots are about 1.297 X 0.848 mm for the TOSHIBA tube and 0.692 X 0.532 mm for the Ximatron tube. The orientation of the focal spot for TOSHIBA tube is

  9. The Filiation by Assisted Human Reproductions Techniques in the Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code. An Advance that Allows to Harmonize the Rule with the Reality

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    Adriana Noemí Krasnow


    Full Text Available This article describes the contributions and changes that the Argentinian Civil and Commercial Code introduce in the filiation. The focus of attention is moved to the assisted human reproduction techniques in relation with the informed consent as an exteriorization of the will to procreate. Moreover, it is intended a study space about two proceedings that were silenced in the norm as the gestational surrogacy and the post mortem fertilization.

  10. SpotADAPT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulakiene, Dalia; Thomsen, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    by Amazon Web Services (AWS). The users aiming for the spot market are presented with many instance types placed in multiple datacenters in the world, and thus it is difficult to choose the optimal deployment. In this paper, we propose the framework SpotADAPT (Spot-Aware (re-)Deployment of Analytical...... execution within boundaries). Moreover, during the execution of the workload, SpotADAPT suggests a redeployment if the current spot instance gets terminated by Amazon or a better deployment becomes possible due to fluctuations of the spot prices. The approach is evaluated using the actual execution times...

  11. SPOT Program (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; hide


    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  12. Fano coil-type resonance for magnetic hot-spot generation. (United States)

    Nazir, A; Panaro, S; Proietti Zaccaria, R; Liberale, C; De Angelis, F; Toma, A


    The possibility to develop nanosystems with appreciable magnetic response at optical frequencies has been a matter of intense study in the past few years. This aim was strongly hindered by the saturation of the magnetic response of "natural" materials beyond the THz regime. Recently, in order to overcome such limitation, it has been considered to enhance the magnetic fields through the induction of displacement currents triggered by plasmonic resonances. Here we investigate a nanoassembly supporting the hybridization of an electric and magnetic plasmonic mode in Fano resonance conditions. Taking advantage of the enhancement properties owned by such interferential resonance, we have been able to generate an intense and localized magnetic hot-spot in the near-infrared spectral region.

  13. Molecular Typing of Turkish Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus Isolates Based on Partial Coat Protein Gene

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    C. Ulubas Serce


    Full Text Available Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV isolates from various hosts and geographic locations in Turkey were molecularly characterized by RFLP, nucleotide sequence analysis and the construction of a phylogenetic tree including ACLSV isolates from GenBank. Based on nucleotide sequence alignment and the phylogenetic tree, we proposed a classification of ACLSV isolates in which isolates were divided into three major groups. The first group contained mainly Far-Eastern isolates, the second group the Hungarian (eastern-European ACLSV isolates, and the third group, which contained isolates of variable characteristics, was again divided into two subgroups, subgroup I containing mixed European isolates, and subgroup II containing central European isolates. Three representative Turkish ACLSV isolates belonged to the third group; of these, one was from the mixed European cluster (subgroup I and two from the central European cluster (subgroup II. The nucleotide sequence divergence and geographic origin of the ACLSV isolates were correlated, which indicated the possible extraction of the Turkish isolates.

  14. La Kafâla ou recueil légal des mineurs en droit musulman : une adoption sans filiation Kafâla – or Legal Guardianship of Minors in Islamic Law: Adoption without Filiation

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    Marie-Christine Le Boursicot


    Full Text Available 1La kafâla ou recueil légal d’un mineur abandonné ou orphelin, mesure de protection de l’enfant reconnue par les conventions internationales, est réglementée dans certains pays de droit musulman, notamment l’Algérie et le Maroc, qui par ailleurs interdisent l’adoption en vertu de la sharia. De nombreuses familles françaises qui ont leurs origines dans ces deux pays y recueillent en toute légalité des enfants en kafâla. Mais la kafâla ne crée pas de lien de filiation au contraire de l’adoption, de sorte que l’enfant au regard du droit français ne fait pas partie de la famille qui l’a accueilli, d’où des difficultés administratives à la fois lors de l’entrée en France de ces enfants, mais également lors de leur séjour. En outre, le Parlement français a voté en 2001 une loi interdisant aux juges de prononcer l’adoption des enfants étrangers nés dans les pays où l’adoption est interdite : il en résulte que les enfants recueillis en kafâla issus pour la plupart de ces pays ne peuvent pas être adoptés par ceux qui les élèvent, en tout cas pas avant d’avoir acquis la nationalité française et pas avant cinq années.The kafâla, or legal guardianship of a minor who has been abandoned or orphaned, and a means of child protection recognized by international conventions, is regulated in certain Muslim law countries – notably Algeria and Morocco, which also prohibit adoption by virtue of sharia law. Many French families from these two countries take children into custody under the law (through kafâla. But unlike adoption, kafâla does not create a paternal tie, such that under French law the child is not part of his or her new family – giving rise to administrative problems at the point of the child’s entry into France, and also in the course of their residence. Moreover, in 2001, the French parliament passed a law prohibiting judges from granting adoptions to foreign children born in countries

  15. Influence of the Laser Spot Size, Focal Beam Profile, and Tissue Type on the Lipid Signals Obtained by MALDI-MS Imaging in Oversampling Mode (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Marcel; Dreisewerd, Klaus; Soltwisch, Jens


    To improve the lateral resolution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) beyond the dimensions of the focal laser spot oversampling techniques are employed. However, few data are available on the effect of the laser spot size and its focal beam profile on the ion signals recorded in oversampling mode. To investigate these dependencies, we produced 2 times six spots with dimensions between 30 and 200 μm. By optional use of a fundamental beam shaper, square flat-top and Gaussian beam profiles were compared. MALDI-MSI data were collected using a fixed pixel size of 20 μm and both pixel-by-pixel and continuous raster oversampling modes on a QSTAR mass spectrometer. Coronal mouse brain sections coated with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix were used as primary test systems. Sizably higher phospholipid ion signals were produced with laser spots exceeding a dimension of 100 μm, although the same amount of material was essentially ablated from the 20 μm-wide oversampling pixel at all spot size settings. Only on white matter areas of the brain these effects were less apparent to absent. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that these findings can presumably be attributed to different matrix morphologies depending on tissue type. We propose that a transition in the material ejection mechanisms from a molecular desorption at large to ablation at smaller spot sizes and a concomitant reduction in ion yields may be responsible for the observed spot size effects. The combined results indicate a complex interplay between tissue type, matrix crystallization, and laser-derived desorption/ablation and finally analyte ionization.

  16. Mapping and characterizing the vegetation types of the Democratic Republic of Congo using SPOT VEGETATION time series (United States)

    Vancutsem, C.; Pekel, J.-F.; Evrard, C.; Malaisse, F.; Defourny, P.


    The need for quantitative and accurate information to characterize the state and evolution of vegetation types at a national scale is widely recognized. This type of information is crucial for the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains the majority of the tropical forest cover of Central Africa and a large diversity of habitats. In spite of recent progress in earth observation capabilities, vegetation mapping and seasonality analysis in equatorial areas still represent an outstanding challenge owing to high cloud coverage and the extent and limited accessibility of the territory. On one hand, the use of coarse-resolution optical data is constrained by performance in the presence of cloud screening and by noise arising from the compositing process, which limits the spatial consistency of the composite and the temporal resolution. On the other hand, the use of high-resolution data suffers from heterogeneity of acquisition dates, images and interpretation from one scene to another. The objective of the present study was to propose and demonstrate a semi-automatic processing method for vegetation mapping and seasonality characterization based on temporal and spectral information from SPOT VEGETATION time series. A land cover map with 18 vegetation classes was produced using the proposed method that was fed by ecological knowledge gathered from botanists and reference documents. The floristic composition and physiognomy of each vegetation type are described using the Land Cover Classification System developed by the FAO. Moreover, the seasonality of each class is characterized on a monthly basis and the variation in different vegetation indicators is discussed from a phenological point of view. This mapping exercise delivers the first area estimates of seven different forest types, five different savannas characterized by specific seasonality behavior and two aquatic vegetation types. Finally, the result is compared to two recent land cover maps derived from

  17. Use of dried spots of whole blood, plasma, and mother's milk collected on filter paper for measurement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Workenesh; Schuurman, Rob; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Mengistu, Yohannes; Goudsmit, Jaap; Paxton, William A.; de Baar, Michel P.; Pollakis, Georgios


    We studied the use of dried spots of bodily fluids (plasma, whole blood, and mother's milk) on filter paper as a means of sample collection and storage for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load testing under stringent field conditions. Plasma placed directly in lysis buffer, which

  18. Age Spots (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Age Spots Treatment Options Learn more about treatment ...

  19. Dark Spots (United States)


    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  20. The novel allele of the LhMYB12 gene is involved in splatter-type spot formation on the flower tepals of Asiatic hybrid lilies (Lilium spp.). (United States)

    Yamagishi, Masumi; Toda, Shinya; Tasaki, Keisuke


    Many angiosperm families develop spatially regulated anthocyanin spots on their flowers. The Asiatic hybrid lily (Lilium spp.) cv 'Latvia' develops splatter-type spots on its tepals. The splatters arise simply from the deposition of anthocyanin pigments in the tepal epidermis. To determine how splatter development was regulated, we analysed the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, and isolated and characterized an R2R3-MYB gene specific to splatter pigmentation. All anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were expressed in splatter-containing regions of tepals, but not in other regions, indicating that splatter pigmentation is caused by the transcriptional regulation of biosynthesis genes. Previously characterized LhMYB12 regulators were not involved in splatter pigmentation, but, instead, a new allele of the LhMYB12 gene, LhMYB12-Lat, isolated in this study, contributed to splatter development. In 'Latvia' and other lily plants expressing splatters, LhMYB12-Lat was preferentially transcribed in the splatter-containing region of tepals. Progeny segregation analysis showed that LhMYB12-Lat genotype and splatter phenotype were co-segregated among the F1 population, indicating that LhMYB12-Lat determines the presence or absence of splatters. LhMYB12-Lat contributes to splatter development, but not to full-tepal pigmentation and raised spot pigmentation. As a result of its unique sequences and different transcription profiles, this new allele of LhMYB12 should be a novel R2R3-MYB specifically associating with splatter spot development. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Analysis of behavior of focusing error signals generated by astigmatic method when a focused spot moves beyond the radius of a land-groove-type optical disk (United States)

    Shinoda, Masahisa; Nakatani, Hidehiko; Nakai, Kenya; Ohmaki, Masayuki


    We theoretically calculate behaviors of focusing error signals generated by an astigmatic method in a land-groove-type optical disk. The focusing error signal from the land does not coincide with that from the groove. This behavior is enhanced when a focused spot of an optical pickup moves beyond the radius of the optical disk. A gain difference between the slope sensitivities of focusing error signals from the land and the groove is an important factor with respect to stable focusing servo control. In our calculation, the format of digital versatile disc-random access memory (DVD-RAM) is adopted as the land-groove-type optical disk model, and the dependences of the gain difference on various factors are investigated. The gain difference strongly depends on the optical intensity distribution of the laser beam in the optical pickup. The calculation method and results in this paper will be reflected in newly developed land-groove-type optical disks.

  2. Mongolian spots

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    Divya Gupta


    Full Text Available Mongolian spots (MS are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  3. Accuracy Assessment of GAI Retrieval from SPOT5 Take According to Crop Type and Crop Development (BELCAM) (United States)

    Delloye, C.; Weiss, M.; Baret, F.; Morin, D.; Defourny, P.


    The successful launch of Sentinel-2A equipped of the Multi Spectral Instrument is an exceptional opportunity to deliver regular information of high spatial and temporal resolution about the agricultural fields in Belgium. This research takes advantage of SPOT5 Take5 frequent acquisition over the Belgium in 2015 to realize an in-depth analysis of the Green Area Index (GAI) retrieval by inversion of a radiative transfer model at field scale over the whole Belgium for 2 crops: winter wheat and potato. The GAI is particularly relevant to derive the chlorophyll content at the canopy level (GAI × Cab) which is directly correlated to the Nitrogen content of the crops. This information is of crucial importance to advice farmers on the nitrogen fertilization genuinely required by the crops allowing the best yield and avoiding over fertilization and pollution of the groundwater table. The use of vegetation indexes seems promising to retrieve accurately the GAI (RRMSE =10.2%) during the period of the third Nitrogen application for the winter wheat. Further analyses have to be conducted for varieties of potato with a high level of biomass development (GAI > 4).

  4. An Update on Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Not Just Café-au-Lait Spots, Freckling, and Neurofibromas. An Update. Part I. Dermatological Clinical Criteria Diagnostic of the Disease. (United States)

    Hernández-Martín, A; Duat-Rodríguez, A


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurocutaneous syndrome and probably the one best known to dermatologists, who are generally the first physicians to suspect its diagnosis. Although the genetic locus of NF1 was identified on chromosome 17 in 1987, diagnosis of the disease is still mainly based on clinical observations and the diagnostic criteria of the National Institute of Health, dating from 1988. Cutaneous manifestations are particularly important because café-au-lait spots, freckling on flexural areas, and cutaneous neurofibromas comprise 3 of the 7 clinical diagnostic criteria. However, café-au-lait spots and freckling can also be present in other diseases. These manifestations are therefore not pathognomonic and are insufficient for definitive diagnosis in the early years of life. NF1 is a multisystemic disease associated with a predisposition to cancer. A multidisciplinary follow-up is necessary and dermatologists play an important role. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction of cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy, and mortality by albumin concentration in a spot urine sample in patients with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Viana, Luciana Verçoza; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Camargo, Joiza Lins; Zelmanovitz, Themis; da Costa Rocha, Enio P C; Azevedo, Mirela Jobim


    To analyze in a random urine spot the predictive value of urinary albumin concentration (UAC) for cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy (DN), and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cohort, urinary albumin (immunoturbidimetry) was measured as 24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and, in a random spot urine, as UAC and albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Primary outcomes were: 1) cardiovascular events, 2) DN defined as a composite outcome [macroalbuminuria and/or decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) type 2 diabetic patients, aged 59.9 ± 9.9 years, were followed for 6.1 ± 2.7 years. UAC ≥14.4 mg/l, as determined by ROC curve, predicted DN and prediction for this and other outcomes were compared with traditional microalbuminuria cutoffs for ACR and UAE. The outcomes frequency was: cardiovascular events = 26.4%, DN = 31.7% (23.5% decreased GFR; 13.6% macroalbuminuria) and death = 8.50%. In Cox analyses, UAC ≥14 mg/l increased the risk (hazard ratio, HR) for cardiovascular events 3.25 times (95% CI 1.43-7.38; P = 0.005), 4.30 for DN composite outcome (95% CI 2.22-8.32; P cardiovascular events, 4.67 (95% CI 2.34-9.34; P cardiovascular events, 6.76 (95% CI 3.32-13.77; P cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy, and mortality just as well as ACR. UAC may be used to assess cardiovascular and renal risks in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple or familial café-au-lait spots is neurofibromatosis type 6: clarification of a diagnosis. (United States)

    Madson, Justin G


    A café-au-lait macule (CALM) is an evenly pigmented macule or patch of variable size. Solitary CALMs are common birthmarks in up to 2.5 percent of normal neonates and their incidence rises to up to 25 percent in preschool-aged children. Two or more CALMs occur much less frequently. Multiple lesions may warrant investigation to identify an underlying disease including neurofibromatosis types 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2, McCune-Albright syndrome, and neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome. Considered a hallmark and diagnostic criteria for NF1 is the presence of 6 or more CALMs greater than 0.5 cm in prepubertal individuals. Rare reports describe families which demonstrate the phenomenon of multiple CALMs without other stigmata of NF1 or evidence of other systemic disease. Herein is a description of the condition and justification for this entity to be named Neurofibromatosis type 6.

  7. Uneven distribution of mating type alleles in Iranian populations of Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot disease of sugar beet

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    Mounes BAKHSHI


    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot disease on sugar beet, is thought to be exclusively asexual because no teleomorph has yet been found. The possibility of a clandestine sexual cycle in the Iranian population of Cercospora beticola was evaluated by analyzing the distribution and frequency of the mating type alleles on a microspatial and a macrogeographical scale. A total of 89 single-conidial Cercospora beticola isolates were obtained from sugar beet fields in the Moghan, the Talesh and the Khoy regions. The isolates were identifed using a Cercospora beticola-specifc primer set in a PCR assay. A multiplex PCR method using previously designed mating type primers was used to study the distribution and the frequency of the mating type alleles. All isolates showed either the 805-bp fragment or the 442-bp fragment of the MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes, but no isolate had both fragments. The distribution of the mating type genes in the sampled areas was uneven. From three sugar beet fields sampled in the Moghan region, two fields had only MAT1-1 isolates; while in the third field all isolates had only the MAT1-2 allele. In the Talesh region only MAT1-1 isolates occurred, and in the Khoy region the mating type alleles were uniformly distributed amongst the isolates. The skewed distribution of mating type alleles in Northwestern Iran was in line with the lack of a sexual cycle for this species and may also indicate that sugar fields in the Moghan region were infected by C. beticola populations of different origins. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new G-type lysozyme gene (Ec-lysG) in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. (United States)

    Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Wei, Jingguang; Li, Pengfei; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei


    Lysozyme acts as an innate immunity molecule against pathogen infection. In this study, a new G-type lysozyme gene with a typical G-type lysozyme domain (designated as Ec-lysG) was cloned and characterized from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length Ec-lysG cDNA contains 1419 bp and encodes a 256-residue protein containing a 25-residue signal peptide at the N-terminus. BLAST analysis reveals Ec-lysG shares 64% identity with Siniperca chuatsi, but 63% to another reported G-type lysozyme from orange-spotted grouper (OSG-lysG). The genomic DNA of Ec-lysG contains four exons and three introns, with a total length of 2062 bp. An amino acid sequence alignment showed that Ec-lysG shares the fundamental structural features of G-type lysozyme, including the catalytic residues, substrate binding sites, and soluble lytic transglycosylase domain. Quantitative PCR showed that Ec-lysG transcript is most abundant in the head kidney, and less abundant in the heart. The expression of Ec-lysG was differentially upregulated in the head kidney after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). A subcellular localization analysis showed that Ec-lysG is distributed predominantly in the cytoplasm. Recombinant Ec-lysG (rEc-lysG) has optimal activity at pH 7.5 and 35°C. rEc-lysG showed lytic activities against Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus iniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus lysodeikticus, and the Gram-negative bacterium V. alginolyticus. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that rEc-lysG acts on M. lysodeikticus cell walls. The overexpression of Ec-lysG in grouper cells did not significantly delay the occurrence of the cytopathic effect (CPE) induced by SGIV, and did not inhibit viral gene transcription. In conclusion, Ec-lysG might be a potent antibacterial protein, with a role in innate immunity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and optimization of an internally controlled dried blood spot assay for surveillance of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 drug resistance. (United States)

    Buckton, Andrew J; Bissett, Sara L; Myers, Richard E; Beddows, Simon; Edwards, Simon; Cane, Patricia A; Pillay, Deenan


    We present the evaluation of a methodology for the genotypic assessment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance, optimized for use with dried blood spots (DBS). The ability to generate HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) contiguous amplicons and nucleotide sequences from DBS was evaluated. Different collection matrices and extraction methodologies were compared. The relative subtype sensitivity of the amplification strategy was assessed using a comprehensive panel of plasmids representing A-H subtypes. A panel of DBS and plasma specimens was subjected to HIV genotyping. Sequences generated from each sample type were compared. Extensive replicate testing revealed most sensitivity with the use of 903 filter paper and silica/guanidine extraction, which had an estimated 95% inclusivity endpoint of 1542 proviral copies/mL, as compared with 21 573 proviral copies/mL for the FTA system. All HIV-1 group M subtypes analysed-with the exception of subtypes A2, AE, AG, F and H-had a relative sensitivity of /=1000 copies/mL were successfully amplified and sequenced. Twelve specimens had pol genotyping from both plasma and DBS samples. Sequence analysis and drug resistance interpretation revealed that 10 (83%) provided concordant drug resistance interpretation. Our results demonstrate that the technique is appropriate for surveillance of drug resistance in untreated individuals and those with virological failure on therapy.

  10. Genetic diversity, QoI fungicide resistance, and mating type distribution of Cercospora sojina-Implications for the disease dynamics of frogeye leaf spot on soybean. (United States)

    Shrestha, Sandesh Kumar; Cochran, Alicia; Mengistu, Alemu; Lamour, Kurt; Castro-Rocha, Arturo; Young-Kelly, Heather


    Frogeye leaf spot (FLS), caused by Cercospora sojina, causes significant damage to soybean in the U.S. One control strategy is the use of quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides. QoI resistant isolates were first reported in Tennessee (TN) in 2010. To investigate the disease dynamics of C. sojina, we collected 437 C. sojina isolates in 2015 from Jackson and Milan, TN and used 40 historical isolates collected from 2006-2009 from TN and ten additional states for comparison. A subset of 186 isolates, including historical isolates, were genotyped for 49 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and the QoI resistance locus, revealing 35 unique genotypes. The genotypes clustered into three groups with two groups containing only sensitive isolates and the remaining group containing all resistant isolates and a dominant clonal lineage of 130 isolates. All 477 C. sojina isolates were genotyped for the QoI locus revealing 344 resistant and 133 sensitive isolates. All isolates collected prior to 2015 were QoI sensitive. Both mating type alleles (MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2) were found in Jackson and Milan, TN and recovered from single lesions suggesting sexual recombination may play a role in the epidemiology of field populations. Analysis of C. sojina isolates using SNP markers proved useful to investigate population diversity and to elaborate on diversity as it relates to QoI resistance and mating type.

  11. Home-cage anxiety levels in a transgenic rat model for Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 measured by an approach-avoidance task: The light spot test. (United States)

    Kyriakou, Elisavet I; Nguyen, Huu Phuc; Homberg, Judith R; Van der Harst, Johanneke E


    Measuring anxiety in a reliable manner is essential for behavioural phenotyping of rodent models such as the rat model for Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) where anxiety is reported in patients. An automated tool for assessing anxiety within the home cage can minimize human intervention, stress of handling, transportation and novelty. We applied the anxiety test "light spot" (LS) (white led directed at the food-hopper) to our transgenic SCA17 rat model in the PhenoTyper 4500 ® to extend the knowledge of this automated tool for behavioural phenotyping and to verify an anxiety-like phenotype at three different disease stages for use in future therapeutic studies. Locomotor activity was increased in SCA17 rats at 6 and 9 months during the first 15min of the LS, potentially reflecting increased risk assessment. Both genotypes responded to the test with lower duration in the LS zone and higher time spent inside the shelter compared to baseline. We present the first data of a rat model subjected to the LS. The LS can be considered more biologically relevant than a traditional test as it measures anxiety in a familiar situation. The LS successfully evoked avoidance and shelter-seeking in rats. SCA17 rats showed a stronger approach-avoidance conflict reflected by increased activity in the area outside the LS. This home cage test, continuously monitoring pre- and post-effects, provides the opportunity for in-depth analysis, making it a potentially useful tool for detecting subtle or complex anxiety-related traits in rodents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An Update on Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Not Just Café-au-Lait Spots and Freckling. Part II. Other Skin Manifestations Characteristic of NF1. NF1 and Cancer. (United States)

    Hernández-Martín, A; Duat-Rodríguez, A


    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is the most common neurocutaneous syndrome and probably the one best known to dermatologists. Although the genetic locus of NF1 was identified on chromosome 17 in 1987, diagnosis of the disease is still based primarily on clinical observations. The 7 diagnostic criteria of the National Institutes of Health, which were established in 1988, include 3 skin manifestations (café-au-lait spots, freckling on flexural areas, and cutaneous neurofibromas). The age at which these diagnostic lesions appear is variable: onset can be late in some patients while others never develop certain symptoms. Definitive diagnosis may therefore be delayed by years. Although the appearance of the characteristic café-au-lait spots and freckling in the early years of childhood are very suggestive of the disease, these signs are not pathognomonic and, in isolation, do not constitute sufficient evidence to establish a definitive diagnosis. Thus, other diagnoses should be considered in patients whose only symptoms are café-au-lait spots and freckling. By contrast, the presence of multiple cutaneous neurofibromas or at least 1 plexiform neurofibroma is a very specific indication of NF1. Identification of the different types of neurofibroma allows us to confirm the diagnosis and initiate appropriate management. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.


    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  14. Absence of autoreactive CD4(+) T-cells targeting HLA-DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 restricted hypocretin/orexin epitopes in narcolepsy type 1 when detected by EliSpot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Holm, Anja


    Narcolepsy type 1, a neurological sleep disorder strongly associated with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-)DQB1*06:02, is caused by the loss of hypothalamic neurons producing the wake-promoting neuropeptide hypocretin (hcrt, also known as orexin). This loss is believed to be caused by an autoimmune...... reaction. To test whether hcrt itself could be a possible target in the autoimmune attack, CD4(+) T-cell reactivity towards six different 15-mer peptides from prepro-hypocretin with high predicted affinity to the DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 MHC class II dimer was tested using EliSpot in a cohort of 22 narcolepsy...

  15. Efeito do tipo de revestimento na soldagem a ponto de aços galvanizados Effect of coating type on spot welding of galvanized steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcélio Anício da Silva


    Full Text Available Os aços galvanizados são cada vez mais utilizados pela indústria automobilística devido à sua excelente resistência à corrosão e boa trabalhabilidade. A soldagem a pontos por resistência de aços galvanizados apresenta o inconveniente de um maior desgaste dos eletrodos quando comparada com a soldagem de aços não revestidos. Este é causado pela reação do zinco com o cobre do eletrodo, formando uma liga Zn-Cu (latão que diminui a vida útil do eletrodo. No presente trabalho, foram feitos testes de soldagem a ponto utilizando aços livres de intersticiais (IF, revestidos por imersão a quente com zinco puro (GI e liga Zn-Fe (GA. Foram determinados os campos de soldabilidade dinâmicos e a vida útil dos eletrodos para juntas formadas pelas combinações GA/GA, GI/GI e GA/GI. O estudo do campo de soldabilidade dinâmica mostrou que os valores de corrente necessários para a obtenção de uma solda adequada aumentam mais rapidamente para a junta de materiais GI/GI e este efeito foi associado com a maior contaminação do eletrodo pelo Zn do revestimento. Por sua vez, a soldagem da junta GA/GI apresenta taxas de variação desta corrente um pouco maiores do que a da junta GA/GA, mas menores que a da junta GI/GI. Em geral, a junta GA/GI apresentou resultados nos testes de soldagem mais próximos dos da junta GA/GA em comparação com os testes com a junta GI/GI. Isto mostra a influência positiva, do revestimento GA, no aumento do número de pontos de solda, mesmo quando a junta é constituída de aços com dois tipos de revestimentos diferentes (GA e GI.Steels coated with zinc and zinc-iron alloys are being increasingly used by the car industry due to their excellent corrosion resistance and good workability. Spot welding of coated steels has the disadvantage of increasing electrodes wear when compared to uncoated steels. Such wear is caused by the reaction of the zinc coating with the copper of the electrode forming an alloy Zn

  16. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.


    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Mononucleosis spot test (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  18. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesnjak, A.; Tusek, J.


    Plasma spot wedding of ferritic stainless steels studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shieldings and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas , i. e. a 98% Ar/2% H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joint was compared to that of resistance sport welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a large weld sport diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same. (Author) 32 refs

  19. Cotton-wool spots. (United States)

    Brown, G C; Brown, M M; Hiller, T; Fischer, D; Benson, W E; Magargal, L E


    A series of 24 consecutive patients presenting with a fundus picture characterized by a predominance of cotton-wool spots, or a single cotton-wool spot, is reported. Excluded were patients with known diabetes mellitus. Etiologic conditions found included previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in five patients, systemic hypertension in five patients, cardiac valvular disease in two patients, radiation retinopathy in two patients, and severe carotid artery obstruction in two patients. Dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, leukemia, AIDS, Purtscher's retinopathy, metastatic carcinoma, intravenous drug abuse, partial central retinal artery obstruction, and giant cell arteritis were each found in one patient. In only one patient did a systemic workup fail to reveal an underlying cause. The presence of even one cotton-wool spot in an otherwise normal fundus necessitates an investigation to ascertain systemic etiologic factors.

  20. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre


    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f 2 , where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion

  1. Chocolate spot of Eucalyptus


    Cheewangkoon, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Hyde, K.D.; To-anun, C.; Crous, P.W.


    Chocolate Spot leaf disease of Eucalyptus is associated with several Heteroconium-like species of hyphomycetes that resemble Heteroconium s.str. in morphology. They differ, however, in their ecology, with the former being plant pathogenic, while Heteroconium s.str. is a genus of sooty moulds. Results of molecular analyses, inferred from DNA sequences of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) region of nrDNA, delineated four Heteroconium-like species on Eucalyptus, name...

  2. El spot electoral negativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez


    Full Text Available l spot político tiene durante la campaña un objetivo final inequívoco: la consecución del voto favorable. Se dirige al cuerpo electoral a través de la televisión y de Internet, y presenta, en muchos casos, un planteamiento negativo, albergando mensajes destinados a la crítica frontal contra el adversario, más que a la exposición de propuestas propias. Este artículo se centra en el análisis del spot electoral negativo, en aquellas producciones audiovisuales construidas sin más causa que la reprobación del contrincante. Se trata de vídeos que, lejos de emplearse en difundir las potencialidades de la organización y las virtudes de su candidato –además de su programa electoral–, consumen su tiempo en descalificar al oponente mediante la transmisión de mensajes, muchas veces, ad hominem. Repasamos el planteamiento negativo del spot electoral desde su primera manifestación, que en España data de 1996, año de emisión del conocido como vídeo del dóberman, sin olvidar otros ejemplos que completan el objeto de estudio.

  3. Distribution of mating-type alleles and M13 PCR markers in the black leaf spot fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis of bananas in Brazil. (United States)

    Queiroz, C B; Miranda, E C; Hanada, R E; Sousa, N R; Gasparotto, L; Soares, M A; Silva, G F


    The fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causative agent of black sigatoka, which is one of the most destructive diseases of banana plants. Infection with this pathogen results in underdeveloped fruit, with no commercial value. We analyzed the distribution of the M. fijiensis mating-type system and its genetic variability using M13 phage DNA markers. We found a 1:1 distribution of mating-type alleles, indicating MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 idiomorphs. A polymorphism analysis using three different primers for M13 markers showed that only the M13 minisatellite primers generated polymorphic products. We then utilized this polymorphism to characterize 40 isolates from various Brazilian states. The largest genetic distances were found between isolates from the same location and between isolates from different parts of the country. Therefore, there was no correlation between the genetic similarity and the geographic origin of the isolates. The M13 marker was used to generate genetic fingerprints for five isolates; these fingerprints were compared with the band profiles obtained from inter-simple sequence repeat (UBC861) and inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism analyses. We found that the M13 marker was more effective than the other two markers for differentiating these isolates.

  4. Absence of autoreactive CD4+ T-cells targeting HLA-DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 restricted hypocretin/orexin epitopes in narcolepsy type 1 when detected by EliSpot. (United States)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Holm, Anja; Ullum, Henrik; Jennum, Poul; Knudsen, Stine


    Narcolepsy type 1, a neurological sleep disorder strongly associated with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-)DQB1*06:02, is caused by the loss of hypothalamic neurons producing the wake-promoting neuropeptide hypocretin (hcrt, also known as orexin). This loss is believed to be caused by an autoimmune reaction. To test whether hcrt itself could be a possible target in the autoimmune attack, CD4 + T-cell reactivity towards six different 15-mer peptides from prepro-hypocretin with high predicted affinity to the DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 MHC class II dimer was tested using EliSpot in a cohort of 22 narcolepsy patients with low CSF hcrt levels, and 23 DQB1*06:02 positive healthy controls. Our ELISpot assay had a detection limit of 1:10,000 cells. We present data showing that autoreactive CD4 + T-cells targeting epitopes from the hcrt precursor in the context of MHC-DQA1*01:02/DQB1*06:02 are either not present or present in a frequency is <1:10,000 among peripheral CD4 + T-cells from narcolepsy type 1 patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Spotting Distribution of Wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Martin


    Full Text Available In wildfire science, spotting refers to non-local creation of new fires, due to downwind ignition of brands launched from a primary fire. Spotting is often mentioned as being one of the most difficult problems for wildfire management, because of its unpredictable nature. Since spotting is a stochastic process, it makes sense to talk about a probability distribution for spotting, which we call the spotting distribution. Given a location ahead of the fire front, we would like to know how likely is it to observe a spot fire at that location in the next few minutes. The aim of this paper is to introduce a detailed procedure to find the spotting distribution. Most prior modelling has focused on the maximum spotting distance, or on physical subprocesses. We will use mathematical modelling, which is based on detailed physical processes, to derive a spotting distribution. We discuss the use and measurement of this spotting distribution in fire spread, fire management and fire breaching. The appendix of this paper contains a comprehensive review of the relevant underlying physical sub-processes of fire plumes, launching fire brands, wind transport, falling and terminal velocity, combustion during transport, and ignition upon landing.

  6. Melhoramento do feijoeiro comum com grão tipo carioca, visando resistência à antracnose e à mancha angular Breeding of common bean with carioca type grain for the resistance to anthracnose and angular leaf spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansuêmia Alves Couto


    Full Text Available Objetivou-se no trabalho, selecionar linhagens de feijoeiro comum que reunissem, além da alta produtividade, porte ereto e grãos do tipo Carioca, também a resistência à antracnose e à mancha angular. O material experimental constituiu-se de 143 linhagens oriundas de três famílias segregantes F1:4RC2 {[(G2333 X ESAL 696 X ESAL 696] X CI 140}. Foram conduzidos quatro experimentos em três localidades da região sul de Minas Gerais, avaliando-se a produção, o tipo de grão, o porte e a reação à mancha angular. A reação à antracnose foi determinada a partir de inoculações de plantas jovens de cada linhagem, com as raças 2047 e 1545, mantidas em câmara de nevoeiro por três dias e transferidas para casa de vegetação com irrigação por aspersão, a cada quatro horas. Selecionaram-se quatro linhagens com alta produtividade, porte mais arbustivo, grãos tipo carioca e com resistência à mancha angular (nota até 4. Uma das linhagens selecionada possui o alelo Co-4², outras duas possuem o alelo Co-7 de resistência à antracnose e a última, embora seja suscetível à antracnose, possui resistência à mancha angular (nota 3,97 e maior produtividade de grãos.Aiming to select common bean lines with high grain yield, Carioca grain type, upright plant habit and resistant to anthracnose and angular leaf spot, 143 lines were selected from three families of the cross F1:4RC2 {[(G2333 X ESAL 696 X ESAL 696] X CI 140}. The promising lines were selected based on the agronomical traits in four field experiments, set up in three places in Southern MG State using the square lattice design. The reaction of each line to the anthracnose was evaluated by inoculating the seedlings using the races 1545 and 2047, and kept in humid chamber during three days, and then moved to greenhouse with sprinkle irrigation every four hours. Four lines with high grain yield, upright plant habit, Carioca grain type, and resistance to angular leaf spot (score up

  7. Multigene panel next generation sequencing in a patient with cherry red macular spot: Identification of two novel mutations in NEU1 gene causing sialidosis type I associated with mild to unspecific biochemical and enzymatic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze


    Discussion: Sialidosis should be suspected in patients with cherry red macular spots, even with non-significant urinary sialic acid excretion. Multigene panel next generation sequencing can establish a definite diagnosis, allowing for counseling of the patient and family.

  8. Reliability of copper based alloys for electric resistance spot welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovicj, M.; Mihajlovicj, A.; Sherbedzhija, B.


    Durability of copper based alloys (B-5 and B-6) for electric resistance spot-welding was examined. The total amount of Be, Ni and Zr was up to 2 and 1 wt.% respectively. Good durability and satisfactory quality of welded spots were obtained in previous laboratory experiments carried out on the fixed spot-welding machine of an industrial type (only B-5 alloy was examined). Electrodes made of both B-5 and B-6 alloy were tested on spot-welding grips and fixed spot-welding machines in Tvornica automobila Sarajevo (TAS). The obtained results suggest that the durability of electrodes made of B-5 and B-6 alloys is more than twice better than of that used in TAS

  9. Advances in spot curing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burga, R.


    A brief review of spot curing technology was presented. The process which a spot of energy of a specific wavelength bandwidth and irradiance is used to cause a coating, encapsulant or adhesive to change from a liquid to a solid state

  10. Spot Welding of Honeycomb Structures (United States)

    Cohal, V.


    Honeycomb structures are used to prepare meals water jet cutting machines for textile. These honeycomb structures are made of stainless steel sheet thickness of 0.1-0.2 mm. Corrugated sheet metal strips are between two gears with special tooth profile. Hexagonal cells for obtaining these strips are welded points between them. Spot welding device is three electrodes in the upper part, which carries three welding points across the width of the strip of corrugated sheet metal. Spot welding device filled with press and advance mechanisms. The paper presents the values of the regime for spot welding.

  11. Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lešnjak, A.


    Full Text Available Plasma spot welding of ferritic stainless steels is studied. The study was focused on welding parameters, plasma and shielding gases and the optimum welding equipment. Plasma-spot welded overlap joints on a 0.8 mm thick ferritic stainless steel sheet were subjected to a visual examination and mechanical testing in terms of tension-shear strength. Several macro specimens were prepared. Plasma spot welding is suitable to use the same gas as shielding gas and as plasma gas, i.e., a 98 % Ar/2 % H 2 gas mixture. Tension-shear strength of plasma-spot welded joints was compared to that of resistance-spot welded joints. It was found that the resistance welded joints withstand a somewhat stronger load than the plasma welded joints due to a larger weld spot diameter of the former. Strength of both types of welded joints is approximately the same.

    El artículo describe el proceso de soldeo de aceros inoxidables ferríticos por puntos con plasma. La investigación se centró en el establecimiento de los parámetros óptimos de la soldadura, la definición del gas de plasma y de protección más adecuado, así como del equipo óptimo para la realización de la soldadura. Las uniones de láminas de aceros inoxidables ferríticos de 0,8 mm de espesor, soldadas a solape por puntos con plasma, se inspeccionaron visualmente y se ensayaron mecánicamente mediante el ensayo de cizalladura por tracción. Se realizaron macro pulidos. Los resultados de la investigación demostraron que la solución más adecuada para el soldeo por puntos con plasma es elegir el mismo gas de plasma que de protección. Es decir, una mezcla de 98 % de argón y 2 % de hidrógeno. La resistencia a la cizalladura por tracción de las uniones soldadas por puntos con plasma fue comparada con la resistencia de las uniones soldadas por resistencia por puntos. Se llegó a la conclusión de que las uniones soldadas por resistencia soportan una carga algo mayor que la uniones

  12. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random spot...

  13. On the origin of delta spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.


    Mount Wilson sunspot drawings from 1966 through 1980 were used in conjunction with Hα filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory to examine the origin of delta spots, spots with bipolar umbrae within one penumbra. Of the six cases we studied, five were formed by the union of non-paired spots. They are either shoved into one another by two neighboring growing bipoles or by a new spot born piggy-back style on an existing spot of opposite polarity. Proper motions of the growing spots take on curvilinear paths around one another to avoid a collision. This is the shear motion observed in delta spots (Tanaka, 1979). In the remaining case, the delta spot was formed by spots that emerged as a pair. Our findings indicate no intrinsic differences in the formation or the behavior between delta spots of normal magnetic configuration. (orig.)

  14. Complete mitochondrial genome of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko, Reptilia: Gekkonidae): comparison of red- and black-spotted tokay geckos. (United States)

    Qin, Xin-Min; Qian, Fang; Zeng, De-Long; Liu, Xiao-Can; Li, Hui-Min


    Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae). The genome is 16,590 bp in size. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with that of black-spotted tokay gecko. We compared the mitochondrial genome of red-spotted tokay gecko with that of the black-spotted tokay gecko. Nucleotide sequence of the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 97.99% similar, and the relatively high similarity seems to indicate that they may be separated at the subspecies level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two morphological types of tokay gecko is discussed in detail.

  15. Laser based spot weld characterization (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias


    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  16. Is this Red Spot the Blue Spot (locus ceruleum)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Yu Kyung; Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    The authors report brain images of 18F-FDG-PET in a case of schizophrenia. The images showed strikingly increased bilateral uptake in the locus ceruleum. The locus ceruleum is called the blue spot and known to be a center of the norepinephrinergic system.

  17. Dressing percentage in Romanian spotted breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether there are significant differences in terms of carcass weight, forequarters, hindquarters and the dressing percentage among Romanian Spotted breed steers and first generation crossbreed obtained between Romanian Spotted and Holstein at slaughter age of 12 and 17 months respectively. Study was done on Romanian Spotted breed steer aged 12 months (36 heads and 17 months (19 heads; Romanian Spotted x Holstein first generation crossbreed of aged 12 months (29 heads and 17 months (20 heads. The Romanian Spotted breed steer, show superiority in terms of carcass weight compared to crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein, therefore this breed has a better suitability for fattening for meat. Regarding dressing percentage is higher in crossbreed of Romanian Spotted x Holstein compared with Romanian Spotted breed steers, but the difference is insignificant.

  18. Dominant white spotting in the Chinese hamster. (United States)

    Henwood, C; Henwood, J; Robinson, R


    An autosomal dominant white spotting mutant is described for the Chinese hamster. The mutant gene is designated as dominant spot (symbol Ds). The homozygote DsDs is a prenatal lethal while the heterozygote Ds + displays white spotting. The expression of white is variable, ranging from a white forehead spot to extensive white on the body. The venter is invariably white. Growth appears to be normal and the fertility of both sizes shows no impairment.

  19. Laser Pyrometer For Spot Temperature Measurements (United States)

    Elleman, D. D.; Allen, J. L.; Lee, M. C.


    Laser pyrometer makes temperature map by scanning measuring spot across target. Scanning laser pyrometer passively measures radiation emitted by scanned spot on target and calibrated by similar passive measurement on blackbody of known temperature. Laser beam turned on for active measurements of reflectances of target spot and reflectance standard. From measurements, temperature of target spot inferred. Pyrometer useful for non-contact measurement of temperature distributions in processing of materials.

