Furman, Gabriel R; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Bellanca, Jennica L; Marchetti, Gregory F; Collins, Michael W; Whitney, Susan L
High-technology methods demonstrate that balance problems may persist up to 30 days after a concussion, whereas with low-technology methods such as the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), performance becomes normal after only 3 days based on previously published studies in collegiate and high school athletes. To compare the National Institutes of Health's Balance Accelerometer Measure (BAM) with the BESS regarding the ability to detect differences in postural sway between adolescents with sports concussions and age-matched controls. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Forty-three patients with concussions and 27 control participants were tested with the standard BAM protocol, while sway was quantified using the normalized path length (mG/s) of pelvic accelerations in the anterior-posterior direction. The BESS was scored by experts using video recordings. The BAM was not able to discriminate between healthy and concussed adolescents, whereas the BESS, especially the tandem stance conditions, was good at discriminating between healthy and concussed adolescents. A total BESS score of 21 or more errors optimally identified patients in the acute concussion group versus healthy participants at 60% sensitivity and 82% specificity. The BAM is not as effective as the BESS in identifying abnormal postural control in adolescents with sports concussions. The BESS, a simple and economical method of assessing postural control, was effective in discriminating between young adults with acute concussions and young healthy people, suggesting that the test has value in the assessment of acute concussions.
Leser, Roland; Baca, Arnold; Ogris, Georg
Position data of players and athletes are widely used in sports performance analysis for measuring the amounts of physical activities as well as for tactical assessments in game sports. However, positioning sensing systems are applied in sports as tools to gain objective information of sports behavior rather than as components of intelligent spaces (IS). The paper outlines the idea of IS for the sports context with special focus to game sports and how intelligent sports feedback systems can benefit from IS. Henceforth, the most common location sensing techniques used in sports and their practical application are reviewed, as location is among the most important enabling techniques for IS. Furthermore, the article exemplifies the idea of IS in sports on two applications. PMID:22163725
Jackson, Benjamin M; Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; King, Trish; Peeling, Peter
To compare data from conventional GPS and new GNSS-enabled tracking devices, and to examine the inter-unit reliability of GNSS devices. Inter-device differences between 10 Hz GPS and GNSS devices were examined during laps (n=40) of a simulated game circuit (SGC) and during elite hockey matches (n=21); GNSS inter-unit reliability was also examined during the SGC laps. Differences in distance values and measures in three velocity categories (low 5 m.s -1 ) and acceleration/deceleration counts (>1.46 m.s -2 and GPS devices in all conditions. These findings suggest that GNSS devices may be more sensitive than GPS in quantifying the physical demands of team sport movements, but further study into the accuracy of GNSS devices is required.
Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, G; Lind, M; Sørensen, H; Hebert, J J; Attermann, J
Current methods of sports injury surveillance are limited by lack of medical validation of self-reported injuries and/or incomplete information about injury consequences beyond time loss from sport. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the feasibility of the SMS, Phone, and medical Examination injury surveillance (SPEx) system (b) to evaluate the proportion of injuries and injury consequences reported by SPEx when compared to outcomes from a modified version of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire. We followed 679 elite adolescent handball players over 31 weeks using the SPEx system. During the last 7 weeks, we also implemented a modified OSTRC questionnaire in a subgroup of 271 players via telephone interviews. The weekly response proportions to the primary SPEx questions ranged from 85% to 96% (mean 92%). SMS responses were received from 79% of the participants within 1 day. 95% of reported injuries were classified through the telephone interview within a week, and 67% were diagnosed by medical personnel. Comparisons between reported injuries from SPEx and OSTRC demonstrated fair (κ = 39.5% [25.1%-54.0%]) to substantial prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK = 66.8% [95% CI 58.0%-75.6%]) agreement. The average injury severity score difference between SPEx and the OSTRC approach was -0.2 (95% CI -3.69-3.29) of possible 100 with 95% limits of agreement from(-14.81-14.41). These results support the feasibility and validity of the SPEx injury surveillance system in elite youth sport. Future studies should evaluate the external validity of SPEx system in different cohorts of athletes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Raof R. A. A; Sudin S.; Mahrom N.; Rosli A. N. C
The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calc...
Full Text Available An innovatory system of managing sports competitions has been presented. Its advantages with regard to other currently used systems are discussed. A theorem connected with such a system has been presented in the last section of the paper. Sports competitions aim to establish a ranking of the participating teams. This consists of sorting teams according to a quality which can be thought of as the ability to win matches. Direct measurement of this quality is not possible, since the ability to win matches depends on a great variety of factors being difficult to determine. Nevertheless, it is possible to compare any two teams if they play a match. These matches are played under normal rules. In turn, all the rules valid during sports competitions, outside the matches, make a system of sport competition. Sorting sports teams differs from typical problems of sorting. The result of a comparison of teams is sometimes misleading. It happens that a team with a greater ability to win matches loses a match to a team with a smaller ability to win matches. Thus, the problem of sorting teams is a probabilistic problem. Due to this reason, traditional sorting methods are ineffective in terms of managing sports competitions. (original abstract
Full Text Available Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv, degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviours self-organize into a group synergy.Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts.
Raof R. A. A
Full Text Available The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calculating the scores of each tournament. The problem of scheduling the matches of a round robin and knock-out phase in a sport league are given focus. The problem is defined formally and the computational complexity is being noted. A solution algorithm is presented using a two-step approach. The first step is the creation of a tournament pattern and is based on known graph-theoretic method. The second one is an assignment problem and it is solved using a constraint based depth-first branch and bound procedure that assigns actual teams to numbers in the pattern. As a result, the scheduling process and knock down phase become easy for the tournament organizer and at the same time increasing the level of reliability.
Hespanhol Junior, Luiz C; Barboza, Saulo D; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert
Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the implementation of these concepts in practice. The aspects discussed are: (1) sports injury definition; (2) classification of sports injuries; (3) population at risk, prevalence, and incidence; (4) severity measures; (5) economic costs; (6) systems developed to monitor sports injuries; and (7) online technology. Only with reliable monitoring systems applied in a continuous and long-term manner will it be possible to identify the burden of injuries, to identify the possible cases at an early stage, to implement early interventions, and to generate data for sports injury prevention. The implementation of sports injuries monitoring systems in practice is strongly recommended.
Zimmer, Adam; Piecora, Kyle; Schuster, Danielle; Webbe, Frank
With the advent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) mandating the presence and practice of concussion-management plans in collegiate athletic programs, institutions will consider potential approaches for concussion management, including both baseline and normative comparison approaches. To examine sport and team differences in baseline performance on a computer-based neurocognitive measure and 2 standard sideline measures of cognition and balance and to determine the potential effect of premorbid factors sex and height on baseline performance. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. A total of 437 NCAA Division II student-athletes (males = 273, females = 164; age = 19.61 ± 1.64 years, height = 69.89 ± 4.04 inches [177.52 ± 10.26 cm]) were recruited during mandatory preseason testing conducted in a concussion-management program. The computerized Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (Form A; SAC), and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Players on the men's basketball team tended to perform worse on the baseline measures, whereas soccer players tended to perform better. We found a difference in total BESS scores between these sports (P = .002). We saw a difference between sports on the hard-surface portion of the BESS (F6,347 = 3.33, P = .003, ηp(2) = 0.05). No sport, team, or sex differences were found with SAC scores (P > .05). We noted differences between sports and teams in the CRI indices, with basketball, particularly the men's team, performing worse than soccer (P sport differences, height was a covariate for the team (F1,385 = 5.109, P = .02, ηp(2) = 0.013) and sport (F1,326 = 11.212, P = .001, ηp(2) = 0.033) analyses, but the interaction of sex and sport on CRI indices was not significant in any test (P > .05). Given that differences in neurocognitive functioning and performance among sports and teams exist, the comparison of posttraumatic and baseline assessment may lead to more
Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsi...
Ruzbarsky, Joseph J; Marom, Niv; Marx, Robert G
Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are objective metrics critical to evaluating outcomes throughout orthopedic surgery. New instruments continue to emerge, increasing the breadth of information required for those intending to use these measures for research or clinical care. Although earlier metrics were developed using the principles of classic test theory, newer instruments constructed using item response theory are amenable to computer-adaptive testing and may change the way these instruments are administered. This article aims to define the psychometric properties that are important to understand when using all PROMs and to review the most widely used instruments in sports medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pamela Wicker; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos; Christoph Breuer
This article addresses the resource dependencies of voluntary sports club in two Rhineland welfare states with differences in their organizational arrangements of sports (e.g. the centralization of the Sport for All policy). On the basis of the VOCASPORT typology of sports policy systems and the
Mascret, Nicolas; Falconetti, Jean-Louis; Cury, François
International audience; People may endorse two conceptions of the nature of sport ability: an entity theory (sport ability is considered innate, stable, a gift, a talent) and an incremental theory (sport ability is improvable, linked to training and effort). Previous studies (e. g., Biddle et al., 2003) have used explicit methods to assess these beliefs. Using an implicit measure (ST-IAT, Single-Target Implicit Association Test) in order to overcome the social desirability which might be indu...
The SMS, Phone and medical Examination sports injury surveillance (SPEx) system is a feasible and valid approach to measuring handball exposure, injury occurrence and consequences in elite youth sport
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, G
Examination injury surveillance (SPEx) system 2) to evaluate the proportion of injuries and injury consequences reported by SPEx when compared to outcomes from a modified version of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire. We followed 679 elite adolescent handball players...
A. A. Shpinkovski
Full Text Available In recent years become a popular healthy lifestyle. Sport is an activity that serves the public interest by implementing educational, preparatory and communicative function, but not a constant specialty (profession person. The development of current sports, requires resources that will not only automate the work of the organizers of the competition with the information, but also improve its effectiveness. One of the progressive sports at the moment is powerlifting (power triathlon. The proposed information system is an automated workplace of the organizer. During the implementation of the information system support sports competitions were performed system design using UML diagrams. It is possible to understand the tasks that must be done in the implementation of the program. The program is organized so that you can quickly and simply add all data about upcoming competitions: the name, location, date, the composition of the referee. After receiving information about the athletes, coaches, sports clubs, to make an application for participation in the competition. Also, the organizer has the ability to view statistics about the coaches, referees, participants, based on the information entered into the database earlier. A detailed user guide program. A functional testing and usability. Recommendations for further development of the software product.
Gréhaigne, Jean-Francis; Godbout, Paul
This article examines the theory of dynamic systems and its use in the domains of the study and coaching of team sports. The two teams involved in a match are looked at as two interacting systems in movement, where opposition is paramount. A key element for the observation of game play is the notion of configuration of play and its ever-changing…
de Bosscher, Veerle; Heyndels, B.; de Knop, Paul; van Bottenburg, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/114979189; Shibli, Simon
The achievement of international and especially Olympic sporting success is increasingly important to a growing number of countries. It is however not clear how success is defined and can be measured. The number of medals won in Olympics Games and other international sport competitions offers the
Locke, Lawrence F.; And Others
These articles contain responses from several scholars on the issue of field systems analysis (FSA). The scholars offer critiques from their sport pedagogy perspectives, a reaction relating FSA to personal examinations of teaching expertise, and a discussion of how computer simulation informs the study of expert teachers. (SM)
Full Text Available Few to almost none sports teams measure the entertainment value they provide to fans in exchange of the money the latter ones spend on admission fees. Scientific literature oversees the issue as well. The aim of this paper is to present a model that can be used for calculating value for money in the context of spectating sports. The research question asks how can value for money be conceptualized and measured for sports marketing purposes? Using financial and sporting variables, the method calculates how much money, on average, a fan had to spend for receiving quality entertainment – defined as won matches – from his favorite team, during the last season of the Romanian first division football championship. The results only partially confirm the research hypothesis, showing that not just price and sporting performances may influence the value delivered to fans, but other factors as well.
Monteiro, Diogo; Borrego, Carla Chicau; Silva, Carlos; Moutão, João; Marinho, Daniel Almeida; Cid, Luís
The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Motivational Climate Sport Youth Scale (MCSYSp) and invariance across gender and different sports (swimming, soccer, handball, basketball, futsal). A total of 4,569 athletes (3,053 males, 1,516 females) from soccer (1,098), swimming (1,049), basketball (1,754), futsal (340), and handball (328) participated in this study, with ages between 10 and 20 years (M = 15.13; SD = 1.95). The results show that the original model (two factors/12 items) did not adjust to the data in a satisfactory way; therefore, it was necessary to change the model by removing four items (two from each factor). Subsequently, the model adjusted to the data in a satisfactory way (χ 2 = 499.84; df = 19; χ 2 /df = 26.30; p sports (soccer, handball, basketball, futsal) (ΔCFK≤.01); however, it was not invariant between swimming and team sports (soccer, handball, basketball, futsal) (ΔCFI ≥ .01). In conclusion, the MCSYSp (two factors/eight items) is a valid and reliable choice that is transversal not only to gender, but also to the different studied team sports to measure the perception of the motivational climate in athletes. Future studies can research more deeply the invariance analysis between individual sports to better understand the invariance of the model between individual and team sports.
Clancy, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided.
Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165
Fogarty, Gerard J.; Perera, Harsha N.; Furst, Andrea J.; Thomas, Patrick R.
The psychometric properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), the Sport Confidence Inventory (SCI), and the Carolina SCI (CSCI) were examined in a study involving 260 athletes. The study aimed to test the dimensional structure, convergent and divergent validity, and invariance over competition level of scores generated by these…
Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong
The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.
Full Text Available The “global” dimension of sport is, in the first instance, regulatory, and it embraces the whole complex of norms produced and implemented by regulatory sporting regimes at the international and domestic levels. These rules include not only private norms set by the International Olympic Committee (IOC and by International Federations (IFs but also “hybrid” public-private norms approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and international law (such as the UNESCO Convention Against Doping in Sport. Sports law, therefore, is highly heterogeneous, and, above all, it is not simply transnational, but actually “global”. This law represents an autonomous global legal system, which displays distinctive features such as the presence of some separation of powers (in particular quasi-judicial, with the strategic role played by the Court of Arbitration for Sport and the development of relevant procedural principles (e.g. fairness and due process; and these principles operate both in rulemaking procedures (e.g. the adoption of the WADA Code and in adjudicatory ones (e.g. for disciplinary measures. Finally, this global legal system is made up with several international regulatory regimes, both private – such as the Olympic movement – and hybrid public and private – such as the world anti-doping regime. The paper will deal in particular with this latter issue. The analysis will focus on the global administrative dimensions of sports regimes, together with their inter-institutional relationships and its legal implications for the public and private interaction.
Motegi, Shun; Masuda, Naoki
From the viewpoint of networks, a ranking system for players or teams in sports is equivalent to a centrality measure for sports networks, whereby a directed link represents the result of a single game. Previously proposed network-based ranking systems are derived from static networks, i.e., aggregation of the results of games over time. However, the score of a player (or team) fluctuates over time. Defeating a renowned player in the peak performance is intuitively more rewarding than defeating the same player in other periods. To account for this factor, we propose a dynamic variant of such a network-based ranking system and apply it to professional men's tennis data. We derive a set of linear online update equations for the score of each player. The proposed ranking system predicts the outcome of the future games with a higher accuracy than the static counterparts.
The SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) experiment aims to measure CMBP (cosmic microwave background polarization) on about 80% of the sky from space. Selected by ESA to fly on board the ISS in 2006, it is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). As shown also by the recent WMAP release, CMBP data, besides of removing various degeneracies among cosmological parameters, provided new and important information on the cosmic opacity τ and, therefore, on very early cosmic objects which reionized the world at z ∼ 15. Most such information is obtained from low-l spectral components, that SPOrt, with its HPBW resolution of 7 degrees will explore with a high level of sensitivity. The 4 polarimeters of SPOrt work at 22, 32 and (2x) 90 GHz. At lower frequencies they will provide a (nearly) all-sky survey of Galactic synchrotron polarized emission, while data at the higher frequency will measure the CMBP signal. Correlating SPOrt with anisotropy data, by other experiments, shall therefore provide significant cosmological information. We performed a number of simulations of SPOrt performance, aimed to determine how far τ and/or other parameter(s) concerning reionization are constrained by the expected data. We also considered a possible interplay between reionization histories and Dark Energy nature. Besides of information on technological developments for systematics reduction, long term stability and observing time efficiency, we report here recent outputs on the expected SPOrt performance in constraining cosmological models
Ryan, Jeanne P; Atkinson, Thomas M; Dunham, Katherine T
To determine similarities and differences in the performance of female and male athletes on neuropsychological measures of frontal lobe functioning. A cross-sectional study of male and female college-aged athletes involved in one of the following sports: hockey, basketball, softball, lacrosse, soccer, swimming, and track. Division III college. A total of 262 athletes (male, n=157; female, n=105) participated in the study. Controlled Oral Word Association (letters F, A, S), Cognitive Assessment System (Planned Codes, Planned Connections, Number Detection), and WAIS-R-NI Vocabulary were administered to all athletes. MANCOVA was performed with gender and sport as fixed factors. Female athletes displayed faster and more accurate performance on perceptual-motor tasks (Pgender and sport. Gender- and sport-specific performances on perceptual-motor and verbal fluency tasks were found. Adding cognitive components to base functions eliminates gender- and sports-related distinctions, suggesting that existing differences are related to basic, fundamental skills, which are inherent and practiced within the respective sport. Understanding the differences and similarities across sports and gender on various neurocognitive measures is relevant for determining group differences in studies examining the consequences of mild traumatic brain injury among athletes.
Rooney, John F., Jr.
We demand too much of student-athletes. Because of the paucity of professional sport franchises, universities have created sports programs to cater to the entertainment needs of their constituencies. The roots of intercollegiate sports are discussed, and how problems of academic and athletic incompatibility can be resolved is examined. (RM)
Full Text Available The paper presents the sports scientific journals that form the system of documentary research information. We describe the formation, development and progress of scientific publications and their typological features of forming and problem-oriented content. Outlined sufficiency specialized sports magazines. Analysis of scientific publications in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, presented their names and entry into the national and international abstracting. Posted sports for scientific publications USA, UK, China, Poland and many other countries that carry information for sports, sports training, medical and biological problems of physical education. It is shown that most of the study sports science publications printed in the United States, slightly less than in the UK, Poland and Germany. Determined that scientific journals help speed the spread of sports information, disseminate the results of modern research.
Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C
Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.
This study analyzes the necessity of sports nutrition intervention for the recovery of the athletes' fatigue, discussing the intervention measures of sports nutrition for athletes' fatigue recovery with the help of the interpretation of sports fatigue. The nutrition supplement for sports fatigue which is an effective method to alleviate the symptoms, promote the recovery and guarantee the training.
Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M
As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future
Full Text Available Sport funding at the municipal level has a long tradition, especially in Europe. Youth involvement in sport is usually an important aspect of grant policies. There are questions regarding how to allocate public resources more efficiently and how to increase youth participation in sport. We analyse sport vouchers as a tool for increasing transparency and efficiency as well as the involvement of young people and their parents in sport policy at the local level.Vouchers typically transfer purchasing power directly to the target group. Using sport vouchers as a tool for allocating public resources is still quite rare. Some attempts with sport vouchers were made in Australia and the UK, and there are examples of sport vouchers in the Czech Republic.The aim of this paper is to discuss the advantages of vouchers as an alternative method of sport funding at the municipal level. We also formulate recommendations for implementing a voucher system.
Rosendahl, Karen; Strouse, Peter J
Sports related injuries are common in children and adolescents, with a reported incidence of around one in ten children each year. Boys incur more and severer sports injuries than girls, and chance for injury is greater with contact or jumping sports. Sports injuries seen in children under 10-years of age are non-specific, including contusions, mild sprains, and extremity fractures, usually Salter fractures of the physes (growth plate) or plastic fractures. In the very young athlete, sports injury of the ligaments or muscle is rare as are spine or head injuries. With growth and adolescence, the intensity of sports involvement increases. Pre-pubertal children still have open physes that are prone to injury, both acute or due to stress from a repetitive activity. In addition to injury of the physes of the long bones, injuries to the physes of apophyses are common. Ligamentous injury is uncommon before physeal closure, but can occur. After the physes fuse, ligamentous injury is seen with patterns similar to adults. This review will include a description of sports related injuries seen in children and adolescents. We will concentrate on injuries that are specific for the growing skeleton, with a brief mention of those seen after fusion of the physes.
Wattie, Nick; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph
The policies that dictate the participation structure of many youth sport systems involve the use of a set selection date (e.g. 31 December), which invariably produces relative age differences between those within the selection year (e.g. 1 January to 31 December). Those born early in the selection year (e.g. January) are relatively older—by as much as 12 months minus 1 day—than those born later in the selection year (e.g. December). Research in the area of sport has identified a number of significant developmental effects associated with such relative age differences. However, a theoretical framework that describes the breadth and complexity of relative age effects (RAEs) in sport does not exist in the literature. This paper reviews and summarizes the existing literature on relative age in sport, and proposes a constraints-based developmental systems model for RAEs in sport.
Full Text Available Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project “Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles”, which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes’ mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.. Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.. Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes’ training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track, the current athlete condition (HR, and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m; s-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.
The positive effects of sports on the cardiovascular and musculoskeleal systems are widely accepted. Nevertheless, sports also can cause injury and overuse leading to sport-specific problems, which are often a challenge in diagnosing and treatment. The history of the sport-related injury is crucial for further differential diagnosis. Careful inspection, palpation and functional testing can reveal the possible pathology and lead to an effective strategy in the diagnostic assessment using radiographic tools such as sonography, X-ray and MR imaging (MRI). In muscle and tendon injuries sonography can provide ready to use information concerning muscle tears and tendon ruptures or degenerative lesions. Plain X-rays give a good overview on joint conditions regarding the bone and sometimes have to be completed by focused enlargement of the critical structure, especially in stress fractures and small bone lesions. MRT is the gold standard in the evaluation of interarticular and extra-articular sport-related pathologies, however, an exact clinical diagnosis allows a more effective investigation protocol. Profound knowledge of possible sport-specific injury and overuse patterns is necessary to detect lesions of the musculoskeletal system in active athletes and to use the fitting radiographic strategy for confirmation. The exact diagnosis is the prerequisite for initiating the appropriate treatment and a fast sports medical rehabilitation process. (orig.) [de
Cao, Jie; Zhiwei, Pan
The gold medal success of China in recent Olympic Games can be traced to the advancement of the state-sponsored sport system (SSSS). While the program was developed initially through socialist ideals, it is more than a centralized government system to monopolize resources for glorified sport performance. Participation in competition is an inherent part of the human condition. Success in athletics is associated with national identity and has economic, social, and cultural implications. Because of this, it is essential that the SSSS adjust and improve to keep pace with other facets of China's quickly changing national reform. In association with emerging economic reform, some sports now receive equal or more funds from private investments compared to government allocation. The state-sponsored sport system must continue to adapt to maintain the Chinese tradition of excellence in competition.
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, Grete
The accurate measurement of sport exposure time and injury occurrence is key to effective injury prevention and management. Current measures are limited by their inability to identify all types of sport-related injury, narrow scope of injury information, or lack the perspective of the injured...... by trained on-field observers and medical staff (comparison method). We followed 24 elite adolescent handball players over 12 consecutive weeks. Eighty-six injury registrations were obtained by the SPEx and comparison methods. Of them, 35 injury registrations (41%) were captured by SPEx only, 10 injury...... athlete. The aims of the study were to evaluate the proportion of injuries and the agreement between sport exposures reported by the SMS messaging and follow-up telephone part of the SMS, Phone, and medical staff Examination (SPEx) sports injury surveillance system when compared to measures obtained...
Fister Jr., Iztok; Fister, Iztok
Measuring time in mass sporting competitions is unthinkable manually today because of their long duration and unreliability. Besides, automatic timing devices based on the RFID technology have become cheaper. However, these devices cannot operate stand-alone. To work efficiently, they need a computer timing system for monitoring results. Such system should be capable of processing the incoming events, encoding and assigning results to a individual competitor, sorting results according to the ...
Gade, Rikke; Larsen, Ryan Godsk; Moeslund, Thomas B.
Estimation of human energy expenditure in sports and exercise contributes to performance analyses and tracking of physical activity levels. The focus of this work is to develop a video-based method for estimation of energy expenditure in athletes. We propose a method using thermal video analysis...... to automatically extract the cyclic motion pattern, in walking and running represented as steps, and analyse the frequency. Experiments are performed with one subject in two different tests, each at 5, 8, 10, and 12 km/h. The results of our proposed video-based method is compared to concurrent measurements...
van der Kruk, Eline; Reijne, Marco M
Sport research often requires human motion capture of an athlete. It can, however, be labour-intensive and difficult to select the right system, while manufacturers report on specifications which are determined in set-ups that largely differ from sport research in terms of volume, environment and motion. The aim of this review is to assist researchers in the selection of a suitable motion capture system for their experimental set-up for sport applications. An open online platform is initiated, to support (sport)researchers in the selection of a system and to enable them to contribute and update the overview. systematic review; Method: Electronic searches in Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were performed, and the reference lists of the screened articles were scrutinised to determine human motion capture systems used in academically published studies on sport analysis. An overview of 17 human motion capture systems is provided, reporting the general specifications given by the manufacturer (weight and size of the sensors, maximum capture volume, environmental feasibilities), and calibration specifications as determined in peer-reviewed studies. The accuracy of each system is plotted against the measurement range. The overview and chart can assist researchers in the selection of a suitable measurement system. To increase the robustness of the database and to keep up with technological developments, we encourage researchers to perform an accuracy test prior to their experiment and to add to the chart and the system overview (online, open access).
Cairney, John; Clark, Heather J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; Bruner, Mark; Tamminen, Katherine
Despite the proliferation of studies examining youth sport participation, there are significant gaps in knowledge regarding the impact of youth sport participation on health and development. These gaps are not new, but have persisted due to limitations with how sport participation is measured. Much of the research to date has measured sport participation as binary (yes/no) or count measures. This has been especially true in survey-based research. Yet, at the same time, research has investigated youths' experiences in sport such as the influence of coaches, teammates, and parents. The ability to measure these experiences is constrained by the need to use a number of measures along with gaps in the content covered in existing measures. We propose to develop and test the Sport Experiences Measure: Children and Youth (SEM:CY) as a population survey-based measure that captures the salient aspects of youths' experience in sport. The SEM:CY will be developed and tested across three phases. Phase I includes qualitative research with members of the sport community and engagement with an expert group to generate and obtain feedback on the initial item pool. In Phase II will recruit two consecutive samples of students from schools to complete the draft measure. Analysis will focus on assessing the items and factor structure of the measure. Factor structure will be assessed first with exploratory factor analysis and then confirmatory factor analysis. In phase III we will test the association between the SEM:CY with a measure of perceived competence, sport anxiety, and positive youth development to assess construct validity. We will also examine whether the structure of the measure varies by age or gender. The SEM:CY measure will provide a meaningful contribution to the measurement and understanding of youth sport participation. The SEM:CY can be used as a stand-alone measure to understand youth experiences in sport programs, or in combination with other health and development
Gabbett, Tim J
The physical demands of rugby league, rugby union, and American football are significantly increased through the large number of collisions players are required to perform during match play. Because of the labor-intensive nature of coding collisions from video recordings, manufacturers of wearable microsensor (e.g., global positioning system [GPS]) units have refined the technology to automatically detect collisions, with several sport scientists attempting to use these microsensors to quantify the physical demands of collision sports. However, a question remains over the validity of these microtechnology units to quantify the contact demands of collision sports. Indeed, recent evidence has shown significant differences in the number of "impacts" recorded by microtechnology units (GPSports) and the actual number of collisions coded from video. However, a separate study investigated the validity of a different microtechnology unit (minimaxX; Catapult Sports) that included GPS and triaxial accelerometers, and also a gyroscope and magnetometer, to quantify collisions. Collisions detected by the minimaxX unit were compared with video-based coding of the actual events. No significant differences were detected in the number of mild, moderate, and heavy collisions detected via the minimaxX units and those coded from video recordings of the actual event. Furthermore, a strong correlation (r = 0.96, p sports. Until such validation research is completed, sport scientists should be circumspect of the ability of other units to perform similar functions.
Title: Principles of safety measures of sports events organizers without the involvement of police Objectives: The aim of this thesis is a description of security measures at sporting events organizers. Methods: The thesis theoretical style is focused on searching for available sources of study and research, and writing their summary comparing safety measures of the organizers. Results: This work describes the activities of the organizers of sports events and precautions that must be provided...
Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda; O'Connor, Helen; West, Cameron
Use of Global positioning system (GPS) technology in team sport permits measurement of player position, velocity, and movement patterns. GPS provides scope for better understanding of the specific and positional physiological demands of team sport and can be used to design training programs that adequately prepare athletes for competition with the aim of optimizing on-field performance. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the depth and scope of reported GPS and microtechnology measures used within individual sports in order to present the contemporary and emerging themes of GPS application within team sports. A systematic review of the application of GPS technology in team sports was conducted. We systematically searched electronic databases from earliest record to June 2012. Permutations of key words included GPS; male and female; age 12-50 years; able-bodied; and recreational to elite competitive team sports. The 35 manuscripts meeting the eligibility criteria included 1,276 participants (age 11.2-31.5 years; 95 % males; 53.8 % elite adult athletes). The majority of manuscripts reported on GPS use in various football codes: Australian football league (AFL; n = 8), soccer (n = 7), rugby union (n = 6), and rugby league (n = 6), with limited representation in other team sports: cricket (n = 3), hockey (n = 3), lacrosse (n = 1), and netball (n = 1). Of the included manuscripts, 34 (97 %) detailed work rate patterns such as distance, relative distance, speed, and accelerations, with only five (14.3 %) reporting on impact variables. Activity profiles characterizing positional play and competitive levels were also described. Work rate patterns were typically categorized into six speed zones, ranging from 0 to 36.0 km·h⁻¹, with descriptors ranging from walking to sprinting used to identify the type of activity mainly performed in each zone. With the exception of cricket, no standardized speed zones or definitions were observed within or
Mays, Darren; Gatti, Margaret E; Thompson, Nancy J
Sports participation, while offering numerous developmental benefits for adolescents, has been associated with alcohol use in prior research. However, the relationship between sports participation and alcohol use among adolescents remains unclear, particularly how research design elements impact evidence of this relationship. We reviewed the evidence regarding sports participation and alcohol use among adolescents, with a focus on examining the potential impact of research design elements on this evidence. Studies were assessed for eligibility and coded based on research design elements including: study design, sampling method, sample size, and measures of sports participation and alcohol use. Fifty-four studies were assessed for eligibility, 29 of which were included in the review. Nearly two-thirds used a cross-sectional design and a random sampling method, with sample sizes ranging from 178 to 50,168 adolescents (Median = 1,769). Sixteen studies used a categorical measure of sports participation, while 7 applied an index-type measure and 6 employed some other measure of sports participation. Most studies assessed alcohol-related behaviors (n = 18) through categorical measures, while only 6 applied frequency only measures of alcohol use, 1 study applied quantity only measures, and 3 studies used quantity and frequency measures. Sports participation has been defined and measured in various ways, most of which do not differentiate between interscholastic and community-based contexts, confounding this relationship. Stronger measures of both sports participation and alcohol use need to be applied in future studies to advance our understanding of this relationship among youths.
Slender, Hans; Straatmeijer, Jerzy; Hover, Paul; Cevaal, Astrid
Abstract for the European Association of Sociology for Sport conference in Dublin on the development over time of social impact evaluations in the Netherlands. In total 33 sport events were included that were held between 1980-2015 in the Netherlands. The events were selected to vary in fixed vs.
Kenyon, Lisa K.; Elliott, James M; Cheng, M. Samuel
Purpose/Background Despite the availability of various field-tests for many competitive sports, a reliable and valid test specifically developed for use in men's gymnastics has not yet been developed. The Men's Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (MGFMT) was designed to assess sport-specific physical abilities in male competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to develop the MGFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing test-retest reliability and construct validity. Methods A total of 83 competitive male gymnasts ages 7-18 underwent testing using the MGFMT. Thirty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total MGFMT scores and the gymnasts’ USA-Gymnastics competitive level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r2). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. Results The relationship between total MGFMT scores and subjects’ current USA-Gymnastics competitive level was found to be good (r2 = 0.63). Reliability testing of the MGFMT composite test score showed excellent test-retest reliability over a one-week period (ICC = 0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component tests ranged from good to excellent (ICC = 0.75-0.97). Conclusions The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the MGFMT. Level of Evidence Level 3 PMID:27999723
Koltai, Miklós; Wallner, Dietmar; Gusztafik, Ádám; Sáfár, Zoltán; Dancs, Henriette; Simi, Helmut; Hagenauer, Marcel; Buchgraber, Anna Maria
The Institute of Sport Science at the University of West-Hungary, and the FH-Joanneum – together with students majoring in sport science – started a collaborative international research aimed at assessing the sport-specific skills of football players. The study closely monitored football players – from leagues at different levels – in terms of choice reaction time, short and long pass skills and agility skills with and without a ball. The most modern device available, the SmartSpeed – a photo...
