The objective of this thesis was to benchmark the current status of Corporate Social Responsibility in the sporting goods industry for Amer Sports. The author was given a variety of questions and themes, which the commissioning company was interested in. The author focused on these questions in order to keep the study beneficial to Amer Sports. The companies chosen for the benchmarking were selected by the company with regard to their previous research. The research is beneficial and impo...
There are a number of ways to divide this market sector, but broadly speaking the sports market essentially relates to products used in the pursuit of active team or individual sports. This would include team sports, equipment for fitness, gym, snow sports, equipment for water sports, golf, tennis and skating. There is also the „outdoor“ market. This would include camping goods, fishing and horse sports. There are a number of inter- related trends, which impact on the future development of th...
Full Text Available There are a number of ways to divide this market sector, but broadly speaking the sports market essentially relates to products used in the pursuit of active team or individual sports. This would include team sports, equipment for fitness, gym, snow sports, equipment for water sports, golf, tennis and skating. There is also the „outdoor“ market. This would include camping goods, fishing and horse sports. There are a number of inter- related trends, which impact on the future development of this market sector
Thomas Søbirk Petersen
Full Text Available Two practical measures that have been introduced in an effort to stop sports parents from behaving badly will be critically discussed. The first measure is known under the slogan quiet weekends'. These prohibit parents from attending games in which their child is participating. Although this strategy calls attention to an important issue, it is unfair. The second, and far more elaborate, measure is to have a set of ethical guidelines informing parents how they should behave towards their child and others in the context of sport. Two central values tend to run through these guidelines: namely parental concern for the child's autonomy and parental concern for the child's well-being. These values are discussed as I apply them to cases in what can be called a grey area, where it is not obvious what is morally right or wrong. In the concluding discussion a tentative checklist will be presented which good sports parents can use when they are confronted with ethical issues.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i1.1738
Palazzo, G; Mena, S
Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given.
Full Text Available Sport is - and should be - an amoral phenomenon (what should not be confused with an immoral one; that is, a phenomenon which is completely independent from ethics, except of, possibly, deontological ethics which concerns professionals who have professional obligations towards their employers and other persons who are provided with and influenced by their services.
Sport is - and should be - an amoral phenomenon (what should not be confused with an immoral one); that is, a phenomenon which is completely independent from ethics, except of, possibly, deontological ethics which concerns professionals who have professional obligations towards their employers and other persons who are provided with and influenced by their services.
Outram, Simon M; Stewart, Bob
This paper proposes that the sponsorship of sport by nutritional supplements and sport drinks companies should be re-examined in the light of ethical concerns about the closeness of this relationship. A short overview is provided of the sponsorship of sport, arguing that ethical concerns about its appropriateness remain despite the imposition of severe restrictions on tobacco sponsorship. Further, the paper examines the main concerns about supplement use and sports drinks with respect to efficacy, health and the risks of doping. Particular consideration is given to the health implications of these concerns. It is suggested that they, of themselves, do not warrant the restriction of sponsorship by companies producing supplements and sports drinks. Nevertheless, it is argued that sports sponsorship does warrant further ethical examination--above and beyond that afforded to other sponsors of sport--as sport sponsorship is integral to the perceived need for such products. In conclusion, it is argued that sport may have found itself lending unwarranted credibility to products which would otherwise not necessarily be seen as beneficial for participation in sports and exercise or as inherently healthy products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes toward sport advertising among the question how often consumers participate in sports activities The sample included 433 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a months. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the results it was concluded that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.05. It is interesting to highlight that it was found that the significant differences showed up between the consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all with negative attitudes and consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a months and more with positive attitudes toward sport advertising
Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A
For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs.
The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)
Prof. Dr. Roberto Giro Moori
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to ascertain the strategic alignment of companies producing capital goods and deploying competitive priorities, from the standpoint of dyadic relationships. To collect the data, semi-structured questionnaires were used for a sample consisting of 113 respondents from 87 companies producing capital goods, all operating in Brazil. The data were analyzed using non-parametric statistical techniques. More specifically, an analysis of Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W showed that product (or component price and performance are the main competitive priorities for companies in this sector. Thus, evidence was found that companies producing capital goods are strategically aligned from the standpoint of dyadic relationships with their suppliers and customers, with price being the main criterion, depending on the downstream focus of the company, through the performance of the product (or component.
Full Text Available The goal of this article was the presentation of the essence of gamification and focusing on the potential which is in this management tool. The special attention was paid to the possibility of creation gamification program proper for using in the case of service personnel management of sport – recreation companies, used for building the personnel engagement and motivating to more effective and productive work.
Roscoe, S.; Baker, P.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors that influence supply chain segmentation when selling to consumers through retail chains. The initial research is based on a review of supply chain segmentation literature and the application of relevant parameters to a specific case study, comprising two major brands in the sporting goods industry. The empirical research itself comprises semi-structured interviews, covering demand planning, sales, marketing and supply chain managers, suppor...
Ann I Ogbo
Full Text Available This paper attempts to ascertain the impact of participative management on workflows, its influence on sales output and how well the concept is practised by consumer goods companies in Nigeria. Study adopted the survey design; questionnaires were used to collect necessary data from sales personnel across 10 states in South-Ssouth and South East Nigeria. Respondents rated the concept and application of participative management as it affects their work environment and sales output of the company. Statistical results of the study showed that 92.08% of the respondents believe that there are benefits derivable from participative management and that these benefits improve both sales output and workflow. 48% believe that participative management is practised in firms. Hypotheses tested using the chi-square test statistic revealed that: Consumer goods companies benefit from practising participative management, Participative management has effect on sales output of consumer goods companies, and the concept of participative management is not fully practised by consumer goods companies in Nigeria. These findings indicate that participative management principles need to be inculcated fully in the running of sales organisations so as to increase sales volume and ultimately boost the profit of consumer goods companies
Marketing in social media has been studied extensively in recent years, but not specifically for extreme-sport oriented companies. Even though most of the extreme-oriented companies are using social media for marketing, only a few pay special attention to its risks and possibilities. The purpose of this study is to identify extreme-sport oriented companies' practices to use social media as a marketing tool. I interviewed eight extreme- oriented companies and athletes. In addition to interview...
Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Podgorica consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 330 students from Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.000. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there were significant differences showed up between the consumers who purchase sport goods. The significant differences were found in two of three variables, while the consumers who purchase sport goods less than 3 times a moths had much more negative attitudes toward advertising though sport.
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Serbian consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 173 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the results it was concluded that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between one of three variables at univariate level (p=.05. It is interesting to highlight that most of potential consumers (n=146 have recognized themselves in two categories: as consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month and one to three times a months, while there were no differences among the groups. If we take a look into previous investigations, it is interesting there are some opposite results, and the recommendations for further research are directed to spread out the sample a little bit more, mostly due to the reason the consumers who had a more negative attitudes were in the group that didn’t purchase the sport goods at all.
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Montenegrin consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 342 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test.Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.000.
Rowland, Bosco; Allen, Felicity; Toumbourou, John W
Approximately 4.5 million Australians are involved in community sports clubs. A high level of alcohol consumption tends to be commonplace in this setting. The only program of its type in the world, the Good Sports program was designed to reduce harmful alcohol consumption in these Australian community sports clubs. The program offers a staged accreditation process to encourage the implementation of alcohol harm-reduction strategies. We conducted a postintervention adoption study to evaluate whether community sports club accreditation through the Good Sports program was associated with lower rates of alcohol consumption. We examined alcohol consumption rates in 113 clubs (N = 1,968 participants) and compared these to consumption rates in the general community. We hypothesized that members of clubs with more advanced implementation of the Good Sports accreditation program (Stage Two) would consume less alcohol than those with less advanced implementation (Stage One). Multilevel modeling (MLM) indicated that on days when teams competed, Stage Two club members consumed 19% less alcohol than Stage One club members. MLM also indicated that the length of time a club had been in the Good Sports program was associated with reduced rates of weekly drinking that exceeded Australian short-term risky drinking guidelines. However consumption rates for all clubs were still higher than the general community. Higher accreditation stage also predicted reduced long-term risky drinking by club members. Our findings suggest that community sports clubs show evidence of higher levels of alcohol consumption and higher rates of risky consumption than the general community. Implementation of the Good Sports accreditation strategy was associated with lower alcohol consumption in these settings.
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of good corporate Governance against tax avoidance peroxided by the book tax gap and corporate governance is peroxided by institutional ownership, managerial ownership, independent board, audit committee and audit quality. This study was performed on companies listed on the Stock Exchange on the observation period 2011-2014. The method used is purposive sampling and obtained a sample of 10 companies. The data used is secondary data that can be downloaded through www.idx.co.id and www.sahamok.com. The results showed that the variables of the board of managerial ownership, independent directors, audit committee, and audit quality effect on tax avoidance while institutional ownership variable has no effect on tax avoidance. It is suspected that institutional ownership as a monitoring tool in any decision taken by the manager does not support an optimal oversight of management performance related to tax evasion.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3541
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Methods Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103 to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Results Most children (68% could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47% of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P Conclusions Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.
Honda, Yuki; Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki
The purpose of this study was to show that how the abolishment of company sports team influenced the organizational commitment in employees. In this study, Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1997) was tested with 16 employees (10 males, 6 females) of T Company in NAGANO prefecture. The average age of the participants was 44, 50 years (SD=±0.85). And from 16 employees, 3 male employees were measured on organizational commitment with interview test. According to the analysis, the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team was not positive significant correlation. Furthermore, results of interview test did not show the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team. However, results of interview test showed the relation with organizational commitment of players in T Company sports team. Consequently, the goal to possess a sports team in T Company was not to boost organizational commitment in employees. In addition, it is necessary to reconsider the correlation among employees engaged in T Company in the future.
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book explains how the usage of drugs in sport came to be considered in terms of "abuse" contrary to be thought of being ethical and supportive to the athletes in the early days of modern sport. PURPOSE The aim of this book is to question of using and abusing drugs in sport at length from a historical perspective. It proposes to discuss the issue as a dilemma of 'good anti-doping' versus 'evil doping'. FEATURES The issues addressed in this book are as following: 1.Sport, drugs and society; 2.Doping and the rise of modern sport, 1876-1918; 3.The science gets serious, 1920-1945; 4. Amphetamines and post-war sport, 1945-1976; 5.The steroids epidemic, 1945-1976; 6.Dealing with the scandal: anti-doping and the new ethics of sport, 1945-1965; 7. Science, morality and policy: the modernisation of anti-doping, 1965-1976; 8.Doping, anti-doping and the changing values of sport. ASSESSMENT This book will be great interest to the sportsmen as well as students, researchers and practitioners in the sport and exercise disciplines whether they work in the laboratory or in the field since it is about a popular topic in sport. It could also be valued as a reference book, because it targets to avoid easy answers to difficult questions in the controversial subject of drug use in sport
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements (Pyun, 2006; Pyun & James, 2009. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group (Popović et al., 2011. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Serbian consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. Methods: The sample included 127 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: onsumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a months. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modeled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results: Based on the results it was concluded that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between two of three variables at univariate level (p=.05. It is interesting to highlight that most of potential consumers (n=99 have recognized themselves in two categories: as consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a months and one to three times a months, while there were no diffrences among the groups. Discussion: If we take a look into previous investigations, it is interesting there are some opposite results (Popović, 2011, and the recommnedations for further research are directed to spead out the sample a little bit more, mostly due to the reason the consumers who had a more negative attitudes were in the group that didn’t purchase
Reports that many college and university athletics departments are utilizing one of two companies, Fansonly or Total Sports, for their Web site development and maintenance. The companies propose to deliver advertising profits, merchandising revenues, and donations to the university but so far monetary gains have been slight, as the sites face…
Susi Retna Cahyaningtyas
Full Text Available The latest Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012 requires bank to have minimum capital of 8%-14% depends on the risk profile of each bank. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess whether the total of inherent risk profile of each bank meets the terms of this regulation. In addition, this study aims to examine the impact of inherent risk profile and GCG on the banking company value. The sample in this study is determined by purposive sampling method and resulted in 24 banks or 72 observations during 2011-2013. The results showed that 23 banks had low risk and low to moderate risk, and only one bank had moderate risk. The results also showed that inherent risk profile rating is equivalent to capital adequacy. In other words, inherent risk profile of these banks have complied with Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012. Furthermore, this study indicated that GCG has significant and positive influence on the company value, while the inherent risk has no influence on the company value. Overall, this study suggest that go public banks in Indonesia are one of good alternative means of investment for its soundness as reflected by the fulfillment of minimum capital ratio required by the regulator.
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103) to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Most children (68%) could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47%) of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P return the favour to sponsors by buying their products (P marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.
Goudswaard, A.; Oeij, P.; Brugman, T.
This report sets out to contribute to the present debate on the need for European companies and their workers to become more flexible and adaptable in the face of ongoing economic change and business restructuring. The guide should therefore provide useful and practical tips for company-level actors
Goudswaard, A.; Oeij, P.; Brugman, T.
This report sets out to contribute to the present debate on the need for European companies and their workers to become more flexible and adaptable in the face of ongoing economic change and business restructuring. The guide should therefore provide useful and practical tips for company-level actors concerning the potential benefits of developing more flexible internal workplace policies. Equally, it has been developed to assist practitioners and social partners wishing to review and/or learn...
Drygas, Wojciech; Ruszkowska, Joanna; Philpott, Matthew; Björkström, Olav; Parker, Mike; Ireland, Robin; Roncarolo, Federico; Tenconi, Maria
Sport plays an important role within society and sports stadia provide significant settings for public health strategies. In addition to being places of mass gathering, stadia are often located in less affluent areas and are traditionally attended by 'harder to reach' communities. Unfortunately sports stadia and the clubs they host are rarely perceived as places that promote healthy lifestyles. Fast food, alcohol and tobacco are commonly advertized, served and consumed during sports games giving the spectators and TV fans contradictory messages concerning healthy choices. As part of a wider programme of work part-funded by the European Union, a study was therefore designed to explore current 'good practice' relating to positive health interventions in sports stadia across a number of European countries. Using a specially designed questionnaire, information about health policies and good practices relating to food offerings in stadia, physical activity promotion among local communities, tobacco policy, positive mental health initiatives, environmental sustainability practices and social responsibility policies were collected in 10 European countries (England and Northern Ireland, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Spain and Sweden) involving 88 stadia. The audit results show that stadia health policies differ considerably between specific countries and sports. Based on the literature analysed, the examples of good practices collected through the study, and the subsequent instigation of a European Healthy Stadia Network, it shows that there is considerable potential for stadia to become health promoting settings.
Full Text Available One of Plato's most common questions found in his dialogues is "What is something?" By asking this question Plato usually brought his co-speakers to the recognition that in fact they do not have a full comprehension of what something is, although they have a partial comprehension of it. The awareness of one's incomplete cognition is the first step to be made on the philosophic way to truth. As in ancient times also today Plato asks us – the modern philosophers of sport – "What is sport?" or more precisely "What is good sport?" Probably the best of Plato's answers to this question can be found in the basic concepts of his philosophy regarding his hierarchical division of the state and human soul into three parts. Since sport is derived from human being also the goodness of sport can be divided into three stages. The lowest stage of sport corresponds to the first part of the soul – the appetite soul. On this stage sport is based on the gaining of material goods through prizes won at competitions. In the philosophic view, this is the lowest possible stage of goodness of sport. The second stage of sport corresponds to the second part of the soul – the emotional soul. Sport at this stage is based on the elementary ancient agon, which seeks fulfilment in the winning of honour and glory. The greatest and the most superior is the third part of the soul – the reasonable soul. According to this, also the sport corresponding to the third part of the soul is the best. For this kind of sport it is no longer necessary to compete with other contestants, since it can achieve it's fulfilment in perfect execution of movement or exercise, in which the perfect cooperation between reason (soul and body is attained. At this stage of sport it is the most important to compete and win over one's self, and this can be achieved by everyone, without regard to his/her physical abilities in comparison with others. In Plato's view, good sport is the sport directed
Full Text Available The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For the Sports Goods Manufacturing Industry which is considered to be an intensive supplier base industry with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for the entire supply chain viz. raw material and machinery suppliers and manufacturers to measure their supplier's performance to reduce business risks and revenue losses. How to design & execute a simple, cost effective & result oriented Framework for Supplier Performance Measurement for sports goods manufacturing small - medium enterprises is the main aim of this research paper.
Dowsett, Sherie A; Van Campen, Luann E; Bednar, Lisa A
The scientific publishing practices of the pharmaceutical industry have been heavily criticized in recent years due to the inherent conflict of interest that arises when a pharmaceutical company publishes findings around its own drugs. Eli Lilly and Company ('Lilly') strives for transparency in its day-to-day activities, and, here, shares its principles, policies and practices on publishing "Lilly-sponsored" research. A conflict of interest does not necessarily equate to biased presentation of research findings, and operating a successful, for-profit business and maintaining a focus on improving the health of patients are not mutually exclusive goals. There is, however, potential for bias, and it is incumbent upon a for-profit to develop publication principles, policies and practices to address this. To this end, Lilly's Principles of Medical Research states that 'Lilly discloses publicly all medical research results that are important to patients, healthcare providers or payers--whether favorable or unfavorable to a Lilly product--in an accurate, objective, and balanced manner ...' The preparation of publications of Lilly-sponsored research involves close collaboration between external (i.e., academic or otherwise non-industry employees) and Lilly scientific researchers (including scientific writers), with both serving as authors. Lilly does not support 'ghost' or 'guest' authorship. Authorship is not just recognition of contribution but also public acknowledgement of responsibility for content, and all authors are expected to take an active role in developing the manuscript in line with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors-based authorship requirements. This is agreed to by authors before the manuscript is started. Lilly provides external authors with access to the trial data for manuscript development. Lilly does not pay external authors for their involvement in manuscript development. Scientific writers at Lilly, often with advanced scientific
van Tulder, R.J.M.; Kolk, A.
The international operations of firms have substantial impact on the formulation and implementation of business ethical principles such as codes of conduct. The international sporting goods industry has been a pioneer in setting up codes and thus provides much relevant experience. Different sourcing
Gustavo Martínez Serrano
Full Text Available Abstract Currently, the issue of human resources is producing an impact in Spain and just need to approach the business biography to verify that the sector study of physical activity and sport is a field of scientific and social interest that needs to be investigated. Using a quantitative methodology, in which a descriptive method and a cross sectional survey was carried out and through a standardized interview as a tool for gathering information, results reveal the most significant characteristics found in Valencia Region. The results explain that the people working in physical and sports functions in companies are mostly young men who develop a wide variety of functions, work situations in which there is recruitment and showing a temporary high. The study also reveals that more than half the people will do business with a working week not exceeding four years, and there are people without official certification of physical activity and sport and being the most important personal contacts to find work. Keywords: technical-sports, business, management, sport, physical activity, sport.
The objective of this study is to develop a social media marketing plan for the case com-pany to integrate it into its existing marketing communications. The case company of this study is a medium-sized consumer goods producing company that advertises its brand and products using traditional methods of advertising (radio, television, flyers and event promotion). At the moment, these methods seem to be lacking in efficiency and effective-ness caused by the saturation of marketing information w...
Presents highlights from the annual endowment study by the National Association of College and University Business Officials (NACUBO), which found that nearly three-quarters of all endowments experienced negative returns in fiscal year 2001. Includes a table ranking surveyed institutions by the market value of their endowment assets. (EV)
Susi Retna Cahyaningtyas; Elin Erlina Sasanti; Wahidatul Husnaini
The latest Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012 requires bank to have minimum capital of 8%-14% depends on the risk profile of each bank. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess whether the total of inherent risk profile of each bank meets the terms of this regulation. In addition, this study aims to examine the impact of inherent risk profile and GCG on the banking company value. The sample in this study is determined by purposive sampling method and resulted in 24...
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Sarajevo consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 358 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test.Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.000.
Full Text Available Unlike other advertising mediums such as TV commercials or online advertising, people involuntarily receive sport advertisements; they prefer to watch the game for the sporting action than the regular advertisements. However, it is important to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, mostly due to the reason it varies from demographic group to demographic group. Hence, this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Mostar consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 228 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test.Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.020.
Full Text Available Attitudes of Companies to Sport Sponsorship in the Czech Republic during the Economic Crisis This research presents the approach of companies to sport sponsorship in the period of time of the economic crisis in the European territory, specifically in the Czech Republic. The research included 100 companies based in the Czech Republic and the method chosen was electronic mail survey of managers responsible for this marketing activity. The results show trends in sport sponsorship from the viewpoint of companies and can serve as a base for strategic decisions about new ways of sport financing in 2012–2020 with which the relevant authorities of the public administration of the Czech Republic are currently dealing at this time. Postoje firem ke sponzorování sportu v České republice v období ekonomické krize Tento výzkum prezentuje přístup firem ke sponzorování sportu v období ekonomické krize v evropském teritoriu, konkrétně v České republice. Výzkum zahrnoval 100 firem působících v České republice. Byla uplatněna metoda elektronického dotazování manažerů odpovědných za tuto marketingovou činnost. Výsledky výzkumu ukazují trendy ve sponzorování sportu ze strany firem a mohou sloužit jako podklad pro strategické rozhodování o nových cestách financování sportu na léta 2012–2020, které v tomto období řeší příslušné orgány státní správy České republiky.
Full Text Available The study examined the process of disclosure of Industrials companies listed on the BM&FBovespa, after the convergence of Brazilian accounting to IFRS, in accordance with CPC 27 - Fixed Assets . Was carried a descriptive study, conducted through content analysis and quantitative approach using the calculation of entropy proposed by Zeleny (1982. The sample consists of 34 companies in the Industrial Goods sector listed on the BM&FBovespa. The results revealed that the disclosure of items of fixed assets is not performed homogeneously by companies. Some requirements required by CPC 27 were reported incompletely or are absent. A detailed analysis of the items investigated stressed that disclosure to class of fixed assets, was the best performed, followed by depreciation policies adopted by companies, it was observed that most companies show so complete this information. The information highlighted regarding the reconciliation of the carrying amount, had higher entropy, hence there is greater heterogeneity in this items reported. The disclosure of other information about the property, deemed necessary by CPC27, were less prominent by the companies, not apply in some cases or for being absent in the notes. In general, we concluded that the analyzed companies have been responding only partially to the disclosure requirements of CPC 27. However, the basic and more important information to the external user, concerning the class of assets and depreciation rates are being shown.
Weisheng Chiu; Ho Keat Leng
The purpose of this study was to examine the consumer behavior related to the purchase of counterfeit sporting goods (CSGs) based on the theory of planned behavior. The results showed that consumers’ attitude, subjective norm, and brand consciousness were predictive of purchase intention, whereas perceived behavioral control had no influence on purchase intention. Moreover, both risk averseness and sport involvement negatively led to consumers’ attitude toward CSGs. The paper ends with a disc...
Ociepa-Kubicka, Agnieszka; Wilczak, Krzysztof
Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK). The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI), as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.
Full Text Available The book consists of nine chapters explaining the concept of Good to Great. Starting from emphasizing that “good is the enemy of great”, Jim Collins provides great explanations as well as arguments of why his concept is very important for leaders who want to be successful in their efforts of building “enduring results” of their companies, organizations, or institutions. He in detail explains four principles underlining the framework of good to great. There are disciplined people (level 5 leadership and first who, then what concepts, disciplined thought (confront the brutal facts and the Hedgehog concepts, disciplined action (culture of discipline and the flywheel concepts, and building greatness to last (clock building, not the time telling and preserve the core/stimulate progress concepts. For further analysis of the Good to Great, I will shortly summarize the concept of how to make something good to be great explained in the book in the following section. I will also conclude this paper by commenting on the concept as my critique toward the theory of Good to Great.