  20. Vocal complexity and sociality in spotted paca (Cuniculus paca) (United States)


    The evolution of sociality is related to many ecological factors that act on animals as selective forces, thus driving the formation of groups. Group size will depend on the payoffs of group living. The Social Complexity Hypothesis for Communication (SCHC) predicts that increases in group size will be related to increases in the complexity of the communication among individuals. This hypothesis, which was confirmed in some mammal societies, may be useful to trace sociality in the spotted paca (Cuniculus paca), a Neotropical caviomorph rodent reported as solitary. There are, however, sightings of groups in the wild, and farmers easily form groups of spotted paca in captivity. Thus, we aimed to describe the acoustic repertoire of captive spotted paca to test the SCHC and to obtain insights about the sociability of this species. Moreover, we aimed to verify the relationship between group size and acoustic repertoire size of caviomorph rodents, to better understand the evolution of sociality in this taxon. We predicted that spotted paca should display a complex acoustic repertoire, given their social behavior in captivity and group sightings in the wild. We also predicted that in caviomorph species the group size would increase with acoustic repertoire, supporting the SCHC. We performed a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based on acoustic parameters of the vocalizations recorded. In addition, we applied an independent contrasts approach to investigate sociality in spotted paca following the social complexity hypothesis, independent of phylogeny. Our analysis showed that the spotted paca’s acoustic repertoire contains seven vocal types and one mechanical signal. The broad acoustic repertoire of the spotted paca might have evolved given the species’ ability to live in groups. The relationship between group size and the size of the acoustic repertoires of caviomorph species was confirmed, providing additional support for the SCHC in yet another group of diverse

  1. Sweet Spots and Door Stops (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan


    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  2. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima


    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  3. Justifications shape ethical blind spots. (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul


    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Resistance Spot Welding of dissimilar Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Kolařík


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the properties of resistance spot welds between low carbon steel and austenitic CrNi stainless steel. The thickness of the welded dissimilar materials was 2 mm. A DeltaSpot welding gun with a process tape was used for welding the dissimilar steels. Resistance spot welds were produced with various welding parameters (welding currents ranging from 7 to 8 kA. Light microscopy, microhardness measurements across the welded joints, and EDX analysis were used to evaluate the quality of the resistance spot welds. The results confirm the applicability of DeltaSpot welding for this combination of materials.

  5. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot' (United States)


    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  6. Recombination hot spot in 3.2-kb region of the Charcot-Marie Tooth type 1A repeat sequences: New tools for molecular diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.; LeGuern, E.; Gouider, R.; Tardieu, S.; Abbas, N. [Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France)] [and others


    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are autosomal dominant neuropathies, associated, respectively, with duplications and deletions of the same 1.5-Mb region on 17p11.2-p12. These two rearrangements are the reciprocal products of an unequal meiotic crossover between the two chromosome 17 homologues, caused by the misalignment of the CMT1A repeat sequences (CMT1A-REPs), the homologous sequences flanking the 1.5-Mb CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit. In order to map recombination breakpoints within the CMT1A-REPs, a 12.9-kb restriction map was constructed from cloned EcoRI fragments of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs. Only 3 of the 17 tested restriction sites were present in the proximal CMT1A-REP but absent in the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating a high degree of homology between these sequences. The rearrangements were mapped in four regions of the CMT1A-REPs by analysis of 76 CMT1A index cases and 38 HNPP patients, who were unrelated. A hot spot of crossover breakpoints located in a 3.2-kb region accounted for three-quarters of the rearrangements, detected after EcoRI/SacI digestion, by the presence of 3.2-kb and 7.8-kb junction fragments in CMT1A and HNPP patients, respectively. These junction fragments, which can be detected on classical Southern blots, permit molecular diagnosis. Other rearrangements can also be detected by gene dosage on the same Southern blots. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Dispersion of hot spots in steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, E.J.


    The streamwise development of hot spots in a helical type heat exchanger has been treated experimentally and theoretically as well. Velocity profiles across the bundle have been measured varying the Reynolds number, Re, from 10 3 to 1.35 x 10 5 . Pressurized air or helium have been applied as coolant. In an additional series of tests the length scale parameter of the turbulence structure has been determined. It is correlated with the turbulent Peclet number, Pe t , which occurs in the basic equation as an unknown parameter. Its value was found to be independent of Re (Pe t = 8.2). Introducing this value leads to a good agreement of theoretical and experimental results. (author)

  8. Watermarking spot colors in packaging (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang


    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  9. Oil futures and spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samii, M.V.


    In the last decade, the oil futures market has risen to prominence and has become a major factor in influencing oil market psychology and the crude oil market. On a normal day, over 92 thousand contracts, the equivalent of 92 million barrels per day, change hands on the New York Mercantile Exchange, NYMEX. This market has provided a vehicle for hedging against risk. At the same time, it has also created opportunities for speculation. Those who previously were unable to participate in oil market transactions can now become involved through the futures market. The large number of participants in the future market and the availability of information has made this market more efficient and transparent, relative to the crude oil market. While there has been considerable in-depth analysis of other future markets, relatively little theoretical attention has focused on that of oil. This paper looks at the following issues. First, what is the relationship between futures and spot oil prices? And secondly, are futures prices a good predictor of spot crude prices in the future? (author)

  10. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Fa

    Full Text Available Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165 in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability, weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  11. Linkage of tobiano coat spotting and albumin markers in a pony family. (United States)

    Trommershausen-Smith, A


    Genetic segregation patterns among blood type markers and various phenotypically observed traits were studied in a small herd of ponies. The herd consisted of 10 mares without white spotting and a single stallion with the dominant pattern of tobiano spotting. Comparison of segregation patterns at loci for which the stallion was heterozygous showed tight linkage for the Alb-B and tobiano markers. In 17 cases in which the Alb contribution of the sire could be determined, all 10 foals that inherited AlbB from him were tobiano spotted, and all 7 non-spotted foals inherited his AlbA. The use of the symbol To is proposed for dominantly inherited tobiano spotting linked to the albumin.

  12. Hot spots of mutualistic networks. (United States)

    Gilarranz, Luis J; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A; Bascompte, Jordi


    Incorporating interactions into a biogeographical framework may serve to understand how interactions and the services they provide are distributed in space. We begin by simulating the spatiotemporal dynamics of realistic mutualistic networks inhabiting spatial networks of habitat patches. We proceed by comparing the predicted patterns with the empirical results of a set of pollination networks in isolated hills of the Argentinian Pampas. We first find that one needs to sample up to five times as much area to record interactions as would be needed to sample the same proportion of species. Secondly, we find that peripheral patches have fewer interactions and harbour less nested networks - therefore potentially less resilient communities - compared to central patches. Our results highlight the important role played by the structure of dispersal routes on the spatial distribution of community patterns. This may help to understand the formation of biodiversity hot spots. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  13. Cosmicflows-3: Cold Spot Repeller?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, Hélène M.; Graziani, Romain; Dupuy, Alexandra [University of Lyon, UCB Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, IPN, Lyon (France); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hoffman, Yehuda [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Pomarède, Daniel [Institut de Recherche sur les Lois Fondamentales de l’Univers, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The three-dimensional gravitational velocity field within z ∼ 0.1 has been modeled with the Wiener filter methodology applied to the Cosmicflows-3 compilation of galaxy distances. The dominant features are a basin of attraction and two basins of repulsion. The major basin of attraction is an extension of the Shapley concentration of galaxies. One basin of repulsion, the Dipole Repeller, is located near the anti-apex of the cosmic microwave background dipole. The other basin of repulsion is in the proximate direction toward the “Cold Spot” irregularity in the cosmic microwave background. It has been speculated that a vast void might contribute to the amplitude of the Cold Spot from the integrated Sachs–Wolfe effect.

  14. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  15. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color. ...

  16. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color. ...

  17. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color. ...

  18. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  19. Des hommes de Laurent Mauvignier: un roman de filiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfrans, M.


    'Des hommes' de Laurent Mauvignier est centré sur deux cousins, qui après avoir fait leur service militaire en Algérie, entre 1960 et 1962, sont rentrés dans leur village, marqués à vie par leurs expériences de la guerre. Un incident amène l’un d’eux, narrateur dans la majeure partiedu récit, à

  20. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K


    FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast...



    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

  2. The Study of Land Use Classification Based on SPOT6 High Resolution Data


    Wu Song; Jiang Qigang


    A method is carried out to quick classification extract of the type of land use in agricultural areas, which is based on the spot6 high resolution remote sensing classification data and used of the good nonlinear classification ability of support vector machine. The results show that the spot6 high resolution remote sensing classification data can realize land classification efficiently, the overall classification accuracy reached 88.79% and Kappa factor is 0.8632 which means that the classif...

  3. Pink Spot - Literature Review and Case Report. (United States)

    Petel, Roy; Fuks, Anna

    Pink spots in teeth were first described by Mummery in 1920, and were related to resorption. Resorption is a pathologic process that often eludes the clinician with its varied etiologic factors and diverse clinical presentations. Resorption can be generally classified as internal and external resorption. Internal resorption has been described as a rare occurrence as compared to external resorption. This article describes a pink spot that was diagnosed as a progressing resorption process. Early diagnosis enabled a successful management of the lesion. Early diagnosis and treatment of an internal resorption, clinically seen as a pink spot, in a primary central incisor may prevent its fast progress and subsequent loss.

  4. Mean Streets and Mental Health: Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder at Crime Hot Spots. (United States)

    Weisburd, David; Cave, Breanne; Nelson, Matthew; White, Clair; Haviland, Amelia; Ready, Justin; Lawton, Brian; Sikkema, Kathleen


    This study explores the relationship between mental health and place at microgeographic units of analysis. We examine self-reported symptomology for depression and PTSD for 2,724 survey respondents interviewed in three types of randomly selected street segments: violent crime hot spots, cool spots, and cold spots. We find that the mean symptomology score is 61% higher for depression in violent crime hot spots than cold spots, and 85% higher for PTSD. Overall, we estimate that 14.8% of residents of violent crime hot spots meet thresholds for moderate depression or a diagnosis of PTSD. This can be compared to only 6.5% of residents at the cold spots. Using PSM and weighted negative binomial regression approaches we show that observable selection factors are not responsible for the relationships identified. Examining geographic influences, we find an important area effect of violent crime for both mental health measures, and an additional impact of the specific street of residence for PTSD. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  5. Modeling Hot Spot Motor Vehicle Theft Crime in Relation to Landuse and Settlement Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Marwasta


    Full Text Available The crowd of Yogyakarta urban has impacted its surrounding area, including Depok sub district, which is indicated by the rising of physical development, for example education facilities and settlements. The progress does not only bring positive impact, but also negative impact for instance the rising of crime number i.e. motor vehicle robbery. The aims of this research are 1 mapping motor vehicle robbery data as the distribution map and identifying motor vehicle robbery hot spot base on distrbution map; and 2 studying the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot with physical environment phenomena, i.e. land use type and settlement pattern. The research method consists of two parts; they are motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis and the relation of motor vehicle robbery and physical environment analysis. Motor vehicle robbery cluster analysis is using distribution data, which analyzes the distribution into motor vehicle robbery hot spot with nearest neighbor tehnique. Contingency coefficient and frequency distribution analysis is used to analyze the correlation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot and physical environment. Contingency coefficient is used to study the relation of motor vehicle robbery hot spot polygon with physical environment condition, whereas frequency distribution is used to study the distribution of motor vehicle robbery in the hot spot with physical environment condition. Physical environment which consists of land use type, housing density, house regularity pattern, and the average of building size, are obtained from interpretation of black and white panchromatic aerial photograph year 2000, in the scale 1 : 20.000. the most motor vehicle robbery hot spot is found on the settlement area, 68,3% from 378 motor vehicle robbery cases in the hot spot. The seond level is found on the education area (16.4%. The most motor vehicle hot spot in the settlement is found on the hight density and irregular settlement, which have big

  6. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation symptoms of metal fumes exposure on automobile spot welders. (United States)

    Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Shen, Wu-Shiun


    Spot or resistance welding has been considered less hazardous than other types of welding. Automobile manufacturing is a major industry in Taiwan. Spot and arc welding are common processes in this industry. The respiratory effects on automobile spot welders exposed to metal fumes are investigated. The cohort consisted of 41 male auto-body spot welders, 76 male arc welders, 71 male office workers, and 59 assemblers without welding exposure. Inductivity Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS) was applied to detect metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in the post-shift urine samples. Demographic data, work history, smoking status, and respiratory tract irritation symptoms were gathered by a standard self-administered questionnaire. Pulmonary function tests were also performed. There were significantly higher values for average urine metals' (zinc, copper, nickel) levels in spot welders and arc welders than in the non-welding controls. There were 4 out of 23 (17.4%) abnormal forced vital capacity (FVC) among the high-exposed spot welders, 2 out of 18 (11.1%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 6 out of 130 (4.6%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of restrictive airway abnormalities (P = 0.036) after adjusting for other factors. There were 9 out of 23 (39.1%) abnormal peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) among high-exposed spot welders, 5 out of 18 (27.8%) among the low-exposed spot welders, and 28 out of 130 (21.5%) non-welding-exposed workers. There was a borderline significant linear trend between spot welding exposure and the prevalence of obstructive lung function abnormalities (P = 0.084) after adjusting for other factors. There was also a significant dose-response relationship of airway irritation symptoms (cough, phlegm, chronic bronchitis) among the spot welders. Arc welders with high exposure status also had a significant risk of obstructive lung abnormalities (PEFR

  7. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle


    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan


    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  8. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay


    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  9. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have? (United States)

    Reed, Kristine M.


    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  10. A telemetry experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated fish in South Africa was investigated by conducting a tracking experiment on spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the East Kleinemonde Estuary. The telemetry equipment comprised two VEMCO V8 transmitters and a ...

  11. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, David A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  12. X-ray spot film device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pury, T.; Tsen, M.L.S.; Gray, F.L.; Stehr, R.E.; Konle, R.L.


    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  13. Thermal Wave Imaging: Flying SPOT Camera. (United States)

    Wang, Yiqian


    A novel "Flying Spot" infrared camera for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and nondestructive characterization is presented. The camera scans the focal point of an unmodulated heating laser beam across the sample in a raster. The detector of the camera tracks the heating spot in the same raster, but with a time delay. The detector is thus looking at the "thermal wake" of the heating spot. The time delay between heating and detection is determined by the speed of the laser spot and the distance between it and the detector image. Since this time delay can be made arbitrarily small, the camera is capable of making thermal wave images of phenomena which occur on a very short time scale. In addition, because the heat source is a very small spot, the heat flow is fully three-dimensional. This makes the camera system sensitive to features, like tightly closed vertical cracks, which are invisible to imaging systems which employ full-field heating. A detailed theory which relates the temperature profile around the heating spot to the sample thermal properties is also described. The camera represents a potentially useful tool for measuring thermal diffusivities of materials by means of fitting the recorded temperature profiles to the theoretical curves with the diffusivity as a fitting parameter.

  14. Comparing the spot prices from Powernext and EEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Armstrong, M.


    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised exchange. Powernext started operating on 27 November 2001. Although the German exchange, EEX, has been functioning for much longer, the two have many common points. Both use the same system for fixing the day-ahead spot price, the one developed by NordPool. In contrast to Omel in Spain, power producers in France and Germany are not obliged to sell through the exchange. In addition, the cross-border transmission lines that physically link the French and German grids, not only make the electricity supply more reliable they also allow cross-border commercial transactions which should homogenize prices in both countries. So after nearly a year of operation it is interesting to compare the spot prices on the two exchanges in order to have a better understanding of the statistical properties of the prices in the two markets and the relationship between them. This information will be used when modelling the structure of the day-ahead spot prices. The data used to carry out the study consists of the (hourly) spot prices for electricity from Powernext and EEX, for the period from 1 January 2002 to 2 December 2002. Data from the first five weeks of trading were not included because traded volumes were relatively low initially and so these data are not necessarily representative. This report is divided into four sections. The first one presents the basic statistics, starting with the histograms of all the 8064 spot prices in the 336 days, for both exchanges. In time series data, it is usual to find three types of seasonality: daily, weekly and annual. As the available data cover less than one calendar year, it is too early to attempt to study annual trends. So we limit ourselves to studying daily and weekly fluctuations. Plotting the hourly average prices for each day of the week shows some interesting differences between Powernext and

  15. Turbulent spots and scalar flashes in pipe transition (United States)

    Adrian, Ronald; Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz


    Recent study (Wu et al., PNAS, 1509451112, 2015) demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of direct computation of the Osborne Reynolds' pipe transition experiment without the unphysical axially periodic boundary condition. Here we use this approach to address three questions: (1) What are the dynamics of turbulent spot generation in pipe transition? (2) How is the succession of scalar flashes, as observed and sketched by Osborne Reynolds, created? (3) What happens to the succession of flashes further downstream? In this study, the inlet disturbance is of radial-mode type imposed through a narrow, three-degree numerical wedge; and the simulation Reynolds number is 6500. Numerical dye is introduced at the inlet plane locally very close to the pipe axis, similar to the needle injection by O. Reynolds. Inception of infant turbulent spots occurs when normal, forward inclined hairpin packets form near the walls from the debris of the inlet perturbations. However, the young and mature turbulent spots consist almost exclusively of reverse, backward leaning hairpin vortices. Scalar flashes appear successively downstream and persist well into the fully-developed turbulent region. Their creation mechanism is addressed. RJA gratefully acknowledges support of the National Science Foundation with NSF Award CBET-0933848.

  16. Possible recombinogenic effect of caprolactam in the mammalian spot test. (United States)

    Fahrig, R


    Tests of caprolactam in the mouse spot test showed that treatment with this compound increased the frequency of color spots among animals treated in utero. The nature of these spots suggests that caprolactam may induce spots through the induction of mitotic recombination.

  17. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of...

  18. Evaluation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 antibodies detection in dried whole blood spots (dbs samples Pesquisa de anticorpos contra o vírus da imunodeficiência humana tipos 1 e 2 em amostras de sangue seco coletadas em papel filtro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cauduro de Castro


    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Vírus Type 1 and 2 antibodies detection was performed in 457 dried whole blood spots samples (S&S 903. Q-Preven HIV 1+2 was the screening test used. The results were compared with the gold standard serum tests by ELISA (Cobas Core e Axsym HIV1/2 gO and imunofluorescence was the definitive confirmatory test. The samples were obtained from the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição in Porto Alegre, RS - Brazil, through whole blood transfer to filter paper card and sent to Caxias do Sul, RS - Brazil where the tests were performed. The dried whole blood spot stability was evaluated with two different panels. The first one was composed of five negative and five positive samples stored at room temperature, 4 ºC, -20 ºC and -70 ºC, while the second was composed of two negative and three positive samples stored at 37 ºC (humidity Foram realizados 457 testes para detectar anticorpos contra o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana tipos 1 e 2, em amostras de sangue total seco coletadas em papel filtro (S&S 903, com o teste de triagem Q-Preven HIV 1+2, comparando-se com os resultados dos testes de triagem no soro (Cobas Core e Axsym HIV1/2 gO, sendo a imunofluorescência indireta o teste confirmatório. As amostras foram obtidas no Hospital Conceição em Porto Alegre, pela transferência de sangue total para cartão de papel filtro e encaminhadas para Caxias do Sul para a realização dos testes. Foi analisada a estabilidade da amostra em papel filtro com a utilização de dois painéis: o primeiro com cinco amostras negativas e cinco positivas armazenadas por seis semanas à temperatura ambiente, 4 ºC, -20 ºC e -70 ºC; o segundo com duas negativas e três positivas armazenadas por seis semanas com avaliações semanais a 37 ºC (umidade <50%. Os resultados de todas as amostras testadas foram mantidos. A sensibilidade foi de 100%, a especificidade de 99,6%, o valor preditivo positivo de 99,5% e o valor preditivo negativo de 100

  19. K2 spots rotation in the helium star HD144941 (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Simon; Ramsay, Gavin


    HD144941 is an evolved early-type metal-poor low-mass star with a hydrogen-poor surface. It is frequently associated with other intermediate helium-rich subdwarfs and extreme helium stars. Previous photometric studies have failed to detect any variability. New observations with the K2 mission show complex but periodic variations with a full amplitude of 4 parts per thousand. It is proposed that these are due to an inhomogeneous surface brightness distribution (spots) superimposed on a rotation period of 13.9 ± 0.2 d. The cause of the surface inhomogeneity is not identified, although an oblique dipolar magnetic field origin is plausible.

  20. K2 spots rotation in the helium star HD144941 (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Simon; Ramsay, Gavin


    HD144941 is an evolved early-type metal-poor low-mass star with a hydrogen-poor surface. It is frequently associated with other intermediate helium-rich subdwarfs and extreme helium stars. Previous photometric studies have failed to detect any variability. New observations with the K2 mission show complex but periodic variations with a full amplitude of 4 parts per thousand. It is proposed that these are due to an inhomogeneous surface brightness distribution (spots) superimposed on a rotation period of 13.9 ± 0.2 d. The cause of the surface inhomogeneity is not identified, although an oblique dipolar magnetic field origin is plausible.

  1. Tests of fixity of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots (United States)

    Koivisto, Emilia A.; Andrews, David L.; Gordon, Richard G.


    Rates of inter-hot spot motion have been debated for decades. Herein we present updated predictions for the tracks of the Tristan da Cunha, Réunion, and Iceland hot spots assuming them to be fixed relative to Pacific hot spots. Uncertainties in Pacific hot spot rotations, which include uncertainties in the current locations of hot spots of 100-200 km, are combined with uncertainties in relative plate motions accumulated through the plate circuit to obtain the final uncertainty in the predicted positions (including uncertainties of 150-200 km in the current locations of the Indo-Atlantic hot spots). Improvements to reconstruction methods, to relative plate reconstructions, to age dates along the tracks, and to the geomagnetic reversal timescale lead to significant changes from prior results. When compared with the observed tracks, the predicted tracks indicate nominal rates of motion of only 2-6 mm a-1 of these Indo-Atlantic hot spots relative to Pacific hot spots over the past 48 Ma. Within the uncertainties, the rates range from no motion to rates as high as 8-13 mm a-1. For reconstructions prior to 48 Ma B.P., however, the apparent rates of inter-hot spot motion are much larger, 46-55 ± 20 mm a-1, if the motion occurred entirely between 68 Ma B.P. and 48 Ma B.P. Either hot spots moved rapidly before 48 Ma B.P., and slowed drastically at ≈ 48 Ma B.P., or global plate circuits through Antarctica become less reliable as one goes increasingly further into the past. Most paleomagnetic data favor the latter explanation.

  2. Spotting Stellar Activity Cycles in Gaia Astrometry (United States)

    Morris, Brett M.; Agol, Eric; Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.


    Astrometry from Gaia will measure the positions of stellar photometric centroids to unprecedented precision. We show that the precision of Gaia astrometry is sufficient to detect starspot-induced centroid jitter for nearby stars in the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) sample with magnetic activity similar to the young G-star KIC 7174505 or the active M4 dwarf GJ 1243, but is insufficient to measure centroid jitter for stars with Sun-like spot distributions. We simulate Gaia observations of stars with 10 year activity cycles to search for evidence of activity cycles, and find that Gaia astrometry alone likely can not detect activity cycles for stars in the TGAS sample, even if they have spot distributions like KIC 7174505. We review the activity of the nearby low-mass stars in the TGAS sample for which we anticipate significant detections of spot-induced jitter.

  3. Metallography of Battery Resistance Spot Welds (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Johannes, L. B.; Gonzalez, D.; Yayathi, S.; Figuered, J. M.; Darcy, E. C.; Bilc, Z. M.


    Li-ion cells provide an energy dense solution for systems that require rechargeable electrical power. However, these cells can undergo thermal runaway, the point at which the cell becomes thermally unstable and results in hot gas, flame, electrolyte leakage, and in some cases explosion. The heat and fire associated with this type of event is generally violent and can subsequently cause damage to the surrounding system or present a dangerous risk to the personnel nearby. The space flight environment is especially sensitive to risks particularly when it involves potential for fire within the habitable volume of the International Space Station (ISS). In larger battery packs such as Robonaut 2 (R2), numerous Li-ion cells are placed in parallel-series configurations to obtain the required stack voltage and desired run-time or to meet specific power requirements. This raises a second and less obvious concern for batteries that undergo certification for space flight use: the joining quality at the resistance spot weld of battery cells to component wires/leads and battery tabs, bus bars or other electronic components and assemblies. Resistance spot welds undergo materials evaluation, visual inspection, conductivity (resistivity) testing, destructive peel testing, and metallurgical examination in accordance with applicable NASA Process Specifications. Welded components are cross-sectioned to ensure they are free of cracks or voids open to any exterior surface. Pore and voids contained within the weld zone but not open to an exterior surface, and are not determined to have sharp notch like characteristics, shall be acceptable. Depending on requirements, some battery cells are constructed of aluminum canisters while others are constructed of steel. Process specific weld schedules must be developed and certified for each possible joining combination. The aluminum canisters' positive terminals were particularly difficult to weld due to a bi-metal strip that comes ultrasonically

  4. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro


    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10 5 GeV ∼ mess ∼ 10 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N mess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group

  5. Volume dips; spot price ranges narrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This article is the September 1994 uranium market summary. Volume in the spot concentrates market fell below 1 million lbs U3O8. In total, twelve deals took place compared to 28 deals in August. Of the twelve deals, three took place in the spot concentrates market, two took place in the medium and long-term market, three in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. Restricted prices weakened, but unrestricted prices firmed slightly. The enrichment price range narrowed a bit

  6. Fast Keyword Spotting in Telephone Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouza


    Full Text Available In the paper, we present a system designed for detecting keywords in telephone speech. We focus not only on achieving high accuracy but also on very short processing time. The keyword spotting system can run in three modes: a an off-line mode requiring less than 0.1xRT, b an on-line mode with minimum (2 s latency, and c a repeated spotting mode, in which pre-computed values allow for additional acceleration. Its performance is evaluated on recordings of Czech spontaneous telephone speech using rather large and complex keyword lists.

  7. Optical and surface analysis of DNA microarrays to assess printed spot heterogeneity (United States)

    Nagaraja Rao, Archana

    DNA microarrays have been plagued with analytical problems with quantitation, metrics, figures of merit, and reliability and reproducibility issues, hindering their acceptance in clinical and diagnostic settings. The main deficiency in the printed DNA format is the microspot heterogeneity occurring during array fabrication and further amplified during target hybridization. Work described in this dissertation focuses on assessment of DNA microarray spots generated with conventional pin-type contact printing of fluorescently labeled DNA probes, on industry-standard commercial polymer-coated array slides and their hybridization with complementary oligomer DNA target. Printing of probe DNA microspots shares many features of commonly reported droplet evaporation dynamics that lead to different drying patterns and spot morphologies. This study directly identifies and analyzes different DNA probe chemical and spatial microenvironments within spots, analyzed with high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) chemical imaging, confocal epifluorescence, and probe microscopy force imaging methods. Drying of DNA probe spots shows Marangoni flow effects with high densities of probe DNA-Cy3 located in spot centers and nonhomogeneous DNA distributed radially within printed spots with both TOF-SIMS imaging and epifluorescence microscopy. Target hybridization kinetics and duplex formation were assessed using real-time in situ confocal imaging, and confirmed radial hemispherical diffusion-mediated distribution of target capture from spot edge to its interior. Kinetic modeling indicates pseudo-first order kinetics due to transport limitations and local density-dependent probe interactions with diffusing target. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and photobleaching results show that the high- density probe overcrowding in spots facilitates a broad range of target binding interactions regardless of dye orientations. Moreover, lateral probe density

  8. Transitional–turbulent spots and turbulent–turbulent spots in boundary layers (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre


    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional–turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a Λ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional–turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional–turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional–turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent–turbulent spots. These turbulent–turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional–turbulent spots, these turbulent–turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent–turbulent spots. PMID:28630304

  9. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers. (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre


    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a [Formula: see text] vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  10. Transitional-turbulent spots and turbulent-turbulent spots in boundary layers (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Wallace, James M.; Skarda, Jinhie; Lozano-Durán, Adrián; Hickey, Jean-Pierre


    Two observations drawn from a thoroughly validated direct numerical simulation of the canonical spatially developing, zero-pressure gradient, smooth, flat-plate boundary layer are presented here. The first is that, for bypass transition in the narrow sense defined herein, we found that the transitional-turbulent spot inception mechanism is analogous to the secondary instability of boundary-layer natural transition, namely a spanwise vortex filament becomes a ΛΛ vortex and then, a hairpin packet. Long streak meandering does occur but usually when a streak is infected by a nearby existing transitional-turbulent spot. Streak waviness and breakdown are, therefore, not the mechanisms for the inception of transitional-turbulent spots found here. Rather, they only facilitate the growth and spreading of existing transitional-turbulent spots. The second observation is the discovery, in the inner layer of the developed turbulent boundary layer, of what we call turbulent-turbulent spots. These turbulent-turbulent spots are dense concentrations of small-scale vortices with high swirling strength originating from hairpin packets. Although structurally quite similar to the transitional-turbulent spots, these turbulent-turbulent spots are generated locally in the fully turbulent environment, and they are persistent with a systematic variation of detection threshold level. They exert indentation, segmentation, and termination on the viscous sublayer streaks, and they coincide with local concentrations of high levels of Reynolds shear stress, enstrophy, and temperature fluctuations. The sublayer streaks seem to be passive and are often simply the rims of the indentation pockets arising from the turbulent-turbulent spots.

  11. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.


    with minimal spatial overlap among core-use areas. We used an information-theoretic approach to rank discrete-choice models representing alternative hypotheses about the influence of forest conditions, topography, and interspecific interactions on species-specific patterns of nighttime resource selection. Spotted owls spent a disproportionate amount of time foraging on steep slopes in ravines dominated by old (>120 yr) conifer trees. Barred owls used available forest types more evenly than spotted owls, and were most strongly associated with patches of large hardwood and conifer trees that occupied relatively flat areas along streams. Spotted and barred owls differed in the relative use of old conifer forest (greater for spotted owls) and slope conditions (steeper slopes for spotted owls), but we found no evidence that the 2 species differed in their use of young, mature, and riparian-hardwood forest types. Mean overlap in proportional use of different forest types between individual spotted owls and barred owls in adjacent territories was 81% (range = 30–99%). The best model of habitat use for spotted owls indicated that the relative probability of a location being used was substantially reduced if the location was within or in close proximity to a core-use area of a barred owl. We used pellet analysis and measures of food-niche overlap to determine the potential for dietary competition between spatially associated pairs of spotted owls and barred owls. We identified 1,223 prey items from 15 territories occupied by spotted owls and 4,299 prey items from 24 territories occupied by barred owls. Diets of both species were dominated by nocturnal mammals, but diets of barred owls included many terrestrial, aquatic, and diurnal prey species that were rare or absent in diets of spotted owls. Northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes, N. cinerea), and lagomorphs (Lepus americanus, Sylvilagus bachmani) were primary prey for both owl

  12. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie


    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  13. Hot-spot tectonics on Io (United States)

    Mcewen, A. S.


    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  14. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.


    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  15. Interferometry to Image Surface Spots (United States)

    Perrin, Guy


    I present in this lecture the technique of interferometric imaging at optical/infrared wavelengths. The technique has matured since the pioneering work of Michelson at the end of the XIXth—beginning of the XXth when he first resolved the surface of a star, Betelgeuse, with his colleague Pease. Images were obtained for the first time 20 years ago with the COAST instrument and interferometers have made constant progress to reach the minimum level where blind image reconstruction can be achieved. I briefly introduce the topic to recall why studying the surface and close environment of stars is important in some fields of stellar physics. I introduce the theory of imaging with telescopes and interferometers. I discuss the nature of interferometric data in this wavelength domain and give a few insights on the importance of getting access to visibility phases to obtain information on asymmetries of stellar surfaces. I then present the issue of aperture synthesis with a small number of telescopes, a signature of optical/infrared interferometers compared to the radio domain. Despite the impossibility to measure the phase of visibilities because of turbulence I show that useful information can be recovered from the closure phase. I eventually introduce the principles of image reconstruction and I discuss some recent results on several types of stars.

  16. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat (United States)

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.


    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  17. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot (United States)


    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  18. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS (United States)

    Sesoeren, A.


    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  19. Spotted-Leaf Mutants of Rice (Oryza sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-na HUANG


    Full Text Available Many rice spotted-leaf (spl mutants are ideal sources for understanding the mechanisms involved in blast resistance, bacterial blight resistance and programmed cell death in plants. The genetic controls of 50 spotted-leaf mutants in rice have been characterized and a few spotted-leaf genes have been isolated as well. This article reviews the origin, genetic modes, isolation and characterization of spotted-leaf genes responsible for their phenotypes, and their resistance responses to main rice diseases.

  20. Role of the envelope glycoproteins in the infection cycle of tomato spotted wilt virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, M.


    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) forms the type member of the genus Tospovirus , which today harbors more than twelve different species. TSWV is able to infect an enormous variety of different plants, to which it often causes devastating effects,

  1. The Use of Spot Image for Mangrove Inventory in Cimanuk Delta West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartono .


    At least two mangrove types of mangrove could be identified from the SPOT image. Dense mangrove was found in Petak 7, Petak 8, Petak 9 and Petak 12. In the other Petaks, mangrove were less than 20% of their surface. Mangrove of Rhizophora in 26 Petaks covered 290 Ha only.

  2. 7 CFR 27.93 - Bona fide spot markets. (United States)


    ... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Spot Markets § 27.93 Bona fide spot markets. The following markets have been determined, after investigation, and are hereby... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bona fide spot markets. 27.93 Section 27.93...

  3. Sowing rates for reforestation by the seed-spotting method (United States)

    Gilbert H. Schubert; Harry A. Fowells


    Presents guides to determine the number of seeds to sow per spot and the number of spots required per acre to obtain acceptable stocking. Based on theoretical probabilities, these guides were found to be reasonably close to actual field results When the probability-of-success was at least 55 percent. To compensate for lower actual stocking, increase the number of spots...

  4. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  5. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color. ...

  6. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

  7. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 6, 2013 ... White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. ... has been increasingly hampered by white spot syndrome disease caused by White Spot ..... metabolic proteins have additional roles in immunity and transcriptional ...

  8. Spot-Welding Gun With Pivoting Twin-Collet Assembly (United States)

    Nguyen, Francis; Simpson, Gareth; Hoult, William S.


    Modified spot-welding gun includes pivoting twin-collet assembly that holds two spot-welding electrodes. Designed to weld highly conductive (30 percent gold) brazing-alloy foils to thin nickel alloy workpieces; also suitable for other spot-welding applications compatible with two-electrode configuration.

  9. A new species of Megaselia Rondani (Diptera, Phoridae) with wing-spots from China. (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Feng; Liu, Guang-Chun


    The genus Megaselia was established by Rondani in 1856 with the type species Megaselia crassineura Rondani (=Phora costalis Roser, 1840) (Borgmeier 1968). About 1600 species are recorded and distributed all over the world (Fang & Liu 2015). In the genus Megaselia, species with wing-spots are rare. Only six species are recorded with wing-spots worldwide: M. conglomerata (Malloch) from North America (Borgmeier 1964), M. dickoni Wakeford & Disney and M. shadeae Hartop & Brown from Central America (Wakeford & Disney 1994, Hartop & Brown 2014), M. maculifera Beyer from Africa (Beyer 1965), M. chorogi Naumov from Georgia (Naumov 1979), and M. trimacula Fang & Liu from China (Fang & Liu 2015).

  10. Great red spot dependence on solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatten, K.H.


    A new inquiry has been made into the question of whether Jupiter's Great Red Spot shows a solar activity dependence. From 1892 to 1947 a clear correlation was present. A dearth of sightings in the seventeenth century, along with the Maunder Minimum, further supports the relation. An anticorrelation, however, from l948 to l967 removed support for such an effect. The old observations have reexamined and recent observations have also been studied. The author reexamines this difficult question and suggests a possible physical mechanism for a Sun-Jovian weather relation. Prinn and Lewis' conversion reaction of Phosphine gas to triclinic red phosphorous crystals is a reaction dependent upon solar radiation. It may explain the dependence found, as well as the striking appearance of the Great Red Spot in the UV

  11. Dynamically variable spot size laser system (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)


    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  12. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.


    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  13. SPS remanent radiation the warm spots

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R


    The remanent radiation in the SPS ring is measured after each operational period. We all know very well the "hot spots" in the dedicated regions for particle injection and extraction. So far, not a lot of attention has been paid to those regions where there are clear traces of radiation, without an obvious reason. From an operational point of view, these regions might be quite important, since they could reveal a specific problem. This paper will look into those "warm spots", their location in the SPS ring and the transverse plane in which the radiation originates. Some classification of typical problem classes is made, as well as hints to the possible origins of the radiation problems.

  14. Sustainable control of white spot disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    White spot disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 is a serious problem in freshwater aquaculture worldwide. This parasitosis is of frequent occurrence in both conventional earth pond fish farms and in fish farms using new high technology re-circulation systems...... all had significant influences on parasite survival. Strategic treatment using the environmentally friendly chemical sodium percarbonate in combination with continuous micro-filtering of the pond water is suggested for control and management of this parasitosis....

  15. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail:; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.


    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  16. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.


    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  17. Heap hot spots visualization in Java


    Mahdavi, Babak; Driesen, Karel


    Data memory (heap) management is a particularly important feature of the Java programming environment. The visualization of memory location in form of hot spots can help to see how the data cache is used during the execution of a program. The behavior of such executed program can be thus speculated. Through a series of experiments using Load and Store trace files, some pertinent aspect of data memory accessing, can be visualized, including the frequency of how often the Java virtual machine r...

  18. Forecasting European thermal coal spot prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Krzemień


    Finally, in order to analyse the time series model performance a Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN was used and its performance compared against the whole AR(2 process. Empirical results obtained confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference between both methods. The GRNN analysis also allowed pointing out the main drivers that move the European Thermal Coal Spot prices: crude oil, USD/CNY change and supply side drivers.

  19. The analysis of track chamber photographs using flying spot digitizers

    CERN Multimedia

    Powell, Brian W


    A vast quantity of data pours from the experiments on particle accelerators throughout the world. For example, over 300 000 photographs per week came from the three bubble chambers operating on the CERN PS at the end of 1965. The conventional method of processing these bubble chamber photographs is for each one of them to be examined ('scanned') to see whether it records an interesting particle interaction. The interesting photographs are then passed to hand operated measuring machines to obtain precise measurements of the particle trajectories recorded on the film. Similar measurements are carried out on photographs taken in film spark chamber experiments. This article on the Flying Spot Digitizers at CERN describes one of the most fruitful attempts to speed and make more accurate the process of analysis of bubble and spark chamber photographs. There are two types of Flying Spot Digitizer at CERN — the HPD or Hough Powell Device (named after Professor Hough and the author who, together, initiated the devel...

  20. Validation of daily increments periodicity in otoliths of spotted gar (United States)

    Snow, Richard A.; Long, James M.; Frenette, Bryan D.


    Accurate age and growth information is essential in successful management of fish populations and for understanding early life history. We validated daily increment deposition, including the timing of first ring formation, for spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) through 127 days post hatch. Fry were produced from hatchery-spawned specimens, and up to 10 individuals per week were sacrificed and their otoliths (sagitta, lapillus, and asteriscus) removed for daily age estimation. Daily age estimates for all three otolith pairs were significantly related to known age. The strongest relationships existed for measurements from the sagitta (r2 = 0.98) and the lapillus (r2 = 0.99) with asteriscus (r2 = 0.95) the lowest. All age prediction models resulted in a slope near unity, indicating that ring deposition occurred approximately daily. Initiation of ring formation varied among otolith types, with deposition beginning 3, 7, and 9 days for the sagitta, lapillus, and asteriscus, respectively. Results of this study suggested that otoliths are useful to estimate daily age of spotted gar juveniles; these data may be used to back calculate hatch dates, estimate early growth rates, and correlate with environmental factor that influence spawning in wild populations. is early life history information will be valuable in better understanding the ecology of this species. 

  1. DNA-nanostructure-assembly by sequential spotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breitenstein Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to create nanostructures with biomolecules is one of the key elements in nanobiotechnology. One of the problems is the expensive and mostly custom made equipment which is needed for their development. We intended to reduce material costs and aimed at miniaturization of the necessary tools that are essential for nanofabrication. Thus we combined the capabilities of molecular ink lithography with DNA-self-assembling capabilities to arrange DNA in an independent array which allows addressing molecules in nanoscale dimensions. Results For the construction of DNA based nanostructures a method is presented that allows an arrangement of DNA strands in such a way that they can form a grid that only depends on the spotted pattern of the anchor molecules. An atomic force microscope (AFM has been used for molecular ink lithography to generate small spots. The sequential spotting process allows the immobilization of several different functional biomolecules with a single AFM-tip. This grid which delivers specific addresses for the prepared DNA-strand serves as a two-dimensional anchor to arrange the sequence according to the pattern. Once the DNA-nanoarray has been formed, it can be functionalized by PNA (peptide nucleic acid to incorporate advanced structures. Conclusions The production of DNA-nanoarrays is a promising task for nanobiotechnology. The described method allows convenient and low cost preparation of nanoarrays. PNA can be used for complex functionalization purposes as well as a structural element.

  2. Superluminal Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings: Sweeping Beams (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.


    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots moving with superluminal speeds across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown here that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are not particle pair events-they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Real spot pair illumination events occur unambiguously on the scattering surface when spot speeds diverge, while virtual spot pair events are observer dependent and perceived only when real spot radial speeds cross the speed of light. Specifically, a virtual spot pair creation event will be observed when a real spot's speed toward the observer drops below c, while a virtual spot pair annihilation event will be observed when a real spot's radial speed away from the observer rises above c. Superluminal spot pair events might be found angularly, photometrically, or polarimetrically, and might carry useful geometry or distance information. Two example scenarios are briefly considered. The first is a beam swept across a scattering spherical object, exemplified by spots of light moving across Earth's Moon and pulsar companions. The second is a beam swept across a scattering planar wall or linear filament, exemplified by spots of light moving across variable nebulae including Hubble's Variable Nebula. In local cases where the sweeping beam can be controlled and repeated, a three-dimensional map of a target object can be constructed. Used tomographically, this imaging technique is fundamentally different from lens photography, radar, and conventional lidar.

  3. The impact of Australian ETS news on wholesale spot electricity prices: An exploratory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, Julien


    This article investigates the impact of news concerning the development of emissions trading in Australia (such as the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS)) on wholesale electricity spot prices, by using a database of 117 news announcements from December 1, 1998 to July 1, 2009. As power producers constitute the bulk of the participants of the proposed Australian emissions trading scheme, regulatory changes (about allocation, banking, coverage, targets) are indeed likely to affect the five interconnected electricity markets in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Victoria, and Tasmania. We assess these effects with an ARMA(1,1)-GARCH(1,1) model, where daily electricity spot prices are regressed against exogenous variables in the mean and variance equations. This article constitutes the first empirical analysis of Australian ETS news effects on electricity wholesale spot prices. Our results show two asymmetric types of news effects, depending on their information content.

  4. Studies on Mechanical Alloying of Copper-Tungsten Carbide Composite for Spot Welding Electrode (United States)

    Zuhailawati, H.; Jamaludin, S. B.


    This article presents a study on the properties and performance of copper-based composite reinforced with recycled tungsten carbide powder as spot welding electrode. The copper-tungsten carbide composite electrode was prepared by mechanical alloying and powder forging before being machined into truncated cone-face geometry. The welding operation was conducted on galvanized steel using a pedestal-type spot welding machine. Composites with higher density and electrical conductivity were obtained after mechanical alloying for shorter time. In contrast, a higher hardness is shown in the composite, which was mechanically alloyed to longer time. The strength of the welded steel coupon was found to increase with decreasing milling time due to an increase in density and electrical conductivity. The wear behavior of the composite revealed that the deformation of the spot weld electrode increased with increasing milling time.