Partridge, Kane; Hayes, Jason P.; James, Daniel A.; Hill, Craig; Gin, Gareth; Hahn, Allan
Although historically among the most popular of sports, today, combative sports are often viewed as an expression of our savage past. Of primary concern are the long term effects of participating in these sports on the health of participants. The scoring of such sports has also been the subject of much debate, with a panel of judges making decisions about very quick events involving large sums of prize money. This paper describes an electronic system for use primarily in the sport of boxing, though it is suitable for martial arts such as karate and taekwondo. The technology is based on a previously described sensor platform and integrates a network of sensors on the athlete"s head, body and hands. Using a Bluetooth network, physical contacts are monitored in near real-time or post event on a remote computer to determine legal hits and hence derivative measures like scoring and final outcomes. It is hoped that this system can be applied to reduce the need for full contact contests as well as provide a more reliable method of determining the outcome of a bout. Other benefits presented here include the ability to analyse an athlete's performance post match or training session, such as assessing the efficacy of training drills and effects of fatigue.
Full Text Available Deciphering the human genome, and further development of omics technologies, have opened new opportunities in studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the sport success. According to modern concepts of functional genomics, it is believed that individual differences in the degree of development of physical and mental qualities, as well as in the susceptibility to different diseases of athletes are largely due to DNA polymorphisms. Genetic markers associated with the development and manifestation of physical qualities (speed, strength, endurance, agility, flexibility can be used in the sports selection system, to clarify sports specialization and to optimize the training process. Other molecular markers (methyl groups, transcripts, telomerase activity, telomeres, circulating DNA, metabolites, proteins, etc. in addition to predicting athletic performance, allow assessing the current functional state of the athlete, including the phenomenon of overtraining. The purpose of this review is to provide data on the use of genomic, epigenetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic methods in sports talent identification, assessing the current functional status of athletes and in the prescription of personal training and nutrition programs. Future research, including multicentre genome-wide association studies and whole-genome sequencing in large cohorts of athletes with further validation and replication, will substantially contribute to the discovery of large numbers of the causal genetic variants (mutations and DNA polymorphisms that would partly explain the heritability of athlete status and related phenotypes.
Full Text Available The objective is to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies to sports science. Materials and methods. The research has studied the availability of appropriate terms in shooting sports, which would meet the requirements of modern sports science. It has examined the compliance of the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions with the modern requirements and principles. Research results. The paper suggests the basic definitions adapted to the requirements of technical sports and sports science. The research has thoroughly analyzed the shooting sports training program for children and youth sports schools, the Olympic reserve specialized children and youth schools, schools of higher sports skills, and sports educational institutions. The paper offers options to improve the training program in accordance with the modern tendencies of training athletes. Conclusions. The research suggests to systematize and adapt the basic definitions and concepts of the systems approach, mathematical modeling and information technologies using the example of technical sports.
Gademan, Maaike G J; Uberoi, Abhimanyu; Le, Vy-Van; Mandic, Sandra; van Oort, Eddy R; Myers, Jonathan; Froelicher, Victor F
Broad criteria for abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, requiring additional testing, have been recommended for preparticipation exams (PPE) of athletes. As these criteria have not considered the sport in which athletes participate, we examined the effect of sports on the computerized ECG measurements obtained in college athletes. During the Stanford 2007 PPE, computerized 12-lead ECGs (Schiller AG) were obtained in 641 athletes (350 male/291 female, age 19.5 ± 2 years). Athletes were engaged in 22 different sports and were grouped into 16 categories: baseball/softball, basketball, crew, crosscountry, fencing, field events, football linemen, football other positions, golf, gymnastics, racquet sports, sailing, track/field, volleyball, water sports, and wrestling. The analysis focused on ECG leads V2, aVF and V5 which provide a three-dimensional representation of the heart's electrical activity. As marked ECG differences exist between males and females, the data are presented by gender. In males, ANOVA analysis yielded significant ECG differences between sports for heart rate, QRS duration, QTc, J-amplitude in V2 and V5, spatial vector length (SVL) of the P wave, SVL R wave, and SVL T wave, and RS(sum) (p sports were found for heart rate, QRS duration, QRS axis and SVL T wave (p sports, and these differences were more apparent in males than females. Therefore, sport-specific ECG criteria for abnormal ECG findings should be developed to obtain a more useful approach to ECG screening in athletes.
Domazet, S L; Møller, N C; Støckel, J T; Ried-Larsen, M
Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activity level among participants in certified sport after-school cares vs regular after-school cares. The study was carried out in 2011 in 10 after-school cares (5 sport/5 regular) throughout Denmark, whereof 475 children aged 5-11 years participated. PA level was assessed using Actigraph GT3X and GT3X+ activity monitors worn by the children for at least 8 consecutive days. Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured as well. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out to check for the differences in the PA level across the two care systems. However, there did not appear to be any differences in overall PA or in time-specific day parts (e.g., during after-school care). The activity levels were quite similar across after-school cares and were mutually high during time spent in the care facility. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pol, Rafel; Hristovski, Robert; Medina, Daniel; Balague, Natalia
A better understanding of how sports injuries occur in order to improve their prevention is needed for medical, economic, scientific and sports success reasons. This narrative review aims to explain the mechanisms that underlie the occurrence of sports injuries, and an innovative approach for their prevention on the basis of complex dynamic systems approach. First, we explain the multilevel organisation of living systems and how function of the musculoskeletal system may be impaired. Second, we use both, a constraints approach and a connectivity hypothesis to explain why and how the susceptibility to sports injuries may suddenly increase. Constraints acting at multiple levels and timescales replace the static and linear concept of risk factors, and the connectivity hypothesis brings an understanding of how the accumulation of microinjuries creates a macroscopic non-linear effect, that is, how a common motor action may trigger a severe injury. Finally, a recap of practical examples and challenges for the future illustrates how the complex dynamic systems standpoint, changing the way of thinking about sports injuries, offers innovative ideas for improving sports injury prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, G; Lind, M; Sørensen, H; Hebert, J J; Emery, C A; Attermann, J
The accurate measurement of sport exposure time and injury occurrence is key to effective injury prevention and management. Current measures are limited by their inability to identify all types of sport-related injury, narrow scope of injury information, or lack the perspective of the injured athlete. The aims of the study were to evaluate the proportion of injuries and the agreement between sport exposures reported by the SMS messaging and follow-up telephone part of the SMS, Phone, and medical staff Examination (SPEx) sports injury surveillance system when compared to measures obtained by trained on-field observers and medical staff (comparison method). We followed 24 elite adolescent handball players over 12 consecutive weeks. Eighty-six injury registrations were obtained by the SPEx and comparison methods. Of them, 35 injury registrations (41%) were captured by SPEx only, 10 injury registrations (12%) by the comparison method only, and 41 injury registrations (48%) by both methods. Weekly exposure time differences (95% limits of agreement) between SPEx and the comparison method ranged from -4.2 to 6.3 hours (training) and -1.5 to 1.0 hours (match) with systematic differences being 1.1 hours (95% CI 0.7 to 1.4) and -0.2 (95% CI -0.3 to -0.2), respectively. These results support the ability of the SPEx system to measure training and match exposures and injury occurrence among young athletes. High weekly response proportions (mean 83%) indicate that SMS messaging can be used for player measures of injury consequences beyond time-loss from sport. However, this needs to be further evaluated in large-scale studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to establish the differences in some anthropometric measures and motor abilities between mountaineers and sport climbers. Our sample consisted of 11 top mountaineers and 12 members of A and B national teams in sport climbing. The survey was carried out by means of a standard battery of tests. Anthropo- metric measures were represented by 5 variables, while motor abilities were represented by 14 variables. Motor ability tests were divided into two groups due to a large number of variables. Mobility was surveyed with 6 tests and strength with 8 tests. The data we- re processed with statistical programme package SPSS with the method of discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis was made separately of anthropometry, mobility and strength. Discriminant function statistically significantly divides mountaineers from sport climbers in anthropometric measures as well as mobility. In the field of strength, stati- stically significant differences between mountaineers and sport climbers were not indi- cated.
.... This report describes features of the Sports Medicine Research Team System (SMARTS) and reviews results of a SMARTS supported prospective study of male Marine Corps recruits undergoing basic training...
Marek Pavlik; Michiel S. de Vries
Sport funding at the municipal level has a long tradition, especially in Europe. Youth involvement in sport is usually an important aspect of grant policies. There are questions regarding how to allocate public resources more efficiently and how to increase youth participation in sport. We analyse sport vouchers as a tool for increasing transparency and efficiency as well as the involvement of young people and their parents in sport policy at the local level.Vouchers typically transfer purcha...
Brophy-Williams, Ned; Driller, Matthew William; Shing, Cecilia Mary; Fell, James William; Halson, Shona Leigh; Halson, Shona Louise
The purpose of this investigation was to measure the interface pressure exerted by lower body sports compression garments, in order to assess the effect of garment type, size and posture in athletes. Twelve national-level boxers were fitted with sports compression garments (tights and leggings), each in three different sizes (undersized, recommended size and oversized). Interface pressure was assessed across six landmarks on the lower limb (ranging from medial malleolus to upper thigh) as athletes assumed sitting, standing and supine postures. Sports compression leggings exerted a significantly higher mean pressure than sports compression tights (P sports compression garments is significantly affected by garment type, size and posture assumed by the wearer.
Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past years, a few review papers about possibilities of using motion analysis systems in sport were published, but there are no articles that discuss this problem in the field of combat sports and martial arts. Aim: This study presents the diversity of contemporary motion analysis systems both, those that are used in scientific research, as well as those that can be applied in daily work of coaches and athletes in combat sports and martial arts. An additional aim is the indication of example applications in scientific research and range of applications in optimizing the training process. It presents a brief description of each type of systems that are currently used in sport, specific examples of systems and the main advantages and disadvantages of using them. The presentation and discussion takes place in the following sections: motion analysis utility for combat sports and martial arts, systems using digital video and systems using markers, sensors or transmitters. Conclusions: Not all types of motion analysis systems used in sport are suitable for combat sports and martial arts. Scientific studies conducted so far showed the usefulness of video-based, optical and electromechanical systems. The use of research results made with complex motion analysis systems, or made with simple systems, local application and immediate visualization is important for the preparation of training and its optimization. It may lead to technical and tactical improvement in athletes as well as the prevention of injuries in combat sports and martial arts.
Smekal, Gerhard; von Duvillard, Serge P; Pokan, Rochus; Tschan, Harald; Baron, Ramon; Hofmann, Peter; Wonisch, Manfred; Bachl, Norbert
This study compares two different sport events (orienteering = OTC; tennis = TEC) with discontinuous load profiles and different activity/recovery patterns by means of blood lactate (LA), heart rate (HR), and respiratory gas exchange measures (RGME) determined via a portable respiratory system. During the TEC, 20 tennis-ranked male subjects [age: 26.0 (3.7) years; height: 181.0 (5.7) cm; weight: 73.2 (6.8) kg; maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max): 57.3 (5.1) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] played ten matches of 50 min. During the OTC, 11 male members of the Austrian National Team [age: 23.5 (3.9) years; height: 183.6 (6.8) cm; weight: 72.4 (3.9) kg; VO(2)max: 67.9 (3.8) ml.kg(-1).min(-1)] performed a simulated OTC (six sections; average length: 10.090 m). In both studies data from the maximal treadmill tests (TT) were used as reference values for the comparison of energy expenditure of OTC and TEC. During TEC, the average VO(2) was considerably lower [29.1 (5.6) ml(.)kg(-1.)min(-1)] or 51.1 (10.9)% of VO(2)max and 64.8.0 (13.3)% of VO(2) determined at the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) on the TT. The short high-intensity periods (activity/recovery = 1/6) did not result in higher LA levels [average LA of games: 2.07 (0.9) mmol.l(-1)]. The highest average VO(2 )value for a whole game was 47.8 ml.kg(-1.)min(-1) and may provide a reference for energy demands required to sustain high-intensity periods of tennis predominantly via aerobic mechanism of energy delivery. During OTC, we found an average VO(2) of 56.4 (4.5) ml.kg(-1).min(-1) or 83.0 (3.8)% of VO(2)max and 94.6 (5.2)% of VO(2) at IAT. In contrast to TEC, LA were relatively high [5.16 (1.5) mmol.l(-1)) although the average VO(2) was significantly lower than VO(2) at IAT. Our data suggest that portable RGEM provides valuable information concerning the energy expenditure in sports that cannot be interpreted from LA or HR measures alone. Portable RGEM systems provide valuable assessment of under- or over-estimation of
Full Text Available The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For the Sports Goods Manufacturing Industry which is considered to be an intensive supplier base industry with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for the entire supply chain viz. raw material and machinery suppliers and manufacturers to measure their supplier's performance to reduce business risks and revenue losses. How to design & execute a simple, cost effective & result oriented Framework for Supplier Performance Measurement for sports goods manufacturing small - medium enterprises is the main aim of this research paper.
Full Text Available The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory (n = 56. A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF, Kalman-Filter (KF] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6% and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8% both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6% regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 – 17.8%. Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that
長岡, 雅美; 赤松, 喜久; Masami, Nagaoka; Yoshihisa, Akamatsu
The purpose of this study is to clarify the concept of Guidance and Support on community sports and to specify the directionality of organization and support for achievement of the sports society through life. The authors have stressed that it is necessary for achievement of the society for longlife sports，to cooperate with other groups and to construct a consistent support system. This study is also to explore the condition of community sports club management through analyzing the Japan Juni...
Kampen, D.A. van
In this thesis we investigated the use of clinical information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for patient evaluation in orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. In the first part, we showed that the Dutch version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) is a valid and reliable
Brendan H. Lazarus
Full Text Available Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers.Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks. Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences.Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders; 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards. Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear.Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.
Sarah A. Richmond
Full Text Available Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n=1,040 at the ages of 11–15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2 and WC (cm were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese were created using validated international (BMI and national (WC cut-off points. A Poisson regression analysis controlling for relevant covariates (sex, previous injury, sport participation, intervention group, and aerobic fitness level estimated the risk of sport injury [incidence rate ratios (IRR with 95% confidence intervals (CI]. Results. There was an increased risk of time loss injury (IRR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.01–8.04 and knee injury (IRR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00–6.94 in adolescents that were overweight/obese; however, increases in injury risk for all injury and lower extremity injury were not statistically significant. Estimates suggested a greater risk of time loss injury [IRR = 1.63 (95% CI: 0.93–2.47] in adolescents with high measures of WC. Conclusions. There is an increased risk of time loss injury and knee injury in overweight/obese adolescents. Sport injury prevention training programs should include strategies that target all known risk factors for injury.
Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Schivartche, Vivian
The authors review the literature about musculoskeletal injuries related to sports, emphasizing the main findings with different imaging methods. They also present the specific characteristics of each method. (author)
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to gain relevant knowledge about significant differences in some anthropometric measures among female footballers and girls who are not involved in any sport at all. The sample comprised 107 female subjects. They were divided into two groups - female footballers and girls who are not involved in any sport. The selected group of female footballers (54 average age, 16,3 years represents the girls from various clubs in Vojvodina and Serbia (representatives of Vojvodina and Western Serbia. The group of girls who are not involved in any sport (53 average age, 16, 9 years consists of students of secondary school 'Svetozar Miletic' in Novi Sad. The sample of variables comprised 12 anthropometrical measures that defined longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the skeleton, volume and body mass, and subcutaneous fat (in accordance with the International Biological Programme. Both multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA were performed in order to determine the significant differences at the multivariate and univariate level. Based on the results, it was concluded that 8 variables out of 12 applied variables, showed significant differences between the groups. The following variables did not show any differences: knee diameter, weight, maximum volume of the lower leg and calf skin fold, while the following variables showed statistical significance in favor of the girls who are not involved in any sport: height, foot length, pelvic width, shoulder width and maximum thigh circumference.
Richmond, Sarah A.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Macpherson, Alison; Emery, Carolyn A.
Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n = 1,040) at the ages of 11?15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese) were created using validated internati...
Full Text Available The elevation gain is an important contributor to the total workload in endurance sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the arm swing on elevation gain in three sport watches (Garmin® Forerunner 910XT, Polar® RS800CX and Suunto® Ambit2 on a flat 400 m outdoor track. Altogether, a total of 120 repetitions of 1,200 m were performed at self-selected speeds corresponding to strolling, walking, jogging and running. During the assessment two devices of each sport watch, one secured on the hip and one on the wrist, were worn by the participants. A small but significant (effect size = .39; p < .001 influence of the arm swing on elevation was revealed in all sport watches. Elevation indication errors recorded on the wrist were significantly larger than the ones recorded on the hip (4.0-7.4 vs. 1.2-5.7 m per 1,200 m; p < .05. Furthermore, when wearing the devices on the wrist, errors in elevation indication increased when gait speed increased. Users should be aware that wearing the devices on the hip can significantly decrease measurement errors. This might be especially relevant for activities with high dynamics, such as jogging and running.
Arce, Constantino; Torrado, Julio; Andrade, Elena; Garrido, Javier; de Francisco, Cristina
This study describes the process of developing a scale to measure the leadership capacity of players in sports teams. Research into sports leadership has focused almost exclusively on the formal leadership of the coach, in which the studies by Chelladurai, with his five-factor model, have become an essential point of reference. Nevertheless, hardly any research has been carried out into the leadership that certain players exercise over the other team members. For this purpose, a sample of 143 male basketball players was used; these participants were asked to evaluate the characteristics of the sports leader over a total of 54 indicators. Firstly, explanatory factor analysis was performed with participants' responses, using principal axis and oblique rotation methods. The factor structure obtained was then subjected to confirmatory factorial analysis, enabling us to propose a Sports Leader Evaluation Scale (EELD, in Spanish) with 18 items grouped into 3 factors, denominated empathy and responsibility, assertiveness, and impulsiveness. Satisfactory fit indices were obtained for the model, for the reliability of items and for the internal consistency of factors.
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Lu?s; Davids, Keith; Ara?jo, Duarte; Garganta, J?lio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data ...
White, Kathleen; Zeni, Joseph; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Objectives: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) athletes commonly report increased fear of re-injury and below normal knee function. Implementing a post-operative training protocol (ACL-SPORTS Training) to improve patient perceived knee function, may improve short term outcomes after surgery. Identifying pre-training measures that predict normal knee function after training may allow us to determine who may respond to the treatment intervention. The purpose of this study wa...
Network theory, the cluster concept of Porter (1998) and the social capital ... for case study analysis of 60 sport-related entities at the 23 public universities in South ... them to schools and community clubs in the value chain of service provision.
den Hartigh, Jan Rudolf
For decades, research on talent development in sports has attempted to detect the mechanisms explaining excellent performance. Although researchers generally agree that different personal and environmental factors play a role (e.g., genetic endowment, practice, family support), how these factors
Full Text Available To solve the imbalanced use of university sports venues, the online booking system of university sports venues based on the table tennis hall of Zhengzhou University is designed, combining the experience of the existing online booking systems, the main methods and the major ideal of building these systems both at home and aboard. The basic functions of the system are designed according to the general requirement analysis, including user’s registration and login, online venue booking, online payment, personal center, message board and database construction. The development of the system used Java programming language, JSP (a Web platform development technology, MySQL database processing technology, JDBC data access model, MyEclipse development platform and Tomcat server. The system has accomplished such functions as online booking, online payment and online message. The tests of the system are run in good conditions. The use of the system has made up for the current luck of sports venues management, solved the problems of the online booking function of university sports venues, improved the efficiency of the venues and meet the needs of efficient use of the venues. The system can be an experience of the management of the other college sports venues.
Hespanhol, L.C.; Barboza, S.D.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.
Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Norberta Elisa Fernandes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.
Anna E. Saw, Luana C. Main, Paul B. Gastin
Full Text Available Athlete self-report measures (ASRM are a popular method of athlete monitoring in high-performance sports. With increasing recognition and accessibility, ASRM may potentially be utilized by athletes from diverse sport contexts. The purpose of the present study was to improve understanding of ASRM implementation across different sport contexts by observing uptake and compliance of a newly implemented ASRM over 16 weeks, and investigating the perceived roles and factors influencing implementation. Athletes (n=131 completed an electronic survey at baseline and week 16 on their perceptions and experiences with ASRM implementation respectively. Despite initial interest, only 70 athletes attempted to use the ASRM. Of these athletes, team sport athletes who were supported by their coach or sports program to use the ASRM were most compliant (p < 0.001 with a mean compliance of 84 ± 21 %. Compliance for self-directed individual and team sport athletes was 28 ± 40 % and 8 ± 18 % respectively. Self-directed athletes were motivated to monitor themselves, and rated desired content and minimal burden as key factors for initial and ongoing compliance. Supported athletes were primarily motivated to comply for the benefit of their coach or sports program rather than themselves, however rated data output as a key factor for their continued use. Factors of the measure outweighed those of the social environment regardless of sport context, however the influence of social environmental factors should not be discounted. The findings of the present study demonstrate the impact of sport context on the implementation of an ASRM and the need to tailor implementation strategies accordingly.
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate to which measure sport is developed among young people in Montenegro and what should be done to improve and spread physical culture among young people and beyond school systems in order to infl uence their proper development and to create opportunities for choosing potential talents for certain sports disciplines, who would later grow into top athletes and members of national teams. In addition to the theoretical framework set out from referent literature on sports, we will analyze the indicators - the existing regulation and strategy, and analyze the structured interviews conducted among sports professionals, based on which we will form the theory and sublimate the conclusions of work, as recommendations for improving sports among young people. Disadvantages are inadequate realization of teaching in schools, lack of adequate infrastructure in schools, lack of athletic stadium in the capital of Montenegro and lack of sports schools beyond classes. Advantages are great sports potential in youth, youth interest in sport and generations of educated professors in physical culture. The recommendations are related to addressing the shortcomings that exist and the adoption of laws that will stimulate the development of sports among young people.
Schneider, Christoph; Hanakam, Florian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Döweling, Alexander; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander
A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules. In this regard, exercise-related heart rate measures are likely the most applicable markers, as they can be routinely assessed during warm-ups using short (3-5 min) submaximal exercise protocols for an entire squad with common chest strap-based team monitoring devices. However, a comprehensive and meaningful monitoring of the training process requires the accurate separation of various types of responses, such as strain, recovery, and adaptation, which may all affect heart rate measures. Therefore, additional information on the training context (such as the training phase, training load, and intensity distribution) combined with multivariate analysis, which includes markers of (perceived) wellness and fatigue, should be considered when interpreting changes in heart rate indices. The aim of this article is to outline current limitations of heart rate monitoring, discuss methodological considerations of univariate and multivariate approaches, illustrate the influence of different analytical concepts on assessing meaningful changes in heart rate responses, and provide case examples for contextualizing heart rate measures using simple heuristics. To
Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Polglaze, Ted; Freiwald, Jürgen
This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction. During the circuit, athletes wore two devices of each positioning system. From the reported and filtered velocity data, the distances covered and sprint mechanical properties (i.e., the theoretical maximal horizontal velocity, force, and power output) were computed. The sprint mechanical properties were modeled via an inverse dynamic approach applied to the center of mass. The validity was determined by comparing the measured and criterion data via the typical error of estimate (TEE), whereas the reliability was examined by comparing the two devices of each technology (i.e., the between-device reliability) via the coefficient of variation (CV). Outliers due to measurement errors were statistically identified and excluded from validity and reliability analyses. The 18 Hz GPS showed better validity and reliability for determining the distances covered (TEE: 1.6-8.0%; CV: 1.1-5.1%) and sprint mechanical properties (TEE: 4.5-14.3%; CV: 3.1-7.5%) than the 10 Hz GPS (TEE: 3.0-12.9%; CV: 2.5-13.0% and TEE: 4.1-23.1%; CV: 3.3-20.0%). However, the 20 Hz LPS demonstrated superior validity and reliability overall (TEE: 1.0-6.0%; CV: 0.7-5.0% and TEE: 2.1-9.2%; CV: 1.6-7.3%). For the 10 Hz GPS, 18 Hz GPS, and 20 Hz LPS, the relative loss of data sets due to measurement errors was 10.0%, 20.0%, and 15.8%, respectively. This study shows that
Panachev, Valery D.; Zelenin, Leonid A.; Opletin, Anatoly A.; Verbytskyi, Sergei A.
Problems of formation, development and introduction of the modern pedagogical selfdevelopment system in university educational process by means of physical culture and sport have been considered in this article. Such generated pedagogical system reflects practical implementation of social order on the modern educational paradigm aimed at creation…
Min Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Jong Min; Jung, Han Kee [Dept. of Adaptation Physical Education, Hanshin University, Osan (Korea, Republic of)
As for the current state of college Taekwondo athletes’ sport injury, times of occurrence and major causes showed differences in weight class and career, while situations of occurrence had differences in grade, weight class, and career. As for the measures to improve their coping ability, first aid showed differences in grade, while prevention of injury had differences in grade and career. Treatment methods turned out to have no differences. For college Taekwondo athletes, sport injury occurred during exercise, mostly when they fell. In addition, lack of skill was the greatest major cause of sport injury. As for the sport injury coping ability, ice massage was used as first aid and self-massage was performed. For prevention of injury, sufficient fatigue recovery was considered to be the priority of prevention of injury.
Min Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Jong Min; Jung, Han Kee
As for the current state of college Taekwondo athletes’ sport injury, times of occurrence and major causes showed differences in weight class and career, while situations of occurrence had differences in grade, weight class, and career. As for the measures to improve their coping ability, first aid showed differences in grade, while prevention of injury had differences in grade and career. Treatment methods turned out to have no differences. For college Taekwondo athletes, sport injury occurred during exercise, mostly when they fell. In addition, lack of skill was the greatest major cause of sport injury. As for the sport injury coping ability, ice massage was used as first aid and self-massage was performed. For prevention of injury, sufficient fatigue recovery was considered to be the priority of prevention of injury
Hasan, Taufiq; Bořil, Hynek; Sangwan, Abhijeet; L Hansen, John H.
The ability to detect and organize `hot spots' representing areas of excitement within video streams is a challenging research problem when techniques rely exclusively on video content. A generic method for sports video highlight selection is presented in this study which leverages both video/image structure as well as audio/speech properties. Processing begins where the video is partitioned into small segments and several multi-modal features are extracted from each segment. Excitability is computed based on the likelihood of the segmental features residing in certain regions of their joint probability density function space which are considered both exciting and rare. The proposed measure is used to rank order the partitioned segments to compress the overall video sequence and produce a contiguous set of highlights. Experiments are performed on baseball videos based on signal processing advancements for excitement assessment in the commentators' speech, audio energy, slow motion replay, scene cut density, and motion activity as features. Detailed analysis on correlation between user excitability and various speech production parameters is conducted and an effective scheme is designed to estimate the excitement level of commentator's speech from the sports videos. Subjective evaluation of excitability and ranking of video segments demonstrate a higher correlation with the proposed measure compared to well-established techniques indicating the effectiveness of the overall approach.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Spasic, Miodrag; Krolo, Ante; Zenic, Natasa; Delextrat, Anne; Sekulic, Damir
There is no current study that examined sport-specific tests of reactive-agility and change-of-direction-speed (CODS) to replicate real-sport environment in handball (team-handball). This investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of two novel tests designed to assess reactive-agility and CODS of handball players. Participants were female (25.14 ± 3.71 years of age; 1.77 ± 0.09 m and 74.1 ± 6.1 kg) and male handball players (26.9 ± 4.1 years of age; 1.90 ± 0.09 m and 93.90±4.6 kg). Variables included body height, body mass, body mass index, broad jump, 5-m sprint, CODS and reactive-agility tests. Results showed satisfactory reliability for reactive-agility-test and CODS-test (ICC of 0.85-0.93, and CV of 2.4-4.8%). The reactive-agility and CODS shared less than 20% of the common variance. The calculated index of perceptual and reactive capacity (P&RC; ratio between reactive-agility- and CODS-performance) is found to be valid measure in defining true-game reactive-agility performance in handball in both genders. Therefore, the handball athletes' P&RC should be used in the evaluation of real-game reactive-agility performance. Future studies should explore other sport-specific reactive-agility tests and factors associated to such performance in sports involving agile maneuvers. Key pointsReactive agility and change-of-direction-speed should be observed as independent qualities, even when tested over the same course and similar movement templateThe reactive-agility-performance of the handball athletes involved in defensive duties is closer to their non-reactive-agility-score than in their peers who are not involved in defensive dutiesThe handball specific "true-game" reactive-agility-performance should be evaluated as the ratio between reactive-agility and corresponding CODS performance.
The European Union has increasingly emphasized the sociological, physiological and psychological benefits of sport. Sport provision and participation trends have been measured throughout the member-states and, the gaps between Northern and Southern countries are widely acknowledged. These gaps are especially wide between young-adults and the elderly. The integration of sports into the education curriculum in most European pedagogic systems has resulted in high levels of sport practice among t...
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the place of Olympic sports in modern world; to analyze dynamic of its political, economic and social significance progress. Material: publications on the topic of this article were used as sources of information. Results: we characterized influence of Olympic sports on transformation of views and practical functioning in sphere of elite sportsmen’s training. Main stages of modern Olympic sports’ formation have been regarded. Strategy of elite sports’ development in historical aspect has been presented. Changes in attitude of political leaders, state figures and general population to Olympic Games have been shown. Directions of development and perfection of elite sportsmen’s training national systems have been outlined. Conclusions: recent years, potential of Olympic sports have being reflected in foreign and home policy of many countries. It resulted in drastic changes in spheres of organization, management, financing, material technical and personnel provisioning of sportsmen’s training.
Tyson, Abigail M; Duma, Stefan M; Rowson, Steven
Advances in low-cost wearable head impact sensor technology provide potential benefits regarding sports safety for both consumers and researchers. However, previous laboratory evaluations are not directly comparable and don't incorporate test conditions representative of unhelmeted impacts. This study addresses those limitations. The xPatch by X2 Biosystems and the SIM-G by Triax Technologies were placed on a NOCSAE headform with a Hybrid III neck which underwent impacts tests using a pendulum. Impact conditions included helmeted, padded impactor to bare head, and rigid impactor to bare head to represent long and short-duration impacts seen in helmeted and unhelmeted sports. The wearable sensors were evaluated on their kinematic accuracy by comparing results to reference sensors located at the headform center of gravity. Statistical tests for equivalence were performed on the slope of the linear regression between wearable sensors and reference. The xPatch gave equivalent measurements to the reference in select longer-duration impacts whereas the SIM-G had large variance leading to no equivalence. For the short-duration impacts, both wearable sensors underpredicted the reference. This error can be improved with increases in sampling rate from 1 to 1.5 kHz. Follow-up evaluations should be performed on the field to identify error in vivo. (197/200).
Villanueva Ruibal, Jose
A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es
Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas
We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....
Nehrer, S. [Donau-Universitaet Krems, Department fuer Klinische Medizin und Biotechnologie, Zentrum fuer Regenerative Medizin, Krems (Austria)
The positive effects of sports on the cardiovascular and musculoskeleal systems are widely accepted. Nevertheless, sports also can cause injury and overuse leading to sport-specific problems, which are often a challenge in diagnosing and treatment. The history of the sport-related injury is crucial for further differential diagnosis. Careful inspection, palpation and functional testing can reveal the possible pathology and lead to an effective strategy in the diagnostic assessment using radiographic tools such as sonography, X-ray and MR imaging (MRI). In muscle and tendon injuries sonography can provide ready to use information concerning muscle tears and tendon ruptures or degenerative lesions. Plain X-rays give a good overview on joint conditions regarding the bone and sometimes have to be completed by focused enlargement of the critical structure, especially in stress fractures and small bone lesions. MRT is the gold standard in the evaluation of interarticular and extra-articular sport-related pathologies, however, an exact clinical diagnosis allows a more effective investigation protocol. Profound knowledge of possible sport-specific injury and overuse patterns is necessary to detect lesions of the musculoskeletal system in active athletes and to use the fitting radiographic strategy for confirmation. The exact diagnosis is the prerequisite for initiating the appropriate treatment and a fast sports medical rehabilitation process. (orig.) [German] Die positive Auswirkung von Sport auf das Herz-Kreislauf-System und den Bewegungsapparat ist weitgehend gesichert. Trotzdem kann es bei der Sportausuebung zu sportspezifischen Problemen kommen, die den Sportarzt bei der Abklaerung dieser Schmerzsyndrome oft vor grosse Herausforderungen stellen. Die Ursache von Sportschaeden und Verletzungen sind einerseits akute Traumata, andererseits aber auch Ueberlastungen oder Kombinationen von beiden. Die Erhebung einer Anamnese unter Beruecksichtigung sportspezifischer Aspekte
Robertson, Sam; Kremer, Peter; Aisbett, Brad; Tran, Jacqueline; Cerin, Ester
Performance tests are used for multiple purposes in exercise and sport science. Ensuring that a test displays an appropriate level of measurement properties for use within a population is important to ensure confidence in test findings. The aim of this study was to obtain subject matter expert consensus on the measurement and feasibility properties that should be considered for performance tests used in the exercise and sport sciences and how these should be defined. This information was used to develop a checklist for broader dissemination. A two-round Delphi study was undertaken including 33 exercise scientists, academics and sport scientists. Participants were asked to rate the importance of a range of measurement properties relevant to performance tests in exercise and sport science. Responses were obtained in binary and Likert-scale formats, with consensus defined as achieving 67% agreement on each question. Consensus was reached on definitions and terminology for all items. Ten level 1 items (those that achieved consensus on all four questions) and nine level 2 items (those achieving consensus on ≥2 questions) were included. Both levels were included in the final checklist. The checklist developed from this study can be used to inform decision-making and test selection for practitioners and researchers in the exercise and sport sciences. This can facilitate knowledge sharing and performance comparisons across sub-disciplines, thereby improving existing field practice and research methodological quality.
Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K
This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment.
System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.
Guadarrama-Santana, A.; Pólo-Parada, L.; García-Valenzuela, A.
We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells.
Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA
The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.
Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.
The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software
Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.
Full Text Available With the development of biometric verification, we proposed a new algorithm and personal mobile sensor card system for ECG verification. The proposed new mean-interval approach can identify the user quickly with high accuracy and consumes a small amount of flash memory in the microprocessor. The new framework of the mobile card system makes ECG verification become a feasible application to overcome the issues of a centralized database. For a fair and comprehensive evaluation, the experimental results have been tested on public MIT-BIH ECG databases and our circuit system; they confirm that the proposed scheme is able to provide excellent accuracy and low complexity. Moreover, we also proposed a multiple-state solution to handle the heat rate changes of sports problem. It should be the first to address the issue of sports in ECG verification.
Ritchie, Andrew Ewen; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede
in the system. If the switching speed can be increased, improvements may be possible (e.g., current ripple in an electrical machine or physical size of passive components may be reduced). On the other hand, increased switching speed may cause additional losses in a power electronic system and increase...... the system cooling requirement. A common problem is that high-frequency phenomena like proximity effect, skin effect, hysteresis losses, and eddy current losses appear in the systems. These losses are very difficult to treat both theoretically and in practice. It is often difficult to measure the effect...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...
... time. The Council recommended this limited access system to provide stability for the guided sport... IPHC regulations at section 25 of the annual management measures specify the legal gear for sport... IPHC regulations at section 28 of the annual management measures establish sport fishing rules specific...
Case, Jonathan L.; Lafontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Rozumalski, Robert A.
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can initialize specific fields for local model runs within the NOAA/NWS Science and Training Resource Center Environmental Modeling System (EMS). The suite of SPoRT products for use in the EMS consists of a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite that includes a Lake Surface Temperature (LST) analysis over the Great Lakes, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent within the SST composite, a real-time Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and NASA Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. This paper and companion poster describe each dataset and provide recent upgrades made to the SST, Great Lakes LST, GVF composites, and the real-time LIS runs.
Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carcione, Brian; Wood, Lance; Maloney, Joseph; Estupinan, Jeral; Medlin, Jeffrey M.; Blottman, Peter; Rozumalski, Robert A.
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can be used to initialize local model runs within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). These real-time datasets consist of surface-based information updated at least once per day, and produced in a composite or gridded product that is easily incorporated into the WRF EMS. The primary goal for making these NASA datasets available to the WRF EMS community is to provide timely and high-quality information at a spatial resolution comparable to that used in the local model configurations (i.e., convection-allowing scales). The current suite of SPoRT products supported in the WRF EMS include a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. The SPoRT SST composite is a blend of primarily the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) infrared and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System data for non-precipitation coverage over the oceans at 2-km resolution. The composite includes a special lake surface temperature analysis over the Great Lakes using contributions from the Remote Sensing Systems temperature data. The Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory Ice Percentage product is used to create a sea-ice mask in the SPoRT SST composite. The sea-ice mask is produced daily (in-season) at 1.8-km resolution and identifies ice percentage from 0 100% in 10% increments, with values above 90% flagged as ice.
Merchant-Borna, Kian; Jones, Courtney Marie Cora; Janigro, Mattia; Wasserman, Erin B; Clark, Ross A; Bazarian, Jeffrey J
Recent changes to postconcussion guidelines indicate that postural-stability assessment may augment traditional neurocognitive testing when making return-to-participation decisions. The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) has been proposed as 1 measure of balance assessment. A new, freely available software program to accompany the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) system has recently been developed but has not been tested in concussed patients. To evaluate the feasibility of using the WBB to assess postural stability across 3 time points (baseline and postconcussion days 3 and 7) and to assess concurrent and convergent validity of the WBB with other traditional measures (BESS and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test [ImPACT] battery) of assessing concussion recovery. Cohort study. Athletic training room and collegiate sports arena. We collected preseason baseline data from 403 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and III student-athletes participating in contact sports and studied 19 participants (age = 19.2 ± 1.2 years, height = 177.7 ± 8.0 cm, mass = 75.3 ± 16.6 kg, time from baseline to day 3 postconcussion = 27.1 ± 36.6 weeks) who sustained concussions. We assessed balance using single-legged and double-legged stances for both the BESS and WBB, focusing on the double-legged, eyes-closed stance for the WBB, and used ImPACT to assess neurocognition at 3 time points. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Mean differences and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to determine differences within and between metrics over the 3 time points. Individual-level changes over time were also assessed graphically. The WBB demonstrated mean changes between baseline and day 3 postconcussion and between days 3 and 7 postconcussion. It was correlated with the BESS and ImPACT for several measures and identified 2 cases of abnormal balance postconcussion that would not have been identified via the BESS. When
Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas
We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution's contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution's leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system's loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are ‘taxed’ based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular......, (i) the outcome of stress tests performed by regulators; (ii) the decline in equity valuations of large financial firms in the crisis; and, (iii) the widening of their credit default swap spreads....
Full Text Available The main forms, principles and methods of the physical training’s management of the Internal Affairs Agencies’s staff are considered. Reveals its consistency and conceptual approach to the mechanism of targeted and effective operation of the system under different conditions of the employees police. Determined that the system of physical training and sports of bodies and organs of internal affairs of Ukraine, except for departmental purposes, partly related to the overall social and cultural life of modern society, and the management of this system is social in nature and depends on the level of socialization of its top performers and other regional representatives. It is set that optimization of correction foresees subsequent purposeful realization of the planned complex of measures which answer certain terms and real possibilities of operating control the system.
Heje Pedersen, Lasse
We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution’s leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are “taxed” based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular......, (i) the outcome of stress tests performed by regulators; (ii) the decline in equity valuations of large financial firms in the crisis; and, (iii) the widening of their credit default swap spreads....
Seifert, Ludovic; Button, Chris; Davids, Keith
This paper identifies key properties of expertise in sport predicated on the performer-environment relationship. Weaknesses of traditional approaches to expert performance, which uniquely focus on the performer and the environment separately, are highlighted by an ecological dynamics perspective. Key properties of expert movement systems include 'multi- and meta-stability', 'adaptive variability', 'redundancy', 'degeneracy' and the 'attunement to affordances'. Empirical research on these expert system properties indicates that skill acquisition does not emerge from the internal representation of declarative and procedural knowledge, or the imitation of expert behaviours to linearly reduce a perceived 'gap' separating movements of beginners and a putative expert model. Rather, expert performance corresponds with the ongoing co-adaptation of an individual's behaviours to dynamically changing, interacting constraints, individually perceived and encountered. The functional role of adaptive movement variability is essential to expert performance in many different sports (involving individuals and teams; ball games and outdoor activities; land and aquatic environments). These key properties signify that, in sport performance, although basic movement patterns need to be acquired by developing athletes, there exists no ideal movement template towards which all learners should aspire, since relatively unique functional movement solutions emerge from the interaction of key constraints.
Nässi, Anu; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael
The Acute Recovery and Stress Scale (ARSS) and the Short Recovery and Stress Scale were first established in German for the purposes of monitoring athletes' current recovery-stress states in an economical and multidimensional manner. The aim of this paper is to document the development and initial validation of the English versions of these two psychometric monitoring tools. A total of 267 English-speaking athletes from a variety of team and individual sports participated in the study. The English versions demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency for both instruments (Cronbach α of .74-.89). Furthermore, good model fit was found for the eight scales of the ARSS, matching the structure and results of the German counterparts. Correlations among and between the scales reciprocate the theoretical constructs of stress and recovery, supporting the construct validity of the scales. Correlation coefficients within stress and recovery ranged between r s = .29 and .68. The correlations between stress and recovery varied between r s = -.29 and -.64. These constructs were further supported by correlations with the scores of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, thereby showing convergent validity. The findings demonstrate initial validity and reliability of the two measures and reflect the results of the German versions. However, further research is needed before applying these scales in practical settings.
Full Text Available Background As a conscious activity of an individual, physical activity (PA constitutes an element of the free-time dimension. The type of goal allows us to distinguish between sport and PA: sport performance vs. psychophysical health – hence the idea to develop a tool for measurement of the motivational function of an objective in physical activity and sport. Participants and procedure The normalisation sample consisted of 2141 individuals: 1163 women aged 16-64 (M = 23.90, SD = 8.30 and 978 men aged 16-66 (M = 24.50, SD = 9.40. In the process of validation, a factor analysis, and subsequently validity and reliability analysis of the tool, and normalisation of scales were performed. Results Based on the factor analysis and the degree to which each of the given items conformed to the theory of the motivational function of an objective, the following scales were distinguished: 1 motivational value (the extent to which the objective influences the actions undertaken by an individual, 2 time management (the level of focus on planning, arranging and organizing time for PA, 3 persistence in action (efficiency and persistence of action, and the ability to deal with adversities, and 4 motivational conflict (the level of conflict: PA objectives vs. other objectives. The Cronbach’s α reliability coefficient for this version reached .78. The Inventory of Physical Activity Objectives (IPAO also included questions that allow one to control for variables such as the variety of forms, duration, and frequency of PA, and socio-demographic variables. Conclusions The IPAO, as a new method for measuring motives for physical activity and sport, is characterized by good psychometric properties. The IPAO can serve both scientific research and as a useful tool for personal trainers, helping diagnose the motives for engaging in PA and sports. With knowledge about the purposefulness of actions, it is possible to support and shape additional motivation experienced by
Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.
Garcia H, J.M.
The Radon Integral Measurement System (SMIR) is a device designed specially to detect, to count and to store the data of the acquisition of alpha particles emitted by Radon-222 coming from the underground. The system includes a detection chamber, a radiation detector, a digital system with bateries backup and an auxiliary photovoltaic cell. A personal computer fixes the mode in which the system works, transmitting the commands to the system by the serial port. The heart of the system is a microprocesor working with interrupts by hardware. Every external device to the microprocessor sends his own interrupt request and the microprocessor handles the interrupts with a defined priority. The system uses a real time clock, compatible with the microprocessor, to take care of the real timing and date of the acquisition. A non volatile RAM is used to store data of two bytes every 15 minutes along 41 days as a maximum. After the setting up to the system by the computer, it can operate in stand alone way for up 41 days in the working place without the lose of any data. If the memory is full the next data will be written in the first locations of the memory. The memory is divided in pages corresponding every one of this to a different day of the acquisition. The counting time for every acquisition can be programmed by the user from 15 minutes to 65535 minutes but it is recommended to use a small time not to reach the limit of 65535 counts in every acquisition period. We can take information of the system without affecting the acquisition process in the field by using a lap top computer, then the information can be stored in a file. There is a program in the computer that can show the information in a table of values or in a bar graph. (Author)
Rongen, Fieke; McKenna, Jim; Cobley, Stephen; Till, Kevin
Talent identification and development systems (TIDS) are commonly used in professional sport to convert youth athletes into sporting stars of the future. Acknowledging that only a few athletes can "make it," the necessity and healthiness of TIDS have recently been questioned based on their increased professionalism, high training, and competition volumes, but limited effectiveness. In this short communication, we suggest that the key issues associated with TIDS are not due to their overall concept, but with how they are designed and implemented. It is recommended that researchers and practitioners determine the worth and value of TIDS by also evaluating the positive health of the athlete rather than solely focusing on performance outcomes. To achieve this, TIDS staff should shape and develop their values, expectations, and day-to-day routines to achieve positive health outcomes focusing on personal development and an athlete-centered culture. In business, this has been termed the concept of "Deliberately Developmental Organisation." TIDS can deploy the factors (e.g., high-quality staff, expert support services, quality facilities, and learning routines) characteristic of such organizations, to concurrently ensure positive impacts and minimize predictable negative outcomes without losing focus on a drive for sporting performance.
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.
Full Text Available Efficiency of the system of psychological pedagogical accompaniment of sporting activity is certain. In research the sportsmen of high qualification took part in sport of invalids. Prevailing high level of readiness of swimmers is rotined to self-realization in competition activity. On results procedure of self-appraisal 68,75 % sportsmen were attained optimum level of readiness, 14,58 % - base (sufficient, 14,58 % - middle (insufficient, 02,08 % - low (critical.
Nguyen Duc Tuan; Nguyen Thi Bao My; Nguyen Van Sy
The NED-UP.M7 is a complete thyroid uptake and analysis system specifically designed for nuclear medicine. Capable of performing a full range of studies this system provides fast, accurate results for Uptake Studies. The heart of the NED-UP.M7 is a microprocessor-controlled 2048 channel Compact Multi-Channel Analyzer, coupled to a 2 inch x 2 inch NaI(Tl) detector with a USB personal computer interface. The system offers simple, straight-forward operation using pre-programmed isotopes, and menudriven prompts to guide the user step by step through each procedure. The pre-programmed radionuclides include I-123, I-125, I-131, Tc-99m and Cs-137. The user-defined radionuclides also allow for isotope identification while the printer provides hard copy printouts for patient and department record keeping. The included software program running on PC (Windows XP-based) is a user friendly program with menudriven and graphic interface for easy controlling the system and managing measurement results of patient on Excel standard form. (author)
Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A
Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Bruce L. Jaffee
The article deals with both the general economic impact of large sporting events and the likely economic impact of having the Olympics held in Budapest. The author describes the general economic theory of economic impact and the spending patterns at major sporting events. He finds that a considerable part of the money spent in a community at the time of such an event cannot be viewed as “new money”that will stimulate the local economy. A large economic impact of such an event requires that it...
Maidelyn Díaz Pérez
Full Text Available The literature refers to the need that all academic institutions have today to use information systems articulated with the different processes that the organization executes. The idea of using this type of system is to convert the available information into knowledge that represents a competitive advantage for the organization. However, despite being a strength for any organization both to manage their strategic information and to manage the information generated by research projects, they are still not widely used. The reality shows that the academic sports institutions of the country and mainly the faculties of physical culture lack a culture in the use of systems to manage different substantive tasks of the center, such as the activity of research projects. It is estimated that if they rely more on the optimal use of the information and knowledge they have at the group level, all their scientific production indicators will be significantly increased. From this scenario, this research aims to expose the main strengths of information and knowledge management systems, mainly those aimed at projects for the stimulation of their use and implementation in academic institutions associated with sports. To achieve this objective, the logical historical method, direct observation, the method of analysis and synthesis, etc. were used. And among the main results obtained in this research there is the relevance of the use of information management systems and knowledge aimed at projects to contribute to the promotion and success of research activities generated by projects.
Nelson, Anne E; Ho, Ken K Y
Application of methods for detecting GH doping depend on being able to discriminate between abnormal levels due to doping and normal physiological levels of circulating proteins that change in response to exogenous administration. Constituents of the IGF and collagen systems have been shown to be promising markers of GH abuse. Their ultimate utility, however, depends on identification of the factors that regulate their concentrations in blood. Among these are demographic factors that are known to influence these markers in the general population. In a large cross-sectional study of the GH-responsive markers in over 1000 elite athletes from 12 countries representing 4 major ethnic groups and 10 sport types, we have shown that there is a significant negative correlation between age and all the IGF and collagen markers we studied, with a rapid decrease in early adolescence. Age was the major contribution to the variability, equivalent to >80% of the attributable variation in IGF-I and the collagen markers. The IGF axis markers were all significantly higher in women, and the collagen markers significantly higher in men, however, the contribution of gender was smaller than that of age, except for IGFBP-3 and ALS. BMI had a minor contribution to variability of the GH-responsive markers. After adjustment for the confounding influences of age, gender and BMI, the effect of ethnicity in elite athletes was trivial except for IGFBP-3 and ALS, which were both lower in Africans and higher in Caucasians. Compared to age and gender, the contribution of sport type was also modest. Our findings on the influence of age, gender, BMI and sport type have also been confirmed in a study of mostly Caucasian elite athletes in the post-competition setting. In conclusion, age and gender are the major determinants of variability for IGF-I and the collagen markers, whereas ethnicity and sport type have a minor influence. Therefore, a test based on IGF-I and the collagen markers must take age
Bieger, Thomas; Beritelli, Pietro
Marketing Management of sport and tourism does not just mean marketing of touristic sport products. Marketing management of sport and tourism can be divided into marketing of sport activities, events or infrastructure for people outside the location and marketing of tourism through sport activities, events and sport infrastructure. A system approach is introduced to serve as a model for explaining interrelations between the different elements in the sport and tourism context. As such destinat...
Full Text Available BACKROUND: When measuring body composition, we monitor the fractionalization of body weight and the share of the individual elements in its aggregate value. The total body water (TBW is a very important element in addition to the share of body fat (BF, muscle mass and bone minerals. Water is the largest element of the body weight and its sufficient amount (organism hydration is a condition for maintaining the physiological functions of the person and thus has an immediate effect on the health of the individual. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to check the standard values of the percentage share of the representation of the total body water in the total body weight in different age groups of sporting youths using the tetrapolar bio-impedance Tanita 418 MA scale. METHODS: The research group included a total of 532 individuals (332 men and 200 women at the age from 12 to 17 years. They were individuals with regular physical activity and without any health problems. The measurement was carried out using the tetrapolar bio-impedance TANITA 418 MA scale. The confidence interval at the reliability level of .99 was used to define the range of the standard values of the percentage share of the total body water representation. The normalization index Ni was used to compare the mean values of the total body water representation with the reference file. RESULTS: The mean values of the TBW representation in boys ranged from 61.75 to 64.34% and in girls from 55.51 to 58.69%, always in relation to the age. The value of the upper bound of (95% the confidence interval of the Tanita 418 MA device software did not exceed the lower bound of the standard (65% in any of the monitored files. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed significant gender differences in the total body water representation that, however, the standard of the used device does not respect. The standard values are set high which was also confirmed by the comparison of our results with other studies
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...
Achkasov, E E; Puzin, S N; Litvinenko, A S; Kurshev, V V; Bezuglov, E N
Our aim was to determine the most common musculoskeletal diseases, depending on the type of sports and athletes' age. The results of examination of 976 athletes aged from 16 to 42 years (average age - 28,9±2,3) with musculoskeletal diseases were analyzed. Medical diagnostic procedures included clinical, laboratory, instrumental (radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound) investigations and functional testing (goniometry, manual muscle testing). Majority of patients were diagnosed to have diseases of the knee (17.9%) and ankle joints (11.3%), the heel bone (12.9%), Achilles tendon (10.2%), post-traumatic musculoskeletal diseases (16.2%), degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the spine (12.8%). In the young age group (16 to 20 years) post-traumatic disorders were most common. In the middle-age group (21 to 30 years) along with post-traumatic disorders diseases of the knee frequently occurred. For athletes over 30 years old, along with diseases of the knee spinal diseases were found to occur 2-3 times more frequently in comparison with other age groups. Injuries which are more common for different types of sports were identified: acute traumas - competitive sports, diseases of the calcaneus - sports with running and jumping (athletics, volleyball, soccer), disease of ankle joints - sport with sharp change in movement direction (hockey, figure skating), disease of the knee - sports with high load of the knee joint (figure skating, gymnastics, volleyball, diseases of bones and joints of the upper extremity - tennis, disease of spine - weightlifting. pathological changes in the musculoskeletal system depend on the type of sports and the age of athletes. The combination of age and risk factors associated with type of sport increases the possibility of development of these diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
Ghatpande, Abhay; Nakazato, Hidenori; Beaumont, Olivier; Watanabe, Hiroshi
Divisible Load Theory (DLT) is an established mathematical framework to study Divisible Load Scheduling (DLS). However, traditional DLT does not address the scheduling of results back to source (i. e., result collection), nor does it comprehensively deal with system heterogeneity. In this paper, the DLSRCHETS (DLS with Result Collection on HET-erogeneous Systems) problem is addressed. The few papers to date that have dealt with DLSRCHETS, proposed simplistic LIFO (Last In, First Out) and FIFO (First In, First Out) type of schedules as solutions to DLSRCHETS. In this paper, a new polynomial time heuristic algorithm, SPORT (System Parameters based Optimized Result Transfer), is proposed as a solution to the DLSRCHETS problem. With the help of simulations, it is proved that the performance of SPORT is significantly better than existing algorithms. The other major contributions of this paper include, for the first time ever, (a) the derivation of the condition to identify the presence of idle time in a FIFO schedule for two processors, (b) the identification of the limiting condition for the optimality of FIFO and LIFO schedules for two processors, and (c) the introduction of the concept of equivalent processor in DLS for heterogeneous systems with result collection.
Full Text Available Problems of formation, development and introduction of the modern pedagogical selfdevelopment system in university educational process by means of physical culture and sport have been considered in this article. Such generated pedagogical system reflects practical implementation of social order on the modern educational paradigm aimed at creation of competitive, physically and morally strong individuals. This system promotes selfrealization of students’ individuality in formation of physical culture and sport competencies as well as competencies of selfdevelopment. Contemporary conditions of society’s development and analysis of the world social cultural and educational tendencies show that recently the object of scrupulous society’s attention and the subject of interdisciplinary research have become different aspects of person’s behavior in respect of his health in many highly developed countries. The slogan of such relation is: “Health is not everything but everything without health is nothing”. And this very principle specifies the problems of students’ selfdevelopment during intensive preparation for professional activity in the course of university training. These problems are aimed at maintenance of their health and improvement of physical preparation considering formation of professional motor competences for effective and qualitative mastering of future profession and career after graduation from the university.
Williams, Vernon B
Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.
Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.
Paterno, Mark V.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Myer, Gregory D.; Huang, Bin; Hewett, Timothy E.
Background Athletes who return to sport participation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) have a higher risk of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury (either reinjury or contralateral injury) compared with non–anterior cruciate ligament–injured athletes. Hypotheses Prospective measures of neuromuscular control and postural stability after ACLR will predict relative increased risk for a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Study Design Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Fifty-six athletes underwent a prospective biomechanical screening after ACLR using 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver and postural stability assessment before return to pivoting and cutting sports. After the initial test session, each subject was followed for 12 months for occurrence of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics, and postural stability were assessed and analyzed. Analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to identify predictors of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Results Thirteen athletes suffered a subsequent second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Transverse plane hip kinetics and frontal plane knee kinematics during landing, sagittal plane knee moments at landing, and deficits in postural stability predicted a second injury in this population (C statistic = 0.94) with excellent sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.88). Specific predictive parameters included an increase in total frontal plane (valgus) movement, greater asymmetry in internal knee extensor moment at initial contact, and a deficit in single-leg postural stability of the involved limb, as measured by the Biodex stability system. Hip rotation moment independently predicted second anterior cruciate ligament injury (C = 0.81) with high sensitivity (0.77) and specificity (0.81). Conclusion Altered neuromuscular control of the hip and knee during a dynamic landing task
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
Full Text Available John Orchard1, Katherine Rae1, John Brooks2, Martin Hägglund3, Lluis Til4, David Wales5, Tim Wood61Sports Medicine at Sydney University, Sydney NSW Australia; 2Rugby Football Union, Twickenham, England, UK; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4FC Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 5Arsenal FC, Highbury, England, UK; 6Tennis Australia, Melbourne, Vic, AustraliaAbstract: The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS is one of the world’s most commonly used systems for coding injury diagnoses in sports injury surveillance systems. Its major strengths are that it has wide usage, has codes specific to sports medicine and that it is free to use. Literature searches and stakeholder consultations were made to assess the uptake of OSICS and to develop new versions. OSICS was commonly used in the sports of football (soccer, Australian football, rugby union, cricket and tennis. It is referenced in international papers in three sports and used in four commercially available computerised injury management systems. Suggested injury categories for the major sports are presented. New versions OSICS 9 (three digit codes and OSICS 10.1 (four digit codes are presented. OSICS is a potentially helpful component of a comprehensive sports injury surveillance system, but many other components are required. Choices made in developing these components should ideally be agreed upon by groups of researchers in consensus statements.Keywords: sports injury classification, epidemiology, surveillance, coding
Dietrich, William Dalton; Cappuccino, Andrew; Cappuccino, Helen
Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that affects approximately 12,000 patients each year in the United States. Major causes for spinal cord injury include motor vehicle accidents, sports-related injuries, and direct trauma. Moderate hypothermia has gained attention as a potential therapy due to recent experimental and clinical studies and the use of modest systemic hypothermia (MSH) in high profile case of spinal cord injury in a National Football League (NFL) player. In experimental models of spinal cord injury, moderate hypothermia has been shown to improve functional recovery and reduce overall structural damage. In a recent Phase I clinical trial, systemic hypothermia has been shown to be safe and provide some encouraging results in terms of functional recovery. This review will summarize recent preclinical data, as well as clinical findings that support the continued investigations for the use of hypothermia in severe cervical spinal cord injury.
Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.
Van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, M.A.M.; Bregman, D.J.J.; Veeger, H.E.J.
Accurate knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match could be a significant factor in performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. To date, most systems for measuring wheelchair kinematics are not suitable for match applications or lack detail in key kinematic outcomes. This study
Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M
There have been recent calls for the application of the complex systems approach in sports injury research. However, beyond theoretical description and static models of complexity, little progress has been made towards formalising this approach in way that is practical to sports injury scientists and clinicians. Therefore, our objective was to use a computational modelling method and develop a dynamic simulation in sports injury research. Agent-based modelling (ABM) was used to model the occurrence of sports injury in a synthetic athlete population. The ABM was developed based on sports injury causal frameworks and was applied in the context of distance running-related injury (RRI). Using the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR), we simulated the dynamic relationship between changes in weekly running distance and RRI through the manipulation of various 'athlete management tools'. The findings confirmed that building weekly running distances over time, even within the reported ACWR 'sweet spot', will eventually result in RRI as athletes reach and surpass their individual physical workload limits. Introducing training-related error into the simulation and the modelling of a 'hard ceiling' dynamic resulted in a higher RRI incidence proportion across the population at higher absolute workloads. The presented simulation offers a practical starting point to further apply more sophisticated computational models that can account for the complex nature of sports injury aetiology. Alongside traditional forms of scientific inquiry, the use of ABM and other simulation-based techniques could be considered as a complementary and alternative methodological approach in sports injury research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Lentz, Trevor A; Zeppieri, Giorgio; George, Steven Z; Tillman, Susan M; Moser, Michael W; Farmer, Kevin W; Chmielewski, Terese L
Fear of reinjury and lack of confidence influence return-to-sport outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The physical, psychosocial, and functional recovery of patients reporting fear of reinjury or lack of confidence as their primary barrier to resuming sports participation is unknown. To compare physical impairment, functional, and psychosocial measures between subgroups based on return-to-sport status and fear of reinjury/lack of confidence in the return-to-sport stage and to determine the association of physical impairment and psychosocial measures with function for each subgroup at 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Physical impairment (quadriceps index [QI], quadriceps strength/body weight [QSBW], hamstring:quadriceps strength ratio [HQ ratio], pain intensity), self-report of function (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC]), and psychosocial (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia-shortened form [TSK-11]) measures were collected at 6 months and 1 year after surgery in 73 patients with ACL reconstruction. At 1 year, subjects were divided into "return-to-sport" (YRTS) or "not return-to-sport" (NRTS) subgroups based on their self-reported return to preinjury sport status. Patients in the NRTS subgroup were subcategorized as NRTS-Fear/Confidence if fear of reinjury/lack of confidence was the primary reason for not returning to sports, and all others were categorized as NRTS-Other. A total of 46 subjects were assigned to YRTS, 13 to NRTS-Other, and 14 to NRTS-Fear/Confidence. Compared with the YRTS subgroup, the NRTS-Fear/Confidence subgroup was older and had lower QSBW, lower IKDC score, and higher TSK-11 score at 6 months and 1 year; however, they had similar pain levels. In the NRTS-Fear/Confidence subgroup, the IKDC score was associated with QSBW and pain at 6 months and QSBW, QI, pain, and TSK-11 scores at 1 year. Elevated pain-related fear of movement/reinjury, quadriceps weakness, and
Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.
海老原, 修; 横山, 文人; 宮下, 充正
This study was designed to clarify reciprocal influences in sport socialization. Parent-effects were assessed by their sport involvement before their child participated in organized sport, whereas child-effects were measured by a parent's attitudinal and behavioral changes of sport involvement caused by a child's participation. Eight indicators of sport involvement were selected as follows: 3 types of interest in sport involvement such as activities, sport consumption, and sport activity in o...
Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, Marco; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet
Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for
Wind, Haije; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
The aim of this systematic review was to survey methods to assess the functional capacity of the musculoskeletal system within the context of work, daily activities, and sport. The following key words and synonyms were used: functional physical assessment, healthy/disabled subjects, and instruments.
Keightley, Michelle; Green, Stephanie; Reed, Nick; Agnihotri, Sabrina; Wilkinson, Amy; Lobaugh, Nancy
One of the most commonly reported injuries in children who participate in sports is concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Children and youth involved in organized sports such as competitive hockey are nearly six times more likely to suffer a severe concussion compared to children involved in other leisure physical activities. While the most common cognitive sequelae of mTBI appear similar for children and adults, the recovery profile and breadth of consequences in children remains largely unknown, as does the influence of pre-injury characteristics (e.g. gender) and injury details (e.g. magnitude and direction of impact) on long-term outcomes. Competitive sports, such as hockey, allow the rare opportunity to utilize a pre-post design to obtain pre-injury data before concussion occurs on youth characteristics and functioning and to relate this to outcome following injury. Our primary goals are to refine pediatric concussion diagnosis and management based on research evidence that is specific to children and youth. To do this we use new, multi-modal and integrative approaches that will: 1. Evaluate the immediate effects of head trauma in youth. 2. Monitor the resolution of post-concussion symptoms (PCS) and cognitive performance during recovery. 3. Utilize new methods to verify brain injury and recovery. To achieve our goals, we have implemented the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System. (Simbex; Lebanon, NH, USA). This system equips commercially available Easton S9 hockey helmets (Easton-Bell Sports; Van Nuys, CA, USA) with single-axis accelerometers designed to measure real-time head accelerations during contact sport participation. By using telemetric technology, the magnitude of acceleration and location of all head impacts during sport participation can be objectively detected and recorded. We also use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to localize and assess changes in neural activity specifically in the medial temporal and frontal lobes
Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.
This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature
Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Podgorica consumers toward advertising through sport among. The sample included 330 students from Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, divided into six subsample groups: consumers, who do not watch sports events at all, then consumers who watch sports events 1-30 minutes, next 31-60 minutes, 61-90 minutes, 91-120 minutes, as well as consumers who watch sports events more than 120 minutes during the typical day. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.00. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the attitudes of consumers toward advertising through sport among the frequency of watching sports events. The significant differences were found in two of three variables, while the consumers who do not watch sports events had much more negative attitudes toward advertising though sport.
Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes toward sport advertising among the question how often consumers participate in sports activities The sample included 433 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a months. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modeled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the results it was concluded that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.05. It is interesting to highlight that it was found that the significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in sports activities less than four times a months with negative attitudes and consumers who participate in sports activities more than five times a months with positive attitudes toward sport advertising
Ian M. Franks; Mike Hughes
This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition
Ian M. Franks
Full Text Available This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition
The sensitivity and potential rapidity of the PIA test that was demonstrated during the feasibility study warranted continuing the effort to examine the possibility of adapting this test to an automated procedure that could be used during manned missions. The effort during this program has optimized the test conditions for two important respiratory pathogens, influenza virus and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, developed a laboratory model automated detection system, and investigated a group antigen concept for virus detection. Preliminary tests on the handling of oropharygeal clinical samples for PIA testing were performed using the adenovirus system. The results obtained indicated that the PIA signal is reduced in positive samples and is increased in negative samples. Treatment with cysteine appeared to reduce nonspecific agglutination in negative samples but did not maintain the signal in positive samples.
The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book enc...
Clacy, Amanda; Goode, Natassia; Sharman, Rachael; Lovell, Geoff P; Salmon, Paul M
Broader contextual factors that influence concussion management have tended to be overlooked. To address this, the present study used a sociotechnical systems approach to identify perceived responsibilities and applied strategies for three domains of concussion management (i.e., prevention, identification and treatment). Participants were 118 members of the community rugby union system in Australia (69.2% male). Participants from throughout the rugby system (e.g., players, parents, coaches, club management) were asked open-ended questions about their perceived responsibilities and the strategies they use for concussion management. It was found that (a) proper training, technique correction and education were recurrent prevention themes; (b) the majority of key stakeholders felt that they could consistently identify concussion; however, medical aids (medics) were the only system actors who stated a responsibility to use standardised concussion assessment measures and (c) less than one third of the respondents indicated their involvement in treating concussion. This study identifies specific junctures in the system that prevents effective concussion management strategies. A sociotechnical systems approach improves the understanding of concussion prevention, and management beliefs and behaviours.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available Abstract: After performing searches in the main scientific articles database, no specific psychometric scale was found that analyzes body dissatisfaction and body checking to athletes. The aim of the study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Dissatisfaction and Body Checking in Sports Scale (DBCS - male and female versions - in Brazilian athletes. The researchers built the DBCS. Participants were 1,197 athletes. The exploratory factor analysis showed a factor structure that explained more than 40% of the variance in both versions of the DBCS. The results showed a statistically significant relationship between the DBCS - male and female versions - and questionnaires used for concurrent validity (p .05. The findings indicated difference in DBCS scores according to body fat (p = .01. The results showed a positive relationship between DBCS and Eating Attitudes Test scores (p = .001. It was concluded that the DBCS - male and female versions - demonstrated satisfactory concurrent, discriminant, predictive validity and reproducibility.