Battisti, Wendy P; Wager, Elizabeth; Baltzer, Lise; Bridges, Dan; Cairns, Angela; Carswell, Christopher I; Citrome, Leslie; Gurr, James A; Mooney, LaVerne A; Moore, B Jane; Peña, Teresa; Sanes-Miller, Carol H; Veitch, Keith; Woolley, Karen L; Yarker, Yvonne E
This updated Good Publication Practice (GPP) guideline, known as GPP3, builds on earlier versions and provides recommendations for individuals and organizations that contribute to the publication of research results sponsored or supported by pharmaceutical, medical device, diagnostics, and biotechnology companies. The recommendations are designed to help individuals and organizations maintain ethical and transparent publication practices and comply with legal and regulatory requirements. These recommendations cover publications in peer-reviewed journals and presentations (oral or poster) at scientific congresses. The International Society for Medical Publication Professionals invited more than 3000 professionals worldwide to apply for a position on the steering committee, or as a reviewer, for this guideline. The GPP2 authors reviewed all applications (n = 241) and assembled an 18-member steering committee that represented 7 countries and a diversity of publication professions and institutions. From the 174 selected reviewers, 94 sent comments on the second draft, which steering committee members incorporated after discussion and consensus. The resulting guideline includes new sections (Principles of Good Publication Practice for Company-Sponsored Medical Research, Data Sharing, Studies That Should Be Published, and Plagiarism), expands guidance on the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' authorship criteria and common authorship issues, improves clarity on appropriate author payment and reimbursement, and expands information on the role of medical writers. By following good publication practices (including GPP3), individuals and organizations will show integrity; accountability; and responsibility for accurate, complete, and transparent reporting in their publications and presentations.
This study investigates whether net inbound migration and per capita income growth of a municipality is affected when a local sports team enters or exits the premium national leagues in ice hockey or soccer in Sweden. Local governments frequently support a local professional team through direct subsidies; beneficial funding of arenas, etc., which often is motivated by alleged, positive externalities through effects on the attractiveness of the municipality as a leisure-travel destination, or ...
Rowland, Bosco C; Wolfenden, Luke; Gillham, Karen; Kingsland, Melanie; Richardson, Ben; Wiggers, John
Community sports clubs provide an important contribution to the health and wellbeing of individuals and the community; however, they have also been associated with risky alcohol consumption. This study assessed whether a club's alcohol management strategies were related to risky alcohol consumption by members and levels of social capital, as measured in terms of participation in and perceived safety of the club. A total of 723 sports club members from 33 community football clubs in New South Wales, Australia, completed a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) and a management representative from each club also completed a CATI. The club representative reported on the club's implementation of 11 alcohol management practices, while club members reported their alcohol consumption and perceived levels of safety at the club and participation in the club. A structural equation model identified having the bar open for more than four hours; having alcohol promotions; and serving intoxicated patrons were associated with increased risky alcohol consumption while at the club; which in turn was associated with lower levels of perceived club safety and member participation. The positive contribution of community sports clubs to the community may be diminished by specific inadequate alcohol management practices. Changing alcohol management practices can reduce alcohol consumption, and possibly increase perceived aspects of social capital, such as safety and participation. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Joel Gómez Báez
Full Text Available There are many factors that influence the strategic process of the companies, however, the social factor as sustenance of the good life plays a significant role, which is translated by the direct participation of the man in all the activities of the company and as a member of A family and community that it has to maintain and develop. One of the great challenges of the business system is to face the problems that are present today, such as poverty, inequity and damage to the environment, which contributes to equating social development with technological and productive development. This leads to the need to combine social philosophy with competitiveness, management excellence and business success in its management. Establishing the general elements that should support the strategic management of companies, including within their fields of action productive economic management and social responsibility, was the objective of the work. Consequently, the paper addressed the theoretical and methodological foundations underlying strategic management under a social responsibility perspective.
Fry, Joan Marian; McNeill, Michael Charles
Since independence in 1965, education and sport have been instrumental in Singapore's nation building, with a rapid rise in education and economic status. This article examines the roles of physical education and school sport in the local context and makes comparison with global themes ("instrumentality" and "marginality"). It…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the consumer behavior related to the purchase of counterfeit sporting goods (CSGs based on the theory of planned behavior. The results showed that consumers’ attitude, subjective norm, and brand consciousness were predictive of purchase intention, whereas perceived behavioral control had no influence on purchase intention. Moreover, both risk averseness and sport involvement negatively led to consumers’ attitude toward CSGs. The paper ends with a discussion on the theoretical and practical contributions of this study towards the purchase of CSGs.
R. K. Tyagi
Problem statement: The Corporate Social Responsibility concerns got global attention in large scale industries but the SMEs which are no less prone to create critical problems for the human, social and natural environments inimical to the society as a whole and survival at large, have not attracted the required attention. The case focuses on the dynamics of the corporate and stakeholder perspective on CSR in Sports Goods Industry Meerut. Approach: This study examined the corporate and stakeho...
As it is known, economical products are divided into two main components (goods/services). The developing technology has restructured its geographical position. The storage capability of sporting products makes it necessary to define the concept of "visual product". In our study, the general scanning model, which is one of the descriptive research methods, is used (Karasar 2009). In the frame of this descriptive scanning method, a theoretical-analytical method has been used focusing on writin...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sports sponsorship is a significant marketing tool. As such, it can promote products that pose risks to health (eg, high fat and high sugar foods or it can promote health-supporting products (eg, sporting equipment and services. However, there is a lack of data on the proportion of sponsorship associated with "unhealthy" and "healthy" products and no methodology for systematically assessing it. This research aimed to explore this proportion with an Internet survey of sports sponsorship in the New Zealand setting. Methods A search methodology was developed to identify Internet-based evidence of sports sponsorship at the national level and at the regional and club level in one specific region (Wellington. The top eight sports for 5-17-year-olds were selected and products and services of sponsors were classified in terms of potential public health impact (using a conservative approach. Results Sponsorship of these popular sports was common at the national, regional and club levels (640 sponsors listed on 107 websites overall. Sports sponsorship associated with sponsors' products classified as "unhealthy" (eg, food high in fat and sugar, gambling and alcohol were over twice as common as sponsorship associated with sponsors' products classified as "healthy" (32.7% (95% CI = 29.1, 36.5 versus 15.5% (95% CI = 12.8, 18.6 respectively. "Gambling" was the most common specific type of sponsorship (18.8% followed by alcohol (11.3%. There were significantly more "alcohol" sponsors for rugby, compared to all the other sports collectively (rate ratio (RR = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.60, 3.79, and for top male sports compared to female (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.05, 3.18. Also there was significantly more "unhealthy food" sponsorship for touch rugby and for "junior" teams/clubs compared to other sports collectively (RR = 6.54; 95% CI = 2.07, 20.69; and RR = 14.72, 95% CI = 6.22, 34.8; respectively. A validation study gave an inter-rater reliability for
Maher, Anthony; Wilson, Nick; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George
Sports sponsorship is a significant marketing tool. As such, it can promote products that pose risks to health (eg, high fat and high sugar foods) or it can promote health-supporting products (eg, sporting equipment and services). However, there is a lack of data on the proportion of sponsorship associated with "unhealthy" and "healthy" products and no methodology for systematically assessing it. This research aimed to explore this proportion with an Internet survey of sports sponsorship in the New Zealand setting. A search methodology was developed to identify Internet-based evidence of sports sponsorship at the national level and at the regional and club level in one specific region (Wellington). The top eight sports for 5-17-year-olds were selected and products and services of sponsors were classified in terms of potential public health impact (using a conservative approach). Sponsorship of these popular sports was common at the national, regional and club levels (640 sponsors listed on 107 websites overall). Sports sponsorship associated with sponsors' products classified as "unhealthy" (eg, food high in fat and sugar, gambling and alcohol) were over twice as common as sponsorship associated with sponsors' products classified as "healthy" (32.7% (95% CI = 29.1, 36.5) versus 15.5% (95% CI = 12.8, 18.6) respectively). "Gambling" was the most common specific type of sponsorship (18.8%) followed by alcohol (11.3%). There were significantly more "alcohol" sponsors for rugby, compared to all the other sports collectively (rate ratio (RR) = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.60, 3.79), and for top male sports compared to female (RR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.05, 3.18). Also there was significantly more "unhealthy food" sponsorship for touch rugby and for "junior" teams/clubs compared to other sports collectively (RR = 6.54; 95% CI = 2.07, 20.69; and RR = 14.72, 95% CI = 6.22, 34.8; respectively). A validation study gave an inter-rater reliability for number of sponsors of 95% (n = 87 sponsors
Full Text Available Purpose: This study was motivated by the need to better understand the effects of the global financial crisis in 2008 on the relationship between company financial performance and CEO guaranteed cost to company (CTC. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between company financial performance using DuPont analysis and CEO guaranteed CTC in the South African retail and consumer goods sector. Design: The research was a quantitative, archival study of companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, measured over a period of six years (2006–2011. The statistical analysis included regression and correlation analysis. Findings: The research found that CEO guaranteed CTC has shown no sensitivity towards company financial performance in terms of DuPont analysis over the six-year period, which included the global financial crises in 2008. Furthermore, a negative relationship existed between the return on equity and the guaranteed CTC of CEOs in the retail and consumer goods sector during this period. Practical implications: The findings suggest that there is misalignment between company strategy and performance and the guaranteed CTC of CEOs. A practical implication would be to have independent and competent remuneration committees ensuring alignment of the interests of a company with those of its leaders in this regard.
Puterbaugh, James S
During the past 60 years, there has been a major transition in the way golf is played in America. Its potential as exercise largely has been negated by the increase in motorized golf cart usage to approximately two of every three rounds played in this country. Accidents in golf carts have increased rapidly, which, by making the sport more dangerous, will likely bring future regulations. Consequently, playing golf has gradually become more of a public health threat than a benefit. The motorized cart also has resulted in an almost doubling of the size of golf courses, which now occupy a large amount of the built environment designated for activity. These changes are a major loss to society, portend future problems, and call for the sport to reevaluate its current model.
Full Text Available Background: Increasing global competition and customer expectations are forcing companies to improve their supplier performance as part of their supply chain governance initiative. A sport goods manufacturing industry is intensive supplier base industry and majority of these comes under small medium enterprises with limited resources. Developing an easy - deploy, cost effective and result oriented frame work for this industry is a critical business competency. Methods: This paper lays out a framework - a "standard operating system" - for continuous supplier performance monitoring and improvement (SPMI and is composed of following sections. In the first section supplier performance monitoring and improvement is overviewed with its basic concepts, and then improvement methods used in the paper are explained based on literature review. The third and fourth section focus on the methodology, explaining the way of SIPOC Analysis and PDCA application with using ISO 9001; 2008 QMS standards and example showing its results. Results: The existing process of Supplier Performance Monitoring and Improvement (SPMI was defined and mapped and then analyzed and revised through SIPOC Analysis by incorporating to PDCA Cycle and ISO 9001 QMS to identify problem areas, variations and unnecessary activities. Corrective actions were recommended to deal with problem areas and an improved and revised Supplier Performance Monitoring and Improvement (SPMI Process is suggested. Conclusions: Every organization needs to use a proper combination and selection of quality tools, methodologies and techniques for implementing continuous quality improvement process. This framework will provide a guidance for anyone who wants to develop supplier performance measurement system in sports goods manufacturing industry and other small - medium enterprises.
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
Beckers, Sander F.M.; van Doorn, Jenny; Verhoef, Peter C.
In today’s connected world, customer engagement behaviors are very important. Many companies launch initiatives to stimulate customer engagement. However, despite evidence that customer engagement behavior also matters to share-holders, academic research on the firm value consequences of customer
This article discussed a new computer application that has the potential to change how companies handle their community investment. The Goodness 3.0 tool can be integrated into a number of pages on a company's web site, such as the human resources Intranet page or the customer reward page on the web. Users can then make direct contributions to nearly any certified charity in North America. The user can select a group a charities, allocate percentages among them, and establish whether the donation is a one-time or a recurring event. Matching donations take place in real time. Being a good corporate citizen helps attract and retain employees. This program allows the company to focus on the charitable interests of the employees, and it empowers employees to have direct involvement in where their money goes. Integrated companies can use the tool to strengthen their consumer brands. At present, most large corporations use an online grant management system to process grant applications from not-for-profit organizations. This type of system is practical for processing applications, but it fails to build relationships.
Putri, D. O.; Triatmanto, B.; Setiyadi, S.
Employee performance can be the supporting factor of company performance. However, employee performance can be affected by several factors. Employees can have optimal performance if they feel safe, have good working environment and have discipline. The purposes of this research are to analyze the effect of occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline on the employee performance in PPIC Thermo section in a consumer goods company and to find the dominant variable which primarily affects employee performance. This research was conducted by taking data from 47 respondents. The data were collected using questionnaire. The techniques in data analysis is multiple linear regression with SPSS software. The result shows that occupational health and safety, work environment and discipline are simultaneously significant to the employee performance. Discipline holds the dominant factor which affects employee performance.
Full Text Available The traditional goal of a company is to earn profit to pay its shareholders, but, nowadays, for the business to be sustainable in the long term, a strategy of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR activities is needed to meet stakeholder demands, respect ethical principles and give an appropriate answer to organizational stakeholders. The objective of the paper is to identify how strong the correlation between CSR and profit is, and how companies behave in the periods they have losses, whether they continue to do CSR activities, they reduce the activities, or they give them up. Thus, CSR is attributed to the concept of “doing good” and profit to the expression of “doing well”, from which a “positive business” can be built. Our empirical research consists of a panel data econometric model using logistics regressions to highlight the correlation between profit and the decision to do CSR activities and feasible generalized least squares (FGLS regressions to identify the correlations between the level of CSR activities and the dimension of profit, an expression of financial performance. The main results emphasize that the companies which implement CSR activities in a greater extent are more profitable in economic terms.
This overview examines the British and Australian models and codes of corporate governance since South African Company Law as well as Australian Company Law have their roots in British Company Law. From the literature seven pillars of good governance emerged and their applicability to sports governing bodies is ...
This paper reports on how to avoid the No. 1 mistake companies make shopping for an environmental manager the way they shop for patio furniture. This tongue-in-cheek assessment of a hazardous waste management recruiter, is intended to emphasize that human factors should be uppermost in the minds of those seeking to hire the best environmental managers, she says: The way to avoid such mistakes is to engage the services of a reputable recruitment agency that specializes in finding the right personnel to fill specific needs, she adds
Wang, H Y; Wei, W
Objective: To understand the relationship between occupational stress, social support and job burnout, and to explore the moderating role of social support for occupational stress and job burnout. Methods: 256 employees were conveniently chosen to engage in a survey, including occupational stress indicator (OSI) , social support rating scale (SSRS) as well as maslach burnout inventory-general survey (MBI-GS) from March to June in 2017. Results: The occupational stress score of the stafls in sport goods Chain stores was 55.5 ± 11.7, the score of social support was 28.2 ± 7.6, and the score of job burnaut was 41.3 ± 11.6. Occupational stress was positively correlated with job burnout ( r =0.425, P occupational stress was negatively related to objective support, subjective support and support utilization ( r values were-0.182, -0.227, and-0.208, P occupational stress and subjective support and support utilization were statistically significant ( β values were-0.069 and-0.077, P occupational stress and job burnout, especially in subjective support and support utilization.
norms are reflected in today's professional and amateur riders' attitude to doping. With the analysis of the labelling of drug-using athletes as deviant outsiders new light is introduced to the debate of the relation between the use of drugs in elite sport and the expectations and demands......"A Clean Amateur Makes a Good Professional" examines why athletes who are using (or are alleged of using) illegal drugs notoriously are labelled as deviant outsiders by the media as well as by the sporting authorities. By contrasting today's situation with previous times where the professional...
Full Text Available This paper presents an application of focus forecasting in a fast moving consumer goods (FMCG supply chain. Focus forecasting is tested in a real business case in a Serbian enterprise. The data used in the simulation refers to the historical sales of two types of FMCG with several different products. The data were collected and summarized across the whole distribution channel in the Serbian market from January 2012 to December 2013. We applied several well-known time series forecasting models using the focus forecasting approach, where for the future time period we used the method which had the best performances in the past. The focus forecasting approach mixes different standard forecasting methods on the data sets in order to find the one that was the most accurate during the past period. The accuracy of forecasting methods is defined through different measures of errors. In this paper we implemented the following forecasting models in Microsoft Excel: last period, all average, moving average, exponential smoothing with constant and variable parameter α, exponential smoothing with trend, exponential smoothing with trend and seasonality. The main purpose was not to evaluate different forecasting methods but to show a practical application of the focus forecasting approach in a real business case.
Full Text Available Promotion as most viewable marketing activity is in sports for years. Many companies invest lots of funds for promotion of sport. Investing funds in sports they can promote their companies. This is called sponsorship.
Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J.; de Barcellos, Marcia D.
The objective of this study is to explore the association between pork as the main meal component and the choice for side dishes and beverages depending on foodscape and individual characteristics, including overweight and obesity among fresh pork consumers (n=2,156) in five European countries...... to combine pork with sauces or condiments. Heavy users of pork were more likely (odds ratio=1.43) to combine pork with sauces or condiments. The study also found an association between being overweight or obese and higher consumption of carbohydrate rich staple foods (odds ratio=1.30) and caloric drinks...
Tartari, Valentina; Perkmann, Markus; Salter, Ammon
academic scientists and engineers, we find that peer effects are stronger for early career individuals and weaker for star scientists, suggesting the incidence of social comparison. We argue that individuals look to their immediate peers for inspiration, because they view them as an important reference...
Tartari, Valentina; Perkmann, Markus; Salter, Ammon
is influenced significantly by the behaviour of their peers, that is, the behaviour of colleagues of similar seniority. Using insights from social psychology, we hypothesize that these peer effects are produced by the mechanism of social comparison. In an analysis of data from multiple sources for 1370 UK...... group and use them as a benchmark for their own ambitions and behaviours. Our findings have important implications for how universities may encourage scientists’ behaviours by paying attention to local work contexts....
Pasquale M O L I T E R N I
Full Text Available Sport and movement represent primary factors of training and personal expression, they fit into the category of values from which no one should be excluded. The physical and sport experience is essential in the formation of the person, understood in its entirety; becoming consciousness of embodiment is combined with the rules and principles that are the basis of the exchange processes and social inclusion and training the skills of active citizenship and democracy. In this sense, sport is a mediator for the growth of all people, creating aggregated situations, based on the principles of solidarity, hospitality and well - being. The present study, as theoretical character, will rethin k a particular aggregating situation, that in Italy since post World War II has been a model of educating and civil living together: the oratory, conveying the idea of social sport for all. There is the need to rediscover the humanity that is in oursel ves, through the enhancement of the relationship, beginning to live places (new and old "agora", as contexts for meeting, for a social experience participatory and community that restores the sense the cold lands and turning them into places. Living in ou r cities and our territories we will improve the quality of life in terms of security and social welfare, as well as personal well - being .
Full Text Available At the beginning of third millennium, the world of sport has been experiencing new marketing techniques to introduce products and services. The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected firms, which were active in Iran. The method of survey was descriptive – analytical and some questionnaires were used for collecting data in Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire were estimated by interview with professors and exports in marketing and sport marketing and the reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha (α= 0.89. Statistical population of the study includes Sport Goods-Producing companies in Iran (N= 180 and 122 firms formed the study sample. For testing the hypothesis, we have used Paired Samples T-Test. The analysis of findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between using advertising and sales promotion strategies. In general, we can say, there are some limited applications of using techniques and methods of sales promotion strategies in Iranian sport industry and methods of advertising. Consequently, regarding the intense competition among companies as well as fast growth of markets and fast changes in consumer’s behavior, identifying the best methods for corresponding relationship to customer would be required.
Dieter Hillairet; Guillaume Richard; Patrick Bouchet
International audience; Sports market is a global market which has been growing at an annual average rate of about 2 to 3% for over a decade (Ohl & Tribou, 2004). Due to strong competition, brands are very dynamic (Chantelat, 2008). They constantly seek better positioning and new ways of gaining market shares (Bouchet & Hillairet, 2008). In order to do this, these brands put more and more emphasis on innovation (Hillairet, 2005). Following decades of domination by the major international bran...
Norberta Elisa Fernandes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the factors that affect the timeliness of financial reporting on the Internet in the Consumer Goods sector companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. Variables used were leverage, profitability, size of company, the issuance of stock and the quality of auditors. Data analysis method used was logistic regression at the 0.05 level. The data used were secondary data and using sample Consumer Goods companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2010-2012. This study tested the effect of variable leverage, profitability, firm size, auditor quality stocks, and the timeliness of financial reporting on the Internet. The results obtained from these tests support the timeliness of audit quality of financial reporting on theInternet. However, other variables such as leverage, profitability, firm size, stock issuance did not support the timeliness of financial reporting on the Internet.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of good corporate governance mechanism about earnings management in companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The independent variables include the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency. The dependent variable is earnings management which is measured by discretionary revenue model (Stubben, 2010. Size of company is used as the control variable in this research. The population of this research is 465 samples from companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling method. In addition, the data analysis method used is regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The result of this research indicates that the mechanism of good corporate governance which is represented by the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency do not have any significant impact on earnings management. However, the result shows that company size gave positive influence toward earning management. Keywords: Good corporate governance, size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, commissioner meeting frequency, earnings management
Propuesta sobre el proceso productivo para financiar empresas del deporte a partir del estudio de sus seguidores = Proposal on the production process to finance companies sport from studying his followers
Wilson Andrés Cárdenas-Polanía
Abstract The follower of sport should be the focus of the operation of sport companies. For that we must understand their needs so we can develop the business model that gives direction to the sport company to achieve financial sustainability. The proposal is based on social psychology and sociology at the theoretical part and in two methodological research: A transversal cross-correlation descriptive and the other is based on statistical analysis of textual data. Taking some of its conclusions, the proposal aimed to channel the needs of the follower of sports to an exchange called cultural consumption. For this, the necessary elements that the company must develop to maximize emotions, motivations and identities during games, tournaments and sporting events. It does this using the amplification of symbolic values, develop statistics and promote the practice of sport. With this tour, arise actors that the process for its success must accompany: Athletes, media and advertisers. With these inputs we can make an intersection between the follower and the consumer of the sponsor. Keywords: sport marketing, fan of sports, business model, costumer needs  Profesor de la Facultad de Marketing en la Universidad de Santo Tomás (Bogotá-Colombia. Es Candidato a doctor en Administración de Empresas de la Universidad Católica de Argentina (UCA, Magister en Psicología del Consumidor de la Fundación Universitaria Konrad Lorenz (Colombia y Administrador de Empresas de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (Colombia. Ha trabajado en empresas del deporte desde 2000. Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @acardenas74 LinkedIn: co.linkedin.com/in/AndresCardenaspolania
Full Text Available ... Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for ... more to eating for sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ...
Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .
Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...
Propuesta sobre el proceso productivo para financiar empresas del deporte a partir del estudio de sus seguidores = Proposal on the production process to finance companies sport from studying his followers
Cárdenas-Polanía, Wilson Andrés
Cárdenas-Polanía Wilson Andrés. Propuesta sobre el proceso productivo para financiar empresas del deporte a partir del estudio de sus seguidores = Proposal on the production process to finance companies sport from studying his followers. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(12):630-646. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.44759 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%2812%29%3A630-646 http://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/694742 Formerly Jour...
Since the end of the Second World War, the popularity of modern elite sport has grown immensely and so has the economical interests in sport. Athletes have become attractive advertising partners. Much money is at stake so it is understandable that companies are alarmed when their poster boys or g...