  5. Robust estimation and forecasting of the long-term seasonal component of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowotarski, Jakub; Tomczyk, Jakub; Weron, Rafał


    We present the results of an extensive study on estimation and forecasting of the long-term seasonal component (LTSC) of electricity spot prices. We consider a battery of over 300 models, including monthly dummies and models based on Fourier or wavelet decomposition combined with linear or exponential decay. We find that the considered wavelet-based models are significantly better in terms of forecasting spot prices up to a year ahead than the commonly used monthly dummies and sine-based models. This result questions the validity and usefulness of stochastic models of spot electricity prices built on the latter two types of LTSC models. - Highlights: • First comprehensive study on the forecasting of the long-term seasonal components • Over 300 models examined, including commonly used and new approaches • Wavelet-based models outperform sine-based and monthly dummy models. • Validity of stochastic models built on sines or monthly dummies is questionable

  6. Depth Of Modulation And Spot Size Selection In Bar-Code Laser Scanners (United States)

    Barkan, Eric; Swartz, Jerome


    Many optical and electronic considerations enter into the selection of optical spot size in flying spot laser scanners of the type used in modern industrial and commerical environments. These include: the scale of the symbols to be read, optical background noise present in the symbol substrate, and factors relating to the characteristics of the signal processor. Many 'front ends' consist of a linear signal conditioner followed by nonlinear conditioning and digitizing circuitry. Although the nonlinear portions of the circuit can be difficult to characterize mathematically, it is frequently possible to at least give a minimum depth of modulation measure to yield a worst-case guarantee of adequate performance with respect to digitization accuracy. Depth of modulation actually delivered to the nonlinear circuitry will depend on scale, contrast, and noise content of the scanned symbol, as well as the characteristics of the linear conditioning circuitry (eg. transfer function and electronic noise). Time and frequency domain techniques are applied in order to estimate the effects of these factors in selecting a spot size for a given system environment. Results obtained include estimates of the effects of the linear front end transfer function on effective spot size and asymmetries which can affect digitization accuracy. Plots of convolution-computed modulation patterns and other important system properties are presented. Considerations are limited primarily to Gaussian spot profiles but also apply to more general cases. Attention is paid to realistic symbol models and to implications with respect to printing tolerances.

  7. Genera of diaporthalean coelomycetes associated with leaf spots of tree hosts. (United States)

    Crous, P W; Summerell, B A; Alfenas, A C; Edwards, J; Pascoe, I G; Porter, I J; Groenewald, J Z


    Four different genera of diaporthalean coelomycetous fungi associated with leaf spots of tree hosts are morphologically treated and phylogenetically compared based on the DNA sequence data of the large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA gene (LSU) and the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S rRNA gene of the nrDNA operon. These include two new Australian genera, namely Auratiopycnidiella, proposed for a leaf spotting fungus occurring on Tristaniopsis laurina in New South Wales, and Disculoides, proposed for two species occurring on leaf spots of Eucalyptus leaves in Victoria. Two new species are described in Aurantiosacculus, a hitherto monotypic genus associated with leaf spots of Eucalyptus in Australia, namely A. acutatus on E. viminalis, and A. eucalyptorum on E. globulus, both occurring in Tasmania. Lastly, an epitype specimen is designated for Erythrogloeum hymenaeae, the type species of the genus Erythrogloeum, and causal agent of a prominent leaf spot disease on Hymenaea courbaril in South America. All four genera are shown to be allied to Diaporthales, although only Aurantiosacculus (Cryphonectriaceae) could be resolved to family level, the rest being incertae sedis.

  8. Superluminal Sweeping Spot Pair Events in Astronomical Settings (United States)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.


    Sweeping beams of light can cast spots that move superluminally across scattering surfaces. Such faster-than-light speeds are well-known phenomena that do not violate special relativity. It is shown that under certain circumstances, superluminal spot pair creation and annihilation events can occur that provide unique information to observers. These spot pair events are not particle pair events -- they are the sudden creation or annihilation of a pair of relatively illuminated spots on a scattering surface. Astronomical settings where superluminal spot pairs might be found include Earth's Moon, passing asteroids, pulsars, and variable nebula. Potentially recoverable information includes three dimensional imaging, relative geometric size factors, and distances.

  9. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.414 Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or...

  10. Spot welding of aluminium alloy sheets to coated steel sheets. Kakushu mekki koban to arumi gokin no spot yosetsusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, S.; Fukumura, K.; Soga, S. (Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    Welding aluminum alloy sheets with coated steel sheets has become used frequently in association with weight reduction in automobiles. This paper describes investigations on the effects of spot welding aluminum alloy sheets with different kinds of coated steel sheets on optimal welding conditions and weld strength. An AC single-phase spot welding machine was used for an experiment using an aluminum alloy(5052)with a thickness of 1 mm(referred to as A)and different coated steel sheets with a thickness of 0.8 mm(referred to as B). The result may be summarized as follows: the weldable value of the electric current is closer to that for between the B steel sheets than the middle of that for between the As and between Bs; while the weldable current range is affected little by the coating materials when a CF electrode is used, it grows greater in aluminum coated steel sheets and hot-dip galvanized steel sheets than in alloyed hot-dip galvanized steel sheets and cold-rolled steel sheets when an R-type electrode is used; influence of the coating materials was observed in tensile shear strength and cross tensile shear strength; and any combination of metals shows fatigue strength lower than that in the A-A combination in a fatigue test of cross tensile system. 5 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Time Resolved X-Ray Spot Size Diagnostic

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Roger; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Raymond, Brett; Weir, John


    A diagnostic was developed for the determination of temporal history of an X-ray spot. A pair of thin (0.5 mm) slits image the x-ray spot to a fast scintillator which is coupled to a fast detector, thus sampling a slice of the X-Ray spot. Two other scintillator/detectors are used to determine the position of the spot and total forward dose. The slit signal is normalized to the dose and the resulting signal is analyzed to get the spot size. The position information is used to compensate for small changes due to spot motion and misalignment. The time resolution of the diagnostic is about 1 ns and measures spots from 0.5 mm to over 3 mm. The theory and equations used to calculate spot size and position are presented, as well as data. The calculations assume a symmetric, Gaussian spot. The spot data is generated by the ETA II accelerator, a 2kA, 5.5 MeV, 60ns electron beam focused on a Tantalum target. The spot generated is typically about 1 mm FWHM. Comparisons are made to an X-ray pinhole camera which images th...

  12. Improved simulation method of automotive spot weld failure with an account of the mechanical properties of spot welds (United States)

    Wu, H.; Meng, X. M.; Fang, R.; Huang, Y. F.; Zhan, S.


    In this paper, the microstructure and mechanical properties of spot weld were studied, the hardness of nugget and heat affected zone (HAZ) were also tested by metallographic microscope and microhardness tester. The strength of the spot weld with the different parts' area has been characterized. According to the experiments result, CAE model of spot weld with HAZ structure was established, and simulation results of different lap-shear CAE models were analyzed. The results show that the spot weld model which contained the HAZ has good performance and more suitable for engineering application in spot weld simulation.

  13. A simple repeat polymorphism in the MITF-M promoter is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Baranowska Körberg

    Full Text Available The white spotting locus (S in dogs is colocalized with the MITF (microphtalmia-associated transcription factor gene. The phenotypic effects of the four S alleles range from solid colour (S to extreme white spotting (s(w. We have investigated four candidate mutations associated with the s(w allele, a SINE insertion, a SNP at a conserved site and a simple repeat polymorphism all associated with the MITF-M promoter as well as a 12 base pair deletion in exon 1B. The variants associated with white spotting at all four loci were also found among wolves and we conclude that none of these could be a sole causal mutation, at least not for extreme white spotting. We propose that the three canine white spotting alleles are not caused by three independent mutations but represent haplotype effects due to different combinations of causal polymorphisms. The simple repeat polymorphism showed extensive diversity both in dogs and wolves, and allele-sharing was common between wolves and white spotted dogs but was non-existent between solid and spotted dogs as well as between wolves and solid dogs. This finding was unexpected as Solid is assumed to be the wild-type allele. The data indicate that the simple repeat polymorphism has been a target for selection during dog domestication and breed formation. We also evaluated the significance of the three MITF-M associated polymorphisms with a Luciferase assay, and found conclusive evidence that the simple repeat polymorphism affects promoter activity. Three alleles associated with white spotting gave consistently lower promoter activity compared with the allele associated with solid colour. We propose that the simple repeat polymorphism affects cooperativity between transcription factors binding on either flanking sides of the repeat. Thus, both genetic and functional evidence show that the simple repeat polymorphism is a key regulator of white spotting in dogs.

  14. Acoustic monitoring indicates a correlation between calling and spawning in captive spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). (United States)

    Montie, Eric W; Hoover, Matt; Kehrer, Christopher; Yost, Justin; Brenkert, Karl; O'Donnell, Tim; Denson, Michael R


    Fish sound production is widespread throughout many families. Territorial displays and courtship are the most common reasons for fish sound production. Yet, there is still some questions on how acoustic signaling and reproduction are correlated in many sound-producing species. In the present study, our aim was to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between calling and egg deposition in captive spotted seatrout ( Cynoscion nebulosus ). This type of data is essential if passive acoustics is to be used to identify spawning aggregations over large spatial scales and monitor reproductive activity over annual and decadal timeframes. Acoustic recorders (i.e., DSG-Oceans) were placed in three laboratory tanks to record underwater sound over an entire, simulated reproductive season. We enumerated the number of calls, calculated the received sound pressure level, and counted the number of eggs every morning in each tank. Spotted seatrout produced three distinct call types characterized as "drums," "grunts," and "staccatos." Spotted seatrout calling increased as the light cycle shifted from 13.5 to 14.5 h of light, and the temperature increased to 27.7 °C. Calling decreased once the temperature fell below 27.7 °C, and the light cycle shifted to 12 h of light. These temperature and light patterns followed the natural reproductive season observed in wild spotted seatrout in the Southeast United States. Spotted seatrout exhibited daily rhythms in calling. Acoustic signaling began once the lights turned off, and calling reached maximum activity approximately 3 h later. Eggs were released only on evenings in which spotted seatrout were calling. In all tanks, spotted seatrout were more likely to spawn when male fish called more frequently. A positive relationship between SPL and the number of eggs collected was found in Tanks 1 and 3. Our findings indicate that acoustic metrics can predict spawning potential. These findings are important because plankton tows may

  15. Acoustic monitoring indicates a correlation between calling and spawning in captive spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Montie


    Full Text Available Background Fish sound production is widespread throughout many families. Territorial displays and courtship are the most common reasons for fish sound production. Yet, there is still some questions on how acoustic signaling and reproduction are correlated in many sound-producing species. In the present study, our aim was to determine if a quantitative relationship exists between calling and egg deposition in captive spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus. This type of data is essential if passive acoustics is to be used to identify spawning aggregations over large spatial scales and monitor reproductive activity over annual and decadal timeframes. Methods Acoustic recorders (i.e., DSG-Oceans were placed in three laboratory tanks to record underwater sound over an entire, simulated reproductive season. We enumerated the number of calls, calculated the received sound pressure level, and counted the number of eggs every morning in each tank. Results Spotted seatrout produced three distinct call types characterized as “drums,” “grunts,” and “staccatos.” Spotted seatrout calling increased as the light cycle shifted from 13.5 to 14.5 h of light, and the temperature increased to 27.7 °C. Calling decreased once the temperature fell below 27.7 °C, and the light cycle shifted to 12 h of light. These temperature and light patterns followed the natural reproductive season observed in wild spotted seatrout in the Southeast United States. Spotted seatrout exhibited daily rhythms in calling. Acoustic signaling began once the lights turned off, and calling reached maximum activity approximately 3 h later. Eggs were released only on evenings in which spotted seatrout were calling. In all tanks, spotted seatrout were more likely to spawn when male fish called more frequently. A positive relationship between SPL and the number of eggs collected was found in Tanks 1 and 3. Discussion Our findings indicate that acoustic metrics can predict spawning

  16. Laser spot detection based on reaction diffusion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, R.; Duro, N.


    Roč. 16, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-11, č. článku 315. ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser spot detection * laser beam detection * reaction diffusion models * Fitzhugh-Nagumo model * reaction diffusion computation * Turing patterns Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  17. On cold spots in tumor subvolumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tome, Wolfgang A.; Fowler, Jack F.


    Losses in tumor control are estimated for cold spots of various 'sizes' and degrees of 'cold dose'. This question is important in the context of intensity modulated radiotherapy where differential dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for targets that abut a critical structure often exhibit a cold dose tail. This can be detrimental to tumor control probability (TCP) for fractions of cold volumes even as small as 1%, if the cold dose is lower than the prescribed dose by substantially more than 10%. The Niemierko-Goitein linear-quadratic algorithm with γ 50 slope 1-3 was used to study the effect of cold spots of various degrees (dose deficit below the prescription dose) and size (fractional volume of the cold dose). A two-bin model DVH has been constructed in which the cold dose bin is allowed to vary from a dose deficit of 1%-50% below prescription dose and to have volumes varying from 1% to 90%. In order to study and quantify the effect of a small volume of cold dose on TCP and effective uniform dose (EUD), a four-bin DVH model has been constructed in which the lowest dose bin, which has a fractional volume of 1%, is allowed to vary from 10% to 45% dose deficit below prescription dose. The highest dose bin represents a simultaneous boost. For fixed size of the cold spot the calculated values of TCP decreased rapidly with increasing degrees of cold dose for any size of the cold spot, even as small as 1% fractional volume. For the four-subvolume model, in which the highest dose bin has a fractional volume of 80% and is set at a boost dose of 10% above prescription dose, it is found that the loss in TCP and EUD is moderate as long as the cold 1% subvolume has a deficit less than approximately 20%. However, as the dose deficit in the 1% subvolume bin increases further it drives TCP and EUD rapidly down and can lead to a serious loss in TCP and EUD. Since a dose deficit to a 1% volume of the target that is larger than 20% of the prescription dose may lead to serious loss of

  18. Advanced spot quality analysis in two-colour microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetter Guillaume


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image analysis of microarrays and, in particular, spot quantification and spot quality control, is one of the most important steps in statistical analysis of microarray data. Recent methods of spot quality control are still in early age of development, often leading to underestimation of true positive microarray features and, consequently, to loss of important biological information. Therefore, improving and standardizing the statistical approaches of spot quality control are essential to facilitate the overall analysis of microarray data and subsequent extraction of biological information. Findings We evaluated the performance of two image analysis packages MAIA and GenePix (GP using two complementary experimental approaches with a focus on the statistical analysis of spot quality factors. First, we developed control microarrays with a priori known fluorescence ratios to verify the accuracy and precision of the ratio estimation of signal intensities. Next, we developed advanced semi-automatic protocols of spot quality evaluation in MAIA and GP and compared their performance with available facilities of spot quantitative filtering in GP. We evaluated these algorithms for standardised spot quality analysis in a whole-genome microarray experiment assessing well-characterised transcriptional modifications induced by the transcription regulator SNAI1. Using a set of RT-PCR or qRT-PCR validated microarray data, we found that the semi-automatic protocol of spot quality control we developed with MAIA allowed recovering approximately 13% more spots and 38% more differentially expressed genes (at FDR = 5% than GP with default spot filtering conditions. Conclusion Careful control of spot quality characteristics with advanced spot quality evaluation can significantly increase the amount of confident and accurate data resulting in more meaningful biological conclusions.

  19. Nondestructive Testing of Ceramic Hip Joint Implants with Laser Spot Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemer J.


    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of laser spot thermography for damage detection in ceramic samples with surface breaking cracks. The measurement technique is an active thermographic approach based on an external heat delivery to a test sample, by means of a laser pulse, and signal acquisition by an infrared camera. Damage detection is based on the analysis of surface temperature distribution near the exciting laser spot. The technique is nondestructive, non-contact and allows for full-field measurements. Surface breaking cracks are a very common type of damage in ceramic materials that are introduced in the manufacturing process or during the service period. This paper briefly discusses theoretical background of laser spot thermography, describes the experimental test rig and signal processing methods involved. Damage detection results obtained with laser spot thermography are compared with reference measurements obtained with vibrothermography. This is a different modality of active thermography, that has been previously proven effective for this type of damage. We demonstrate that both measurement techniques can be effectively used for damage detection and quality control applications of ceramic materials.

  20. Interactions between the German Electricity Spot Market and the Reserve Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Bernhardt


    Eight years after market opening, Germany has well established spot and future markets for electricity. Besides OTC and Internet broker platforms the main market place is the European Energy Exchange in Leipzig (EEX) with its spot and future market. Less known is the reserve energy market in Germany. The four German transmission system operators (TSOs) EnBW, EON, RWE and Vattenfall purchase network services on the reserve energy market. Products with specific technical requirements are primary, secondary and tertiary reserve. (Details about the technical requirements and typical means for providing the required services will be presented.) Each TSO organises a separate auction for these products - for primary and secondary reserve half-yearly, for tertiary reserve daily. Due to the technical requirements the liquidity on these markets is limited, but especially on the tertiary reserve market it is recently growing significantly due to new participants marketing several smaller municipal and industrial reserve power plants as combined bids which meet the 30 MW min. capacity requirement. Every power plant or interruptible load could not only be offered as capacity on the reserve market but could also be dispatched for the spot market. Therefore the developments of prices on these markets are not independent and opportunity costs against the spot market can be estimated for different type of plants bidding in the reserve market. Another interaction between reserve and spot market is caused by the balancing price system in Germany. Prices for balancing energy meeting deviations between load, trading balance and production of a market participant are based on quarter-hourly reserve energy costs encountered by the TSO. As unbiased load and production forecasts are not strictly enforced by the TSOs so far, part of the planned demand could be met with balancing energy if EEX spot market prices rise above expected balancing energy prices. This interrelationship has a

  1. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman


    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  2. Cold Spots in Neonatal Incubators Are Hot Spots for Microbial Contamination▿ (United States)

    de Goffau, Marcus C.; Bergman, Klasien A.; de Vries, Hendrik J.; Meessen, Nico E. L.; Degener, John E.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.


    Thermal stability is essential for the survival and well-being of preterm neonates. This is achieved in neonatal incubators by raising the ambient temperature and humidity to sufficiently high levels. However, potentially pathogenic microorganisms also can thrive in such warm and humid environments. We therefore investigated whether the level of microbial contamination (i.e., the bacterial load) inside neonatal incubators can be predicted on the basis of their average temperature and relative humidity settings, paying special attention to local temperature differences. Swab samples were taken from the warmest and coldest spots found within Caleo incubators, and these were plated to determine the number of microbial CFU per location. In incubators with high average temperature (≥34°C) and relative humidity (≥60%) values, the level of microbial contamination was significantly higher at cold spots than at hot spots. This relates to the fact that the local equilibrium relative humidity at cold spots is sufficiently high to sustain microbial growth. The abundance of staphylococci, which are the main causative agents of late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates, was found to be elevated significantly in cold areas. These findings can be used to improve basic incubator hygiene. PMID:22003021

  3. Cold spots in neonatal incubators are hot spots for microbial contamination. (United States)

    de Goffau, Marcus C; Bergman, Klasien A; de Vries, Hendrik J; Meessen, Nico E L; Degener, John E; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J M


    Thermal stability is essential for the survival and well-being of preterm neonates. This is achieved in neonatal incubators by raising the ambient temperature and humidity to sufficiently high levels. However, potentially pathogenic microorganisms also can thrive in such warm and humid environments. We therefore investigated whether the level of microbial contamination (i.e., the bacterial load) inside neonatal incubators can be predicted on the basis of their average temperature and relative humidity settings, paying special attention to local temperature differences. Swab samples were taken from the warmest and coldest spots found within Caleo incubators, and these were plated to determine the number of microbial CFU per location. In incubators with high average temperature (≥ 34°C) and relative humidity (≥ 60%) values, the level of microbial contamination was significantly higher at cold spots than at hot spots. This relates to the fact that the local equilibrium relative humidity at cold spots is sufficiently high to sustain microbial growth. The abundance of staphylococci, which are the main causative agents of late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates, was found to be elevated significantly in cold areas. These findings can be used to improve basic incubator hygiene.

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization, sexual reproduction, and pathogenicity of Setosphaeria rostrata isolates from rice leaf spot. (United States)

    Kusai, Nor Azizah; Azmi, Madihah Mior Zakuan; Zainudin, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Termizi; Razak, Azmi Abd


    Setosphaeria rostrata, a common plant pathogen causing leaf spot disease, affects a wide range of plant species, mainly grasses. Fungi were isolated from brown spots on rice leaves throughout Peninsular Malaysia, and 45 isolates were identified as Setosphaeria rostrata The isolates were then characterized using morphological and molecular approaches. The mating type was determined using PCR amplification of the mating type alleles, and isolates of opposite mating types were crossed to examine sexual reproduction. Based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region (ITS) and beta-tubulin (BT2) sequences, two phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum likelihood method; S. rostrata was clustered in one well-supported clade. Pathogenicity tests showed that S. rostrata isolates are pathogenic, suggesting that it is the cause of the symptoms. Mating-type analyses indicated that three isolates carried the MAT1-1 allele, and the other 42 isolates carried MAT1-2 After isolates with opposite mating types were crossed on Sach's medium and incubated for 3 wk, six crosses produced pseudothecia that contained eight mature ascospores, and 12 other crosses produced numerous pseudothecia with no ascospores. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. rostrata isolated from leaf spots on rice. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Evidence for the spotting hypothesis in gymnasts. (United States)

    Heinen, Thomas


    The goal of this study was to investigate the visual spotting hypothesis in 10 experts and 10 apprentices as they perform back aerial somersaults from a standing position with no preparatory jumps (short flight duration condition) and after some preparatory jumps with a flight time of 1s (long flight duration condition). Differences in gaze behavior and kinematics were expected between experts and apprentices and between experimental conditions. Gaze behavior was measured using a portable and wireless eye-tracking system in combination with a movement-analysis system. Experts exhibited a smaller landing deviation from the middle of the trampoline bed than apprentices. Experts showed higher fixation ratios during the take-off and flight phase. Experts exhibited no blinks in any of the somersaults in both conditions, whereas apprentices showed significant blink ratios in both experimental conditions. The findings suggest that gymnasts can use visual spotting during the back aerial somersault, even when the time of flight is delimited. We conclude that knowledge about gaze-movement relationships may help coaches develop specific training programs in the learning process of the back aerial somersault.

  6. Hot spot exercise: 1975 (HSX-75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trolan, R.T.; Wilson, R.L.; Jessen, F.W.


    A special unannounced exercise, called HOT SPOT Exercise--1975 (HSX-75), was prepared to test the general capability of the LLL ALERT Program to activate and deploy the LLL and Sandia Laboratory, Livermore (SLL) component of the ERDA/ARG. The exercise activities were limited to the LLL facilities in Livermore and the Site 300 explosive test facility located approximately 15 miles southeast of Livermore. The exercise simulated an accident at a U.S. Army storage facility (Site 300). The simulated accident involved two LLL designed weapons (W-70). One weapon was dropped during unloading operations and ignited the gas tank of the weapon transporter. The subsequent fire caused a low-order detonation of the high explosive component. The fire caused dispersal of fissile material downwind from the site. A second weapon was damaged in the explosion by fragments from the first weapon. The extent of damage to the second weapon was initially unknown. The exercise was conducted on September 23, 1975. A complete description of the specific nature of the simulated accident is contained in the scenario. Umpires were assigned to evaluate and subsequently report on the effectiveness of the response. All test objectives were accomplished. The following appendices are included: operational safety procedures, photographs and site map, HOT SPOT equipment, atmospheric release advisory capability, personnel list, chronology of events, and critique comments

  7. Senzorové uzly Java Sun SPOT


    Malina, Karel


    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá využitím senzorových uzlů Java Sun Spot pro vícebodové bezdrátové sledování teploty a její regulace pomocí těchto uzlů. V teoretické části je uveden popis, složení a ovládání senzorových uzlů Java Sun Spot. V praktické části jsou uvedeny naprogramované aplikace, ve vývojovém prostředí NetBeans, pro bezdrátové sledování teploty, kapacity baterie a jejich zobrazení na hostitelském počítači ve formě grafu. Ve druhé části praktické části je popsán způsob regulace t...

  8. Resistance to leaf spot disease in peanut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, J.D.


    Full text: Leaf spot disease causes defoliation of peanut plants during pod development thereby reducing yield. To induce mutations for resistance to the disease, dormant seeds of peanut were irradiated with 10-40 kR gamma rays with pre- and post-irradiation treatments to minimize radiation damage. Spores of the causal fungi, Cercospora arachidicola Hori and Cercosporidium personatum (B and C) Deigh., were cultured under asceptic conditions in PDA medium with 2-3 drops of 10% table salt solution to enhance development of spores. The first two leaves of M 2 seedlings were hand-inoculated two or three times in the field at one week intervals. Out of a total of 2,453 M 2 seedlings inoculated thrice, 9 plants showed complete resistance based on degree of infection. However, after recurrent selection, only 3 M 5 lines gave complete resistance, the rest exhibiting only intermediate resistance. The disease resistant lines yielded almost twice as much as several commercial varieties due to extensive leaf defoliation in the latter. One of the mutant lines is being crossed with some popular susceptible varieties. Inheritance studies showed that leaf spot resistance is governed by two recessive mutant genes acting complementary. The F 2 ratio was close to 15:1. The mutant lines are presently evaluated through the Bureau of Plant Industry before seeds are distributed to peanut growers. (author)

  9. A new index for electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falbo, Paolo; Fattore, Marco; Stefani, Silvana


    Different indexes are used in electricity markets worldwide to represent the daily behavior of spot prices. However, the peculiarities of these markets require a careful choice of the index, based on mathematical formulation and its statistical properties. Choosing a bad index may influence the financial policies of market players, since derivative pricing and hedging performance can be deeply affected. In this paper with an initial theoretical analysis, we intend to show that the most widely used indexes (simple arithmetic average and weighted average with current volumes) are poor representatives of the spot market. We will then perform an analysis of the hedging strategy on a derivative instrument (an Asian option) written on a reference index. The resulting simulations, applied to OMEL (Spain) and EEX (Germany), are sufficiently clear cut to suggest that the decision to adopt an index to represent properly a market must be taken very carefully. Finally we will propose a new index (FAST index) and, after comparing it with the previous indexes, will show that both theoretically and practically this index can be taken as a good electricity market synthetic indicator. (author)

  10. Medical students’ attitudes and perspectives regarding novel computer-based practical spot tests compared to traditional practical spot tests (United States)

    Wijerathne, Buddhika; Rathnayake, Geetha


    Background Most universities currently practice traditional practical spot tests to evaluate students. However, traditional methods have several disadvantages. Computer-based examination techniques are becoming more popular among medical educators worldwide. Therefore incorporating the computer interface in practical spot testing is a novel concept that may minimize the shortcomings of traditional methods. Assessing students’ attitudes and perspectives is vital in understanding how students perceive the novel method. Methods One hundred and sixty medical students were randomly allocated to either a computer-based spot test (n=80) or a traditional spot test (n=80). The students rated their attitudes and perspectives regarding the spot test method soon after the test. The results were described comparatively. Results Students had higher positive attitudes towards the computer-based practical spot test compared to the traditional spot test. Their recommendations to introduce the novel practical spot test method for future exams and to other universities were statistically significantly higher. Conclusions The computer-based practical spot test is viewed as more acceptable to students than the traditional spot test. PMID:26451213

  11. Hot spot formation on different tokamak wall materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedospasov, A.V.; Bezlyudny, I.V.


    The thermal contraction phenomenon and generation of 'hot spots' due to thermoemission were described. The paper consider non-linear stages of heat contraction on the graphite, beryllium, tungsten and vanadium wall. It is shown that on the beryllium surface hot spot can't appear due to strong cooling by sublimation. For other materials the conditions of hot spot appearance due to local superheating of the wall have been calculated and their parameters were found: critical surface temperature, size of spots and their temperature profiles, heat fluxes from plasma to the spots. It have been calculated fluxes of sublimating materials from spots to the plasma. It is noticed that nominal temperature of the grafite divertor plate, accepted in ITER's project to being equal 1500 C, is lower then critical temperature of the development heat contraction due to thermoemission. (orig.)

  12. Combining geometric matching with SVM to improve symbol spotting (United States)

    Nayef, Nibal; Breuel, Thomas M.


    Symbol spotting is important for automatic interpretation of technical line drawings. Current spotting methods are not reliable enough for such tasks due to low precision rates. In this paper, we combine a geometric matching-based spotting method with an SVM classifier to improve the precision of the spotting. In symbol spotting, a query symbol is to be located within a line drawing. Candidate matches can be found, however, the found matches may be true or false. To distinguish a false match, an SVM classifier is used. The classifier is trained on true and false matches of a query symbol. The matches are represented as vectors that indicate the qualities of how well the query features are matched, those qualities are obtained via geometric matching. Using the classification, the precision of the spotting improved from an average of 76.6% to an average of 97.2% on a database of technical line drawings.

  13. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software (United States)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.


    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  14. Bier’s spots with onset in childhood* (United States)

    Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Barbosa, Marcella Amaral Horta; Veronez, Isis Suga; Swiczar, Bethania Cabral Cavalli; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai


    Bier spots are small, irregular, hypopigmented macules that are usually found on the arms and legs. The macules disappear when the limb is raised. Bier spots have been reported in association with a number of conditions but there is no consistent association to specific desease. Although they usually affect young adults, we report a case of Bier spots that began in childhood. As an asymptomatic and possibly transitional condition, the disease does not require treatment. PMID:28300906

  15. Dynamic characterization of the CT angiographic 'spot sign'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Chakraborty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Standard (static CT angiography is used to identify the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH spot sign. We used dynamic CT-angiography to describe spot sign characteristics and measurement parameters over 60-seconds of image acquisition. METHODS: We prospectively identified consecutive patients presenting with acute ICH within 4.5 hours of symptom onset, and collected whole brain dynamic CT-angiography (dCTA. Spot parameters (earliest appearance, duration, maximum Hounsfield unit (HU, time to maximum HU, time to spot diagnostic definition, spot volume and hematoma volumes were measured using volumetric analysis software. RESULT: We enrolled 34 patients: three were excluded due to secondary causes of ICH. Of the remaining 31 patients there were 18 females (58% with median age 70 (range 47-86 and baseline hematoma volume 33 ml (range 0.7-103 ml. Positive dCTA spot sign was present in 13 patients (42% visualized as an expanding 3-dimensional structure temporally evolving its morphology over the scan period. Median time to spot appearance was 21 s (range 15-35 seconds. This method allowed tracking of spots evolution until the end of venous phase (active extravasation with median duration of 39 s (range 25-45 seconds. The average density and time to maximum density was 204HU and 30.8 s (range 23-31 s respectively. Median time to spot diagnosis was 20.8 s using either 100 or 120HU definitions. CONCLUSION: Dynamic CTA allows a 3-dimensional assessment of spot sign formation during acute ICH, and captured higher spot sign prevalence than previously reported. This is the first study to describe and quantify spot sign characteristics using dCTA; these can be used in ongoing and upcoming ICH studies.

  16. Insights from ecological niche modeling on the taxonomic distinction and niche differentiation between the black-spotted and red-spotted tokay geckoes (Gekko gecko)


    Zhang, Yueyun; Chen, Chongtao; Li, Li; Zhao, Chengjian; Chen, Weicai; Huang, Yong


    The black-spotted tokay and the red-spotted tokay are morphologically distinct and have largely allopatric distributions. The black-spotted tokay is characterized by a small body size and dark skin with sundry spots, while the red-spotted tokay has a relatively large body size and red spots. Based on morphological, karyotypic, genetic, and distribution differences, recent studies suggested their species status; however, their classifications remain controversial, and additional data such as e...

  17. Incidence and common locations of Mongolian spots in newborns: a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajari H


    . Mongolian spot did not show a significant relationship to sex, gestational age, mother's age groups and delivery type (p>0.05 but the relationship between Mongolian spot and birth weight groups was significant (p<0.05."nConclusion: Incidence of mongolian spots in our patients was similar to white races. Anthropologic study is necessary for patients admitting to our hospital.

  18. Qualitative research ethics on the spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Øye, Christine; Glasdam, Stinne


    , the article explores and discusses research ethical dilemmas. Objectives and ethical considerations: First, and especially, the article addresses the challenges for gatekeepers who influence the informant’s decisions to participate in research. Second, the article addresses the challenges in following...... research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research...... ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop....

  19. Auroral bright spot sequence near 14 MLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Lybekk, B.


    Optical observations of a dayside auroral brightening sequence, by means of all-sky TV cameras and meridian scanning photometers, have been combined with EISCAT ion drift observations within the same invariant latitude - MLT sector. The reported events, covering a 35 min interval around 14 MLT, are embedded within a longer period of similar auroral activity between 0830 (1200 MLT) and 1300 UT (1600 MLT). These observations are discussed in relation to recent models of boundary layer plasma dynamics and the associated magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The ionospheric events may correspond to large-scale wavelike motions of the low-latitude boundary layer. Based on this interpretation the observed spot size, speed and repetition period (∼ 10 min) give a wavelenght ∼ 900 km in the present case. The events can also be explained as ionospheric signatures of newly opened flux tubes associated with reconnection bursts at the magnetopause near 1400 MLT. 46 refs., 11 figs

  20. A microsatellite platform for hot spot detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, I.; Briess, K.; Baerwald, W.; Lorenz, E.; Skrbek, W.; Schrandt, F. [DLR, Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Space Sensor Technology & Planetary Exploration


    The main payload of the BIRD micro-satellite is the newly developed hot spot recognition system. It's a dual-channel instrument for middle and thermal infrared imagery based on cooled MCT line detectors. The miniaturisation by integrated detector/cooler assemblies provides a highly efficient design. Since the launch in October 2001 from SHAR/India the BIRD payload, claiming 30% of the BIRD mass of 92 kg, is fully operational. Among others forest fires (Australia), volcanoes (Etna, Chile) and burning coal mines (China) have been detected and their parameters like size, temperature and energy release could be determined. As the status of the payload system is satisfactorily it has a potential to be applied in new missions with the help of modern detector technology.

  1. Mixing Assisted "Hot Spots" Occupying SERS Strategy for Highly Sensitive In Situ Study. (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Chuanlong; Chen, Kexiang; Cui, Yiping


    To solve the problem that analyte molecules cannot easily enter "hot spots" on a conventional solid SERS substrate, we developed a mixing-assisted "hot spots" occupying (MAHSO) SERS strategy to improve utilization of "hot spots". Compared with the conventional substrate, the MAHSO substrate enhances the sensitivity of SERS measurement by thousands of times. The MAHSO substrate possesses excellent properties of high enhancement, high uniformity, and long-term stability because the MAHSO substrate is integrated inside an ultrafast microfluidic mixer. The mixer makes analytes and metal colloid homogeneously mixed, and analytes are naturally located in "hot spots", the gaps between adjacent NPs, during the process that NPs deposit on the channel wall. As a multi-inlet device, the MAHSO chip offers a convenient in situ method to study environmental effects on analytes or molecular interactions by flexibly regulating fluid in microchannels and monitoring responses of analytes by SERS spectra. Because all experiments are conducted in aqueous environments, which is similar to the physiological conditions, the MAHSO chip is especially suitable to be applied to study biomolecules. Using this strategy, different conformational changes of the wild type and mutant G150D of protein PMP22-TM4 depending on environmental pH have been observed in situ and analyzed. As a lab-on-a-chip (LoC) device, the MAHSO SERS chip will benefit the field of molecular dynamics, as well as molecule-molecule or molecule-surface interactions in the future.

  2. The Spot Problem in Avocado (Persea americana Mill. Plantations of Northern Tolima, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Reina Noreña


    Full Text Available The spot (common name is currently the main phytosanitary problem in avocado plantations of northern Tolima. In Colombia, information about its causal agent and the external factors that foster its development is scarse, which lead us to carry on a preliminary research. In three avocado farms of Fresno municipality, the severity of the spot in Lorena cultivar fruits was evaluated by using five types of barriers and a control, from the inflorescence phase to the developed fruit. The symptoms of the “avocado spot” in Lorena’ cultivar were characterized. Samples from different plant organs were sent to four diagnostic laboratories. Besides, in ten farms of Fresno municipality, the severity of the spot was measured on Lorena, Hass and Choquette cultivars by carrying out bi-weekly samplings. Simultaneously, in eleven farms in Fresno, the culture labors, pesticides, production costs and incomes were recorded. The treatment that was significantly different from the control was the fungicide application. The phytopathological diagnosis identified two pathogens, Glomerella sp. (Anamorphic: Colletotrichum sp. and Cercospora sp. related to the spot symptoms. The Lorena cultivar was the most affected by “the spot”, it caused an increase of 3.65 % of the production costs to growers and the crop incomes decreased 21.65 % due to fruits with “spot” symptoms. An environmental impact was perceived as a result of the grower lack of awareness about the problem.

  3. Four spot laser anemometer and optical access techniques for turbine applications (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.


    A time-of-flight anemometer (TOFA) system utilizing a spatial lead-lag filter for bipolar pulse generation has been constructed and tested. This system, called a four-spot laser anemometer, was specifically designed for use in high-speed, turbulent flows in the presence of walls or surfaces. The TOFA system uses elliptical spots to increase the flow acceptance angle to be comparable with that of a fringe-type anemometer. The tightly focused spots used in the four spot yield excellent flare light rejection capabilities. Good results have been obtained to 75 microns normal to a surface, with an f/2.5 collection lens. This system is being evaluated for use in a warm turbine facility. Results from both a particle-lag velocity experiment and boundary layer profiles will be discussed. In addition, an analysis of the use of curved windows in a turbine casing will be presented. Curved windows, matching the inner radius of the turbine casing, preserve the flow conditions, but introduce astigmatic aberrations. A correction optic was designed that virtually eliminates these astigmatic aberrations throughout the intrablade survey region for normal incidence.

  4. Fatigue strength assessment of the cruciform fillet welded joints using hot-spot stress approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Jin; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung; Seo, Jung Won; Goo, Byeong Choon


    In this study, fatigue tests to obtain S-N curves and FE analyses to obtain structural stress concentration factors were conducted for the two types of cruciform fillet welded joints, that is, load-carrying and non load-carrying types. Then we changed the obtained S-N curve of load-carrying joint to that based on hot-spot stress. As a result, the S-N curve of load-carrying joint based on hot-spot stress was almost exactly coincided with that of non load-carrying joint based on nominal stress. So we have concluded that the fatigue strength of a welded joint with different geometry from the non load-carrying cruciform joint could be estimated by the structural stress concentration factor obtained by considering the stress distributions along the expected crack path

  5. [The spotted sterile male--a new mutation of dominant spotting on the mouse chromosome 5]. (United States)

    Blandova, Z K; Vakhrusheva, M P; Malashenko, A M; Osipov, V V


    Spotted sterile male - a new mutation in mice is described (tentative symbol Ssm). White spotting on the belly, legs and tail as well as sterility in heterozygous males Ssm/+ of the B10.M strain are caused by autosomal semidominant gene Ssm. The gene is localized on the 5 chromosome: the frequency of recombination between Ssm and go is 13.6 +/- 1.6%; Ssm is closely linked to Wv. The diheterozygotes Ssm+/+Wv are darkeyed white sterile mice. The deficiency of spermatogenic epithelium cells, emptyness of seminiferous tubules as well as interstitial tissue overgrowing occurred in the testis in sterile males Ssm/+ of B10.M. The fertile hybrid males Ssm/+ are obtained in outcrossing of females Ssm/+ of B10.M with males of YT/Y, CBA/CaY, DBA/2JY, A.CA/Y strains.

  6. The optimized log interpretation method and sweet-spot prediction of gas-bearing shale reservoirs (United States)

    Tan, Maojin; Bai, Ze; Xu, Jingjing


    Shale gas is one of the most important unconventional oil and gas resources, and its lithology and reservoir type are both different from conventional reservoirs [1,2]. "Where are shale reservoirs" "How to determine the hydrocarbon potential" "How to evaluate the reservoir quality", these are some key problems in front of geophysicists. These are sweet spots prediction and quantitative evaluation. As we known, sweet spots of organic shale include geological sweet spot and engineering sweet spot. Geophysical well logging can provide a lot of in-site formation information along the borehole, and all parameters describing the sweet spots of organic shale are attained by geophysical log interpretation[2]. Based on geological and petrophysical characteristics of gas shale, the log response characteristics of gas shales are summarized. Geological sweet spot includes hydrocarbon potential, porosity, fracture, water saturation and total gas content, which can be calculated by using wireline logs[3]. Firstly, the based-logging hydrocarbon potential evaluation is carried out, and the RBF neural network method is developed to estimate the total organic carbon content (TOC), which was proved more effective and suitable than empirical formula and ΔlogR methods [4]. Next, the optimized log interpretation is achieved by using model-searching, and the mineral concentrations of kerogen, clay, feldspar and pyrite and porosity are calculated. On the other hand, engineering sweet spot of shale refers to the rock physical properties and rock mechanism parameters. Some elastic properties including volume module, shear modulus and Poisson's ratio are correspondingly determined from log interpretation, and the brittleness index (BI), effective stress and pore pressure are also estimated. BI is one of the most important engineering sweet spot parameters. A large number of instances show that the summarized log responses can accurately identify the gas-bearing shale, and the proposed RBF

  7. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack.

  8. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spot heating; overloading; fatigue crack growth retardation; residual stress; delay cycles. ... It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation increases with increasing level of overload as well as with increasing spot temperature. It is also ... Manuscript received: 29 November 2001; Manuscript revised: 24 June 2002 ...

  9. Inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in yellow beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (Phaeoisariopsis griseola (Sacc) is an important disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in most parts of Africa, causing yield losses of 40-80%. This study was carried out to determine the inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in yellow beans. Biparental crosses were done between ...

  10. Spatial Analysis of Accident Spots Using Weighted Severity Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weighted Severity Index (WSI) was created based on these factors/drivers. Also, Density-based Clustering for Traffic Accident Risk (DBCTAR) was carried out to assist in ascertaining the distribution of Black Spots Severity (BSS). Results obtained include: shortestpath analysis, service area analysis, accident spot severity ...

  11. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A fatigue crack can be effectively retarded by heating a spot near the crack tip under nil remote stress condition. The subcritical spot heating at a proper position modifies the crack growth behaviour in a way, more or less, similar to specimen subjected to overload spike. It is observed that the extent of crack growth retardation ...

  12. Identification of electricity spot models by using convolution particle filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Imreizeeq, E.S.N.


    We consider a slight perturbation of the Schwartz-Smith model for the electricity futures prices and the resulting modied spot model. Using the martingale property of the modied price under the risk neutral measure, we derive the arbitrage free model for the spot and futures prices. As the futures

  13. Food habits of Mexican Spotted Owls in Arizona (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey


    The Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) is most common in mature and old-growth coniferous forests throughout much of its range (Forsman et al. 1984, Laymon 1988, Ganey and Balda 1989a, Thomas et al. 1990). Proximate factors underlying habitat selection in Spotted Owls are understood poorly. Abundance and availability of food, however, may be a key...

  14. Spotted owl roost and nest site selection in northwestern California (United States)

    J.A. Blakesley; A.B. Franklin; R.J. Gutierrez


    We directly observed roost and nest site selection in a population of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in northwestern California during 1985-89. Because of potential biases caused by use of radio telemetry in previous studies, we examined habitat use relative to habitat availability at a level not previously reported for spotted...

  15. Different methods of fluoride delivery in prevention of white spot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orthodontic patients on fixed appliances are at an increased risk of developing white spot lesions which can progress to frank cavitations. Fluoride application in different forms has been shown to be effective in the reduction of formation of white spot lesions. The aim of this short communication is to discuss different ...