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...
Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović
Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...
Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Bickenbach, Jerome; Finch, Caroline F; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordenfelt, Lennart
Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, 'sports injury' denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; 'sports trauma' is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and 'sports incapacity' is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as 'sports disease' (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, 'sports illness' when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and 'sports sickness' when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.
Background Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes’ intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes’ attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Method Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. Results As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (η2 = .11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r = .50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r = .36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (r tt = .66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. Conclusions The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available “open source”. The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs. PMID:24479865
Brand, Ralf; Heck, Philipp; Ziegler, Matthias
Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes' intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes' attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (η2 = .11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r = .50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r = .36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (rtt = .66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available "open source". The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs.
Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.
Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Rozumalski, Robert A.
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has developed several products for its National Weather Service (NWS) partners that can initialize specific fields for local model runs within the NOAA/NWS Science and Training Resource Center (STRC) Environmental Modeling System (EMS). In last year's NWA abstract on this topic, the suite of SPoRT products supported in the STRC EMS was presented, which includes a Sea Surface Temperature (SST) composite, a Great Lakes sea-ice extent, a Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) composite, and NASA Land Information System (LIS) gridded output. This abstract and companion presentation describes recent upgrades made to the SST and GVF composites, as well as the real-time LIS runs. The Great Lakes sea-ice product is unchanged from 2011. The SPoRT SST composite product has been expanded geographically and as a result, the resolution has been coarsened from 1 km to 2 km to accommodate the larger domain. The expanded domain covers much of the northern hemisphere from eastern Asia to western Europe (0 N to 80 N latitude and 150 E to 10 E longitude). In addition, the NESDIS POES-GOES product was added to fill in gaps caused by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) being unable to sense in cloudy regions, replacing the recently-lost Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS with negligible change to product fidelity. The SST product now runs twice per day for Terra and Aqua combined data collections from 0000 to 1200 UTC and from 1200 to 0000 UTC, with valid analysis times at 0600 and 1800 UTC. The twice-daily compositing technique reduces the overall latency of the previous version while still representing the diurnal cycle characteristics. The SST composites are available at approximately four hours after the end of each collection period (i.e. 1600 UTC for the nighttime analysis and 0400 UTC for the daytime analysis). The real-time MODIS GVF composite has only received minor updates in the
Full Text Available Organizational effectiveness continues to be a popular topic in management settings, seminars, and research projects. Similar levels of attention prevail in area of sport management. This construct has been contested by theorists and researchers for many years. As the study of organizational effectiveness in profit organizations is complex and confused, studying the construct in nonprofit organizations like sporting organizations maybe even more troublesome due to their distinctive nature. This article draws from the general literature on organizational effectiveness and the specialized. Literature on organizational effectiveness in sport and nonprofit organizations (NPOs. Five major approaches to measuring organizational effectiveness, i.e., Goal attainment, systems of resources, internal procedure, multiple constituency and competing values framework have been reported in the literature. Review of literature showed that two approach of multiple constituency and competing values framework as a multi dimensionality had a most usage in sport environment.
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.
Zhu Deming; Deming Zhu
A computerized control and measurement system used in the proton gyromagnetic precision meausrement is descirbed. It adopts the CAMAC data acquisition equipment, using on-line control and analysis with the HP85 and PDP-11/60 computer systems. It also adopts the RSX11M computer operation system, and the control software is written in FORTRAN language
Orchard, John; Rae, Katherine; Brooks, John; Hägglund, Martin; Til, Lluis; Wales, David; Wood, Tim
The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is one of the world’s most commonly used systems for coding injury diagnoses in sports injury surveillance systems. Its major strengths are that it has wide usage, has codes specific to sports medicine and that it is free to use. Literature searches and stakeholder consultations were made to assess the uptake of OSICS and to develop new versions. OSICS was commonly used in the sports of football (soccer), Australian football, rugby union, cricket and tennis. It is referenced in international papers in three sports and used in four commercially available computerised injury management systems. Suggested injury categories for the major sports are presented. New versions OSICS 9 (three digit codes) and OSICS 10.1 (four digit codes) are presented. OSICS is a potentially helpful component of a comprehensive sports injury surveillance system, but many other components are required. Choices made in developing these components should ideally be agreed upon by groups of researchers in consensus statements. PMID:24198559
Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.
The two DOE-owned facilities at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), are described. The performance measurement systems used at these two facilities are next described
Varley, Matthew C; Jaspers, Arne; Helsen, Werner F; Malone, James J
Sprints and accelerations are popular performance indicators in applied sport. The methods used to define these efforts using athlete-tracking technology could affect the number of efforts reported. This study aimed to determine the influence of different techniques and settings for detecting high-intensity efforts using global positioning system (GPS) data. Velocity and acceleration data from a professional soccer match were recorded via 10-Hz GPS. Velocity data were filtered using either a median or an exponential filter. Acceleration data were derived from velocity data over a 0.2-s time interval (with and without an exponential filter applied) and a 0.3-second time interval. High-speed-running (≥4.17 m/s 2 ), sprint (≥7.00 m/s 2 ), and acceleration (≥2.78 m/s 2 ) efforts were then identified using minimum-effort durations (0.1-0.9 s) to assess differences in the total number of efforts reported. Different velocity-filtering methods resulted in small to moderate differences (effect size [ES] 0.28-1.09) in the number of high-speed-running and sprint efforts detected when minimum duration was GPS. Changes to how high-intensity efforts are defined affect reported data. Therefore, consistency in data processing is advised.
Microprocessors have become a regular component of automated measuring systems. Experts offer their experience and basic information in 24 lectures and 10 poster presentations. The focus is on the following: Automated measuring, computer and microprocessor use, sensor technique, actuator technique, communication, interfaces, man-system interaction, distrubance tolerance and availability as well as uses. A discussion meeting is dedicated to the theme complex sensor digital signal, sensor interface and sensor bus.
Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh
Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.
Halpin, 1991] Andriole, Stephen J. and Stanley M. Halpin, editors. Information Technology for Command and Control: Methods and Tools for Systems...Systems with Models and Objects, New York: Mc Graw -Hill, 1997. [Pawlowski, 1993a] Pawlowski, Thomas J. III, LTC. C3IEW Measures of Effectiveness
Full Text Available The paper discusses the reasons of complexity rise in ERP system SAP R/3. It proposes a method for measuring complexity of SAP. Based on this method, the computer program in ABAP for measuring complexity of particular SAP implementation is proposed as a tool for keeping ERP complexity under control. The main principle of the measurement method is counting the number of items or relations in the system. The proposed computer program is based on counting of records in organization tables in SAP.
Ahn, K.; Park, Y.; Eun, H.; Lee, H.
It is important to understand the atmospheric aerosols compositions and size distributions since they greatly affect the environment and human health. Particles in the convection layer have been a great concern in global climate changes. To understand these characteristics satellite, aircraft, and radio sonde measurement methods have usually been used. An aircraft aerosol sampling using a filter and/or impactor was the method commonly used (Jay, 2003). However, the flight speed particle sampling had some technical limitations (Hermann, 2001). Moreover, the flight legal limit, altitude, prohibited airspace, flight time, and cost was another demerit. To overcome some of these restrictions, Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and Recoverable Sonde System(R.S.S.) were developed with a very light optical particle counter (OPC), impactor, and condensation particle counter (CPC). Not only does it collect and measure atmospheric aerosols depending on altitudes, but it also monitors the atmospheric conditions, temperature, humidity, wind velocity, pressure, GPS data, during the measurement (Eun, 2013). In this research, atmospheric aerosol measurement using T.B.P.S. in Ansan area is performed and the measurement results will be presented. The system can also be mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and create an aerial particle concentration map. Finally, we will present measurement data using Tethered Balloon Package System (T.B.P.S.) and R.S.S (Recoverable Sonde System).
Lara, A.J.; Cabrera, M.J.
In the industry there are processes in which is necessary to maintain the products level controlled which are handled for their transformation. The majority of such processes and by the operation conditions, they do not admit measure systems of level of invasive type then the application of nuclear techniques for level measurement results a big aid in these cases, since all the system installation is situated beyond frontiers of vessels that contain the product for measuring. In the Department of Nuclear Technology Applications of Mexican Petroleum Institute was developed a level measurement system by gamma rays transmission which operates in the Low Density Polyethylene plant of Petrochemical Complex Escolin at Poza Rica, Veracruz, Mexico. (Author)
Sport parachutists tend to be over-represented in the Western region of the United States. They are, by and large, relatively young males who look...upon the sport as a masculine expression. The sport is objectively dangerous, as measured by the accident rate, and is subjectively perceived as such... Sport parachutists tend to be single-minded in their attitude to the sport , sometimes giving it priority over their commitment to family roles
McLaren, Shaun J; Macpherson, Tom W; Coutts, Aaron J; Hurst, Christopher; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew
The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships. We searched six electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL) for original research articles published up to September 2017. A Boolean search phrase was created to include search terms relevant to team-sport athletes (population; 37 keywords), internal load (dependent variable; 35 keywords), and external load (independent variable; 81 keywords). Articles were considered for meta-analysis when a correlation coefficient describing the association between at least one internal and one external measure of session load or intensity, measured in the time or frequency domain, was obtained from team-sport athletes during normal training or match-play (i.e., unstructured observational study). The final data sample included 122 estimates from 13 independent studies describing 15 unique relationships between three internal and nine external measures of load and intensity. This sample included 295 athletes and 10,418 individual session observations. Internal measures were session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), sRPE training load (sRPE-TL), and heart-rate-derived training impulse (TRIMP). External measures were total distance (TD), the distance covered at high and very high speeds (HSRD ≥ 13.1-15.0 km h -1 and VHSRD ≥ 16.9-19.8 km h -1 , respectively), accelerometer load (AL), and the number of sustained impacts (Impacts > 2-5 G). Distinct training modes were identified as either mixed (reference condition), skills, metabolic, or
Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan
Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS). An argument-based method for investigation of design problems was used to structure the study protocol. The primary requirement of the protocol is to allow prospective studies over time and include exposure to both training and competition. To reflect the complexity of Paralympic sport with athletes' pre-existing impairments, use of assistive equipment, pain and other and medical issues, it is required that the data collection system is specifically adapted to Paralympic sport. To allow the collection of data, at the same time as there is limited access to coaches and medical personnel, it is advantageous that data can be collected online directly from the athletes. Based on this a self-report athlete monitoring system will be developed, where the athletes can enter data weekly via their mobile phones or lap-tops. Data will be collected from around 100 Swedish Paralympic athletes for approximately 1 year, which will allow us to i) prospectively estimate the annual incidence of sports-related injuries and illnesses and ii) explore risk factors and mechanisms for sustaining sports-related injuries and illnesses based on athlete exposure and training loads. For effective implementation of injury and illness prevention measures, comprehensive epidemiological knowledge is required. This study will be the first prospective longitudinal self-report study of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport over a longer period
Boden, Barry P
Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.
Full Text Available It is proposed that potential consumers form attitudes based on advertising through sport can influence decisions to purchase a particular advertiser’s product. From this reason, it is important to analyse their general attitudes toward advertising through sport among various questions, and this investigation was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Montenegrin consumers toward advertising through sport among. The sample included 342 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers, who do not watch sports events at all, then consumers who watch sports events 1-30 minutes, next 31-60 minutes, 61-90 minutes, 91-120 minutes, as well as consumers who watch sports events more than 120 minutes during the typical day. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.00. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the attitudes of consumers toward advertising through sport among the frequency of watching sports events. These results are so important for the marketers, mostly due to the reason they can’t merge all the potential consumers regarding the frequency they watch the sports events. On the other hand, this is the case in previous investigations and this observation presents relevant information.
Full Text Available It is proposed that potential consumers form attitudes based on advertising through sport can influence decisions to purchase a particular advertiser’s product. From this reason, it is important to analyse their general attitudes toward advertising through sport among various questions, and this investigation was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Serbian consumers toward advertising through sport among. The sample included 173 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers, who do not watch sports events at all, then consumers who watch sports events 1-30 minutes, next 31-60 minutes, 61-90 minutes, 91-120 minutes, as well as consumers who watch sports events more than 120 minutes during the typical day. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between two out of three variables at a significance level of p=.05. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the attitudes of consumers toward advertising through sport among the frequency of watching sports events. These results are so important for the marketers, mostly due to the reason they can’t merge all the potential consumers regarding the frequency they watch the sports events. On the other hand, this is the case in previous investigations and this observation presents relevant information.
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
Olstad, Dana Lee; Poirier, Kelly; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Shearer, Cindy; Kirk, Sara F L
To assess agreement among three nutrient profiling systems used to evaluate the healthfulness of vending machine products in recreation and sport settings in three Canadian provinces. We also assessed whether the nutritional profile of vending machine items in recreation and sport facilities that were adhering to nutrition guidelines (implementers) was superior to that of facilities that were not (non-implementers). Trained research assistants audited the contents of vending machines. Three provincial nutrient profiling systems were used to classify items into each province's most, moderately and least healthy categories. Agreement among systems was assessed using weighted κ statistics. ANOVA assessed whether the average nutritional profile of vending machine items differed according to province and guideline implementation status. Eighteen recreation and sport facilities in three Canadian provinces. One-half of facilities were implementing nutrition guidelines. Snacks (n 531) and beverages (n 618) within thirty-six vending machines were audited. Overall, the systems agreed that the majority of items belonged within their respective least healthy categories (66-69 %) and that few belonged within their most healthy categories (14-22 %). Agreement among profiling systems was moderate to good, with κ w values ranging from 0·49 to 0·69. Implementers offered fewer of the least healthy items (P<0·05) and these items had a better nutritional profile compared with items in non-implementing facilities. The policy outcomes of the three systems are likely to be similar, suggesting there may be scope to harmonize nutrient profiling systems at a national level to avoid unnecessary duplication and support food reformulation by industry.
Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.
Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.
Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian
Spectators of ball-games often seem to be fascinated by the speed of delivery of the ball. They appear to be less interested in or even oblivious to the mechanism and accuracy of the measurement or where in the flight path of the ball the measurement is actually made. Radar speed guns using the Doppler effect are often employed for such speed measurements. It is well known that such guns virtually always measure the line-of-sight or radial velocity of the ball and as such will return a reading less than or equal to the true speed of the ball. In this paper, using only basic physics principles we investigate such measurements, in particular those associated with the service stroke in tennis. For the service trajectories employed here, a single radar gun located in line with the centre-line of the court in fact under-estimates the speed of a wide serve by about 3.4% at the point of delivery, and by about 14.3% on impact with the court. However, we demonstrate that both the magnitude and direction of the true velocity of the ball throughout its entire flight path may be obtained, at least in principle, by the use of four suitably placed radar speed guns. These four guns must be able to measure the ‘range’ to the ball, enabling its position in flight to be determined, and three of them must be able to measure the radial velocity of the ball. Restrictions on the locations of the speed guns are discussed. Such restrictions are quite liberal, although there are certain configurations of the radar gun positions which cannot be used. Importantly, with the one proviso that no speed gun can be directly in the path of the ball (not only for the obvious reasons), we find that if the speed of the ball can be determined for one point in the trajectory, it can also be determined for all points. The accuracy of the range and radial velocity measurements required to give meaningful results for the true velocity are also briefly discussed. It is found that the accuracy required
Hulme, Adam; Finch, Caroline F
The science of sports injury control, including both its cause and prevention, has largely been informed by a biomedical and mechanistic model of health. Traditional scientific practice in sports injury research has routinely involved collapsing the broader socioecological landscape down in order to analyse individual-level determinants of injury - whether biomechanical and/or behavioural. This approach has made key gains for sports injury prevention research and should be further encouraged and allowed to evolve naturally. However, the public health, Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, and injury epidemiological literature more broadly, has accepted the value of a socioecological paradigm for better understanding disease and injury processes, and sports injury research will fall further behind unless it does the same. A complementary and alternative conceptual approach towards injury control known as systems thinking that builds on socioecological science, both methodologically and analytically, is readily available and fast developing in other research areas. This review outlines the historical progression of causal concepts in the field of epidemiology over the course of the modern scientific era. From here, causal concepts in injury epidemiology, and models of aetiology as found in the context of sports injury research are presented. The paper finishes by proposing a new research agenda that considers the potential for a systems thinking approach to further enhance sports injury aetiological understanding. A complementary systems paradigm, however, will require that sports injury epidemiologists bring their knowledge and skillsets forwards in an attempt to use, adapt, and even refine existing systems-based approaches. Alongside the natural development of conventional scientific methodologies and analyses in sports injury research, progressing forwards to a systems paradigm is now required.
Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.
Full Text Available The model of modern sports performance asks for certain graduation in the treatment of its efficiency. Besides the coaching model, what matters is the genetic potential of the child or junior, and particularly the selection of the young talented athlete identified at the proper time and included in a proper training system, in full harmony with the education process. The sports output is determined by the simultaneous action of several factors whose influences are different. At present, there is a tendency to improve those factors on which rely sports outcomes and that need to be analysed and selected. Psychic capacity is a major factor, and mental control – the power to focus, motor intelligence, motor memory, creativity, and tactical skills play a major role in an athlete’s style. This study aims at showing the measure in which motor memory allows early and reliable diagnosis of future performance. The subjects selected are components of the mini-basket team of the Sports Club “Sport Star” from Timisoara, little girls that have played basketball since 1st grade in their free time (some of the girls have played it for four years. The research was carried out during a competitive year; we monitored the subjects both during coach lessons and minibasketball championship. To assess motor memory, we used the “cerebral module” consisting in memorising a complex of technical and tactical elements and applying them depending on the situation in the field. The research also involved monitoring the subjects in four directions considered defining in the assessment of the young athletes: somatic data, physical features, basketball features and intellectual potential. Most parameters point out a medium homogeneity of the group, except for height and commitment (great homogeneity. Half of the athletes of the tested group are above the mean of the group, which allows guiding them towards higher coaching forms (allowing them to practice basketball
Nakamori, Akira; Hasegawa, Kei; Tsuchiyama, Tatsuo; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Okumura, Ryo; Sano, Tadafumi
This article reported: (1) the outline of the reactivity measurement system of Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), (2) the calibration data of control rod, (3) the problems and the countermeasures for range switching of linear output meter. For the laptop PC for the reactivity measurement system, there are four input signals: (1) linear output meter, (2) logarithmic output meter, (3) core temperature gauge, and (4) control rod position. The hardware of reactivity measurement system is controlled with Labview installed on the laptop. Output, reactivity, reactor period, and the change in reactivity due to temperature effect or Xenon effect are internally calculated and displayed in real-time with Labview based on the four signals above. Calculation results are recorded in the form of a spreadsheet. At KUR, the reactor core arrangement was changed, so the control rod was re-calibrated. At this time, calculated and experimental values of reactivity based on the reactivity measurement system were compared, and it was confirmed that the reactivity calculation by Labview was accurate. The range switching of linear output meter in the nuclear instrumentation should automatically change within the laptop, however sometimes this did not function properly in the early stage. It was speculated that undefined percent values during the transition of percent value were included in the calculation and caused calculation errors. The range switching started working properly after fixing this issue. (S.K.)
P. Dorian Owen
The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.
Arnold, R; Ponnusamy, V; Zhang, C-Q; Gucciardi, D F
Organizational stressors are a universal phenomenon which can be particularly prevalent and problematic for sport performers. In view of their global existence, it is surprising that no studies have examined cross-cultural differences in organizational stressors. One explanation for this is that the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold, Fletcher, & Daniels, 2013), which can comprehensively measure the organizational pressures that sport performers have encountered, has not yet been translated from English into any other languages nor scrutinized cross-culturally. The first purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the cross-cultural validity of the OSI-SP. In addition, the study aimed to test the equivalence of the OSI-SP's factor structure across cultures. British (n = 379), Chinese (n = 335), and Malaysian (n = 444) sport performers completed the OSI-SP. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the cross-cultural validity of the factorial model for the British and Malaysian samples; however, the overall model fit for the Chinese data did not meet all guideline values. Support was provided for the equality of factor loadings, variances, and covariances on the OSI-SP across the British and Malaysian cultures. These findings advance knowledge and understanding on the cross-cultural existence, conceptualization, and operationalization of organizational stressors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Buckup, Johannes; Welsch, Frederic; Gramlich, Yves; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Roessler, Philip P; Schüttler, Karl F; Stein, Thomas
Recurrent instability following primary arthroscopic stabilization of the shoulder is a common complication. Young, athletic patients are at the greatest risk of recurring instability. To date, the literature contains insufficient description regarding whether return to sports is possible after revision arthroscopic Bankart repair. Patients presenting with recurrent instability after primary arthroscopic stabilization should expect limitations in terms of their ability to partake in sporting activities after revision surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty athletes who underwent arthroscopic revision stabilization of the shoulder after failed primary arthroscopic Bankart repair were included in the study after completing inclusion and exclusion criteria surveys. Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System (ASOSS), Shoulder Sport Activity Score (SSAS), and the Subjective Patient Outcome for Return to Sports (SPORTS) scores were determined to assess the participants' ability to partake in sporting activities. Furthermore, sport type and sport level were classified and recorded. To assess function and stability, Rowe, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Constant-Murley, and Walch-Duplay scores were measured and recorded. Follow-up consultations were carried out after a mean of 28.7 months. The mean age at follow-up examination was 27.75 years. At the time of follow-up, 70% of the patients were able to return to their original sporting activities at the same level. However, 90% of patients described a limitation in their shoulder when participating in their sports. At 28.7 months after surgery, the mean ASOSS score was 76.8; the SSAS score decreased from 7.85 before first-time dislocation to 5.35 at follow-up ( P SPORTS score was 5.2 out of 10 at the follow-up consultation. Function- and instability-specific scores showed good to excellent results. The mean external rotational deficit for high external rotation was 9.25°, and for low external rotation it was
Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Podgorica consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 330 students from Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.000. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there were significant differences showed up between the consumers who purchase sport goods. The significant differences were found in two of three variables, while the consumers who purchase sport goods less than 3 times a moths had much more negative attitudes toward advertising though sport.
Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.
Noyes, R.; Davies, L.; Kalinowski, J.; Stubbs, T.
The system used to measure the response of geologic media to stress waves generated during and after underground tests performed by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) at the Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site (NTS) is described. Included are descriptions of the system transducers and accelerometers, the procedures used in calibrating and packaging the system at the North Las Vegas Facility of EG and G, Inc., the positioning of equipment during fielding activities at NTS, and the procedures used at LLL's facilities in California to reduce and analyze the data recorded on magnetic tape at NTS during an underground nuclear explosion. In summarizing, the authors give the system high marks, attributing its success to good basic design, careful installation, and rigorous calibration and data analysis techniques applied with good judgement on the part of the instrumentation engineers and data analysts. 10 figures
Full Text Available Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6-7 year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.
Habibi, Assal; Ilari, Beatriz; Crimi, Kevin; Metke, Michael; Kaplan, Jonas T; Joshi, Anand A; Leahy, Richard M; Shattuck, David W; Choi, So Y; Haldar, Justin P; Ficek, Bronte; Damasio, Antonio; Damasio, Hanna
Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long-term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6- to 7-year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional, or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.
The measurement of the transuranic content of nuclear products or process residues has become increasingly important for the recovery of fissionable material from spent fuel elements, the identification of commercial fuel elements which have not yet reached full burnup, the measurement and recovery of transuranics from discarded or stored waste materials, the determination of the transuranic content in high gamma activity waste material scheduled for disposal, compliance with 10CFR61 by land burial operators/shippers, and the satisfaction of accountability requirements. Active neutron interrogation techniques measure either the prompt neutrons or the beta delayed neutrons from fission products following induced fission. These techniques normally only measure fissile transuranics ( 235 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu) and are commonly applied only to contact handleable waste. Passive neutron interrogation techniques, on the other hand, are capable of measuring all transuranics except 235 U with adequate sensitivity and will work on both contact handleable and high gamma activity wastes. Since the passive techniques are senstitive to a wider spectrum of transuranic isotopes than the active techniques, substantially less complex and less expensive than the active systems, and they have proven techniques for measuring small quantities of TRU in high gamma activity packages, the passive neutron TRU assay technology was chosen for development into the instruments discussed in this paper
Chang, Jasper O; Levy, Susan S; Seay, Seth W; Goble, Daniel J
Recent guidelines advocate sports medicine professionals to use balance tests to assess sensorimotor status in the management of concussions. The present study sought to determine whether a low-cost balance board could provide a valid, reliable, and objective means of performing this balance testing. Criterion validity testing relative to a gold standard and 7 day test-retest reliability. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty healthy young adults. Balance ability was assessed on 2 days separated by 1 week using (1) a gold standard measure (ie, scientific grade force plate), (2) a low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB), and (3) the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Validity of the WBB center of pressure path length and BESS scores were determined relative to the force plate data. Test-retest reliability was established based on intraclass correlation coefficients. Composite scores for the WBB had excellent validity (r = 0.99) and test-retest reliability (R = 0.88). Both the validity (r = 0.10-0.52) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.61-0.78) were lower for the BESS. These findings demonstrate that a low-cost balance board can provide improved balance testing accuracy/reliability compared with the BESS. This approach provides a potentially more valid/reliable, yet affordable, means of assessing sports-related concussion compared with current methods.
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Gregg, Elizabeth A; Gregg, Vanessa H
The history of women in sport in America was shaped by Victorian ideals and other belief systems prevalent during the nineteenth century. Medical experts of that era believed that intense exercise and competition could cause women to become masculine, threaten their ability to bear children, and create other reproductive health complications. Consequently, sport for women was reserved for upper-class women until the mid-twentieth century. Title IX of the Education Amendments had a significant and lasting impact on sport in America. Today, girls and women are enjoying sport at the interscholastic, intercollegiate, and professional levels comparable with their male counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon
A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.
Doyle, J.F.; Boyns, P.K.
The present ARMS aircraft has an effective survey time of four hours. Typical survey altitudes are 300 to 500 feet for terrain surveys and up to 20,000 feet for cloud tracks. A number of special airframe modifications have been made to accommodate the various sensor systems. The ARMS radiation measurement system consists of fourteen 4-inch diameter by 4-inch thick sodium iodide (NaI) detectors, a summing network for the detector signals, single and multichannel analyzers, analog computers, digital display and recording equipment, a doppler radar position computer, and strip chart recorders. Major subsystems include meteorology sensors, multispectral camera systems, and an infrared scanner for thermal mapping. Additional radiation detectors include an alpha spectrometer and a beta counter, used to count filter samples taken from a 150 cfm air sampler, which is a permanent part of the aircraft. A small lead shield houses a 1 / 2 -in. x 3-in. NaI crystal for beta and gamma counting of air filter samples. Several BF 3 neutron detectors are also available for neutron counting. The raw data from the gross gamma count and the gamma spectral measurements are permanently recorded on paper tape, and they must undergo reduction and analysis for final characterization of the radiological properties of the surveyed area. (U.S.)
de Mesquita, Gabriel Nunes; de Oliveira, Marcela Nicácio Medeiros; Matoso, Amanda Ellen Rodrigues; Filho, Alberto Galvão de Moura; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro
Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background Achilles tendon disorders are very common among athletes and it is important to objectively measure symptoms and functional limitations related to Achilles tendinopathy using outcome measures that have been validated in the language of the target population. Objectives To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to evaluate the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire. Methods We adapted the VISA-A questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese (VISA-A-Br). The questionnaire was applied on 2 occasions with an interval of 5 to 14 days. We evaluated the following measurement properties: internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error, construct validity, and ceiling and floor effects. Results The VISA-A-Br showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79; after excluding 1 item at a time, Cronbach's α = 0.73 to 0.84), good test-retest reliability (ICC agreement2,1 = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.71-0.91), an acceptable measurement error (standard error of measurement = 3.25 points and Smallest Detectable Change= 9.02 points), good construct validity (Spearman's coefficient with LEFS= 0.73 and FAOS in its 5 subscales; Pain= 0.66, other Symptoms=0.48, Function in daily living (ADL)= 0.59, Function in sport and recreation=0.67, and foot and ankle-related Quality of Life = 0.7), and no ceiling and floor effects. Conclusion The VISA-A-Br is equivalent to the original version; it has been validated and confirmed as reliable to measure pain and function among the Brazilian population with Achilles tendinopathy, and it can be used in clinical and scientific settings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 24 Apr 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7897.
The principles of operation of multiplex devices used in different spheres of physics are discussed. The ''multiplex'' notion means that the data output of the device is an integral image of the functional dependence under investigation, but not its readings as in usual instruments. The analysis of the present state of developments of the multiplex systems in optics, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in time-of-flight spectrometers for slow and fast neutrons, as well as elementary particle detectors, is given. The construction algorithms for the digital codes are presented, the history of development of the multiplex measuring principle is given [ru
The AMS fixed-wing and rotary-wing systems are critical National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Emergency Response assets. This project is principally focused on the characterization of the sensors utilized with these systems via radiation transport calculations. The Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) which has been developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory was used to model the detector response of the AMS fixed wing and helicopter systems. To validate the calculations, benchmark measurements were made for simple source-detector configurations. The fixed-wing system is an important tool in response to incidents involving the release of mixed fission products (a commercial power reactor release), the threat or actual explosion of a Radiological Dispersal Device, and the loss or theft of a large industrial source (a radiography source). Calculations modeled the spectral response for the sensors contained, a 3-element NaI detector pod and HpGe detector, in the relevant energy range of 50 keV to 3 MeV. NaI detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and flying altitude. For point sources, photo-peak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 C i/m2
This project deals with the modeling the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) fixed-wing and rotary-wing sensor systems, which are critical U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Consequence Management assets. The fixed-wing system is critical in detecting lost or stolen radiography or medical sources, or mixed fission products as from a commercial power plant release at high flying altitudes. The helicopter is typically used at lower altitudes to determine ground contamination, such as in measuring americium from a plutonium ground dispersal during a cleanup. Since the sensitivity of these instruments as a function of altitude is crucial in estimating detection limits of various ground contaminations and necessary count times, a characterization of their sensitivity as a function of altitude and energy is needed. Experimental data at altitude as well as laboratory benchmarks is important to insure that the strong effects of air attenuation are modeled correctly. The modeling presented here is the first attempt at such a characterization of the equipment for flying altitudes. The sodium iodide (NaI) sensors utilized with these systems were characterized using the Monte Carlo N-Particle code (MCNP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. For the fixed wing system, calculations modeled the spectral response for the 3-element NaI detector pod and High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, in the relevant energy range of 50 keV to 3 MeV. NaI detector responses were simulated for both point and distributed surface sources as a function of gamma energy and flying altitude. For point sources, photopeak efficiencies were calculated for a zero radial distance and an offset equal to the altitude. For distributed sources approximating an infinite plane, gross count efficiencies were calculated and normalized to a uniform surface deposition of 1 microCi/m 2 . The helicopter calculations modeled the transport of americium-241 ( 241 Am) as this is
Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Bartels, Else Marie; Langberg, Henning
Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome...
Full Text Available The authors have solved topical scientific problems in the article: 1 the research base in the construction of theoretical and methodological foundations of sports training, based on taekwondo has been analysed; 2 the organization and methodological requirements for the training sessions of taekwondo have been researched; 3 the necessity of interaction processes of natural development and adaptation to physical activity of young taekwondo sportsmen has been grounded; 4 the necessity of scientific evidence of building young fighters training loads in microcycles, based on their individualization has been proved.
Nanos, Katherine N; Franco, John M; Larson, Dirk; Mara, Kristin; Laskowski, Edward R
To assess concussion knowledge of athletes, coaches, and parents/guardians in a community setting and to understand trends/gaps in knowledge among subgroups to tailor efforts toward creating educational interventions. This prospective cross-sectional study involved 262 individuals (142 [55%] female): 115 athletes participating in noncontact and contact sports (ages 13-19 years), 15 coaches, and 132 parents. Recruitment occurred from August 30, 2015, through August 30, 2016, at 3 local high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire developed by the investigators to assess concussion experience and basic knowledge. Females, health care employees, and parents showed stronger concern for potential long-term sequelae of concussion, whereas athletes were most concerned about not being able to return to sport. Those with higher perceived concussion knowledge were slightly older (median age, 42.5 vs 33 years), more educated (college or higher: 42 [70%] vs 100 [50%]), and more likely to be health care workers (22 [37.9%] vs 34 [17.7%]) and scored higher on knowledge questions (average correct: 75.5% vs 60%). Most participants could identify potential concussion sequelae, but only 86 (34.3%) identified a concussion as a brain injury. Of the subgroups, coaches scored highest on knowledge questions. Those with a concussion history tended to consider themselves more knowledgeable but were also less concerned about sequelae. Overall, those with a concussion history scored slightly higher on knowledge questions (average correct: 69.8% vs 61.9%). Participants involved in contact sports were more likely to have had a concussion vs those in noncontact sports (57 [26%] vs 4 [10.3%]). Significant differences in perceived and actual concussion knowledge across different subgroups of study participants involved in high school sports were identified. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...
... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...
Overbye, Marie Birch
Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts...... are important. This article explores how the International Standards for Testing, which face different interpretations and challenges when policy is implemented, are perceived by elite athletes. Particularly, this article aims to investigate how elite athletes perceive the functioning of the testing system (i.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...