Full Text Available With regard to the organization of professional clubs, two models can be applied. According to the first model, clubs have the freedom to choose the organizational form (association or commercial company in which sports activities will be carried out. Second model imposes the requirement for the clubs to be organized in the form of commercial company, in one of the corporation forms, provided that it can be also specialized sports form. To the establishment and operation of sports associations, as sui generis commercial companies, apply more specific rules concerning: the conditions for the establishment of clubs; conditions for participation in professional and management bodies; prohibiting multiple ownership of sports clubs, i.e., prohibition of membership; allocation of net profit; control over the work of clubs; state aid (subsidies for the clubs.
DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN
Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...
Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...
Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović
Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...
Laís Cristyne Alexandre dos Santos
Full Text Available Harlan Coben, an american crime writer, uses sports elements as constituents of its narrative structure. We sought to identify the relations between the sports field and the exposed advertising in the works "Deal Breaker" (2011 and "Drop Shot" (2012, first plot of the series "Myron Bolitar", through the analysis of characters Christian Steele and Duane Richwood. For this, we used the precepts about literary analysis proposed by Antonio Candido (2000, which considers text and context as constructs narratives, if noting that Coben portraying such characters as poster boys subject to the ephemera present both in sports, as the permanence related to media conglomerates and punctuates companies sporting goods of high impact marketing in this segment of the 1990s.
Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.
ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, DEFAULT RISK AND CONSERVATISM EFFECT TO EARNING MANAGEMENT WITH GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AS MODERATING VARIABLE IN MANUFACTURING COMPANY WHOSE SHARES INCORPORATED IN INDONESIA SHARIA STOCK INDEX
Budi Gautama Siregar
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and analyze Good Corporate Governance in moderating the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (as measured by economic, environmental and social, Default Risk (as measured by debt to equity ratio and debt to assets ratio and Conservatism (as measured by earning / stock return relation, accruals and net assets Earnings Management. The sample used is a manufacturing company during the period 2011- 2015. The total sample used is 170 samples. Sampling technique used is saturated sample method. The analytical model used in this research with Structural Equation Modeling. The results showed that Corporate Social Responsibility, as measured by the economy and environment, has a positive and significant effect on earning management, while Corporate Social Responsibility measured by social have negative and significant effect to earning management. Default risk, as measured by debt to equity ratio and debt to asset ratio, has positive and significant effect on Earnings Management. Also, conservatism measured by earning / stock return relation and accrual has adverse and insignificant effect on earning management. Good Corporate Governance moderates weakening the effect of Corporate Social Responsibility as measured by economic, environmental to Earnings Management. Meanwhile, the interaction of Corporate Social Responsibility proxy by social with good corporate governance has a positive and significant effect. Good Corporate Governance moderates weakening the effect of default risk measured by debt to equity ratio on Earnings Management, while the interaction between default risk measured by debt to asset ratio with good corporate governance has positive and insignificant effect, so GCG does not moderate the effect of default risk as measured by debt to asset ratio to Earnings Management. Another result was that good Corporate governance does not moderate Conservatism effect measured by Earning
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak performance ... teen athletes need extra fuel, it's usually a bad idea to diet. Athletes in sports ... side effects mentioned above. If a coach, gym teacher, or ...
Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.
This document is a project of good practice manual for the commercial relations between energy suppliers and their clients: prohibition of dishonest practices (fake, aggressive practices, joint sales, lack of information, abuse of vulnerable clients), remote sales and canvassing, pre-contractual information, minimum content of contracts (products and proposed services, tariffs, modalities and conditions of payment, meters, refusal to supply, supply disruption, commitment duration, rescinding, contract renewing, cancellation, contract transfer, modification of contracts in progress, procedure of dispute settlement), minimum content of bills (monthly bill, annual bill); contracts renewing, cancellation, transfer and modification; control and procedure of dispute settlement, disregard of the reference system. (J.S.)
Full Text Available Support rolling stock of transport in good repair can be carried out using replacement parts that are stored on in the warehouses of transport enterprise and spare parts that are purchased as the need arises. For the uninterrupted transport services transport enterprise must have a certain amount of stock of spare parts at a given time. Rational organization of storage and inventory control of spare parts for motor plant affects the reducing operating costs and improving profitability of the transportation process. In the article the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of choice of spare parts stored in the warehouse of the transport company to maintain in good condition of its rolling stock, taking into account the totality of the costs of purchase, transportation and storage of spare parts. Using these criteria allows to determine the advisability of keeping spare parts in stock of transport and procurement of necessary spare parts, provided the minimal costs of spare parts.
Full Text Available ... needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may need more protein than less-active ... is just as important to unlocking your game power as food. When you sweat during exercise, it's ...
Full Text Available ... minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may need more protein than less-active teens, but most teen athletes get plenty of protein through regular eating. It's a myth that athletes ...
Full Text Available ... fortified cereals. Calcium — a must for protecting against stress fractures — is found in dairy foods, such as ... provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may need ...
Full Text Available ... fortified cereals. Calcium — a must for protecting against stress fractures — is found in dairy foods, such as ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...
Caine, Mike; Blair, Kim; Vasquez, Mike
An evolution from natural to highly engineered materials has drastically changed the way in which athletes train and compete. Thanks to challenging technological problems and unconventional commercialization pathways, universities can make a direct impact on the development of sporting goods.
Full Text Available ... lots of different fruits and veggies, should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may need more protein than less- ...
Smith, Nathan J.
Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan); R.C. Kijkuit (Bob)
textabstractManagers know that simply generating lots of ideas doesn’t necessarily produce good ones. What companies need are systems that nurture good ideas and cull bad ones—before they ever reach the decision maker’s desk. Our research shows that tapping the input of many people early in the
... with similar challenges throughout life. How Stress Affects Performance Sometimes sports-related stress is good — it prepares the body ... to eat well and get a good night's sleep, especially before games where the pressure's on. Do ...
De Block, Andreas; Dewitte, Siegfried
This article outlines a Darwinian approach to sports that takes into account its profoundly cultural character and thereby overcomes the traditional nature-culture dichotomies in the sociology of sport. We argue that there are good reasons to view sports as culturally evolved signaling systems that serve a function similar to (biological) courtship rituals in other animals. Our approach combines the insights of evolutionary psychology, which states that biological adaptations determine the boundaries for the types of sport that are possible, and pure cultural theories, which describe the mechanism of cultural evolution without referring to sport's biological bases. Several biological and cultural factors may moderate the direct effect that signaling value has on a sport's viability or popularity. Social learning underlies many aspects of the cultural control of sports, and sports have evolved new cultural functions more-or-less unrelated to mate choice as cultural evolution itself became important in humans.
Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
Raof R. A. A; Sudin S.; Mahrom N.; Rosli A. N. C
The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calc...
Full Text Available This paper deals with the topic of corporate identity in sports. The main objective of this paper is to present new views, trends and tools in building a desirable image for sports organizations using corporate identity tools, including some selected areas relating to the brand. The main points of this paper include corporate design, communication, culture and sports organizations’ product. These tools are all linked and transformed into the creation of a cool brand for a new generation of athletes and consumers – the so-called Generation Y of sports. This group is becoming a new economically important group for many companies in sports, as well as many sports organizations. The Sports industry is heavily dependent on the new generation of athletes in all performance levels, and sport fans. Therefore, it is necessary to constantly be innovating new corporate identity tools with a focus on the sports area.
... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...
... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...
Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard
Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and
Andersen, Tem Frank
This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...
Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen
Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.
Clumpner, Roy A.
This book, which is primarily for secondary physical education teachers, presents a sequential approach to teaching skills that are essential to eight sports. The activities and lead-up games included in the book put beginning students directly into game-like situations where they can practice skills. Each chapter begins with a background of the…
Galagan, Patricia A.
Capturing and leveraging knowledge is an important new management trend that is as yet undefined. Some companies are accounting for their intellectual capital and applying it to the company balance sheets. (JOW)
Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes) whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that fig...
... Part VI The President Executive Order 13545--President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition... Order 13545 of June 22, 2010 President's Council on Fitness, Sports, and Nutrition By the authority... recognize that good nutrition goes hand in hand with fitness and sports participation, Executive Order 13265...
Full Text Available Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research question, consists in defining the moment of customs control pre or post-clearance control of goods.
Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro
The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection, competition performan....... Constructing separate selection indexes would allow for optimal weighting of information sources such as studbook-entry inspection traits in accordance to the breeding goal of each sports discipline....
Gadiraju, Gaurav Kumar
JEL: M1 - Business Administration; M31 – Marketing; M37 - Advertising The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of social media in the field of sports marketing. This is carried out through an in-depth analysis on sports marketing and the rising popularity of social media marketing for sports brands in the world. One such brand is Nike, Inc. This company has shifted its focus to digital marketing. As social media marketing started to explode, the traditional marketing methods ...
Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M
Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not
Full Text Available Relation between Adapted Physical Activity (APA are described in the article. Recent sport professions as so as professions related to sports are formulated. "Coach" profession is defined with more details, the term "sport of persons with disability" is explained, too. On the bases of personal experience the APA domain which every coach can be touched are presented. Events which recent coaches, sports clubs in Czech Republic participated in are added. The basic questions of EUSAPA project are answered: regular sport and APA are blended together. Diffusion of sport and APA can become good platform for inclusion in life span context. Coaches should be informed about basic principles of APA according the level of connection (humanitarian domain - coaches in sports of disabled, the type of sport (relation to general sport and performance level (recreation - top competitive. The topic APA should be included on adequate level in education courses of coaches. The practice in sport activities of people with disability has to be involved.
Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak performance level likely doesn't require a special diet or supplements. It's all about working the right foods into your fitness plan in the right ...
Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak performance level ... fortified cereals. Calcium — a must for protecting against stress fractures — is found in dairy foods, such as low-fat ...
Franzon, Vilma Maria
Good leadership is important if you like to have high quality in the results. My experience in the production of the television industry is that conditions for good leadership is insufficient. Therefore, I have tried to get answers for those two questions in my exam report: What are the characteristics of good leadership? What are the prerequisites for good leadership out of production? The method I used is a literature study and observation. I have read a number of books and research studies...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...
Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...
Ingram, Anne G.
An aesthetic dimension of sport appreciation is found in the paintings and sculptures of great masters who were intrigued by the subject of sports. This article presents specifics on bringing sports art into the classroom. (Authors/JA)
Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław
Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.
Full Text Available Introduction: Young people who continue their education at universities do not have to give up their physical activity. The existence of Academic Sports Unions allows you to continue and develop your sporting career. A significant number of students regularly participating in AZS classes have a chance to develop their sporting career. The possibility of obtaining a sports scholarship is an additional motivation for students to pursue their own scientific and sporting goals. Sport through the process of self-improvement introduces a specific discipline to everyday life, teaches regularity, diligence and good organization of time.The aim of the study: 1 Did you start your education at a university by limiting or giving up sports?, 2 Do universities and AZS help develop a sports career? 3 Did the students of AZS influence the development of their sports career? Material and methods: 204 students participated in the study, an original questionnaire consisting of 26 questions was used. The questions concerned, among others: forms of physical activity and training experience, the impact of undertaking education at a university on the development of a sports career. Results and conclusions: Over 80% of respondents did not give up their sport before starting their studies. Over 50% of respondents believe that AZS and universities support the development of young athletes, giving the opportunity to get better and better results.
Konkle, Bruce E.
Discusses what a high school yearbook sports staff should deliver to their peers in overall sports coverage. Suggests that keys to good sports coverage are quality action photos that entice readers, "featurized" sports articles, attention to the overall design of the spreads, team photos that which show faces clearly, and a scoreboard on…
GEBRIL MOHAMED R.
sporting organizations as a self-financing and registration rights with the moral and intellectual property law. 6.Contracts with companies specializing in advertising. 7.Establishment of a database within the sports bodies including easy care and investors work in the sport.8.The administration of sports events in order to obtain financial resources in all sports.9.Printed Manual athlete each sporting Organization shows the name, emblem and Organization build all data sporting Organization to facilitate the investors how to select the Organization that will be sponsored investor or player, which sponsored and carries aids.
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M
Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.
van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving
This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to
Swan, Peter; Otago, Leonie; Finch, Caroline F; Payne, Warren R
Sport is an important context for physical activity and it is critical that safe environments are provided for such activity. Sports safety is influenced by the presence of sports ground environmental hazards such as ground hardness, poorly maintained playing fields, surface irregularities and the presence of debris/rubbish. To reduce injury risk, sports governing bodies need to ensure regular assessment of grounds safety and the removal of identified hazards. This study describes sports ground safety guidelines and recommendations of a sample of sports governing bodies and provides recommendations for how they could be improved. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with nominees of state governing bodies for Australian football, cricket, soccer and hockey. The use of matchday checklists to identify ground hazards, as mandated by insurance companies was widely promoted across all levels of play. Sports governing bodies had more direct involvement in assessing grounds used for higher level of play, than grounds used for community or junior sport. There was a general presumption that identified hazards on community grounds would be corrected by local councils or clubs before anyone played on them, but this was rarely monitored. Sports governing bodies run the risk of being negligent in their duty of care to sports participants if they do not formally monitor the implementation of their ground safety polices and guidelines. There is also further scope for sports bodies to work closely with insurers to develop ground safety assessment guidelines specific to their sport.
Made in Nigeria” concept and Companies that engage in made in Nigeria goods. It will explore how tax incentives can accelerate the growth of companies engaged in manufacturing of such made in Nigeria goods. From this paper, written ...
Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others
Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…
Sports are a focus of millions of Americans as they attend, view, and participate in sports. The World Series, Final Four, and Super Bowl often bring back memories of fun-filled parties and celebrations, but there may be several reasons why sports are so popular in the United States. The popularity of sports, however, does not necessarily mean it…
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Bragg, Marie A; Roberto, Christina A; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Elbel, Brian
Food and beverage marketing has been identified as a major driver of obesity yet sports sponsorship remains common practice and represents millions of dollars in advertising expenditures. Research shows that food and beverage products associated with sports (e.g., M&M's with National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing logo) generate positive feelings, excitement, and a positive self-image among adults and children. Despite this, self-regulatory pledges made by food companies to limit exposure of unhealthy products to children have not improved the nutritional quality of foods marketed to children. We reviewed the literature about sports-related food marketing, including food and beverage companies' use of sports sponsorships, athlete endorsements, and sports video games. This review demonstrates that sports sponsorships with food and beverage companies often promote energy-dense, nutrient-poor products and while many of these promotions do not explicitly target youth, sports-related marketing affects food perceptions and preferences among youth. Furthermore, endorsement of unhealthy products by professional athletes sends mixed messages; although athletes may promote physical activity, they simultaneously encourage consumption of unhealthy products that can lead to negative health outcomes. We argue that more athletes and sports organizations should stop promoting unhealthy foods and beverages and work with health experts to encourage healthy eating habits among youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are
method inspired by “symbolic interactionist” aspects and focusing on Annika Sörenstam's commercial success with personal sports branding and its interdependence with sports branding at the product and corporate levels. Data collection was conducted in accordance with interpretative research traditions...... and sports brands at the product and corporate levels – often underlining good ROIs for all involved parties if the sports branding process is executed well strategically. This article presents personal sports branding as a hybrid phenomenon, which is dynamic by heart and part of a well‐coordinated process...
Ling, Pamela M; Haber, Lawrence A; Wedl, Stefani
Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices.
Haber, Lawrence A.; Wedl, Stefani
Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices. PMID:19910357
In postmodern capitalist market economies, management of the single organisation is bound to be guided by several rationales, which are in conflict with each other. For some writers this perception leads to the argument, that conceptions of management should strive towards goals beyond the present...... society. For others, the handling of plural perspectives is just a management discipline. However these positions seem to share a focus on organization as a the arena for the organization of the good. The contribution looks at the management of occupational accidents as an example of striving for good...
This article outlines the current state of law in Canada in respect to good faith in contratial relations. The topic is highly relevant due to expected growth in the numbers of contracts concluded between European and Canadian enterprises in the wake of adoption of the Comprehensive Economic...
Dichter, Heather L.; Vamplew, Wray
The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This article provides a scrambled form of SWOT analysis of the ideas contained in the various contributions to this special issue on sport historians and the field of sport history. The market for sport history, pure and simple, is not in good shape in many places. Yet we must be careful not to confuse trends in employment prospects with shorte...
Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.
Christensen, Mette Krogh
dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those......Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...
Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David
This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy...... process. It is thus a book primarily aimed at managers, but should also be useful for MBA students undertaking strategy assignments It provides helpful, practical guidance and identifies weaknesses of traditional methods. It also presents a variety of tools which may be used in the appraisal process...
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.
The renewable energy sector is one of the fastest growing components of the energy industry and along with this increased demand for renewable energy there has been an increase in investing and financing activities. The tradeoff between risk and return in the renewable energy sector is, however, precarious. Renewable energy companies are often among the riskiest types of companies to invest in and for this reason it is necessary to have a good understanding of the risk factors. This paper uses a variable beta model to investigate the determinants of renewable energy company risk. The empirical results show that company sales growth has a negative impact on company risk while oil price increases have a positive impact on company risk. When oil price returns are positive and moderate, increases in sales growth can offset the impact of oil price returns and this leads to lower systematic risk.
The trends and factors currently emerging are likely to have significant influence on the way the upstream oil and gas industry evolves in the coming decade. This paper discusses how these trends might influence events in the 1990s, particularly how they might influence relationships between host countries and companies in the oil industry. State owned companies will dominate the industry in resource terms. These statcos fall into three groups: a small group of technically able, financially sound, well-managed companies; a group of consumer statcos that have limited domestic production but significant domestic demand; a large group that are finding it difficult to maintain their production facilities in good standing to maximize recovery from their resources. This paper describes the future private sector as consisting of the Surviving Sisters and smaller, private companies very active in the upstream. How will these various players behave in the years to come? Conventional activity in the upstream will continue as companies seek to optimize their upstream portfolios
Kavussanu, Maria; Boardley, Ian D
This research aimed to (a) develop a measure of prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport, (b) examine its invariance across sex and sport, and (c) provide evidence for its discriminant and concurrent validity. We conducted two studies. In study 1, team sport athletes (N=1,213) recruited from 103 teams completed questionnaires assessing demographics and prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. Factor analyses revealed two factors representing prosocial behavior and two factors representing antisocial behavior. The model had a very good fit to the data and showed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across sex and sport. The final scale consisted of 20 items. In Study 2, team-sport athletes (N=106) completed the scale and measures of empathy and goal orientation. Analyses provided support for the discriminant and concurrent validity of the scale. In conclusion, the new scale can be used to measure prosocial and antisocial behaviors in team sport.
Porter, Maree; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C
Umbilical cord blood banking is one of many biomedical innovations that confront pregnant women with new choices about what they should do to secure their own and their child's best interests. Many mothers can now choose to donate their baby's umbilical cord blood (UCB) to a public cord blood bank or pay to store it in a private cord blood bank. Donation to a public bank is widely regarded as an altruistic act of civic responsibility. Paying to store UCB may be regarded as a "unique opportunity" to provide "insurance" for the child's future. This paper reports findings from a survey of Australian women that investigated the decision to either donate or store UCB. We conclude that mothers are faced with competing discourses that force them to choose between being a "good mother" and fulfilling their role as a "good citizen." We discuss this finding with reference to the concept of value pluralism.
Describes an exhibition (originating at the Smithsonian Institution) which celebrates athletes and sports-related figures who became legends in their own time. Information is presented on art works, sports memorabilia, advertising posters, and photographs. (AM)
... re important for sports such as football , hockey, baseball, softball, biking, skateboarding, inline skating, skiing , and snowboarding — to ... in sports such as football, ice hockey , and softball and baseball when batting. Goggles are often worn ...
In spring 2013, the regional directorate for youth, sports and social cohesion and the regional healthcare agency in Franche-Comté presented and signed the first regional health, sports and well-being plan.
chapters on the benefits of exercise, sports for older persons and those with disabilities, sports physiotherapy, exercise psychology and medical coverage for major events. The stated ... practice will be aware of an increasing reluctance on the.
Full Text Available In previous decades, sport activities were hold only in local and regional areas and they used to attract only a small group of people. These activities were mostly far from professionalism and mainly amateurish. Reaching many people took too much time. After the developments in technology and especially in mass communication systems, all sportive branches have started to reach much more people. Today, sport activities are followed by many people. The sport activities today are not only a sport but also a sector which run millions of dollars. Because of these developments, a concept called as “sport industry” has emerged. Especially football and other specific branches of sports such as basketball, volleyball and baseball have started to reach much more people. Male and female athletes in this industry have become well-known stars. Big companies have signed sponsorship agreements with world-famous stars and teams, and by this way they have started to market their products to the target consumers. Many of old and big companies have realized the positive effect of sport on the people. So, they have tried to introduce themselves in global market through some of sport clubs or organizations. Many old companies in the world have been applying this strategy for marketing. This strategy is getting more popular day by day. By developing technology and globalization, big Turkish companies have tended to provide sport sponsorships. As a typical example, Turkish Airlines Corporation has been trying to increase its brand familiarity and reliability through advertisement for 10 years. In this study in which the sponsorship activities of THY are examined, the explorational research type that is mostly used with case research, has been carried out by deepening the information collected from secondary data. Marketing and sponsorship activities which were used by THY have been analyzed, and material and immaterial values gained by THY by means of these
Evans, M Blair; Allan, Veronica; Erickson, Karl; Martin, Luc J; Budziszewski, Ross; Côté, Jean
Models of sport development often support the assumption that young athletes' psychosocial experiences differ as a result of seemingly minor variations in how their sport activities are designed (eg, participating in team or individual sport; sampling many sports or specialising at an early age). This review was conducted to systematically search sport literature and explore how the design of sport activities relates to psychosocial outcomes. Systematic search, followed by data extraction and synthesis. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were applied and a coding sheet was used to extract article information and code for risk of bias. Academic databases and manual search of peer-reviewed journals. Search criteria determined eligibility primarily based on the sample (eg, ages 7 through 17 years) and study design (eg, measured psychosocial constructs). 35 studies were located and were classified within three categories: (1) sport types, (2) sport settings, and (3) individual patterns of sport involvement. These studies represented a wide range of scores when assessed for risk of bias and involved an array of psychosocial constructs, with the most prevalent investigations predicting outcomes such as youth development, self-esteem and depression by comparing (1) team or individual sport participants and (2) youth with varying amounts of sport involvement. As variations in sport activities impact youth sport experiences, it is vital for researchers to carefully describe and study these factors, while practitioners may use the current findings when designing youth sport programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Mihai Constantin Razvan BARBU
Full Text Available The scholarly literature in the ethics field approaches the ethical management issue in different areas such as accounting, retail, banking, public institutions or private companies. The subject of sports managers’ ethics is not very well highlighted in the national literature, as "sports industry" is constantly evolving. Sports have a strong impact on the national culture, influencing the values of millions of spectators and participants. The definition of sports given by the Council of Europe is "all forms of physical activity which, through more or less organized participation, aim at expressing or improving physical and psychological condition, the development of social relationships or obtaining positive results in all levels competitions". In this paper we conducted a study on managerial ethics tools within sports clubs. The used methodology involved the intersection of the main current stage of knowledge and the formulation of new judgments. The study identified and highlighted the major role of the manager of sports clubs in providing the framework for the manifestation of ethical behaviors.
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
Full Text Available A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that figure skating may count as art yet only in non-competitive contexts. Their burden is thus to explain why a routine (e.g., Torvill and Dean’s ‘Bolero’ may count as art in a showcase but not at the Olympics. The debate is also inevitably framed in terms of whether sport counts as art, neglecting the equally viable question of whether art in some form (e.g., competitive dance may also count as sport. I conclude in favour of an appropriately qualified sport-as-art thesis.
This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...
Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...
The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...
More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more
Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter
In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).
The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…
Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.
The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...
Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest
Carter, Mary-Ann; Signal, Louise; Edwards, Richard; Hoek, Janet; Maher, Anthony
High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target children. The findings suggest policies that restrict sponsorship of
This paper begins by acknowledging the interest taken by various international organisations in genetic enhancement and sport, including the US President's Council on Bioethics (July, 2002) and the World Anti-Doping Agency (March, 2002). It is noticed how sporting organisations have been particularly concerned to emphasize the 'threat' of genetics to sport, whereas other institutions have recognised the broader bioethical issues arising from this prospect, which do not readily reject the use of genetic technology in sport. Sports are identified as necessarily 'human' and 'moral' practices, the exploration of which can reveal greater insight into the intuitive fears about genetic modification. It is argued that anti-doping testing measures and sanctions unacceptably persecute the athlete. While there are substantial reasons to be concerned about the use of genetic modification in sport, the desire for policy ought not diminish the need for ethical research; nor ought such research embody the similar guise of traditional 'anti' doping strategies. Rather, the approach to genetics in sport must be informed more by broader social policies in bioethics and recognition of the greater goods arising from genetic technology.
Full Text Available People high in rumination are good at tasks that require persistence whereas people low in rumination are good at tasks that require flexibility. Here we examine real world implications of these differences in dynamic, team sport. In two studies, we found that professional male football (soccer players from Germany and female field hockey players on the US national team were lower in rumination than were non-athletes. Further, low levels of rumination were associated with a longer career at a higher level in football players. Results indicate that athletes in dynamic, team sport might benefit from the flexibility associated with being low in rumination.
Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin
Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...
Caplan, A L
How did bioethics manage to grow, flourish and ultimately do so well from a very unpromising birth in the 1970s? Many explanations have been advanced. Some ascribe the field's growth to a puzzling, voluntary abnegation of moral authority by medicine to non-physicians. Some think bioethics survived by selling out to the biomedical establishment-public and private. This transaction involved bestowing moral approbation on all manner of biomedicine's doings for a seat at a well-stocked funding table. Some see a sort of clever intellectual bamboozlement at work wherein bioethicists pitched a moral elixir of objective expertise that the morally needy but unsophisticated in medicine and the biological sciences were eager to swallow. While each of these reasons has its defenders, I think the main reason that bioethics did well was that it did good. By using the media to move into the public arena, the field engaged the public imagination, provoked dialogue and debate, and contributed to policy changes that benefitted patients and healthcare providers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Holly Raima Hippolite
Full Text Available In this paper, we argue that the intersection of two key ideologies – New Zealand’s purported history of good race relations, and the positive contribution sport is believed to make to racial equality – has created an environment in which it is difficult to talk about, let alone discuss constructively, Māori experiences of racism in the sport context. Our aim is to put the issue on the agenda by engaging with 10 experienced Māori sport participants, coaches and administrators whose experiences demonstrate the existence of, and pain caused by, cultural and institutional racism in New Zealand sport. In this aim, we do not seek to hide behind a veil of neutrality or objectivity. Rather, following a kaupapa Māori research approach, our interest is in bringing to light the voices, frustrations and concerns of Māori in order to contribute to a much-needed conversation.
Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović
Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...
and actions towards workers, and findings of independent researchers. Currently, differing perspectives on product "goodness" are being addressed and mediated by NGOs and B-corporations, as they work with private companies and corporations to communicate product information to consumers. One organization...... focused on scenarios where shoppers were asked about CSR in their product decisions found that: "...when consumers are given information that they trust about a company's level of social responsibility, it affects how they evaluate the company and their purchase intentions. Furthermore, a low price did....... Asymmetries in knowledge about product "goodness" make it difficult for ethically inspired consumers to make informed decisions about the products they purchase. These knowledge asymmetries emerge from differing perspectives on guidelines for consumer safety set by government bodies, CSR initiatives...
Dain, Stephen J
Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...
Spano, Marie; Antonio, Jose
The field of sports nutrition is defined not only by dietary recommendations for various athletes, research and new supplements that are on store shelves but also by the direction of the industry itself. Consumer spending, media coverage, professional athlete endorsement of various supplements, lawsuits, regulations in governing bodies and clinical research all have an impact on the direction and growth of the sports nutrition industry. To date, no supplement has affected sports nutrition as much as creatine and the company that both funded most of the research supporting the ergogenic benefits of creatine and capitalized on such research. There is no current leader in the sports nutrition market. Instead, companies are vying among steady competition for space on store shelves and overall product sales.
Mega sporting meets constitute major event attractions which pool large numbers of people to host destinations. Sport-motivated travel contributes sustantially to the business of tourism. Host nations stand good chances of capturing the lion share of this business. The present study examines Africa's position in the hosting of ...
... in our Nation's health and wellness. Participation in sports can strengthen both body and mind, and... live a healthy lifestyle. Through the President's Council on Fitness, Sports and Nutrition, my.... Regular physical activity and good nutrition are essential to staying healthy. A balanced diet and...
Sport organisations today face heightened competition on a global basis resulting in their raising expectations regarding results. Sport coaches are thus experiencing increased pressures with regard to recognition for good work done, compensation and support, rapport with colleagues, and supervision that influence their ...
Sport is often regarded as an important part of life in rural Australia, contributing to community identity, sense of place, social interaction and good health. The involvement of rural citizens in sport also has the potential to contribute to social capital. Understood in simple terms as norms of reciprocity and associational life, social capital…
Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.
Abstract There is a description of sport- recreation services and their quality presented in this article. The most important factors determining the high quality of providing services and the meaning of quality standards in the process of providing sport- recreation services are shown. There are some research results conducted among residents of Silesia province on the offers of sport – recreation companies and the qualities of their services. Key words: the quality of services, sport- recreation services, purchaser.
Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.
With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…
Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…
Troutman, Kathryn Kraemer
This paper compares searching for a Federal Job to taking up a new sport. Becoming good at a sport takes lessons and coaching, study of the rules, practice, investment in equipment and special clothes, time to play, scheduling, and ongoing interest with friend who enjoy the same sport. An Expert Player/Jobseeker in the Federal Job Search System…
Kleb, Cerise; Welding, Kevin; Cohen, Joanna E; Smith, Katherine C
Tobacco companies have historically associated their products with sports through event sponsorship and sports-themed advertising campaigns. Such linkages serve to enhance brand image by connecting cigarette brands to ideals associated with sports such as strength, individual accomplishment, and a healthy body. Public health policy progress has created restrictions for tobacco sponsorship and restricted traditional advertising avenues for tobacco products. Nonetheless, the pack itself remains as a mechanism by which to link cigarettes to sports and sporting prowess. Thus, we analyze depictions of sport and references to sports terminology on cigarette packs. To describe the sports-related marketing appeals on cigarette packages purchased in 14 low and middle income countries. In 2013, we collected and coded cigarette packs from 14 low and middle income countries and we returned to four of these countries for further data collection in 2015. Packs from both years were assessed for sports-related appeals (text and imagery) and sports-related brand names to identify sports appeals on cigarette packs. The analysis yielded 36 brands with distinct depictions of sport or sporting terminology on the pack. Text-based appeals were found on 24 of the 36 distinct "sports appeal" packs (e.g., "Polo," "Olympic," "Win," "iScore"). Sporting imagery was present on 22 packs (e.g., soccer ball, race car, wrestling match, trophy). The pack is a powerful medium through which tobacco companies continue to associate their products with idealized concepts associated with sports. These are potentially problematic associations that could be restricted through plain and standardized packaging policy initiatives.
Williams, Vernon B
Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.
The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book enc...
Krzysztof M. Westfal
Abstract By getting the right protection for national trade mark, it is understood use of the mark for profit or for professional purposes throughout the territory of Poland. In contrast, a similar right conferred by a Community trade mark, concerns the application of the mark throughout the Community. Use of the mark is in particular the placement of the sign to the goods covered by the right of protection or their packaging, delivering and placing the goods on the market, import or export, as well as offering or providing services under that mark and the use of such a sign for advertising purposes. In the era of big money that undoubtedly govern the sport today, the law of trademarks, beside the rights to broadcast sporting events, gaining for all sporting significance of key organizational units. Clubs, associations and sports federations benefit from trademark rights, principally through the granting of licenses to entrepreneurs to use them. This process is most easily seen by the way the organization of major sporting events. As the aim of the research undersigned has chosen an indication of the legal rules governing trademarks in sports, in the face of ever increasing significance. The publication will include a presentation method and rules for the use of sports characters already registered by sports entities, as well as the benefits flowing from here. The implementation of the research will be carried out primarily by the method dogmatic. The analysis will be subject to national laws and EU. Taken the issue arises, however, need to take into account the achievements of other sciences, especially marketing, business and economics. Among the materials analyzed, in addition to the acts of commonly mention should also be stored in the data registers trademarks UP RP and OHIM. Behind the main conclusion flowing from this report should be regarded assertion that quality in modern
Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...
Was the Conconi test validated by sporting success, expert opinion or good science? ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Despite scientific evidence to the contrary, a popular incremental field test for endurance athletes (Conconi Test) ...
Hoffman, G. [Peabody Energy (United States)
The paper outlines the possibilities for mines to work with surrounding communities to bring about effective land reclamation. Last year Peabody Energy teams reclaimed more than 5000 acres of land and planted nearly 750,000 trees, demonstrating that sustainable development is possible in a way that is compatible with environmental improvement in coal mining. The company has won over 20 awards over the last two years. The North Antelope Rochelle Mine in Wyoming earned a Gold Good Neighbour Award for promoting best practices in environmental conservation and mining education. The Black Mesa and Kayenta mines, which operate on Navajo and Hopi lands in Arizona, were honoured with a Silver Good Neighbour Award and a National Excellence in Mining and Reclamation Award. These mines partnered with the tribes, the Bureau of Indian Affairs and local residents to give residents access to grazing land still under Peabody's control. The Farmersburg Mine in Indiana received the Bronze Good Neighbour Award for commitment to industry education and outreach activities. 5 photos.
Jéssica Natuline Ianof
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...
Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.
Ardern, Clare L; Glasgow, Philip; Schneiders, Anthony; Witvrouw, Erik; Clarsen, Benjamin; Cools, Ann; Gojanovic, Boris; Griffin, Steffan; Khan, Karim M; Moksnes, Håvard; Mutch, Stephen A; Phillips, Nicola; Reurink, Gustaaf; Sadler, Robin; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Thorborg, Kristian; Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Wilk, Kevin E; Bizzini, Mario
Deciding when to return to sport after injury is complex and multifactorial-an exercise in risk management. Return to sport decisions are made every day by clinicians, athletes and coaches, ideally in a collaborative way. The purpose of this consensus statement was to present and synthesise current evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to sport. A half day meeting was held in Bern, Switzerland, after the First World Congress in Sports Physical Therapy. 17 expert clinicians participated. 4 main sections were initially agreed upon, then participants elected to join 1 of the 4 groups-each group focused on 1 section of the consensus statement. Participants in each group discussed and summarised the key issues for their section before the 17-member group met again for discussion to reach consensus on the content of the 4 sections. Return to sport is not a decision taken in isolation at the end of the recovery and rehabilitation process. Instead, return to sport should be viewed as a continuum, paralleled with recovery and rehabilitation. Biopsychosocial models may help the clinician make sense of individual factors that may influence the athlete's return to sport, and the Strategic Assessment of Risk and Risk Tolerance framework may help decision-makers synthesise information to make an optimal return to sport decision. Research evidence to support return to sport decisions in clinical practice is scarce. Future research should focus on a standardised approach to defining, measuring and reporting return to sport outcomes, and identifying valuable prognostic factors for returning to sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
The major racket sports include badminton, squash, table tennis and tennis. The growth of sports science and the commercialization of racket sports in recent years have focused attention on improved performance and this has led to a more detailed study and understanding of all aspects of racket sports. The aim here, therefore, is to review recent developments of the application of science to racket sports. The scientific disciplines of sports physiology and nutrition, notational analysis, sports biomechanics, sports medicine, sports engineering, sports psychology and motor skills are briefly considered in turn. It is evident from these reviews that a great deal of scientific endeavour has been applied to racket sports, but this is variable across both the racket sports and the scientific disciplines. A scientific approach has helped to: implement training programmes to improve players' fitness; guide players in nutritional and psychological preparation for play; inform players of the strategy and tactics used by themselves and their opponents; provide insight into the technical performance of skills; understand the effect of equipment on play; and accelerate the recovery from racket-arm injuries. Racket sports have also posed a unique challenge to scientists and have provided vehicles for developing scientific methodology. Racket sports provide a good model for investigating the interplay between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and the effect of nutrition, heat and fatigue on performance. They have driven the development of mathematical solutions for multi-segment interactions within the racket arm during the performance of shots, which have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms of both performance and injury. They have provided a unique challenge to sports engineers in relation to equipment performance and interaction with the player. Racket sports have encouraged developments in notational analysis both in terms of analytical procedures and the
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID
Gabus, Vincent; Monney, Pierre
Physical activity is beneficial for health and the cardiovascular risk profile. However, it can be dangerous in people with cardiac disease that might be asymptomatic. Individuals of all ages and all levels engage in sporting activities. The medical approach is different whether one evaluates a young competitive athlete, a sedentary adult who wants to start a recreational sport or a patient with heart disease who wishes to engage in sport. This article summarizes the various recommendations on the subject.
Full Text Available The combination of sport and physics oﬀers several attractive ingredients for teaching physics, at primary, secondary, as well as university level. These cover topics like interdisciplinary teaching, sports activities as physics experiments, video analysis or modeling. A variety of examples are presented that should act as stimulus, accompanied by a list of references that should support the implementation of sport topics into physics teaching.
Full Text Available One of the characteristics of contemporary sport is certainly a wide array of sports and sport discliplines young people can choose among. This is particularly obvious through establishment of numerous schools of sport as places where people can acquire fundamental sport knoweldge and skills. The point of selection for such an engagement is the school, or, in other words, primary school children. The development of young athletes starts at a very early stage. They are faced with high demands and exposed to training sessions of different scope and intensity. In order to direct complex processes in sport efficiently and well, various factors need to be considered that affect it to a lesser or higher degree. One of those factors is indisputably the family, i.e. the influence parents have on meeting the children’s need for physical (sport activity. In the process of children’s socialization that factor is given the greatest prominence. Therefore, parents are a crucial factor in young people’s sport engagement and, thus, cannot be taken as a constituent part of a sports organization’s surroundings, but as a partner in their development.
Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.
Kobierecki Michał Marcin
Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.
Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...... dissemination around the world. In spite of resistance by the adherents of gymnastics or traditional movement cultures, sport with its focus on competition and records became popular all over the world. Both Great Britain and the United States induced their political and cultural hegemony via the soft power...... of modern sport which caused reactions, e.g. resistances or adaptations of indigenous, colonized, and other affected populations....
Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding
Raof R. A. A
Full Text Available The organizer of sport events often facing problems such as wrong calculations of marks and scores, as well as difficult to create a good and reliable schedule. Most of the time, the issues about the level of integrity of committee members and also issues about errors made by human came into the picture. Therefore, the development of sport tournament automated scheduling system is proposed. The system will be able to automatically generate the tournament schedule as well as automatically calculating the scores of each tournament. The problem of scheduling the matches of a round robin and knock-out phase in a sport league are given focus. The problem is defined formally and the computational complexity is being noted. A solution algorithm is presented using a two-step approach. The first step is the creation of a tournament pattern and is based on known graph-theoretic method. The second one is an assignment problem and it is solved using a constraint based depth-first branch and bound procedure that assigns actual teams to numbers in the pattern. As a result, the scheduling process and knock down phase become easy for the tournament organizer and at the same time increasing the level of reliability.
Schmid, Julia; Gut, Vanessa; Conzelmann, Achim; Sudeck, Gorden
Target group-specific intervention strategies are often called for in order to effectively promote exercise and sport. Currently, motives and goals are rarely included systematically in the design of interventions, despite the key role they play in well-being and adherence to exercise. The Bernese motive and goal inventory (BMZI) allows an individual diagnosis of motives and goals in exercise and sport in people in middle adulthood. The purpose of the present study was to elaborate on the original BMZI and to modify the questionnaire in order to improve its psychometric properties. The study is based on data from two samples (sample A: 448 employees of companies and authorities; sample B: 853 patients of a medical rehabilitation programme). We applied confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modelling. Overall, both the original and the updated BMZI had an acceptable to good validity and a good reliability. However, the revised questionnaire had slightly better reliability. The updated BMZI consists of 23 items and covers the following motives and goals: Body/Appearance, Contact, Competition/Performance, Aesthetics, Distraction/Catharsis, Fitness and Health. It is recommended as an economical inventory for the individual diagnosis of important psychological conditions for exercise and sport.
Carter Mary-Ann; Signal Louise; Edwards Richard; Hoek Janet; Maher Anthony
Abstract Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages do...
... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or ... for the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse ...
Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Looney, Marilyn A
Many sports, such as, gymnastics, diving, ski jumping, and figure skating, use judges' scores to determine the winner of a competition. These judges use some type of rating scale when judging performances (e.g., figure skating: 0.0 - 6.0). Sport governing bodies have the responsibility of setting and enforcing quality control parameters for judge performance. Given the judging scandals in figure skating at the 1998 and 2002 Olympics, judge performance in sport is receiving greater scrutiny. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how results from Rasch analyses can be used to provide in-depth feedback to judges about their scoring patterns. Nine judges' scores for 20 pairs of figure skaters who competed at the 2002 Winter Olympics were analyzed using a four-faceted (skater pair ability, skating aspect difficulty, program difficulty, and judge severity) Rasch rating scale model that was not common to all judges. Fit statistics, the logical ordering of skating aspects, skating programs, and separation indices all indicated a good fit of the data to the model. The type of feedback that can be given to judges about their scoring pattern was illustrated for one judge (USA) whose performance was flagged as being unpredictable. Feedback included a detailed description of how the rating scale was used; for example, 10% of all marks given by the American judge were unexpected by the model (Z > |2|). Three figures illustrated differences between the judge's observed and expected marks arranged according to the pairs' skating order and final placement in the competition. Scores which may represent "nationalistic bias" or a skating order influence were flagged by looking at these figures. If sport governing bodies wish to improve the performance of their judges, they need to employ methods that monitor the internal consistency of each judge as a many-facet Rasch analysis does.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...
Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.
van Dalfsen, Gerco; van Hoecke, Jo; Westerbeek, Hans
This research is part of a comprehensive PhD research project that focuses on the existence and development of leadership in sport management practices. The underpinning factors that are associated with successfully leading top teams in sport are often used as an example in regard to being
Infrastructure of the country in which the sports event will be held ... You have to consider the type of sport and type of injury you will most likely be .... temperature (4 - 25°C). ... Fluorescein eye strips and eye anaesthetic ... drops/min set.
Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...
Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.
Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob
In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive"…
Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel
Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.
Toma, J. Douglas
Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
Ian M. Franks; Mike Hughes
This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition
Ian M. Franks
Full Text Available This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition
Åman, M; Forssblad, M; Larsén, K
Sports with high numbers of athletes and acute injuries are an important target for preventive actions at a national level. Both for the health of the athlete and to reduce costs associated with injury. The aim of this study was to identify injuries where injury prevention should focus, in order to have major impact on decreasing acute injury rates at a national level. All athletes in the seven investigated sport federations (automobile sports, basketball, floorball, football (soccer), handball, ice hockey, and motor sports) were insured by the same insurance company. Using this insurance database, the incidence and proportion of acute injuries, and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI), at each body location, was calculated. Comparisons were made between sports, sex, and age. In total, there were 84 754 registered injuries during the study period (year 2006-2013). Athletes in team sports, except in male ice hockey, had the highest risk to sustain an injury and PMI in the lower limb. Females had higher risk of injury and PMI in the lower limb compared to males, in all sports except in ice hockey. This study recommends that injury prevention at national level should particularly focus on lower limb injuries. In ice hockey and motor sports, head/neck and upper limb injuries also need attention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Molnar, G.; Rathonyi-Odor, K.; Borbely, Akos
CSR has become increasingly important in todayâ€™s business world and managers must consider not only the economic results of their decisions but also the legal, ethical, moral, and social impact and repercussions of each of their decisions. Some multinational companiesâ€™ CSR activities even clearly represent applicability of CSR in sport management. The aim of this study was to do a critical comparative analysis, present the changes, alterations in the traditional company philosophy, object...
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr
Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...
Full Text Available The economic environment and business, advertising in sport is one of the ways that most companies to manage the brand, its products and expanding its market in the country. The aim of the present study investigates the effects of advertising on transfer of brand identity from the perspective of sports consumers in Premier League football. This study on the nature and purpose and in terms of descriptive and correlational in terms of search data, a survey was carried out that way. After face and content validity, reliability test using Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire, the effect of advertising tools 0.89, questionnaire transfer brand identity was 0.86, respectively. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods for the calculation and processing information, and also Spss software packages and LISREL were used. The study findings also confirmed the emergence of structural equation and the findings of other researchers, showed a promotional tool to transfer of brand identity from the perspective of the Sports consumer was significant effect (Chi-Square/df=2/04, RMSEA=0/059, P-Value =0/0001. The effect of each variable prioritize research also showed use of tool television advertising has the greatest impact on consumers transfer of brand identity. According to the results, it can be said that managers, marketers and planners of advertising companies, organizations and clubs and sporting goods service provider using of the effectiveness of each advertising tool and provide an integrated program of tools and to inform, remind and convince consumers can transfer of brand identity or brand and achieve their advertising goals.
Clinical Trial Data as Public Goods: Fair Trade and the Virtual Knowledge Bank as a Solution to the Free Rider Problem - A Framework for the Promotion of Innovation by Facilitation of Clinical Trial Data Sharing among Biopharmaceutical Companies in the Era of Omics and Big Data.
Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Reumann, Matthias; Lehrach, Hans; Brand, Angela
Knowledge in the era of Omics and Big Data has been increasingly conceptualized as a public good. Sharing of de-identified patient data has been advocated as a means to increase confidence and public trust in the results of clinical trials. On the other hand, research has shown that the current research and development model of the biopharmaceutical industry has reached its innovation capacity. In response to that, the biopharmaceutical industry has adopted open innovation practices, with sharing of clinical trial data being among the most interesting ones. However, due to the free rider problem, clinical trial data sharing among biopharmaceutical companies could undermine their innovativeness. Based on the theory of public goods, we have developed a commons arrangement and devised a model, which enables secure and fair clinical trial data sharing over a Virtual Knowledge Bank based on a web platform. Our model uses data as a virtual currency and treats knowledge as a club good. Fair sharing of clinical trial data over the Virtual Knowledge Bank has positive effects on the innovation capacity of the biopharmaceutical industry without compromising the intellectual rights, proprietary interests and competitiveness of the latter. The Virtual Knowledge Bank is a sustainable and self-expanding model for secure and fair clinical trial data sharing that allows for sharing of clinical trial data, while at the same time it increases the innovation capacity of the biopharmaceutical industry. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Bragg, Marie A; Miller, Alysa N; Roberto, Christina A; Sam, Rachel; Sarda, Vishnudas; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D
Food and nonalcoholic beverage companies spend millions of dollars on professional sports sponsorships, yet this form of marketing is understudied. These sponsorships are valuable marketing tools but prompt concerns when unhealthy products are associated with popular sports organizations, especially those viewed by youth. This descriptive study used Nielsen audience data to select 10 sports organizations with the most 2-17 year old viewers of 2015 televised events. Sponsors of these organizations were identified and assigned to product categories. We identified advertisements promoting food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsorships on television, YouTube, and sports organization Web sites from 2006 to 2016, and the number of YouTube advertisement views. The nutritional quality of advertised products was assessed. Youth watched telecasts associated with these sports organizations over 412 million times. These organizations had 44 food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors (18.8% of sponsors), second to automotive sponsors ( n = 46). The National Football League had the most food and/or nonalcoholic beverage sponsors ( n = 10), followed by the National Hockey League ( n = 7) and Little League ( n = 7). We identified 273 advertisements that featured food and/or nonalcoholic beverage products 328 times and product logos 83 times (some advertisements showed multiple products). Seventy-six percent ( n = 132) of foods had unhealthy nutrition scores, and 52.4% ( n = 111) of nonalcoholic beverages were sugar-sweetened. YouTube sponsorship advertisements totaled 195.6 million views. Sports sponsorships are commonly used to market unhealthy food and nonalcoholic beverages, exposing millions of consumers to these advertisements. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Agaku, Israel T; Odani, Satomi; Sturgis, Stephanie; Harless, Charles; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca
Smokeless tobacco has been actively promoted by tobacco companies using endorsements by major sport figures, and research indicates that tobacco advertising can lead to youth initiation of tobacco use (1,2). Television and radio advertisements for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco have been prohibited since 1969,* and the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement(†) further prohibited tobacco companies from targeting youths with tobacco product advertisements in specified areas. In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), under authority of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), prohibited tobacco-brand sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship of sports and entertainment events or other social or cultural events using the tobacco brand name or anything identifiable with any brand of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco).(§) However, corporate-name tobacco sponsorship (i.e., sponsorship using the name of the corporation that manufactures regulated tobacco products) is still permitted under certain conditions.(¶) To monitor tobacco advertising and promotional activities in sports in the United States, CDC analyzed trends in sports-related marketing expenditures for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco during 1992-2013 using data from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). During 1992-2013, sports-related marketing expenditures, adjusted by the consumer price index to constant 2013 dollars, decreased significantly for both cigarettes (from $136 million in 1992 to $0 in 2013) and smokeless tobacco (from $34.8 million in 1992 to $2.1 million in 2013). During 2010-2013, after the prohibition of tobacco-brand sponsorship in sports under the FSPTCA, cigarette manufacturers reported no spending (i.e., $0) on sports-related advertising and promotional activities; in contrast, smokeless tobacco manufacturers reported expenditures of $16.3 million on advertising and promoting smokeless tobacco in sports during 2010-2013. These findings indicate that despite prohibitions
Soltoggio, Andrea; Dawson, Christian; Meng, Qinggang; Pain, Matthew
This book presents the main scientific results of the 10th International Symposium of Computer Science in Sport (IACSS/ISCSS 2015), sponsored by the International Association of Computer Science in Sport in collaboration with the International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP), which took place between September 9-11, 2015 at Loughborough, UK. This proceedings aims to build a link between computer science and sport, and reports on results from applying computer science techniques to address a wide number of problems in sport and exercise sciences. It provides a good platform and opportunity for researchers in both computer science and sport to understand and discuss ideas and promote cross-disciplinary research. The strictly reviewed and carefully revised papers cover the following topics: Modelling and Analysis, Artificial Intelligence in Sport, Virtual Reality in Sport, Neural Cognitive Training, IT Systems for Sport, Sensing Technologies and Image Processing.
Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç
The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…
The paper took a look at some factors such as administration and funding that bedevil Nigeria‟s Sports development efforts and saw grass root sports as a veritable vehicle for the realization of our sports development objective. Grass root sport was seen as the exposure of young and old, male and female all over the ...
Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...
This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…
Pène, Pierre; Touitou, Yvan
The report of the National Academy of Medicine named "Sport and Health" underlines the medical, social and educational dimensions of sporting activities. Various kinds of sporting practices are described: they concern the approximately 7,000 high level athletes, around 8,000 professional (licensed) sportsmen, and sporting club members (approximately 15 millions people). A large number of amateurs do not practice in any structure and therefore are neither managed in their activities nor medically followed. Some characteristics of sporting practice at various stages of life have been documented. Around 50% of the teenagers from 12 to 17 years have a sporting practice out-of-school besides the weekly three hours applied at school or college; however, the withdrawal of sporting practice by a high number of teenagers results in a sedentary lifestyle with overweight and obesity, major risks factors for health. Elderly people take a profit from a regular and medically controlled physical activity. Functional capacities are thus improved, cardiovascular risks factors among other, which results in better quality of life of the aged and delays their dependence. The benefit upon public health of sporting practice has been pointed out in the primary prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and mood disturbances. It is currently well acknowledged that sporting practice is an important component of public health in both primary and secondary prevention of many diseases. Deleterious effects of which the most serious is the sudden death related to a cardiovascular anomaly, which generally occurs during an important physical effort. An important sport drift is the practice of doping to improve performances through the use of hormones, anabolics, EPO, transfusions, ... When a person exceeds his/her capacities of adaptation, because of a badly adapted or a too intense drive, this overtraining results in a
Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol
Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…
Szabó Földesi Gyöngyi
Full Text Available The current economic crisis is the worst one in decades; it is surely the worst one the world has experienced since the Great Depression in the 1930s. Although it has affected countries with different positions in the global village in different ways and to different degrees, it has had worldwide consequences in most sub-systems of societies, including sport. These are hot issues in management and in everyday practice; still, relatively little attention has been paid to them within the social sciences. The objective of this paper is to close this gap by studying how the recent global economic crisis has affected sport. Two spheres of sport have been selected for analysis: mega sport events and grassroots sports. These two fields were chosen because of their social importance and because there is little scientific evidence about how they face and answer the challenges coming from the economic crisis. The topic is discussed from the theoretical perspective of the nexus of economy, politics, society, and culture. The methodological considerations refer to the lack of reliable sources for economic data related to sport. The results indicate that mega sport events have suffered less from the recession: there might be new actors, but the show goes on. The true loser is grassroots sport. Household impoverishment might lead to a decreased willingness of the individual practitioners to pay for sports goods and services and to a decreased contribution of volunteers working in sport. The funding models vary across countries, but generally both public and private funding has been reduced. In conclusion, it is underlined that no fields of sport have been left untouched by the current global economic crisis, but grassroots sports have suffered the most from it.
Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A
Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.
This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.
Israel, C W
Sport activity is an important issue in many patients with a pacemaker either because they performed sport activities before pacemaker implantation to reduce the cardiovascular risk or to improve the course of an underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. coronary artery disease, heart failure) by sports. Compared to patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) the risks from underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. ischemia, heart failure), arrhythmia, lead dysfunction or inappropriate therapy are less important or absent. Sport is contraindicated in dyspnea at rest, acute heart failure, new complex arrhythmia, acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction, valvular disease with indications for intervention and surgery and comorbidities which prevent physical activity. Patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (including hypertension) should preferably perform types and levels of physical activity that are aerobic (with dynamic exercise) such as running, swimming, cycling instead of sport with high anaerobic demands and high muscular workload. In heart failure, studies demonstrated advantages of isometric sport that increases the amount of muscle, thereby preventing cardiac cachexia. Sport with a risk of blows to the chest or physical contact (e.g. boxing, rugby, martial arts) should be avoided. Implantation, programming and follow-up should respect specific precautions to allow optimal physical activity with a pacemaker including implantation of bipolar leads on the side contralateral to the dominant hand, individual programming of the upper sensor and tracking rate and regular exercise testing.
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Blatter, B.M.; Ariëns, G.A.; Bongers, P.M.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population. METHODS: Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a follow up period of 3 years and were collected with yearly questionnaires or collected from company records.
Sietske van Berkel; Jaap Stomphorst; Hilco Prins; Marike Hettinga; Wasim Alsaqaf
This paper describes the development and first version of an eHealth system for sports physicians who support employees in improving their health and fitness. Regular physical activity improves quality of life and has various health benefits. Companies have an interest in the health and
seyed hassan hosseinimoghaddam
Full Text Available There is no doubt that sport is helping people to have health and happiness. However, this has undergone several changes over time since but there was professional the sports mix with championship and all there phenomena. Nowadays, sport is considered as a profession and many companies and plus can see it as a business. Moreover, governments mix the scores with politics. Referees are not guaranteeing discipline in sport fields. The decisions referees make have some consequences including civil responsibilities. So, the referees are expected to make up for theor loss caused by their decisions. From this point of view the responsibilities of the referrals should be investigated to clarify the limits of their responsibilities and the extent to which they have to make up for the loss. If these limitations are not clarified the maximum reaction the referee may receive would not extend notifications of unfair decisions which may not have any legal consequences for him. The may not be responsible to the loss caused by his decisions regarding the breakdown of club properties or viewers of the match. It should be noted that the referee alone is not responsible for making up the loss and should make up for that as one of the casual elements according to the civil law and Islamic punishment rule acted in 2013.
Full Text Available Starting from the need to tackle in a sustainable way the new economic and social requirements particularly induced by the recent financial crisis, corporate social responsibility (CSR is one envisaged solution at community and organizational level, because of its win-win strategic potential. More than that, acknowledging the economic impact of strongly supporting social domains like education and sport, the European Union (EU has designed new measures for developing the human potential during 2014-2020 period. Following these two rationales, the main research objective is to emphasize the relationship between CSR and corporate support for educational and sport projects of top performing companies in Romania, Bulgaria and Croatia in the post-crisis period. Four main issues are investigated in detail regarding the corporate support for education and sport areas through CSR initiatives, namely existence of corporate involvement, forms of commitment, reasons for engagement, and main beneficiaries of implication. The research methodology focuses on empirical and analytical perspectives, while the results show new facets and implications of CSR initiatives in education and sport domains, but also a set of similarities and differences between the analysed EU countries. Economic and social impacts are also examined, as well as future research directions.
Title: Motivation for risk sports Objectives: The aim of our thesis is to find out primary and secondary motives of athletes for the operation of high-risk sports and coming back to it. We also want to find out what is the starter for doing risk sports. Other questions are why athletes keep doing it and how perceive the potential risk. Methods: In our study, we chose qualitative investigation method and semistructured interview with eight respondents. For the interview, we drew up a list of q...
Sports- and exercise-related headaches are not unusual. Despite their frequent occurrence in this context, there are little epidemiologic data concerning sports-related headache. The recent attention of concussive injuries and associated post-traumatic headache has renewed interest in the study of those headaches occurring after head trauma; however, any primary headache type can also occur in the setting of contact and/or collision sports. The nonspecific nature of headaches provides unique challenges to clinicians encountering this complaint. It is, therefore, imperative that physicians treating athletes are able to distinguish the various headache types and presentations often seen in this population.
Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D
Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lochmüller, E M; Friese, K
Today, mothers-to-be with an uncomplicated pregnancy are advised to practice sports on a regular basis. If they follow this advice, they put on less weight and recover more quickly from the stresses and strains of parturition, thanks to their higher level of general fitness. In addition, practicing sports helps to prevent postural damage, back pain, varices and thrombosis. The most suitable forms of sport are those of the aerobic type, such as jogging, swimming, cycling or aerobic calisthenics. However, exercises in the fitness studio and moderate strength training are also admissible provided that consideration is given to contraindications and warning signals.
Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
Full Text Available Harmonious development of sports deals with the development of sports centres, buildings and training grounds in the built environment. Their basic objective is to provide to needs of professional and top quality sports, sports recreation and sports education in space. The methodological basis for establishing a spatial sports scheme was the Steinitz-Rogers model of planning sports-recreation centres, buildings and training grounds. One of the results of the scheme is a cartographically and digitally supported data base that can be complemented.
José A. Martínez
As Ko (2013) pointed out, the sport industry is a large and fast growing business. The U.S. market accounted for as much as $400-435 billion in 2012. Sports equipment companies provide the products required to practice and enjoy sports: clothing, footwear, and other apparel and gear. Therefore, sports equipment brands surround all the aspects shaping the sports industry. In addition, they extend their arms to also embrace the fashion market. A few equipment brands, such as Nike and Adidas are...
Liddle, Sarah K; Deane, Frank P; Vella, Stewart A
Mental health is a major concern among adolescents. Most mental illnesses have their onset during this period, and around 14% of all young people aged 12 to 17 years experience a mental illness in a 12-month period. However, only 65% of these adolescents access health services to address their mental health problems. Approximately 70% of all Australian adolescents participate in sport, and this presents an opportunity for mental health promotion. This paper reviewed current approaches by sporting organizations to mental health promotion, prevention and early intervention by searching peak body websites, as well as the wider Internet. Findings revealed many of the sport organizations reviewed acknowledged the importance of mental components of their sport to increase competitiveness, but few explicitly noted mental health problems or the potential of their sport to promote good mental health. Although some had participated in mental health promotion campaigns, there was no evaluation or reference to the evidence base for these campaigns. We describe a framework for integrating mental health promotion into sports organizations based on the MindMatters programme for schools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
This bachelor work is focused on the topic of e-sport and former professional players of e-sport. It deals with a summery and subsequent analysis of former professional e-sport players in the labour market. The theoretical part is focused on becoming acquainted with basic information on e-sport, the labour market, re-training and the national employment policy. It provides basic information about companies and games that they operate. The practical part analyses the concrete possibilities of ...
Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...
Gunathevan Elumalai; Mohd Salleh Aman; Cassendra Gilbert; Muhammad Mat Yusof; Ahmad Tajuddin Othman; Lim Khong Chiu; Mohd Sofian Omar Fauzee; Hamdan Mohd Ali
Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondent...
Nicos Kartakoullis; Evan Webb; George Karlis; Stavros Pouloukas; Christina Loizou
This study contributes to the limited existing research on the participation patterns of Cypriots in leisure and sports. Leisure and sport are viewed collectively while adapting the notion put forth by The Council of Europe (2007) defining leisure sports as sports activities aimed at the preservation and improvement of physical condition, health and fun. The purpose of this paper is to examine the leisure sport participation patterns of Cypriots, specifically: (1) participation patterns in le...
Full Text Available In countries throughout holy, sport, recreation and plays promotes the health, spirit and the tenement. They us learns important lessons from the life about the respect, leadership and controls. They promote the equality for all and remove differences among men. Modern society now takes over the power and possibilities which has the sport, recreation and plays, carrying out him in programmes its national governments throughout holy. In this way, develops partnerships with all sectors and all levels of company, from governments, over holy sport to the civil society in all his diversity, in order to affirms value which breeds sport would not perform boys and girls on sports courts and sports grounds those would teach the Deco and their families about benefits of physical activities. In order to would come about like this ambitious and the significant project indispensable precondition is the strategic planning of development of sport on the specified area and in which has been joined in top-grade managers from different domains. Special attentions must dedicate execution is adopted strategies, because if is absent the direct application is adopted strategies, the per se selected strategy not did introduce herself the no progress.
Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...
Full Text Available Basic for realization of tourist movements lays in meeting cultural and recreational needs of potential customers. If we know that largest number of tourists represents part of recreational ones, than is not hard to realize how large potential lays in that number of potential guests. On this fact should be built strategy of movement of tourist offer of Montenegro for it extreme potentials on which can be founded concrete project. In this work are given basic assumptions for development of sport recreational shapes of tourism with stress to natural potentials that directly determine shape of sport recreational activities that represent basis of tourist offer. Offer should be created in that way that it is adapted to wide segment of recreational guests and not professional sportsmen, although they also should not be underestimated but one should know that in order to create conditions for arrival of sports professionals offer has to be completely different and more specialized that requires creating of conditions of existence of highly developed sports infrastructure, while for amateurs a lot can be done in “system of improvising”, satisfying basic criteria – recreation in conditions of untouched and well preserved nature with securing maximal level of security and protection of guests, in order to prevent possible unwilling consequences that can lead to injury of guests and for development and realization of such project one need a much less funds than is building of facilities that should meet standards of professional sportsmen. The aim is to create good offer at good infrastructure, logistics and with good equipment with securing maximal security, adaptation to various wishes of guests, taking in consideration their structure is conditioned by age, health condition, physical fitness as personal wishes toward sports and recreational activities.
... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or fractures of the face. Common symptoms of facial fractures include: swelling and bruising, ...
This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.
strategies. Methods. This was a ... Soccer. Cricket. Swimming. Hockey. Athletics. Golf. Rugby. Netball. Tennis. Squash ... Q5: I currently use a legal substance or method, e.g. nutritional supplement to improve my sports performance. Strongly ...
... but kids can play sports like gymnastics or football without going to extremes to lose or gain ... that you'd need to go to the emergency department for treatment. Drinking before, during, and after ...
... well. For example, they should wear helmets for baseball , softball, bicycle riding , and hockey . They also should wear ... padding. For racquet sports, field hockey, lacrosse, basketball , softball, and baseball, ask about any protective eyewear, like ...
particularly to the mathematics decision viz., that of how to optimally combine making, otherwise known as operations evaluations of several experts on nonquan-. --------~-------- ... a short account of how the ratings of sports- persons are arrived ...
... supplements, steroids, changed eating, exercising, other muscle enhancing tactics, etc. was more than twice as high among boys who participated in sports vs. nonparticipants. 36 The occurrence of energy drink- ...
Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.
Burke, Louise M
Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.
MONICA DELIA BÎCĂ
Full Text Available “Using applied science in sport management as creates opportunities for rationalization and systematization of sports activity, relying on the knowledge and application of the laws that control the dynamics and phenomena. Management is on the border between art and science. Arts management is manifested by "science" as opposed to use and harness the creative compromise that can produce increased efficiency and effectiveness.”
Wagner, Anne Margrethe
Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010......Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010...
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Australian data indicate that 63% of children participated in sport in 2009, a 4% increase since 2000. Children's high participation in sport, and the association between sport and health, means that these settings provide an opportunity to promote other aspects of health, such as healthy eating, to children. This study aimed to determine healthy eating practices and policies at children's sports clubs. Sports clubs (n=108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5 to 14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas across one state and one territory in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire for sports club officials was developed to determine the food and beverages sold, provided and promoted at sports clubs and the availability of healthy-eating policies. The most frequently sold item at canteens was water, followed by sports drinks, chocolate/confectionery and soft drink. Only 20% of canteens promoted healthy food. Thirty-nine per cent of clubs made recommendations on the food and beverages to be consumed during sport, mostly relating to water consumption. The majority (76%) engaged in fundraising; many in collaboration with chocolate/confectionery companies. Only three clubs had a written policy on healthy eating. Addressing the low uptake of healthy eating policies would be a useful strategy to improve the healthiness of sports clubs. Policies could seek to reduce the availability and promotion of unhealthy food and beverages through canteens, vending machines and fundraising. © 2010 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.
Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P
Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.
McGrath, J C; Cowan, D A
This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology has been compiled and edited by Ian McGrath, Regius Professor of Physiology at University of Glasgow and David Cowan, Director of the Drug Control Centre at King's College London. It contains 11 articles covering the mechanisms of action of the major groups of drugs used illicitly in sport. The articles, written by experts in how drugs work, set out where drugs can or cannot affect sporting performance, how this relates to their legitimate medicinal use, their other detrimental effects and how they can be detected. Publication coincides with Olympic year, when sport is highlighted in the public mind and much speculation is made concerning the use of drugs. The articles provide a framework of expert, accurate knowledge to inform and facilitate these debates and to help to overcome the ill-informed and dangerous anecdotal information by which sports men and women are persuaded to misuse drugs in the mistaken belief that this will improve their performance without present or future ill effects. A unique article is included by the Spedding brothers, Mike with a long career in drug discovery and Charlie, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon Bronze Medallist and still the English National Marathon record holder. From their unique experience, they describe the insidious and unfair way that drug-assisted performance undermines the ethos of sport and endangers the vital place of sport in maintaining the health of the population.
Full Text Available TSL companies are characterized by high dynamics of an increase of incomes, and hence increased shipping. Owing to a rational policy in the area of the consolidation of production and distribution, they may boast of a better use of the means of transport. The purpose of this article is to present the activities in the area of the eco-friendly CSR aspect in the activities of TSL companies taking into consideration particularly logistic operators. The research methods used in the study include an analysis of secondary data, observations and comparative analyses. Road transport in the shipping structure comes first and it constitutes 84% of freights. In the year 2009, in Poland greenhouse gas emissions from road transport amounted to 42.5 million tons (4.84% of the EU member states and CO emissions were 41.9 million tons (analogically, 4.83% of environment pollutions in the European Union. This causes an emission of fumes into the atmosphere. The policy of sustainable development pursued by logistic operators under corporate social responsibility is a response to the abovementioned data. They take decisions concerning social and environmental aspects. The activities of TSL companies under CSR need to provide an answer to customer expectations and needs, and they have to cause an increase of competitiveness on the market. The selected four largest logistic operators conduct the following eco-friendly activities on the highest level: fume emission reports and the control of these emissions, transport of hazardous goods (ADR, voluntary services in the scope of environmental protection and cooperation with eco-friendly organizations. There are those activities which call for improvement: a limitation of the emission of fumes, waste management and sewage treatment policy.
Gijsenberg, Maarten J.
Major sports events draw unsurpassed media attention. Companies are motivated to increase their advertising investments around these events to reach large audiences in a short period. Is such an advertising surge actually beneficial though, or should companies avoid advertising in these periods
Smith, Aaron C T; Stewart, Bob
This paper considers the assumptions underpinning the current drugs-in-sport policy arrangements. We examine the assumptions and contradictions inherent in the policy approach, paying particular attention to the evidence that supports different policy arrangements. We find that the current anti-doping policy of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) contains inconsistencies and ambiguities. WADA's policy position is predicated upon four fundamental principles; first, the need for sport to set a good example; secondly, the necessity of ensuring a level playing field; thirdly, the responsibility to protect the health of athletes; and fourthly, the importance of preserving the integrity of sport. A review of the evidence, however, suggests that sport is a problematic institution when it comes to setting a good example for the rest of society. Neither is it clear that sport has an inherent or essential integrity that can only be sustained through regulation. Furthermore, it is doubtful that WADA's anti-doping policy is effective in maintaining a level playing field, or is the best means of protecting the health of athletes. The WADA anti-doping policy is based too heavily on principals of minimising drug use, and gives insufficient weight to the minimisation of drug-related harms. As a result drug-related harms are being poorly managed in sport. We argue that anti-doping policy in sport would benefit from placing greater emphasis on a harm minimisation model.
Full Text Available In the Christian religious tradition, theological virtues of faith, hope and love have a central role. Along with the cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, fortitude and temperance they present the whole of the good human life. While cardinal virtues can be cultivated by human will, faith, hope and love are given by God and therefore open ‘natural’ human life on Earth toward transcendent spiritual realities. Human beings as bio-psycho-social and spiritual beings incorporate theological virtues in all the activities of their life. In sport, faith, hope and love have an important, though often neglected, role. On a practical level faith can be recognized in any relation between athlete and coach. To trust one’s coach, without any guarantee that the outcome of prescribed workouts will lead to the desired results, needs strong faith, trust and confidence. Moreover, faith is the virtue that makes sport so attractive also for spectators even to the point of being a ‘secular’ religion for the masses. Hope is the virtue of ‘not yet’ or of something ‘being on its way’. For most athletes, daily workouts are not a goal, but just the means to that end. Any reason for doing sports needs a hope behind it in order to move or will oneself to action. Along with hope, understood as a golden mean, we find despair on the one hand and ‘false hope’ on the other. Both are corruptions of hope seen daily in the world of sport. To manage hope in sport practices correctly offers a path to success in sport at all levels. Love is at the apex of the theological virtues. There are many formulations of love both in ancient Greek and Roman times: eros, agape, caritas, amor. Each has its special characteristic meaning also in sport. In sport we can see laughter and tears because any love is connected with highest human joy and deepest depression. Yet, in summation, it is argued that love in sport must be understood as the binding force and source of
Full Text Available The philosophy of sport is traditionally concerned with three topics: the problem of finding appropriate definitions of the main concepts (e.g. sport, game, play and rules, ethical problems (e.g. values, fair-play and performance enhancement, and the aesthetic characteristics of sport. The author briefly presents the influential Suits’ analysis of the notion of game, but her main interest lies in connecting sport with cognitive science, particularly cognitive philosophy. She contrasts classical cognitivism with the so-called embodied and situated cognition approach. She argues that sport is a good laboratory for testing different approaches and ideas in cognitive science, and stresses two major points. First, sport is an activity where skills are of the utmost importance which helps to shed light on the weaknesses of classical cognitivism. Second, the personal experiences and feelings of athletes play an important role and cannot be dismissed. Both features emphasize the need to treat mental processes as embodied and situated in the environment. The author concludes that we have to broaden the philosophy of sport with topics borrowed from the philosophy of cognitive science and phenomenology of sport.
Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.
Chinese women's weightlifting project has been in the advanced world level, suggests that the Chinese coaches and athletes have many successful experience in the weight lifting training. Little weight lifting belongs to high-risk sports, however, to the lumbar spine injury, some young good athletes often due to lumbar trauma had to retire, and the national investment and athletes toil is regret things. This article from the perspective of sports medicine, weightlifting athletes training situa...
Krouwel, A.P.M.; Boonstra, N.; Duyvendak, J.W.; Veldboer, L.
Since the rise of a right-wing populist movement in 2002, the issue of the 'unsuccessful' integration of ethnic minorities is at the centre of Dutch public debate. The quest for promising social spheres to bridge gaps between the autochthonous Dutch population and minority groups has brought
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important functions of a sport business. This is because the sport marketing activities will define the business. The growth of the sport industry is phenomenal and shows no signs of slowing. Also, sport marketing is a process. A process is a continuous cycle. Therefore, marketing is a function that never ends. The sport marketing management model is an illustration of the elements and process of sport marketing. It should serve as a guide for managing the company’s marketing functions. The model illustrates the elements of marketing, the succession of elements and functions, the process of managing, and the interdependence of the elements This paper presents an overview of the model, sport marketing management, each element and the process.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
Kudryavtsev, M.; Galimova, A.; Alshuvayli, Kh.; Altuvayni, A.
In modern society, the problem of formation of healthy lifestyle at youth, in particular, at students of the highest educational institutions is very relevant. Sport is a good mean for motivation, in this case – sports games. Purpose: to reveal consequences of participation in sports games and influence of these actions on healthy lifestyle of students of the highest educational institutions, to designate a role of classes in the sections, specializing in preparation for sports games in this ...
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.
Buckup, Johannes; Welsch, Frederic; Gramlich, Yves; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Roessler, Philip P; Schüttler, Karl F; Stein, Thomas
Recurrent instability following primary arthroscopic stabilization of the shoulder is a common complication. Young, athletic patients are at the greatest risk of recurring instability. To date, the literature contains insufficient description regarding whether return to sports is possible after revision arthroscopic Bankart repair. Patients presenting with recurrent instability after primary arthroscopic stabilization should expect limitations in terms of their ability to partake in sporting activities after revision surgery. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty athletes who underwent arthroscopic revision stabilization of the shoulder after failed primary arthroscopic Bankart repair were included in the study after completing inclusion and exclusion criteria surveys. Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System (ASOSS), Shoulder Sport Activity Score (SSAS), and the Subjective Patient Outcome for Return to Sports (SPORTS) scores were determined to assess the participants' ability to partake in sporting activities. Furthermore, sport type and sport level were classified and recorded. To assess function and stability, Rowe, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Constant-Murley, and Walch-Duplay scores were measured and recorded. Follow-up consultations were carried out after a mean of 28.7 months. The mean age at follow-up examination was 27.75 years. At the time of follow-up, 70% of the patients were able to return to their original sporting activities at the same level. However, 90% of patients described a limitation in their shoulder when participating in their sports. At 28.7 months after surgery, the mean ASOSS score was 76.8; the SSAS score decreased from 7.85 before first-time dislocation to 5.35 at follow-up ( P SPORTS score was 5.2 out of 10 at the follow-up consultation. Function- and instability-specific scores showed good to excellent results. The mean external rotational deficit for high external rotation was 9.25°, and for low external rotation it was
Companies, especially nowadays, are characterized through great mobility, fast circulation of capital, occurring in their chase for profit. In this context, companies look for alliances, economical and political assistance. These objectives can materialize through merging of companies. The merger can be internal (between Romanian companies) or transboundary, which includes foreign companies. In order to correctly reflect these events, the merger operations must be regulated and mu...
Ying, Wu Lan
With economic development, urban residents' in levels rises gradually and their daily consumption structure tends to be demands of development and enjoyment. Sport consumption, as a social and cultural consumption, with a high level of enjoyment and development of consumer properties, has been gradually recognized by the general population and an important reference for the measure of quality of residents' life. In this paper, questionnaire survey, literature, expert interviews and mathematical statistics methods are used to analyze the awareness, motivation, level of consumption, survey structure and constraints of sports consumption of urban residents of Henan Province. The results are: the proportion of sports participants of urban residents' of Henan Province is small, there is a large space for sports consumption development; sports consumer awareness is relatively backward, sports consumption values are gradually formed; the overall level of sports consumption is low and the consumption structure is single. Therefore, the advocacy of sports consumption should be strengthened, attention should be paid to physical infrastructure, strengthening the sports industry structure optimization, put emphasis on the introduction and training of sports talents, target to develop sports tourism and minority sports resources, and create a good environment of csports consumption.
... assessment and management • Care of sports-related and general medical needs of athletes • Special populations (geriatric, disabled, women, youth, etc.) • Sports psychology issues • Substance use issues • Education and counseling on ...
Full Text Available The present study tries to make a resume from a socio-cultural point of view of the sportiv peisage analized in the evolutionof society trying to answer some questions such as: What is the place of sports in our modern society? How does sportinfluence social and cultural evolutions? What are the cultural tendencies which can be distinguished in the sports practice?These are a few questions which could lead to establishing raports between sports, culture and society. Sport is more andmore amrked by the charactersitics of postmoderinsm. New social values are being vehiclated by current generations whichinfluence sportive behaviours. The popularity of sports has a big influence in the process of globalisation of politics,economics and culture. In our days we observe the fact that some contradictions are being manifested: globalisation andindividualisation, „sportivisation” and „desportivisation”, a culture of health and a culture of amusement and finally,spontaneity and fragmentation compared to the security and autentification of the individual.
Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier
Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215
Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Bickenbach, Jerome; Finch, Caroline F; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordenfelt, Lennart
Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, 'sports injury' denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; 'sports trauma' is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and 'sports incapacity' is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as 'sports disease' (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, 'sports illness' when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and 'sports sickness' when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.
Thirty-one journals pertinent to the physical educator and to the professional in the areas of motor learning, sport philosophy, sport sociology, sport psychology, and sport medicine are listed with a general note on the scope of each. (JMF)
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
The creation of health promoting sports clubs may support the promotion and adoption of healthy behaviours by children. Sponsorship is one aspect of clubs, with potential influence on clubs and their participants. In particular, sponsorship influences brand awareness and attitudes, so that the sponsorship of children's sport by unhealthy food companies may contribute to food preferences and poor eating habits. This study aimed to determine the nature and extent of food and beverage sponsorship of children's sport. Sports clubs (n = 108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5-14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire was developed to determine the extent of sponsorship. Experts from different fields were approached (n = 10) to generate a consensus on the elements of sponsors that are more/less health promoting. The survey response rate was 99%. Of the 347 sponsors identified, 17% were food or beverage companies. Fifty percent of food company sponsorship arrangements did not meet criteria for healthy sponsors. For most clubs, less than a quarter of their income came from sponsorship. A considerable proportion of clubs with food company sponsors had the company's signage on players' uniforms (53%), distributed rewards using the company's name (24%) or gave vouchers to players for the company's products (29%). Any restriction of unhealthy food and beverage company sponsorship of children's sport may not result in major funding difficulties for clubs, as this funding represents a relatively small proportion of their income base, even though it provides major promotional opportunities to sponsors.
A theoretical framework for the study of sport sociology is provided in this text. It is intended for students of sport, arts and humanities, sociology, and social psychology. Sport and social organization are discussed first. Three models of societies and six theories of social organization are presented which form the basis of the eclectic…
... in sport, the effect of motivation in sport on academic performance, the fundamental cause of anxiety in sport, the fact that female athletes are likely to be relatively more comfortable with male authority figures as coaches, etcetera. The empirical research revealed that discrepancies exist between the perceptions of teacher ...
From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…
The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.
The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.
For a long time, badminton was considered to be only a slow and light game for children, a game that is played outdoors and is structurally undemanding.Today, it is not an unknown and unrecognised sport, especially after it was included into the Olympics Games in 1992. Badminton is one of the oldest sports in the world. It is suitable for all ages (for children and elderly equally), women and men and even handicapped persons. Beginners can start playing badminton matches early because the basics are learned quickly. As a recreational activity, badminton is very popular in Zagreb. In the last 10 years, a number of halls specialized for badminton or offering badminton as one of available sports activities have been opened in Zagreb. At present, there are over 70 professional playgrounds for training of top contestants but also for the citizens who can play recreational badminton.
Overbye, Marie Birch
Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts...... are important. This article explores how the International Standards for Testing, which face different interpretations and challenges when policy is implemented, are perceived by elite athletes. Particularly, this article aims to investigate how elite athletes perceive the functioning of the testing system (i.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...
Full Text Available Abstract Background High participation rates in sport and increasing recognition of how diet benefits athletic performance suggest sports settings may be ideal locations for promoting healthy eating. While research has demonstrated the effect of tobacco and alcohol sponsorship on consumption, particularly among youth, few studies have examined the extent or impact of food and beverage company sponsorship in sport. Studies using brand logos as a measure suggest unhealthy foods and beverages dominate sports sponsorship. However, as marketing goes beyond the use of brand livery, research examining how marketers support sponsorships that create brand associations encouraging consumer purchase is also required. This study aimed to identify the characteristics and extent of sponsorships and associated marketing by food and non-alcoholic beverage brands and companies through a case study of New Zealand sport. Methods We conducted a systematic review of 308 websites of national and regional New Zealand sporting organisations to identify food and beverage sponsors, which were then classified as healthy or unhealthy using nutrient criteria for energy, fat, sodium and fibre levels. We interviewed 18 key informants from national and regional sporting organisations about sponsorships. Results Food and beverage sponsorship of sport is not extensive in New Zealand. However, both healthy and unhealthy brands and companies do sponsor sport. Relatively few support their sponsorships with additional marketing. Interviews revealed that although many sports organisations felt concerned about associating themselves with unhealthy foods or beverages, others considered sponsorship income more important. Conclusions While there is limited food and beverage sponsorship of New Zealand sport, unhealthy food and beverage brands and companies do sponsor sport. The few that use additional marketing activities create repeat exposure for their brands, many of which target
Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.
This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...
Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.
A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)
Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ... around in your stomach! If you like the taste of sports drinks better than regular water, then ...
The role of curricular activities for the formation of education, health and behavioural outcomes has been widely studied. Yet, the role of extra-curricular activities has received little attention. This study analyzes the effect of participation in sports clubs—one of the most popular extra-curricular activities among children. We use alternative datasets and flexible semi-parametric estimation methods with a specific way to use the panel dimension of the data to address selection into sports. We find positive and robust effects on children’s school performance and peer relations. Crowding out of passive leisure activities can partially explain the effects. PMID:27144474
Sharma, Anshu Rajnish
Nuclear medicine can synergistically contribute to the sports medicine field, in the management of sports-related stress injures. Bone scintigraphy is commonly requested for evaluation of athletes with pain. Three-Phase 99m Tc MDP Bone Scan has emerged as the imaging reference standard for diagnosing such injuries. The inherently high-contrast resolution of the bone scan allows early detection of bone trauma and becomes positive within six to seventy-two hours after the onset of symptoms. The bone scan is able to demonstrate stress injuries days to weeks before the radiograph
Rodríguez-Roiz, Juan M; Caballero, Miguel; Ares, Oscar; Sastre, Sergi; Lozano, Luis; Popescu, Dragos
The aim of this study was to evaluate mid-term return to recreational sport in general population and identify factors related with sports return. Retrospective evaluation of 99 recreational sports players (Tegner score of 6) with ACL arthroscopic reconstructions with hamstring autograft, between 2006-2011. 74 male and 25 female with middle age of 30 years (14-52). We made a questionnaire focused on sports level before injury and after surgery, and different scales: Lysholm, Tegner Activity Level, IKDC and a Likert scale for quantify their motivation for return to sports. With a medium follow-up of 36 months, 90 patients (91.9 %) had returned to recreational sport. 51 (51.52 %) had returned to sports at the same level, and these are those with lower BMI (average 23), higher IKDC and Lysholm scores (p sport is an important activity. Only 9 % of patients left sports. They were principally male athletes (88 %), with higher medium age (32), lesser time between injury and surgery (22 months), higher BMI (26), in comparison with athletes that return to sports. The results suggest good mid-term return to recreational sports in general population. The following factors had a statistically significant influence on the return to sports activity: type of sport, sex and functional state of the operated knee (IKDC-Lysholm). Psychological and social factors may have a fundamental influence on return to sports activity.
Sebastian Madalin MUNTEANU
This paper tries to capture the importance it holds the project management in socio-cultural sector which stands out when we refer to the sport. So when we talk about project management in sport, to consider a much larger vision, a new project management perspective, they involve a responsibility for the implementation of an event with global impact on very long term. Sports projects, as history shows us, played a significant role in developing societies. Also, all major sports industry proje...
Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y
Full Text Available Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y
Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.
Studer, Ginny L., Ed.; And Others
The chief objective of sport art is to capture that actual fleeting moment of excellent performance in a sporting event. In a series of articles, the significance of sport art is shown in its importance in recording historic contests and games, emphasizing social achievement and personal performance goals, and attempting to symbolize the depth of…
This article explains how and why stress mechanisms operate in students who participate in sports. Students respond to different sport situations with various physical, psychological, and social reactions. When developing and supervising sports, school personnel should take into consideration the physical and psychological development of…
Turrin, M.; Yang, D.; D'Aquilio, A.; Šileryte, R.; Sun, Y
The design of sport buildings has great impact on top-sport as well as on recreational sport-activities. It implies challenging tasks in meeting the performance-requirements. This includes the control of factors like daylight/lighting, air flow, thermal conditions, just to name a few. Such factors
... Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental... abandonment of facilities by Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas... resources, fisheries, and wetlands; Cultural resources; Vegetation and wildlife; Endangered and threatened...
The positive effects of sports on the cardiovascular and musculoskeleal systems are widely accepted. Nevertheless, sports also can cause injury and overuse leading to sport-specific problems, which are often a challenge in diagnosing and treatment. The history of the sport-related injury is crucial for further differential diagnosis. Careful inspection, palpation and functional testing can reveal the possible pathology and lead to an effective strategy in the diagnostic assessment using radiographic tools such as sonography, X-ray and MR imaging (MRI). In muscle and tendon injuries sonography can provide ready to use information concerning muscle tears and tendon ruptures or degenerative lesions. Plain X-rays give a good overview on joint conditions regarding the bone and sometimes have to be completed by focused enlargement of the critical structure, especially in stress fractures and small bone lesions. MRT is the gold standard in the evaluation of interarticular and extra-articular sport-related pathologies, however, an exact clinical diagnosis allows a more effective investigation protocol. Profound knowledge of possible sport-specific injury and overuse patterns is necessary to detect lesions of the musculoskeletal system in active athletes and to use the fitting radiographic strategy for confirmation. The exact diagnosis is the prerequisite for initiating the appropriate treatment and a fast sports medical rehabilitation process. (orig.) [de
Department of Homeland Security — Holding companies are electric power utilities that have a holding company structure. This vector polygon layer represents the area served by electric power holding...
Greendorfer, Susan L.
The author describes the issues which created the schism between physical education and sociology. If the subdiscipline of sports sociology is to survive, these misunderstandings must be erased. Current investigations of relevant topics are of interest to both physical educators and coaches and could begin to bridge the gap. (MT)
Drayer, Joris; Rascher, Dan
Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low risk environment. The OAKLAND A'S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry, in which sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of experiences provided…
Saugy, M; Avois, L; Saudan, C; Robinson, N; Giroud, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J
Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis.
Full Text Available Fundrising is the kind of marketing strategy, which the main gool is to provide the money and the other resources. It is the moust important tasks of nonprofit organizacio( sport organiyation and the other organiyation which need money for development project. Fundraising is independent and sistematical way of compilation the financial resource and anather keind of help in nonprofit organization from the private persone, the enterprice, the associate ect.Fundraising enable the activity and realization projects. Aim of this working paper is to givs contibution these important problem of menagement, to explain it and apply it in sport. Today it we haven`t enought the financial resourceies, without activity to provide it, we will very quickly loss sympathy and support who could help as. Financial problems are present not only in the sport organization , but in the culture, social, eco, education and other organizations. Todey there is strong competition at the fundraising market. Sport has advantages in the mass actions frequently and in his places in the psyche and body development people in all of growth, rather then the another nonprofit organization. Fundraising provide a lot of many and create pozitive image in public environment
Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.
fixed to players or equipment is generally not possible. This provides a rich set of opportunities for the application of computer vision techniques to help the competitors, coaches and audience. This paper discusses a selection of current commercial applications that use computer vision for sports...
Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.
... Health Information Spanish Language Health Information Related Information La historia de Ana: Cómo ella y su familia aprendieron sobre las lesiones depor… Ana's Story Lesiones deportivas: Esenciales: hojas informativas de fácil lectura View/Download/Order Publications Sports Injuries, Easy-to- ...
Sport und soziale Integration : Chancen, Probleme und Perspektiven für Städte und Kommunen ; Tagungsband der gleichnamigen Tagung am 28. und 29. Juni 2011 in Augsburg / Helmut Altenberger ... (Hrsg.). - Hamburg : Feldhaus, Ed. Czwalina, 2012. - 104 S. - (Sportwissenschaft und Sportpraxis ; 161)
Møller, Rasmus Bysted
Sportsidealismens grundsyn på forholdet mellem sport og moral har længe domineret sportsetikken. Opfattelsen, der går ud på, at sporten udgør frugtbar jord for dyrkelse af et moralsk sindelag, fordi sporten indeholder en moralsk dimension i kraft af sin egen-natur, understøttes ikke af den...... forholdet mellem sport og moral kom således til at bekræfte og delvist forklare empirien på området. Endeligt kunne sportsidealismens hovedtese tilbagevises, for så vidt at den omhandler forholdet mellem sport og moral i dette sidste ords moderne betydning. Dette skete i artiklens afsluttende fjerde afsnit......, hvor forskellen mellem antik og moderne etik blev tydeliggjort. På baggrund af den præsenterede undersøgelse af forholdet mellem sport og moral kan vi konkludere, at sporten isoleret set ikke egner sig som arnested for udviklingen af et moralsk sindelag, idet sporten ikke indeholder den af...
Brady, Don; Brady, Flo
Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…
Kiyomi Cerezo Takahash
Full Text Available This article aims to explain the development of an application whose function is to predict the results of different sporting encounters. To do this an analysis of the influential factors, algorithms and technology implemented, will be carried out.
Bria, S; Zeppilli, P
A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.
Gender inequality in all areas of life remains a global problem despite efforts over the past twenty years in particular to address the situation. In physical activity and sport the inequality between women and men is particularly pronounced in almost all countries, although it differs in degree. Two of the main reasons why inequality between women and men physical activity and sport is more extreme than in many other areas of social life are the result of the close association between the attributes required for sport and those associated with traditional concepts of stereotypical, hegemonic masculinity, and a lack of understanding of the difference between sex and gender. In sport and physical activity physical differences between men and women have been confused with socially constructed differences i.e. physical differences have been confused with gender differences, and this confusion has been used to justify women's lesser and limited participation at all levels. To achieve equality between women and men in physical activity and sport it will be essential that gender is identified and understood as a socially constructed and fluid concept which is a product of the relations between women and men. The fact that women bear children or are generally less physically powerful than men is not sufficient to justify why it is not considered appropriate for women to participate in certain forms of physical activity or why their participation is less valued than the participation of men. An understanding of gender and of the construction of gender relations is an important pre-requisite to addressing the inequality between women and men in physical activity and sport and in developing policies and programs which include, and are of equal benefit to both sexes. While more research on the benefits of participation in physical activity is needed, there is currently sufficient information available to identify the health related and social value of participation to both
Global Oil Company Profiles provides a comprehensive review of 50 of the top oil companies in the world. Each chapter is devoted to an individual company, providing an invaluable insight into the organisation, its structure and operations. Using the most recent data available, the report offers an up-to-date analysis of performance and future direction, as well as a unique benchmarking system for each company profiled. (author)
This report provides a detailed assessment of 60 of the top gas companies form around the world, analysing them according to their internal dynamics and in relation to their competitors. It devotes each chapter to an individual company, providing invaluable insight into the organisation's operational background, financial performance and strategic goals. Using the most up-to-date information available, Global Gas Company Profiles allows you to make detailed analysis of each company's performance and future direction. (author)
Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Gielen, J.L.; Maas, M.
This volume provides an updated review of imaging abnormalities in orthopedic sports injuries. The first part of the book contains background information on relevant basic science and general imaging principles in sports traumatology. The second part comprises a topographic discussion of sports injuries. Each chapter highlights the merit of different imaging techniques, focused on a specific clinical problem. In the third part, natural history, monitoring and follow-up by imaging are discussed. This well-illustrated book will be of value for musculoskeletal radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians and everyone else involved in sports medicine. (orig.)
This is a 1992 directory of those companies doing business in all areas of the independent power producers industry. The listing includes the company name, address, telephone and FAX numbers, and the name of a company contact. The listing is international in scope
Dr. Sreemoyee Guha Roy
Goods and Services Tax is a broad based and a single comprehensive tax levied on goods and services consumed in an economy. GST is levied at every stage of the production-distribution chain with applicable set offs in respect of the tax remitted at previous stages. It is basically a tax on final consumption. The Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a value added tax to be implemented in India, the decision on which is pending. GST is the only indirect tax that directly affects all sectors and sect...
This Research Study looks at various innovative marketing strategies used by our top most companies .Marketing strategies is a long term, forward looking approach to planning with the fundamental goal achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. Overall approach of this paper is to create a link between growth rate of companies and new marketing strategies. Good marketing is no accident, It is both an art and a science and it results from careful planning and execution using state-of-the-ar...
Boden, Barry P
Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to provide a comprehensive, integrated modified technique of personal psycho-physiological regulation based on a system of Raja Yoga. The study involved candidates and masters of sports of freestyle skiing in the amount of 21 people aged 17 to 23 years. Found that athletes co 2 and stage 3 of the hypnotic state successfully acquired by dhyana and can apply it in preparation for a competition. The proposed method includes a high quality optimal fighting condition, modeling and programming training and competitive processes using deferred units, the correction of motor skills. Athletes in their imagination run program of the second day of competition. Then, the third day of competition modeled, programmed overall health. Are told that in the day of the event will have a good mood, great feeling, a surge of strength, vigor, vitality, desire to show all of their sporting qualities.
Full Text Available Starting from the definition of sport, the author has presented the possibilities its application in the prevention of crime and delinquency. In that context, the author analyzes the rate of juvenile delinquency in specific countries, such as Canada, and underlines the fact that the classical criminal measures do not give adequate results. The author points out that it is, therefore, necessary to apply some other preventive measures, which embody the application of sports and physical activity. The author provides examples of good practice in the states which has achieved the best results in the development of such programs. Finally, in view of the increasing number of reported criminal offences committed by both juveniles and adults, the author highlights the need for developing such programs in the Republic of Serbia.
Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.
Full Text Available Companies, especially nowadays, are characterized through great mobility, fast circulation of capital, occurring in their chase for profit. In this context, companies look for alliances, economical and political assistance. These objectives can materialize through merging of companies. The merger can be internal (between Romanian companies or transboundary, which includes foreign companies. In order to correctly reflect these events, the merger operations must be regulated and must respect national and international regulations. One important request concerning the merger operations is that the accounting values of the assets, debts and ownership equity must be brought to the present financial value.