  16. Nucleus geometry and mechanical properties of resistance spot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this study, mechanical properties of resistance spot welding of DP450 and DP600, galvanized and ungalvanized automotive sheets have been investigated. The specimens have been joined by resistance spot welding at different weld currents and times. Welded specimens have been examined for their ...

  17. Estimates of age, growth and mortality of spotted catfish, Arius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spotted catfish is a benthic species that can be found abundantly off the coast of Yunlin in southwestern Taiwan. Its biological parameters are little known. In this study, life history parameters of this species were estimated using samples caught by bottom trawling. The spotted catfish was the major bycatch species which ...

  18. Laser Beam Caustic Measurement with Focal Spot Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Gong, Hui; Bagger, Claus


    In industrial applications of high power CO2-lasers the caustic characteristics of the laser beam have great effects on the performance of the lasers. A welldefined high intense focused spot is essential for reliable production results. This paper presents a focal spot analyser that is developed...... for measuring the beam profiles of focused high power CO2-lasers....

  19. Treatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon (Resin Infiltration) (United States)


    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 8 MAR2017 1. Your paper, entitled T reatment of White Spot Lesions with Icon ( Resin ... Resin Infiltration) 6. TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED: Treatment of White Spot lesions with Icon ( Resin In filtration) 7. FUNDING

  20. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in...

  1. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  2. Characterizing and identifying black spot resistance genes in polyploid roses (United States)

    The ornamental quality of outdoor grown roses (Rosa hybrida) is under constant threat from foliar diseases, such as black spot caused by Diplocarpon rosae. Fungicides are primarily used to manage black spot; however, there is a high consumer demand for disease resistant roses which eliminate the nee...

  3. Alternaria leaf spot of sugar beet: factors associated with risk (United States)

    Recently, increased incidence and severity of Alternaria leaf spot has been observed in Michigan and other growing regions. In the past, Alternaria leaf spot in sugar beet has been a minor foliar disease issue in the United States and management of this disease usually has not been required. If seve...

  4. inheritance of resistance to angular leaf spot in yellow beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Susceptible. II -indeterminate erect; III -indeterminate semi-prostate; ALS = Angular leaf spot. Isolation of Phaeoisariopsis griseola and plant inoculation. Isolation of angular leaf spot was made from lesions of naturally infected bean leaves showing fungal sporulation. In the case of non-sporulating lesions, the fungus was.

  5. Parameter estimation of electricity spot models from futures prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aihara, ShinIchi; Bagchi, Arunabha; Imreizeeq, E.S.N.; Walter, E.

    We consider a slight perturbation of the Schwartz-Smith model for the electricity futures prices and the resulting modified spot model. Using the martingale property of the modified price under the risk neutral measure, we derive the arbitrage free model for the spot and futures prices. We estimate

  6. Firebrands and spotting ignition in large-scale fires (United States)

    Eunmo Koo; Patrick J. Pagni; David R. Weise; John P. Woycheese


    Spotting ignition by lofted firebrands is a significant mechanism of fire spread, as observed in many largescale fires. The role of firebrands in fire propagation and the important parameters involved in spot fire development are studied. Historical large-scale fires, including wind-driven urban and wildland conflagrations and post-earthquake fires are given as...

  7. Blood and dried blood spot telomere length measurement by qPCR: assay considerations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeAnna L Zanet

    Full Text Available Measurement of telomere length is crucial for the study of telomere maintenance and its role in molecular pathophysiology of diseases and in aging. Several methods are used to measure telomere length, the choice of which usually depends on the type and size of sample to be assayed, as well as cost and throughput considerations. The goal of this study was to investigate the factors that may influence the reliability of qPCR-based relative telomere length measurements in whole blood. Day to day intra-individual variability, types of blood anticoagulant, sample storage conditions, processing and site of blood draw were investigated. Two qPCR-based methods to measure telomere length (monoplex vs. multiplex were also investigated and showed a strong correlation between them. Freezing and thawing of the blood and storage of the blood at 4°C for up to 4 days did not affect telomere length values. Telomere lengths in dried blood spots were significantly higher than both whole blood and peripheral mononuclear blood cells, and were highly correlated with both. We found that telomere length measurements were significantly higher in dried blood spots collected directly from fingertip prick compared to dried blood spots prepared with anticoagulated whole blood collected from the finger, and non-blotted whole blood taken from both finger and arm venipuncture. This suggests that DNA from cells blotted on paper is not equivalent to that collected from venipuncture whole blood, and caution should be taken when comparing between blood sample types.

  8. A new Arabidopsis mutant induced by ion beams affects flavonoid synthesis with spotted pigmentation in testa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, A.; Tano, S.; Chantes, T.; Yokota, Y.; Shikazono, N.; Watanabe, H.


    A new stable mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with a spotted pigment in the seed coat, named anthocyanin spotted testa (ast), was induced by carbon ion irradiation. The spotted pigmentation of ast mutant was observed in immature seeds from 1-2 days after flowering (DAF), at the integument of the ovule, and spread as the seed coat formed. Anthocyanin accumulation was about 6 times higher in ast mutant than in the wild-type at 6 DAF of the immature seeds, but was almost the same in mature dry seeds. A higher anthocyanin accumulation was not observed in the seedlings, leaves or floral buds of ast mutant compared with the wild-type, which suggests that a high accumulation of anthocyanins is specific to the seed coat of the immature ast seeds. Reciprocal crosses between ast mutant and the wild-type indicated that ast is a single recessive gene mutation and segregates as a delayed inheritance. The results of crossing with tt7 and ttg mutants also confirmed that the AST gene is probably a regulatory locus that controls flavonoid biosynthesis. A mapping analysis revealed that the gene is located on chromosome I and is closely linked to the SSLP DNA marker nga280 with a distance of 3.2 cM. AST has been registered as a new mutant of Arabidopsis

  9. Optimization of resistance spot welding parameters for microalloyed steel sheets (United States)

    Viňáš, Ján; Kaščák, Ľuboš; Greš, Miroslav


    The paper presents the results of resistance spot welding of hot-dip galvanized microalloyed steel sheets used in car body production. The spot welds were made with various welding currents and welding time values, but with a constant pressing force of welding electrodes. The welding current and welding time are the dominant characteristics in spot welding that affect the quality of spot welds, as well as their dimensions and load-bearing capacity. The load-bearing capacity of welded joints was evaluated by tensile test according to STN 05 1122 standard and dimensions and inner defects were evaluated by metallographic analysis by light optical microscope. Thewelding parameters of investigated microalloyed steel sheets were optimized for resistance spot welding on the pneumatic welding machine BPK 20.

  10. Ultrasonic assessment of tension shear strength in resistance spot welding (United States)

    Moghanizadeh, Abbas


    Resistance spot welding is extensively used to join sheet steel in the automotive industry. Ultrasonic non-destructive techniques for evaluation of the mechanical properties of resistance spot welding are presented. The aim of this study is to develop the capability of the ultrasonic techniques as an efficient tool in the assessment of the welding characterization. Previous researches have indicated that the measurements of ultrasonic attenuation are sensitive to grain- size variations in an extensive range of metallic alloys. Other researchers have frequently described grain sizes which are able to have significant effects on the physical characteristics of the material. This research provides a novel method to estimate the tension-shear strengths of the resistance spot welding directly from the ultrasonic attenuation measurements. The effects of spot welding parameters on the ultrasonic waves are further investigated. The results confirm that it is possible to determine the spot welding parameters for individual quality by using ultrasonic test.

  11. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini (United States)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.


    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  12. Magnetic Axis Drift and Magnetic Spot Formation in Neutron Stars with Toroidal Fields (United States)

    Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Hollerbach, Rainer


    We explore magnetic field configurations that lead to the formation of magnetic spots on the surface of neutron stars and the displacement of the magnetic dipole axis. We find that a toroidally dominated magnetic field is essential for the generation of a single spot with a strong magnetic field. Once a spot forms, it survives for several million years, even after the total magnetic field has decayed significantly. We find that the dipole axis is not stationary with respect to the neutron star’s surface and does not in general coincide with the location of the magnetic spot. This is due to non-axisymmetric instabilities of the toroidal field that displace the poloidal dipole axis at rates that may reach 0.°4 per century. A misaligned poloidal dipole axis with the toroidal field leads to more significant displacement of the dipole axis than the fully aligned case. Finally we discuss the evolution of neutron stars with such magnetic fields on the P{--}\\dot{P} diagram and the observational implications. We find that neutron stars spend a very short time before they cross the Death Line of the P{--}\\dot{P} diagram, compared to their characteristic ages. Moreover, the maximum intensity of their surface magnetic field is substantially higher than the dipole component of the field. We argue that SGR 0418+5729 could be an example of this type of behavior, having a weak dipole field, yet hosting a magnetic spot responsible for its magnetar behavior. The evolution on the pulse profile and braking index of the Crab pulsar, which are attributed to an increase of its obliquity, are compatible with the anticipated drift of the magnetic axis.

  13. Statistical Analysis And Treatment Of Accident Black Spots: A Case Study Of Nandyal Mandal (United States)

    Sudharshan Reddy, B.; Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, L.; Sreenivasa Reddy, G., Dr


    Background: Increased, economic activity raised the consumption levels of the people across the country. This created scope for increase in travel and transportation. The increase in the vehicles since last 10 years has put lot of pressure on the existing roads and ultimately resulting in road accidents. Nandyal Mandal is located in the Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh and well developed in both agricultural and industrial sectors after Kurnool. 567 accidents occurred in the last seven years at 143 locations shows the severity of the accidents in the Nandyal Mandal. There is a need to carry out some work in the Nandyal Mandal to improve the accidents black spots for reducing the accidents. Methods: Last seven years (2010-2016) of accident data collected from Police Stations. Weighted Severity Index (WSI), a scientific method is used for identifying the accident black spots. Statistical analysis has carried out for the collected data using Chi-Square Test to determine the independence of accidents with other attributes. Chi-Square Goodness of fit test conducted for test whether the accidents are occurring by chance or following any pattern. Results: WSI values are determined for the 143 locations. The Locations with high WSI are treated as accident black spots. Five black spots are taken for field study. After field observations and interaction with the public, some improvements are suggested for improving the accident black spots. There is no relationship between the severity of accidents and the other attributes like month, season, day, hours in day and the age group except type of vehicle. Road accidents are distributed throughout the Year, Month and Season. Road accidents are not distributed throughout the day.

  14. Wood ant nests as hot spots of carbon dioxide production and cold spots of methane oxidation in temperate forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jílková, Veronika; Picek, T.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Frouz, Jan


    Roč. 18, April (2016), EGU2016-4634 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. 17.04.2016-22.04.2016, Vienna] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : wood ant nests * hot spots of carbon dioxide production * cold spots of methane oxidation * temperate forests Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  15. Analysis of blood spots for polyfluoroalkyl chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Kayoko; Wanigatunga, Amal A.; Needham, Larry L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Calafat, Antonia M., E-mail: [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been detected in humans, in the environment, and in ecosystems around the world. The potential for developmental and reproductive toxicities of some PFCs is of concern especially to children's health. In the United States, a sample of a baby's blood, called a 'dried blood spot' (DBS), is obtained from a heel stick within 48 h of a child's birth. DBS could be useful for assessing prenatal exposure to PFCs. We developed a method based on online solid phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry for measuring four PFCs in DBS, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate. The analytical limits of detection using one whole DBS ({approx}75 {mu}L of blood) were <0.5 ng mL{sup -1}. To validate the method, we analyzed 98 DBS collected in May 2007 in the United States. PFOS and PFOA were detected in all DBS at concentrations in the low ng mL{sup -1} range. These data suggest that DBS may be a suitable matrix for assessing perinatal exposure to PFCs, but additional information related to sampling and specimen storage is needed to demonstrate the utility of these measures for assessing exposure.

  16. Review: magnetically assisted resistance spot welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. B. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); Li, D. L. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); Lin, Z. Q. [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China); David, Stan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tang, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Currently, the use of advanced high strength steels (AHSSs) is the most cost effective means of reducing vehicle body weight and maintaining structural integrity at the same time. However, AHSSs present a big challenge to the traditional resistance spot welding (RSW) widely applied in automotive industries because the rapid heating and cooling procedures during RSW produce hardened weld microstructures, which lower the ductility and fatigue properties of welded joints and raise the probability of interfacial failure under external loads. Changing process parameters or post-weld heat treatment may reduce the weld brittleness, but those traditional quality control methods also increase energy consumption and prolong cycle time. In recent years, a magnetically assisted RSW (MA-RSW) method was proposed, in which an externally applied magnetic field would interact with the conduction current to produce a Lorentz force that would affect weld nugget formation. This paper is a review of an experimental MA-RSW platform, the mode of the external magnetic field and the mechanism that controls nugget shape, weld microstructures and joint performance. In conclusion, the advantages of the MA-RSW method in improving the weldability of AHSSs are given, a recent application of the MA-RSW process to light metals is described and the outlook for the MA-RSW process is presented.

  17. Turbulent Spot Pressure Fluctuation Wave Packet Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dechant, Lawrence J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Wave packet analysis provides a connection between linear small disturbance theory and subsequent nonlinear turbulent spot flow behavior. The traditional association between linear stability analysis and nonlinear wave form is developed via the method of stationary phase whereby asymptotic (simplified) mean flow solutions are used to estimate dispersion behavior and stationary phase approximation are used to invert the associated Fourier transform. The resulting process typically requires nonlinear algebraic equations inversions that can be best performed numerically, which partially mitigates the value of the approximation as compared to a more complete, e.g. DNS or linear/nonlinear adjoint methods. To obtain a simpler, closed-form analytical result, the complete packet solution is modeled via approximate amplitude (linear convected kinematic wave initial value problem) and local sinusoidal (wave equation) expressions. Significantly, the initial value for the kinematic wave transport expression follows from a separable variable coefficient approximation to the linearized pressure fluctuation Poisson expression. The resulting amplitude solution, while approximate in nature, nonetheless, appears to mimic many of the global features, e.g. transitional flow intermittency and pressure fluctuation magnitude behavior. A low wave number wave packet models also recover meaningful auto-correlation and low frequency spectral behaviors.

  18. Mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern Romania. (United States)

    Pitigoi, Daniela; Olaru, Ioana D; Badescu, Daniela; Rafila, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Hristea, Adriana


    Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6%) patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4%) and rash (98.2%), and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7%) of them had a titer IgG ≥1:160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  19. Mediterranean Spotted Fever in Southeastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pitigoi


    Full Text Available Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4% had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6% patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4% and rash (98.2%, and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7% of them had a titer IgG ≥1 : 160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  20. Feast or famine: 1992 spot market review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    There was nothing temperate about the uranium spot market in 1992. It was a year of extremes. Demand took off at a brisk pace early in the year as utilities, enticed by low U3O8 prices and interest rates, stepped up their discretionary purchases. With the NUKEM price range sinking to an all-time low of US$6.75-7.70 in November 1991, utilities reckoned that prices had bottomed out and decided to buy and hold material. Indeed, the upper end of NUKEM's range remained below $8.00 per lb for much of the first half of 1992. The main cause of low prices was the flood of imports from the crumbling Soviet Union and its successor, the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]. The CIS republics quickly embraced a free-market philosophy to boost their faltering economies, and several hoped to use uranium as a source of badly-needed hard currency. But they were about to get a harsh introduction to capitalism. It came in the form of government intervention, in both the US and Europe. In May, the US Department of Commerce made its preliminary determination that the uranium-producing republics of the CIS were selling material in the US at less than fair market value. The antidumping case was eventually settled in October when the CIS republics [Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan] signed suspension agreements subjecting CIS origin uranium to price and quantity quotas in the US.

  1. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, R.J.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Bjorken, J.D.; /SLAC; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL


    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  2. Nucleocapsid protein VP15 is the basic DNA binding protein of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveldt, J.; Vermeesch, A.M.G.; Langenhof, M.; Lang, de A.; Vlak, J.M.; Hulten, van M.C.W.


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is type species of the genus Whispovirus of the new family Nimaviridae. Despite the elucidation of its genomic sequence, very little is known about the virus as only 6% of its ORFs show homology to known genes. One of the structural virion proteins, VP15, is part of

  3. Comparison of outcomes between overlapping-spot and single-spot photodynamic therapy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-An Su


    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy (PDT with overlapping multiple spots and single spot for treating circumscribed choroidal hemangioma.METHODS:Twenty-two patients (22 eyes with symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma received PDT treatment. Fourteen patients received overlapping spots (two to three spots PDT, whereas eight patients received single-spot PDT. Laser was used at 50J/cm2 for 83s in the overlapping-spot group and 50J/cm2 for 166s in the single-spot group. Clinical examination, funduscopy, fluorescein angiography, and ultrasonography were performed at baseline and after treatment.RESULTS:The mean follow-up time was 28.5±8.0 months in the overlapping-spot group and 27.0±5.0 months in the single-spot group. Nine patients (64.2% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and five patients showed stable visual acuity in the overlapping-spot group. The mean thickness of tumor decreased from 2.7±0.8mm to 1.2±0.9mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.4±1.5mm to 4.5±3.5mm after treatment. In the single-spot group, two patients (25% had their vision improved over two lines on the Snellen chart, and six patients had unchanged stable vision. The mean tumor thickness in this group decreased from 2.5±0.7mm to 1.4±1.0mm, and the mean greatest tumor linear dimension decreased from 7.2±1.3mm to 4.7±3.6mm. No significant differences in visual improvement and tumor regression were found between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Overlapping-spot PDT under appropriate treatment parameters and strategies is as effective and safe as single-spot PDT for treating symptomatic circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Improved or stabilized visual acuity was achieved as a result of tumor regression.

  4. Spots educativos : un modelo de evaluación creativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Montalvo-Castro


    Full Text Available En esta investigación se precisan las semejanzas y diferencias entre los spots comerciales, sociales y educativos. Se analizan el problema de la eficacia de los spots y el papel de la creatividad. Además, se plantea la necesidad de contar con un modelo apropiado de evaluación de spots educativos que tome en cuenta ciertos principios de la teoría del aprendizaje significativo de David Ausubel. Finalmente, se diseña y propone un modelo de evaluación creativa —tipo lista de cotejo— que es sometido a una prueba experimental y cuyos resultados apoyan el planteamiento.

  5. Weld Spot Detection by Color Segmentation and Template Convolution (United States)

    Cambrini, Luigi; Biber, Jürgen; Hönigmann, Dieter; Löhndorf, Maike


    There is a need of non-destructive evaluation of the quality of steel spot welds. A computer-vision based solution is presented performing the analysis of the weld spot imprints left by the electrode on the protection bands. In this paper we propose two different methods to locate the position of the weld spot imprint as a first step in order to verify the quality of the welding process; both methods consist of two stages: (i) the use of the X channel of the XYZ color space as a proper representation, and (ii) the analysis of this image channel by employing specific algorithms.

  6. Spot: a new Monte Carlo solver for fast alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Eriksson, L.G.; Basiuk, V.; Imbeaux, F.


    The predictive transport code CRONOS has been augmented by an orbit following Monte Carlo code, SPOT (Simulation of Particle Orbits in a Tokamak). The SPOT code simulates the dynamics of nonthermal particles, and takes into account effects of finite orbit width and collisional transport of fast ions. Recent developments indicate that it might be difficult to avoid, at least transiently, current holes in a reactor. They occur already on existing tokamaks during advanced tokamak scenarios. The SPOT code has been used to study the alpha particle behaviour in the presence of current holes for both JET and ITER relevant parameters. (authors)

  7. Reflections on the reporting of the uranium spot price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, E.D.


    Reporting of the Spot Uranium Price does not represent the uranium market, but actually represents the extremities of a market. The Spot Prices tend to cause instabilities in the market if relied upon too heavily and an excessive use will actually support a questionable transition from a fuel supply industry to a commodities industry. Utility fuel buyers and uranium sellers must be careful how they use the Spot Price, or they will continue to create an unstable supply/demand relationship. But, since we all rely upon statistics for the illusion of independence, we may get the commodities market, assisted along by the information people, whether we want it or not

  8. Modelling energy spot prices by Lévy semistationary processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Veraart, Almut

    This paper introduces a new modelling framework for energy spot prices based on Lévy semistationary processes. Lévy semistationary processes are special cases of the general class of ambit processes. We provide a detailed analysis of the probabilistic properties of such models and we show how the...... they are able to capture many of the stylised facts observed in energy markets. Furthermore, we derive forward prices based on our spot price model. As it turns out, many of the classical spot models can be embedded into our novel modelling framework....

  9. Weld Spot Detection by Color Segmentation and Template Convolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambrini, Luigi; Biber, Juergen; Hoenigmann, Dieter; Loehndorf, Maike


    There is a need of non-destructive evaluation of the quality of steel spot welds. A computer-vision based solution is presented performing the analysis of the weld spot imprints left by the electrode on the protection bands. In this paper we propose two different methods to locate the position of the weld spot imprint as a first step in order to verify the quality of the welding process; both methods consist of two stages: (i) the use of the X channel of the XYZ color space as a proper representation, and (ii) the analysis of this image channel by employing specific algorithms

  10. Spot Welding of 6061 Aluminum Alloy by Friction Stir Spot Welding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Tashkandi


    Full Text Available This study was focused on the effect of welding parameters on the lap-shear fracture load of the welded joints prepared by friction stir spot welding. Four different weld parameters were analyzed: rotational speed, dwell time, pin length and shoulder size of the welding tool. It was found that the lap-shear fracture load increases with an increase of the welding parameters to a limited value and decreases with further increase. The strong welded joints failed under nugget-pull out fracture.

  11. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra]. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao


    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  12. Blind spot monitoring in light vehicles -- system performance. (United States)


    This report summarizes findings of a small population study of blind spot monitoring systems (BSM) installed by : original vehicle manufacturers on standard production vehicles. The primary goals of these tests were to simulate real-world driving sce...

  13. Analysis and validation of laser spot weld-induced distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Kanouff, M.P.; Maccallum, D.O.; Fuerschbach, P.W.


    Laser spot welding is an ideal process for joining small parts with tight tolerances on weld size, location, and distortion, particularly those with near-by heat sensitive features. It is also key to understanding the overlapping laser spot seam welding process. Rather than attempting to simulate the laser beam-to-part coupling (particularly if a keyhole occurs), it was measured by calorimetry. This data was then used to calculate the thermal and structural response of a laser spot welded SS304 disk using the finite element method. Five combinations of process parameter values were studied. Calculations were compared to experimental data for temperature and distortion profiles measured by thermocouples and surface profiling. Results are discussed in terms of experimental and modeling factors. The authors then suggest appropriate parameters for laser spot welding.

  14. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.


    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  15. Comparison of hot spot stress evaluation methods for welded structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Myung Lee


    Full Text Available In this paper, different evaluation methods of Hot Spot Stresses (HSS have been applied to four different welded structure details in order to compare them and to illustrate their differences. The HSSs at failure-critical locations were calculated by means of a series of finite element analyses. There was good overall agreement between calculated and experimentally determined HSS on the critical locations. While different methods and procedures exist for the computation of the structural hot-spot stress at welded joints, the recommendations within the International Institute of Welding (IIW guideline concerning the ‘Hot Spot Stress’ approach were found to give good reference stress approximations for fatigue-loaded welded joints. This paper recommends and suggests an appropriate finite element modeling and hot spot stress evaluation technique based on round-robin stress analyses and experimental results of several welded structure details.

  16. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  17. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  18. Characterization of a tailless white spot syndrome virus from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WSSV) but without tail-like extension was identified and characterized from diseased Penaeus vannamei and moribund Procambarus clarkia. Contrary to previous reports, white spots were not observed on the carapace of the diseased P.

  19. Gnomonia canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot of yellow birch. (United States)

    Kenneth J. Jr. Kessler


    Describes a canker, shoot blight, and leaf spot disease of yellow birch seedlings in the northern Great Lakes region and tells how and when trees become infected by the fungal causal agent, Gnomonia setacea.

  20. Performance evaluation of spot detection algorithms in fluorescence microscopy images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabaso, M


    Full Text Available Detection of messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA) spots in fluorescence microscopy images is of great importance for biologists seeking better understanding of cell functionality. Fluorescence microscopy and specific staining methods make biological...

  1. Classification of Parking Spots Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALCAO, H. S.


    Full Text Available This project intends to develop a prototype for the identification of free spots in open air parking area where there is a good aerial view without obstacles, allowing for the identification of occupied and free spots. We used image processing techniques and pattern recognition using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN. In order to help implement the prototype, we used Matlab. In order to simulate the parking area, we created a model so that we could acquire the images using a webcam, process them, train the neural network, classify the spots and finally, show the results. The results show that it is viable to apply pattern recognition through image capture to classify parking spots

  2. Pregnancy Complications: Bleeding and Spotting from the Vagina (United States)

    ... miscarry have bleeding or spotting before the miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy. This is when a fertilized egg implants itself ... of the uterus and begins to grow. An ectopic pregnancy cannot result in the birth of a baby. ...

  3. IMRT fluence map editing to control hot and cold spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor Cook, J.; Tobler, Matt; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Watson, Gordon


    Manually editing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fluence maps effectively controls hot and cold spots that the IMRT optimization cannot control. Many times, re-optimizing does not reduce the hot spots or increase the cold spots. In fact, re-optimizing only places the hot and cold spots in different locations. Fluence-map editing provides manual control of dose delivery and provides the best treatment plan possible. Several IMRT treatments were planned using the Varian Eclipse planning system. We compare the effects on dose distributions between fluence-map editing and re-optimization, discuss techniques for fluence-map editing, and analyze differences between fluence editing on one beam vs. multiple beams. When editing a beam's fluence map, it is essential to choose a beam that least affects dose to the tumor and critical structures. Editing fluence maps gives an advantage in treatment planning and provides controlled delivery of IMRT dose

  4. Transportation conformity particulate matter hot-spot air quality modeling. (United States)


    In light of the new development in particulate matter (PM) hot-spot regulations and Illinois Department : of Transportation (IDOT)s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation requirements, : this project is intended to (1) perform and ...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis to Syphilis - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during...

  8. Spot table - RPD | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ended gel image of the spot. Mass Spectrometry Accession No. Accession No. of homologous protein by Mascot Analysis. Mass Spectrometr...y Homologous Protein Definition of homologous protein by Mascot Analysis. Mass Spectrometry

  9. Joining of Dissimilar alloy Sheets (Al 6063&AISI 304 during Resistance Spot Welding Process: A Feasibility Study for Automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy Sreenivasulu


    Full Text Available Present design trends in automotive manufacture have shifted emphasis to alternative lightweight materials in order to achieve higher fuel efficiency and to bring down vehicle emission. Although some other joining techniques are more and more being used, spot welding still remains the primary joining method in automobile manufacturing so far. Spot welds for automotive applications should have a sufficiently large diameter, so that nugget pullout mode is the dominant failure mode. Interfacial mode is unacceptable due to its low load carrying and energy absorption capability. Strength tests with different static loading were performed in, to reveal the failure mechanisms for the lap-shear geometry and the cross-tension geometry. Based on the literature survey performed, venture into this work was amply motivated by the fact that a little research work has been conducted to joining of dissimilar materials like non ferrous to ferrous. Most of the research works concentrated on joining of different materials like steel to steel or aluminium alloy to aluminium alloy by resistance spot welding. In this work, an experimental study on the resistance spot weldability of aluminium alloy (Al 6063 and austenitic stainless steel (AISI304 sheets, which are lap joined by using a pedestal type resistance spot welding machine. Welding was conducted using a 45-deg truncated cone copper electrode with 10-mm face diameter. The weld nugget diameter, force estimation under lap shear test and T – peel test were investigated using digital type tensometer attached with capacitive displacement transducer (Mikrotech, Bangalore, Model: METM2000ER1. The results shows that joining of Al 6063 and AISI 304 thin sheets by RSW method are feasible for automotive structural joints where the loads are below 1000N act on them, it is observed that by increasing the spots per unit length, then the joint with standing strength to oppose failure is also increased linearly incase of

  10. Fungicide efficacy in peach rusty spot control in Serbia


    Dolovac Nenad; Miletić Novica; Aleksić Goran; Savić Dušan; Živković Svetlana; Trkulja Nenad; Bulajić Aleksandra


    Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry) caused significant yield losses in Serbia. Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. Ho...

  11. FOTS: Fast Oriented Text Spotting with a Unified Network


    Liu, Xuebo; Liang, Ding; Yan, Shi; Chen, Dagui; Qiao, Yu; Yan, Junjie


    Incidental scene text spotting is considered one of the most difficult and valuable challenges in the document analysis community. Most existing methods treat text detection and recognition as separate tasks. In this work, we propose a unified end-to-end trainable Fast Oriented Text Spotting (FOTS) network for simultaneous detection and recognition, sharing computation and visual information among the two complementary tasks. Specially, RoIRotate is introduced to share convolutional features ...

  12. Subtle Motion Analysis and Spotting using the Riesz Pyramid


    Arango, Carlos,; Alata, Olivier; Emonet, Rémi; Legrand, Anne-Claire; Konik, Hubert


    International audience; Analyzing and temporally spotting motions which are almost invisible to the human eye might reveal interesting information about the world. However, detecting these events is difficult due to their short duration and low intensities. Taking inspiration from video magnification techniques, we design a workflow for analyzing and temporally spotting subtle motions based on the Riesz pyramid. In addition, we propose a filtering and masking scheme that segments motions of i...

  13. Resistance Spot Welding with Middelfrequency-Inverter Weling Gun

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mogens H.

    The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun......The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the process stability and weldability lobes for uncoated sheets of 1.0 mm thickness when performing resistance spot welding with a middlefrequency-inverter welding gun...

  14. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Qianshao spotted pig. (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Chai, Yu-Lan; Jiang, Juan; He, Chang-Qing; Ma, Hai-Ming


    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Qianshao spotted pig was first determined in this study. The mitogenome (16,700 bp) consists of 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (D-loop region). The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Qianshao spotted pig enriches data resource for further study in genetic mechanism.

  15. Onset of breakdown and formation of cathode spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirzke, F.; Hallal, M.P. Jr.; Maruyama, X.K.


    The initial phase of onset of electrical breakdown in a vacuum discharge is characterized by very rapid ionization of surface material which leads to a kind of ''explosive'' plasma formation on electrodes. As an increasing electric field is applied between the two electrodes of vacuum diode the ionization process is initiated by field emission of electrons from highly localized spots on the cathode surface. Despite the fundamental importance of cathode spots for the breakdown process, the structure of cathode spots and the fast ionization rates of surface layers were riot fully understood. Besides joule heating of the field emitting spot, the electrons also desorb contaminants and ionize some of the released neutrals. Ions produced a short distance (∼ 1μm) from the spot are accelerated back towards the cathode. This ion bombardment leads to surface heating of the spot. Calculations of the power deposition show that ion surface heating is initially orders of magnitude larger than joule heating. Ion bombardment is especially important at low initial current densities since it leads efficiently to further desorption arid sputtering of neutrals from the surface and hence increases the neutral density which in turn increases the ionization rate. As more ions are produced, a positive space charge layer forms which enhances the electric field and thus strongly enhances the field emitted electron current. Surface heating and the build-up of positive space charge rapidly lead to further enhanced field emission and finally thermionic electron emission. The localized build-up plasma above the electron emitting spot naturally leads to pressure and electric field distributions which ignite unipolar arcs. The large electron current of the unipolar arc and large ion sputtering rates cause the ''explosion'' of surface material into the dense plasma of a cathode spot

  16. On the burn topology of hot-spot-initiated reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Larry G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmermann, Bjorn [WOLFRAM RESEARCH INC.; Nichols, Albert L [LLNL


    We determine the reaction progress function for an ideal hot spot model problem. The considered problem has an exact analytic solution that can derived from a reduction of Nichols statistical hot spot model. We perform numerical calculations to verify the analytic solution and to illustrate the error realized in real, finite systems. We show how the baseline problem, which does not distinguish between the reactant and product densities, can be scaled to handle general cases for which the two densities differ.

  17. Localization of the hot spots in a pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Leisheng; Lee, Wooram; Lee, Jaeyoung [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    The pebble bed reactor (PBR) is a candidate reactor type for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is one of the Generation-IV reactor types. The HTGR design concept exhibits excellent safety features due to the low power density and the large amount of graphite present in the core which gives a large thermal inertia in an accident such as loss of coolant. The conclusions are made and may contribute to a better design of a PBR core and a closer inspection of the local hot spots to avoid destruction of pebbles from happening. Thermal field of a PBR core is investigated in this study. Specifically, experiments on measuring the pebbles' surface temperature are performed. It is found that the upper pebble has an overall higher temperature profile than the other pebbles and the stagnation zone under does not increase its surface's temperature. In addition, the temperature profile of the side pebble shows a concave form and it keeps decreasing from the contact point to the vertex in the lower pebble. Lastly, the maximum temperature difference among these points is 5.83 deg. C. These findings above are validated by CFX simulations under two different turbulence models (k-e, SST) and two contact areas (diameter of 6mm and 3.5mm). By contrasting the temperature variation trends of all simulation cases, it is concluded that SST turbulence model with 20% intensity shows a better agreement with the experiment result, nevertheless, slightly deviation is also found in terms of total temperature difference and the peak appears in position 17-19 in experiments.

  18. Localization of the hot spots in a pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Leisheng; Lee, Wooram; Lee, Jaeyoung


    The pebble bed reactor (PBR) is a candidate reactor type for the very high temperature reactor (VHTR), which is one of the Generation-IV reactor types. The HTGR design concept exhibits excellent safety features due to the low power density and the large amount of graphite present in the core which gives a large thermal inertia in an accident such as loss of coolant. The conclusions are made and may contribute to a better design of a PBR core and a closer inspection of the local hot spots to avoid destruction of pebbles from happening. Thermal field of a PBR core is investigated in this study. Specifically, experiments on measuring the pebbles' surface temperature are performed. It is found that the upper pebble has an overall higher temperature profile than the other pebbles and the stagnation zone under does not increase its surface's temperature. In addition, the temperature profile of the side pebble shows a concave form and it keeps decreasing from the contact point to the vertex in the lower pebble. Lastly, the maximum temperature difference among these points is 5.83 deg. C. These findings above are validated by CFX simulations under two different turbulence models (k-e, SST) and two contact areas (diameter of 6mm and 3.5mm). By contrasting the temperature variation trends of all simulation cases, it is concluded that SST turbulence model with 20% intensity shows a better agreement with the experiment result, nevertheless, slightly deviation is also found in terms of total temperature difference and the peak appears in position 17-19 in experiments

  19. Damage tolerance reliability analysis of automotive spot-welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Ni Kan


    This paper develops a damage tolerance reliability analysis methodology for automotive spot-welded joints under multi-axial and variable amplitude loading history. The total fatigue life of a spot weld is divided into two parts, crack initiation and crack propagation. The multi-axial loading history is obtained from transient response finite element analysis of a vehicle model. A three-dimensional finite element model of a simplified joint with four spot welds is developed for static stress/strain analysis. A probabilistic Miner's rule is combined with a randomized strain-life curve family and the stress/strain analysis result to develop a strain-based probabilistic fatigue crack initiation life prediction for spot welds. Afterwards, the fatigue crack inside the base material sheet is modeled as a surface crack. Then a probabilistic crack growth model is combined with the stress analysis result to develop a probabilistic fatigue crack growth life prediction for spot welds. Both methods are implemented with MSC/NASTRAN and MSC/FATIGUE software, and are useful for reliability assessment of automotive spot-welded joints against fatigue and fracture

  20. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  1. Cognitive sophistication does not attenuate the bias blind spot. (United States)

    West, Richard F; Meserve, Russell J; Stanovich, Keith E


    The so-called bias blind spot arises when people report that thinking biases are more prevalent in others than in themselves. Bias turns out to be relatively easy to recognize in the behaviors of others, but often difficult to detect in one's own judgments. Most previous research on the bias blind spot has focused on bias in the social domain. In 2 studies, we found replicable bias blind spots with respect to many of the classic cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature (e.g., Tversky & Kahneman, 1974). Further, we found that none of these bias blind spots were attenuated by measures of cognitive sophistication such as cognitive ability or thinking dispositions related to bias. If anything, a larger bias blind spot was associated with higher cognitive ability. Additional analyses indicated that being free of the bias blind spot does not help a person avoid the actual classic cognitive biases. We discuss these findings in terms of a generic dual-process theory of cognition.

  2. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V.; Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J.; Antila, E.


    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  3. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E. [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)


    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  4. Duodenal White Spots Mimicking Intestinal Candidiasis: Report of Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Turk


    Full Text Available Duodenal white spots are mentioned in these nonspecific lesions until recently. Although there is not enough studies about duedonal white spots yet; these lesions described in a separate syndrome. Here now we reported a case that we diagnosed multiple Duodenal white spots mimicking intestinal candidiasis. Clinical manifestation and endoscopic appearance of lesions gave rise to thought intestinal candidiasis histopathological examination revealed us several duodenitis. There was no evidence of fungal infection in PAS staining. Early after endoscopy patient took treatment of Lansoprozole at the 30 mg dose and bismuth salicylate. Patients compliant declined and control endoscopy exposed white duodenal spots cleared away three months later. Duodenal white spots are becoming to be designated as a separate disease even a syndrome. Etiology of duodenal white spots must be determined carefully during endoscopy. Sometimes it is difficult to make the correct diagnosis by appearance of lesion; in such cases histopathological examination can be useful both differential diagnosis of disease and determination of etiological factor. [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(4.000: 249-252

  5. Solar Power Optimization Tool for Onsite Needs (SPOT-ON) User’s Guide for Apple Mobile Devices (United States)


    SPOT-ON Table Surface type and fractional albedo Desert 0.30 Forest 0.15 Dark soil 0.10 Snow 0.55 Crops 0.20 3 Fig. 2 Site view...type and fractional albedo .........................................................2 1 1. Introduction The Solar Power Optimization Tool...available in a day). The surface input is used by the app to assign a surface albedo ,3 which affects the resultant irradiance value. See the Table or Fig. 2

  6. Spot14/Spot14R expression may be involved in MSC adipogenic differentiation in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (United States)



    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different expression levels of thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP; Spot14)/S14 related, Mig12 (S14R) during bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) adipogenesis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. MSCs were retrospectively isolated from AIS patients and controls, and adipogenic differentiation was induced. Total RNA was extracted for Affymetrix 3′-IVT expression profiling microarrays and compared with the results from healthy controls. The results were confirmed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation and the protein expression levels of Spot14 and its paralogous gene S14R by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 300 significantly altered mRNAs were detected (111 upregulated and 189 downregulated) and confirmed by RT-qPCR. The mRNA expression levels of seven genes, including Spot14, were altered by >2-fold in AIS patients. Spot14/S14R was selected for further investigation. The results of the western blotting demonstrated that mRNA and protein expression levels of Spot14/S14R were significantly higher in AIS patients than the controls (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated Spot14 was expressed in 85% (17/20 cases) in adipose tissue samples from AIS patients and 23.1% (3/13 cases) of adipose tissue samples from controls. The positive ratio of Spot14 in adipose tissue samples from AIS was significantly higher than the controls (P<0.001). The results of the present study indicated that Spot14/S14R were differently expressed in MSC adipogenesis in AIS patients, and they may be important in the abnormal adipogenic differentiation in AIS. PMID:27082501

  7. Spot-scanning beam delivery with laterally- and longitudinally-mixed spot size pencil beams in heavy ion radiotherapy (United States)

    Yan, Yuan-Lin; Liu, Xin-Guo; Dai, Zhong-Ying; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; He, Peng-Bo; Shen, Guo-Sheng; Ji, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Hui; Li, Qiang


    The three-dimensional (3D) spot-scanning method is one of the most commonly used irradiation methods in charged particle beam radiotherapy. Generally, spot-scanning beam delivery utilizes the same size pencil beam to irradiate the tumor targets. Here we propose a spot-scanning beam delivery method with laterally- and longitudinally-mixed size pencil beams for heavy ion radiotherapy. This uses pencil beams with a bigger spot size in the lateral direction and wider mini spread-out Bragg peak (mini-SOBP) to irradiate the inner part of a target volume, and pencil beams with a smaller spot size in the lateral direction and narrower mini-SOBP to irradiate the peripheral part of the target volume. Instead of being controlled by the accelerator, the lateral size of the pencil beam was adjusted by inserting Ta scatterers in the beam delivery line. The longitudinal size of the pencil beam (i.e. the width of the mini-SOBP) was adjusted by tilting mini ridge filters along the beam direction. The new spot-scanning beam delivery using carbon ions was investigated theoretically and compared with traditional spot-scanning beam delivery. Our results show that the new spot-scanning beam delivery has smaller lateral penumbra, steeper distal dose fall-off and the dose homogeneity (1-standard deviation/mean) in the target volume is better than 95%. Supported by Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232207), National Key Technology Support Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2015BAI01B11), National Key Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFC0904602) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11075191, 11205217, 11475231, 11505249)

  8. High resolution mapping of urban areas using SPOT-5 images and ancillary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Sertel


    Full Text Available This research aims to propose new rule sets to be used for object based classification of SPOT-5 images to accurately create detailed urban land cover/use maps. In addition to SPOT-5 satellite images, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI maps, cadastral maps, Openstreet maps, road maps and Land Cover maps, were also integrated into classification to increase the accuracy of resulting maps. Gaziantep city, one of the highly populated cities of Turkey with different landscape patterns was selected as the study area. Different rule sets involving spectral, spatial and geometric characteristics were developed to be used for object based classification of 2.5 m resolution Spot-5 satellite images to automatically create urban map of the region. Twenty different land cover/use classes obtained from European Urban Atlas project were applied and an automatic classification approach was suggested for high resolution urban map creation and updating. Integration of different types of data into the classification decision tree increased the performance and accuracy of the suggested approach. The accuracy assessment results illustrated that with the usage of newly proposed rule set algorithms in object-based classification, urban areas represented with seventeen different sub-classes could be mapped with 94 % or higher overall accuracy.

  9. Spot sale of uncommitted LNG from Middle East: Japan or the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikhalat-Jahromi, Hamed; Bell, Michael G.H.; Fontes, Dalila B.M.M.; Cochrane, Robert A.; Angeloudis, Panagiotis


    The importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is rising as demand for it grows rapidly and steadily due to growth in energy demand, the transition to a low carbon economy and the longer distances over which natural gas is now traded. Given its importance, this work proposes an optimization model that assists to decide on when and where LNG should be delivered by coordinating tanker type, assignment and routing, inventory management, contract obligations, arbitrage and uncommitted LNG. The model maximizes the profit mainly by taking advantage of price differences between different markets. The contributions of this work are twofold. First, following the analysis of expenses and revenues, a new mixed integer programming model for LNG liquefaction and shipping is proposed from a corporate finance perspective. Furthermore, a solution approach for it is implemented and tested. Second, the model is used to derive a short term trade policy for the Middle Eastern LNG producers regarding the spot sale of their uncommitted product to Japan or to the UK, namely to: dispatch to whichever market has the higher current spot price, regardless of the variability of the transport expenses. - Highlights: •The cash-flow of an LNG producer in operational planning is examined. •An LNG inventory routing problem for EBITDA maximization is formulated. •A project in Middle East for studying the spot sale of uncommitted LNG is created. •In sale to Japan and the UK the market with the higher price should be picked.