Optimization procedures make it possible to perform committed activation investigations, reduce the number of experiments, make them less laborious, and increase their productivity. Separate mathematical functions were investigated for given optimization conditions, and these enable numerical optimal parameter values to be established only in the particular cases of specific techniques and mathematical computer programs. In the known mathematical models insufficient account is taken of the variety and complexity of real nuclide mixtures, the influence of background radiation, and the wide diversity of activation measurement conditions, while numerical methods for solving the optimization problem fail to reveal the laws governing the variations of the activation parameters and their functional interdependences. An optimization method was proposed in which was mainly used to estimate the time intervals for activation measurements of a mononuclide, binary or ternary nuclide mixture. However, by forming a mathematical model of activation processes it becomes possible to extend the number of nuclides in the mixture and to take account of the influence of background radiation and the diversity of the measurement alternatives. The analytical expressions and nomograms obtained can be used to determine the number of measurements, their minimum errors, their sensitivities when estimating the quantity of the tracer nuclide, the permissible quantity of interfering nuclides, the permissible background radiation intensity, and the flux of activating radiation. In the worker described herein these investigations are generalized to include spectrally resolved detection of the activation effect in the presence of the tracer and the interfering nuclides. The analytical expressions are combined into a system from which the optimal activation parameters can be found under different given conditions
Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.
The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…
Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated use of sports in improving the functional state of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems of the 18–19 year-old students in the breakout sessions in terms of higher education. Materials and Methods: the study included 25 female students aged 18–19 years who were engaged in sports games within the section physical education classes in high school. To assess the functional status cardiorespiratory physiological systems using traditional methods and computer program "Oberig". Results: the study of students experimental group (n=11 who were involved in the program to the integrated use of means of sports (volleyball, basketball, handball were recorded significantly higher, compared to the students in the control group (n=14 who engaged in one kind of sports (volleyball, indicators of functional status of their cardiorespiratory system of the body. Conclusions: the author confirmed the high efficiency program of physical education for students 18–19 years of integrated use of sports facilities, which contributes to a substantial optimization of the functional state of their body.
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.
Lee Pow, Crystal S. D.; Law, J. Mac; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Rice, James A.; Kullman, Seth W.; Aday, D. Derek
Male fish are susceptible to developing intersex, a condition characterized by the presence of testicular oocytes. In the present study, the relationship between intersex and exposure to estrogenic endocrine active contaminants (EACs) was assessed for 2 genera of sport fish, Micropterus and Lepomis, at 20 riverine sites. Seasonal trends and relationships between EACs and intersex (prevalence and severity) were examined at varying putative sources of EACs throughout North Carolina, identified as point sources, nonpoint sources, and reference sites. Intersex was identified in both genera, which was documented for the first time in wild-caught Lepomis. Intersex was more prevalent (59.8%) and more severe (1.6 mean rank) in Micropterus, which was highly correlation to EACs in sediment. In contrast, intersex was less common (9.9%) and less severe (0.2 mean rank) in Lepomis and was highly correlated to EACs in the water column. The authors found that concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial EACs, and estrogens were highest at point source sites; however, no source type variation was identified in the prevalence or severity of intersex, nor were there seasonal trends in intersex or EAC concentrations. The authors’ results associate genus-specific prevalence of intersex with specific EAC classes in common sport fishes having biological, ecological, and conservation implications.
Garcia H, J.M.; Pena E, R.
The Integral measurement system for Radon is an equipment to detect, counting and storage data of alpha particles produced by Radon 222 which is emanated through the terrestrial peel surface. This equipment was designed in the Special Designs Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Research. It supplies information about the behavior at long time (41 days) on each type of alpha radiation that is present into the environment as well as into the terrestrial peel. The program is formed by an User program, where it is possible to determine the operation parameters of a portable probe that contains, a semiconductor detector, a microprocessor as a control central unit, a real time clock and calendar to determine the occurred events chronology, a non-volatile memory device for storage the acquired data and an interface to establish the serial communications with other personal computers. (Author)
Aughey, Robert J
Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.
Full Text Available Introduction: This paper explores the possibilities of interconnection between the concepts of quality management systems and the concepts of the performance in sports organizations so to achieve the greater effectiveness and efficiency in terms of their operations. Therefore the paper provides an overview of the quality management systems and principles which are applicable in sports organizations and special attention is also paid to the analysis of the Balanced Scorecard principles in the sport context. Via the chosen methodology the author analyses the potential of this performance measurement tool for the integration into quality management system in sports organizations. Methods: In the paper the author used different methods of scientific research namely systematic observation, desk research, descriptive and causal method as well as the inductive and deductive method. The methods of analysis and synthesis of the existing perspectives were exploited in order to analyse and describe the interrelatedness between the different concepts. Results: The profound analysis and synthesis of the existing theoretical and practical tools applied in the quality of sport and performance of sport has proved the rightfulness of the assumptions that these two concepts can be based on their logic integrated in the managerial practice in one framework. Discussion: Implementing the integrated concept of the quality management and performance management in the sport organizations can be very efficient, considering the characteristics of the quality management systems and performance measurement. This approach can improve the realisation and results of the core processes in sport organizations and enhance their accountability towards the stakeholders´ requirements and expectations. References: Hoye R at al. (2012. Sport Management - principles and applications. Third edition. Routledge NY. Kaplan RE, Norton DP (1992. Harvard Business Review, 71-9. Nová J (2013
Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Podgorica consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often they participate in sports activities. The sample included 330 students from Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.000. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in various sports activities. The significant differences were found in one of three variables, while the consumers who participate less than 4 times a moths had much more negative attitudes toward advertising though sport.
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Montenegrin consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 342 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test.Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.000.
There is a running discussion about the system of financing sport from public budgets and there are opinions that the sport is not sufficiently supported. We know surprisingly little about the situation of non-profit sport clubs and to find a better support system we have to gather information about the environment of sport clubs. What do we know about relations of sport clubs with public authorities and their own sport union/federation and why do we need to know? The aim of this paper is to ...
A digital radiation-monitoring system for nuclear power plants uses digital and microprocessor circuitry to enable rapid processing of pulse information from remote radiation monitors. The pulse rates are analyzed to determine whether new pulse-rate information is statisticaly the same as that previously received and to determine the best possible averaging time, which can be changed so that the statistical error remains below a specified level while the system response time remains short. Several data modules each process the pulse-rate information from several remote radiation monitors. Each data module accepts pulse data from each radiation monitor and measures the true average or mean pulse rate of events occurring with a Poisson distribution to determine the radiation level. They then develop digital output signals which indciate the respective radiation levels and which can be transmitted via multiplexer circuits for additional processing and display. The data modules can accept signals from remote control stations or computer stations via the multiplexer circuit to change operating thresholds and alarm levels in their memories. A check module scans the various data modules to determine whether the output signals are valid. It also acts as a redundant data module and will automatically replace an inoperative unit. (DN)
Serafini, Paul R; Feito, Yuri; Mangine, Gerald T
To determine if self-reported performance measures could distinguish ranking during the 2016 CrossFit Open, data from three thousand male (n=1500; 27.2±8.4 y; 85.2±7.9 kg; 177.0±6.5 cm) and female (n=1500, 28.7±4.9 y; 63.7±5.8 kg; 163.7±6.6 cm) competitors was used for this study. Competitors were split by gender and grouped into quintiles (Q1-Q5) based upon their final ranking. Quintiles were compared for one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, deadlift, clean and jerk (CJ), snatch, 400-m sprint, 5,000-m run, and benchmark workouts (Fran, Helen, Grace, Filthy-50, and Fight-gone-bad). Separate one-way analyses of variance revealed all competitors in Q1 reported greater (p<0.05) 1RM loads for squat (Males: 201.6±19.1 kg; Females: 126.1±13.0 kg), deadlift (Males: 232.4±20.5 kg; Females: 148.3±14.5 kg), CJ (Males: 148.9±12.1 kg; Females: 95.7±8.4 kg), and snatch (Males: 119.4±10.9 kg; Females 76.5±7.6 kg) compared to other quintiles. In addition, Males in Q1 (59.3±5.9 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3 only (62.6±7.3 sec), but were not different from any group in the 5,000-m run. Females in Q2 (67.5 ± 8.8 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3-Q5 (73.5-74.8 sec) and faster (21.3 ± 1.8 min, p<0.02) 5,000-m times than Q4 (22.6±2.2 min) and Q5 (22.6±1.9 min). Faster (p<0.05) Fran times were reported by Q1 (males: 138.2±13.3 sec; females: 159.4±28.3 sec) compared to other groups, while the results of other workouts were variable. These data indicate that the most successful athletes excel in all areas of fitness/skill, while lower-ranking athletes should focus on developing strength and power after achieving sufficient proficiency in sport-specific skills.
Escobar Alvarado, Oscar Fernardo
This thesis presents the configuration and performance of a lightning radiated electromagnetic field measuring system in Bogotá Colombia. The system is composed by both magnetic and electric field measuring systems working as separated sensors. The aim of the thesis is the design and construction of a Magnetic Field Measuring System and the implementation of a whole lightning measuring system in Bogotá. The theoretical background, design process, construction and implementation of the system ...
Andersen, Tem Frank
This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...
Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen
Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.
Clumpner, Roy A.
This book, which is primarily for secondary physical education teachers, presents a sequential approach to teaching skills that are essential to eight sports. The activities and lead-up games included in the book put beginning students directly into game-like situations where they can practice skills. Each chapter begins with a background of the…
De Block, Andreas; Dewitte, Siegfried
This article outlines a Darwinian approach to sports that takes into account its profoundly cultural character and thereby overcomes the traditional nature-culture dichotomies in the sociology of sport. We argue that there are good reasons to view sports as culturally evolved signaling systems that serve a function similar to (biological) courtship rituals in other animals. Our approach combines the insights of evolutionary psychology, which states that biological adaptations determine the boundaries for the types of sport that are possible, and pure cultural theories, which describe the mechanism of cultural evolution without referring to sport's biological bases. Several biological and cultural factors may moderate the direct effect that signaling value has on a sport's viability or popularity. Social learning underlies many aspects of the cultural control of sports, and sports have evolved new cultural functions more-or-less unrelated to mate choice as cultural evolution itself became important in humans.
Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim
This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.
Full Text Available Poverty represents a life aspect which is focusing the attention of both the macroeconomic analysis and the international comparisons. In order to measure the level being recorded by this phenomenon, there is a system of indicators which are used in order to underline, in a correlated manner, a number of aspects which are characterizing, quality and quantity wise, the evolution of the poverty in a specific country or, to a larger extent, through comparative surveys, at international level. Despite the fact that they are not the only instrument being used within the process of comparison of the stages of social and economic development at the international level, however the poverty indicators are providing a clear significance to the worked out surveys. In fact, the very purpose of the economic activity consists of increasing welfare and, as much as possible, at least reducing, if not eradicating, the poverty. The present work is broadly presenting the methodology as well as, both theoretical and practical, the way of computing the poverty, making a synthesis of the specific used indicators.
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Serbian consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 173 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the results it was concluded that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between one of three variables at univariate level (p=.05. It is interesting to highlight that most of potential consumers (n=146 have recognized themselves in two categories: as consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month and one to three times a months, while there were no differences among the groups. If we take a look into previous investigations, it is interesting there are some opposite results, and the recommendations for further research are directed to spread out the sample a little bit more, mostly due to the reason the consumers who had a more negative attitudes were in the group that didn’t purchase the sport goods at all.
Full Text Available It is proposed that potential cosumers form attitudes based on advertising through sport can influence decisions to purchase a particular advertiser’s product (Pyun, 2006. From this reason, it is important to analyse their general attitudes toward advertising through sport among various questions, and this investigation was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Serbian consumers toward advertising through sport among. Methods: The sample included 127 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: cconsumers, who do not watch sports events at all, then consumers who watch sports events 1-30 minutes, next 31-60 minutes, 61-90 minutes, 91-120 minutes, as well as consumers who watch sports events more than 120 minutes during the typical day. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modeled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results: Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences didn’t occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.05. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are no significant differences showed up between the attitudes of consumers toward advertising through sport among the frequency of watching sports events. Discussion: These results are so important for the marketers, mostly due to the reason they can merge all the potential consumers regarding the frequency they watch the sports events. On the other hand, this wasn’t the case in previous investigations (Bjelica and Popović, 2011 and this observation presents relevant information.
oirity in measuring the electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) in fusion plasma devices like tokamaks. ... by the plasma electrons is used for the measurements. .... will be in the photon integration mode and will be acquired by a computer.
Full Text Available Purpose : To determine theoretically similar trends and differences in the periods of sports training athletes and Paralympic athletes with similar qualifications, without disabilities. Material : analyzed more than 80 references. Results : at present insufficiently developed periodization sports training many years to prepare athletes with disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Also - at the stage of maximum realization of individual empowerment athletes. This applies to the immediate preparation for the main competition. In the first case, periodization can be carried out on the basis of the classical theory. Also on stage, maximizing the individual capabilities. Need to adapt this theory to career achievements of athletes. Also, you must consider the disease. Conclusions : The main factors set differences training tools Paralympic athletes and physically healthy: increased attention to the psychological preparation for the Paralympics, inclusive education and sports training individualization programs already in the first stage of their training.
Case, Jonathan L.
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been running a real-time version of the Land Information System (LIS) since summer 2010 (hereafter, SPoRTLIS). The real-time SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model (LSM) in an offline capacity apart from a numerical weather prediction model, using input atmospheric and precipitation analyses (i.e., "forcings") to drive the Noah LSM integration at 3-km resolution. Its objectives are to (1) produce local-scale information about the soil state for NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) situational awareness applications such as drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, and (2) provide land surface initialization fields for local modeling initiatives. The current domain extent has been limited by the input atmospheric analyses that drive the Noah LSM integration within SPoRT-LIS, specifically the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV precipitation analyses. Due to the nature of the geographical edges of the Stage IV precipitation grid and its limitations in the western U.S., the SPoRT-LIS was originally confined to a domain fully nested within the Stage IV grid, over the southeastern half of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). In order to expand the real-time SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain, alternative precipitation forcing datasets were explored in year-long, offline comparison runs of the Noah LSM. Based on results of these comparison simulations, we chose to implement the radar/gauge-based precipitation analyses from the National Severe Storms Laboratory as a replacement to the Stage IV product. The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS; formerly known as the National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative precipitation estimate) product has full CONUS coverage at higher-resolution, thereby providing better coverage and greater detail than that of the Stage IV product. This paper will describe the expanded/upgraded SPoRT-LIS, present comparisons between the
Panov, Sergei F.; Panova, Irina P.; Volunskaya, Elena V.; Chebotarev, Andrei V.
According to many researchers its necessary to research a hormonal profile in order to determine mechanisms of regulation of functions of the digestive conveyor during sports activities. In the paper the results of the carried out research on studying of a role of pituitary-adrenocortical axis system of adaptive reactions in activities of the…
A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes) whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that fig...
Kildemoes Moeller, T.
The aim of this project `Udviklingsafproevning af smaa moellevinger` has been to develop a mobile measurement system for wind turbines. The following report describes the measurement system. The project has been financed by the Danish Ministry of Energy. (au)
Litynski, Z.; Pienkos, J.P.; Witkowski, J.; Zadrozny, S.
A dosimetric system for personnel dosimetry and monitoring measuring a contamination without time delay and dead time is described. The system ensures many-point measurement and minimalization of background radiation influence. 1 fig. (A.S.)
Grof, V.; Drab, F.; Icha, K.
A mobile digital measuring system was built at SKODA - Energeticke strojirenstvi based on digital information system CIS 3000 with the ADT 4100 computer. The system can operate in the BCS or in the RTE-C mode. Two programs are briefly described written for the purpose of measurements. The following applications of the system were tried: testing the reactivity meter on the reactor model, demonstration measurement of the temperature of the medium and display of values on the monitor, measurement of the temperature of the lid of the pressure vessel of the WWER-440 reactor during overlaying and measurement and the adaptive control of band thickness on a KVARTO 200 rolling mill. The measurement system is expected to be used in nuclear power plants and experimental reactors. (M.D.)
Aksoy, Serdar; Akşit, Mahmut Faruk; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Duran, Ertuğrul Tolga; Duran, Ertugrul Tolga
Brush seals are rapidly replacing conventional labyrinth seals in turbomachinery applications. Upon pressure application, seal stiffness increases drastically due to frictional bristle interlocking. Operating stiffness is critical to determine seal wear life. Typically, seal stiffness is measured by pressing a curved shoe to brush bore. The static-unpressurized measurement is extrapolated to pressurized and high speed operating conditions. This work presents a seal stiffness measurement syste...
Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro
The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection, competition performan....... Constructing separate selection indexes would allow for optimal weighting of information sources such as studbook-entry inspection traits in accordance to the breeding goal of each sports discipline....
Full Text Available The application of solar energy provides an alternative way to replace the primary source of energy, especially for large-scale installations. Heat pump technology is also an effective means to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. This paper presents a practical case study of combined hybrid PV/T solar assisted heat pump (SAHP system for sports center hot water production. The initial design procedure was first presented. The entire system was then modeled with the TRNSYS 16 computation environment and the energy performance was evaluated based on year round simulation results. The results show that the system COP can reach 4.1 under the subtropical climate of Hong Kong, and as compared to the conventional heating system, a high fractional factor of energy saving at 67% can be obtained. The energy performances of the same system under different climatic conditions, that include three other cities in France, were analyzed and compared. Economic implications were also considered in this study.
Clacy, Amanda; Goode, Natassia; Sharman, Rachael; Lovell, Geoff P; Salmon, Paul
The aim of the present study was to utilise a systems thinking approach to explore the perceived responsibilities for identifying and treating concussion held by different actors across the community rugby system (e.g., players, coaches, parents, medics, referees, and management), as well as their role-specific concussion management strategies. A systems approach was taken to assess what different stakeholders within rugby systems perceive their roles to be regarding concussion identification and treatment. Through an online survey, 118 members of the amateur (community) rugby union system were asked about their role-specific concussion management responsibilities and strategies. Respondents included players, parents, medics, coaches, club managers, administrators, and volunteers. The majority of respondents indicated that they were able to identify the symptoms of rugby-related concussion, however, only medics stated their responsibility to use formal concussion assessments (e.g., SCAT2). A smaller number of the respondents indicated that they were involved in treating concussion within their current role/s (majority of which were medics). This study illustrated that the current challenges in the identification and treatment of rugby-related concussion in community sport may be due to role/responsibility confusion and possible overreliance on field-side medics. These findings offer insight into the possible limitations of the current concussion management guidelines and may offer empirically based direction for future revisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Borgers, J.; Vanreusel, B.; Vos, S.; Forsberg, P.; Scheerder, J.
An increasing share of light sports participants (e.g. self-organised runners) challenge traditional ‘Sport for All’ policy systems to target a more diversified array of people participating in sport and physical activity. The main aim of this article is to analyse whether light sport facilities, as
Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M
Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not
45 subjects were assessed for cognitive anxiety on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Two months later they observed a person performing a new motor task which required high cognitive processing to be performed well. After this observation, 22 subjects were randomly assigned to a Mental Practice and 23 to a Control group. The former performed a cognitive rehearsal of the task, whereas the latter did not. None practiced the task physically before being tested. Analysis of variance showed that both errors and performance time interacted significantly with Mental Practice versus Control group scores and scores on the Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Among subjects who practiced mentally, those scoring low on cognitive anxiety performed significantly better than subjects who scored high. Further, the relationship between test scores of cognitive anxiety and performance for the total sample was analysed by different curvilinear regression models. The cubic model fitted the data better and accounted for a greater percent of variance on error performance explained by anxiety test scores (R = .39) than the linear correlation (r = .25). This cubic model formed a polynomial relationship between cognitive anxiety test scores and error in performance.
Ball, Sydney J.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit
This report provides an integrated overview of measurements and instrumentation for near-term future high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Instrumentation technology has undergone revolutionary improvements since the last HTGR was constructed in the United States. This report briefly describes the measurement and communications needs of HTGRs for normal operations, maintenance and inspection, fuel fabrication, and accident response. The report includes a description of modern communications technologies and also provides a potential instrumentation communications architecture designed for deployment at an HTGR. A principal focus for the report is describing new and emerging measurement technologies with high potential to improve operations, maintenance, and accident response for the next generation of HTGRs, known as modular HTGRs, which are designed with passive safety features. Special focus is devoted toward describing the failure modes of the measurement technologies and assessing the technology maturity.
Saugy, M; Avois, L; Saudan, C; Robinson, N; Giroud, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J
Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis.
Wilson, Patrick B
Ginger is a popular spice used to treat a variety of maladies, including pain. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used by athletes to manage and prevent pain; unfortunately, NSAIDs contribute to substantial adverse effects, including gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, hyponatremia, impairment of connective tissue remodeling, endurance competition withdrawal, and cardiovascular disease. Ginger, however, may act as a promoter of GI integrity and as a bronchodilator. Given these potentially positive effects of ginger, a systematic review of randomized trials was performed to assess the evidence for ginger as an analgesic and ergogenic aid for exercise training and sport. Among 7 studies examining ginger as an analgesic, the evidence indicates that roughly 2 g·d(-1) of ginger may modestly reduce muscle pain stemming from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, particularly if taken for a minimum of 5 days. Among 9 studies examining ginger as an ergogenic aid, no discernable effects on body composition, metabolic rate, oxygen consumption, isometric force generation, or perceived exertion were observed. Limited data suggest that ginger may accelerate recovery of maximal strength after eccentric resistance exercise and reduce the inflammatory response to cardiorespiratory exercise. Major limitations to the research include the use of untrained individuals, insufficient reporting on adverse events, and no direct comparisons with NSAID ingestion. While ginger taken over 1-2 weeks may reduce pain from eccentric resistance exercise and prolonged running, more research is needed to evaluate its safety and efficacy as an analgesic for a wide range of athletic endeavors.
Garner, K C
Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave
Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M
In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001-2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in perception, cognition, and motor control might influence injury risk. Socioculturally
This book addresses the application of infrared thermography in sports, examining the main benefits of this non-invasive, non-radiating and low-cost technique. Aspects covered include the detection of injuries in sports medicine, the assessment of sports performance due to the existing link between physical fitness and thermoregulation and the analysis of heat transfer for sports garments and sports equipment. Although infrared thermography is broadly considered to be a fast and easy-to-use tool, the ability to deliver accurate and repeatable measurements is an important consideration. Furthermore, it is important to be familiar with the latest sports studies published on this technique to understand its potential and limitations. Accordingly, this book establishes a vital link between laboratory tests and the sports field. .
Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)
field produced by a given two-dimensional current density distribution is inverted using the Fourier transform technique. Keywords ... Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are the most sensitive detectors for measurement of ... omagnetic prospecting, detection of gravity waves etc. Judging the importance ...
the Olympic spirit; the adoption of educative and social measures with a view to improving relationships between supporters and clubs by promoting dialogue with rival clubs, by using CCTVs, investing in infrastructure, consolidating the social role played by clubs, better organizing the ticket stalls, adopting a better legislation in the matter and by using well-organized police forces that are specialized in violence prevention on stadiums; - the adoption of Mahatma Gandhi’s non-violent behaviour code (by becoming a Satyagrahi, i.e. an adept of non-violence; - promoting physical education in schools and clubs for developing an ethical attitude in life; - cultivating a competition and fair-play spirit among the young people; - reinforcing European cooperation between schools, universities and clubs; - promoting an anti-doping attitude among the young people; - discouraging violent behaviour through education; - developing the team spirit through sport, including in corporations; - getting the old people involved in sport activities for improving their living standard and health condition; - consolidating the employers’ associations’ and labour union representatives’ interest in sport and competition. Violence in sport is a topic which remains open to interpretation and which will be further tackled by researchers and specialists in education and sociology. It remains a topic to be dealt with in mass-media while pointing out sensationalist and shocking pieces of news. It remains a topic of interest to authorities and civil society, which will try to prevent and fight against it. As a conclusion, this paper underlines the idea that the deterrence of violence is a sine qua non condition not only for sport events to be organized in a civilized manner, but also for the system of education to be successful.
van Wilgen, Cornelis P; Keizer, Doeke
The pathophysiology of chronic sports injuries such as overuse or tendinopathy remains largely unknown. With this exploratory study, we aim to detect signs of sensitization of the nervous system. Sensitization is an indication of the involvement of neuropathic mechanisms in patients with chronic sports injuries. Sensory descriptors were assessed by means of a neuropathic pain questionnaire (DN4-interview) and by three methods of sensory testing. The test results were integrated in a scoring system. Patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic of a University Medical Centre and at primary care physical therapy practices. Fifteen athletes with a unilateral chronic sports injury were included. All subjects filled out the seven-items of the DN4-interview to assess sensory descriptors. Next, the presence of brush-evoked allodynia was assessed and pain thresholds with Von Frey monofilaments and a pressure algometer were measured in all patients to determine signs of sensitization. Based on the scoring system, in 4 out of 15 patients (27%) the presence of sensitization could be detected. In two other patients, signs of hypoalgesia were observed. The involvement of sensitization as an explanation for the pain in chronic sports injuries is credible in a considerable proportion of patients. With respect to treatment, the establishment of such neuropathic pain mechanisms is of clinical significance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...
Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...
Ingram, Anne G.
An aesthetic dimension of sport appreciation is found in the paintings and sculptures of great masters who were intrigued by the subject of sports. This article presents specifics on bringing sports art into the classroom. (Authors/JA)
Kruchten, D.A.; Hickman, D.P.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating a new method for obtaining absolute calibration factors for radiation measurement systems used to measure internally deposited radionuclides in vivo. Absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems will eliminate the need to generate a series of human surrogate structures (i.e., phantoms) for calibrating in vivo measurement systems. The absolute calibration of in vivo measurement systems utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define physiological structure, size, and composition. The MRI image provides a digitized representation of the physiological structure, which allows for any mathematical distribution of radionuclides within the body. Using Monte Carlo transport codes, the emission spectrum from the body is predicted. The in vivo measurement equipment is calibrated using the Monte Carlo code and adjusting for the intrinsic properties of the detection system. The calibration factors are verified using measurements of existing phantoms and previously obtained measurements of human volunteers. 8 refs
The problem of quality control and assurance of gamma radiation measuring systems has been described in detail. The factors deciding of high quality of radiometric measurements as well as statistical testing and calibration of measuring systems have been presented and discussed
In this paper we provide an approach for identifying certain mixture representations of some invariant measures of interacting stochastic systems. This is related to the problem of ergodicity of certain extremal invariant measures that are translation invariant. Corresponding to these, results concerning the existence of invariant measures and certain weak convergence of the systems are also provided
Ehrich, A.; Glatz, J.; Strahl, P.
A description is given of one of the beam emittance measuring systems designed for the UNILAC at GSI. The measuring system mechanics and the detector system are detailed, and the associated electronics are discussed. Computer programming and data processing and evaluation are described
Borghese, Michael M; Janssen, Ian
Children participate in four main types of physical activity: organized sport, active travel, outdoor active play, and curriculum-based physical activity. The objective of this study was to develop a valid approach that can be used to concurrently measure time spent in each of these types of physical activity. Two samples (sample 1: n = 50; sample 2: n = 83) of children aged 10-13 wore an accelerometer and a GPS watch continuously over 7 days. They also completed a log where they recorded the start and end times of organized sport sessions. Sample 1 also completed an outdoor time log where they recorded the times they went outdoors and a description of the outdoor activity. Sample 2 also completed a curriculum log where they recorded times they participated in physical activity (e.g., physical education) during class time. We describe the development of a measurement approach that can be used to concurrently assess the time children spend participating in specific types of physical activity. The approach uses a combination of data from accelerometers, GPS, and activity logs and relies on merging and then processing these data using several manual (e.g., data checks and cleaning) and automated (e.g., algorithms) procedures. In the new measurement approach time spent in organized sport is estimated using the activity log. Time spent in active travel is estimated using an existing algorithm that uses GPS data. Time spent in outdoor active play is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity and specificity of 85%) that was developed using data collected in sample 1 and which uses all of the data sources. Time spent in curriculum-based physical activity is estimated using an algorithm (with a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 92%) that was developed using data collected in sample 2 and which uses accelerometer data collected during class time. There was evidence of excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability of the estimates for all of these types of
Krejci, Petr; Machek, Jindrich
The project includes the use of the PEANO (Process Evaluation and Analysis by Neural Operators) system to verify the monitoring of the status of dependent measurements with a view to early measurement fault detection and estimation of selected signal levels. At the present stage, the system's capabilities of detecting measurement errors was assessed and the quality of the estimates was evaluated for various system configurations and the formation of empiric models, and rules were sought for system training at chosen process data recording parameters and operating modes. The aim was to find a suitable system configuration and to document the quality of the tuned system on artificial failures
Ľubica Floreková; Ján Terpák; Marcela Čarnogurská
Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what), operation (how) and structure (why). Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirem...
Salmon, PM; Stanton, NA; Walker, GH; Jenkins, DP; Ladva, D; Rafferty, L; Young, MS
Situation Awareness (SA) is a distinct critical commodity for teams working in complex industrial systems and its measurement is a key provision in system, procedural and training design efforts. This article describes a study that was undertaken in order to compare three different SA measures (a freeze probe recall approach, a post trial subjective rating approach and a critical incident interview technique) when used to assess participant SA during a military planning task. The results indi...
Tang Baoping; Chen Zhuo; Wei Yuguo; Qin Xiaofeng
A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit
Tang, Baoping; Chen, Zhuo; Wei, Yuguo; Qin, Xiaofeng
A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit.
Tang Baoping; Chen Zhuo; Wei Yuguo; Qin Xiaofeng [Department of Mechatronics, College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030 (China)
A novel distributed wireless measurement system, which is consisted of a base station, wireless intelligent sensors and relay nodes etc, is established by combining of Bluetooth-based wireless transmission, virtual instrument, intelligent sensor, and network. The intelligent sensors mounted on the equipments to be measured acquire various parameters and the Bluetooth relay nodes get the acquired data modulated and sent to the base station, where data analysis and processing are done so that the operational condition of the equipment can be evaluated. The establishment of the distributed measurement system is discussed with a measurement flow chart for the distributed measurement system based on Bluetooth technology, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system are analyzed at the end of the paper and the measurement system has successfully been used in Daqing oilfield, China for measurement of parameters, such as temperature, flow rate and oil pressure at an electromotor-pump unit.
Introduction. – 1. Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports. – 2. Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports. – 3. Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence . – 4. Some concluding remarks.
Introduction - 1 Outcome of uncertainty and competitive balance in professional team sports - 2 Measurement of competitive balance in professional team sports - 3 Football point systems and competitive balance: empirical evidence - 4. Concluding remarks
Steele, Paul T [Livermore, CA
A system according to one embodiment includes a light source for generating light fringes; a sampling mechanism for directing a particle through the light fringes; and at least one light detector for detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes. A method according to one embodiment includes generating light fringes using a light source; directing a particle through the light fringes; and detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes using at least one light detector.
Banks, James H.; Kelly, Gregory
This report documents a study of performance measurement for Transportation Management Centers (TMCs). Performance measurement requirements were analyzed, data collection and management techniques were investigated, and case study traffic data system improvement plans were prepared for two Caltrans districts.
Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Aittomaeki, A.; Maekinen, A.
The efficient use of energy is playing an increasing role in saving natural resources and in maintaining competitiveness. The system integration plays an essential role when efficiency is maximized. Expressed in thermodynamical terms the question is about minimizing the loss of energy. When planning the integration of heating and cooling the impacts of different coupling possibilities and measurements should be compared. In this report the modeling or simulation of energy balances studies in different systems is described. In the system integration of different sports buildings the modeling parts are the following: office space with heating systems, indoor ice-skating rink, skiing tunnel, indoor swimming pool, sports-field and sport center
Verification measurements may be used to help ensure nuclear criticality safety when burnup credit is applied to spent fuel transport and storage systems. The FORK measurement system, designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards program, has been used to verify reactor site records for burnup and cooling time for many years. The FORK system measures the passive neutron and gamma-ray emission from spent fuel assemblies while in the storage pool. This report deals with the application of the FORK system to burnup credit operations based on measurements performed on spent fuel assemblies at the Oconee Nuclear Station of Duke Power Company
Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M
Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.
van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving
This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to
Mosby, W.R.; Aumeier, S.E.; Klann, R.T.