Birse, J.; Chambers, K.
This report gives details of a project to make the Good Practice Guidelines, which were developed to help the UK Bioenergy industry, the national and local governments, and the public, more widely available. Details concerning the designing of a Good Practice Programme, and the proposed codes of Good Practice programme are given, and general relevant good practice guidance documents are discussed. The stakeholder survey and workshop, and the proposed codes of a Good Practice Programme are presented in Annexes. (UK)
Bieger, Thomas; Beritelli, Pietro
Marketing Management of sport and tourism does not just mean marketing of touristic sport products. Marketing management of sport and tourism can be divided into marketing of sport activities, events or infrastructure for people outside the location and marketing of tourism through sport activities, events and sport infrastructure. A system approach is introduced to serve as a model for explaining interrelations between the different elements in the sport and tourism context. As such destinat...
Full Text Available The safety systems include the functioning of the institutions of a state, central, and local government, businesses, and social organizations. Research in this discipline should contribute to the development of the theoretical foundations and systems of national and international security and operating systems in the area of technical safety. Technical safety engineering should deal with a design, build, operation, and decommissioning of technical measures in order to minimize the opportunities and the size of their negative impact on the environment, people, and the good of civilization. With this in mind, the main purpose of the research was to evaluate the safety of technical manufacturing company that uses a wide machine park. A plant manufacturing parts and components for automobiles was the audited company.
P. Athanasopoulou; J. Douvis; V. Kyriakis
(a) Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b) Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name...
Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.
Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching
Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100
. Furthermore, an empowering motivational environment characterized by a mastery climate, supportive of the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, was positively linked to attitudes favoring migrants' maintenance of their culture and development of interaction with the host culture, whereas......In the era of globalization, multicultural societies are common-place in most developed countries. Therefore, new challenges at both national and international level have come to the fore, and successful acculturation appears to be the key for maintaining social cohesion and promoting...... the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...
Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.
John Robert Evans
Full Text Available The argument that participation in sport among disadvantaged populations can produce positive outcomes in wide range of areas has been a consistent theme in academic literature. It is argued that sport participation can promote women’s empowerment, sexuality, lifestyle, peacemaking, youth development, poverty reduction and conflict resolution. Similarly, in Australia, participation in sport among Indigenous Australians has been proffered as a ‘panacea’ for many Indigenous problems; from promoting better health and education outcomes, to encouraging community building, good citizenship and entrepreneurship. Parallel to this has been a focus on documenting and analysing sport participation among Indigenous Australians in elite sport which often concludes that Indigenous Australians have an innate and ‘natural ability’ in sports. These two assumptions, first, that sport participation can help realise a wide range of positive social outcomes; and second, that Indigenous Australians are natural athletes, have driven significant public investment in numerous sport focused programs. This paper questions these assumptions and outlines some of the challenges inherent with an emphasis on sport as a solution to Indigenous disadvantage. We highlight how participation in sport has often been tied to ambitious, ill-defined and, in terms of evaluation, often elusive social outcome goals. Second, we also argue that there is limited research to indicate that participation in either elite or grassroots level sport has led to any discernible social progress in addressing inequality. We contrast historical Indigenous participation in a range of sporting codes to demonstrate the influence of factors beyond the ‘natural ability’ and ‘born to play’ propositions. Finally, we outline six ‘perils’ associated with viewing sport as a panacea; including how privileging sport can not only perpetuate disadvantage by reinforcing stereotypes and also
McCreary, J.G.; Woodyard, A.
The basis for a good contract is that it is beneficial to both parties. A good foundation will cement the responsibilities and obligations of the parties after areas of agreement have been negotiated. Unfortunately, software licenses do not always reflect what is best for all. Some clauses are definitely for the benefit of the vendor, while others are required by a prudent client. The resulting contract is then a matter of reasonable compromise to achieve a good business relationship. Major issues of warranty, liability, training, support, and payment may be in conflict. Such topics as maintenance, testing, patents, extent of use, and return of software are often overlooked or addressed unevenly. This paper addresses these subjects and provides guidelines for software licenses. An understanding of legal phrases is of value. A better understanding of the viewpoints of both the vendor and the client results in a better working relationship
Joris, Drayer; Daniel, Rascher
Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low-risk environment. The OAKLAND A’S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry where sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of an experience provided to fans. The simulator asks students to make decisions about prices for concessions, parking, and merchandise, player payroll expenses, funding for...
Le Docteur Guenin, lui-même un grand sportif, qui exerce entre beaucoup d'autres activités la course à pieds et le ski de fond, est aussi sécrétaire médical du journal "Vie et Santé. Il nous parle de l'exercice du sport, gym aérobic, jogging etc. avec présention de quelques dias et d'un film du Dr.Kupper.
Storm, Rasmus K.
Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....
Володимир Миколайович Зюзь
Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles
McKee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D
The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration. Nonetheless, the play of sports is associated with risks, including a risk for mild TBI (mTBI) and, rarely, catastrophic traumatic injury and death. There is also growing awareness that repetitive mTBIs, such as concussion and subconcussion, can occasionally produce persistent cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems as well as lead to the development of a neurodegeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In this review, we summarize the beneficial aspects of sports participation on psychological, emotional, physical and cognitive health, and specifically analyze some of the less common adverse neuropathological outcomes, including concussion, second-impact syndrome, juvenile head trauma syndrome, catastrophic sudden death, and CTE. CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND). Although the incidence and prevalence of CTE are not known, CTE has been reported most frequently in American football players and boxers. Other sports associated with CTE include ice hockey, professional
Full Text Available Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network products. Due to specifications in Service Agreements Levels, penalties for failures of telecommunications products are very high. This article shares information that is not widely known, including a list of OST companies and the open source projects on which they depend, the size and diversity of venture capital investment in OST companies, the nature of the commercial product-open source software and company-project relationships, ways in which OST companies make money, benefits and risks of OST companies, and competition between OST companies. Analysis of this information provides insights into the ways in which companies can build business models around open source software. These findings will be of interest to entrepreneurs, top management teams of incumbent companies that sell telecommunications products, and those who care about Ontario's ability to compete globally.
A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements
Loffing, Florian; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen
Anticipation has become an increasingly important research area within sport psychology since its infancy in the late 1970s. Early work has increased our fundamental understanding of skilled anticipation in sports and how this skill is developed. With increasing theoretical and practical insights and concurrent technological advancements, researchers are now able to tackle more detailed questions with sophisticated methods. Despite this welcomed progress, some fundamental questions and challenges remain to be addressed, including the (relative) contributions of visual and motor experience to anticipation, intraindividual and interindividual variation in gaze behaviour, and the impact of non-kinematic (contextual or situational) information on performance and its interaction with advanced kinematic cues during the planning and execution of (re)actions in sport. The aim of this opinion paper is to shortly sketch the state of the art, and then to discuss recent work that has started to systematically address open challenges thereby inspiring promising future routes for research on anticipation and its application in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H
Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peter, Nancy E
To explore parents' emotional investment in and behaviors in response to youth sports, the author conducted a mixed-methods investigation to answer four research questions: (1)How do parents feel about their children's participation in organized youth team sports? (2) Which situations trigger which feelings? (3) How do parents' feelings influence their behaviors? (4) What parental characteristics (such as personal histories or demographics) are linked to different feelings and behaviors? The research indicated that many parents' feelings are triggered by their children's sports experiences and that adults must learn how to translate these feelings into productive behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Full Text Available Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondents from 30 million Malaysian population. Respondents were selected from urban (50% and rural areas (50%. Ethnically 56% were Malays, Sarawak and Sabah natives were 11%, Chinese 25% and finally Indians 7%. The respondents age categories were 12 to 19 years (30%, 20 to 25 years (50%, 56 and above (20%. A questionnaire developed by the research team was used to collect data. The quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0 for windows. Results: The findings indicate that from 5864 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full, a total of 4553 people or 77.6% watch sporting events, while a total of 1311 people or 22.4% have stated not watching any sports activities. Comparison by gender showed that 85.2% of the 2482 males watch sports events while among the female 70.2% of the 2071 watch sports events. In the category of those who do not watch, the female are higher at 29.8% than the males at 14.8%. In terms of ethnicity the Malays 80.2%. Chinese 64.6%, Indians 81.9%, natives of Sabah 94.0%, natives of Sarawak 77.6% like to watch sports events. Residential locations showed no significant differences as 78.7% of urban respondents watch sports events compared to 76.8% of rural communities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that majority of Malaysians having fun in watching sports activities. Gender still plays a role in the involvement and enjoyment of sports events either as a player or supporter. Ethnicity
Sørensen, Karsten Engsig
An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...
Early years mathematics classrooms can be colourful, exciting, and challenging places of learning. Andrea McDonough and fellow teachers have noticed that some students make good decisions about using materials to assist their problem solving, but this is not always the case. These experiences lead her to ask the following questions: (1) Are…
Inspired by Niccolo Machiavelli, this column offers beleaguered school executives advice on looking good, dressing well, losing weight, beating the proper enemy, and saying nothing. Administrators who follow these simple rules should have an easier life, jealous colleagues, well-tended gardens, and respectful board members. (MLH)
Full Text Available Moral behavior in sports is one of the most important issues that concern sportspersons. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ethical work climate that prevails in non profit sport teams is related to moral behaviours (sports personship. Two hundred and fourteen students of three sport schools (n=126males, n=88females, aged between 12-18 years, from ten different sports (both individual and team have been used in this study. The students filled in the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ; Victor &Cullen, 1987, 1988 and the Multidimensional Sportsperson-ship Orientation Scale (Vallerand, Briere, Blanchard, & Provencher, 1997. The results revealed the presence of a caring climate in non profit sport teams. Moreover, it was found that the individual climate is positively related to the four dimensions of sportsperson ship, while the machiavelianism climate is negatively related to the dimension respect for rules and officials.
MĂRĂCINE MIHAELA SIMONA
Full Text Available The role of corporate social responsibility has increased significantly nowadays. The studies conducted have shown that consumers are increasingly no longer interested only in buying good quality and reliable products, but they are also interested whether they were produced in a socially responsible manner. In the recent years investors have increasingly realised that investing in social responsibility regarding the social and environmental areas, greatly contributes to the growth of the internal and external image of management. This paper aims at presenting a number of interesting issues related to social responsibility manifested by the insurance companies.
Kist, A.W.; Crone, F.J.M.; Hudig, D.F.; Ketting, N.G.; De Swaan, T.; Willems, R.
National and international developments on the energy markets and changes in legislation and regulation require a renewed strategic orientation of energy companies and their shareholders. Decentralized authorities will have to reconsider their position as a shareholder in energy companies carefully. This report provides an overview of the recommendations of the Kist Commission on how provinces and municipalities can make a well-considered choice as shareholder of energy companies. [mk] [nl
Salini, M. P.
The Italian Government decided to adopt the public company structure where a little group of medium-term investors had the task of supporting the transition of the privatised companies to the market. The article examines the reasons for this decision and its failure in attaining the purpose, not excluding the possibility for the public company of imposing itself in the long period and in a context of a minor legislative intervention and more effective Corporate Governance rules [it
Balling, Laura Winther
Many writing guides list constructions that writers should avoid, including passives, nominalisations and long complex words and sentences. This study presents an eye-tracking experiment that compared the reading of such supposedly problematic constructions with the reading of their recommended...... in writing guides. This suggests that, in themselves, the supposed problem constructions are not inherently problematic to understand. Therefore, factors previously put forward as important, such as the information structure of texts and the image the sender wishes to project, should be what influences...... the choice of constructions rather than simplified rules such as “Avoid passives!”. The implications of this finding for writing guides and for company and institutional language policies are discussed....
The political constitutions of both the US and Europe provide no guidance on the role of organised sport in society. Without a proper set of rules politicians are finding sports issues increasingly hard to handle. In the US there is widespread concern at the commercial exploitation of major league sports, particularly through the relocation of franchises. In Europe there are anxieties about the increasing polarisation of wealth and the fear that traditions built up over a century will be lost...
A Foucauldian lens of governmentality provides a conceptual framework for a multi-agency model of good governance, and illuminates crucial insights in terms of how sport, as a dominant paradigm, perpetuates a persuasive framework for neoliberal thinking and practices. Many such practices are entrenched in competitive ...
Jenny, Seth E.; Manning, R. Douglas; Keiper, Margaret C.; Olrich, Tracy W.
Electronic sports, cybersports, gaming, competitive computer gaming, and virtual sports are all synonyms for the term eSports. Regardless of the term used, eSports is now becoming more accepted as a "sport" and gamers are being identified as "athletes" within society today. eSports has even infiltrated higher education in the…
Sørensen, Karsten Engsig
The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...
... and economical performance of services or construction or sale of goods by the company for or to its.... (a) Application for approval of a company as a mutual service company shall be filed by the company... finds that the company is so organized as to capitalization, ownership by, and representation of, member...
Full Text Available The growth of fitness centers in Indonesia has given a very good opportunity to the sports drink industry to grow. In general, a fitness center does not only provide services of sports facilities but also sell supplements and drinks to consumers for their exercises. The type of drinks highly in demand by consumers in the fitness center is sports drinks. The objective of this study was to identify the influences of brand positioning, brand image and perceived value on brand choices of sports drink products on the consumer fitness center. This study used a quantitative approach using a survey method to the customers of the fitness centers, and the data analysis method used was PLS (Partial Least Square. The results of the PLS analysis show that the perceived value, brand image and brand positioning have positive and significant influences on brand choice of drink sports drinks of the consumers of the fitness centers in Bogor. Keywords: perceived value, brand image, brand positioning, brand choice, PLS, sport drink
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the role of sport in American society against the background of a very important—for many reasons—period of great social transformation in the United States, one which visibly gathered pace in the 1920s. The author presents different aspects of popular culture, which was in full bloom on account of the following factors: the joy after World War I, a sense of optimism, the development of the economy and industry, the growth of big cities, and the greater affluence of the citizens. The analysis of that unusual decade corroborates the role of sport and its great power of influence on society. In an age when technology and mass production had robbed experiences and objects of their uniqueness, sports provided some of the unpredictability and drama that people craved when looking for romance and adventure. The reasons for the popularity of sport in the USA are presented, as well as the major sports diciplines and heroes of American sport who, in a time when mass production seemed to be making individuals less significant, met with a favorable response—people clung to the heroic personalities of sports figures. The analysis of the beginnings of professionalism in sport, the beginnings of organized support, and sports broadcasting, leaves no doubt as to the significance of the period. As the article demonstrates, it was a time of rapid and profound transformation in the realm of sport. Every serious examination of phenomena in contemporary American sport—and this is also true in the case of other countries—without a knowledge of the specificity of sport in the 1920s, would be far from perfect.
Full Text Available ... to testosterone (such as dehydroepiandrosterone, or DHEA for short). These supplements can have similar side effects to anabolic steroids. Other sports supplements (like creatine, ...
about violations of the media freedom or personal safety of sports journalists. Threats to media freedom include being banned from press conferences or events, the seizure of passports or denial of accreditation.The personal safety of sports journalists is compromised through verbal abuse, assaults......, attacks, personal and social media harrassment, detention, legal pressure, and killings. The key perpetrators identified in the sample were fans, athletes and coaches, owners and officials of sports clubs and national associations, international sports federations, and authorities in authoritarian regimes...
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Full Text Available In this paper we investigate to which measure sport is developed among young people in Montenegro and what should be done to improve and spread physical culture among young people and beyond school systems in order to infl uence their proper development and to create opportunities for choosing potential talents for certain sports disciplines, who would later grow into top athletes and members of national teams. In addition to the theoretical framework set out from referent literature on sports, we will analyze the indicators - the existing regulation and strategy, and analyze the structured interviews conducted among sports professionals, based on which we will form the theory and sublimate the conclusions of work, as recommendations for improving sports among young people. Disadvantages are inadequate realization of teaching in schools, lack of adequate infrastructure in schools, lack of athletic stadium in the capital of Montenegro and lack of sports schools beyond classes. Advantages are great sports potential in youth, youth interest in sport and generations of educated professors in physical culture. The recommendations are related to addressing the shortcomings that exist and the adoption of laws that will stimulate the development of sports among young people.
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Artuso, Paola; Santiangeli, Adriano [CIRPS: Inter-University Research Centre for Sustainable Development, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Eudossiana, 18, Rome (Italy)
The sports facilities are characterized by special energy needs different from any other user and they are characterized by high heat and electricity loads. For this reason, the aim of this work has been to propose a tool to provide a preliminary estimation of the power and energy required by the sports centres. In addition, the possibility to make the building self-energy sufficient has been considered, thanks to the exploitation of renewable energy sources (RES). The overall work has been performed following three steps: energy needs analysis; local RES availability analysis; energy balance of Sport Centres. Considering that each sport facility is characterized by different energy needs depending on the sport typology itself, the analysis started from the features established by the CONI (National Italian Olympic Committee) standardization. For calculations a program in LabVIEW has been developed to evaluate the energy requirements of the sports centre considering as inputs the sport halls, the playgrounds and the supporting rooms, the level of the sport activity (e.g. agonistic) and the climatic conditions of the area where the facilities are located. The locally available RES are evaluated in order to decide which one can be exploited to feed the Sport Centre. The proposed solution for the energy production refers to a combination of different and innovative technologies which involve, in particular, hydrogen technologies. The energy and costs analysis has been finally carried out for an application case in Dubai. (author)
Gregg, Elizabeth A; Gregg, Vanessa H
The history of women in sport in America was shaped by Victorian ideals and other belief systems prevalent during the nineteenth century. Medical experts of that era believed that intense exercise and competition could cause women to become masculine, threaten their ability to bear children, and create other reproductive health complications. Consequently, sport for women was reserved for upper-class women until the mid-twentieth century. Title IX of the Education Amendments had a significant and lasting impact on sport in America. Today, girls and women are enjoying sport at the interscholastic, intercollegiate, and professional levels comparable with their male counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sporting events are programs, which are dominated by creative and complex facilities, primarily sports, but also recreation and entertainment. As such, they achieve tourism effects and goals and have a socio-economic importance for the city, region or state. Depending on the size and importance of sports event, sport has a different role in the context of promoting tourist destination, as well as different values. Each sport discipline has its own criteria by which athletes are ranked individually or as team. The subject of the research is to determine the criteria for the categorization of sporting events, in order to determine the importance of sporting events as an element of the tourist offer (individually or as part of a tourist destination. Also, this paper’s results present a comparative analysis of similar methodologies for the categorization of sporting events. Based on the research presented in the paper, there are four groups of criteria: economic, media, social and environmental. Together with this, paper gives the classification of traditional sporting events in the case of Serbia, dividing them in four groups.
Full Text Available Sport was used to complement therapy in original form, improve of motor patterns and reeducate functions of people with disabilities. With a passing of time, sport evolved to integrated part of rehabilitation as an element of improvement. Moreover, he became as a tool to improve the social integration of people which finished the treatment or/and have deficits. We can notice the huge sport development of people with disabilities, which was initiated by Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s who claimed that view of sport is equal for people with disabilities and able-bodied people. The quality of physical activity of people with disabilities is indicated by motor preparation, training and sport (wellness, nutritionist, sport and exercise psychologist which currently is all the same except individual approach to particular dysfunction of the person with disability. Sport allow to develop not only physical sphere, but also teaches social integration, teamwork skills, self-discipline, improves the quality of life and outcome of the ADL scale (activities of daily living scale of people with disabilities which do sport actively. The variety of sports disciplines and ability to use appropriate orthopedic stuff allows to activate people with every kind of disabilities and dysfunction.
Sports medicine is acquiring an important role owing to the increasing number of sports-active people and professional athletes. Accurate diagnosis of the different pathological conditions is therefore of fundamental importance. This book provides an overview of the most frequently observed conditions and correlates them with sports activities, as well as documenting relatively unknown lesions of increasing significance. Diagnostic techniques are described and compared, and their roles defined; interpretative pitfalls ar highlighted. All of the contributing authors have distinguished themselves in the field and have a deep knowledge of the problem involved in the diagnosis and classification of sports injuries. (orig.)
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Lee, Thomas H
Whether it's a basic Mr. Coffee or a gadget that sports a snazzy device for grinding beans on demand, the office coffee machine offers a place for serendipitous encounters that can improve the social aspect of work and generate new ideas. What's more, a steaming cup of joe may be as good for your health as it is for the bottom line, says Lee, a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the CEO of Partners Community HealthCare. Fears of coffee's carcinogenic effects now appear to be unfounded, and, in fact, the brew might even protect against some types of cancer. What's more, coffee may guard against Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia and somehow soften the blow of a heart attack. Of course, its role as a pick-me-up is well known. So there's no need to take your coffee with a dollop of guilt, especially if you ease up on the sugar, cream, double chocolate, and whipped-cream topping.
Palacios Clemente, Óscar
Actualmente, uno de los negocios más prolíficos que existen es el mundo de los videojuegos, y lo que ahora se conoce como los e-sports o deportes electrónicos. Debido al crecimiento que está sufriendo este mundo, tanto de seguimiento como de afiliación, sus usuarios necesitan tener acceso a información relacionada con ello, para conocer en profundidad el contenido de cada videojuego y poder tener una experiencia mejor cuando lo jueguen. Existen diversas fuentes de las cuales se puede obtener ...
Abu Nor ‘Asyiqin
Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the factors that influence the companies listed in Bursa Malaysia to be indexed as FTSE4Good Bursa Malaysia (F4GBM. The companies awarded as F4GBM are those with good sustainable practices. This study investigates the potential factors that explain the good sustainable practice (i.e. corporate size, financial performance, industry attachment and sharia-compliant. Analysis reveals that only corporate size which proxy by market capitalization has significant relationship with good sustainable practice.
Full Text Available Industrial market, created by companies, which buy and sell goods which are not directly for consumption, but are used in production process, communicates with the environment in a specific way. Many industrial companies supply only the customers of non consumption goods market and hence they do not enter into direct contact with a final consumer. In such cases recognizing the customers needs is even more difficult. Such environment requires efficiently functioning and planned communication of the company with the market. This study presents methods and strategies of marketing communication really used in industrial companies. While analysing marketing strategies of industrial companies, the author draws the attention to the fact that even though there was system transformation, the state still has significant impact on functioning and development of industry and that in a way directs and created barriers in companies functioning. Such conditions force even more active marketing communication as well as searching new solutions. As there are more and more sophisticated marketing techniques related to digital media, there is also a growing demand for strategic solutions in marketing communication. Digital media, first of all the Internet, provide so far unavailable possibilities of researching consumers behaviours and ways of using media. They also give a chance to follow the behaviour of smaller, unique and often social groups of consumers.
Sponsorship has become increasingly popular as a marketing tool in recent years. It is one of the most used tools and especially sport sponsorship is often used to promote their products and to reach their targeting customers. Because of its popularity and the lack of research on how sport sponsorship influences the brand equity of a company, the author decided to do further investigation about this topic. The principle aim of this bachelor thesis was to investigate if sport sponsorship h...
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... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...
Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann
Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.
... Sport Follow us Caregiving Isn't a Solo Sport Leeza Gibbons is a leading TV talk show ... go it alone. Caregiving is not a solo sport. Identify who’s on your team. Delegate, forgive, regroup, ...
Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W.; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L.; Regatte, Ravindar R.; Crema, Michel D.
In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to
The World Summit on Physical Education, held in Berlin in November 1999, called attention to the serious decline in the state and status of physical education and school sport, all over the world. This report outlines the methods of the Sport in Education Project (SpinEd), an international research project, funded by the ...