  10. Regulatory restrictions and energy: The impact of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gius, Mark


    The purpose of the present study is to estimate the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. Although the Jones Act pertains to the domestic shipment of all types of goods, the present study will only focus on gasoline. The present study will use data obtained from the Energy Information Administration in order to determine if the price of gasoline declined during Jones Act waiver periods. Looking at daily prices, the results regarding the effects of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices are mixed. When using a t-test, the results indicated either that there was no significant difference or that prices were actually higher during the waiver periods. When using a first-order autoregressive model, it was found that prices were lower during the 2005 waiver period but higher during the 2012 waiver. Given these inconclusive results, it is not possible to conclude that the Jones Act restrictions contribute to higher gasoline prices. - Highlights: • I examine the effect of the Jones Act on spot gasoline prices. • I use daily price data over a seven year period. • I find that the results are mixed. • For the Hurricane Katrina waiver, prices fell, but for the Hurricane Sandy waiver, prices rose

  11. Task Balanced Workflow Scheduling Technique considering Task Processing Rate in Spot Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daeyong Jung


    Full Text Available Recently, the cloud computing is a computing paradigm that constitutes an advanced computing environment that evolved from the distributed computing. And the cloud computing provides acquired computing resources in a pay-as-you-go manner. For example, Amazon EC2 offers the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS instances in three different ways with different price, reliability, and various performances of instances. Our study is based on the environment using spot instances. Spot instances can significantly decrease costs compared to reserved and on-demand instances. However, spot instances give a more unreliable environment than other instances. In this paper, we propose the workflow scheduling scheme that reduces the out-of-bid situation. Consequently, the total task completion time is decreased. The simulation results reveal that, compared to various instance types, our scheme achieves performance improvements in terms of an average combined metric of 12.76% over workflow scheme without considering the processing rate. However, the cost in our scheme is higher than an instance with low performance and is lower than an instance with high performance.

  12. The role of relA and spoT in Yersinia pestis KIM5 pathogenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun


    Full Text Available The ppGpp molecule is part of a highly conserved regulatory system for mediating the growth response to various environmental conditions. This mechanism may represent a common strategy whereby pathogens such as Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, regulate the virulence gene programs required for invasion, survival and persistence within host cells to match the capacity for growth. The products of the relA and spoT genes carry out ppGpp synthesis. To investigate the role of ppGpp on growth, protein synthesis, gene expression and virulence, we constructed a Delta relA Delta spoT Y. pestis mutant. The mutant was no longer able to synthesize ppGpp in response to amino acid or carbon starvation, as expected. We also found that it exhibited several novel phenotypes, including a reduced growth rate and autoaggregation at 26 degrees C. In addition, there was a reduction in the level of secretion of key virulence proteins and the mutant was > 1,000-fold less virulent than its wild-type parent strain. Mice vaccinated subcutaneously (s.c. with 2.5x10(4 CFU of the Delta relA Delta spoT mutant developed high anti-Y. pestis serum IgG titers, were completely protected against s.c. challenge with 1.5x10(5 CFU of virulent Y. pestis and partially protected (60% survival against pulmonary challenge with 2.0x10(4 CFU of virulent Y. pestis. Our results indicate that ppGpp represents an important virulence determinant in Y. pestis and the Delta relA Delta spoT mutant strain is a promising vaccine candidate to provide protection against plague.

  13. Microstructure and fatigue properties of Mg-to-steel dissimilar resistance spot welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.; Xiao, L.; Chen, D.L.; Feng, J.C.; Kim, S.; Zhou, Y.


    Highlights: ► Mg/steel dissimilar spot weld had the same fatigue strength as Mg/Mg similar weld. ► Crack propagation path of Mg/Mg and Mg/steel welds was the same. ► Penetration of Zn into the Mg base metal led to crack initiation of Mg/steel weld. ► HAZ weakening and stress concentration led to crack initiation of Mg/Mg weld. -- Abstract: The structural application of lightweight magnesium alloys in the automotive industry inevitably involves dissimilar welding with steels and the related durability issues. This study was aimed at evaluating the microstructural change and fatigue resistance of Mg/steel resistance spot welds, in comparison with Mg/Mg welds. The microstructure of Mg/Mg spot welds can be divided into: base metal, heat affected zone and fusion zone (nugget). However, the microstructure of Mg/steel dissimilar spot welds had three different regions along the joined interface: weld brazing, solid-state joining and soldering. The horizontal and vertical Mg hardness profiles of Mg/steel and Mg/Mg welds were similar. Both Mg/steel and Mg/Mg welds were observed to have an equivalent fatigue resistance due to similar crack propagation characteristics and failure mode. Both Mg/steel and Mg/Mg welds failed through thickness in the magnesium sheet under stress-controlled cyclic loading, but fatigue crack initiation of the two types of welds was different. The crack initiation of Mg/Mg welds was occurred due to a combined effect of stress concentration, grain growth in the heat affected zone (HAZ), and the presence of Al-rich phases at HAZ grain boundaries, while the penetration of small amounts of Zn coating into the Mg base metal stemming from the liquid metal induced embrittlement led to crack initiation in the Mg/steel welds.

  14. 7 CFR 27.96 - Quotations in bona fide spot markets. (United States)


    ... determined by the sale of spot cotton in such spot market. Quotations shall be determined and maintained in each designated spot market by the Cotton Division, Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA, as follows... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quotations in bona fide spot markets. 27.96 Section 27...

  15. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. (United States)


    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Spot Markets § 27.94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets for... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94...

  16. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. (United States)


    ... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.416 Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or... Cotton Source: 57 FR 34498, Aug. 5, 1992, unless otherwise noted. ...

  17. First Beam Test of Nanometer Spot Size Monitor Using Laser Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walz, D


    The nanometer spot size monitor based on the laser interferometry (Laser-Compton Spot Size Monitor) has been tested in FFTB beam line at SLAC. A low emittance beam of 46 GeV electrons, provided by the two-mile linear accelerator, was focused into nanometer spot in the FFTB line, and its transverse dimensions were precisely measured by the spot size monitor.

  18. Seasonal change in nutrient composition of spotted knapweed and preference by sheep (United States)

    Amy C. Ganguli; Michael B. Hale; Karen L. Launchbaugh


    Spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos) is one of the most troublesome rangeland weeds in western North America. As part of a larger investigation evaluating the use of targeted sheep grazing to control spotted knapweed, we examined sheep preference and forage quality of dried spotted knapweed in different phenological stages. We collected spotted knapweed...

  19. Welding of Low Alloy Steel DIN 15Mo3 by MIG/MAG Spot


    Nabeel K. Abid Al- Sahib


    ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? (MIG/MAG spot) ???????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ??? (DIN15Mo3) ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???????" ??? ?????? ??? ????. ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? CO2 ????" ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? (13%) ???? (4mm) ???? (2sec). ?...

  20. Efeito do tipo de substrato e da presença de adubação suplementar sobre o crescimento vegetativo, nutrição mineral, custo de produção e intensidade de cercosporiose em mudas de cafeeiro formadas em tubetes Effects of substrate type and supplementary fertilization on vegetative growth, mineral nutrition, production costs, and brown eye spot of coffee seedlings in stiff plastic containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adélia Aziz Alexandre Pozza


    Full Text Available A utilização de tubetes para produzir mudas de cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. tornou-se uma realidade. Objetivando avaliar o uso de substratos adubados ou não com fertilizante de liberação gradual e seus efeitos na nutrição, na formação, na cercosporiose e nos custos de produção de mudas de cafeeiro em tubetes, conduziu-se um experimento em viveiro, em esquema fatorial (4x2 com quatro substratos combinados com duas adubações, tendo quatro repetições. As parcelas foram constituídas por 16 tubetes de 120 mL, considerando-se como plantas úteis as seis centrais. Os tratamentos consistiram dos substratos S1= Substrato comercial I, S2 = Substrato comercial II, S3 = Substrato de eucalipto e S4 = 80% esterco de curral + 20% terra de subsolo, todos com e sem adubação com fertilizante de liberação gradual. No geral, os melhores substratos para formação de mudas de cafeeiro em tubetes foram os substratos não comerciais ou orgânicos, independentemente de receberem ou não adubação suplementar. Observou-se redução da cercosporiose com a nutrição mineral, principalmente com o cálcio. Com a utilização de todos os substratos houve ganho econômico em relação ao custo por milheiro de mudas. A maior economia foi obtida com o substrato S4, seguida do substrato S3, com melhor relação custo/benefício.The utilization of stiff plastic containers for producing coffee seedlings (Coffea arabica L. is a reality. Aiming to evaluate the effects of substrate type enriched or not with slow-release fertilizer on vegetative growth, mineral nutrition, production cost and, brown eye spot of coffee seedlings, an experiment was conducted in the plant nursery. The experimental design was a factorial scheme with four substrates in the presence and absence of supplementary fertilization, with four replicates. The plots were made of 16 containers of 120 ml, using six central plants for evaluation. The treatments consisted of S1 = Commercial Substrate

  1. Genetic differentiation and inferred dynamics of a hybrid zone between Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in northern California (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Tom; Forsman, Eric D.; Haig, Susan M.


    Genetic differentiation among Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies has been established in prior studies. These investigations also provided evidence for introgression and hybridization among taxa but were limited by a lack of samples from geographic regions where subspecies came into close contact. We analyzed new sets of samples from Northern Spotted Owls (NSO: S. o. caurina) and California Spotted Owls (CSO: S. o. occidentalis) in northern California using mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci to obtain a clearer depiction of genetic differentiation and hybridization in the region. Our analyses revealed that a NSO population close to the northern edge of the CSO range in northern California (the NSO Contact Zone population) is highly differentiated relative to other NSO populations throughout the remainder of their range. Phylogenetic analyses identified a unique lineage of mtDNA in the NSO Contact Zone, and Bayesian clustering analyses of the microsatellite data identified the Contact Zone as a third distinct population that is differentiated from CSO and NSO found in the remainder of the subspecies' range. Hybridization between NSO and CSO was readily detected in the NSO Contact Zone, with over 50% of individuals showing evidence of hybrid ancestry. Hybridization was also identified among 14% of CSO samples, which were dispersed across the subspecies' range in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The asymmetry of hybridization suggested that the hybrid zone may be dynamic and moving. Although evidence of hybridization existed, we identified no F1 generation hybrid individuals. We instead found evidence for F2 or backcrossed individuals among our samples. The absence of F1 hybrids may indicate that (1) our 10 microsatellites were unable to distinguish hybrid types, (2) primary interactions between subspecies are occurring elsewhere on the landscape, or (3) dispersal between the subspecies' ranges is reduced relative to

  2. Design of an online spot air sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, D.P.; Govalkar, Atul; Yadav, S.A.; Mukherjee, Govinda; Murali, S.; Babu, D.A.R.; Prasad, R.S.


    In all the alpha handling facilities spot air sampling is essential while clearing a lab consequent to week end ventilation shut down or subsequent to completion of work/operations goes inside the facility. The sampling head is designed for 5 micron particles. Following pints are noticed over a period of such operational activities: Health Physicist goes inside a lab with a half face mask whose protection factor is 10, thereby useful for lab air activity up to ten DACs. Many times HP goes inside the lab when activity is more which is highly unsafe. On many occasions simultaneously a number of samples have to be taken by HP from a large number of laboratories inside the facility or for any special job where continuous radiological protection is required. Based on this it is proposed to design a sampling system which will overcome the above limitations. The design of the sampling head has been carried out which is for 5 micron particle size. The pump which is available in the existing facilities can be utilized. An innovative way of counting for large number of samples is fabricated in the RHC wing, RMD which can count ten samples at a time. Removal and counting of the sample may be carried out in a similar sampling carousel which is being used in RHC Unit, Radiometallurgy wing successfully with a little modification. In the proposed system, three samples can be operated in-line such that health physics intervention during the active operation would be minimum and during alarm situations (i.e. on the DAC level) proper protective equipment shall be advised by health physicist or he may suggest any other protective action. This type of online monitors will help in establishing the airborne activity inside the lab where special jobs are being carried out which will provide maximum protection to the lab personnel as well as to the health physicist who supervises the entire operation

  3. Relationships between hemoglobin A and spot glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 12, 2011 ... glucose measurements in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes mellitus. AE Edo, K Akhuemokhan1. Department of Medicine, University of Benin Teaching ..... Diabetes Care. 2002; 25(suppl 1): S97‑9. 4. Nathan DM, Turgeon H, Regan S. Relationship between glycated haemoglobin levels and mean glucose ...

  4. Locating the Great Red Spot: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (United States)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Stapleton, J. C.


    The Great Red Spot, a persistent storm in Jupiter's atmosphere, is the most prominent feature of that planet's disk as viewed from Earth. Combined with the fact that Jupiter is a gas giant planet and has no visible surface with discernible landmarks, this means that following the passage of the Great Red Spot is the primary method of observing the planet's rotation. Therefore, it is paramount for any program which generates synthetic images of the planet to accurately place the feature. The U.S. Naval Observatory's "Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object" online web service ( is such a program. The Great Red Spot's planetary latitude is locked between two of Jupiter's striated atmospheric layers at 22 °S. However, its planetary longitude is not constant; over time it migrates east and west along the atmospheric layer boundary it is trapped within. Observing and recording its longitude is made difficult because Jupiter's atmosphere is subject to differential rotation and the Great Red Spot slowly migrates with respect to the surrounding atmospheric layers. Furthermore, the Great Red Spot does not move at a uniform rate. Currently its relative motion is approximately 0°.051 per day. Since its first recorded observation in 1831, the Great Red Spot has made almost three complete laps around the planet at the 22nd parallel. "Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object" operates over any requested date between 1700 and 2100 A.D. Therefore, our treatment of the Great Red Spot needs to take into account both historical positions and future predicted motion. Based on researching past observations of the spot's position on the disk, we find that its behavior prior to 2009 is best represented by a 10-part piecewise function. Each component of the piecewise function is a 2nd order polynomial. Observations from 2009-present are better fit with a linear function; this function is used for future years by extrapolation. Using these fits

  5. Antiferromagnetism and hot spots in CeIn3 (United States)

    Grigoriev, Pavel; Gor'kov, Lev


    Enormous mass enhancement at ``hot spots'' on the Fermi surface (FS) of the antiferromagnetic CeIn3 has been reported at strong magnetic field near its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point [T. Ebihara et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 246401 (2004)]. The effect was ascribed to anomalous spin fluctuations at these spots owing to peculiar strong many-body interactions. The ``hot spots'' lie at the positions on FS same as in non-magnetic LaIn3 where the narrow necks are protruded, thus, hinting on their possible relation. Assuming that in paramagnetic phase CeIn3 has similar spectrum, we study the influence of the antiferromagnetic ordering (AFM) on the energy spectrum of CeIn3 and show that its FS undergoes a topological change at the onset of AFM. The necks at the ``hot spots'' are truncated by the AFM, thus restoring the almost spherical d-part of the FS of CeIn3. Applied field suppresses the AFM and restores the necks on the FS (so-called 2.5-order phase transition) leading to logarithmic divergence of the dHvA effective mass when the electron trajectory passes near or through the restored necks. This effect fully explains the observed dHvA mass enhancement in the ``hot spots'' in the frameworks of one-particle approximation and leads to the predictions concerning the spin-dependence of the effective electron mass.

  6. Assessment of Nugget Size of Spot Weld using Neutron Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Resistance spot welding (RSW has been widely used for many years in the fabrication of car body structures, mainly due to the cost and time considerations. The weld quality as well as the nugget size is an issue in various manufacturing and processes due to the strong link between the weld quality and safety. It has led to the development of various destructive and non-destructive tests for spot welding such as peel testing, ultrasonic inspections, digital shearography, and infrared thermography. However, such methods cannot show spot weld nugget visually and the results are very operator’s skill dependent. The present work proposes a method to visualize the nugget size of spot welds using neutron radiography. Water, oil and various concentrations of gadolinium oxide-alcohol mixture were evaluated as a contrast media to obtain the best quality of radiography. Results show that mixture of 5 g gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3 in 25 ml alcohol produces the best contrast. It provides the possibility to visualize the shape and size of the nugget spot weld. Furthermore, it can discriminate between nugget and corona bond. The result of neutron radiography evaluation shows reasonable agreement with that of destructive test.

  7. LEOPARD syndrome: what are café noir spots? (United States)

    Rodríguez-Bujaldón, Alfonso; Vazquez-Bayo, Carmen; Jimenez-Puya, Rafael; Galan-Gutierrez, Manuel; Moreno-Gimenez, José; Rodriguez-Garcia, Alfonso; Tercedor, Jesus; Velez-Garcia, Antonio


    Lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retarded growth, and deafness syndrome (multiple lentigines syndrome) is most often characterized by multiple lentigines and cardiac conduction defects. Café noir spot is a term proposed, by analogy to café au lait spots, for the larger and darkly pigmented patches that are frequently observed in patients with this syndrome. Although presumed by some authors to represent lentigines, the histologic features of café noir spots have not been well documented in the literature. Only two previous cases have been reported in which a biopsy of the café noir spots than melanocytic nevi. We describe the histologic characteristics of seven café noir spots in six patients with lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retarded growth, and deafness syndrome. Three lesions represented melanocytic nevi (one with dysplastic features), and four were compatible with lentigo simplex. These findings help our understanding of the histologic spectrum of pigmented lesions in lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retarded growth, and deafness syndrome.

  8. Theory and simulation of anode spots in low pressure plasmas (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.


    When electrodes are biased above the plasma potential, electrons accelerated through the associated electron sheath can dramatically increase the ionization rate of neutrals near the electrode surface. It has previously been observed that if the ionization rate is great enough, a double layer separates a luminous high-potential plasma attached to the electrode surface (called an anode spot or fireball) from the bulk plasma. Here, results of the first 2D particle-in-cell simulations of anode spot formation are presented along with a theoretical model describing the formation process. It is found that ionization leads to the build-up of an ion-rich layer adjacent to the electrode, forming a narrow potential well near the electrode surface that traps electrons born from ionization. It is shown that anode spot onset occurs when a quasineutral region is established in the potential well and the density in this region becomes large enough to violate the steady-state Langmuir condition, which is a balance between electron and ion fluxes across the double layer. A model for steady-state properties of the anode spot is also presented, which predicts values for the anode spot size, double layer potential drop, and form of the sheath at the electrode by considering particle, power, and current balance. These predictions are found to be consistent with the presented simulation and previous experiments.

  9. Thermally-Driven Mantle Plumes Reconcile Hot-spot Observations (United States)

    Davies, D.; Davies, J.


    Hot-spots are anomalous regions of magmatism that cannot be directly associated with plate tectonic processes (e.g. Morgan, 1972). They are widely regarded as the surface expression of upwelling mantle plumes. Hot-spots exhibit variable life-spans, magmatic productivity and fixity (e.g. Ito and van Keken, 2007). This suggests that a wide-range of upwelling structures coexist within Earth's mantle, a view supported by geochemical and seismic evidence, but, thus far, not reproduced by numerical models. Here, results from a new, global, 3-D spherical, mantle convection model are presented, which better reconcile hot-spot observations, the key modification from previous models being increased convective vigor. Model upwellings show broad-ranging dynamics; some drift slowly, while others are more mobile, displaying variable life-spans, intensities and migration velocities. Such behavior is consistent with hot-spot observations, indicating that the mantle must be simulated at the correct vigor and in the appropriate geometry to reproduce Earth-like dynamics. Thermally-driven mantle plumes can explain the principal features of hot-spot volcanism on Earth.

  10. State of the art in the estimation of energy prices in the spot market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero B, Sergio; Cano C, Jovan A


    Since the start energy markets deregulation in the world, several spot market (short term) price prediction methods have been developed? this article identifies and compares the main methods of prediction used in Colombia and other international markets. With this review it is possible to determine the state of the knowledge in the specific subject and then to look for the development of new forecasting techniques that can contribute to the solution of this problem. The prediction horizon is something that must be taken into account in the review of the several techniques, given that both the magnitude of the final model of estimation, and the time series treatment type, depend on this horizon.

  11. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting as cherry red spot. (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Young, Lucy H


    To report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) presenting as a cherry red spot. Case report. A 53-year-old woman with recently diagnosed HIV and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) aseptic meningitis developed rapid sequential vision loss in both eyes over 2 months. Her exam showed a "cherry red spot" in both maculae with peripheral atrophy and pigmentary changes, consistent with PORN. Due to her late presentation and the rapid progression of her condition, she quickly developed end-stage vision loss in both eyes. PORN should be considered within the differential diagnosis of a "cherry red spot." Immune-deficient patients with a history of herpetic infection who present with visual loss warrant prompt ophthalmological evaluation.

  12. Sweet Spot Size in Virtual Sound Reproduction: A Temporal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per


    The influence of head misalignments on the performance of binaural reproduction systems through loudspeakers is often evaluated in the frequency domain. The changes in magnitude give us an idea of how much of the crosstalk is leaked into the direct signal and therefore a sweet spot performance can......-correlation we estimate the interaural time delay and define a sweet spot. The analysis is based on measurements carried out on 21 different loudspeaker configurations, including two- and four-channels arrangements. Results show that closely spaced loudspeakers are more robust to lateral displacements than wider...... span angles. Additionally, the sweet spot as a function of head rotations increases systematically when the loudspeakers are placed at elevated positions....

  13. Is there a Sweet Spot in Ethical Trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Lindgreen, Adam


    might emerge, reflecting an amended version of Gereffi et al.'s (2005) theory of value chain governance. We conclude that the possibility of identifying a sweet spot in ethical trade improves as we move from market-based transactions toward hierarchical governance in global production networks.......We undertake a critical appraisal of the existence of the so- called 'sweet spot' in ethical trade at which the interests of buyers, suppliers, and workers intersect to enable benefits for commercial buyers and suppliers and improvements in the conditions of workers at the base of global production...... networks. In turn, we take the perspectives of three central actors typically involved in ethical trade: buyers/brands, suppliers in the Global South, and workers at the base of these networks. By applying all three perspectives, we theorize about the circumstances in which the sweet spot in ethical trade...

  14. Design of the smart scenic spot service platform (United States)

    Yin, Min; Wang, Shi-tai


    With the deepening of the smart city construction, the model "smart+" is rapidly developing. Guilin, the international tourism metropolis fast constructing need smart tourism technology support. This paper studied the smart scenic spot service object and its requirements. And then constructed the smart service platform of the scenic spot application of 3S technology (Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) and the Internet of things, cloud computing. Based on Guilin Seven-star Park scenic area as an object, this paper designed the Seven-star smart scenic spot service platform framework. The application of this platform will improve the tourists' visiting experience, make the tourism management more scientifically and standardly, increase tourism enterprises operating earnings.

  15. PyTranSpot: A tool for multiband light curve modeling of planetary transits and stellar spots (United States)

    Juvan, Ines G.; Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Fossati, L.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Lammer, H.; Guenther, E. W.; Hanslmeier, A.


    Several studies have shown that stellar activity features, such as occulted and non-occulted starspots, can affect the measurement of transit parameters biasing studies of transit timing variations and transmission spectra. We present PyTranSpot, which we designed to model multiband transit light curves showing starspot anomalies, inferring both transit and spot parameters. The code follows a pixellation approach to model the star with its corresponding limb darkening, spots, and transiting planet on a two dimensional Cartesian coordinate grid. We combine PyTranSpot with a Markov chain Monte Carlo framework to study and derive exoplanet transmission spectra, which provides statistically robust values for the physical properties and uncertainties of a transiting star-planet system. We validate PyTranSpot's performance by analyzing eleven synthetic light curves of four different star-planet systems and 20 transit light curves of the well-studied WASP-41b system. We also investigate the impact of starspots on transit parameters and derive wavelength dependent transit depth values for WASP-41b covering a range of 6200-9200 Å, indicating a flat transmission spectrum.

  16. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.


    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  17. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle


    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm x 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25°C air temperature, 20-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm), and heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm 2 ). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈ 200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm 2 . Finally, this work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  18. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling (United States)

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; Yin, Sabrina L.; Rentauskas, Michelle; Neely, Jason; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.; Miljkovic, Nenad


    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm × 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobic surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25 °C air temperature, 20%-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm) and applied heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm2. This work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.

  19. Sugarbeet leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc.)dagger. (United States)

    Weiland, John; Koch, Georg


    SUMMARY Leaf spot disease caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the most destructive foliar pathogen of sugarbeet worldwide. In addition to reducing yield and quality of sugarbeet, the control of leaf spot disease by extensive fungicide application incurs added costs to producers and repeatedly has selected for fungicide-tolerant C. beticola strains. The genetics and biochemistry of virulence have been examined less for C. beticola as compared with the related fungi C. nicotianae, C. kikuchii and C. zeae-maydis, fungi to which the physiology of C. beticola is often compared. C. beticola populations generally are not characterized as having race structure, although a case of race-specific resistance in sugarbeet to C. beticola has been reported. Resistance currently implemented in the field is quantitatively inherited and exhibits low to medium heritability. Cercospora beticola Sacc.; Kingdom Fungi, Subdivision Deuteromycetes, Class Hyphomycetes, Order Hyphales, Genus Cercospora. Circular, brown to red delimited spots with ashen-grey centre, 0.5-6 mm diameter; dark brown to black stromata against grey background; pale brown unbranched sparingly septate conidiophores, hyaline acicular conidia, multiseptate, from 2.5 to 4 microm wide and 50-200 microm long. Propagative on Beta vulgaris and most species of Beta. Reported on members of the Chenopodiaceae and on Amaranthus. Disease symptoms: Infected leaves and petioles of B. vulgaris exhibit numerous circular leaf spots that coalesce in severe cases causing complete leaf collapse. Dark specks within a grey spot centre are characteristic for the disease. Older leaves exhibit a greater number of lesions with larger spot diameter. During the latter stage of severe epiphytotics, new leaf growth can be seen emerging from the plant surrounded by prostrate, collapsed leaves. Fungicides in the benzimidazole and triazole class as well as organotin derivatives and strobilurins have successfully been used to control Cercospora

  20. Mutant of Japanese pear resistant to Black Spot Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, T.; Nishida, T.; Ikeda, F.


    Full text: Nijisseike is one of the leading cultivars of Japanese pear (Pyrus serotinea Rehd.), but susceptible to black spot disease. Farmers try to prevent this disease by wrapping the fruit with a paper bag and by repeated spraying of fungicides. The disease is caused by a Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Susceptibility is controlled by a single dominant gene. In 1962, grafted trees of this cultivar were planted at a distance between 53 and 93 m from the 60 Co source in the gamma-field (daily dose 15-4 rad). One branch on a tree planted at 53 m was detected as resistant in 1981. Under field conditions, black spots were observed on many fruits and leaves of the original trees by natural infection in early July, however, they were not observed on the mutant. To examine the resistance of the mutant, artificial inoculations were made using spores of the pathogen and the host specific toxin produced by germinating spores. When some drops of the spore suspension are placed on leaves, the formation of black spots depends upon the leaf age. In a resistant cv. as Chojuro, black spot symptoms are formed only when inoculated on young leaves. An intermediate reaction was observed in the mutant, whereas the original Nijisseiki showed severe symptoms. When inoculation was made on matured fruit skins, no black spot was formed on the mutant just like on the resistant cv. Chojuro, while many small black spots were formed and grew into large spots overlapping each other on the susceptible cv. Nijisseiki. In case of the crude toxin inoculation (4-0.04 ppm) of cv. Nijisseiki black spots were formed on the surface of the susceptible fruit skin, and necrotic lesions at the cut end of detached small pieces of leaves, although reaction on fruit skins was weaker compared with inoculation by spores. However, no symptoms were observed from the toxin application on the mutant and the resistant cv. Chojuro. That the resistance of the mutant is classified as

  1. Plasmonic electromagnetic hot spots temporally addressed by photoinduced molecular displacement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, M. L.; Plain, J.; Bachelot, R.; Vial, A.; Royer, P.; Gray, S. K.; Montgomery, J. M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Univ. de Technologie de Troyes


    We report the observation of temporally varying electromagnetic hot spots in plasmonic nanostructures. Changes in the field amplitude, position, and spatial features are induced by embedding plasmonic silver nanorods in the photoresponsive azo-polymer. This polymer undergoes cis?trans isomerization and wormlike transport within resonant optical fields, producing a time-varying local dielectric environment that alters the locations where electromagnetic hot spots are produced. Finite-difference time-domain and Monte Carlo simulations that model the induced field and corresponding material response are presented to aid in the interpretation of the experimental results. Evidence for propagating plasmons induced at the ends of the rods is also presented.

  2. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin


    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on multipliers cannot generate a unique clearing price. Although such situations are rare, they can cause significant uncertainties and complexities in market dispatch. In practice, this situation is solved through simple empirical methods, which may cause additional operations or biased allocation. Based...... the results of the theoretical analysis, and further demonstrate that the method performs effectively in both uniform-pricing and nodalpricing markets....

  3. The Metaphor of Memory in Wordsworth's Spots of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lis


    on the turf. The insertion of the motif of the inscription turns the scene of execution into a literal site of memory, but it also functions as a metaphorical representation of the phenomenon of memory. The paper explores the implication of the inscription as metaphor of memory in a reading of the two spots.......On expanding the two-part Prelude of 1799 to The Prelude of 1805, Wordsworth made several important alterations to the two 'spots of time' childhood memories as he transferred them from Part One of the 1799 version to Book Eleventh of the 1805 version. One of these revisions concerns the poet...

  4. Space-time modeling of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Girum Dagnachew; Haldrup, Niels

    In this paper we derive a space-time model for electricity spot prices. A general spatial Durbin model that incorporates the temporal as well as spatial lags of spot prices is presented. Joint modeling of space-time effects is necessarily important when prices and loads are determined in a network...... of power exchange areas. We use data from the Nord Pool electricity power exchange area bidding markets. Different spatial weight matrices are considered to capture the structure of the spatial dependence process across different bidding markets and statistical tests show significant spatial dependence...

  5. Biodiversity hot spot on a hot spot: novel extremophile diversity in Hawaiian fumaroles. (United States)

    Wall, Kate; Cornell, Jennifer; Bizzoco, Richard W; Kelley, Scott T


    Fumaroles (steam vents) are the most common, yet least understood, microbial habitat in terrestrial geothermal settings. Long believed too extreme for life, recent advances in sample collection and DNA extraction methods have found that fumarole deposits and subsurface waters harbor a considerable diversity of viable microbes. In this study, we applied culture-independent molecular methods to explore fumarole deposit microbial assemblages in 15 different fumaroles in four geographic locations on the Big Island of Hawai'i. Just over half of the vents yielded sufficient high-quality DNA for the construction of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence clone libraries. The bacterial clone libraries contained sequences belonging to 11 recognized bacterial divisions and seven other division-level phylogenetic groups. Archaeal sequences were less numerous, but similarly diverse. The taxonomic composition among fumarole deposits was highly heterogeneous. Phylogenetic analysis found cloned fumarole sequences were related to microbes identified from a broad array of globally distributed ecotypes, including hot springs, terrestrial soils, and industrial waste sites. Our results suggest that fumarole deposits function as an "extremophile collector" and may be a hot spot of novel extremophile biodiversity. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. ST Spot Detector: a web-based application for automatic spot and tissue detection for Spatial Transcriptomics image data sets. (United States)

    Wong, Kim; Fernández Navarro, José; Bergenstråhle, Ludvig; Ståhl, Patrik L; Lundeberg, Joakim


    Spatial transcriptomics (ST) is a method which combines high resolution tissue imaging with high throughput transcriptome sequencing data. This data must be aligned with the images for correct visualisation, a process that involves several manual steps. Here we present ST Spot Detector, a web tool that automates and facilitates this alignment through a user friendly interface. Open source under the MIT license, available from Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  7. The Spot Weldability of Carbon Steel Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Al-Mukhtar


    Full Text Available The specimens of thickness 0.8 mm carbon steel number 1.8902 in a strip form were welded. The strips of lap joints and curved peeljoints configurations have been welded. The welding parameters such as weld current and weld time have been investigated. The relation between the weld area and the joint strength properties has been presented. The obtained results were showing that the weld joint strength and the molten area (weld nugget volume highly increase with the increasing of weld current. Therefore, the correlation between the maximum load (joint strength and area has been given. The reliable weldability under the tensile and shearing loading was considered. Therefore, the new limits of weldability have been presented to consider these two types of loading. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with the empirical relations that consider the sheet thickness only.

  8. Potential air toxics hot spots in truck terminals and cabs. (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Hart, Jaime E; Blicharz, Andrew; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric


    loading dock and mechanic shop. Finally, we conducted a detailed descriptive analysis of the real-time data collected in the yard and in truck cabs during the six repeat site visits, which included more than 50 12-hour sessions at each sampling location. The real-time yard monitoring results suggested that under some conditions there was a clear upwind-to-downwind trend indicating a terminal contribution, which was not apparent in the integrated sampling data alone. They also suggested a nonlinear relationship with wind speed: calm conditions (wind speed 10 mph) favored dilution and dispersal (more so for VOCs than for PM). Finally, an analysis of the real-time data for driver exposures in trucks with a global positioning system (GPS) matched with geographic information system (GIS) data suggested a clear influence of traffic and industrial sources along a given route with peaks in driver exposures. These peaks were largely associated with traffic, major intersections, idling at the terminals, and pickup and delivery (P&D) periods. However, VOCs and PM2.5 had different exposure patterns: VOCs exposures increased when the vehicle was stopped, and PM2.5 exposures increased during travel in traffic. All three types of testing sites--upwind and downwind fence-line locations and inside truck cabs while in heavy traffic--met the established definition for a hot spot by having periods with concentrations of pollutants that exceeded the EPA's screening values. Most frequently, the pollutants with concentrations exceeding the screening values were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and EC (which serves as a marker for diesel particulate); less frequently they were 1,3-butadiene and benzene. In the case of the downwind location of a single truck terminal without an aggregation of other sources, high concentrations of VOCs and PM were infrequent. Using structural equation modeling, a model was developed that could identify combinations of conditions and factors likely to produce hot spots

  9. Urban scenic spot interest space research based on transportation junction buffer (United States)

    Xiao, Zhou; Li, Wang; Sida, Cao; Shijie, Li; Xu, Li; Chongchong, Xue


    According to city tourism features, this paper studies the urban scenic spot interest space based on transportation junction buffer. City tourism features and the transportation junction radiation impact on scenic spots are studied. Take Zhengzhou city as an example, urban scenic spots are sampled and classified. Research range and objects are confirmed. By setting up buffer model and interest field data model, tourists’ interests on scenic spots within buffers are studied quantitatively. Scenic spot interest space is studied and analyzed. Meanwhile, tourism decision support projects relying on scenic spot interest space are provided for tourists to refer to.

  10. Multiresolution Network Temporal and Spatial Scheduling Model of Scenic Spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ge


    Full Text Available Tourism is one of pillar industries of the world economy. Low-carbon tourism will be the mainstream direction of the scenic spots' development, and the ω path of low-carbon tourism development is to develop economy and protect environment simultaneously. However, as the tourists' quantity is increasing, the loads of scenic spots are out of control. And the instantaneous overload in some spots caused the image phenomenon of full capacity of the whole scenic spot. Therefore, realizing the real-time schedule becomes the primary purpose of scenic spot’s management. This paper divides the tourism distribution system into several logically related subsystems and constructs a temporal and spatial multiresolution network scheduling model according to the regularity of scenic spots’ overload phenomenon in time and space. It also defines dynamic distribution probability and equivalent dynamic demand to realize the real-time prediction. We define gravitational function between fields and takes it as the utility of schedule, after resolving the transportation model of each resolution, it achieves hierarchical balance between demand and capacity of the system. The last part of the paper analyzes the time complexity of constructing a multiresolution distribution system.

  11. The California spotted owl: current state of knowledge (United States)

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Patricia N. Manley; Peter A. Stine


    This conservation assessment represents a comprehensive review by scientists of the current scientific knowledge about the ecology, habitat use, population dynamics, and current threats to the viability of the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). It is based primarily on peer-reviewed published information with an emphasis on new scientific...

  12. Genetic characterization of angular leaf spot resistance in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Tryphone


    Oct 28, 2015 ... Angular leaf spot disease (ALS) caused by Pseudocercospora griseola is one of the most important bean diseases in Tanzania. The bean landraces Beti-10, Nanka, Nanavala and Nkanamna used in this study have been identified as resistant to ALS but the nature of inheritance and mechanisms of.

  13. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes for ALS and ...

  14. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 3, 2013 ... Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes ...

  15. Investigating Biological Controls to Suppress Spotted Wing Drosophila Populations (United States)

    The spotted wing drosophila has become a major cherry pest in California. To develop sustainable management options for this highly mobile pest, we worked with cooperators at Oregon State University and the USDA to discover and import natural enemies of the fly from its native range in South Korea ...

  16. Real Time Ultrasonic Aluminum SPOT Weld Monitoring System (United States)

    Regalado, W. Pérez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr.


    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  17. Reproductive Biology of the White-spotted Rabbitfish, Siganus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The reproductive biology of the white-spotted rabbitfish, Siganus canaliculatus, was studied on the Arabian Sea coast of Oman between April 2005 and March 2007. The males matured (L50) at 22.6 cm and females attained maturity at 23.9 cm TL when both were close to one year of age. The population of S.

  18. Fatigue crack growth retardation in spot heated mild steel sheet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Spot heating; overloading; fatigue crack growth retardation; residual stress; delay cycles. 1. Introduction. Despite the advances in the understanding of fatigue failure and the consequent improvement in the design of structures and components, fatigue is still the most common cause of service failure. During the growth of a.

  19. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight i...

  20. Characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) causes bacterial brown spot (BBS) of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with yield losses of up to 55% in South Africa. Pss has a wide host range and for many of these, the pathogen has been biochemically and genetically characterised. However, few studies have been conducted on ...

  1. Detection of gfp expression from gfp-labelled bacteria spot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a marker gene has facilitated biological research in plant-microbe interactions. However, there is one major limiting factor in the detection of GFP in living organisms whose cells emit background autofluorescence. In this study, Herbaspirillum sp. B501gfp1 bacterial cells were spot ...

  2. Multiple proteins of White spot syndrome virus involved in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The recognition and attachment of virus to its host cell surface is a critical step for viral infection. Recent research revealed that -integrin was involved in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this study, the interaction of -integrin with structure proteins of WSSV and motifs involved in WSSV infection was ...

  3. White Spot Syndrome Virus infection in Penaeus monodon is ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed ...

  4. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.


    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the

  5. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Groenewald, M.; Caldwell, P.; Braun, U.; Harrington, T.C.


    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the

  6. Morphological study of the pathogenesis of retinal cotton wool spot. (United States)

    Murata, M; Yoshimoto, H


    To investigate the true structural changes in retinal cotton wool spots, serial sections of several blocks of retinal corresponding to cotton wool spots obtained from two hypertensive cases were studied by light and electron microscopy. Occlusion of the feeder arteriole and capillaries, and numerous vacuoles of various sizes in the inner retinal layer were the constant histological features in cotton wool spots. Cytoid body was another change in these areas but it was not a constant feature. Increase of membranous structure resembling endoplasmic reticulum was thought to be incorporated in the formation of the pseudonucleus in the cytoid body. Phagocytosis by macrophages led to the disappearance of the cytoid body. It was concluded that the true feature of the cotton wool spot is nothing but vacuolation, an edematous change of the inner retinal layers due to ischemia following occlusion of the feeder arteriole, and that the cytoid body is only a nonspecific and transient alteration of nerve fibers in the early stage of the ischemic lesion in the retina.

  7. Morphology of the HIV versus the diabetic cotton wool spot. (United States)

    Jaworski, C


    Retinal cotton wool spots (CWS) have long been associated with many systemic diseases, including diabetes mellitus and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The pathogenesis of the diabetic CWS has been well established but is not clear in HIV disease. This study documents a morphological difference between cotton wool spots observed in diabetes mellitus and HIV infection. Electronic images of 47 diabetic CWS and 38 HIV CWS were compared in terms of eccentricity. Each CWS was enlarged, and its major and minor axes were determined. Eccentricity was determined by use of a simple ratio of major vs. minor axis. The eccentricity of these diabetic and HIV CWS were compared by use of the Mann-Whitney rank sum test to check for significance. The HIV CWS was significantly more eccentric (p cotton wool spots observed in diabetes mellitus compared with those observed in HIV infection. This difference suggests that, at some level, the pathogeneses of these two CWS are not the same. Clinically, the practitioner should strongly suspect HIV disease in a patient with boomerang-shaped cotton wool spots.

  8. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.


    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  9. Reproductive Biology of the White-spotted Rabbitfish, Siganus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of the white-spotted rabbitfish, Siganus canaliculatus, was studied on the Arabian Sea coast of Oman between April 2005 and March 2007. The males matured (L50) at 22.6 cm and females attained maturity at 23.9 cm TL when both were close to one year of age. The population of S. canaliculatus ...

  10. Ring spot disease of brassica crops : resistance and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, van den J.E.


    Ring spot disease of brassica crops is caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella brassicicola . The disease can cause severe qualitative and quantitative losses, depending on the initial inoculum, the environmental conditions during the growing season and the susceptibility

  11. High resolution microarray comparative genomic hybridisation analysis using spotted oligonucleotides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, B; Ouwerkerk, E; Meijer, G.A.; Ylstra, B.


    BACKGROUND: Currently, comparative genomic hybridisation array (array CGH) is the method of choice for studying genome wide DNA copy number changes. To date, either amplified representations of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)/phage artificial chromosomes (PACs) or cDNAs have been spotted as

  12. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. The isolates were obtained from various pome (apple, pear and quince) and stone (plum, peach, apricot, almond and wild Himalayan cherry) fruit trees. Other previously characterized ...

  13. Spot distribution and fast surface evolution on Vega (United States)

    Petit, P.; Hébrard, E. M.; Böhm, T.; Folsom, C. P.; Lignières, F.


    Spectral signatures of surface spots were recently discovered from high cadence observations of the A star Vega. We aim at constraining the surface distribution of these photospheric inhomogeneities and investigating a possible short-term evolution of the spot pattern. Using data collected over five consecutive nights, we employ the Doppler imaging method to reconstruct three different maps of the stellar surface, from three consecutive subsets of the whole time series. The surface maps display a complex distribution of dark and bright spots, covering most of the visible fraction of the stellar surface. A number of surface features are consistently recovered in all three maps, but other features seem to evolve over the time span of observations, suggesting that fast changes can affect the surface of Vega within a few days at most. The short-term evolution is observed as emergence or disappearance of individual spots, and may also show up as zonal flows, with low- and high-latitude belts rotating faster than intermediate latitudes. It is tempting to relate the surface brightness activity to the complex magnetic field topology previously reconstructed for Vega, although strictly simultaneous brightness and magnetic maps will be necessary to assess this potential link.

  14. Survival and reproduction of radio-marked adult spotted owls. (United States)

    C.C. Foster; E.D. Forsman; E.C. Meslow; G.S. Miller; J.A. Reid; F.F. Wagner; A.B. Carey; J.B. Lint


    We compared survival, reproduction, and body mass of radio-marked and non radio-marked spotted owls (Strix occidentalis) to determine if backpack radios influenced reproduction or survival. In most study areas and years, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in survival of males and females or in survival of radio-marked versus banded owls. There...