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is driving a transition toward dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuel (INF), toward characterization of INF for final disposition, and toward resumption of measurement-based material control and accountability (MC and A) efforts for INF. For these reasons, the ability to efficiently acquire radiological measurements of INF in a dry environment is important. The DOE has recently developed a guidance document proposing MC and A requirements for INF. The intent of this document is to encourage the direct measurement of INF on inventory within DOE. The guidance document reinforces and clarifies existing material safeguards requirements as they pertain to INF. Validation of nuclear material contents of non-self-protecting INF must be accomplished by direct measurement, application of validated burnup codes using qualified initial fissile content, burnup data, and age or by other valid means. The fuel units must remain intact with readable identification numbers. INF may be subject to periodic inventories with visual item accountability checks. Quantitative measurements may provide greater assurance of the integrity of INF inventories at a lower cost and with less personnel exposure than visual item accountability checks. Currently, several different approaches are used to measure the radiological attributes of INF. Although these systems are useful for a wide variety of applications, there is currently no relatively inexpensive measurement system that is readily deployable for INF measurements for materials located in dry storage. The authors present the conceptual design of a shielded measurement system (SMS) that could be used for this purpose. The SMS consists of a shielded enclosure designed to house a collection of measurement systems to allow measurements on spent fuel outside of a hot cell. The phase 1 SMS will contain 3 He detectors and ionization chambers to allow for gross neutron and gamma-ray measurements. The phase 2 SMS
Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of knee pain in active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. MEASUREMENTS: 339 athletes gave information about occupation, sports activity and different features of knee pain, based...... on a self-filled questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of knee pain within the preceding 12 months, constant or recurrent knee pain, absence from sport and absence from work due to knee pain, was 54%, 34%, 19% and 4%, respectively. Knee pain was positively associated with years of jogging...... and with weekly hours of participation in competitive gymnastics but negatively with weekly hours of tennis. Constant or recurrent knee pain was positively associated with years of swimming. Absence from sport due to knee pain was positively associated with weekly hours of soccer participation. CONCLUSIONS: Knee...
Wilson, Robert E.; Sterlina, Patrick S.
This paper discusses the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) synchronized equipment for the measurement and analysis of key power system quantities. Two GPS synchronized phasor measurement units (PMU) were installed before testing. It was indicated that PMUs recorded the dynamic response of the power system phase angles when the northern California power grid was excited by the artificial short circuits. Power system planning engineers perform detailed computer generated simulations of the dynamic response of the power system to naturally occurring short circuits. The computer simulations use models of transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage components. This work will compare computer simulations of the same event with field measurement.
Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Chaix, Basile
Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport activities should improve the spatial and
Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean
Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p sport children. Children
Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y
Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brancaccio, Franco; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.
The present work describes an automatic system developed for current integration measurements at the Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. This system includes software (graphic user interface and control) and a module connected to a microcomputer, by means of a commercial data acquisition card. Measurements were performed in order to check the performance and for validating the proposed design
Ikisawa, K.; Mori, T.; Takasu, N.
Superconducting property measuring system (CMS-370B) for high temperature oxide superconductor has been developed. This system adopts magnetization measurement. The superconducting properties are able to be measured automatically and continuously changing the temperature and external magnetic field. The critical current density as a function of temperature and magnetic field of high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (YBCO) has been measured. This paper reports how it was confirmed that this system having the high performance and the accuracy gave the significant contribution to the superconducting material development
Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others
Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…
Sports are a focus of millions of Americans as they attend, view, and participate in sports. The World Series, Final Four, and Super Bowl often bring back memories of fun-filled parties and celebrations, but there may be several reasons why sports are so popular in the United States. The popularity of sports, however, does not necessarily mean it…
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,
The dependence of a bulk facility handling Purex Process on the control measurement system for evaluating the process performance needs hardly be emphasized. process control, Plant control, inventory control and quality control are the four components of the control measurement system. The scope and requirements of each component are different and the measurement methods are selected accordingly. However, each measurement system has six important elements. These are described in detail. The quality assurance programme carried out by the laboratory as a mechanism through which the quality of measurements is regularly tested and stated in quantitative terms is also explained in terms of internal and external quality assurance, with examples. Suggestions for making the control measurement system more responsive to the operational needs in future are also briefly discussed. (author)
Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy; Hamilton, Kay
Performance measurement has become a focal topic for information systems (IS) organizations. Historically, IS performance measures have dealt with the efficiency of the data processing function. Today, the function of most IS organizations goes beyond simple data processing. To understand how IS organizations have developed meaningful performance measures that reflect their objectives and activities, industry perspectives on IS performance measurement was studied. The objectives of the study were to understand the state of the practice in IS performance techniques for IS performance measurement; to gather approaches and measures of actual performance measures used in industry; and to report patterns, trends, and lessons learned about performance measurement to NASA/JSC. Examples of how some of the most forward looking companies are shaping their IS processes through measurement is provided. Thoughts on the presence of a life-cycle to performance measures development and a suggested taxonomy for performance measurements are included in the appendices.
Pedersen, A.; Lausen, P.
After some basic considerations the dynamic properties of the measuring system are subjected to a general examination based on a number of responses, characteristic of the system. It is demonstrated that an impulse circuit has an internal impedance different from zero, for which reason...... the interaction between the generator and the measuring circuit is of paramount importance to the voltage across the test object. Based on the measured values the determination of the applied voltage is considered....
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...
Cieślńiski, Wojciech B.; Sobecki, Janusz; Piepiora, Paweł A.; Piepiora, Zbigniew N.; Witkowski, Kazimierz
The mental training (Galloway, 2011) is one of the measures of the psychological preparation in sport. Especially such as the judo discipline requires the mental training, due to the fact that the judo is a combat sport, the direct, physical confrontation of two opponents. Hence the mental preparation should be an essential element of preparing for the sports fight. In the article are described the basics of the AR systems and presents selected elements of the AR systems: sight glasses Vuzix glasses, Kinect sensor and an interactive floor Multitap. Next, there are proposed the scenarios for using the AR in the mental training which are based on using both Vuzix glasses type head as well as the interactive floor Multitap. All options, except for the last, are provided for using the Kinect sensor. In addition, these variants differ as to the primary user of the system. It can be an competitor, his coach the competitor and the coach at the same time. In the end of the article are presented methods of exploring, both, the effectiveness and usefulness, and/or the User Experience of the proposed prototypes. There are presented three educational training simulator prototype models in sport (judo) describing their functionality based on the theory of sports training (the cyclical nature of sports training) and the theory of subtle interactions, enabling an explanation of the effects of sports training using the augmented reality technology.
Du Boullay, C T; Bardier, M; Cheneau, J; Bortolasso, J; Gaubert, J
Among 49 000 cases of infantile emergencies which were received in the BUCI (Bloc d'urgence chirurgical infantile: surgical infantile emergency unit), 5 546 were sport traumas. At an early age, they were caused by outdoor plays; during adolescence, the main cases were caused by team sports. Males are predominant. The number of cases has been regularly progressing, particularly since 1976. The fashion in sports is influenced by médias (i.e. skate board), and can be opposed to the continuous practice of popular sports (swimming, ball games, bycicle. There are winter, summer, school timed sports (the latter being influenced by the sportive scholar associations). The most frequent sports are cycling, football playing, swimming and horse riding, athleticism skating, Other are occasionnal. Changes in sport fashions, female increasing participation, such as horse riding and skating, democratisation (skiing, riding), the worsening of traumas; the pathology concerning bystanders, are described. Cranial and peripheric pathology are dominant. Trunk traumas are scarce but severe. Each sport has an elective pathologic localisation. Injury mechanisms are found, such as stirrup, saddle, ski baton pathology. There is traumatologic similarities; skate board and roller skating; judo and atheleticism; cycling and horse riding. Sport in children is not a replica of the one among adults. Riding a bike is not cycling. Some sports are dangerous: cycling, horse riding, rugby. A traumatological outline is revealed. Preventive measures should be taken. The socio-economical cost is heavy.
Burda, J.; Igielski, A.; Kowalik, W.
An essential point of pulsed neutron measurement of thermal neutron parameters for different materials is the registration of the thermal neutron die-away curve after a fast neutron bursts have been injected into the system. An electronic instrumentation system which is successfully applied for pulsed neutron measurements is presented. An important part of the system is the control unit which has been designed and built in the Laboratory of Neutron Parameters of Materials. (author)
Full Text Available The modern sports movement is going through a process of differentiation. New activities have developed and are still developing. New values and new organizational forms and methods of sports training can replace older ones. Sport is a part of modern lifestyle and various subcultures show the diversity of modern sport. In this paper we try to introduce some experiences about the new philosophy of changing values in modern society and try to give a description of process of value differentiation in sport. We used the methods, methodological principles and means of experienced learning through the pedagogical experiment (special training camps that were a part of long time preparation of some groups of young athletes in Wild water slalom. The used programmes (icebreakers, contact games, trust games, initiative and team games, strategic games, social and dramatic games, communication and cooperation games, environmental games, overcoming obstacles, rope courses….. were firstly opportunities for self-development as well as for learning a great deal about teamwork. There are not exact quantitative results but our experiences show a considerable qualitative development in cohesion of the whole team and positive communication among team and coaches. The success of the Czech team at Junior World and European Championships probably reflects the personal development (selfconfidence, self-respect, self-fulfilment, high spirit of competitors.
Kozina Zhanneta Leonidovna
Full Text Available We consider the direction of optimization of adaptive systems. In research was attended by 43 athletes. We determined the content of cortisol, insulin and β-endorphins in the blood. Showing cause injuries of athletes. It is noted that as the growth rates of athletes increases the number and severity of injuries. It is established that the main causes of injury is a conflict between reducing functionality and increasing requirements of the game. Recommended application fee of medicinal plants according to individual characteristics of functional and psycho-physiological condition of athletes. Recommendations on the normalization of the adaptive systems.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Full Text Available Male-dominated and sex segregated elite professional and amateur sport1 in North America constitutes a "sport nexus" (Burstyn, 1999; Heywood & Dworkin, 2003 that combines economic and cultural influence to reinforce and perpetuate gender injustice. The sport nexus is an androcentric sex-segregated commercially powerful set of institutions that is highly visible and at the same time almost completely taken for granted to the extent that its anti-democratic impetus goes virtually unnoticed. The sport nexus’s hegemonic role in defining sporting norms (Coakley & Donnelly, 2004 means that its role in shaping lower level amateur and recreational sporting institutions and cultures is highly significant. Fraser (2007 defines gender justice, and hence democracy, in terms of "participatory parity," that is, material and cultural equality for women. The sport nexus itself is characterized by highly gendered occupational segregation (Coventry, 2004. It further contributes to gender injustice, homophobia and transphobia by promoting the ideology of the two sex system (Fausto-Sterling, 2000 and gendering citizenship as fundamentally male (Burstyn, 1999. Feminist strategies for sport reformation attempt to reduce or eradicate the role of the sport nexus in legitimating and perpetuating gender injustice. In this article I consider the potential of these strategies and conclude with a set of recommendations for transforming organized sport at both elite and recreational levels.
Full Text Available Male-dominated and sex segregated elite professional and amateur sport1 in North America constitutes a "sport nexus" (Burstyn, 1999; Heywood & Dworkin, 2003 that combines economic and cultural influence to reinforce and perpetuate gender injustice. The sport nexus is an androcentric sex-segregated commercially powerful set of institutions that is highly visible and at the same time almost completely taken for granted to the extent that its anti-democratic impetus goes virtually unnoticed. The sport nexus’s hegemonic role in defining sporting norms (Coakley & Donnelly, 2004 means that its role in shaping lower level amateur and recreational sporting institutions and cultures is highly significant. Fraser (2007 defines gender justice, and hence democracy, in terms of "participatory parity," that is, material and cultural equality for women. The sport nexus itself is characterized by highly gendered occupational segregation (Coventry, 2004. It further contributes to gender injustice, homophobia and transphobia by promoting the ideology of the two sex system (Fausto-Sterling, 2000 and gendering citizenship as fundamentally male (Burstyn, 1999. Feminist strategies for sport reformation attempt to reduce or eradicate the role of the sport nexus in legitimating and perpetuating gender injustice. In this article I consider the potential of these strategies and conclude with a set of recommendations for transforming organized sport at both elite and recreational levels.
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Sarajevo consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 358 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test.Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.000.
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Mostar consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 228 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test.Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.020.
Full Text Available System entropy describes the dispersal of a system’s energy and is an indication of the disorder of a physical system. Several system entropy measurement methods have been developed for dynamic systems. However, most real physical systems are always modeled using stochastic partial differential dynamic equations in the spatio-temporal domain. No efficient method currently exists that can calculate the system entropy of stochastic partial differential systems (SPDSs in consideration of the effects of intrinsic random fluctuation and compartment diffusion. In this study, a novel indirect measurement method is proposed for calculating of system entropy of SPDSs using a Hamilton–Jacobi integral inequality (HJII-constrained optimization method. In other words, we solve a nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for measuring the system entropy of nonlinear stochastic partial differential systems (NSPDSs. To simplify the system entropy measurement of NSPDSs, the global linearization technique and finite difference scheme were employed to approximate the nonlinear stochastic spatial state space system. This allows the nonlinear HJII-constrained optimization problem for the system entropy measurement to be transformed to an equivalent linear matrix inequalities (LMIs-constrained optimization problem, which can be easily solved using the MATLAB LMI-toolbox (MATLAB R2014a, version 8.3. Finally, several examples are presented to illustrate the system entropy measurement of SPDSs.
Lim, Meng-Hui; Yuen, Pong C
Biometric verification systems are designed to accept multiple similar biometric measurements per user due to inherent intrauser variations in the biometric data. This is important to preserve reasonable acceptance rate of genuine queries and the overall feasibility of the recognition system. However, such acceptance of multiple similar measurements decreases the imposter's difficulty of obtaining a system-acceptable measurement, thus resulting in a degraded security level. This deteriorated security needs to be measurable to provide truthful security assurance to the users. Entropy is a standard measure of security. However, the entropy formula is applicable only when there is a single acceptable possibility. In this paper, we develop an entropy-measuring model for biometric systems that accepts multiple similar measurements per user. Based on the idea of guessing entropy, the proposed model quantifies biometric system security in terms of adversarial guessing effort for two practical attacks. Excellent agreement between analytic and experimental simulation-based measurement results on a synthetic and a benchmark face dataset justify the correctness of our model and thus the feasibility of the proposed entropy-measuring approach.
Aoki, Raquel YS; Assuncao, Renato M; de Melo, Pedro OS Vaz
Predicting the outcome of sports events is a hard task. We quantify this difficulty with a coefficient that measures the distance between the observed final results of sports leagues and idealized perfectly balanced competitions in terms of skill. This indicates the relative presence of luck and skill. We collected and analyzed all games from 198 sports leagues comprising 1503 seasons from 84 countries of 4 different sports: basketball, soccer, volleyball and handball. We measured the competi...
Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.
The Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrates commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability with a multienergy x-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporates a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and the capability for automated high-resolution gamma-ray analysis for isotope identification. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of the waste measurement characteristics of the system has been conducted. A set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards was fabricated for calibration and evaluation of the low-level waste (LLW) measurement system. The measurement characteristics of the LLW assay system were determined during the evaluation, including detection limits for all isotopes of interest, matrix attenuation effects, and detector response as a function of source position. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software.
Foster, L.A.; Wachter, J.R.; Hagan, R.C.
The Multiple Assay Dual Analysis Measurement (MADAM) system is a combined low-level and transuranic waste assay system. The system integrates commercially available Segmented Gamma Scanner (SGS) capability with a multienergy x-ray and gamma-ray analysis to measure these two waste forms. In addition, the system incorporates a small neutron slab detector to satisfy safeguards concerns and the capability for automated high-resolution gamma-ray analysis for isotope identification. Since delivery of the system to this facility, an evaluation of the waste measurement characteristics of the system has been conducted. A set of specially constructed NIST-traceable standards was fabricated for calibration and evaluation of the low-level waste (LLW) measurement system. The measurement characteristics of the LLW assay system were determined during the evaluation, including detection limits for all isotopes of interest, matrix attenuation effects, and detector response as a function of source position. Based on these studies, several modifications to the existing analysis algorithms have been performed, new correction factors for matrix attenuation have been devised, and measurement error estimates have been calculated and incorporated into the software
A. N. Tkhishev
Full Text Available A special aspect of aircraft test is carrying out both flight evaluation and ground operation evaluation in a structure of flying aids and special tools equipment. The specific of flight and sea tests involve metering in offshore zone, which excludes the possibility of fixed geodetically related measuring tools. In this regard, the specific role is acquired by shipbased measurement systems, in particular the mobile modular measuring systems. Information processed in the mobile modular measurement systems is a critical resource having a high level of confidentiality. When carrying out their functions, it should be implemented a proper information control of the mobile modular measurement systems to ensure their protection from the risk of data leakage, modification or loss, i.e. to ensure a certain level of information security. Due to the specific of their application it is difficult to solve the problems of information security in such complexes. The intruder model, the threat model, the security requirements generated for fixed informatization objects are not applicable to mobile systems. It was concluded that the advanced mobile modular measuring systems designed for flight experiments monitoring and control should be created due to necessary information protection measures and means. The article contains a diagram of security requirements formation, starting with the data envelopment analysis and ending with the practical implementation. The information security probabilistic model applied to mobile modular measurement systems is developed. The list of current security threats based on the environment and specific of the mobile measurement system functioning is examined. The probabilistic model of the information security evaluation is given. The problems of vulnerabilities transformation of designed information system into the security targets with the subsequent formation of the functional and trust requirements list are examined.
Zulhilmi Kaharuddin, Muhammad; Badriah Khairu Razak, Siti; Ikram Kushairi, Muhammad; Syawal Abd. Rahman, Mohamed; An, Wee Chang; Ngali, Z.; Siswanto, W. A.; Salleh, S. M.; Yusup, E. M.
‘Silat’ is a Malay traditional martial art that is practiced in both amateur and in professional levels. The intensity of the motion spurs the scientific research in biomechanics. The main purpose of this abstract is to present the biomechanics method used in the study of ‘silat’. By using the 3D Depth Camera motion capture system, two subjects are to perform ‘Jurus Satu’ in three repetitions each. One subject is set as the benchmark for the research. The videos are captured and its data is processed using the 3D Depth Camera server system in the form of 16 3D body joint coordinates which then will be transformed into displacement, velocity and acceleration components by using Microsoft excel for data calculation and Matlab software for simulation of the body. The translated data obtained serves as an input to differentiate both subjects’ execution of the ‘Jurus Satu’. Nine primary movements with the addition of five secondary movements are observed visually frame by frame from the simulation obtained to get the exact frame that the movement takes place. Further analysis involves the differentiation of both subjects’ execution by referring to the average mean and standard deviation of joints for each parameter stated. The findings provide useful data for joints kinematic parameters as well as to improve the execution of ‘Jurus Satu’ and to exhibit the process of learning a movement that is relatively unknown by the use of a motion capture system.
Walczak, S.; Gołebiowski, J.
The aim of this paper is to present the concept of temperature measurement system, adapted to wearable electronics applications. Temperature is one of the most commonly monitored factor in smart textiles, especially in sportswear, medical and rescue products. Depending on the application, measured temperature could be used as an initial value of alert, heating, lifesaving or analysis system. The concept of the temperature measurement multi-point system, which consists of flexible screen-printed resistive sensors, placed on the T-shirt connected with the central unit and the power supply is elaborated in the paper.
McKee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D
The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration. Nonetheless, the play of sports is associated with risks, including a risk for mild TBI (mTBI) and, rarely, catastrophic traumatic injury and death. There is also growing awareness that repetitive mTBIs, such as concussion and subconcussion, can occasionally produce persistent cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems as well as lead to the development of a neurodegeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In this review, we summarize the beneficial aspects of sports participation on psychological, emotional, physical and cognitive health, and specifically analyze some of the less common adverse neuropathological outcomes, including concussion, second-impact syndrome, juvenile head trauma syndrome, catastrophic sudden death, and CTE. CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND). Although the incidence and prevalence of CTE are not known, CTE has been reported most frequently in American football players and boxers. Other sports associated with CTE include ice hockey, professional
This bibliography contains references specifically pertaining to physical education, recreation, or sport and to behavior management. The references are classified into areas of behavior management overview, reinforcement systems, motor performance, physical fitness, recreation, and sport. (MT)
Standard core monitoring and information systems are designed with an emphasis on normal operation of nuclear power plant. Their purpose is to provide necessary support for reactor operators and other operating personnel during the fuel cycle. After each fuel reloading, and to the larger extent during the plant commissioning, a variety of start-up tests need to be carried out and evaluated. Sampling periods, accuracy and communication delays of standard systems are not always suitable for test performance and evaluation. For technical and safety reasons, the access to standard monitoring and information systems is very limited. Non-Standard Measurement and Evaluation Systems are highly specialized devices designed with an emphasis on start-up tests performance and evaluation. They are capable of high frequency sampling, processing and communication of hundreds of technological signals with required accuracy and low communication delay. All technological signals needed for the test performance and evaluation are collected from various systems, concentrated in one system and fully accessible to a test leader, a reactor physicist or other users. In addition, Non-Standard Measurement and Evaluation Systems can perform other tasks like data storing and presentation, data distribution to other systems or external computers via network, reactivity calculations, etc. Structure of such systems can vary, but generally it is a mixture of two basic concepts: a mobile system and a stationary system. A basic description of hardware structure and software equipment of Non-Standard Measurement and Evaluation Systems is given in the paper (Authors)
A Gaussian mixture clustering model for characterizing football players using the EA Sports' FIFA video game system. [Modelo basado en agrupamiento de mixturas Gaussianas para caracterizar futbolistas utilizando el sistema de videojuegos FIFA de EA Sports].
Full Text Available The generation and availability of football data has increased considerably last decades, mostly due to its popularity and also because of technological advances. Gaussian mixture clustering models represents a novel approach to exploring and analyzing performance data in sports. In this paper, we use principal components analysis in conjunction with a model-based Gaussian clustering method with the purpose of characterizing professional football players. Our model approach is tested using 40 attributes from EA Sports' FIFA video game series system, corresponding to 7705 European players. Clustering results reveal a clear distinction among different performance indicators, representing four different roles in the team. Players were labeled according to these roles and a gradient tree boosting model was used for ranking attributes regarding to its importance. We found that the dribbling skill is the most discriminating variable among the different clustered players’ profiles. Resumen En las últimas décadas se ha visto un incremento considerable en la generación y disponibilidad de datos de fútbol, esto se debe fundamentalmente a la popularidad de este deporte así como a los avances tecnológicos realizados en este campo. Los modelos de agrupamiento basados en mixturas Gaussianas representan un enfoque novedoso para explorar y analizar datos de desempeño deportivo. En el presente trabajo, se lleva a cabo una caracterización de jugadores profesionales de fútbol utilizando técnicas de análisis de componentes principales y agrupamiento basados en mixturas Gaussianas. El modelo presentado es comprobado utilizando datos del sistema de videojuegos FIFA de EA Sports, dichos datos representan 40 atributos correspondientes a 7705 futbolistas europeos. Los resultados del agrupamiento revelan una clara distinción entre algunos indicadores de desempeño, los cuales corresponden a cuatro roles diferentes en el equipo. Consecuentemente, los
Prevo, C.T.; Kaifer, R.C.; Rueppel, D.W.; Delvasto, R.M.; Biermann, A.H.; Phelps, P.L.
We have completed the design, fabrication, and assembly of a computer-based prototype system for the measurement of transuranic aerosols in the workplace and environment. This system (called WOTAMS for Workplace Transuranic Aerosol Measurement System) incorporates two detectors: (1) an in-line solid-state alpha detector that sends out an alarm the moment a transuranic release occurs, and (2) an in-vacuum detector that increases off-line-analysis sensitivity. The in-line sensitivity of the system is better than 5.0 MPC-h, and the in-vacuum sensitivity exceeds 0.5 MPC-h. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Yildiz, Suleyman M.; Kara, Ali
Purpose: HEdPERF (Higher Education PERFormance) is one of the most recently developed scales in the literature to measure service quality in higher education. However, HEdPERF is designed to measure service quality at a macro level (university level) and may be considered as a more generic measurement instrument. In higher education, new scales…
Giniotis, V [Institute of Geodesy, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania); Grattan, K T V [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences Electrical, Electronic and Information Eng, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Rybokas, M [Department of Information Technologies, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania); Brucas, D, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: MRybokas@gama.l, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Geodesy and Cadastre, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania Sauletekio al. 11, 10223 Vilnius-40, Lithuania, Fax: 370 5 2744 705 (Lithuania)
The paper deals with the mechatronic arrangement for angle measuring system application. The objects to be measured are the circular raster scales, rotary encoders and coded scales. The task of the measuring system is to determine the bias of angle measuring standard as the circular scale and to use the results for the error correction and accuracy improvement of metal cutting machines, coordinate measuring machines, robots, etc. The technical solutions are given with the application of active materials for smart piezoactuators implemented into the several positions of angular measuring equipment. Mechatronic measuring system is analysed as complex integrated system and some of its elements can be used as separate units. All these functional elements are described and commented in the paper with the diagrams and graphs of errors and examples of microdisplacement devices using the mechatronic elements.
Giniotis, V; Grattan, K T V; Rybokas, M; Brucas, D
The paper deals with the mechatronic arrangement for angle measuring system application. The objects to be measured are the circular raster scales, rotary encoders and coded scales. The task of the measuring system is to determine the bias of angle measuring standard as the circular scale and to use the results for the error correction and accuracy improvement of metal cutting machines, coordinate measuring machines, robots, etc. The technical solutions are given with the application of active materials for smart piezoactuators implemented into the several positions of angular measuring equipment. Mechatronic measuring system is analysed as complex integrated system and some of its elements can be used as separate units. All these functional elements are described and commented in the paper with the diagrams and graphs of errors and examples of microdisplacement devices using the mechatronic elements.
Kamis, Danielle; Newmark, Thomas; Begel, Daniel; Glick, Ira D
This paper focuses on "cheating" in modern day athletics from youth through professional sports. We briefly summarize a history of cheating in the sports world. We examine the current role cheating plays in sports as well as its causes including, psychodynamic issues, the development of personality disorders and how personality traits become pathological resulting in deception, dishonesty, and underhandedness. We describe management and treatment including psychotherapeutic intervention as well as medication. Finally we discuss a systems approach involving outreach to coaches, families, and related sports organizations (like FIFA, WADA, etc) or the professional leagues which have institutional control and partial influence on the athlete.
Full Text Available Each measurement system and a control principle must be based on certain facts about the system behaviour (what, operation (how and structure (why. Each system is distributed into subsystems that provide an input for the next subsystem. For each system, start is important the begin, that means system characteristics, collecting of data, its hierarchy and the processes distribution.A measurement system (based on the chapter 8 of the standard ISO 9001:2000 Quality management system, requirements defines the measurement, analysis and improvement for each organization in order to present the products conformity, the quality management system conformity guarantee and for the continuously permanent improvement of effectivity, efficiency and economy of quality management system.
Jedlovec, G.; Molthan, A.; Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.; Lafontaine, F.
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community, with a goal of improving short-term forecasts on a regional scale. Advances in research computing have lead to “Climate in a Box” systems, with hardware configurations capable of producing high resolution, near real-time weather forecasts, but with footprints, power, and cooling requirements that are comparable to desktop systems. The SPoRT Center has developed several capabilities for incorporating unique NASA research capabilities and observations with real-time weather forecasts. Planned utilization includes the development of a fully-cycled data assimilation system used to drive 36-48 hour forecasts produced by the NASA Unified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (NU-WRF). The horsepower provided by the “Climate in a Box” system is expected to facilitate the assimilation of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture provided by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the NASA Aqua satellite. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA’s Aqua and Terra satellites provide high-resolution sea surface temperatures and vegetation characteristics. The development of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NVDI) composites for use within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) will assist in the characterization of vegetation, and subsequently the surface albedo and processes related to soil moisture. Through application of satellite simulators, NASA satellite instruments can be used to examine forecast model errors in cloud cover and other characteristics. Through the aforementioned application of the “Climate in a Box” system and NU-WRF capabilities, an end goal is the establishment of a real-time forecast system that fully integrates modeling and analysis capabilities developed
Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan L.; LaFontaine, Frank J.
The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community, with a goal of improving short-term forecasts on a regional scale. Advances in research computing have lead to "Climate in a Box" systems, with hardware configurations capable of producing high resolution, near real-time weather forecasts, but with footprints, power, and cooling requirements that are comparable to desktop systems. The SPoRT Center has developed several capabilities for incorporating unique NASA research capabilities and observations with real-time weather forecasts. Planned utilization includes the development of a fully-cycled data assimilation system used to drive 36-48 hour forecasts produced by the NASA Unified version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (NU-WRF). The horsepower provided by the "Climate in a Box" system is expected to facilitate the assimilation of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture provided by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard the NASA Aqua satellite. In addition, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Aqua and Terra satellites provide high-resolution sea surface temperatures and vegetation characteristics. The development of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NVDI) composites for use within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) will assist in the characterization of vegetation, and subsequently the surface albedo and processes related to soil moisture. Through application of satellite simulators, NASA satellite instruments can be used to examine forecast model errors in cloud cover and other characteristics. Through the aforementioned application of the "Climate in a Box" system and NU-WRF capabilities, an end goal is the establishment of a real-time forecast system that fully integrates modeling and analysis capabilities developed within the NASA SPoRT
Goodman, R A; Thacker, S B; Solomon, S L; Osterholm, M T; Hughes, J M
Participation in competitive sports is popular and widely encouraged throughout the United States. Reports of infectious disease outbreaks among competitive athletes and recent publicity regarding infectious disease concerns in sports underscore the need to better characterize the occurrence of these problems. To identify reports of infectious diseases in sports, we performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature (MEDLINE) and newspaper databases in two on-line services (NEXIS and DIALOG PAPERS). Articles selected from the literature review included those describing cases or outbreaks of disease in which exposure to an infectious agent was likely to have occurred during training for competitive sports or during actual competition. Articles from the newspaper review included reports of outbreaks, exposures, or preventive measures that directly or indirectly involved teams or spectators. The literature review identified 38 reports of infectious disease outbreaks or other instances of transmission through person-to-person (24 reports), common-source (nine reports), or airborne (five reports) routes; the newspaper search identified 28 reports. Infectious agents included predominantly viruses but also a variety of fungi and gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Our findings indicate that strategies to prevent transmission of infectious diseases in sports must recognize risks at three levels: the individual athlete, the team, and spectators or others who may become exposed to infectious diseases as a result of sports-related activities. Team physicians and others who are responsible for the health of athletes should be especially familiar with the features of infectious diseases that occur in sports and measures for the prevention of these problems.
Orzechowski, T.; Kupczak, R.
Measuring system for fast Hall-voltage changes in an n-type germanium sample irradiated at liquid nitrogen temperature with a high-energy electron-beam from the Van de Graaff accelerator is described. (author)
Christensen, Mette Krogh
dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those......Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...
Walendziuk, Wojciech; Sawicki, Aleksander
This work presents a measurement system of beehive environmental conditions. The purpose of the device is to perform measurements of parameters such as ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, internal temperature, humidity and sound level. The measured values were transferred to the MySQL database, which is located on an external server, with the use of GPRS protocol. A website presents the measurement data in the form of tables and graphs. The study also shows exemplary results of environmental conditions measurements recorded in the beehive by hour cycle.
Anne K Reimers
Full Text Available To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany.A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11-17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities.The logistic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively.Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas.
Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander
Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689
Full Text Available Advertising is an attractive promotional tool for marketers who can use it to strengthen communication with consumers and persuade them to purchasing certain product or service (Bjelica et al., 2014; Muratović et al., 2014. Hence, there is nececity to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, while this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Serbian consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often they participate in sports activities. Methods: The sample included 127 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a months. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modeled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results: Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences didn’t occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.05. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are no significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in various sports activities. Discussion: These results are so important for the marketers, mostly due to the reason they can merge all the potential consumers who participate in various sports activities into one homogenious group. This wasn’t the case in previous investigations (Popović et al., 2011 and this observation presents relevant information.
Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman
Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.
Hernández, Sergio Elias; Acosta, Leopoldo; Toledo, Jonay
A simple, economic and successful design for distance and cable length detection is presented. The measurement system is based on the continuous repetition of a pulse that endlessly travels along the distance to be detected. There is a pulse repeater at both ends of the distance or cable to be measured. The endless repetition of the pulse generates a frequency that varies almost inversely with the distance to be measured. The resolution and distance or cable length range could be adjusted by varying the repetition time delay introduced at both ends and the measurement time. With this design a distance can be measured with centimeter resolution using electronic system with microsecond resolution, simplifying classical time of flight designs which require electronics with picosecond resolution. This design was also applied to position measurement. PMID:22303169
The statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) has been completely automated through computer software. The statistical modeling of analytical measurement systems is one part of a complete quality control program used by the Remote Analytical Laboratory (RAL) at the ICPP. The quality control program is an integration of automated data input, measurement system calibration, database management, and statistical process control. The quality control program and statistical modeling program meet the guidelines set forth by the American Society for Testing Materials and American National Standards Institute. A statistical model is a set of mathematical equations describing any systematic bias inherent in a measurement system and the precision of a measurement system. A statistical model is developed from data generated from the analysis of control standards. Control standards are samples which are made up at precise known levels by an independent laboratory and submitted to the RAL. The RAL analysts who process control standards do not know the values of those control standards. The object behind statistical modeling is to describe real process samples in terms of their bias and precision and, to verify that a measurement system is operating satisfactorily. The processing of control standards gives us this ability
Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.
One of seven instructional units on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents suggestions for coaching softball for mentally retarded persons. An overview section provides information on teaching suggestions, followed by a list of program goals, objectives, and benefits. Sports skill assessments measure athletes'…
Full Text Available The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.
Baloga, S.M.; Hakkila, E.A.