Scarboro, Shot; Pritchard, Tony
Golf is a lifetime sport activity that can be taught in physical education classes. How one teaches golf in physical education could influence whether students will want to continue to participate outside of physical education. The sport education model (SEM) is an instructional model that promotes student learning in all three domains by ensuring…
Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank
Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of
Full Text Available Marketing developed close relation with sponsorship since the beginnings of the industrial era of sports. The relation has transformed in a stable relation, the two forces – the sponsor and the sponsored – transforming into two companions of journey. The effort undertaken in this work was focused on analyzing the modern aspects of the partnership generated through sports sponsorship.The current issue and sport sponsorship has come a long way since the first action of its kind until now. Based on the presentation of new concepts on the development efforts in sport sponsorship, content provides a detailed analysis of the actual specifics of this type of activity. Analysis of influence vectors sponsorship process gives us a picture of the forces that can act on this. At the end of our research we focused attention on elements that empowers sports portfolio in terms of corporate interest, the potentiation commercial message and image association. This technique of promotional community for and through sports is maybe the one that manifests the most “laic” status among the promotional forms. This epithet implies a metaphorical approach given by the possibility of accomplishing some objectives that can have some more obvious “corporality” than in the case of the other forms of promotion used in the sports industry. Sports sponsorship has been an early ally of sports, and has remained a basic communicational technique. This fact is due to some determination in double sense: on the one hand, sport has adapted permanently to the dynamics of the range of sponsorship techniques and, on the other hand, the sponsorship tried to use the chameleon-like offer of the sports potential.
Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...
Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger
This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....
We wish to build a model, which could predict the outcome of basketball games. The goal was to achieve an sufficient enough accuracy to make a profit in sports betting. One learning example is a game in the NBA regular season. Every example has multiple features, which describe the opposing teams. We tried many methods, which return the probability of the home team winning and the probability of the away team winning. These probabilities are used for risk analysis. We used the best model in h...
I. P. Prokopenko
Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.
Yuzawa, Itsuki; Miyake, Yasufumi; Aruga, Tohru
We described Characteristic of the heat stroke in the sports activity in Japan. It was common in teenage men, and 15 years old had a peak with a man, the woman. Most patients did not need specific treatment. Many happened from the end of July on the outdoors around 3:00 p.m. in mid-August. There are many in order of baseball, football, tennis, and a basketball. Running and cycling had high severity of illness. Probably, grasp of an environmental condition, suitable sportswear, suitable hydration, and condition management are the best things as preventive measures.
When force is applied by an athlete to sports equipment resonances can occur. Just a few examples are: the ringing of a spiked volleyball, the strumming of a golf club shaft during a swing, and multiple modes induced in an aluminum baseball bat when striking a ball. Resonances produce acoustic waves which, if conditions are favorable, can be detected off the playing field. This can provide a means to evaluate athletic performance during game conditions. Results are given from the use of a simple hand-held acoustic detector - by a spectator sitting in the stands - to determine how hard volleyballs were spiked during college and high school games.
TM võrdleb 18tollised suverehve: Aptany Sport Macro RA301, Continental ContiSportContact 5, Delinte DH2, Dunlop SportMaxx RT2, Goodyear Eagle F1 Asymmetric 3, Hankook Ventus S1 Evo 2, Jinyu YU63, Maxxis Victra Sport Zero One, Michelin Pilot Sport 3, Nankang Sportnex AS-2+, Nokian Hakka Black, Pirelli Cinturato PZero, Toyo Proxes T1 Sport Plus
In this paper, the concept of "sport administration" was defined. Sport administration is a specialized field of sport sciences as well as a part of the field of business administration classified by each industry. In previous studies on sport administration, there has not been a common understanding of the concept of sport administration among researchers. Accordingly the nature and meanings of sport administration as a special field of business administration was examined in this paper by r...
Full Text Available At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, form, music, shape of the expressive force. In this paper, the study will be more in-depth excavation of the cultural connotation of sports dance, and promote the development of sports dance can be more comprehensive. In 20s of last century, Chinese Sports Dance Association officially joined the International Sports Dance Association, which also makes our country’s sports dance and international exchange more frequent. However, due to China’s sports dance sports dance learning time is not long, while learning is influenced by Chinese traditional culture, the sports dance movements are too conservative, there is a very large gap and international enthusiasm, bold and unrestrained, the pursuit of individual sports dance in the dance style, music and performance hand. Sports dance originated from abroad, it is produced in the daily life of people in foreign countries. China’s domestic sports dance players in learning dance at the same time, the production and the connotation of dance is not very understanding, therefore, it is difficult to better reflect the emotional expression of sports dance. Although the sports dance is a kind of similar to the competitive projects, but it is also a kind of dance culture, and to constitute a force from the dance art show a detailed study, detailed mining playing officer of sports dance performance further, reducing China’s sports dance and international sports dance gap.
María de la Caridad Veloso Pérez
Full Text Available The proposal to the problematic solution dealt with in the present investigation is constituted by competitive sport activities, which respond to its totality to the integral diagnosis and therefore, to the individual and group characteristics of the selected students as it is shown, being of this form in the heat of correspondence with their real necessities. This activities were developed during the partaking sport time and three stages framed during the course to the competitions. Its organization was based on the same principles on which the Program of the Special Olympic Games is fomented, extracting from the quarries of the base sport the sport talent, it is for that reason so important the work of preparation and participation in the bases, as from the whole scale practice it is that the quality is obtained or the sport talent within the ample range of sport disciplines. The work's objective is to apply competitive sport activities to improve the participation of late mental development children in the systematic training. These activities, proposed as solution, were very effective, since it was obtained a favorable atmosphere in all the school in students, teachers, specialists, family, community, making possible these children to improved their participation in the systematic training, their technical level improved a lot and, mainly, they demonstrated that the sport is one of the fundamental routes to the formation of values in this population group. The results thrown by the investigation are considered valuable since it is the base for the profit of good results in the competence.
Emily G. Deans
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2008, Australia has seen the rapid emergence of marketing for online and mobile sports wagering. Previous research from other areas of public health, such as tobacco and alcohol, has identified the range of appeal strategies these industries used to align their products with culturally valued symbols. However, there is very limited research that has investigated the tactics the sports wagering industry uses within marketing to influence the consumption of its products and services. Method This study consisted of a mixed method interpretive content analysis of 85 sports wagering advertisements from 11 Australian and multinational wagering companies. Advertisements were identified via internet searches and industry websites. A coding framework was applied to investigate the extent and nature of symbolic appeal strategies within advertisements. Results Ten major appeal strategies emerged from this analysis. These included sports fan rituals and behaviours; mateship; gender stereotypes; winning; social status; adventure, thrill and risk; happiness; sexualised imagery; power and control; and patriotism. Symbols relating to sports fan rituals and behaviours, and mateship, were the most common strategies used within the advertisements. Discussion/Conclusions This research suggests that the appeal strategies used by the sports wagering industry are similar to those strategies adopted by other unhealthy commodity industries. With respect to gambling, analysis revealed that strategies are clearly targeted to young male sports fans. Researchers and public health practitioners should seek to better understand the impact of marketing on the normalisation of sports wagering for this audience segment, and implement strategies to prevent gambling harm.
Deans, Emily G; Thomas, Samantha L; Daube, Mike; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Gordon, Ross
Since 2008, Australia has seen the rapid emergence of marketing for online and mobile sports wagering. Previous research from other areas of public health, such as tobacco and alcohol, has identified the range of appeal strategies these industries used to align their products with culturally valued symbols. However, there is very limited research that has investigated the tactics the sports wagering industry uses within marketing to influence the consumption of its products and services. This study consisted of a mixed method interpretive content analysis of 85 sports wagering advertisements from 11 Australian and multinational wagering companies. Advertisements were identified via internet searches and industry websites. A coding framework was applied to investigate the extent and nature of symbolic appeal strategies within advertisements. Ten major appeal strategies emerged from this analysis. These included sports fan rituals and behaviours; mateship; gender stereotypes; winning; social status; adventure, thrill and risk; happiness; sexualised imagery; power and control; and patriotism. Symbols relating to sports fan rituals and behaviours, and mateship, were the most common strategies used within the advertisements. This research suggests that the appeal strategies used by the sports wagering industry are similar to those strategies adopted by other unhealthy commodity industries. With respect to gambling, analysis revealed that strategies are clearly targeted to young male sports fans. Researchers and public health practitioners should seek to better understand the impact of marketing on the normalisation of sports wagering for this audience segment, and implement strategies to prevent gambling harm.
Full Text Available In present, the study of vulnerability of companies is increasing in every field due to the unstable economic environment influences. The object of this research is to define and identify vulnerabilities of companies and the establishment of evaluation methods at their level. This article emphasizes the importance and usefulness of one of the best known model in this way, from our point of view, namely Băileşteanu, Negrila Pattern. This pattern covers both external factors and internal ones, that increase vulnerabilities of companies, and fit the companies in which the state of vulnerability are (vitality, viability, vulnerability, high vulnerability, difficulty and high difficulty, with a matrix. The result of the research is that any company belonging to any field, can be analyzed using this model, and assigned to one of the conditions defined within.
Nurmi, K.; Kyngäs, J.; Post, Gerhard F.
Staff scheduling has become increasingly important for both the public sector and private companies. Good rosters have many benefits for an organization, such as lower costs, more effective utilization of resources and fairer workloads and distribution of shifts. The process of constructing
Preço de transferência e seus impactos contábeis e fiscais dentro de uma empresa de filtros automobilísticos na importação e exportação de mercadorias = Transfer price and its accounting and tax impacts within a automotive filters company in imports and exports of goods
Josiane Gattis Correa Giacomelli
subsidiaries from using the foreign currency drain strategy, since without appropriate system of laws; prices could be undervalued so that there would be no due payment of taxes in the transfer of products abroad. The objective of this study is to verify the accounting and tax impacts on the use of the transfer price in the import and export of goods, for an automotive company. For this, the applied research was used, through the collection of documentary data and unstructured interview. Considering the legal penalties when the law is not applied properly, the following research problem was presented: What are the accounting and tax impacts, when the calculation methods appropriate to the transfer price are applied? The results obtained for the calculation of the import for the product P603 showed that the PRL Resale method, to obtain the lowest adjustment compared to the PIC method in the year 2014, was the most appropriate to be used in the calculation of the transfer price. At the time of export, the CAP method was the most appropriate accounting and tax for the products F175F13 and R161F042, since it was the only possible method to calculate the transfer price for the company studied. As a conclusion of the research, it was verified that the use of the methods recommended by the current Brazilian tax law could contribute to the quality of the accounting information and, at the same time, would result in an increase in the calculation basis of the taxes on income.
The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...
Full Text Available The modern trends in the development of logistics controlling through the prism of collaboration between wholesale companies and retail chains have been considered. The nature and structure of cargo transportation by the wholesale company to the retail chain have been analysed. The key transportation processes have been identified and the reliance on transportation drivers-forwarders for their effectiveness has been determined. The study has resulted in the program-mathematical approach to the transportation controlling automation used by the wholesale company to deliver goods to the retail chain as well as the mathematical model of the system information flow. The practical recommendations for the mathematical software implementation using the AWS Forwarder software product as an example have been illustrated.
At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, fo...
The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de
This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete.......This paper continues the study of ETOL forms and good EOL forms done by Maurer, Salomaa and Wood. It is proven that binary very complete ETOL forms exist, good synchronized ETOL forms exist and that no propagating or synchronized ETOL form can be very complete....
Korsgaard, Christine M.
In some recent papers I have been arguing that the concept ‘good-for’ is prior to the concept of ‘good’ (in the sense in which final ends are good), and exploring the implications of that claim. One of those implications is that everything that is good is good for someone. That implication seems to fall afoul of our intuitions about certain cases, such as the intuition that a world full of happy people and animals is better than a world full of miserable ones, even if the people and animals a...
Full Text Available ... Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for Excellence Athletes and Dieting Eat a Variety of Foods Muscular Minerals and Vital Vitamins Protein ...
Full Text Available ... eat from different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, MD Date reviewed: September 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center ...
Full Text Available ... para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to ...
According to The Committee to Protect Journalists, 2 per cent of all journalists killed since 1992 worked on the sports beat. However, at present there is little understanding of the specific dangers faced by sports journalists. This chapter presents findings from exploratory research on 78 repor...
Hanson, Sandra L.
This article examines young women's access to two traditionally male domains, sport and science, from two perspectives. The structural approach suggests that sport and science are stratified by gender and have historically been chilly climates for women. The Critical approach argues that structure and agency are important in understanding sources…
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Jos de Haan; with contributions from Remco van den Dool
Original title: Versterking data-infrastructuur sport Sports research in the Netherlands has developed rapidly over the last ten years; strengthening the data infrastructure will facilitate its further growth in the future. Currently, however, there is no clear overall picture of the available
Haake, David A.; Dundoo, Manjula; Cader, Rumi; Kubak, Bernard M.; Hartskeerl, Rudy A.; Sejvar, James J.; Ashford, David A.
Recreational activities, such as water sports and adventure travel, are emerging as an important risk factor for leptospirosis, a potentially fatal zoonosis. We report the clinical course of 2 patients who acquired leptospirosis through participation in water sports. Physicians caring for patients
Lyle, John W. B.
Conceptualizes excellence in sports performance and suggests that there is a failure to distinguish between community recreation and performance sports as well as lack of knowledge about talent identification. Proposes a structure for management and investment in education and training in the field. (SK)
Full Text Available ... eat from different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, MD Date reviewed: September 2014 More on this topic for: Teens Nutrition & Fitness Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins ...
Full Text Available ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / A Guide to Eating for ...
For years, strong claims have been made that sport builds character. Despite such claims, a "winning at all cost" mentality can frequently be seen within all of sport. The reason for this paradox may relate to confusion around what it means to demonstrate character. The purpose of this article is to show that there are indeed two distinct types of…
Engle, Kathleen M.
Examines the current nationwide drive to eliminate sexism in school sports. Discusses expenditures for boys' and girls' athletic programs, coaching salaries, facilities, and programs offered. A physician discusses the potentials for girls in competitive sports, and a girl who joined a high school all-male team is interviewed. (DN)
Schwab, Keri A.; Legg, Eric; Tanner, Preston; Timmerman, Danielle; Dustin, Daniel; Arthur-Banning, Skye G.
Sport management alumni (N = 268) from five universities that offer undergraduate programs with an emphasis in sport management within departments of parks, recreation, and tourism were sampled via an electronic survey. The survey sought to learn where alumni were working, and how they felt about their career choice and undergraduate professional…
Chatoorgoon, V.; Thibeault, P.R.
SPORTS is a transient one-dimensional thermalhydraulic code formulated from the non-linear time dependent conservation equations and designed to investigate two-phase flow stability. The SPORTS Users' Guide contains some features of the code, a brief description of the program environment and access, and a description of the input data complete with a sample problem
Full Text Available ... depends on the individual's age, size, level of physical activity, and environmental temperature. Experts recommend that athletes drink ... different food groups based on age, gender, and activity level. Reviewed by: Sarah R. Gibson, MD Date reviewed: ... Center Sports Physicals Figuring Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins ...
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Kozub, Francis M.; Kozub, Mary L.
Martial arts have become popular in the United States and have transitioned from being spectator sports to avenues for active participation by people of all ages. The purpose of this article is to highlight tactical similarities in selected combative sport activities and to provide martial arts and wrestling instructors with an alternative…
The arthrography is one of the most important diagnostic methods of sport injuries of the knee joint. The examination must give an exact information to the surgeon; a good technique and standard X-rays are an absolute postulate. The submitted examinations are based on 6687 arthrographies during a period of 5 years. The arthrography should not be carried out before the acute symptomatology has ceased, usually after an interval of 2-3 weeks. Most frequent are the meniscus injuries by rotary traumas of the knee-joint. Football as the most popular sport is responsible for more than 50% of the injuries, followed by skiing, handball and jogging.
The arthrography is one of the most important diagnostic methods of sport injuries of the knee joint. The examination must give an exact information to the surgeon; a good technique and standard X-rays are an absolute postulate. The submitted examinations are based on 6687 arthrographies during a period of 5 years. The arthrography should not be carried out before the acute symptomatology has ceased, usually after an interval of 2-3 weeks. Most frequently are the meniscus injuries by rotary traumas of the knee-joint. Football as the most popular sport is responsible for more than 50% of the injuries, followed by skiing, handball and jogging. (orig.)
Abstract Local sports market depends on the groups of stakeholders. One of them are the sponsors grouped around a particular club or sport. The problem that meet the organizers of sporting events or recreational activities is the inability to convince sponsors to the effectiveness of promotional activities based on the sport. Inability is due primarily to the fact that companies sponsoring do not use all aspects of the sponsorship and sometimes the club cannot indicate how it should be used. Meanwhile, the lasting effects of sponsorship can bring benefits not only its image but also financial, informational, promotional. The primary purpose of the article is to study the effect of the use of the communication by the sponsors local sports clubs. This study will be done by evaluating how the sponsors of these clubs to communicate the fact to support the outside. Space research will be websites of sports clubs from Częstochowa region and information from websites of their sponsors. Article will consist of theoretical and practical parts. In the theoretical part will be presented briefly the most important and latest information on modern forms of communication with the use in companies. The practical part of the study will fill your own. During the study it will be verified thesis that sponsors local sports clubs faint attach importance to communicate that fact to potential customers. In this way also it verifies opinion on the effectiveness of sponsorship and lack of ability to use image-supporting local sports clubs. The article is part of a multi-lane testing on the functioning of local sports clubs.
Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar
Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement. Copyright 2004 Adis Data Information BV
Butts, Jessica; Jacobs, Bret; Silvis, Matthew
The use of creatine as a dietary supplement has become increasingly popular over the past several decades. Despite the popularity of creatine, questions remain with regard to dosing, effects on sports performance, and safety. PubMed was searched for articles published between 1980 and January 2017 using the terms creatine, creatine supplementation, sports performance, and dietary supplements. An additional Google search was performed to capture National Collegiate Athletic Association-specific creatine usage data and US dietary supplement and creatine sales. Clinical review. Level 4. Short-term use of creatine is considered safe and without significant adverse effects, although caution should be advised as the number of long-term studies is limited. Suggested dosing is variable, with many different regimens showing benefits. The safety of creatine supplementation has not been studied in children and adolescents. Currently, the scientific literature best supports creatine supplementation for increased performance in short-duration, maximal-intensity resistance training. While creatine appears to be safe and effective for particular settings, whether creatine supplementation leads to improved performance on the field of play remains unknown.
Molloy, Michael G
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease in the world and the single largest cause of disability for those over 18 years. It affects more than twice as many people as does cardiac disease, and increases in incidence and prevalence with age. Animal and human studies have shown no evidence of increased risk of hip or knee OA with moderate exercise and in the absence of traumatic injury, sporting activity has a protective effect. One age-matched case control study found recreational runners who ran 12-14 miles per week for up to 40 years had no increase in radiological or symptomatic hip or knee OA. However, higher rates of hip OA occur in contact sports than in age-matched controls, with the highest rate in professional players. Soccer players with torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are more likely to develop knee OA than those with intact ACL. Early ACL repair reduces the risk of knee OA, but does not prevent it. Established injury prevention programmes have been refined to prevent injuries such as ACL rupture.
O'Brien, M; Robertson, A
Women have historically taken part in sports for many centuries. The first recorded female game competitions were the Herean Games in approximately 1,000 BC, named after the Goddess Hera. Held at Olympia in Greece, these games were for women alone and were thought to have originated as part of ancient fertility rights. Historically there is evidence of sporting activities involving women, but nothing of significance until after the 1948 summer Olympic Games, when 385 female athletes participated. Over the last six decades there has been a noted rise in the number of female athletes, reaching its maximum with the 2008 Beijing Olympics, where over 42% of the 11,028 athletes were women. Similarly in 2006, at the Turin Winter Olympics in Italy, 40% of the 2,500 athletes were females. In the 2012 Olympics, the Olympic Committee anticipates that approximately 44% of all athletes participating will be female. Despite there being a significant rise in the number of elite athletes in the UK, there appears to be an overall decrease in the amount and intensity of physical exercise undertaken by teenage girls. This is considered to be due to the fact that physical education is no longer an integral part of the school curriculum in the UK. There is, however, a small but significant group of elite athletes who start to train at a very early age (9-10 years old) especially in gymnastics, skating, swimming and athletics.
Bodin, Julia; Kekesi, Peter
When diversifying into new markets, companies have a wide range of strategic options tochoose from. This thesis investigates reasons and drivers behind why companies usepartnership as a diversification strategy when entering new markets. Using a theoreticalframework composed of external and internal factors (Sánchez-Peinado & Menguzzato-Boulard, 2009) combined with Lambert’s (2008) partnership model, a single-case study wasconducted on a sports marketing agency’s entry into the fast growi...
This volume comprises scientific contributions in the context of the 5th annual conference of the European Association of Sports Economics (ESEA), which took place in September 2013 in Esbjerg, Denmark. It contains five articles on UEFA’s financial fair play regulation in European football, written...... by internationally renowned sports economists like Stefan Szymanski, Joel Maxcy and Sean Hamil. Moreover, a further three chapters deal with football topics like the dismissal of coaches or competitive balance. Furthermore, the economics of sports events – the Olympics as well as local events – are analyzed by well......-known scholars like Wladimir Andreff and Plácido Rodríguez. Next to team sports, new developments of the economics of individual sports like cycling, ski-jumping and motor-racing are explored....
Fatma Ebru KOKU
Full Text Available As participation in both amateur and professional sports increases, so does the importance of sports performance and the factors influencing it. Determinants of success in sports can be classified as training, genetic, epigenetic, dietary, motivational, equipment and other environmental factors. The effect of genetics on sports performance and skill has been examined for many years. Autosomal genes, mitochondrial DNA and various genes located in the Y chromosome have all been associated with sports performance. It is not possible to link physical performance to a single genetic polymorphism. Genes that have been most extensively studied in their relation to performance include ACE, ACTN3, ADRA2A, ADRB2, PPARA, PPARGC1A, AMPD1, HIF1A, NOS3, BDKRB2, VEGFR2 and VEGFA. For the time being, genetic screening tests may be useful in determining the weaknesses and strengths of a sportsperson, but not in predicting athletic success.
A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)
textabstract Good governance is not a new concept Ambrogio Lorenzetti made his frescoes on good and bad governance already in the years 1338-1340 They can be viewed in the Palazzo Publicco on one of the most beautiful squares of the world, the Piazza del Campo in Siena, Italy I assume many of you
McKay, Robert B.
It is argued that the Supreme Court's Bakke decision overturning the University of California's minority admissions program is good for those who favor affirmative action programs in higher education. The Supreme Court gives wide latitude for devising programs that take race and ethnic background into account if colleges are acting in good faith.…
Paredaens, J.; Van den Bussche, J.; Andries, M.; Gemis, M.; Gyssens, M.; Thyssens, I.; Van Gucht, D.; Sarathy, V.; Saxton, L.V.
GOOD is an acronym, standing for Graph-Oriented Object Database. GOOD is being developed as a joint research effort of Indiana University and the University of Antwerp. The main thrust behind the project is to indicate general concepts that are fundamental to any graph-oriented database
Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Skovdal, Morten
, physical cleanliness, honesty, gratitude and lifestyle adaptations (taking pills correctly andcoming to the clinic when told). As healthcare workers may decide to punish patients who do not live up the‘good patient persona’, many patients seek to perform within the confines of the ‘good patient persona...
Examines the working lives of geneticists and journalists to place into perspective what lies behind personal ethics and success. Defines "good work" as productive activity that is valued socially and loved by people engaged in it. Asserts that certain cultural values, social controls, and personal standards are necessary to maintain good work and…
Suggestions are presented from parents on how to help children with disabilities (with particular focus on Downs Syndrome) learn good grooming habits in such areas as good health, exercise, cleanliness, teeth and hair care, skin care, glasses and other devices, and social behavior. (CB)