  15. Cathodic Arcs From Fractal Spots to Energetic Condensation

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, Andre


    Emphasizes the fractal character of cathode spots, and describes strongly fluctuating plasma properties such as the presence of multiply charged ions that move with supersonic velocity. This book also deals with issues, such as arc source construction, and macroparticle removal. It is intended for scientists, practitioners, and students alike

  16. Correlated wounded hot spots in proton-proton interactions (United States)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Petersen, Hannah; Soto-Ontoso, Alba


    We investigate the effect of nontrivial spatial correlations between proton constituents, considered in this work to be gluonic hot spots, on the initial conditions of proton-proton collisions from ISR to Large Hadron Collider energies, i.e., √{s }=52.6 , 7000, and 13 000 GeV. The inclusion of these correlations is motivated by their fundamental role in the description of a recently observed new feature of p p scattering at √{s }=7 TeV, the hollowness effect. Our analysis relies on a Monte Carlo Glauber approach including fluctuations in the hot spot positions and their entropy deposition in the transverse plane. We explore both the energy dependence and the effect of spatial correlations on the number of wounded hot spots, their spatial distribution, and the eccentricities, ɛn, of the initial state geometry of the collision. In minimum bias collisions we find that the inclusion of short-range repulsive correlations between the hot spots reduces the value of the eccentricity (ɛ2) and the triangularity (ɛ3). In turn, upon considering only the events with the highest entropy deposition, i.e., the ultracentral ones, the probability of having larger ɛ2 ,3 increases significantly in the correlated scenario. Finally, the eccentricities show a quite mild energy dependence.

  17. Plasma androgen concentrations in initial samples from spotted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 31, 1990 ... 1991,26(1). Plasma androgen concentrations in initial samples from spotted hyaenas immobilized with Zoletil (CI-744) reflect hormonal status estimated by GnRH challenge and immobilization stress response. A.S. van Jaarsveld * and J.D. Skinner. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria ...

  18. Biocontrol of bacterial spot diseases of muskmelon using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biocontrol activity of PpG14 was examined by pot and field tests. Results show that the strain significantly reduced the development and suppressed the incidence of bacterial spot diseases. Moreover, the prevention treatment was better than the therapy treatment when using this strain. Based on its main bacteriological ...

  19. Modelling of a proton spot scanning system using MCNP6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardenfors, O; Gudowska, I; Dasu, A; Kopeć, M


    The aim of this work was to model the characteristics of a clinical proton spot scanning beam using Monte Carlo simulations with the code MCNP6. The proton beam was defined using parameters obtained from beam commissioning at the Skandion Clinic, Uppsala, Sweden. Simulations were evaluated against measurements for proton energies between 60 and 226 MeV with regard to range in water, lateral spot sizes in air and absorbed dose depth profiles in water. The model was also used to evaluate the experimental impact of lateral signal losses in an ionization chamber through simulations using different detector radii. Simulated and measured distal ranges agreed within 0.1 mm for R 90 and R 80 , and within 0.2 mm for R 50 . The average absolute difference of all spot sizes was 0.1 mm. The average agreement of absorbed dose integrals and Bragg-peak heights was 0.9%. Lateral signal losses increased with incident proton energy with a maximum signal loss of 7% for 226 MeV protons. The good agreement between simulations and measurements supports the assumptions and parameters employed in the presented Monte Carlo model. The characteristics of the proton spot scanning beam were accurately reproduced and the model will prove useful in future studies on secondary neutrons. (paper)

  20. Status of grey leaf spot disease in Kenyan maize production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grey leaf spot disease (GLS), Cercospora zeae-maydis, which has previously been attributed to diverse pathogen species in other countries, has become a serious biotic constraint to production of maize (Zea mays L.) in Kenya. It is necessary to determine the distribution and aetiology of the disease across all the maize ...

  1. Effects of Variety and Fungicidal Rate on Cercospora Leaf Spots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was carried out at the University of Maiduguri Teaching and Research Farm during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 cropping seasons to evaluate the effects of variety and fungicidal rate on Cercospora leaf spot disease of groundnut. The experimental design used was Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) ...

  2. Chemical control of Cercospora leaf spot disease of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Three fungicides, benlate (methy'I -1- (butylcarbamoyl) - 2 - benzimidazole carbamate), dithane M -45 (zinc and magnesium ethylene bisdithiocarbamate) and difolatan (5 Cis - N - 1, l ,2,2 - tetrachloroethy 1) thio - .4 - cyclohexane - 1, 2 – di-carboximide) were tested in the field for Cercospora leaf spot control.

  3. Alternaria leaf spot in Michigan and fungicide sensitivity issues (United States)

    Since 2010 there has been an increase in identification of Alternaria leaf spot on sugar beet in Michigan and other growing regions in the US and Canada. In 2016, the disease was severe enough to cause economic losses in the Michigan growing region. Michigan isolates from sugar beet were examined ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Biju


    Full Text Available An automatic cDNA microarray image processing using an improved fuzzy clustering algorithm is presented in this paper. The spot segmentation algorithm proposed uses the gridding technique developed by the authors earlier, for finding the co-ordinates of each spot in an image. Automatic cropping of spots from microarray image is done using these co-ordinates. The present paper proposes an improved fuzzy clustering algorithm Possibility fuzzy local information c means (PFLICM to segment the spot foreground (FG from background (BG. The PFLICM improves fuzzy local information c means (FLICM algorithm by incorporating typicality of a pixel along with gray level information and local spatial information. The performance of the algorithm is validated using a set of simulated cDNA microarray images added with different levels of AWGN noise. The strength of the algorithm is tested by computing the parameters such as the Segmentation matching factor (SMF, Probability of error (pe, Discrepancy distance (D and Normal mean square error (NMSE. SMF value obtained for PFLICM algorithm shows an improvement of 0.9 % and 0.7 % for high noise and low noise microarray images respectively compared to FLICM algorithm. The PFLICM algorithm is also applied on real microarray images and gene expression values are computed.

  5. Can white spot syndrome virus be transmitted through the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the aquatic environment by the pathway of phytoplankton through rotifer to artemia and shrimp was investigated. The phytoplankton Alexandrium tamarense and Alexandrium minutum were co-cultured with adult Fenneropenaeus chinensis infected with WSSV and ...

  6. Developing markers for Sigatoka leaf spot disease (Mycosphaerella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 6, 2011 ... Sigatoka leaf spot (Mycosphaerella musicola Leach) disease is a limiting factor in banana production in. India and other places. Breeding for resistance is the most effective method to control Musa diseases. However, Musa improvement using conventional methods has been hampered due to lack of ...

  7. narrow sense heritability and gene effects for late leaf spot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Late leaf spot (LLS), Phaeoisariopsis personata (Berk. and Curtis) Deighton, is one of the most important foliar diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) worldwide. Effective chemical control is heavily reliant upon multiple fungicide applications which are costly for resource poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Temperature effects on peel spotting in "Sucrier banana" fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trakulnaleumsai, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.


    Banana fruit of the cultivar `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) develops peel spotting at a relatively early stage of development (when the peel is about as slightly more yellow than green). Holding ripening bananas at 15 and 18 °C instead of room temperature (26¿27 °C) only temporarily reduced

  9. Effects of Variety and Fungicidal Rate on Cercospora Leaf Spots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Singh, V.R., Pandes, A.K., Reddy, P.M. and. Pao P.V. (1995). Resistance to Rust and Late leaf Spot of Groundnut. ICRISAT. Information Bulletin. No.47, Patancheru,. 502, 324, Andra Pradesh, India. P.24. Thapar, S., Bhusham, R. and Mathur, R.P.. (1995). Degradation of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in soils- ...

  10. Assessing Frogeye Leaf Spot Resistance on Recommended Soybean Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Jeong Kang


    Full Text Available Soybean frogeye leaf spot caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina Hara, has known to lead a severe reduction of crop yield. Since frogeye leaf spot on soybean has recently become a serious problem in Korea, the susceptibility of recent recommended cultivars against C. sojina had been tested. To standardize the disease severity of soybean, the optimum sporulation condition of C. sojina and the disease index were established in this study. Sporulation was maximized on the 10% V8 juice agar with 12 h light and 12 h dark at 25°C. Spore suspension (105 spores/ml was sprayed on the leaves of soybean (V6 stage, and the disease responses to each isolate were evaluated on 28 days after inoculation. As a result, Daepung, Shinpaldal2ho, Yeonpung and Cheonga showed the resistance reaction to 8, 7, 6, 6 isolates of C. sojina, respectively, whereas Cheongja, Hwangkeum, Taekwang, Daewon, Cheonsang and Sinhwa showed the susceptible reaction to 8 isolates of C. sojina. Breeding the resistant soybean cultivars against C. sojina requires a uniform resistance for screening technique. The disease index of frogeye leaf spot on soybean developed in this study can be effectively used for the accurate field assay to select the frogeye leaf spot resistant soybean.

  11. SPOTROD: Semi-analytic model for transits of spotted stars (United States)

    Béky, Bence


    SPOTROD is a model for planetary transits of stars with an arbitrary limb darkening law and a number of homogeneous, circular spots on their surface. It facilitates analysis of anomalies due to starspot eclipses, and is a free, open source implementation written in C with a Python API.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) for the testing of HIV-1 antibodies has been described since 1988.' Numerous studies have proved that this method of prevalence testing has high sensitivity and specificity and is easy to use, as well as having the advantage of being less expensive than conventional tests on whole blood.

  13. Performance of the biomerieux DBS puncher and dried blood spots ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The latest World Health Organization recommendations request viral load (VL) testing, if possible, for monitoring HIV-1 infections. However, the use of plasma is an obstacle to realize this test in sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, the dried blood spot (DBS) is an interesting tool for sample collections.

  14. Tomato chlorotic spot virus Identified in Marsdenia floribunda in Florida (United States)

    Ornamental crops including hoya, annual vinca and portulaca have recently been identified with Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) infections in Florida. Observations of Marsdenia floribunda, commonly known as Madagascar jasmine, in September 2016 revealed TCSV-like symptoms. Testing of these sympt...

  15. Seasonality, behaviour and philopatry of spotted ragged-tooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spotted ragged-tooth sharks Carcharias taurus occur along the southern and eastern coasts of South Africa. We report on movements of juveniles and adults within a known nursery area on the Eastern Cape coast using acoustic telemetry. The focus area of the study was Algoa Bay, where six VEMCO VR2 ultrasonic ...

  16. Estuarine use by spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing estuarine use and marine excursions by spotted grunter Pomadasys commersonnii in the Great Fish Estuary, South Africa, were studied using manual and automated telemetry methods. In all, 20 individuals, ranging from 362 mm to 698 mm total length (TL), were caught and tagged with acousticcoded ...

  17. California condors spotted nesting in Big Spur | San Hose Mercury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    California condors spotted nesting in Big Spur. Associated Press San Hose Mercury News. Abstract. No Abstract. Vulture News Vol. 55, 2006: 59. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. The white spot syndrome virus DNA genome sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M.C.W.; Witteveldt, J.; Peters, S.; Kloosterboer, N.; Tarchini, R.; Fiers, M.; Sandbrink, H.; Klein Lankhorst, R.; Vlak, J.M.


    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is at present a major scourge to worldwide shrimp cultivation. We have determined the entire sequence of the double-stranded, circular DNA genome of WSSV, which contains 292,967 nucleotides encompassing 184 major open reading frames (ORFs). Only 6 f the WSSV ORFs

  19. Satellite spot defect reduction on 193-nm contact hole lithography using photo cell monitor methodology (United States)

    Boulenger, Caroline; Caze, Jean-Luc; Mihet, Mihaela


    The goal of overall process and yield improvement requires a litho defect management and reduction strategy, which includes several layers of tactical methods. Defects may be identified through a number of schemes, including After-Develop Inspection (ADI), which was the primary tool in this study in our 0,13μ fab. Defects on 193nm contact hole lithography were identified using a KLA-Tencor 2351 High Resolution Imaging Patterned Wafer Inspection System, coupled with in-line Automatic Defect Classification (iADC). The optimized inspection was used at the core of the Photo Cell Monitor (PCM) to isolate critical defect types. PCM uses the fab's standard production resist coat, exposure, develop, and rinse process, with the focus and exposure optimized for resist on silicon test wafers. Through Pareto analysis of 193nm defects, one defect type, called satellite spot, was targeted for immediate improvement and monitoring. This paper describes the work done in improving the litho defectivity. The work includes optimization of inspection and classification parameters and the Design of Experiments (DOE) to identify the source (including the interaction between the resist and developer) and contributing factors. Several process modifications were identified which resulted in lowered defectivity up to complete suppression of satellite spot defects, although at higher process complexity and cost. This work was also done in conjunction with resist suppliers, which used the same inspection to confirm the problem at their facilities. The work with the suppliers continues with the goal of identifying a less expensive permanent solution.

  20. Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS (United States)

    Yilmaz, Rüstem; Müller, Kathrin; Grehl, Torsten; Petri, Susanne; Meyer, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Weydt, Patrick; Ruf, Wolfgang; Neuwirth, Christoph; Weber, Markus; Pinto, Susana; Claeys, Kristl G; Schrank, Berthold; Jordan, Berit; Knehr, Antje; Günther, Kornelia; Hübers, Annemarie; Zeller, Daniel; Kubisch, Christian; Jablonka, Sibylle; Klopstock, Thomas; de Carvalho, Mamede; Sperfeld, Anne; Borck, Guntram; Volk, Alexander E; Dorst, Johannes; Weis, Joachim; Otto, Markus; Schuster, Joachim; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko; Danzer, Karin M; Freischmidt, Axel; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Ludolph, Albert C; Andersen, Peter M; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Weyen, Ute; Hermann, Andreas; Hagenacker, Tim; Koch, Jan Christoph; Lingor, Paul; Göricke, Bettina; Zierz, Stephan; Baum, Petra; Wolf, Joachim; Winkler, Andrea; Young, Peter; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Prudlo, Johannes; Kassubek., Jan


    Abstract Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 × 10−3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p.Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor

  1. Spots in a Particle-Bed GCFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lomonaco


    Full Text Available In the recent past the so-called GCFR has been again a subject of study by the international scientific community. This type of reactors, although still in a preliminary stage of development, is a very interesting perspective because combines the positive characteristics common to all the fast reactors with those of the reactors cooled by helium. Up to now, almost all the analyses on the GCFR thermodynamic aspects have been performed starting from a “global” point of view: generally the core has been modelled as a porous medium and only the global parameters have been taken into account. The local effects have been included in adhoc corrective peak factors. The analyses carried out in the present research will be devoted to the characterization of the local effects, on a microscopic scale. In order to have reliable “global” nuclear and thermal-fluid-dynamic data, the performed analyses will be based on simulations previously performed using the RELAP5-3D code, assuming as input parameters the ETDR core ones. For each considered case, the variation ranges of the evaluated parameters have been estimated on the basis of the “best” and the “worst” cases. To summarize the obtained results, even in transient conditions, the variations of the considered input parameters are less significant for the local output values if compared to those due to the assumed packing factor. As a consequence, in a more general core calculation, the obtained local temperature (and velocity values will have to be corrected by a proper factor that would have to take into account the results of this research.

  2. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kopp

    Full Text Available Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs, we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs and dried plasma spots (DPSs as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status.

  3. Testing Co-Volatility Spillovers for Natural Gas Spot, Futures and ETF Spot using Dynamic Conditional Covariances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y. Wang (Yanghuiting)


    textabstractThere is substantial empirical evidence that energy and financial markets are closely connected. As one of the most widely-used energy resources worldwide, natural gas has a large daily trading volume. In order to hedge the risk of natural gas spot markets, a large number of hedging


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu


    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (CAI, that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT CAI and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in East Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT CAI NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT CAI Level 3 data to derive 10–day composite NDVI values for the East Asia region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC method. We compared these values with 10–day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively. The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT CAI NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT CAI data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT CAI NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.

  5. Cartographie sémantico-lexicale et histoire des filiations étymologiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Nicolas de Surmont


    Full Text Available Resumo: No presente artigo propomos um análise genético-morfológica do étimo cantio até a estabilização na forma chanson. Entre o baixo latim e o francês arcaico podemos observar hesitações gráficas de tal manera que uma confusão semântico-morfológica se criou entre as formas canso y chanson: a primera pode ser considerada como a forma occitana da segunda e não como um gênero poético independente. Esta hesitação gráfica comporta ambigüidades semânticas na Idade Média pelo menos. Neste artigo analisaremos as diferentes acepções da palavra chanson em um corpus de dicionários de língua francesa.Palavras-chave: Etimologia; francês arcaico; chanson; canso.Résumé: Dans le présent article nous proposerons une analyse de génétique morphologique partant de l’étymon cantio jusqu’à l’usage stabilisé de la forme chanson. Entre le bas latin et l’ancien français des hésitations graphiques sont observées de telle manière qu’une confusion sémantico-morphologique a existé entre les formes canso et chanson l’un pouvant n’être que la forme occitane de l’autre ou plutôt un genre poétique à part entière. Cette hésitation graphique comporte donc des ambiguïtés sémantiques, au Moyen-Âge du moins. En dressant une cartographie sémantique du lexème chanson, nous analyserons les différentes acceptions du mot dans un corpus de dictionnaires de langue française.Mots-clés: Étymologie; ancien français; chanson; canso.Resumen: En el presente artículo proponemos un análisis genético morfológico del etymon cantio hasta la estabilización en la forma chanson. Entre el bajo latín y el antiguo francés podemos observar hesitaciones gráficas de tal manera que una confusión semántica-morfológica se ha creado entre las formas canso y chanson la primera puede ser considerada como la forma occitana de la segunda y no como un género poético independiente. Esta hesitación gráfica comporta ambigüedades semánticas en la Edad Media por lo menos. En este artículo analizaremos las diferentes acepciones de la palabra chanson en un corpus de diccionarios de lengua francesa.Palabras-clave: Etimología; antiguo francés; chanson; canso.Keywords: Etymologie; old French; chanson; canso.

  6. Le destin des jeux : Héritage et filiation


    Parlebas, Pierre


    Il y a deux siècles, en 1807, l’auteur réputé d’un Dictionnaire des jeux de l’enfance et de la jeunesse chez tous les peuples, Jean Adry, affirmait dans sa préface : « Les jeux des enfants, du peuple surtout, sont les mêmes à Paris, à Londres, à Petersbourg, au Caire, à Constantinople, à Ispahan et à Pékin. » Le constat se veut péremptoire : les jeux seraient identiques dans tous les endroits de la planète. Et notre auteur d’ajouter : « Ce qu’il y a de plus étonnant, ces jeux sont absolument ...

  7. Endogenous retrovirus insertion in the KIT oncogene determines white and white spotting in domestic cats. (United States)

    David, Victor A; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Wallace, Andrea Coots; Roelke, Melody; Kehler, James; Leighty, Robert; Eizirik, Eduardo; Hannah, Steven S; Nelson, George; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Connelly, Catherine J; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ryugo, David K


    The Dominant White locus (W) in the domestic cat demonstrates pleiotropic effects exhibiting complete penetrance for absence of coat pigmentation and incomplete penetrance for deafness and iris hypopigmentation. We performed linkage analysis using a pedigree segregating White to identify KIT (Chr. B1) as the feline W locus. Segregation and sequence analysis of the KIT gene in two pedigrees (P1 and P2) revealed the remarkable retrotransposition and evolution of a feline endogenous retrovirus (FERV1) as responsible for two distinct phenotypes of the W locus, Dominant White, and white spotting. A full-length (7125 bp) FERV1 element is associated with white spotting, whereas a FERV1 long terminal repeat (LTR) is associated with all Dominant White individuals. For purposes of statistical analysis, the alternatives of wild-type sequence, FERV1 element, and LTR-only define a triallelic marker. Taking into account pedigree relationships, deafness is genetically linked and associated with this marker; estimated P values for association are in the range of 0.007 to 0.10. The retrotransposition interrupts a DNAase I hypersensitive site in KIT intron 1 that is highly conserved across mammals and was previously demonstrated to regulate temporal and tissue-specific expression of KIT in murine hematopoietic and melanocytic cells. A large-population genetic survey of cats (n = 270), representing 30 cat breeds, supports our findings and demonstrates statistical significance of the FERV1 LTR and full-length element with Dominant White/blue iris (P < 0.0001) and white spotting (P < 0.0001), respectively. Copyright © 2014 David et al.

  8. Spot detection in microscopy images using Convolutional Neural Network with sliding-window approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabaso, Matsilele A


    Full Text Available Robust spot detection in microscopy image analysis serves as a critical prerequisite in many biomedical applications. Various approaches that automatically detect spots have been proposed to improve the analysis of biological images. In this paper...

  9. Estimating population salt intake in India using spot urine samples. (United States)

    Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce


    To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.

  10. Dry spot growth criterion for isothermal liquid films on a horizontal substrate (United States)

    Maltsev, L. I.; Podzharov, Yu. S.; Kabov, O. A.


    A criterion was elaborated for the phenomenon of dry spot evolution in isothermal liquid films on a horizontal substrate. The formulas are presented for gravity force and surface tension acting upon an element of the rim around the dry spot. The forces balance gives the evolution of initial dry spot: to expand or to contract.

  11. 77 FR 50526 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for the Northern Spotted Owl, Skamania, Klickitat, and Yakima... (United States)


    ... spotted owl demographic and dispersal support. Different SOSEAs have different biological goals for... spotted owl roosting, foraging, and dispersal habitat; (3) ``young forest marginal habitat,'' which... OFPA protects active spotted owl nesting sites or activity centers occupied by a pair of adult owls...

  12. Occurrence of gum spots in black cherry after partial harvest cutting (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith


    Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...

  13. 7 CFR 27.95 - Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations. 27.95... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Price Quotations and Differences § 27.95 Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations. Every bona fide spot market...

  14. 78 FR 25181 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets (United States)


    ... Service 7 CFR Part 27 RIN 0581-AD26 Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets AGENCY... amending the regulation that specifies which states compose bona fide cotton spot markets in order to assure consistency with the revised Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market...

  15. Cotton-wool spot in a patient with sleep apnea syndrome


    Kitagawa, Kiyotaka; Hayasaka, Seiji; Nagaki, Yasunori


    A 55-year-old woman complained of visible floaters in the right eye. The patient had a cotton-wool spot in the right fundus and sleep apnea syndrome. After treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure during sleep, the cotton-wool spot disappeared. Sleep apnea syndrome should be added to the list of causes of cotton-wool spots.

  16. 78 FR 9330 - Revision of Regulations Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets (United States)


    ... Defining Bona Fide Cotton Spot Markets AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... which states compose bona fide cotton spot markets in order to assure consistency with the revised Cotton Research and Promotion Act. Updated bona fide spot market definitions will allow for published...

  17. Comparison of Available Technologies for Fire Spots Detection via Linear Heat Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miksa František


    Full Text Available It is very demanding to detect fire spots under difficult conditions with high occurrence of interfering external factors such as large distances, airflow difficultly, high dustiness, high humidity, etc. Spot fire sensors do not meet the requirements due to the aforementioned conditions as well as large distances. Therefore, the detection of a fire spot via linear heat sensing cables is utilized.

  18. Do changes in natural gas futures prices influence changes in natural gas spot prices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, J.H.


    Data on natural gas futures and spot markets are examined to determine if variability in price on futures markets influences variability in price on spot markets. Using econometric techniques, it is found that changes in futures contract prices do not precede changes in spot market prices. (Author)

  19. 21 CFR 892.1620 - Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. 892.1620... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1620 Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. (a) Identification. A cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera is a device intended to photograph...

  20. A simple assay of paracetamol based on dried blood spot suitable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dried blood spots in Guthrie cards are a reliable means of blood sampling suitable for pharmacoki-netic analysis in children. The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable bioanalytical method to measure the concentration of paracetamol in dried blood spots. Paracetamol was ex-tracted from dry blood spots by ...

  1. Turbulent Spot/Separation Bubble Interactions in a Spatially Evolving Supersonic Boundary-Layer Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishnan, L; Sandham, N. D


    ...., is capable of advancing the transition process). A substantial increase in the lateral spreading of the spot was observed due to the spot/bubble interaction. Locally averaged profiles of the flow quantities within the spot showed behavior similar to developed turbulent flows.

  2. Effect of surface coating on ripening and early peel spotting in 'Sucrier' banana (Musa acuminata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.


    Sucrier¿ bananas (Musa acuminata, AA Group) show peel spotting when the peel is just about as yellow as green, which coincides with optimum eating quality. As consumers might relate the spotting to overripe fruit, early spotting is considered undesirable, especially for export markets. Fruit were

  3. 41 CFR 102-38.90 - What is a spot bid sale? (United States)


    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 38-SALE OF PERSONAL PROPERTY Sales Process Competitive Sales § 102-38.90 What is a spot bid sale? A spot bid sale is a sale where... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a spot bid sale...

  4. Statistical analysis of Nomao customer votes for spots of France (United States)

    Pálovics, Róbert; Daróczy, Bálint; Benczúr, András; Pap, Julia; Ermann, Leonardo; Phan, Samuel; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.


    We investigate the statistical properties of votes of customers for spots of France collected by the startup company Nomao. The frequencies of votes per spot and per customer are characterized by a power law distribution which remains stable on a time scale of a decade when the number of votes is varied by almost two orders of magnitude. Using the computer science methods we explore the spectrum and the eigenvalues of a matrix containing user ratings to geolocalized items. Eigenvalues nicely map to large towns and regions but show certain level of instability as we modify the interpretation of the underlying matrix. We evaluate imputation strategies that provide improved prediction performance by reaching geographically smooth eigenvectors. We point on possible links between distribution of votes and the phenomenon of self-organized criticality.

  5. Venusian 'hot spots': Physical phenomenon and its quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.P.; Gryanik, V.M.; Pavlov, V.I.


    An overall picture of the Venusian hot spots phenomenon is considered in the framework of the simplest conceptual models that admit the solutions in the form of steadily rotating 'hot' vortices. Model assumptions take into account only those features of the middle atmosphere in the polar region of Venus that are supported by observational data and are essential for understanding the physical mechanism initiating similar vortices. The problem is analyzed in the framework of both the pointlike and petal-like models of cyclostrophic vortices. Interpretation of these models as an upper and lower bound of a complete theory allows one to find the region of existence of the regimes responsible for the Venusian hot spots and also to establish and assess numerically conditions under which such vortices can be formed. The emphasis is on a comparison of the theoretically established results with the observational data

  6. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the main...... parameters to control friction stir welding, the influence of the rotational speed of the tool was investigated. Three different rotational speeds (500 rpm, 1000 rpm and 1500 rpm, respectively) were applied. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated with reflected light microscopy, scanning...... electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lap-shear tensile tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds....

  7. Political liberalism and religious claims: Four blind spots. (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina


    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either 'liberal' or 'fundamentalist' and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation.

  8. Spotting a fake[Telling natural and synthetic diamonds apart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, S. [Diamond Trading Company, Maidenhead, Berkshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:


    Diamonds are highly prized for their dazzling appearance and hardness, but would you be able to spot one that had been created in the laboratory? Simon Lawson describes how physics-based techniques can distinguish between natural and synthetic stones. For the last 50 years or so we have been able to make synthetic diamonds that replicate the superlative physical and chemical properties of natural diamonds, and these are used largely for industrial applications. But in the mind of the consumer, there is far more to a diamond than its hardness or brilliance. Research commissioned by the Diamond Trading Company (DTC) has shown that 94% of women surveyed prefer natural diamonds over synthetic ones as a symbol of love, possibly as a result of the immense age of natural stones. One of the key research activities at the DTC is therefore to ensure that synthetic diamonds can be spotted easily. (U.K.)

  9. Hot Spots from Generated Defects in HMX Crystals (United States)

    Sorensen, Christian; Cummock, Nicholas; O'Grady, Caitlin; Gunduz, I. Emre; Son, Steven


    There are several hot spot initiation mechanisms that have been proposed. However, direct observation of shock or impact compression of these mechanisms at macroscopic scale in explosives is difficult. Phase contrast imaging (PCI) may be applied to these systems. Here, high-speed video was used to record optical spectrum and for x-ray Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) of shockwave interaction with low defect HMX crystals and crystals with engineered defects. Additionally, multiple crystals were arranged and observed under shock loading with PCI and optical high-speed video. Sample preparation techniques for generating voids and other engineered defects will be discussed. These methods include drilled holes and laser machined samples. Insight into hot spot mechanisms was obtained. Funding from ONR's PC@Xtreme MURI.

  10. The pathogenesis of the cotton wool spot in diabetic retinopathy. (United States)

    Madson, E C; Chester, E M


    The clinical and pathological findings of 58 patients with diabetes mellitus were reviewed. Sixteen patients who did not have diabetes served as controls. Attention was directed towards the presence of cytoid bodies in the nerve fiber layer of the retina (the pathological equivalent of the cotton wool spot).In paraffin embedded tissue of the diabetic group, cytoid bodies, without demonstrable vascular occlusion, was observed in 35 patients. In contrast, lipid stains of trypsin digested retina demonstrated lipid occlusion of arterioles, precapillary arterioles and/or capillaries in 29 of the 35. In 17 of the 29, lipid occlusion was also noted in gelatin embedded whole retina. Particularly striking was the observation that 10 of the 17 disclosed the presence of cytoid bodies at the same site as the lipid occluded blood vessel.This data indicates that lipid occlusion plays an important role in the production of the cotton wool spot in diabetic retinopathy.

  11. Bonding mechanisms in spot welded three layer combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Marcel; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Seyyedian Choobi, Mahsa


    The strength of a spot weld generally stems from fusion bonding of the metal layers, but other solid state bonding mechanisms also contribute to the overall strength. Metallographic analyses are presented to identify the phases formed near and across the weld interfaces and to identify...... the occurring bonding mechanisms. When welding a combination of three galvanized steel layers where one outer layer is a thin low-carbon steel it is a common challenge to obtain nugget penetration into the thin low-carbon steel. It therefore happens in real production that no nugget is formed across...... this interface. It has been shown previously that such a joint can reach relatively high strength resulting in plug failure in tensileshear testing. Additional strength due to these bonding mechanisms is also obtained in common spot welds in the so-called corona band around the weld nugget....

  12. Modeling electricity spot and futures price dependence: A multifrequency approach (United States)

    Malo, Pekka


    Electricity prices are known to exhibit multifractal properties. We accommodate this finding by investigating multifractal models for electricity prices. In this paper we propose a flexible Copula-MSM (Markov Switching Multifractal) approach for modeling spot and weekly futures price dynamics. By using a conditional copula function, the framework allows us to separately model the dependence structure, while enabling use of multifractal stochastic volatility models to characterize fluctuations in marginal returns. An empirical experiment is carried out using data from Nord Pool. A study of volatility forecasting performance for electricity spot prices reveals that multifractal techniques are a competitive alternative to GARCH models. We also demonstrate how the Copula-MSM model can be employed for finding optimal portfolios, which minimizes the Conditional Value-at-Risk.

  13. Birth-jump processes and application to forest fire spotting. (United States)

    Hillen, T; Greese, B; Martin, J; de Vries, G


    Birth-jump models are designed to describe population models for which growth and spatial spread cannot be decoupled. A birth-jump model is a nonlinear integro-differential equation. We present two different derivations of this equation, one based on a random walk approach and the other based on a two-compartmental reaction-diffusion model. In the case that the redistribution kernels are highly concentrated, we show that the integro-differential equation can be approximated by a reaction-diffusion equation, in which the proliferation rate contributes to both the diffusion term and the reaction term. We completely solve the corresponding critical domain size problem and the minimal wave speed problem. Birth-jump models can be applied in many areas in mathematical biology. We highlight an application of our results in the context of forest fire spread through spotting. We show that spotting increases the invasion speed of a forest fire front.

  14. Models and methods for hot spot safety work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Dorte


    and statistical methods less developed. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to improving "State of the art" in Denmark. Basis for the systematic hot spot safety work are the models describing the variation in accident counts on the road network. In the thesis hierarchical models disaggregated on time...... is the task of improving road safety through alterations of the geometrical and environmental characteristics of the existing road network. The presently applied models and methods in hot spot safety work on the Danish road network were developed about two decades ago, when data was more limited and software...... are derived. The proposed models are shown to describe variation in accident counts better than the models currently at use in Denmark. The parameters of the models are estimated for the national and regional road network using data from the Road Sector Information system, VIS. No specific accident models...

  15. Breeding biology of the Spotted Barbtail (Premnoplex brunnescens) (United States)

    Munoz, Daniel; Martin, Thomas E.


    The Spotted Barbtail (Furnariidae) is poorly studied but shows some extreme traits for a tropical passerine. We located and monitored 155 nests to study this species for 7 years in an Andean cloud forest in Venezuela. Spotted Barbtails have an unusually long incubation period of 27.2 ± 0.16 days, as a result of very long (3–6 hr) off-bouts even though both adults incubate. The long off-bouts yield low incubation temperatures for embryos and are associated with proportionally large eggs (21% of adult mass). They also have a long nestling period of 21.67 ± 0.33 days, and a typical tropical brood size of two. The slow growth rate of the typical broods of two is even slower in broods artificially reduced to one young. Nonetheless, the young stay in the nest long enough to achieve wing lengths that approach adult size.

  16. A Rare Case of Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sousa Almeida


    Full Text Available Mediterranean spotted fever is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. It is transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It usually presents as a benign self-limited disease characterized by a skin rash, high fever, and, sometimes, a characteristic ulcer at the tick bite site called tache noir. The course of this disease is usually benign, although severe manifestations have been previously described, mainly in adults. Neurological manifestations are very unusual. We present a case of Mediterranean spotted fever with encephalitis to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion, mainly in endemic areas, the potential severity of this disease, and the need of early initiation of therapy in order to prevent severe complications.

  17. Developing the Bias Blind Spot: Increasing Skepticism towards Others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa B Elashi

    Full Text Available Two experiments with eighty-eight 7- to 10-year-olds examined the bias blind spot in children. Both younger and older children rated themselves as less likely than a specific other (Experiment 1 or an average child (Experiment 2 to commit various biases. These self-other differences were also more extreme for biased behaviors than for other behaviors. At times, older children demonstrated stronger self-other differences than younger children, which seemed primarily driven by older children's judgments about bias in others. These findings suggest that, although the bias blind spot exists as soon as children recognize other-committed biases, what changes over development is how skeptical children are towards others.

  18. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads


    in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. RESULTS: The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K......BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... extracted from punches and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was evaluated with quality controls with defined element concentration and blood spiked with elements to assess accuracy and imprecision. DBS element concentrations were compared with concentrations...

  19. Hot spot analysis applied to identify ecosystem services potential in Lithuania (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva


    Hot spot analysis are very useful to identify areas with similar characteristics. This is important for a sustainable use of the territory, since we can identify areas that need to be protected, or restored. This is a great advantage in terms of land use planning and management, since we can allocate resources, reduce the economical costs and do a better intervention in the landscape. Ecosystem services (ES) are different according land use. Since landscape is very heterogeneous, it is of major importance understand their spatial pattern and where are located the areas that provide better ES and the others that provide less services. The objective of this work is to use hot-spot analysis to identify areas with the most valuable ES in Lithuania. CORINE land-cover (CLC) of 2006 was used as the main spatial information. This classification uses a grid of 100 m resolution and extracted a total of 31 land use types. ES ranking was carried out based on expert knowledge. They were asked to evaluate the ES potential of each different CLC from 0 (no potential) to 5 (very high potential). Hot spot analysis were evaluated using the Getis-ord test, which identifies cluster analysis available in ArcGIS toolbox. This tool identifies areas with significantly high low values and significant high values at a p level of 0.05. In this work we used hot spot analysis to assess the distribution of providing, regulating cultural and total (sum of the previous 3) ES. The Z value calculated from Getis-ord was used to statistical analysis to access the clusters of providing, regulating cultural and total ES. ES with high Z value show that they have a high number of cluster areas with high potential of ES. The results showed that the Z-score was significantly different among services (Kruskal Wallis ANOVA =834. 607, pcultural (0.080±1.979) and regulating (0.076±1.961). These results suggested that providing services are more clustered than the remaining. Ecosystem Services Z score were

  20. Fungicide Efficacy in Peach Rusty Spot Control in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Dolovac


    Full Text Available Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry caused significant yield losses in Serbia.Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. However, because of specific environmental conditions in Serbia, recommended protection method using repeated fungicide treatments, starting from petal fall, did not prove to be efficient and the rate of infection in some susceptible peach cultivars reached 100%. In 2003 and 2004 a field trial was conducted in order to test the efficacy of fungicides (a.i. kresoxim-methyl, flusilazole and sulfur for the efficient control of Rusty Spot epidemics. The trial was carried out under conditions of natural infection on the peach cv. Summerset at the locality of Bela Crkva, Serbia. In the ntreated control plots,high disease incidence was recorded with the percentage of affected fruit surface ranging from 33.5% in the first, up to the 35.4% in the second year of the trail. Among fungicides included in the trial, kresoxim-methyl proved to be the most efficient (90.25% in the first and 91.12% in the second year of the trial, flusilazole exhibited lower efficacy (87.28% and 80.61%, respectively while sulfur was the least efficient 82.33% and 80.30%, respectively. Determination of the most efficient fungicide for the peach rusty spot control in Serbia provides basic nformation for further investigations which will include optimization of treatment terms, as well as additional agro-technical control measures.

  1. Thermal imaging of hot spots in nanostructured microstripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidi, E; Lesueur, J; Aigouy, L [LPEM, CNRS UPR5, ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 5 (France); Labeguerie-Egea, J; Mortier, M, E-mail: lionel.aigouy@espci.f [LCMCP, CNRS UMR 7574, ENSCP, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75005 Paris (France)


    By scanning thermal microscopy, we study the behavior of nanostructured metallic microstripes heated by Joule effect. Regularly spaced indentations have been made along the thin film stripe in order to create hot spots. For the designed stripe geometry, we observe that heat remains confined in the wire and in particular at shrinkage points within {approx}1{mu}m{sup 2}. Thermal maps have been obtained with a good lateral resolution (< 300nm) and a good temperature sensitivity ({approx}1K).

  2. Isolated retinal cotton wool spot after coronary angiography


    Kopsachilis, Nikolaos; Brar, Manpreet; Marinescu, Anca I. C.; Sivaprasad, Sobha


    Visual symptoms after coronary angiography are rarely encountered and mostly related to contrast induced transient cortical blindness or retinal artery occlusions. We report an intriguing case of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with vision deterioration in her right eye 12 h after coronary angiography for cardiac palpitation. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography scan revealed an isolated parafoveal cotton wool spot in her right eye that has totally resolved 6 weeks after initial pre...

  3. Electron beam spot size stabilization for radiographic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.


    The authors have demonstrated through computer simulations that self-biasing the target can effectively control the ion column which causes radial pinching of the electron beam, resulting in the growth of spot size on target. This method has the unique features in simplicity and non-intrusiveness in its implementation into radiographic systems. The concept is being actively explored experimentally at the Integrated Test Stand (ITS)

  4. prevalence of angular leaf spot disease and sources of resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    la gravité et l'incidence de la maladie et l'effet des pratiques agronomiques et des facteurs environnement aux sur la prévalence de ...... Thika Kenya. Saettler, A.W. 1991. Angular leaf spot. In: Compendium of bean diseases, 15-16. Hall, R. (Ed.). APS Press.St Paul, USA. Sahile, S., Ahmed, S., Fininsa, C., Abang, M. M. and ...

  5. Identification of Damaged Spot Welds in a Complicated Joined Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, M A; Rani, M N Abdul; Ouyang, H; Deng, H; James, S, E-mail: [Department of Engineering, Harrison Hughes Building, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)


    In automotive engineering, spot welds on assembled structures such as Body in White (BiW) have a significant effect on the vehicles' dynamic characteristics. Understandably, imperfections in the spot welds will cause variations in the dynamic properties such as natural frequencies and mode shapes of the structure. In this paper, a complicated welded structure which is a simplified Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) platform is investigated. The structure fabricated from thin metal sheets consists of ten components. They are jointed together by a number of scattered spot welds. NASTRAN Solution 200 based on sensitivity analysis is used to identify the most sensitive parameters to natural frequencies. The numerical model of the undamaged structure is initially updated in order to minimise the discrepancies between the measured and numerical data using NASTRAN optimisation code. The initial updated model serves as a benchmark for the subsequent structural damage identification. The numerical data of the benchmark model is then compared with the measured data obtained from the damaged structure. The same updating procedure is applied to the benchmark model in order to bring the numerical data as close as possible to the measured data of the damaged structure. The disparity in certain parameter values from the parameter values used in the benchmark model shows a fault or damage in the location of a particular joint, depending on the severity of this disparity. The challenge in this work is to localise damaged area and quantify the damage of the complicated structure with multiple spot welds in the presence of uncertainty in the location and material properties of the welds.

  6. Shock Initiation of Explosives - High Temperature Hot Spots Explained (United States)

    Bassett, Will


    The pore-collapse mechanism for hot spot creation is currently one of the most intensely studied subjects in the initiation of energetic materials. In the present study, we use 1.5 - 3.5 km s-1 laser-driven flyer plates to impact microgram charges of both polymer-bound and pure pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) while recording the temperature and spatially-averaged emissivity with a high-speed optical pyrometer. The 32-color pyrometer has nanosecond time resolution and a high dynamic range with sensitivity to temperatures from 7000 to 2000 K. Hot spot temperatures of 4000 K at impact are observed in the polymer-bound explosive charges where an elastomeric binder is used to fill void spaces. In pure PETN and more heterogeneous polymer-bound charges, in which significant void space is present, hot spot temperatures of 6000 K are observed, similar to previous reports with significant porosity. We attribute these high temperatures to gas-phase products formed in-situ being compressed under the driving shock. Experiments performed under various gas environments (air, butane, etc.) showed a strong influence on observed temperature upon impact. Control experiments where the PETN in the polymer-bound charges were replaced with sucrose and silica reinforce the result that hot spots are a result of in-situ gas formation from decomposition of organic molecules. US Air Force Office of Scientific Research awards FA9550-14-1-0142 and FA9550-16-1-0042; US Army Research Office award W911NF-13-1-0217; Defense Threat Reduction Agency award HDTRA1-12-1-0011. In collaboration with: Belinda Pacheco and Dana Dlott, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign.

  7. Developing the Bias Blind Spot: Increasing Skepticism towards Others


    Elashi, Fadwa B.; Mills, Candice M.


    Two experiments with eighty-eight 7- to 10-year-olds examined the bias blind spot in children. Both younger and older children rated themselves as less likely than a specific other (Experiment 1) or an average child (Experiment 2) to commit various biases. These self-other differences were also more extreme for biased behaviors than for other behaviors. At times, older children demonstrated stronger self-other differences than younger children, which seemed primarily driven by older children'...