Safeguards for future commercial-scale nuclear facilities may employ three materials control and accounting concepts: classical accounting, dynamic materials balancing, and independent verification of inventories and materials balances. Typical measurement needs associated with the implementation of these concepts at high-throughput facilities are discussed. Promising measurement methods for meeting these needs are described and recent experience is cited. General directions and considerations for meeting advanced safeguards systems needs through measurement technology development over the next decade are presented
Full Text Available It is proposed that potential consumers form attitudes based on advertising through sport can influence decisions to purchase a particular advertiser’s product. From this reason, it is important to analyse their general attitudes toward advertising through sport among various questions, and this investigation was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Sarajevo consumers toward advertising through sport among. The sample included 358 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers, who do not watch sports events at all, then consumers who watch sports events 1-30 minutes, next 31-60 minutes, 61-90 minutes, 91-120 minutes, as well as consumers who watch sports events more than 120 minutes during the typical day. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.00. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the attitudes of consumers toward advertising through sport among the frequency of watching sports events. These results are so important for the marketers, mostly due to the reason they can’t merge all the potential consumers regarding the frequency they watch the sports events. On the other hand, this is the case in previous investigations and this observation presents relevant information.
Full Text Available It is proposed that potential consumers form attitudes based on advertising through sport can influence decisions to purchase a particular advertiser’s product. From this reason, it is important to analyse their general attitudes toward advertising through sport among various questions, and this investigation was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Mostar consumers toward advertising through sport among. The sample included 228 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers, who do not watch sports events at all, then consumers who watch sports events 1-30 minutes, next 31-60 minutes, 61-90 minutes, 91-120 minutes, as well as consumers who watch sports events more than 120 minutes during the typical day. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.006. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the attitudes of consumers toward advertising through sport among the frequency of watching sports events. These results are so important for the marketers, mostly due to the reason they can’t merge all the potential consumers regarding the frequency they watch the sports events. On the other hand, this is the case in previous investigations and this observation presents relevant information.
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.
Huovila, A.; Airaksinen, M.; Pinto-Seppa, I.; Piira, K.; Bosch, P.R.; Penttinen, T.; Neumann, H.M.; Kontinakis, N.
Cities are tackling their economic, social and environmental challenges through smart city solutions. To demonstrate that these solutions achieve the desired impact, an indicator-based assessment system is needed. This paper presents the process of developing CITYkeys performance measurement system
Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.
A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.
Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne
This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems....... The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers...
Kambo, N. S.
Full Text Available Approximations to various performance measures in queuing systems have received considerable attention because these measures have wide applicability. In this paper we propose two methods to approximate the queuing characteristics of a GI/M/1 system. The first method is non-parametric in nature, using only the first three moments of the arrival distribution. The second method treads the known path of approximating the arrival distribution by a mixture of two exponential distributions by matching the first three moments. Numerical examples and optimal analysis of performance measures of GI/M/1 queues are provided to illustrate the efficacy of the methods, and are compared with benchmark approximations.
Adler Zwahlen, Jenny; Weigelt-Schlesinger, Yvonne
Sport participation means a privileged access to participate in the sport system and the opportunities of actual integration into sport (Seiberth et al., 2013). The access to sport activities is often restricted for female immigrants. The function of sport participation concerning exercise offers of social associations is not a common theme in research on migration or on sports-related integration. Research on boundaries (Lamont & Molnár, 2002) suggest that gender-related and ethnic boundarie...
Pilewska, Wiesława; Buśko, Krzysztof; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros
The main aim of the study was to design a new system to measure punching forces in boxers. In addition, the study examined whether there were any relationship between force of punches and power of jump. A total of 9 boxers (age: 17.5±1.2 years, body height: 174.1±8.1 cm, body mass: 73.9±11.8 kg) participated in the study. The punching bag was equipped with acceleration transducers and gyroscopes embedded in a cylinder covered with a layer to absorb shock as well as a set of colour signal diodes. Value of the punching bag's acceleration was used for calculating: strike force; the punching location on the bag; and time of a strike. The relative error of force calculation was 3%; the relative error in acceleration measurement was less than 1%. The maximal straight of rear and lead punching forces were 1702.4±497.8 N and 1262.0±417.7 N in boxers, respectively. Strong correlations were found between the punching force and power of lower limbs developed for the ACMJ, CMJ and SPJ jump. Height of rise of the body mass centre and punching force correlated insignificantly. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the modified punching bag is a good diagnostic tool for combat sports. The measurement of power during the jump may be a good diagnostic test in boxers.
McGlone, J.S.; Hibbard, L.S.; Hawkins, R.A.; Kasturi, R.
A computerized stereotactic measurement system for evaluating rat brain metabolism was developed to utilize the large amount of data generated by quantitative autoradiography. Conventional methods of measurement only analyze a small percent of these data because these methods are limited by instrument design and the subjectiveness of the investigator. However, a computerized system allows digital images to be analyzed by placing data at their appropriate three-dimensional stereotactic coordinates. The system automatically registers experimental data to a standard three-dimensional image using alignment, scaling, and matching operations. Metabolic activity in different neuronal structures is then measured by generating digital masks and superimposing them on to experimental data. Several experimental data sets were evaluated and it was noticed that the structures measured by the computerized system, had in general, lower metabolic activity than manual measurements had indicated. This was expected because the computerized system measured the structure over its volume while the manual readings were taken from the most active metabolic area of a particular structure
Nilssen, J. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA) (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (IRSA) (Iceland)
Mobile car-borne measurement systems are an important asset in early phase emergency response in all Nordic countries. However, through the development of the systems in the different countries, there are considerable differences between the systems developed. This complicates Nordic cooperation and mutual assistance in emergency situations. This project aimed to facilitate harmonization of mobile measurement systems between the Nordic countries. The project focused on harmonizing data formats, information exchange and measurement strategies. Although the work done was funded by each member, the project established a good platform for cooperation which will hopefully continue beyond the scope of the project. A two-day seminar was held in May 2012, where all participants presented the current status (equipment, methods used etc.), in addition to invited speakers presenting development within the field of mobile detection and in situ measurements. Exchange of experiences and information on different measurement systems and practises in use was an important part of the seminar. The seminar was followed up by a small workshop during the REFOX exercise in Lund, Sweden, September 2012. Exchange of measurement data from the exercise was facilitated through a workspace proveded by NRPA as part of the MOMS project. The work done in this project will be presented at the NordEx12 seminar in March 2013. (Author)
Yuzawa, Itsuki; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru
We described Characteristic of the heat stroke in the sports activity in Japan. It was common in teenage men, and 15 years old had a peak with a man, the woman. Most patients did not need specific treatment. Many happened from the end of July on the outdoors around 3:00 p.m. in mid-August. There are many in order of baseball, football, tennis, and a basketball. Running and cycling had high severity of illness. Probably, grasp of an environmental condition, suitable sportswear, suitable hydration, and condition management are the best things as preventive measures.
Ushijima, Satoru; Miyanaga, Yoichi; Takeda, Hirofumi
This paper describes the development and application of an image processing system for measurements of flow patterns occuring in natural circulation water flows. In this method, the motions of particles scattered in the flow are visualized by a laser light slit and they are recorded on normal video tapes. These image data are converted to digital data with an image processor and then transfered to a large computer. The center points and pathlines of the particle images are numerically analized, and velocity vectors are obtained with these results. In this image processing system, velocity vectors in a vertical plane are measured simultaneously, so that the two dimensional behaviors of various eddies, with low velocity and complicated flow patterns usually observed in natural circulation flows, can be determined almost quantitatively. The measured flow patterns, which were obtained from natural circulation flow experiments, agreed with photographs of the particle movements, and the validity of this measuring system was confirmed in this study. (author)
Steffen, Matthias; Leonhardt, Steffen; Heimann, Konrad; Bernstein, Nina
Non-contact heart and lung activity monitoring would be a desirable supplement to conventional monitoring techniques. Based on the potential of non-contact magnetic induction measurements, requirements for an adequate monitoring system were estimated. This formed the basis for the development of the presented extendable multichannel simultaneous magnetic induction measurement system (MUSIMITOS). Special focus was given to the dynamic behaviour and simultaneous multichannel measurements, so that the system allows for up to 14 receiver coils working simultaneously at 6 excitation frequencies. Moreover, a real-time software concept for online signal processing visualization in combination with a fast software demodulation is presented. Finally, first steps towards a clinical application are pointed out and technical performance as well as first in vivo measurements are presented. This paper covers some aspects previously presented in Steffen and Leonhardt (2007 Proc. 13th Int. Conf. on Electrical Bioimpedance and the 8th Conf. on Electrical Impedance Tomography, Graz 2007)
Lupo, Corrado; Mosso, Cristina Onesta; Guidotti, Flavia; Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa; Rainoldi, Alberto
The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale's internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes' identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects.
Cugliari, Giovanni; Pizzigalli, Luisa
The purpose of this paper is twofold: to validate the properties of the Italian version of the Baller Identity Measurement Scale (i.e., BIMS-IT), a self-report questionnaire based on the athletic and academic identities; and to investigate differences in psychosocial factors such as gender, age, type of sport, and competition level. The dimensionality of the BIMS-IT was explored by means of the exploratory factor analysis, considering the scale’s internal consistency too (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). Results related to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of measurement composed of two correlated factors: the athletic and academic identities and affectivity related to identities. For both factors, differences emerged between age, and competition level sub groups. In particular, higher identity scores emerged for ≤ 24 years old student-athletes with respect to their age counterparts. National sub-elite student-athletes reported lower identity values than those of national elite and international levels. Results suggest that the Italian version of the BIMS-IT is psychometrically robust and could be adopted for empirical uses. The higher identity scores reported by younger and higher competition level participants suggest a correspondent higher involvement into the student-athlete role. However, BIMS-IT represents a distinct model with respect to the original American BIMS, determining the need of further research on the student-athletes’ identity to better clarify any socio-cultural contest effects. PMID:28056046
Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N
This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.
Health system performance measurement is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many authors have identified multiple methodological and substantive problems with performance measurement practices. Despite the validity of these criticisms and their cross-national character, the practice of health system performance measurement persists. Theodore Marmor suggests that performance measurement invokes an "incantatory response" wrapped within "linguistic muddle." In this article, I expand upon Marmor's insights using Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to suggest that, far from an aberration, the "linguistic muddle" identified by Marmor is an indicator of a broad struggle about the representation and classification of public health services as a public good. I present a case study of performance measurement from Alberta, Canada, examining how this representational struggle occurs and what the stakes are. © The Author(s) 2015.
Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L
Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs.
McDonald, Mark A.; Milne, George R.; Hong, JinBae
Suggests a motivations framework to organize constructs for evaluating sport consumption. Researchers developed scales to measure motivations for spectating and participant markets, then surveyed 1,611 sports enthusiasts nationwide, profiling sports using motivational constructs. The proposed constructs are shown to have implications for marketing…
López-Vicente, Mónica; Tiemeier, Henning; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Sunyer, Jordi; White, Tonya
We studied cortical morphology in relation to sports participation and type of sport using a large sample of healthy children (n = 911). Sports participation data was collected through a parent-reported questionnaire. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired, and different morphological brain features were quantified. Global volumetric measures were not associated with sports participation. We observed thicker cortex in motor and premotor areas associated with sports participation. In boys, team sports participation, relative to individual sports, was related to thinner cortex in prefrontal brain areas involved in the regulation of behaviors. This study showed a relationship between sports participation and brain maturation.
Describes an exhibition (originating at the Smithsonian Institution) which celebrates athletes and sports-related figures who became legends in their own time. Information is presented on art works, sports memorabilia, advertising posters, and photographs. (AM)
... re important for sports such as football , hockey, baseball, softball, biking, skateboarding, inline skating, skiing , and snowboarding — to ... in sports such as football, ice hockey , and softball and baseball when batting. Goggles are often worn ...
In spring 2013, the regional directorate for youth, sports and social cohesion and the regional healthcare agency in Franche-Comté presented and signed the first regional health, sports and well-being plan.
chapters on the benefits of exercise, sports for older persons and those with disabilities, sports physiotherapy, exercise psychology and medical coverage for major events. The stated ... practice will be aware of an increasing reluctance on the.
Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.
This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.
Full Text Available The dynamics estimation of the integral indices of cardiovascular system among the female students of higher educational institution during the process of physical education activities, including means of sports and health tourism, has been conducted. There are 40 girls at the age of 18-19 years that participated in the experiment. It is found that by the end of the research the positive decrease of all the types of arterial pressure, coefficient of blood circulation effectiveness, Robinson’s and cardiac indices, common peripheral resistance and significant increase of functional state of cardiovascular system of the organism are being observed among the examined students. There were stated that significantly more optimal cardiac rate indices, systolic, diastolic and average, coefficient of blood circulation effectiveness, Robinson’s index and the level of functional state of organism cardiovascular system (LFSсvs had been observed among the girls of experimental rather than control group of female students. It is found that the rates of almost all the used indices of cardiovascular system were significantly higher among the students practiced sports and health tourism, than those ones engaged into the traditional program of physical education for higher educational institution. Obtained results certified the sufficiently high effectiveness of using the tourism facilities in optimization of functional state of cardiovascular system among the female students at the age of 18-19 years.
Sładek, Jerzy A
This book focuses on effective methods for assessing the accuracy of both coordinate measuring systems and coordinate measurements. It mainly reports on original research work conducted by Sladek’s team at Cracow University of Technology’s Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology. The book describes the implementation of different methods, including artificial neural networks, the Matrix Method, the Monte Carlo method and the virtual CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), and demonstrates how these methods can be effectively used in practice to gauge the accuracy of coordinate measurements. Moreover, the book includes an introduction to the theory of measurement uncertainty and to key techniques for assessing measurement accuracy. All methods and tools are presented in detail, using suitable mathematical formulations and illustrated with numerous examples. The book fills an important gap in the literature, providing readers with an advanced text on a topic that has been rapidly developing in recent years. The book...
Full Text Available The term Adaptive Force (AF describes the capability of adaptation of the nerve-muscle-system to externally applied forces during isometric and eccentric muscle action. This ability plays an important role in real life motions as well as in sports. The focus of this paper is on the specific measurement method of this neuromuscular action, which can be seen as innovative. A measuring system based on the use of compressed air was constructed and evaluated for this neuromuscular function. It depends on the physical conditions of the subject, at which force level it deviates from the quasi isometric position and merges into eccentric muscle action. The device enables – in contrast to the isokinetic systems – a measure of strength without forced motion. Evaluation of the scientific quality criteria of the devices was done by measurements regarding the intra- and interrater-, the test-retest-reliability and fatiguing measurements. Comparisons of the pneumatic device with a dynamometer were also done. Looking at the mechanical evaluation, the results show a high level of consistency (r²=0.94 to 0.96. The parallel test reliability delivers a very high and significant correlation (ρ=0.976; p=0.000. Including the biological system, the concordance of three different raters is very high (p=0.001, Cronbachs alpha α=0.987. The test retest with 4 subjects over five weeks speaks for the reliability of the device in showing no statistically significant differences. These evaluations indicate that the scientific evaluation criteria are fulfilled. The specific feature of this system is that an isometric position can be maintained while the externally impacting force rises. Moreover, the device can capture concentric, static and eccentric strength values. Fields of application are performance diagnostics in sports and medicine.
Full Text Available A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that figure skating may count as art yet only in non-competitive contexts. Their burden is thus to explain why a routine (e.g., Torvill and Dean’s ‘Bolero’ may count as art in a showcase but not at the Olympics. The debate is also inevitably framed in terms of whether sport counts as art, neglecting the equally viable question of whether art in some form (e.g., competitive dance may also count as sport. I conclude in favour of an appropriately qualified sport-as-art thesis.
This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...
Ferry, Magnus; Lund, Stefan
In the fields of both education and sport, the possession of capital and habitus influences an individual's lifestyles and choices, which in turn affects the social selection within these fields. In this article, we will study the Swedish system of school sports as an overlap between the fields of education and sport, and thus viewed as a double…
Breuer, C.; Hoekman, R.H.A.; Nagel, S.; Werff, H. van der
This book presents an up-to-date portrait of the characteristics of sport clubs in various European countries and their role in society and the national sport system. Furthermore, it offers a cross-national comparative perspective of sport clubs in twenty European countries. Containing both
Van Oostrum, I.E.A.; Joore, J.C.A.; Meulenbelt, J.; Savelkoul, T.J.F.
The measurement strategy applicable to Public Health in case of a Nuclear Emergency affecting the Netherlands is presented. Within the framework of the Dutch Nuclear Emergency Response System (NPK, abbreviated in Dutch) the National Poisons Control Centre of the RIVM/AZU has an advisory obligation towards the Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (WVS). This role comprises advice to relevant ministries, coordination of the measurement strategies and advice on persons to be reviewed, i.e. physical, biological and clinical dosimetry. The choice of dosimetric methods and measurements to be achieved in case of a larger scale nuclear emergency in the Netherlands is discussed. An actual plan of handling is presented for this measurement plan. Intervention levels defined in NPK 1991 serve as guidelines for successive actions to be performed by regional health services. 8 figs., 6 tabs., 81 refs
Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.
A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.
Blair, Stephanie; Duthie, Grant; Robertson, Sam; Hopkins, William; Ball, Kevin
Wearable inertial measurement systems (IMS) allow for three-dimensional analysis of human movements in a sport-specific setting. This study examined the concurrent validity of a IMS (Xsens MVN system) for measuring lower extremity and pelvis kinematics in comparison to a Vicon motion analysis system (MAS) during kicking. Thirty footballers from Australian football (n = 10), soccer (n = 10), rugby league and rugby union (n = 10) clubs completed 20 kicks across four conditions. Concurrent validity was assessed using a linear mixed-modelling approach, which allowed the partition of between and within-subject variance from the device measurement error. Results were expressed in raw and standardised units for assessments of differences in means and measurement error, and interpreted via non-clinical magnitude-based inferences. Trivial to small differences were found in linear velocities (foot and pelvis), angular velocities (knee, shank and thigh), sagittal joint (knee and hip) and segment angle (shank and pelvis) means (mean difference: 0.2-5.8%) between the IMS and MAS in Australian football, soccer and the rugby codes. Trivial to small measurement errors (from 0.1 to 5.8%) were found between the IMS and MAS in all kinematic parameters. The IMS demonstrated acceptable levels of concurrent validity compared to a MAS when measuring kicking biomechanics across the four football codes. Wearable IMS offers various benefits over MAS, such as, out-of-laboratory testing, larger measurement range and quick data output, to help improve the ecological validity of biomechanical testing and the timing of feedback. The results advocate the use of IMS to quantify biomechanics of high-velocity movements in sport-specific settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Companion, John A. (Inventor)
This invention relates to a periodontal structure mapping system employing a dental handpiece containing first and second acoustic sensors for locating the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) and measuring the differential depth between the CEJ and the bottom of the periodontal pocket. Measurements are taken at multiple locations on each tooth of a patient, observed, analyzed by an optical analysis subsystem, and archived by a data storage system for subsequent study and comparison with previous and subsequent measurements. Ultrasonic transducers for the first and second acoustic sensors are contained within the handpiece and in connection with a control computer. Pressurized water is provided for the depth measurement sensor and a linearly movable probe sensor serves as the sensor for the CEJ finder. The linear movement of the CEJ sensor is obtained by a control computer actuated by the prober. In an alternate embodiment, the CEJ probe is an optical fiber sensor with appropriate analysis structure provided therefor.
Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda
Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT
Portable nondestructive assay (NDA) of plutonium processing hoods, solvent extraction columns, glove boxes, filters, and other items is required for both nuclear materials accountability and criticality control purposes. The Plutonium Finishing Plant has hundreds of such items that require routine portable NDA measurement. Previous recordkeeping of NDA measurements consisted of boxes of papers containing results and notebooks containing notes for each item to be measured. If the notes for any item were lost, new measurement parameters had to be calculated for that item. As a result, subsequent measurements could no longer be directly compared with previous results for that item due to possible changes in measurement parameters. The new portable NDA management system keeps all the necessary information in a computerized data base. Technicians are provided with a computer-generated drawing of each item to be measured, which also contains comments, measurement points, measurement parameters, and a form for filling in the raw data. After the measurements are made, the technician uses the computer to calculate and print out the results
Cook, D. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration. The instruments used are: • a fast-response, three-dimensional (3D) wind sensor (sonic anemometer) to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the speed of sound (SOS) (used to derive the air temperature) • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain the water vapor density and the CO2 concentration, and • an open-path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) to obtain methane density and methane flux at one SGP EF and at the NSA CF. The ECOR systems are deployed at the locations where other methods for surface flux measurements (e.g., energy balance Bowen ratio [EBBR] systems) are difficult to employ, primarily at the north edge of a field of crops. A Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been installed collocated with each deployed ECOR system in SGP, NSA, Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), ARM Mobile Facility 1 (AMF1), and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2). The surface energy balance system consists of upwelling and downwelling solar and infrared radiometers within one net radiometer, a wetness sensor, and soil measurements. The SEBS measurements allow the comparison of ECOR sensible and latent heat fluxes with the energy balance determined from the SEBS and provide information on wetting of the sensors for data quality purposes. The SEBS at one SGP and one NSA site also support upwelling and downwelling PAR measurements to qualify those two locations as Ameriflux sites.
Gujgiczer, A.; Solymosi, J.; Zsille, O.; Illes, Z.; Barnabas, I.; Ranga, T.; Lakatos, T.
The measuring system can be used for recording gamma spectra and/or experimental beta-dispersion. Several environmental samples can be examined simultaneously, and the instrument can be used in the laboratory or in the field. Low cost multichannel analyzers using NaI(Tl) or plastic scintillators are interfaced to an IBM PC/AT, which controls the measurement, data processing, and data transmission and archiving. (M.D.)
Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...
The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...
More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more
Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter
In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).
The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…
A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor . Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non
Qin Xi; Liu Shubin; An Qi
In this paper,we report the electronics of a timing measurement system of PTB(portable TDC board), which is a handy tool based on USB interface, customized for high precision time measurements without any crates. The time digitization is based on the High Performance TDC Chip (HPTDC). The real-time compensation for HPTDC outputs and the USB master logic are implemented in an ALTERA's Cyclone FPGA. The architecture design and logic design are described in detail. Test of the system showed a time resolution of 13.3 ps. (authors)
Levy, Y.; Timnat, Y.M.
Two-phase flow measurements for size and velocity determination in combustion systems are discussed: the pedestal technique and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) are described in detail. The experimental apparatus for the pedestal method includes the optical laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) package and the electronic data acquisition system. The latter comprises three channels for recording the Doppler frequency, and the pedestal amplitude as well as the validation pulse. Results of measurements performed in a dump combustor, into which kerosene droplets were injected, are presented. The principle of the PDA technique is explained and validation experiments, using latex particles, are reported. Finally the two methods are compared
Kilgore, J.J.; Tripp, H.A.; Hunt, C.L. Jr.
The cost of electricity used by walking beam pumping units is a major expense in producing crude oil. However, only very limited information is available on the efficiency of beam pumping systems and less is known about the efficiency of the various components of the pumping units. This paper presents and discusses measurements that have been made on wells at several Shell locations and on a specially designed walking beam pump test stand at Lufkin Industries. These measurements were made in order to determine the overall system efficiency and efficiency of individual components. The results of this work show that the overall beam pumping system efficiency is normally between 48 and 58 percent. This is primarily dependent on the motor size, motor type, gearbox size, system's age, production, pump size, tubing size, and rod sizes
Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.
The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...
Dieter Hillairet; Guillaume Richard; Patrick Bouchet
International audience; Sports market is a global market which has been growing at an annual average rate of about 2 to 3% for over a decade (Ohl & Tribou, 2004). Due to strong competition, brands are very dynamic (Chantelat, 2008). They constantly seek better positioning and new ways of gaining market shares (Bouchet & Hillairet, 2008). In order to do this, these brands put more and more emphasis on innovation (Hillairet, 2005). Following decades of domination by the major international bran...
Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji
It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)
Peng Chengcheng; Gu Ming; Liu Bo; Ouyang Lianhua
This paper describes the magnetic field measurement system for pulsed magnets in SSRF. The system consists of magnetic probes, analog active integrator, oscilloscope, stepper motor and a controller. An application program based on LabVIEW has been developed as main control unit. After the magnetic field mapping of a septum magnet prototype, it is verified that the test results accord with the results of theoretical calculation and computer simulation. (authors)
The recently proposed description of quantum system decay in terms of repeated measurement perturbations is modified. The possibility of retarded reductions to a unique quantum state, due to ineffective localization of the decay products at initial time measurements, is simply taken into account. The exponential decay law is verified again. A modified equation giving the observed lifetime in terms of unperturbed quantum decay law, measurement frequency and reduction law is derived. It predicts deviations of the observed lifetime from the umperturbed one, together with a dependence on experimental procedures. The influence of different model unperturbed decay laws and reduction laws on this effect is studied
Kosmowski, Bogdan B.; Becker, Michael E.; Neumeier, Juergen
The strong increase of applications of liquid crystal displays in various areas (measuring, medical equipment, automotive, telecommunication, office, etc.) has forced the demand for the adequate specification of the LCDs performances. The optical, electro-optical and spectral properties of LCDs are strongly dependent on viewing direction, electrical driving conditions, illumination and temperature. All these quantities have to be precisely controlled, when one of them is varied, the resulting optical response of the object is recorded. In this paper we present measuring methods proposed for LCD panels and the computer controlled measuring system (DMS) for their evaluation.
Dionigi, Rylee A; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Stone, Rachael C; Gayman, Amy M
Although sport participation is encouraged throughout the lifespan, little research has been conducted on the role of sport in development later in life. This qualitative study explored adults' experiences of development within the context of Masters sport. We interviewed 14 adults (nine men and five women) aged 46-61 years involved in Masters sport. Data was interpreted drawing upon frameworks from youth sport (i.e., Personal Assets Framework for Sport; Côté, J., Bruner, M., Strachan, L., Erickson, K., & Fraser-Thomas, J. (2010). Athletes' development and coaching. In J. Lyle & C. Cushion (Eds.), Sport coaching: Professionalism and practice (pp. 63-83). Oxford, UK: Elsevier, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Evans, M. B. (2014). The dynamic process of development through sport. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 20(3), 14-26, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Vieerima, M. (2016). A personal assets approach to youth sport. In K. Green & A. Smith (Eds.), Routledge handbook of youth sport (pp. 243-255). New York, NY: Routledge; 4/5Cs of positive youth development; Lerner, R. M., Fisher, C. B., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). Toward a science for and of the people: Promoting civil society through the application of developmental science. Child Development, 71(1), 11-20. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00113; Vierimaa, M., Erickson, K., Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2012). Positive youth development: A measurement framework for sport. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 7(3), 601-614. doi:10.1260/1747-95126.96.36.1991), combined with past research on mid-life and older athletes. Six key themes emerged as contributing to adults' personal development through sport: competence and confidence, character, commitment, connection, cognition, and challenge. Masters sport contexts appeared to facilitate changes in assets (i.e., 6Cs) similar to those within youth sport, but assets often held different meanings within the context of later life. Applying frameworks from youth sport and developmental
Smith, Maia; Berdel, Dietrich; Nowak, Dennis; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger
Sporting activities differ in their ability to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). To assess adolescents' engagement in sport under field conditions we used accelerometers to measure their MVPA levels during sport. We pay special attention to differences between team and individual sport and between common sports. Diary data and 7-day accelerometry from 1054 Germans ages 15-17 were combined to measure physical activity. 1373 diaried episodes of more than 40 common sports were identified from 626 participants and grouped into team and individual sport. We modeled the effect of team and individual sport, and described levels of MVPA and episodes of no MVPA for all recorded sports. German boys and girls averaged 43 (SD 21) and 37 (SD 24) minutes MVPA per day. Boys got 2.2 times as much MVPA per minute during team compared to individual sport (psport ranged from 6% for weight training to 74% for jogging, with individual sports averaging 10-30% and team sports 30-50%. 11% of sport episodes had no MVPA: half of episodes of cycling, 5% of jogging, and none for tennis or badminton. An episode of individual sport was 17 times more likely to have no MVPA than an episode of team sport (psporting time. As measured by accelerometry, individual sport often produced no MVPA. Characteristics of the sport, such as team vs. individual, were more predictive of MVPA than were characteristics of the participant, such as background activity levels.
Full Text Available The protection and provision of the welfare of children who are in a vulnerable condition to all kinds of risk in the modern world in every field they actively take part in is acknowledged as one of the most important social responsibilites of states in this day and age. In the fight against this problem, especially developed countries promote chi ld protection policies and implement them in every sport field children take active part in. The aim of this study is to examine in which dimensions child protection system, defined as the provision of the child’s safety in all aspects including physical, social, emotional, economic, cultural, ethnic, moral, religious and political on a legal basis and in practice, is implemented within the sport systems of England and to identify the policies of sports organizations. In the study, scanning method based o n the literature was used. Research data was obtained by examining the related sources on the subject in various international libraries, journals, books and sports organizations. According to the information obtained in the study, child protection progra ms were identified to be a legal obligation for independent sports organizations responsible for the management of the sport (such as Federations, Olympic committees, sport clubs. The fundamental purpose of child protection programs is to diminish the ris k of all kinds of (sexual, physical and emotional child abuse. Sports organization establish child protection systems within their governing structure and work in coordination with the related units of clubs, federations and central administrations. Moreo ver, by providing special trainings to administrators and coaches, the stipulation of obtaining a special document for coaches who shall work with sportsmen under the age of 18 has been laid down. Special regulations and educational programs for sport fede rations have been prepared intended for the functioning of child protection system in
Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank
Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements (Pyun, 2006; Pyun & James, 2009. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group (Popović et al., 2011. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Serbian consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. Methods: The sample included 127 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: onsumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a months. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modeled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results: Based on the results it was concluded that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between two of three variables at univariate level (p=.05. It is interesting to highlight that most of potential consumers (n=99 have recognized themselves in two categories: as consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a months and one to three times a months, while there were no diffrences among the groups. Discussion: If we take a look into previous investigations, it is interesting there are some opposite results (Popović, 2011, and the recommnedations for further research are directed to spead out the sample a little bit more, mostly due to the reason the consumers who had a more negative attitudes were in the group that didn’t purchase
Cox, Holly D; Eichner, Daniel
The dried blood spot (DBS) matrix has significant utility for applications in the field where venous blood collection and timely shipment of labile blood samples is difficult. Unfortunately, protein measurement in DBS is hindered by high abundance proteins and matrix interference that increases with hematocrit. We developed a DBS method to enrich for membrane proteins and remove soluble proteins and matrix interference. Following a wash in a series of buffers, the membrane proteins are digested with trypsin and quantitated by parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry methods. The DBS method was applied to the quantification of four cell-specific cluster of differentiation (CD) proteins used to count cells by flow cytometry, band 3 (CD233), CD71, CD45, and CD41. We demonstrate that the DBS method counts low abundance cell types such as immature reticulocytes as well as high abundance cell types such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. When tested in 82 individuals, counts obtained by the DBS method demonstrated good agreement with flow cytometry and automated hematology analyzers. Importantly, the method allows longitudinal monitoring of CD protein concentration and calculation of interindividual variation which is difficult by other methods. Interindividual variation of band 3 and CD45 was low, 6 and 8%, respectively, while variation of CD41 and CD71 was higher, 18 and 78%, respectively. Longitudinal measurement of CD71 concentration in DBS over an 8-week period demonstrated intraindividual variation 17.1-38.7%. Thus, the method may allow stable longitudinal measurement of blood parameters currently monitored to detect blood doping practices.
Fu, C.; Anger, N.H.; Kaehms, R.; Jaeger, K.B.
An axially symmetric blackbody (BB) measurement system with a circular aperture and a circular detector is considered. The BB can be of a right circular conical shape, a right cylindrical shape, or a combination of these two shapes. Assuming that the BB is ideal, the power received by the detector is calculated. 8 references
Waag, Wayne L.; And Others
To realize its full research potential, a need exists for the development of an automated objective pilot performance evaluation system for use in the Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) facility. The present report documents the approach taken for the development of performance measures and also presents data collected…
Poels, G.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Wangler, B.; Bergman, L.
We present an approach to assess the magnitude and impact of information system reengineering caused by business process change. This approach is based on two concepts: object-oriented business modeling and distance measurement. The former concept is used to visualize changes in the business layer
Kumamoto, David P; Maeda, Yoshinobu
This literature review evaluates the significance of dental injuries and their relationship to specific sports activities. Many studies have been published on individual sports or groups of sports but most pertain to specific age groups or levels of competition. Research suggests that many sports that do not require mouthguards should encourage male and female participants to use orofacial protectors. Athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic trainers, parents, and members of the dental community should be aware of how individuals who participate in sporting activities are at risk for dental trauma. Any sport where the potential for dental trauma can exist (such as basketball, soccer, or wrestling) should consider utilizing mouthguards to protect the competitors. The establishment of mouthguard programs for athletes of all ages, genders, and sports may help to reduce the incidence of dental trauma. A sports-related, orofacial/dental trauma reporting system is considered.
Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin
Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...