  8. Differences in organotin accumulation in relation to life history in the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohji, Madoka; Harino, Hiroya; Arai, Takaomi


    Research highlights: → Otolith Sr:Ca ratios in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. → TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were higher than those in freshwater-residents. → Sea-run type have higher risk of TBT and TPT than freshwater-residents in white-spotted charr. - Abstract: To examine the accumulation pattern of organotins (OTs) in relation to the migration of diadromous fish, tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) and their derivatives were determined in the muscle tissue of both sea-run (anadromous) and freshwater-resident (nonanadromous) types of the white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis. Ontogenic changes in otolith strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca) concentrations were examined along life history transect to discriminate migration type. Mean Sr:Ca ratio from the core to the edge of the otolith in sea-run individuals was significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident one. There were no significant correlations in S. leucomaenis between OT accumulation and various biological characteristics. It is noteworthy that TBT and TPT concentrations in sea-run type were significantly higher than those in freshwater-resident individuals, although they are both of the same species. These results suggest that sea-run S. leucomaenis have a higher ecological risk of OT exposure than freshwater-residents during their life histories.

  9. Use of the Drosophila wing spot test in the genotoxicity testing of different herbicides. (United States)

    Kaya, B; Creus, A; Yanikoğlu, A; Cabré, O; Marcos, R


    Four herbicides, namely propanil, maleic hydrazide, glyphosate, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), were investigated for genotoxicity in the wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster. The herbicides were administered by chronic feeding to 3-day-old larvae. Two different crosses, a standard (ST) and a high-bioactivation (HB) cross, involving the flare-3 (flr(3)) and the multiple wing hairs (mwh) markers, were used. The HB cross uses flies characterized by an increased cytochrome P-450-dependent bioactivation capacity, which permits a more efficient biotransformation of promutagens and procarcinogens. In both crosses, the wings of the two types of progeny, which are inversion-free marker heterozygotes and balancer heterozygotes, were analyzed. Maleic hydrazide and glyphosate proved to be more genotoxic in the ST cross, whereas propanil appeared to be slightly more genotoxic in the HB cross. On the other hand, the herbicide 2,4,5-T increased the mutation frequency for only the small single spots in the ST cross. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Changes in uterine expression of leukemia inhibitory factor during pregnancy in the Western spotted skunk. (United States)

    Hirzel, D J; Wang, J; Das, S K; Dey, S K; Mead, R A


    Mutation of the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) gene results in reproductive failure in LIF -/- mice due to an inability to implant their blastocysts. This condition is reversed by infusion of LIF or by transferral of embryos to pseudopregnant, wild-type mice. This led us to hypothesize that embryonic diapause in the spotted skunk is due to insufficient uterine expression of LIF whereas resumption of development and implantation are associated with increased LIF expression. We also investigated the hormonal control of LIF expression. Uterine concentrations of LIF mRNA were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Changes in cell-specific localization of LIF mRNA and protein were determined by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. LIF mRNA was detected but was not abundant during embryonic diapause; it then increased when blastocysts resumed development and remained elevated prior to implantation. LIF mRNA and protein could not be localized in the uterus during embryonic diapause but were quite apparent in luminal and glandular epithelium during blastocyst activation. Prolactin, progesterone, and estradiol failed to increase uterine concentrations of LIF mRNA above those in ovariectomized controls. These data are consistent with the initial hypothesis and suggest that LIF may somehow be involved in preparing the uterus for implantation in the spotted skunk.

  11. Correlation between Sweet Spots of Glycopeptides and Polymorphism of the Matrix Crystal in MALDI Samples. (United States)

    Nishikaze, Takashi; Okumura, Hisako; Jinmei, Hiroshi; Amano, Junko


    A standard dried-droplet preparation using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA) as the matrix results in a large variation in signal intensity and poor shot-to-shot reproducibility in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). We expected that the differences can be attributed to the nature of the crystal structures in the region of the "sweet spot" within the MALDI samples. 2,5-DHBA crystals with and without analytes on a target plate obtained by means of a dried-droplet preparation contain two polymorphs, which can be distinguished by Raman spectra. In comparing the Raman image with the MS image, a clear correlation between the signal distribution of glycopeptides and hydrophilic peptides and the specific crystal form of 2,5-DHBA could be made. The ionization of hydrophobic peptides appears to proceed in both types of polymorphic crystals. In addition, the derivatization of glycopeptides with a pyrene group enabled us to detect glycopeptides regardless the crystal form. As the result, the number of sweet spots increased and MS spectra with a high signal intensity were obtained. The results suggest that the introduction of a hydrophobic/aromatic moiety to glycopeptides results in a more successful MALDI analysis due to the effective incorporation of the analyte into matrix crystals.

  12. Spotting Fruit versus Picking Fruit as the Selective Advantage of Human Colour Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bompas


    Full Text Available The spatiochromatic properties of the red–green dimension of human colour vision appear to be optimized for picking fruit in leaves at about arms' reach. However, other evidence suggests that the task of spotting fruit from a distance might be more important. This discrepancy may arise because the task a system (e.g. human trichromacy is best at is not necessarily the same task where the largest advantage occurs over the evolutionary alternatives (dichromacy or anomalous trichromacy. We tested human dichromats, anomalous trichromats and “normal” trichromats in a naturalistic visual search task in which they had to find fruit pieces in a bush at 1, 4, 8 or 12 m viewing distance. We found that the largest advantage (in terms of either performance ratio or performance difference of normal trichromacy over both types of colour deficiency was for the largest viewing distance. We infer that in the evolution of human colour vision, spotting fruit from a distance was a more important selective advantage than picking fruit at arms' reach.

  13. Genotoxic evaluation of two oral antidiabetic agents in the Drosophila wing spot test. (United States)

    Gürbüzel, Mehmet; Çapoğlu, Ilyas; Kızılet, Halit; Halıcı, Zekai; Özçiçek, Fatih; Demirtaş, Levent


    In this study, two sulfonylureas--glimepiride and glipizide--commonly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus were investigated for genotoxicity in the Drosophila wing spot test. For this purpose, three-day-old transheterozygous larvae were treated with three mutagenic compounds, and the results obtained were compared with the control group. Mutational or recombinogenic changes were recorded in two recessive genes--multiple wing hairs (mwh) and flare (flr (3)). Two recessive markers were located on the left arm of chromosome 3, mwh in map position 0.3, and flare-3 (flr3) at 38.8, while the centromere was located in position 47.7. Wing spot tests are targeted on the loss of heterozygosity, which may be grounded in different genetic mechanisms such as mutation, mitotic recombination, deletion, half-translocation, chromosome loss, or nondisjunction. Genetic changes formatting in somatic cells of the imaginal discs cause nascence different mutant cloning in different body parts of adult flies. Our in vivo experiments demonstrated that glimepiride and glipizide show the genotoxicity, which is especially dependent on homologous somatic recombination.

  14. Some topics in tan spot epidemiology - characteristic and significance the sources of primary infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciwch Wakuliński


    Full Text Available The aim of this studies was characteristic of the sources of primary infection for tan spot. During the period 1998-1991 the development of ascomata and conidimata of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis on naturally infected wheat and triticale straws was monitored. The process of pseudothecia formation was extending over the time. It started immediately after harvest and protothecia of the fungus was commonly occurred each year already in the fall. The first fruit bodies with maturated typically pigmented ascospores were observed in January 2001 and in February 1998 and 1999. The percentage of pseudothecia with maturate ascospores successively increased richening maximum in April when the massive liberation of spores from asci occurred. After the total ascospore release on surface of empty ascomata aroused conidiophores with conidia which may also act as inoculum source. Moreover this type of sporulation was observed directly on over wintered cereals stems especially after prolonged period of rains. The present studies indicated also on infected by P.tritici-repentis wheat and triticale seeds as a source of inoculum for tan spot.

  15. SMART II : the spot market agent research tool version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, M. J. N.


    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has worked closely with Western Area Power Administration (Western) over many years to develop a variety of electric power marketing and transmission system models that are being used for ongoing system planning and operation as well as analytic studies. Western markets and delivers reliable, cost-based electric power from 56 power plants to millions of consumers in 15 states. The Spot Market Agent Research Tool Version 2.0 (SMART II) is an investigative system that partially implements some important components of several existing ANL linear programming models, including some used by Western. SMART II does not implement a complete model of the Western utility system but it does include several salient features of this network for exploratory purposes. SMART II uses a Swarm agent-based framework. SMART II agents model bulk electric power transaction dynamics with recognition for marginal costs as well as transmission and generation constraints. SMART II uses a sparse graph of nodes and links to model the electric power spot market. The nodes represent power generators and consumers with distinct marginal decision curves and varying investment capital as well individual learning parameters. The links represent transmission lines with individual capacities taken from a range of central distribution, outlying distribution and feeder line types. The application of SMART II to electric power systems studies has produced useful results different from those often found using more traditional techniques. Use of the advanced features offered by the Swarm modeling environment simplified the creation of the SMART II model.

  16. Friction stir spot welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Yahya


    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) has been proposed as an effective technology to spot weld the so-called “difficult to be welded” metal alloys such as thin sheets aluminum alloys and dissimilar materials. FSSW is derived from friction stir welding technology, its principle benefit being low cost joining, lower welding temperature and shorter welding time than conventional welding methods. In this study, dissimilar AlMg 3 and AlCu 4 Mg 1 aluminium alloy plates were FSSWed by offsetting the low strength sheet on upper side of the weld. The effects of tool rotation speed on the microstructure, lap shear fracture load (LSFL), microhardness and fracture features of the weld are investigated by constant welding parameters. The maximum LSFL was obtained by increasing the tool rotational speed. However, the joints exhibited pull-out nugget fracture mode under lap shear tensile testing conditions. The largest completely bonded zone was observed as 5.86 mm which was narrower at the opposite position of the joint. Key words: friction stir spot welding, aluminium alloys, mechanical properties, dissimilar joint, welding parameters

  17. Effects of series compensation on spot price power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.B.; Wang Feng


    The operation of a deregulated power market becomes more complex as the generation scheduling is dependent on suppliers' and consumers' bids. With large number of transactions in the power market changing in time, it is more likely for some transmission lines to face congestion. Series compensation, such as TCSC, with its ability to directly control the power flow can be very helpful to improve the operation of transmission networks. The effects of TCSC on the operation of a spot price power market are studied in this paper using the modified IEEE 14-bus system. Optimal Power Flow incorporating TCSC is used to implement the spot price market. Linear bids are used to model suppliers' and consumers' bids. Issues of location and cost of TCSC are discussed. The effects of levels of TCSC compensation on wide range of system quantities are studied. The effects on the total social benefit, the spot prices, transmission congestion, total generation and consumption, benefit to individual supplier and consumer etc. are discussed. It is demonstrated that though use of TCSC makes the system more efficient and augments competition in the market, it is not easy to establish general relationships between the levels of compensation and various market quantities. Simulation studies like these can be used to assess the effects of TCSC in specific systems. (Author)

  18. The inflationary origin of the Cold Spot anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno Sánchez, Juan C., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Santiago de Cali (Colombia); Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Antonio Nariño, Cra 3 Este # 47A-15, Bogotá D.C. 110231 (Colombia); Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Ciudad Universitaria, Bucaramanga 680002 (Colombia); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Madrid (Spain)


    Single-field inflation, arguably the simplest and most compelling paradigm for the origin of our Universe, is strongly supported by the recent results of the Planck satellite and the BICEP2 experiment. The results from Planck, however, also confirm the presence of a number of anomalies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), whose origin becomes problematic in single-field inflation. Among the most prominent and well-tested of these anomalies is the Cold Spot, which constitutes the only significant deviation from Gaussianity in the CMB. Planck's non-detection of primordial non-Gaussianity on smaller scales thus suggests the existence of a physical mechanism whereby significant non-Gaussianity is generated on large angular scales only. In this Letter, we address this question by developing a localized version of the inhomogeneous reheating scenario, which postulates the existence of a scalar field able to modify the decay of the inflaton on localized spatial regions only. We demonstrate that if the Cold Spot is due to an overdensity in the last scattering surface, the localization mechanism offers a feasible explanation for it, thus providing a physical mechanism for the generation of localized non-Gaussianity in the CMB. If, on the contrary, the Cold Spot is caused by a newly discovered supervoid (as recently claimed), we argue that the localization mechanism, while managing to enhance underdensities, may well shed light on the rarity of the discovered supervoid.

  19. macula: Rotational modulations in the photometry of spotted stars (United States)

    Kipping, David M.


    Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.

  20. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico: past, present, and future. (United States)

    Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Roldán, Jesús Felipe González; Milan, Néstor Saúl Hernández; Lash, R Ryan; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Paddock, Christopher D


    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the most lethal of all infectious diseases in the Americas. In Mexico, the disease was first described during the early 1940s by scientists who carefully documented specific environmental determinants responsible for devastating outbreaks in several communities in the states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Durango, and Coahuila. These investigators also described the pivotal roles of domesticated dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (brown dog ticks) as drivers of epidemic levels of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. After several decades of quiescence, the disease re-emerged in Sonora and Baja California during the early 21st century, driven by the same environmental circumstances that perpetuated outbreaks in Mexico during the 1940s. This Review explores the history of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico, current epidemiology, and the multiple clinical, economic, and social challenges that must be considered in the control and prevention of this life-threatening illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate impacts on global hot spots of marine biodiversity. (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Afán, Isabel; Davis, Lloyd S; Chiaradia, André


    Human activities drive environmental changes at scales that could potentially cause ecosystem collapses in the marine environment. We combined information on marine biodiversity with spatial assessments of the impacts of climate change to identify the key areas to prioritize for the conservation of global marine biodiversity. This process identified six marine regions of exceptional biodiversity based on global distributions of 1729 species of fish, 124 marine mammals, and 330 seabirds. Overall, these hot spots of marine biodiversity coincide with areas most severely affected by global warming. In particular, these marine biodiversity hot spots have undergone local to regional increasing water temperatures, slowing current circulation, and decreasing primary productivity. Furthermore, when we overlapped these hot spots with available industrial fishery data, albeit coarser than our estimates of climate impacts, they suggest a worrying coincidence whereby the world's richest areas for marine biodiversity are also those areas mostly affected by both climate change and industrial fishing. In light of these findings, we offer an adaptable framework for determining local to regional areas of special concern for the conservation of marine biodiversity. This has exposed the need for finer-scaled fishery data to assist in the management of global fisheries if the accumulative, but potentially preventable, effect of fishing on climate change impacts is to be minimized within areas prioritized for marine biodiversity conservation.

  2. Seed treatment for control leaf spot diseases of spring wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Krzyzińska


    Full Text Available In the years 2001 and 2002 at the Institute of Plant Protection Branch in Sooenicowice research work was performed on seed treatment with fungicides against leaf diseases of spring wheat cv. Ismena caused by pathogenic fungi: Blumeria graminis, Phaeasphaeria nodorum, Puccinia recondita i Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Two variants of protection were included in the experiment: seed dressing with fungicides or seed dressing and single application of foliar spray at GS 49. At early growth stages of spring wheat a very high biological activity against powdery mildew, septoria leaf spot, brown rust and tan spot was recorded for seed dressing containing triticonazole+prochloraz. In the case of triadimenol+imazalil+fuberidazole only a weak, but long-lasting effect against brown rust and septoria leaf spot was observed. Leaf infection as well as 1000 grain mass and yield, in the experimental combination with using triticonazole+prochloraz were on the same level as in the experimental variant where after seed dressing with triadimenol+imazalil+fuberidazole plots were sprayed with tridemorf+epoxykonazole at GS 49. It was concluded that seed dressing preparation containing triticonazole+prochloraz constituted a good base for protection of spring wheat against foliar diseases.

  3. Raman spectroelectrochemistry of molecules within individual electromagnetic hot spots. (United States)

    Shegai, Timur; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel; Haran, Gilad


    The role of chemical enhancement in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) remains a contested subject. We study SERS spectra of 4-mercaptopyridine molecules excited far from the molecular resonance, which are collected from individual electromagnetic hot spots at concentrations close to the single-molecule limit. The hot spots are created by depositing Tollen's silver island films on a transparent electrode incorporated within an electrochemical cell. Analysis of the intensity of the spectra relative to those obtained from individual rhodamine 6G molecules on the same surface provides a lower limit of approximately 3 orders of magnitude for the chemical enhancement. This large enhancement is likely to be due to a charge transfer resonance involving the transfer of an electron from the metal to an adsorbed molecule. Excitation at three different wavelengths, as well as variation of electrode potential from 0 to -1.2 V, lead to significant changes in the relative intensities of bands in the spectrum. It is suggested that while the bulk of the enhancement is due to an Albrecht A-term resonance Raman effect (involving the charge transfer transition), vibronic coupling provides additional enhancement which is sensitive to electrode potential. The measurement of potential-dependent SERS spectra from individual hot spots opens the way to a thorough characterization of chemical enhancement, as well to studies of redox phenomena at the single-molecule level.

  4. Verification of the anatomy and newly discovered histology of the G-spot complex. (United States)

    Ostrzenski, A; Krajewski, P; Ganjei-Azar, P; Wasiutynski, A J; Scheinberg, M N; Tarka, S; Fudalej, M


    To expand the anatomical investigations of the G-spot and to assess the G-spot's characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features. An observational study. International multicentre. Eight consecutive fresh human female cadavers. Anterior vaginal wall dissections were executed and G-spot microdissections were performed. All specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The tissues of two women were selected at random for immunohistochemical staining. The primary outcome measure was to document the anatomy of the G-spot. The secondary outcome measures were to identify the histology of the G-spot and to determine whether histological samples stained with H&E are sufficient to identify the G-spot. The anatomical existence of the G-spot was identified in all women and was in a diagonal plane. In seven (87.5%) and one (12.5%) of the women the G-spot complex was found on the left or right side, respectively. The G-spot was intimately fused with vessels, creating a complex. A large tangled vein-like vascular structure resembled an arteriovenous malformation and there were a few smaller feeding arteries. A band-like structure protruded from the tail of the G-spot. The size of the G-spot varied. Histologically, the G-spot was determined as a neurovascular complex structure. The neural component contained abundant peripheral nerve bundles and a nerve ganglion. The vascular component comprised large vein-like vessels and smaller feeding arteries. Circular and longitudinal muscles covered the G-complex. The anatomy of the G-spot complex was confirmed. The histology of the G-spot presents as neurovascular tissues with a nerve ganglion. H&E staining is sufficient for the identification of the G-spot complex. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Fracture Mechanics Approach to X-Ray Diffraction Method for Spot Welded Lap Joint Structure of Rolled Steel Considered Residual Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung Yeb; Bae, Dong Ho


    Cold and hot-rolled carbon steel sheets are commonly used in railroad cars or commercial vehicles such as the automobile. The sheets used in these applications are mainly fabricated by spot welding, which is a type of electric resistance welding. However, the fatigue strength of a spot-welded joint is lower than that of the base metal because of high stress concentration at the nugget edge of the spot-welded part. In particular, the fatigue strength of the joint is influenced by not only geometrical and mechanical factors but also the welding conditions for the spot-welded joint. Therefore, there is a need for establishing a reasonable criterion for a long-life design for spot-welded structures. In this thesis, ΔP-N f relation curves have been used to determine a long-life fatigue-design criterion for thin-sheet structures. However, as these curves vary under the influence of welding conditions, mechanical conditions, geometrical factors, etc. It is very difficult to systematically determine a fatigue-design criterion on the basis of these curves. Therefore, in order to eliminate such problems, the welding residual stresses generated during welding and the stress distributions around the weld generated by external forces were numerically and experimentally analyzed on the basis of the results, reassessed fatigue strength of gas welded joints

  6. Hot Spot in Eclipsing Dwarf Nova IY Ursae Majoris during Quiescence and Normal Outburst (United States)

    Bąkowska, K.; Olech, A.


    We present the analysis of hot spot brightness in light curves of the eclipsing dwarf nova IY UMa during its normal outburst in March 2013 and in quiescence in April 2012 and in October 2015. Examination of four reconstructed light curves of the hot spot eclipses showed directly that the brightness of the hot spot changed significantly only during the outburst. The brightness of the hot spot, before and after the outburst, was on the same level. Thus, based on the behavior of the hot spot, IY UMa during its normal outburst follows the disk-instability model.

  7. Real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic hot spots (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Flynn, Luke P.; Dean, Ken; Pilger, Eric; Wooster, Martin; Okubo, Chris; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Garbeil, Harold; Thornber, Carl; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Rothery, Dave; Wright, Robert

    Direct satellite data reception at high temporal frequencies and automated processing enable near-real-time, near-continuous thermal monitoring of volcanoes. We review what has been achieved in terms of turning this capability into real-time tools of use to volcano monitoring agencies. Current capabilities focus on 2 instruments: the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager. Collection of lO AVHRR images per day covering Alaska, the Aleutians, and Kamchatka allows routine, on-reception analysis of volcanic hot spots across this region. Data collected between 1996 and 1998 detected 302 hot spots due to lava flows, lava domes, pyroclastic flows, fumaroles, and geothermally heated lakes at 12 different volcanoes. Information was used for hazard mitigation by the Alaskan Volcano Observatory. GOES provides data for North and South American volcanoes every 15-30 minutes. Automated processing allows eruption information and alerts to be posted on the Internet within 15-60 minutes of reception. We use June 1998 to demonstrate the frequency of data acquisition. During this month 2879 GOES images were collected from which 14,832 sub-images of 6 active volcanoes were processed. Although 82% (12,200) of these sub-images were cloud covered, hot spots were still evident on 11% (1634) of the sub-images. Analysis of GOES data for 1998 identified hot spots due to (1) lava flows at Kilauea and Cerro Azul, (2) dome extrusion and explosive activity at Lascar, Popocatepetl, Colima and Pacaya, and (3) dome cooling and collapse at Soufriere Hills. We were also able to suggest that reports of lava flow activity at Cerro Negro were false. This information was supplied to, and used by, various agencies whose task it is to monitor these volcanoes. Global thermal monitoring will become a reality with the launch of the Earth Observing System's moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS). An automated thermal

  8. Reducing Dose Uncertainty for Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy of Moving Tumors by Optimizing the Spot Delivery Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Heng; Zhu, X. Ronald; Zhang, Xiaodong


    Purpose: To develop and validate a novel delivery strategy for reducing the respiratory motion–induced dose uncertainty of spot-scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: The spot delivery sequence was optimized to reduce dose uncertainty. The effectiveness of the delivery sequence optimization was evaluated using measurements and patient simulation. One hundred ninety-one 2-dimensional measurements using different delivery sequences of a single-layer uniform pattern were obtained with a detector array on a 1-dimensional moving platform. Intensity modulated proton therapy plans were generated for 10 lung cancer patients, and dose uncertainties for different delivery sequences were evaluated by simulation. Results: Without delivery sequence optimization, the maximum absolute dose error can be up to 97.2% in a single measurement, whereas the optimized delivery sequence results in a maximum absolute dose error of ≤11.8%. In patient simulation, the optimized delivery sequence reduces the mean of fractional maximum absolute dose error compared with the regular delivery sequence by 3.3% to 10.6% (32.5-68.0% relative reduction) for different patients. Conclusions: Optimizing the delivery sequence can reduce dose uncertainty due to respiratory motion in spot-scanning proton therapy, assuming the 4-dimensional CT is a true representation of the patients' breathing patterns.

  9. Control of vacuum arc source cathode spots contraction motion by changing electromagnetic field (United States)

    Xin, SONG; Qing, WANG; Zeng, LIN; Puhui, ZHANG; Shuhao, WANG


    This paper investigates the magnetic field component impact on cathode spots motion trajectory and the mechanism of periodic contraction. Electromagnetic coils and permanent magnets were installed at the different sides of cathode surface, the photographs of cathode spots motion trajectory were captured by a camera. Increasing the number of magnets and decreasing the distance between magnets and cathode both lead to enhancing cathode spots motion velocity. Radii of cathode spots trajectory decrease gradually with the increasing of electromagnetic coil’s current, from 40 mm at 0 A to 10 mm at 2.7 A. Parallel magnetic field component intensity influence the speed of cathode spots rotate motion, and perpendicular magnetic field component drives spots drift in the radial direction. Cathode spot’s radial drift is controlled by changing the location of the ‘zero line’ where perpendicular magnetic component shifts direction and the radius of cathode spots trajectory almost equal to ‘zero line’.

  10. Prediction of hot spot residues at protein-protein interfaces by combining machine learning and energy-based methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontil Massimiliano


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alanine scanning mutagenesis is a powerful experimental methodology for investigating the structural and energetic characteristics of protein complexes. Individual amino-acids are systematically mutated to alanine and changes in free energy of binding (ΔΔG measured. Several experiments have shown that protein-protein interactions are critically dependent on just a few residues ("hot spots" at the interface. Hot spots make a dominant contribution to the free energy of binding and if mutated they can disrupt the interaction. As mutagenesis studies require significant experimental efforts, there is a need for accurate and reliable computational methods. Such methods would also add to our understanding of the determinants of affinity and specificity in protein-protein recognition. Results We present a novel computational strategy to identify hot spot residues, given the structure of a complex. We consider the basic energetic terms that contribute to hot spot interactions, i.e. van der Waals potentials, solvation energy, hydrogen bonds and Coulomb electrostatics. We treat them as input features and use machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines and Gaussian Processes to optimally combine and integrate them, based on a set of training examples of alanine mutations. We show that our approach is effective in predicting hot spots and it compares favourably to other available methods. In particular we find the best performances using Transductive Support Vector Machines, a semi-supervised learning scheme. When hot spots are defined as those residues for which ΔΔG ≥ 2 kcal/mol, our method achieves a precision and a recall respectively of 56% and 65%. Conclusion We have developed an hybrid scheme in which energy terms are used as input features of machine learning models. This strategy combines the strengths of machine learning and energy-based methods. Although so far these two types of approaches have mainly been

  11. Long-term Comparison of a Large Spot Vacuum Assisted Handpiece vs the Small Spot Size Traditional Handpiece of the 800 nm Diode Laser. (United States)

    Youssef, Nour J; Rizk, Alain G; Ibrahimi, Omar A; Tannous, Zeina S


    BACKGROUND The 800 nm long-pulsed diode laser machine is safe and effective for permanent hair reduction. Traditionally, most long-pulsed diode lasers used for hair removal had a relatively small spot size. Recently, a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction handpiece was introduced. The treatment parameters of each type of handpiece differ. Short and long-term clinical efficacy, treatment associated pain, and patient satisfaction are important factors to be considered. This study aims to conduct a direct head to head comparison of both handpieces of the 800nm long-pulsed diode laser by evaluating long term hair reduction, treatment associated pain and patient satisfaction. Thirteen subjects were enrolled in this prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary laser hair removal. The study involved 4 treatments using a long pulsed diode laser with a large spot size HS handpiece (single pass), HS handpiece (double pass), and a small spot size ET handpiece according to a randomized choice. The treatment sessions were done at 4-8 week intervals with follow up visits taken at 6 and 12 months after the last treatment session. Hair clearance and thickness analysis were assessed using macro hair count photographs taken at baseline visit, at each treatment session visit and at follow up visits. Other factors including pain, treatment duration, and patients' preference were secondary study endpoints. At 6 months follow up visits after receiving four laser treatments, there was statistically significant hair clearance in the three treatment arms with 66.1 % mean percentage hair reduction with the ET handpiece, 43.6% with the HSS (single pass) and 64.1 % with the HSD (double). However, at one year follow up, the results significantly varied from the 6 months follow up. The mean percentage hair reduction was 57.8% with the ET handpiece treated axillas (n=9), 16.5% with the HSS (single pass) handpiece treated axillas (n=7), and

  12. CFD Analysis for Hot Spot Fuel Temperature of Deep-Burn Modular Helium Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tak, Nam Il; Jo, Chang Keun; Jun, Ji Su; Kim, Min Hwan; Venneri, Francesco


    As an alternative concept of a conventional transmutation using fast reactors, a deep-burn modular helium reactor (DB-MHR) concept has been proposed by General Atomics (GA). Kim and Venneri published an optimization study on the DB-MHR core in terms of nuclear design. The authors concluded that more concrete evaluations are necessary including thermo-fluid and safety analysis. The present paper describes the evaluation of the hot spot fuel temperature of the fuel assembly in the 600MWth DB-MHR core under full operating power conditions. Two types of fuel shuffling scheme (radial and axial hybrid shuffling and axial-only shuffling) are investigated. For accurate thermo-fluid analysis, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed on a 1/12 fuel assembly using the CFX code

  13. Potential Safety Benefit of the Blind Spot Detection System for Large Trucks on the Vulnerable Road Users in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ming-Hang


    Full Text Available Considering motorcyclists, pedestrians and bicyclists as vulnerable road users (VRUs, more than 75 percent of the victims of fatal crashes involving large trucks in Taiwan are VRUs. Most crashes occurred at or were due to the blind spots of large trucks because of the size and traveling locations of the VRUs. This study applies typology and statistical methods to estimate the potential safety benefit of blind spot detection (BSD systems for large trucks on VRUs. The pre-crash scenarios associated with the blind spots of large trucks were derived by counting the maneuvers of large trucks and VRUs, prior to crashes, the truck drivers’ improper behaviors (cause of crashes, and the crash types. The number of crashes and fatalities were counted for the pre-crash scenario relevant to the BSD systems. A value of 0.8 of human machine interface factor (HMIF based on a previous study was applied to estimate the potential safety benefits of the BSD system. The results show that the implementation of BSD systems on all large trucks could help avoid about 24, 10, and 11 percent of large truck-involved crashes with pedestrians, bicycles, and motorcycles, respectively. The BSD systems could also save 5 pedestrians, 3 bicyclists, and 15 motorcyclists per year from crashes involving large trucks.

  14. Potential influences of climate and nest structure on spotted owl reproductive success: a biophysical approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Rockweit

    Full Text Available Many bird species do not make their own nests; therefore, selection of existing sites that provide adequate microclimates is critical. This is particularly true for owls in north temperate climates that often nest early in the year when inclement weather is common. Spotted owls use three main types of nest structures, each of which are structurally distinct and may provide varying levels of protection to the eggs or young. We tested the hypothesis that spotted owl nest configuration influences nest microclimate using both experimental and observational data. We used a wind tunnel to estimate the convective heat transfer coefficient (h(c of eggs in 25 potential nest configurations that mimicked 2 nest types (top-cavity and platform nests, at 3 different wind speeds. We then used the estimates of h(c in a biophysical heat transfer model to estimate how long it would take unattended eggs to cool from incubation temperature (~36 °C to physiological zero temperature (PZT; ~26 °C under natural environmental conditions. Our results indicated that the structural configuration of nests influences the cooling time of the eggs inside those nests, and hence, influences the nest microclimate. Estimates of time to PZT ranged from 10.6 minutes to 33.3 minutes. Nest configurations that were most similar to platform nests always had the fastest egg cooling times, suggesting that platform nests were the least protective of those nests we tested. Our field data coupled with our experimental results suggested that nest choice is important for the reproductive success of owls during years of inclement weather or in regions characterized by inclement weather during the nesting season.

  15. Characterization and Evolution of the Spotted Gar Retina (United States)

    Sukeena, Joshua M.; Galicia, Carlos A.; Wilson, Jacob D.; McGinn, Tim; Boughmann, Janette W.; Robison, Barrie D.; Postlethwait, John H.; Braasch, Ingo; Stenkamp, Deborah L.; Fuerst, Peter G.


    In this study we characterize the retina of the spotted gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, a ray-finned fish. Gar did not undergo the whole genome duplication event that occurred at the base of the teleost fish lineage, which includes the model species zebrafish and medaka. The divergence of gars from the teleost lineage and the availability of a high quality genome sequence make it a uniquely useful species to understand how genome duplication sculpted features of the teleost visual system, including photoreceptor diversity. We developed reagents to characterize the cellular organization of the spotted gar retina, including representative markers for all major classes of retinal neurons and Müller glia. We report that the gar has a preponderance of predicted short-wavelength (SWS) shifted opsin genes, including a duplicated set of SWS1 (ultraviolet) sensitive opsin encoding genes, a SWS2 (blue) opsin encoding gene, and two rod opsin encoding genes, all of which were expressed in retinal photoreceptors. We also report that gar SWS1 cones lack the geometric organization of photoreceptors observed in teleost fish species, consistent with the crystalline photoreceptor mosaic being a teleost innovation. Of note the spotted gar expresses both exo-rhodopsin (RH1-1) and rhodopsin (RH1-2) in rods. Exo-rhodopsin is an opsin that is not expressed in the retina of zebrafish and other teleosts, but rather is expressed in regions of the brain. This study suggests that exo-rhodopsin is an ancestral actinopterygian (ray finned fish) retinal opsin, and in teleosts its expression has possibly been subfunctionalized to the pineal gland. PMID:27862951

  16. Society, demography and genetic structure in the spotted hyena. (United States)

    Holekamp, Kay E; Smith, Jennifer E; Strelioff, Christopher C; Van Horn, Russell C; Watts, Heather E


    Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are large mammalian carnivores, but their societies, called 'clans', resemble those of such cercopithecine primates as baboons and macaques with respect to their size, hierarchical structure, and frequency of social interaction among both kin and unrelated group-mates. However, in contrast to cercopithecine primates, spotted hyenas regularly hunt antelope and compete with group-mates for access to kills, which are extremely rich food sources, but also rare and ephemeral. This unique occurrence of baboon-like sociality among top-level predators has favoured the evolution of many unusual traits in this species. We briefly review the relevant socio-ecology of spotted hyenas, document great demographic variation but little variation in social structure across the species' range, and describe the long-term fitness consequences of rank-related variation in resource access among clan-mates. We then summarize patterns of genetic relatedness within and between clans, including some from a population that had recently gone through a population bottleneck, and consider the roles of sexually dimorphic dispersal and female mate choice in the generation of these patterns. Finally, we apply social network theory under varying regimes of resource availability to analyse the effects of kinship on the stability of social relationships among members of one large hyena clan in Kenya. Although social bonds among both kin and non-kin are weakest when resource competition is most intense, hyenas sustain strong social relationships with kin year-round, despite constraints imposed by resource limitation. Our analyses suggest that selection might act on both individuals and matrilineal kin groups within clans containing multiple matrilines. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls (United States)

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William L.; Peery, M. Zachariah


    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  18. Reproduction of two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Teles


    Full Text Available The two-spotted goby, Gobiusculus flavescens, is a common fish species along rocky shores in northern European waters. It is a small (40-60 mm, semipelagic marine fish, forming loose shoals in association with microalgae vegetation and mussel beds growing on the rock surface. It is a short-lived species, with a life span of 1-2 years. Both sexes display courtship behaviour and have sexual ornamentation during the breeding season. Male ornaments consist of large dorsal fins with iridescent blue lines, and iridescent blue spots along the sides of the body. Females develop a conspicuous, bright orange belly at sexual maturity. Due to these characteristics this species could have a great interest for ornamental aquariums. In previous work the maintenance of G. flavescens at high temperatures (until 23°C was successful. The aim of this study was to test the reproduction in captivity of G. flavescens. Six replicates were used (18L aquariums at the temperature of 18°C. In each replicate, two males and four females were introduced to an aquarium, where the males chose between two nests and courted the females. During the 112 days of the experiment the females spawned five times but only three spawns had success. The eggs take approximately 8 days to become mature. On the three spawns have hatched 300, 361 and 510 larvae at a time. The larvae were kept in a separate container and fed with alive rotifers and survived a maximum of 21 days. The reproduction of the two-spotted goby in captivity is possible at 18°C, but it is necessary to improve the conditions to rearing the larvae.

  19. Investigation on the Mechanism and Failure Mode of Laser Transmission Spot Welding Using PMMA Material for the Automotive Industry (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Liu, Baoguang; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Xuejiao; Jiang, Yingjie; Liu, Huixia


    To satisfy the need of polymer connection in lightweight automobiles, a study on laser transmission spot welding using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is conducted by using an Nd:YAG pulse laser. The influence of three variables, namely peak voltages, defocusing distances and the welding type (type I (pulse frequency and the duration is 25 Hz, 0.6 s) and type II (pulse frequency and the duration is 5 Hz, 3 s)) to the welding quality was investigated. The result showed that, in the case of the same peak voltages and defocusing distances, the number of bubbles for type I was obviously more than type II. The failure mode of type I was the base plate fracture along the solder joint, and the connection strength of type I was greater than type II. The weld pool diameter:depth ratio for type I was significantly greater than type II. It could be seen that there was a certain relationship between the weld pool diameter:depth ratio and the welding strength. By the finite element simulation, the weld pool for type I was more slender than type II, which was approximately the same as the experimental results. PMID:28772383

  20. Investigation on the Mechanism and Failure Mode of Laser Transmission Spot Welding Using PMMA Material for the Automotive Industry. (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Liu, Baoguang; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Xuejiao; Jiang, Yingjie; Liu, Huixia


    To satisfy the need of polymer connection in lightweight automobiles, a study on laser transmission spot welding using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is conducted by using an Nd:YAG pulse laser. The influence of three variables, namely peak voltages, defocusing distances and the welding type (type I (pulse frequency and the duration is 25 Hz, 0.6 s) and type II (pulse frequency and the duration is 5 Hz, 3 s)) to the welding quality was investigated. The result showed that, in the case of the same peak voltages and defocusing distances, the number of bubbles for type I was obviously more than type II. The failure mode of type I was the base plate fracture along the solder joint, and the connection strength of type I was greater than type II. The weld pool diameter:depth ratio for type I was significantly greater than type II. It could be seen that there was a certain relationship between the weld pool diameter:depth ratio and the welding strength. By the finite element simulation, the weld pool for type I was more slender than type II, which was approximately the same as the experimental results.

  1. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Weld Strength for Aluminum Ultrasonic Spot Welds (United States)

    Ghaffari, Bita; Hetrick, Elizabeth T.; Mozurkewich, George; Reatherford, Larry V.


    The goal of this work is to determine the feasibility of using an ultrasonic, non-destructive technique for post-process evaluation of aluminum ultrasonic spot welds. A focused immersion transducer was utilized to obtain a C-scan of the weld interface, from which a weighted ultrasonic contact area was estimated. Weldments were subsequently tested destructively to determine the weld strength. The square root of the weld contact area displayed a relatively good correlation with weld strength, r2=0.85.

  2. The simulation of the electron beam spot control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Emilian Oltean


    Full Text Available Electron beams have many special properties which make them particularly well suited for use in materials processing, wherever conventional techniques failed or proved to be inefficient. The entire process has a lot of time varying parameters, so using a distributed control system for 3d position of the electron beam spot may improve the quality of the material processing. Matlab environment was used for model implementation and simulations of the control system which contains the focusing and deflecting components. Due the nature of the process and knowing the electron beam equipment we proposed for the simulations scenarios with a 3D virtual surface.

  3. Isolated retinal cotton wool spot after coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kopsachilis


    Full Text Available Visual symptoms after coronary angiography are rarely encountered and mostly related to contrast induced transient cortical blindness or retinal artery occlusions. We report an intriguing case of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with vision deterioration in her right eye 12 h after coronary angiography for cardiac palpitation. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography scan revealed an isolated parafoveal cotton wool spot in her right eye that has totally resolved 6 weeks after initial presentation. This is the first case report of this rare post coronary angiography complication.

  4. Isolated retinal cotton wool spot after coronary angiography. (United States)

    Kopsachilis, Nikolaos; Brar, Manpreet; Marinescu, Anca I C; Sivaprasad, Sobha


    Visual symptoms after coronary angiography are rarely encountered and mostly related to contrast induced transient cortical blindness or retinal artery occlusions. We report an intriguing case of a 50-year-old woman, who presented with vision deterioration in her right eye 12 h after coronary angiography for cardiac palpitation. Fundoscopy and optical coherence tomography scan revealed an isolated parafoveal cotton wool spot in her right eye that has totally resolved 6 weeks after initial presentation. This is the first case report of this rare post coronary angiography complication.

  5. Forecasting Electricity Spot Prices Accounting for Wind Power Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Tryggvi; Pinson, Pierre; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg


    A two-step methodology for forecasting of electricity spot prices is introduced, with focus on the impact of predicted system load and wind power generation. The nonlinear and nonstationary influence of these explanatory variables is accommodated in a first step based on a nonparametric and time......-varying regression model. In a second step, time-series models, i.e., ARMA and Holt–Winters, are applied to account for residual autocorrelation and seasonal dynamics. Empirical results are presented for out-of-sample forecasts of day-ahead prices in the Western Danish price area of Nord Pool's Elspot, during a two...

  6. Price dynamics among U.S. electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Haesun; Mjelde, James W.; Bessler, David A.


    Combining recent advances in causal flows with time series analysis, relationships among 11 U.S. spot market electricity prices are examined. Results suggest that the relationships among the markets vary by time frame. In contemporaneous time, the western markets are separated from the eastern markets and the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas. At longer time frames these separations disappear, even though electricity transmission between the regions is limited. It appears the relationships among markets are not only a function of physical assets (such as transmissions lines among markets), but by similar and dissimilar institutional arrangements among the markets. (Author)

  7. SPOTting model parameters using a ready-made Python package (United States)

    Houska, Tobias; Kraft, Philipp; Breuer, Lutz


    The selection and parameterization of reliable process descriptions in ecological modelling is driven by several uncertainties. The procedure is highly dependent on various criteria, like the used algorithm, the likelihood function selected and the definition of the prior parameter distributions. A wide variety of tools have been developed in the past decades to optimize parameters. Some of the tools are closed source. Due to this, the choice for a specific parameter estimation method is sometimes more dependent on its availability than the performance. A toolbox with a large set of methods can support users in deciding about the most suitable method. Further, it enables to test and compare different methods. We developed the SPOT (Statistical Parameter Optimization Tool), an open source python package containing a comprehensive set of modules, to analyze and optimize parameters of (environmental) models. SPOT comes along with a selected set of algorithms for parameter optimization and uncertainty analyses (Monte Carlo, MC; Latin Hypercube Sampling, LHS; Maximum Likelihood, MLE; Markov Chain Monte Carlo, MCMC; Scuffled Complex Evolution, SCE-UA; Differential Evolution Markov Chain, DE-MCZ), together with several likelihood functions (Bias, (log-) Nash-Sutcliff model efficiency, Correlation Coefficient, Coefficient of Determination, Covariance, (Decomposed-, Relative-, Root-) Mean Squared Error, Mean Absolute Error, Agreement Index) and prior distributions (Binomial, Chi-Square, Dirichlet, Exponential, Laplace, (log-, multivariate-) Normal, Pareto, Poisson, Cauchy, Uniform, Weibull) to sample from. The model-independent structure makes it suitable to analyze a wide range of applications. We apply all algorithms of the SPOT package in three different case studies. Firstly, we investigate the response of the Rosenbrock function, where the MLE algorithm shows its strengths. Secondly, we study the Griewank function, which has a challenging response surface for

  8. The research of "blind" spot in the LVQ network (United States)

    Guo, Zhanjie; Nan, Shupo; Wang, Xiaoli


    Nowadays competitive neural network has been widely used in the pattern recognition, classification and other aspects, and show the great advantages compared with the traditional clustering methods. But the competitive neural networks still has inadequate in many aspects, and it needs to be further improved. Based on the learning Vector Quantization Network proposed by Learning Kohonen [1], this paper resolve the issue of the large training error, when there are "blind" spots in a network through the introduction of threshold value learning rules and finally programs the realization with Matlab.

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Skare, Lizbet; Lundgren, Lennart


    The accuracy of the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot test has been questioned because of false negative and positive test reactions. The EN 1811, a European standard reference method developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), is fine-tuned to estimate nickel release around...... the limit value of the EU Nickel Directive from products intended to come into direct and prolonged skin contact. Because assessments according to EN 1811 are expensive to perform, time consuming, and may destruct the test item, it should be of great value to know the accuracy of the DMG screening test....