Kern was the first survey company to market an Industrial Measurement System when it released ECDS (Electronic Coordinate Determination System) in the mid-1980s. Originally written for the PDP-11, a version was later released for the PC (ECDS-PC). SLAC purchased this system in 1986 and immediately began to use it for the alignment of the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider). Although ECDS enabled SLAC to perform tasks with a speed never before achieved, they experienced limitations in the software. Since Kern proved unresponsive and SLAC was unable to purchase the source code for any amount of money, they set about writing their own portions of code. They first wrote a system of menus tailored for their specific alignment tasks, and disabled much of the ECDS menu structure. Due to dissatisfaction with the ECDS bundle adjustment program, they wrote their own bundle adjustment in 1988. A further step towarad having their own complete IMS was to develop a data capture program, a task which has been underway since the beginning of this year. They do not yet have data analysis features that are fully integrated, but they do have stand-alone packages that have been written at SLAC. When they first started tinkering with ECDS there was no intention of developing a complete system, but they now have all the elements of such a system - SIMS, the SLAC Industrial Measurement System
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book covers the various sport science assessment procedures for sports such as soccer, rugby, field hockey and lacrosse. It provides detailed and clear information about laboratory and field-based methods that can be used to assess and improve both individual and team performance. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a contemporary reference tool for selection of appropriate testing procedures for sports across a range of scientific disciplines. FEATURES The text begins with a chapter on the rationales for performance assessments, the use of technology and the necessity for procedures to conform to scientific rigor, explaining the importance of test criteria. This chapter ends by emphasizing the importance of the feedback process and vital considerations for the practitioner when interpreting the data, selecting which information is most important and how to deliver this back to the athlete or coach in order to deliver a positive performance outcome. The next two chapters focus on psychological assessments with respect to skill acquisition, retention and execution providing a variety of qualitative and quantitative options, underpinned with scientific theory and contextualized in order to improve the understanding of the application of these methods to improve anticipation and decision-making to enhance game intelligence.Chapter 4 provides coverage of match analysis techniques in order to make assessments of technical, tactical and physical performances. Readers learn about a series of methodologies ranging from simplistic pen and paper options through to sophisticated technological systems with some exemplar data also provided. Chapters 5 through 7 cover the physiological based assessments, including aerobic, anaerobic and anthropometric procedures. Each chapter delivers a theoretical opening section before progressing to various assessment options and the authors make great efforts to relate to sport-specific settings. The final
Ardern, Clare L; Glasgow, Philip; Schneiders, Anthony
evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to sport. A half day meeting was held in Bern, Switzerland, after the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy. 17 expert clinicians participated. 4...... sense of individual factors that may influence the athlete's return to sport, and the Strategic Assessment of Risk and Risk Tolerance framework may help decision-makers synthesise information to make an optimal return to sport decision. Research evidence to support return to sport decisions in clinical...... practice is scarce. Future research should focus on a standardised approach to defining, measuring and reporting return to sport outcomes, and identifying valuable prognostic factors for returning to sport....
Kavussanu, Maria; Boardley, Ian D
This research aimed to (a) develop a measure of prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport, (b) examine its invariance across sex and sport, and (c) provide evidence for its discriminant and concurrent validity. We conducted two studies. In study 1, team sport athletes (N=1,213) recruited from 103 teams completed questionnaires assessing demographics and prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. Factor analyses revealed two factors representing prosocial behavior and two factors representing antisocial behavior. The model had a very good fit to the data and showed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across sex and sport. The final scale consisted of 20 items. In Study 2, team-sport athletes (N=106) completed the scale and measures of empathy and goal orientation. Analyses provided support for the discriminant and concurrent validity of the scale. In conclusion, the new scale can be used to measure prosocial and antisocial behaviors in team sport.
With propulsion research programs focused on new levels of efficiency and noise reduction, two avenues for advanced gas turbine technology are emerging: the geared turbofan and ultrahigh bypass ratio fan engines. Both of these candidates are being pursued as collaborative research projects between NASA and the engine manufacturers. The high bypass concept from GE Aviation is an unducted fan that features a bypass ratio of over 30 along with the accompanying benefits in fuel efficiency. This project improved the test and measurement capabilities of the unducted fan blade dynamic response. In the course of this project, Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI) collaborated with GE Aviation to (1) define the requirements for fan blade measurements; (2) leverage MSI's radar-based system for compressor and turbine blade monitoring; and (3) develop, validate, and deliver a noncontacting blade vibration measurement system for unducted fans.
Full Text Available This paper mainly introduces a kind of ultrasonic distance measuring system with AT89C51 single chip as the core component. The paper expounds the principle of ultrasonic sensor and ultrasonic ranging, hardware circuit and software program, and the results of experiment and analysis.The hardware circuit based on SCM, the software design adopts the advanced microcontroller programming language.The amplitude of the received signal and the time of ultrasonic propagation are regulated by closed loop control. [1,2]The double closed loop control technology for amplitude and time improves the measuring accuracy of the instrument. The experimental results show that greatly improves the measurement accuracy of the system.
Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović
Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...
Multi-scale biomedical systems are those that represent interactions in materials, sensors, and systems from a holistic perspective. It is possible to view such multi-scale activity using measurement of spatial scale or time scale, though in this paper only the former is considered. The biomedical application paradigm comprises interactions that range from quantum biological phenomena at scales of 10-12 for one individual to epidemiological studies of disease spread in populations that in a pandemic lead to measurement at a scale of 10+7. It is clear that there are measurement challenges at either end of this spatial scale, but those challenges that relate to the use of new technologies that deal with big data and health service delivery at the point of care are also considered. The measurement challenges lead to the use, in many cases, of model-based measurement and the adoption of virtual engineering. It is these measurement challenges that will be uncovered in this paper. (paper)
A system is described for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprising: a set of containers adapted for receiving aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers which are subsequently precipitated in said containers on particles of diatomite in the presence of a coprecipitator, then filtered, dissolved, and mixed with a scintillator; radioactivity measuring means including a detection chamber to which is fed the mixture produced in said set of containers; an electric drive for moving said set of containers in a stepwise manner; means for proportional feeding of said coprecipitator and a suspension of diatomite in an acid solution to said containers which contain the biological sample for forming an acid precipitation of biopolymers; means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers; precipitated biopolymer filtering means for successively filtering the precipitate, suspending the precipitate, dissolving the biopolymers mixed with said scintillator for feeding of the mixture to said detection chamber; a system of pipelines interconnecting said above-recited means; and said means for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers including, a measuring cell arranged in a detection chamber and communicating with said means for filtering precipitated biopolymers through one pipeline of said system of pipelines; a program unit electrically connected to said electric drive, said means for acid precipatation of biopolymers, said means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers, said filtering means, and said radioactivity measuring device; said program unit adapted to periodically switch on and off the above-recited means and check the sequence of the radioactivity measuring operations; and a control unit for controlling the initiation of the system and for selecting programs
Hernandez G, J.
The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm
Keogh, Justin W L
The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.
A system is described which places many of the complex, tedious operations for pulsed NMR experiments under computer control. It automatically optimizes the experiment parameters of pulse length and phase, and precision, accuracy, and measurement speed are improved. The hardware interface between the computer and the NMR instrument is described. Design features, justification of the choices made between alternative design strategies, and details of the implementation of design goals are presented. Software features common to all the available experiments are discussed. Optimization of pulse lengths and phases is performed via a sequential search technique called Uniplex. Measurements of the spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times and of diffusion constants are automatic. Options for expansion of the system are explored along with some of the limitations of the system
Dain, Stephen J
Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.
determining the winner in rain-affected international cricket matches, has been a regular attendee since 1996 and once again presented his latest views on fairer scoring systems in cricket. It was also great to see Professor John Norman from Sheffield University appear again, as he was at the first conference in 1992, and he presented his work on Naismith's rule as it applies to competitive mountain trekking.The MathSport community appreciated His Worship the Gold Coast Mayor and former world record holder over middle distances, Ron Clarke, for giving up some of his valuable time to officially open the conference. His opening remarks both inspired the audience and put the science of sport into a practical context through him relating his experiences in athletics. In addition, we were fortunate to have two prominent sports scientists as keynote speakers in Roger Bartlett (Professor of Sports Science at the University of Otago and Dr Stuart Morgan (Sports Scientist - Victorian Institute of Sport who delivered their keynote addresses "Artificial Intelligence in Sports Biomechanics: New dawn or false hope?" and "Synergy in Sport: directions, convergence and opportunity in high performance sport".The first 17 papers in this issue provide an array of topics that typified the broad range of presentations at the conference. These include papers covering research methodologies that span across mathematical modelling and real-time computer analysis of movement through to biomechanical and performance analysis. These analyses were applied to a variety of sports such as football, tennis, cricket and swimming through to lawn bowls and gymnastics.The editors are grateful for the assistance given by the reviewers of these papers, particularly Dr Keith Lyons (Australian Institute of Sport and Associate Professor Hugh Morton (Massey University, who were independent of the conference participants.
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...
Rodrigo Pojar Paiva
Full Text Available The achievement of sporting mega events is configured as an exceptional opportunity for the promotion of sports in the host cities. For this positive legacy to happen it must be previously planned, executed and monitored. This study aimed to present the national structure of the World Cup Cities Project and analyse the results obtained in six host cities of the FIFA World Cup 2014. The results showed that the social and sports legacy was not planned by public managers and there are no systems of control and evaluation of sport in any of the host cities, until the realization of the project World Cup Cities.
Full Text Available Past studies of postural control during standing have employed wide range of procedures including the outcome measures use to quantify postural control, the duration of the sample collected, sampling frequency and methods for data processing. Due to these differences there remains little, if any, common grounds for comparisons between studies to establish a concrete understanding of the features and bouns which characterize normal healthy postural control. This article deals with terms such as reliability and repeatability of stabilometric measurements, stabilometric data quantification and analysis. To clear up those terms is suggested, by the author of this paper, very important. The stabilometric measurements remain, nevertheless, different when dealing with aging adults. Though, we notes some alterations of the aging systems, this article is not entirely dedicated to the seniors population. Measurements of COP and technical notes remain the main axis of present paper.
Cimpean, A.; Borodeanu, C.
The system for environmental radioactivity measurements with automatic data transmission represents a better solution for nuclear safety assurance. The 'intelligent probe' will be of real use for surveying the environmental radioactivity. The probes work independently. They measure the dose rate and store the data in their internal memory. Many such probes can be spread all over a large area. They are able to measure dose rate from the background level up to high catastrophic levels. A central computer 'asks' periodically the probes to send their stored data. This computer stores the data from many probes over a long time. It can show in 'windows' manner the dose rate from any probe (either in a numerical or graphical way), the position on a map of every probe and the corresponding results of the measurements. In can alert, if an alarm threshold is crossed or it can print on a printer the data for any single probe. (author)
Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.
Warren Pedersen, Lise; Trangbæk, Else
In 2005, Copenhagen municipality decided to develop and implement a sport and movement profile at a local elementary school. The overall development is discussed as are specific results and consequences of the decision. The role of physical education and teachers in relation to a health discourse......, sport and school sports viewed as an arena for talent identification and development will be discussed. In addition, a question of inequality raised, as a group of talented athletes are accepted into specific sports classes, focusing on cultural capital and the possibility of the educational system...... as reproducing or as an arena for social mobility. Finally a discussion of the possibilities for either sports policy development or school policy development through single initiatives is presented....
Doping has become one of the most important and high-profile issues in contemporary sport. Shocking cases such as that of Lance Armstrong and the US Postal cycling team have exposed the complicated relationships between athletes, teams, physicians, sports governing bodies, drugs providers......, and judicial systems, all locked in a constant struggle for competitive advantage. The Routledge Handbook of Drugs and Sport is simply the most comprehensive and authoritative survey of social scientific research on this hugely important issue ever to be published. It presents an overview of key topics......, the criminalization of doping, and zero tolerance versus harm reduction - Doping outside of elite sport, in gyms, the military and the police. With contributions from many of the world’s leading researchers into drugs and sport, this book is the perfect starting point for any advanced student, researcher, policy...
Guerrero, A; Jones, R; Savioz, J J
The Individual Bunch Measurement System (IBMS) allows the intensity of each bunch in an LHC batch to be the measured both in the PS to SPS transfer lines and in the SPS ring itself. The method is vased on measuring the peak and valley of the analogue signal supplied by a Fast Beam Current Transformer at a frequency of 40 MHz. A 12 bit acquisition system is required to obtain a 1% resolution for the intensity range of 5X10`9 to 1.7X10`11 protons per bunch, corresponding to the pilot and ultimate LHC bunch intensities. The acquisition selection and external trigger adjustment system is driven by the 200MHz RF, which is distributed using a single-mode fibre-optic link. A local oscilloscope, controlled via a GPIB interface, allows the remote adjustment of the timing signals. The low-level software consists of a real-time task and a communication server run on a VME Power PC, which is accessed using a graphical user interface. This paper describes the system as a whole and presents some recent uses and results fro...
The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.
Acar, Öncel; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne
This paper presents a novel clover-slot antenna for a surface-acoustic-wave sensor based wireless temperature measurement system. The slot is described by a parametric locus curve that has the shape of a clover. The antenna is operated at high temperatures, in rough environments, and has a 43......% fractional bandwidth at the 2.4 GHz ISM-band. The slot antenna has been optimized for excitation by a passive chip soldered onto it. Measurement results are compared with simulation results and show good agreements....
Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)
A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.
Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro
We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.
Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.
With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…
Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…
Asher, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Robert L.
Product inspection continues to play a growing role in the improvement of quality and reduction of scrap. Recent emphasis on precision measurements and in-process inspection have been a driving force for the development of noncontacting sensors. Noncontacting sensors can provide long term, unattended use due to the lack of sensor wear. Further, in applications where, sensor contact can damage or geometrically change the part to be measured or inspected, noncontacting sensors are the only technical approach available. MTI is involved in the development and sale of noncontacting sensors and custom inspection systems. This paper will review the recent advances in noncontacting sensor development. Machine vision and fiber optics sensor systems are finding a wide variety of industrial inspection applications. This paper will provide detailed examples of several state-of-the-art applications for these noncontacting sensors.
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the degree of influence of factors of macro- and microenvironment on the development of sports tourism in Kharkiv region. Materials and Methods: the paper uses the methods of analysis of literary sources and documents, system and organizational analysis, methods of marketing analysis (PEST and SWOT analysis, methods of mathematical statistics. The study was conducted in 4 children and youth sports schools of Kharkiv region, where it is cultivated sports tourism, only 124 respondents. Results: the degree of dependence of the functioning and development of sports tourism from the marketing environment. Conclusions: sport tourism is a relatively new socio-economic phenomenon. Promotion of non-Olympic sports, develop relevant marketing programs for their development is necessary to attract more children and teenagers to a systematic practice of physical fitness and sports activities.
Piatt, Jennifer; Kang, Sangguk; Wells, Mary Sara; Nagata, Shinichi; Hoffman, Jamie; Taylor, Jennifer
Adolescents with mobility impairments have fewer opportunities to challenge identity as an athlete through sport participation. This study examined athletic identity impact of adolescent athletes with mobility impairments who participate in Paralympic Sport Clubs. This cross-sectional web-survey design examined demographics (gender, academic level, hours of time spent in sports participation, and preferred amount of time in sport participation) and athletic identity through the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Forty-seven adolescents (male = 34, female = 13) between the ages of 13-18 with mobility impairments who were currently participating in a Paralympic Sport Club were recruited for the study. Two factorial ANOVA examined the differences of AIMS scores by gender and academic level, and gender and hours of time spent in sports participation per week. Hours of time spent in sports participation by adolescent athletes with physical disabilities showed significant difference on athletes' identity. AIMS score increased along with augmented time spent in sport participation. However, gender and academic level made no significant difference on athletic identity. A one-way ANOVA test was applied to compare the effect of preferred amount of time in sport participation per week on scores for AIMS and showed significant group difference on AIMS. Participants who indicated more preferred amount of time in sport participation also scored higher on AIMS. These findings support the notion that hours of time spent and preferred amount of time in sports participation influences athletic identity. Sport participation, when available can influence athletic identity with this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna
Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should
Moreau, William J; Nabhan, Dustin C; Walden, Taylor
The purpose of this study is to describe the knowledge base and clinical practices regarding concussion by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. A 21-item survey was distributed to the 312 attendees of the 2014 American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians Sports Sciences Symposium. Results were measured by frequency analysis and descriptive statistics for all surveys completed by sports-certified chiropractors. Seventy-six surveys were returned by sports-certified doctors of chiropractic. All (N = 76) 100% of respondents believe that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with training in concussion. The respondents actively assess and manage concussion in adults (96%), adolescents (95%), and children (75%). A majority (79%) of respondents believe that the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool-3 represents a current standard of care for the sideline evaluation of the athlete who possibly has sustained a sport concussion. Most respondents agreed or strongly agreed that manual therapies may be appropriate in certain circumstances in adults (80%) and minors (80%). This cross section of certified sports chiropractors strongly believes that the evaluation of concussion should be performed by a health care provider with specific training in concussion. A high percentage of the sports-certified chiropractors who responded assess and manage sport concussion in their practice, and many of them endorse the use of the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool-3 as a sideline assessment tool.
Full Text Available The method of compensation of changes in temperature field along the legs of inhomogeneous thermocouple, which measures a temperature of an object, is considered in this paper. This compensation is achieved by stabilization of the temperature field along the thermocouple. Such stabilization does not allow the error due to acquired thermoelectric inhomogeneity to manifest itself. There is also proposed the design of the furnace to stabilize temperature field along the legs of the thermocouple which measures the temperature of an object. This furnace is not integrated with the thermocouple mentioned above, therefore it is possible to replace this thermocouple with a new one when it get its legs considerably inhomogeneous.. There is designed the two loop measuring system with the ability of error correction which can use simultaneously a usual thermocouple as well as a thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field. The latter can be used as a reference sensor for the former.
King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor N
OBJECTIVE Direct impact with the head and the inertial loading of the head have been postulated as major mechanisms of head-related injuries, such as concussion. METHODS This descriptive observational study was conducted to quantify the head impact acceleration characteristics in under-9-year-old junior rugby union players in New Zealand. The impact magnitude, frequency, and location were collected with a wireless head impact sensor that was worn by 14 junior rugby players who participated in 4 matches. RESULTS A total of 721 impacts > 10g were recorded. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of impacts per player was 46 (IQR 37-58), resulting in 10 (IQR 4-18) impacts to the head per player per match. The median impact magnitudes recorded were 15g (IQR 12g-21g) for linear acceleration and 2296 rad/sec(2) (IQR 1352-4152 rad/sec(2)) for rotational acceleration. CONCLUSIONS There were 121 impacts (16.8%) above the rotational injury risk limit and 1 (0.1%) impact above the linear injury risk limit. The acceleration magnitude and number of head impacts in junior rugby union players were higher than those previously reported in similar age-group sports participants. The median linear acceleration for the under-9-year-old rugby players were similar to 7- to 8-year-old American football players, but lower than 9- to 12-year-old youth American football players. The median rotational accelerations measured were higher than the median and 95th percentiles in youth, high school, and collegiate American football players.
Güçlüöver, A; Kutlu, M; Ciğerci, A E; Esen, H T; Demirkan, E; Erdoğdu, M
In this study the Sport Experts ™ brand of hand grip dynamometer, measuring the continuity of force with the new developed load cell technology, was compared with Takei and Baseline® dynamometers, the current in use. It was tried to determine the correlation between them. In a study with provides use of clinical, orthopedic and rehabilitative purposes in the athletes and patient populations, this developed dynamometer can provide useful data by observing the continuity of force. The sample of the study included 60 badminton players in 2010-2011; consisting of Turkish Junior National male players (N.=16, age: 16.8±1.5), Junior National female players (N.=14, age: 16.9±1.6), amateur level male players (N.=15, age: 16.3±0.8) and amateur level female players (N.=15, age: 16.1±0.6). ANOVA was used in the statistical methods in order to compare the hand grip strength made by different brands; Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship level between dynamometers. Furthermore, test-retest reliability analysis was completed the new developed expert dynamometer. There was no statistically significant difference in the comparison of the dynamometers (P>0.05). Besides, a highly significant relationship (r=0.95 to 0.96) was found among all three dynamometers. However, the reliability coefficient was found (Chronbachs α: 0.989, ICC:0.97, r=0.97), (Pexpert dynamometer. Comparison between the dynamometers and the statistical results obtained from the correlation relationships shows interchangeability of dynamometers. As a result, our observation of force continuity (progression) of the athlete and patient populations is thought to be important.
Haake, Steve J
To assess the effect of technology on sport, the performance statistics for four disciplines were analysed: the 100-m sprint, pole vault, javelin, and cycling. The concept of a performance improvement index was developed to allow comparison between athletes and between sports with a higher index indicating a greater improvement in the sport. The following performance improvement indices were found: 100-m sprint, 24% over 108 years; pole vault, 86% over 94 years; javelin, 95% over 76 years; 4-km individual pursuit, 35% over 32 years; one-hour cycling record, 221% over 111 years. Around 4% of the index for the sprint was attributed to tighter, aerodynamic clothing, suggesting that general athletic improvement in sprint-type events has been around 20%. Technological developments in simple equipment such as the pole vault or javelin were seen to affect the index by around 30%, while the index associated with aerodynamic improvements in the one-hour record was around 100%. It is concluded that the performance improvement index could be extended to amateur as well as elite sport where distance or time is used as a measure of performance.
This work deals with nuclear instrumentation and its application to industry, power plant fuel reprocessing plant and finally with homeland security. The first part concerns the reactor instrumentation, in-core and ex-core measurement system. Ionization Uranium fission chamber will be introduced with their acquisition system especially Campbell mode system. Some progress have been done on regarding sensors failure foresee. The second part of this work deals with reprocessing plant and associated instrumentation for nuclear waste management. Proportional counters techniques will be discussed, especially Helium-3 counter, and new development on electronic concept for reprocessing nuclear waste plant (one electronic for multipurpose acquisition system). For nuclear safety and security for human and homeland will be introduce. First we will explain a new particular approach on operational dosimetric measurement and secondly, we will show new kind of organic scintillator material and associated electronics. Signal treatment with real time treatment is embedded, in order to make neutron gamma discrimination possible even in solid organic scintillator. Finally, the conclusion will point out future, with most trends in research and development on nuclear instrumentation for next years. (author) [fr
Mousseau, K.C.; Hempstead, A.R.; Becker, G.K.
The Waste Assay Measurement Integration System (WAMIS) is being developed to improve confidence in and lower the uncertainty of waste characterization data. There are two major components to the WAMIS: a data access and visualization component and a data interpretation component. The intent of the access and visualization software is to provide simultaneous access to all data sources that describe the contents of any particular container of waste. The visualization software also allows the user to display data at any level from raw to reduced output. Depending on user type, the software displays a menuing hierarchy, related to level of access, that allows the user to observe only those data sources s/he has been authorized to view. Access levels include system administrator, physicist, QA representative, shift operations supervisor, and data entry. Data sources are displayed in separate windows and presently include (1) real-time radiography video, (2) gamma spectra, (3) passive and active neutron, (4) radionuclide mass estimates, (5) total alpha activity (Ci), (6) container attributes, (7) thermal power (w), and (8) mass ratio estimates for americium, plutonium, and uranium isotopes. The data interpretation component is in the early phases of design, but will include artificial intelligence, expert system, and neural network techniques. The system is being developed on a Pentium PC using Microsoft Visual C++. Future generations of WAMIS will be UNIX based and will incorporate more generically radiographic/tomographic, gamma spectroscopic/tomographics, neutron, and prompt gamma measurements
Properties and Simulations Probed with Electromagnetic Containerless Technique (PROSPECT) is a measurement system for ultrahigh temperature thermophysical properties to be able to measure thermophysical properties with high precision by combining AC magnetic field (electromagnetic levitation device) and DC magnetic field (superconducting magnet) to realize the static floating state of metallic melt, in other words, the state of suppressing the surface vibration of droplets, translational motion, and internal convection. The electromagnetic levitation method is a method to obtain a floating force due to the Lorentz force generated by the interaction between high-frequency current flowing in the coil and the induced current generated in a sample, and to heat/melt the sample with the Joule heat generated by its induced current. This paper roughly explains the element technologies of PROSPECT with a focus on the laser modulation calorimetry (laser periodic heating method), normal spectral emissivity measurement method, density measurement, and surface tension measurement method. Furthermore, as the application of PROSPECT to new research deployment, it introduces the observation of phase separation structure in the supercooled solidification structure of Cu-Co alloy. (A.O.)
DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN
Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.
Jéssica Natuline Ianof
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...
Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.
Practitioners of martial arts have long seen a need for a precise method of measuring the power of a karate kick or a boxer's punch in training and competition. Impax sensor is a piezoelectric film less than one thousandth of an inch thick, yet extremely durable. They give out a voltage impulse when struck, the greater the force of impact, the higher the voltage. The impulse is transmitted to a compact electronics package where voltage is translated into a force-pounds reading shown on a digital display. Impax, manufactured by Impulse Technology, Inc. is used by martial arts instructors, practitioners, U.S. Olympic Committee Training Center, football blocking sleds, and boxers as well as police defensive tactics, providing a means of evaluating the performance of recruits.
Alice J. Sweeting
Full Text Available The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS, local positioning systems (LPS, and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1 identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2 examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3 evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4 discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s−1. Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s−2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID
Gabus, Vincent; Monney, Pierre
Physical activity is beneficial for health and the cardiovascular risk profile. However, it can be dangerous in people with cardiac disease that might be asymptomatic. Individuals of all ages and all levels engage in sporting activities. The medical approach is different whether one evaluates a young competitive athlete, a sedentary adult who wants to start a recreational sport or a patient with heart disease who wishes to engage in sport. This article summarizes the various recommendations on the subject.
Full Text Available The combination of sport and physics oﬀers several attractive ingredients for teaching physics, at primary, secondary, as well as university level. These cover topics like interdisciplinary teaching, sports activities as physics experiments, video analysis or modeling. A variety of examples are presented that should act as stimulus, accompanied by a list of references that should support the implementation of sport topics into physics teaching.
Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244
Giza, Christopher C.
Purpose of Review: Sports-related concussions are receiving increasing attention in both the lay press and medical literature. While most media attention has been on high-profile collegiate or professional athletes, the vast majority of individuals participating in contact and collision sports are adolescents and children. This review provides a practical approach toward youth sports-related concussion with a foundation in the recent guidelines, but including specific considerations when applying these management principles to children and adolescents. Recent Findings: Objective measurement of early signs and symptoms is challenging in younger patients, and many commonly used assessment tools await rigorous validation for younger patients. Excellent evidence-based guidelines exist for CT evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury presenting to the emergency department. Evidence suggests that recovery from sports-related concussion takes longer in high school athletes compared with collegiate or professionals; however, rigorous studies below high school age are still lacking. Summary: Proper care for concussion in youth requires a delicate balance of clinical skills, age-appropriate assessment, and individualized management to achieve optimal outcomes. PMID:25470161
Full Text Available Business conditions in which modern enterprises do business are more and more complex. The complexity of the business environment is caused by activities of external and internal factors, which imposes the need for the turn in management focus. One of key turns is related to the need of adaptation and development of new business performance evaluation systems. The evaluation of marketing contribution to business performance is very important however a complex task as well. The marketing theory and practice indicates the need for developing adequate standards and systems for evaluating the efficiency of marketing decisions. The better understanding of marketing standards and ways that managers use is a very important factor that affects the efficiency of strategic decision-making. The paper presents the results of researching the way in which managers perceive and apply marketing performance measures. The data that were received through the field research sample enabled the consideration of the managers' attitudes on practical ways of implementing marketing performance measurement and identifying measures that managers imply as used mostly in business practice.
The EAST (HT-7U) superconducting tokamak consists of a superconducting poloidal field magnet system, a toroidal field magnet system, a vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, thermal shields and a cryostat vessel. The main parts of the machine have been delivered to ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) successionally from 2003. For its complicated constitution and precise requirement, a reasonable assembly procedure and measurement technique should be defined carefully. Before the assembly procedure, a reference frame has been set up with reference fiducial targets on the wall of the test hall by an industrial measurement system. After the torus of TF coils is formed, a new reference frame will be set up from the position of the TF torus. The vacuum vessel with all inner parts will be installed with reference of the new reference frame. The big size and mass of components, special configuration of the superconducting machine with tight installation tolerances of the HT-7U (EAST) machine result in complicated assembly procedure. The procedure had begun with the installation of the support frame and the base of cryostat vessel last year. In this paper, the requirements of the assembly precise for some key components of the machine are described. The reference frame for the assembly and maintenance is explained. The assembly procedure is introduced
The most serious nuclear disaster in Japan has broken out at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant due to Great East Japan Earthquake. Prompt and exact mapping of the contamination is of great importance for radiation protection and for the environment restoration. We have developed radiation survey systems KURAMA and KURAMA-2 for rapid and exact measurement of radiation dose distribution. The system is composed of a mobile radiation monitor and the computer in office which is for the storage and visualization of the data. They are connected with internet and are operated for continuous radiation measurement while the monitor is moving. The mobile part consists of a survey meter, an interface to transform the output of the survey meter for the computer, a global positioning system, a computer to process the data for connecting to the network, and a mobile router. Thus they are effective for rapid mapping of the surface contamination. The operation and the performance of the equipment at the site are presented. (J.P.N.)
Full Text Available One of the characteristics of contemporary sport is certainly a wide array of sports and sport discliplines young people can choose among. This is particularly obvious through establishment of numerous schools of sport as places where people can acquire fundamental sport knoweldge and skills. The point of selection for such an engagement is the school, or, in other words, primary school children. The development of young athletes starts at a very early stage. They are faced with high demands and exposed to training sessions of different scope and intensity. In order to direct complex processes in sport efficiently and well, various factors need to be considered that affect it to a lesser or higher degree. One of those factors is indisputably the family, i.e. the influence parents have on meeting the children’s need for physical (sport activity. In the process of children’s socialization that factor is given the greatest prominence. Therefore, parents are a crucial factor in young people’s sport engagement and, thus, cannot be taken as a constituent part of a sports organization’s surroundings, but as a partner in their development.
Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.
Kobierecki Michał Marcin
Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.
Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...... dissemination around the world. In spite of resistance by the adherents of gymnastics or traditional movement cultures, sport with its focus on competition and records became popular all over the world. Both Great Britain and the United States induced their political and cultural hegemony via the soft power...... of modern sport which caused reactions, e.g. resistances or adaptations of indigenous, colonized, and other affected populations....
Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding
Litwiniuk, Agnieszka; Zajkowski, Maciej
Actinometric station is using for measuring solar of radiation. The results are helpful in determining the optimal position of solar panels relative to the Sun, especially in today's world, when the energy coming from the Sun and other alternative sources of energy become more and more popular. Polish climate does not provide as much energy as in countries in southern Europe, but it is possible to increase the amount of energy produced by appropriate arrangement of photovoltaic panels. There is the possibility of forecasting the amount of produced energy, the cost-effectiveness and profitability of photovoltaic installations. This implies considerable development opportunities for domestic photovoltaic power plants. This article presents description of actinometric system for diffuse radiation measurement, which is equipped with pyranometer - thermopile temperature sensor, amplifier AD620, AD Converter ADS1110, microcontroller Atmega 16, SD card, GPS module and LCD screen.
Hilario José ROMERO BEJARANO
Full Text Available Radio has been immersed in recent years in a phase of technological integration and business of multimedia, as well as diversification of systems and channels for broadcasting. In addition, Internet has been consolidated as the platform of digital radio that more has evolved as a result of its continued expansion. However, the merger radio-Internet must be understood as a new form of communication, and not solely as a new complementary medium. In this context, it is of great interest to analyze that transformations in the way of reception, contents, languages, programs and schedules, has brought with it for the radio that integration. To this end is taken as main reference the sports areas, a key aspect and broadly representative of the current broadcasting landscape.
Full Text Available In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.
Bickman, Leonard; Kelley, Susan Douglas; Athay, Michele
Usual care in the community is far from optimal. Sufficient evidence exists that dropout rates are significant, treatment is effective for only a small proportion of clients, and that the translation of evidence-based treatments to the real world is problematic. Technology has been shown to be helpful in health care in improving the effectiveness of treatment. A relatively new technology being used in mental health is measurement feedback systems (MFSs). MFSs are particularly applicable to couple and family psychology (CFP) because of its ability to provide information on the multiple perspectives involved in treatment. The Contextualized Feedback Systems tm (CFS®), developed at Vanderbilt University is used as an example of what can be accomplished with an MFS. The advantages and limitations of this technology are described as well as the anticipated reimbursement requirements that mental health services will need.
Ye, Miaoyuan; Nie, De-Xin; Li, Yan; Peng, Yu; Lin, Qi-Qing; Wang, Jing-Gang
A new fibre optic voltage measuring system has been developed based on the electrooptic effect of bismuth germanium oxide (Bi4Ge3O12)crystal. It uses the LED as the light source. The light beam emitted from the light source is transmitted to the sensor through the optic fibre and the intensity of the output beam is changed by the applied voltage. This optic signal is transmitted to the PIN detector and converted to an electric signal which is processed by the electronic circuit and 8098 single chip microcomputer the output voltage signal obtained is directly proportional to the applied voltage. This paper describes the principle the configuration and the performance parameters of the system. Test results are evaluated and discussed.
Linden, M.; Hellborg, R.
This paper describes a two-goniometer system for obtaining azimuthally averaged measurements in channeling experiments. The system consists of a tri-axial master goniometer and a bi-axial goniometer. Both goniometers are controlled by stepping motors. The alignment goniometer has a target holder, which permits the beam spot to be placed anywhere in a 6 x 6 mm 2 square on the target crystal without loosing the target orientation. The design, construction and operation of the goniometers as well as stepping motor control units and programs for computer control of the goniometers are described. Two control programs cover orientation of the target crystal and a number of other normal experimental conditions. (author)