  10. Hot spots and dark current in advanced plasma wakefield accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Manahan


    Full Text Available Dark current can spoil witness bunch beam quality and acceleration efficiency in particle beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators. In advanced schemes, hot spots generated by the drive beam or the wakefield can release electrons from higher ionization threshold levels in the plasma media. These electrons may be trapped inside the plasma wake and will then accumulate dark current, which is generally detrimental for a clear and unspoiled plasma acceleration process. Strategies for generating clean and robust, dark current free plasma wake cavities are devised and analyzed, and crucial aspects for experimental realization of such optimized scenarios are discussed.

  11. Current-Induced Forces and Hot Spots in Biased Nanojunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Wang, Jian-Sheng


    We investigate theoretically the interplay of current-induced forces (CIFs), Joule heating, and heat transport inside a current-carrying nanoconductor. We find that the CIFs, due to the electron-phonon coherence, can control the spatial heat dissipation in the conductor. This yields a significant...... asymmetric concentration of excess heating (hot spot) even for a symmetric conductor. When coupled to the electrode phonons, CIFs drive different phonon heat flux into the two electrodes. First-principles calculations on realistic biased nanojunctions illustrate the importance of the effect....

  12. Spot-Scanning Proton Arc (SPArc) Therapy: The First Robust and Delivery-Efficient Spot-Scanning Proton Arc Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xuanfeng, E-mail:; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, J. Michele; Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Stevens, Craig; Yan, Di


    Purpose: To present a novel robust and delivery-efficient spot-scanning proton arc (SPArc) therapy technique. Methods and Materials: A SPArc optimization algorithm was developed that integrates control point resampling, energy layer redistribution, energy layer filtration, and energy layer resampling. The feasibility of such a technique was evaluated using sample patients: 1 patient with locally advanced head and neck oropharyngeal cancer with bilateral lymph node coverage, and 1 with a nonmobile lung cancer. Plan quality, robustness, and total estimated delivery time were compared with the robust optimized multifield step-and-shoot arc plan without SPArc optimization (Arc{sub multi-field}) and the standard robust optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan. Dose-volume histograms of target and organs at risk were analyzed, taking into account the setup and range uncertainties. Total delivery time was calculated on the basis of a 360° gantry room with 1 revolutions per minute gantry rotation speed, 2-millisecond spot switching time, 1-nA beam current, 0.01 minimum spot monitor unit, and energy layer switching time of 0.5 to 4 seconds. Results: The SPArc plan showed potential dosimetric advantages for both clinical sample cases. Compared with IMPT, SPArc delivered 8% and 14% less integral dose for oropharyngeal and lung cancer cases, respectively. Furthermore, evaluating the lung cancer plan compared with IMPT, it was evident that the maximum skin dose, the mean lung dose, and the maximum dose to ribs were reduced by 60%, 15%, and 35%, respectively, whereas the conformity index was improved from 7.6 (IMPT) to 4.0 (SPArc). The total treatment delivery time for lung and oropharyngeal cancer patients was reduced by 55% to 60% and 56% to 67%, respectively, when compared with Arc{sub multi-field} plans. Conclusion: The SPArc plan is the first robust and delivery-efficient proton spot-scanning arc therapy technique, which could potentially be implemented

  13. Corrosion of Ultrasonic spot Welded Joints of Magnesium to Steel (United States)

    Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, Michael L.

    Mixed-metal joining, especially between magnesium and steel, is one of the critical technologies in achieving light-weighting vehicle body construction. However, galvanic corrosion between mixed metal joints is inevitable but not well quantified. In this study, 1.6 mm thick Mg AZ31B-H24 was joined to 0.8 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) mild steel by ultrasonic spot welding in lap-shear configuration. No specific corrosion protection was applied in order to study worst-case conditions for corrosion behavior. The approach used an automotive cyclic corrosion test — Ford Arizona Proving Ground Equivalent Corrosion Cycle (APGE), which includes cycles of dipping in a salt bath, air drying, then holding in constant humidity environment. Lap-shear strength of the joints decreased linearly with the exposure cycles. All the joints were either taken out of test cycle for mechanical test or they separated within the humidity chamber before 25th cycle. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of Mg(OH)2 deposit in the crevice between the AZ31 and steel sheets and on the surface of the AZ31. The deposit grew thicker with cycles with exerting enough force to deform the AZ31 and HDG steel and causing a gradual opening of joints. The corrosion of the AZ31 was localized and nonuniform. The most severe corrosion occurred not at the intersection of AZ31 and the steel but rather 15-20 mm away from the spot welds.

  14. Measuring competitiveness of the EPEX spot market for electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Christoph; Wozabal, David


    The issue of market concentration in electricity markets and resulting possible anti-competitive behavior of producers is a much discussed topic in many countries. We investigate the day-ahead market for electricity at the EPEX, the largest central European market for electricity. To analyze whether generating companies use their market power to influence prices, we use a conjectural variations approach as well as a direct approach to construct marginal costs of electricity production. Given the available data, we cannot reject the hypothesis that there was no systematic abuse of market power by the suppliers of electricity on the EPEX day-ahead spot market for the years 2007–2010. These results are essentially robust when restricting the sample to high load hours, which are generally considered to be the most prone to market manipulation. -- Highlights: •We investigate the efficiency of the German spot market for electricity. •We employ a conjectural variations approach and a fundamental market model. •Peak load hours and base load hours are analyzed separately. •We find that the market was competitive from 2007 to 2010 for both base and peak hours. •Policies to promote market transparency in Germany can be regarded as successful

  15. Simulation of hot spots formation and evolution in HMX (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Yang, Tonghui


    In order to study the formation and evolution of hot spots under shock loading, HMX explosives were selected as the object of study for the two-dimensional finite difference numerical simulation. A fifth order finite difference weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme and a third order TVD Runge-Kutta method are utilized for the spatial discretization and the time advance, respectively. The governing equations are based on the fluid elasto-plastic control equations. The Mie-Gruneisen equation of state and the ideal gas equation of state are selected to use in the state equation of the solid explosives and gas material. In order to simplify the calculation of the model, the reaction can be considered to complete in one step. The calculated area is [ 3.0 ×10-5 m ] × [ 3.0 ×10-5 m ] . The radius is 0.6 ×10-5 m, and the internal gas is not involved in the reaction. The calculation area is divided into 300×300 grids and 10 grids are selected from the bottom of each column to give the particle velocity u as the initial condition. In the selected grid, different initial velocity 100m/s and 200m/s are loaded respectively to study the influence of hot spot formation and evolution in different impact intensity.

  16. Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by Promoting Skin Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Musashi


    Full Text Available Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.

  17. A rough multi-factor model of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel


    We introduce a new continuous-time mathematical model of electricity spot prices which accounts for the most important stylized facts of these time series: seasonality, spikes, stochastic volatility, and mean reversion. Empirical studies have found a possible fifth stylized fact, roughness, and our approach explicitly incorporates this into the model of the prices. Our setup generalizes the popular Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based multi-factor framework of and allows us to perform statistical tests to distinguish between an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based model and a rough model. Further, through the multi-factor approach we account for seasonality and spikes before estimating – and making inference on – the degree of roughness. This is novel in the literature and we present simulation evidence showing that these precautions are crucial for accurate estimation. Lastly, we estimate our model on recent data from six European energy exchanges and find statistical evidence of roughness in five out of six markets. As an application of our model, we show how, in these five markets, a rough component improves short term forecasting of the prices. - Highlights: • Statistical modeling of electricity spot prices • Multi-factor decomposition • Roughness • Electricity price forecasting

  18. Bilateral Macular Roth Spots as a Manifestation of Subacute Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Ceglowska


    Full Text Available A 42-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of impaired vision in the right eye (OD. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA (LogMAR was 1.1 for the right eye and 0.0 for the left eye (OS. Fundus examination revealed white-centered hemorrhages resembling Roth spots in both macular regions. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT showed intraretinal pseudocysts and hyperreflective deposits in the areas corresponding to the Roth spots. Conducted blood tests revealed elevated D-dimer concentration, increased total number of neutrophils, high C-reactive protein concentration, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Procalcitonin concentration, platelet count, and body temperature were within normal ranges. A blood culture was ordered and yielded Streptococcus mitis and intravenous antibiotics were started immediately. The patient started complaining of chest and left calf pain. The systemic examination revealed infective endocarditis accompanied by bicuspid aortic valve and paravalvular abscess formation. The patient underwent cardiac surgery with mechanical aortic valve implantation. After recovery, the patient’s visual acuities improved fully. Control ophthalmic examination, including SD-OCT, showed no abnormalities.

  19. Intense equatorial flux spots on the surface of Earth's core (United States)

    Jackson, A.


    A vast number of vector measurements of the Earth's magnetic field have recently become available from the satellite Oersted, currently in orbit monitoring the core magnetic field. In this presentation I will present new maps of the Earth's magnetic field at the surface of the fluid core derived from these satellite data which show intense flux spots in equatorial regions; the images are derived using a maximum entropy technique which is capable of reconstructing images with high dynamic range more precisely than conventional techniques. The intensity of these features is unusually large - they are comparable to high-latitude flux patches near the poles, previously identified as the major component of the dynamo field. A comparison with sunspots is tempting, though they are probably not associated with expulsion of toroidal magnetic field as is the case for the sun. Indeed, the tendency for pairing of these spots to the north and south of the geographical equator suggests they might be associated with the tops of so-called `Taylor columns' (indicative of the dominance of the rotation of the Earth) which have previously been suggested to be associated with the four high-latitude flux patches near the poles. Equatorially-trapped waves are known to exist in theory, and a correct interpretation of these features might lead to constraints on the strength of the hidden toroidal magnetic field within the Earth, as well as constraints on other physical regimes.

  20. Fully Automatic Spot Welding System for Application in Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Puschner


    Full Text Available Abstract A Virtual Machine has led to a fully automatic spot welding system. All necessary parameters are created by measuring systems and algorithms running in the Virtual Machine. A hybrid operating circuit allows the Virtual Machine to read the exact process voltage between the tips of the electrodes every 50 µs. Actual welding voltage and current allow for the first time reading process impedance, electric power and total energy being transferred to the spot weld. Necessary energy input is calculated by a calorimetric model after measuring the total thickness of the materials to be welded as soon as the welding gun is positioned at the workpiece. A precision potentiometer implemented in the gun delivers the total material thickness within the 0.1 mm range during the pre-pressure phases. The internal databank of the Virtual Machine controls all essential parameters to guide the total welding process. Special generator characteristics of the welding power unit are created by the Virtual Machine just during the upslope and the welding phases. So the process will be initialized in differentiating the kind of material, mild steel or high strengthen steel. This will affect the kind of energy input and current decrease during the upslope and downslope phases.

  1. Microstructure and Execution Strategies in the Global Spot FX Market (United States)

    Schmidt, Anatoly B.

    Modern global inter-bank spot foreign exchange is essentially a limit-order market. Execution strategies in such a market may differ from those in markets that permit market orders. Here we describe microstructure and dynamics of the EBS market (EBS being an ICAP company is the leading institutional spot FX electronic brokerage). In order to illustrate specifics of the limit-order market, we discuss two problems. First, we describe our simulations of maker loss in case when the EUR/USD maker order is pegged to the market best price. We show that the expected maker loss is lower than the typical bid/offer spread. Second, we discuss the problem of optimal slicing of large orders for minimizing execution costs. We start with analysis of the expected execution times for the EUR/USD orders submitted at varying market depth. Then we introduce a loss function that accounts for the market volatility risk and the order's P/L in respect to the market best price. This loss function can be optimized for given risk aversion. Finally, we apply this approach to slicing large limit orders.

  2. Analysis of ripple formation in single crystal spot welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab de Metallurgie Physique; Corrigan, D.; Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.


    Stationary spot welds have been made at the (001) surface of Fe-l5%Ni-15%Cr single crystals using a Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA). On the top surface of the spot welds, very regular and concentric ripples were observed after solidification by differential interference color microscopy. Their height (typically 1--5 {micro}m) and spacing (typically {approximately} 60 {micro}m) decreased with the radius of the pool. These ripples were successfully accounted for in terms of capillary-wave theory using the fundamental mode frequency f{sub 0} given by the first zero of the zero-order Bessel function. The spacing d between the ripples was then equated to v{sub s}/f{sub 0}, where v{sub s} is the solidification rate. From the measured ripple spacing, the velocity of the pool was deduced as a function of the radius, and this velocity was in good agreement with the results of a heat-flow simulation.

  3. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Persad


    Full Text Available Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971. George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990. Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF.

  4. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (United States)

    Persad, Paul; Patel, Rajendrakumar; Patel, Niki


    Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971). George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily) fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990). Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). PMID:20811570

  5. Digital spot mammography using an add-on upright unit: diagnostic application in daily practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesurolle, Benoit; Mignon, Francois; Ariche-Cohen, Michele; Kao, Ellen; Gagnon, Jean H.; Goumot, Pierre-Alain


    Introduction: To present the use of digital spot mammography (DSM) in a diagnostic practice. Methods and patients: Digital spot images of 779 women requiring a spot compression or a spot magnification view were collected. The digital images were acquired on a digital spot upright unit using a 61 mmx61 mm field of view. Lesions reported included masses, calcifications, and areas of distortions. Results: 1065 lesions required additional views with DSM. Lesions reported included masses (n=113), masses and microcalcifications (n=53), spiculated masses (n=34), architectural distortions (n=16), and microcalcifications (n=849). DSMs were considered to be adequate in 97.7% of patients. Unsatisfactory exams resulted from difficulties encountered in targeting the area of interest at the beginning of our experience. Conclusion: DSM, most commonly used to perform interventional procedures, can also be used in a diagnostic practice taking advantage of post-processing of images not available with conventional spot compression and magnification

  6. A hunters game : How policy can change to spot and sink letterbox-type practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwerzijl, Mijke; Henneaux, François; Traversa, Edoardo


    This ETUC report sets out a number of recommendations to combat the problem of “letterbox practices” whereby companies circumvent their obligations to not only to pay lower taxes, but also lower wages and to impose bad working conditions. Letterbox companies are legal entities established in an EU

  7. Magnetic field topology and chemical spot distributions of the Ap star HD 119419 (United States)

    Rusomarov, N.; Kochukhov, O.; Lundin, A.


    Context. Analysis of high-resolution spectropolarimetric time-series observations of early-type magnetic stars is currently the most advanced method of obtaining detailed information on their surface magnetic field topologies and horizontal spot distributions. Aims: In this study we analyse a new set of high-quality full Stokes vector observations of the magnetic Ap star HD 119419 - a member of the 14 Myr old Lower Cen-Cru association - for the purpose of studying the surface field topology and mapping the chemical abundance spots. Methods: We made use of the circular and linear polarisation data collected for HD 119419 with the HARPSpol instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope. These observations were analysed with a multi-line magnetic diagnostic technique and modelled in detail with a Magnetic Doppler imaging (MDI) code. Results: We present a new set of high-precision mean longitudinal magnetic field measurements and derive a revised stellar rotational period by comparing our measurements with the literature data. We also redetermine the basic stellar atmospheric parameters. Our four Stokes parameter magnetic inversions reveal a moderately complex surface field topology with a mean field strength of 18 kG and a maximum local strength of 24 kG. A poloidal dipolar component dominates the magnetic energy spectrum of the surface field in HD 119419. However, significant contributions of the higher-order spherical harmonic components are also present. We show that the dipole plus quadrupole part of the reconstructed field geometry is incapable of reproducing the observed amplitudes and shapes of the Stokes Q and U profiles. The chemical abundance distributions of Fe, Cr, Ti, and Nd, derived self-consistently with the magnetic field geometry, are characterised by large abundance gradients and a lack of clear correlation with the magnetic field structure. Conclusions: This full Stokes vector analysis of HD 119419 extends the modern hot-star magnetic mapping investigations

  8. The analysis of spot welding joints of steel sheets with closed profile by ultrasonic method


    Dariusz Ulbrich; Jakub Kowalczyk; Marian Jósko; Jarosław Selech


    Resistance spot welding is widely used in the fabrication of vehicle bodies and parts of their equipment. The article presents the methodology and the results of non-destructive ultrasonic testing of resistance spot welded joints of thin steel sheet with closed profile. Non-destructive test results were verified on the basis of welded joint area after destructive testing. The obtained results were used to develop an assessment technique for spot welded joints of closed profile with steel shee...

  9. Nerve fiber bundle visual field defect resulting from a giant peripapillary cotton-wool spot. (United States)

    Chaum, E; Drewry, R D; Ware, G T; Charles, S


    Cotton-wool spots are the clinical manifestation of focal infarcts of the retinal nerve fiber layer. They rarely cause significant visual field loss. A large idiopathic cotton-wool spot in a 34-year-old healthy woman caused a nerve fiber bundle visual field defect and an afferent pupillary defect that remained after the cotton-wool spot had disappeared and the retina and optic nerve appeared normal.

  10. Modeling hourly Electricity Spot Market Prices as non stationary functional times series


    Liebl, Dominik


    The instantaneous nature of electricity distinguishes its spot prices from spot prices for equities and other commodities. Up to now electricity cannot be stored economically and therefore demand for electricity has an untempered effect on electricity prices. In particular, hourly electricity spot prices show a vast range of dynamics which can change rapidly. In this paper we introduce a robust version of functional principal component analysis for sparse data. The functional perspective inte...

  11. Data for automated, high-throughput microscopy analysis of intracellular bacterial colonies using spot detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Christina L; Login, Frédéric H; Jensen, Helene H


    Quantification of intracellular bacterial colonies is useful in strategies directed against bacterial attachment, subsequent cellular invasion and intracellular proliferation. An automated, high-throughput microscopy-method was established to quantify the number and size of intracellular bacterial...... of cell nuclei were automatically quantified using a spot detection-tool. The spot detection-output was exported to Excel, where data analysis was performed. In this article, micrographs and spot detection data are made available to facilitate implementation of the method....

  12. Energy reduction for the spot welding process in the automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, J D; Athi, N; Al-Jader, M A; Shaw, A; Al-Shamma'a, A I


    When performing spot welding on galvanised metals, higher welding force and current are required than on uncoated steels. This has implications for the energy usage when creating each spot weld, of which there are approximately 4300 in each passenger car. The paper presented is an overview of electrode current selection and its variance over the lifetime of the electrode tip. This also describes the proposed analysis system for the selection of welding parameters for the spot welding process, as the electrode tip wears

  13. SPOT Tandem completed: A unique constellation of optical satellites from Europe


    Lemmens, M.J.P.M.


    The launch of SPOT 7 on 30 June 2014 at 6:22 a.m. CET completed the constellation of four optical spacecraft operating in the same orbit. The constellation further consists of twin sister SPOT 6 and Pléiades 1A and 1B. To mark the occasion, the author discusses the features of the extended family of 7 SPOT satellites here.

  14. A study of fatigue life prediction for automotive spot weldment using local strain approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song In; Yu, Hyo Sun; Na, Sung Hun; Na, Eui Gyun


    The fatigue crack initiation life is studied on automotive spot weldment made from cold rolled carbon steel(SPC) sheet by using DCPDM and local strain approach. It can be found that the fatigue crack initiation behavior in spot weldment can be definitely detected by DCPDM system. The local stresses and strains are estimated by elastic-plastic FEM analysis and the alternative approximate method based on Neuber's rule were applied to predict the fatigue life of spot weldment. A satisfactory correlation between the predicted life and experimental life can be found in spot weldment within a factor of 4

  15. An efficient method of spot welding Aluminium alloys with induction preheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Saleem


    Full Text Available Steel has been the material of choice for automobile manufacturers. In the recent years material such as aluminium and its alloys are taking over the market because of their light weight. The use of aluminium, in automobile manufacturing can result in overall fuel efficiency. Spot welding aluminium alloys require higher electric power and less welding time as compared to steel. Welding guns that can produce an electric current which is approximately 2 to 3 times higher, as compared to steel are required for spot welding aluminium. An efficient method of spot welding Aluminium alloys with the preheating process has been proposed in this paper. Preheating Aluminium sheet before spot welding reduces the thermal and electrical resistance which brings down the electric current requirement to spot weld Aluminium structures. Both spot welding and induction preheating process have been modelled in this paper. The test results of the preheating process have also been verified with practical heating trials. The preheating is performed on-the-fly in advance to spot welding process. The results show that spot welding Al 6082 after preheating up to 200 oC, the output current requirements to make the spot weld are reduced by 22%.

  16. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl


    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit...... exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release...

  17. Modeling Hot-Spot Contributions in Shocked High Explosives at the Mesoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrier, Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When looking at performance of high explosives, the defects within the explosive become very important. Plastic bonded explosives, or PBXs, contain voids of air and bonder between the particles of explosive material that aid in the ignition of the explosive. These voids collapse in high pressure shock conditions, which leads to the formation of hot spots. Hot spots are localized high temperature and high pressure regions that cause significant changes in the way the explosive material detonates. Previously hot spots have been overlooked with modeling, but now scientists are realizing their importance and new modeling systems that can accurately model hot spots are underway.

  18. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) (United States)

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.


    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  19. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Blakesley, J.A.; Seamans, M.E.; Conner, M.M.; Franklin, A.B.; White, Gary C.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Munton, T.E.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; Steger, G.N.; McDonald, T.L.


    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1990 to 2005 to assist a listing evaluation by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study areas (from N to S) were on the Lassen National Forest (LAS), Eldorado National Forest (ELD), Sierra National Forest (SIE), and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SKC). These study areas represented a broad spectrum of habitat and management conditions in these mountain ranges. We estimated apparent survival probability, reproductive output, and rate of population change for spotted owls on individual study areas and for all study areas combined (meta-analysis) using model selection or model-averaging based on maximum-likelihood estimation. We followed a formal protocol to conduct this analysis that was similar to other spotted owl meta-analyses. Consistency of field and analytical methods among our studies reduced confounding methodological effects when evaluating results. We used 991 marked spotted owls in the analysis of apparent survival. Apparent survival probability was higher for adult than for subadult owls. There was little difference in apparent survival between male and female owls. Model-averaged mean estimates of apparent survival probability of adult owls varied from 0.811 ?? 0.021 for females at LAS to 0.890 ?? 0.016 for males at SKC. Apparent survival increased over time for owls of all age classes at LAS and SIE, for adults at ELD, and for second-year subadults and adults at SKC. The meta-analysis of apparent survival, which included only adult owls, confirmed an increasing trend in survival over time. Survival rates were higher for owls on SKC than on the other study areas. We analyzed data

  20. Alternative phenotypes of male mating behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite. (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Sabelis, Maurice W; Egas, Martijn; Faraji, Farid


    Severe intraspecific competition for mates selects for aggressive individuals but may also lead to the evolution of alternative phenotypes that do not act aggressively, yet manage to acquire matings. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, shows male mate-guarding behaviour and male-male combat for available females. This may provide opportunity for weaker males to avoid fighting by adopting alternative mating behaviour such as sneaker or satellite tactics as observed in other animals. We investigated male precopulatory behaviour in the two-spotted spider mite by means of video-techniques and found three types of male mating behaviour: territorial, sneaker and opportunistic. Territorial and sneaker males associate with female teleiochrysales and spend much time guarding them. Territorial males are easily disturbed by rival males and engage themselves in fights with them. However, sneaker males are not at all disturbed by rival males, never engage in fights and, strikingly, never face attack by territorial males. Opportunistic males wander around in search of females that are in the teleiochrysalis stage but very close to or at emergence. To quickly classify any given mate-guarding male as territorial or sneaker we developed a method based on the instantaneous response of males to disturbance by a live male mounted on top of a brush. We tested this method against the response of the same males to natural disturbance by two or three other males. Because this method proved to be successful, we used it to collect territorial and sneaker males, and subjected them to morphological analysis to assess whether the various behavioural phenotypes are associated with different morphological characters. However, we found no statistical differences between territorial and sneaker males, concerning the length of the first legs, the stylets, the pedipalps or the body.

  1. Remote Characterization of Forest Structure Using 5 and 10m SPOT-5 Satellite Data (United States)

    Wolter, P. T.; Townsend, P. A.; Sturtevant, B. R.


    Comprehensive understanding of forest dynamics at regional or biome scales is linked to our ability to accurately characterize forest ecosystems over increasingly large areas using remote sensing. LIDAR technology, although promising, is currently not yet viable for repeated regional accounting, necessitating the development of methods which take advantage of existing spaceborne assets. As such, our objective is to estimate a comprehensive set of forest structural attributes at a finer spatial grain size (10 m) over a broader area than is currently available. We employ neighborhood statistics (standard deviation, variance, sill variance, and ratios of these metrics at 5 and 10m) calculated from SPOT-5 data and derivatives to estimate and map forest structural characteristics. A partial least squares (PLS) regression approach was used with the local statistics and field data to produce models for pixel-wise estimation and mapping of mean values, respectively, for deciduous and coniferous forest canopy diameter (R2 = 0.82 and 0.93), tree height (R2 = 0.69 and 0.92), height of live crown (R2 = 0.58 and 0.81), canopy closure (R2 = 0.52 and 0.68), bole diameter at breast height (R2 = 0.82 and 0.90), and basal area (R2 = 0.71 and 0.74) for a 3,660 km2 area in northeast Minnesota. This approach for quantifying forest structure is robust in the sense that a detailed forest cover type map is not required at any step in the process. Hence, we show that multi-resolution SPOT-5 data may be used as a practical alternative to LIDAR for regional characterization of forest biophysical parameters.

  2. Sibling species of cercospora associated with gray leaf spot of maize. (United States)

    Wang, J; Levy, M; Dunkle, L D


    ABSTRACT Monoconidial isolates of the fungus causing gray leaf spot of maize were obtained from diseased leaves collected throughout the United States and analyzed for genetic variability at 111 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci. Cluster analysis revealed two very distinct groups of Cercospora zeae-maydis isolates. Both groups were found to be relatively uniform internally with an average genetic similarity among isolates of approximately 93 and 94%, respectively. The groups were separated from each other by a genetic distance of approximately 80%, a distance greater than that separating each group from the sorghum pathogen, C. sorghi (67 to 70%). Characteristics and dimensions of conidia and conid-iophores produced on infected plants or nutrient media were unreliable criteria for taxonomic differentiation of isolates composing the two groups of C. zeae-maydis. Nucleotide sequences of 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were identical within each group but different between the two groups and different from C. sorghi. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms generated by digestion of the 5.8S rDNA and ITS regions with TaqI readily distinguished each group and C. sorghi. Isolates in one group were generally distributed throughout maize-producing regions of the United States; isolates in the other group were localized in the eastern third of the country. Both types were present in the same fields at some locations. The genetic distance based on AFLP profiles and different ITS nucleotide sequences between the two morphologically indistinguishable groups indicate that they are sibling species. Although it is unlikely that breeding for resistance to gray leaf spot will be confounded by local or regional variation in the pathogen, a vigilant approach is warranted, because two pathogenic species exist with unknown abilities to evolve new pathotypes.

  3. Genetic and environmental effects on a meat spotting defect in seasoned dry-cured ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Pagnacco


    Full Text Available Purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of a visible spotting defect on the slice of dry-cured ham and assess environmental and genetic causes of this frequent problem. A group of 233 pigs from commercial cross-breeding lines, progeny of ten boars and forty seven sows, was raised in a single herd to obtain the “Italian Heavy Pig”, typically slaughtered at 160 ± 10 kg live weight and older than 9 months of age. A quality evaluation of their right dry-cured hams, seasoned according to the Parma P.D.O. protocol, was undertaken. Each ham was cross-sectioned to obtain a slice of Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus and Biceps Femoris muscles. The focused phenotype was the presence/absence of brownish spots in these muscles, which represent a remarkable meat defect with strong impact on the final sale price. Environmental and management factors were considered in order to evaluate variability related to the phenotype. Animals were raised on two different flooring types (concrete and slatted floor and a Vitamin C diet was also supplemented in the last 45 days before slaughtering to half of the animals. While the pre-planned environmental effects did not show any significant contribution to the total variability of the phenotype, the genetic analysis showed a near to zero value for heritability with a consistent 0.32 repeatability. The proportion of the total phenotypic variance was explained by an important dominance genetic component (0.26 indicating that the technological seasoning process may play a secondary role on the expression of this phenotype.

  4. Genetic Basis of Body Color and Spotting Pattern in Redheaded Pine Sawfly Larvae (Neodiprion lecontei). (United States)

    Linnen, Catherine R; O'Quin, Claire T; Shackleford, Taylor; Sears, Connor R; Lindstedt, Carita


    Pigmentation has emerged as a premier model for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution, and a growing catalog of color loci is starting to reveal biases in the mutations, genes, and genetic architectures underlying color variation in the wild. However, existing studies have sampled a limited subset of taxa, color traits, and developmental stages. To expand the existing sample of color loci, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses on two types of larval pigmentation traits that vary among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly ( Neodiprion lecontei ): carotenoid-based yellow body color and melanin-based spotting pattern. For both traits, our QTL models explained a substantial proportion of phenotypic variation and suggested a genetic architecture that is neither monogenic nor highly polygenic. Additionally, we used our linkage map to anchor the current N. lecontei genome assembly . With these data, we identified promising candidate genes underlying: (1) a loss of yellow pigmentation in populations in the Mid-Atlantic/northeastern USA [C locus-associated membrane protein homologous to a mammalian HDL receptor-2 gene ( Cameo2 ) and lipid transfer particle apolipoproteins II and I gene ( apoLTP-II/I )], and (2) a pronounced reduction in black spotting in Great-Lakes populations [members of the yellow gene family , tyrosine hydroxylase gene ( pale ) , and dopamine N- acetyltransferase gene ( Dat )]. Several of these genes also contribute to color variation in other wild and domesticated taxa. Overall, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that predictable genes of large-effect contribute to color evolution in nature. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  5. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the scab and spot anthracnose fungus Elsinoë (Myriangiales, Dothideomycetes). (United States)

    Fan, X L; Barreto, R W; Groenewald, J Z; Bezerra, J D P; Pereira, O L; Cheewangkoon, R; Mostert, L; Tian, C M; Crous, P W


    Species of Elsinoë are phytopathogens causing scab and spot anthracnose on many plants, including some economically important crops such as avocado, citrus, grapevines, and ornamentals such as poinsettias, field crops and woody hosts. Disease symptoms are often easily recognisable, and referred to as signature-bearing diseases, for the cork-like appearance of older infected tissues with scab-like appearance. In some Elsinoë -host associations the resulting symptoms are better described as spot anthracnose. Additionally the infected plants may also show mild to severe distortions of infected organs. Isolation of Elsinoë in pure culture can be very challenging and examination of specimens collected in the field is often frustrating because of the lack of fertile structures. Current criteria for species recognition and host specificity in Elsinoë are unclear due to overlapping morphological characteristics, and the lack of molecular and pathogenicity data. In the present study we revised the taxonomy of Elsinoë based on DNA sequence and morphological data derived from 119 isolates, representing 67 host genera from 17 countries, including 64 ex-type cultures. Combined analyses of ITS, LSU, rpb2 and TEF1-α DNA sequence data were used to reconstruct the backbone phylogeny of the genus Elsinoë . Based on the single nomenclature for fungi, 26 new combinations are proposed in Elsinoë for species that were originally described in Sphaceloma . A total of 13 species are epitypified with notes on their taxonomy and phylogeny. A further eight new species are introduced, leading to a total of 75 Elsinoë species supported by molecular data in the present study. For the most part species of Elsinoë appear to be host specific, although the majority of the species treated are known only from a few isolates, and further collections and pathogenicity studies will be required to reconfirm this conclusion.

  6. Exobasidium maculosum, a new species causing leaf and fruit spots on blueberry in the southeastern USA and its relationship with other Exobasidium spp. parasitic to blueberry and cranberry. (United States)

    Brewer, Marin Talbot; Turner, Ashley N; Brannen, Phillip M; Cline, William O; Richardson, Elizabeth A


    Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot of blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) is an emerging disease that has rapidly increased in prevalence throughout the southeastern USA. To determine whether this disease is caused by a new species of Exobasidium, we studied the morphology and phylogenetic relationship of the causal fungus compared with other members of the genus, including the type species E. vaccinii and other species that parasitize blueberry and cranberry (V. macrocarpon). Both scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy were used for morphological characterization. For phylogenetic analyses, we sequenced the large subunit of the rDNA (LSU) from 10 isolates collected from leaf or fruit spots of rabbiteye blueberry (V. virgatum), highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum) and southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium interspecific hybrid) from Georgia and North Carolina and six isolates from leaf spots of lowbush blueberry (V. angustifolium) from Maine and Nova Scotia, Canada. LSU was sequenced from isolates causing red leaf disease of lowbush blueberry and red leaf spot (E. rostrupii) and red shoot (E. perenne) of cranberry. In addition, LSU sequences from GenBank, including sequences with high similarity to the emerging parasite and from Exobasidium spp. parasitizing other Vaccinium spp. and related hosts, were obtained. All sequences were aligned and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results indicated that the emerging parasite in the southeastern USA differs morphologically and phylogenetically from other described species and is described herein as Exobasidium maculosum. Within the southeastern USA, clustering based on host species, host tissue type (leaf or fruit) or geographic region was not detected; however, leaf spot isolates from lowbush blueberry were genetically different and likely represent a unique species. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  7. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding

    and thereby reduced weight of the vehicles. One of the limitations for the wide application of TRIP steel is associated with joining, since so far no method has succeeded in joining TRIP steel, without comprising the steel properties. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...... Welding (FSSW) is investigated. The aim of the study is to assess whether high quality welds can be produced and, in particular, to obtain an understanding of the microstructural changes during welding. The microstructure of the welded samples was investigated by means of reflected light microscopy......, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. Microhardness measurements and lab-shear tests completed the investigations of the welded samples and allow evaluation of the quality of the welds as seen from a practical point of view. Selected samples were also investigated by X...

  8. Microstructure characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Peterson, Jeremy


    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have not yet been successfully joined by any welding technique. It is desirable to search for a suitable welding technique that opens up for full usability of TRIP steels. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...... Welding (FSSW) is investigated. The aim of the study is to investigate whether acceptable welds can be produced, and additionally, to obtain an understanding of the microstructural changes during welding. The microstructure was investigated with a combination of microscopical techniques with the aim...... of identifying the transformations occurring during welding. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction were among the methods applied for detailed investigations. The microstructure adjacent to the welds can generally be subdivided in two thermo...

  9. Species of Cercospora associated with grey leaf spot of maize. (United States)

    Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Groenewald, Marizeth; Caldwell, Pat; Braun, Uwe; Harrington, Thomas C


    Grey leaf spot is a serious yield-reducing disease of maize (Zea mays) in many parts of the world where this crop is cultivated. The causal organism associated with the disease is Cercospora zeae-maydis. Two potential sibling species have been recognized as Groups I and II. The DNA sequences for the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 & ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA gene, elongation factor 1-alpha, histone H3, actin and calmodulin gene regions suggest that Groups I and II are two distinct species. Furthermore, Cercospora zeae-maydis (Group I) can be distinguished from C. zeina sp. nov. (Group II) by its faster growth rate on artificial media, the ability to produce cercosporin, longer conidiophores, and broadly fusiform conidia. A PCR-based test that distinguishes the two species was developed using species-specific primers designed from the histone H3 gene.

  10. Misleading advertising: a study of radio spots in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Muela-Molina


    Full Text Available Para detectar los diferentes tipos de publicidad engañosa, este estudio se basa en el marco jurídico vigente en España. Un total de 430 spots radiofónicos —que suman 1.664 incorporando la frecuencia de emisión— fueron codificados por tipo de emisora, franja horaria de emisión y categoría de producto. Los resultados del análisis de contenido muestran que el 33% de los anuncios emitidos en 2009 presentan contenidos engañosos, predominando los relacionados con las características del producto y con la categoría de salud. La investigación sugiere la necesidad de dar un nuevo enfoque a los organismos de control, monitorización y seguimiento de la publicidad.

  11. Structuring spot, short and long term gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gretener, N.M.


    A review of the core clauses of the modern natural gas purchase and sales contracts, was presented. There exists a wide variety of terms which can be used by a seller and a buyer to customize such a contract to suit particular circumstances. On the basis of length of term, gas contracts may classified as spot contracts having a term of 30 days or less, short term contracts having a term of 30 days to one to two years, and long term contracts having terms greater than two years. The three key elements which are applicable to all gas sales contracts are the contract price, the seller's obligation to deliver, and the buyer's obligation to accept. Other provisions that may be included in any gas sales contract in addition to the basic three were reviewed, including market pricing, load factor incentive pricing, seasonal pricing, pipeline demand charges, market shares, and the seller's right to decontract

  12. Positive relationship between citrus leaf miner and alternaria brown spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Azevedo


    Full Text Available Alternaria brown spot, or ABS (Alternaria alternata, is the most prevalent fungal disease of tangerines in the world. Field observations have revealed ABS lesions on leaves wounded by the citrus leaf miner (CLM. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the relationship between CLM and ABS. Leaves from young Murcott tangor plants and detached leaves from 16 different varieties of tangerines with and without lesions caused by CLM were inoculated with A. alternata. The symptoms of the plants were subsequently quantified by counting the number of lesions, and the lesion area was estimated using a diagrammatic scale. The presence of CLM damage aggravates the severity of Alternaria alternata fungus infections in susceptible tangerine varieties.

  13. Spikes and memory in (Nord Pool) electricity price spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tomasso; Haldrup, Niels; Knapik, Oskar

    from the normal price, where the latter is defined as the expectation arising from a model accounting for long memory at the zero and at the weekly seasonal frequencies, given the knowledge of the past realizations. Hence, a spike is associated to a time series innovation with size larger than......Electricity spot prices are subject to transitory sharp movements commonly referred to as spikes. The paper aims at assessing their effects on model based inferences and predictions, with reference to the Nord Pool power exchange. We identify a spike as a price value which deviates substantially...... a specified threshold. The latter regulates the robustness of the estimates of the underlying price level and it is chosen by a data driven procedure that focuses on the ability to predict future prices. The normal price is computed by a modified Kalman filter, which robustifies the inferences by cleaning...

  14. Effect of cattle exclosures on Columbia Spotted Frog abundance (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher; Chambert, Thierry; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer


    Livestock grazing is an important land use in the western USA and can have positive or negative effects on amphibians. Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris) often use ponds that provide water for cattle. We conducted a long-term manipulative study on US Forest Service land in northeastern Oregon to determine the effects of full and partial exclosures that limited cattle access to ponds used by frogs. We found weak evidence of a short-term increase in abundance that did not differ between full and partial exclosures and that diminished with continuing exclusion of cattle. The benefit of exclosures was small relative to the overall decline in breeding numbers that we documented. This suggests that some protection can provide a short-term boost to populations.

  15. Competition in electricity spot markets. Economic theory and international experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David


    This publication gives a survey of economic theory and international experience connected to electricity spot markets. The main purpose is to consider the attempts that have been made to apply economic theory and empirical methods to the analysis of electricity markets, and to evaluate them in light of theoretical considerations and empirical evidence. The publication describes in simple terms the basic pool pricing mechanism, and experience with pools in a number of countries. It is worth emphasizing that it is not the purpose to treat in extensive detail the structure of electricity pools around the world. Key factors of the markets in England and Wales, Norway and Australia are described in order to allow for a comparison of design issues and evaluation of competitive performance. 80 refs., 14 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. Unit root properties of crude oil spot and futures prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslyuk, Svetlana; Smyth, Russell


    In this article, we examine whether WTI and Brent crude oil spot and futures prices (at 1, 3 and 6 months to maturity) contain a unit root with one and two structural breaks, employing weekly data over the period 1991-2004. To realise this objective we employ Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root tests with one and two endogenous structural breaks proposed by Lee and Strazicich [2003. Minimum Lagrange multiplier unit root test with two structural breaks. Review of Economics and Statistics, 85, 1082-1089; 2004. Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break. Working Paper no. 04-17, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University]. We find that each of the oil price series can be characterised as a random walk process and that the endogenous structural breaks are significant and meaningful in terms of events that have impacted on world oil markets. (author)

  17. Light stops, blind spots, and isospin violation in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano; Tunstall, Lewis C


    In the framework of the MSSM, we examine several simplified models where only a few superpartners are light. This allows us to study WIMP--nucleus scattering in terms of a handful of MSSM parameters and thereby scrutinize their impact on dark matter direct-detection experiments. Focusing on spin-independent WIMP--nucleon scattering, we derive simplified, analytic expressions for the Wilson coefficients associated with Higgs and squark exchange. We utilize these results to study the complementarity of constraints due to direct-detection, flavor, and collider experiments. We also identify parameter configurations that produce (almost) vanishing cross sections. In the proximity of these so-called blind spots, we find that the amount of isospin violation may be much larger than typically expected in the MSSM. This feature is a generic property of parameter regions where cross sections are suppressed, and highlights the importance of a careful analysis of the nucleon matrix elements and the associated hadronic unc...

  18. Predicting "Hot" and "Warm" Spots for Fragment Binding. (United States)

    Rathi, Prakash Chandra; Ludlow, R Frederick; Hall, Richard J; Murray, Christopher W; Mortenson, Paul N; Verdonk, Marcel L


    Computational fragment mapping methods aim to predict hotspots on protein surfaces where small fragments will bind. Such methods are popular for druggability assessment as well as structure-based design. However, to date researchers developing or using such tools have had no clear way of assessing the performance of these methods. Here, we introduce the first diverse, high quality validation set for computational fragment mapping. The set contains 52 diverse examples of fragment binding "hot" and "warm" spots from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Additionally, we describe PLImap, a novel protocol for fragment mapping based on the Protein-Ligand Informatics force field (PLIff). We evaluate PLImap against the new fragment mapping test set, and compare its performance to that of simple shape-based algorithms and fragment docking using GOLD. PLImap is made publicly available from .

  19. From spotting - to sustaining the window of opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik; Lindgren, Peter


    . The noticeable outset is however, that the vast majority of entrepreneurship and innovation education has its focus on business plans and the establishment of new companies - spotting the window of opportunity. We contest that the creating of sustainable innovation and entrepreneurship - or a sustainable...... in the literature on the sustainable innovation and entrepreneurship. The question being, how can entrepreneurs articulate and embed innovation and entrepreneurship into sustainable businesses accompanying customers innovation process and become leaders of the customers innovation process - sustaining the window......Modern societies are increasingly dependent on entrepreneurship and innovation to develop their competitiveness and wealth. In the agenda for today's development of the competence of innovation and entrepreneurship is paramount and this is also one major objective for the educational sector...

  20. Stabilization of electron beam spot size by self bias potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Moir, D.C.; Snell, C.M.; Kang, M.


    In high resolution flash x-ray imaging technology the electric field developed between the electron beam and the converter target is large enough to draw ions from the target surface. The ions provide fractional neutralization and cause the electron beam to focus radially inward, and the focal point subsequently moves upstream due to the expansion of the ion column. A self-bias target concept is proposed and verified via computer simulation that the electron charge deposited on the target can generate an electric potential, which can effectively limit the ion motion and thereby stabilize the growth of the spot size. A target chamber using the self bias target concept was designed and tested in the Integrated Test Stand (ITS). The authors have obtained good agreement between computer simulation and experiment