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Sample records for sport-utility vehicles suvs

  1. An Analysis of the Impact of Sport Utility Vehicles in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Truett, L.F.

    2000-08-01

    It may be labeled sport utility vehicle, SUV, sport-ute, suburban assault vehicle, or a friend of OPEC (Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries). It has been the subject of comics, the object of high-finance marketing ploys, and the theme of Dateline. Whatever the label or the occasion, this vehicle is in great demand. The popularity of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) has increased dramatically since the late 1970s, and SUVs are currently the fastest growing segment of the motor vehicle industry. Hoping to gain market share due to the popularity of the expanding SUV market, more and more manufacturers are adding SUVs to their vehicle lineup. One purpose of this study is to analyze the world of the SUV to determine why this vehicle has seen such a rapid increase in popularity. Another purpose is to examine the impact of SUVs on energy consumption, emissions, and highway safety.

  2. The Sport-Utility Vehicle: Debating Fuel-Economy Standards in Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a debate about national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles (SUVs) used as a foundation for exploring a public policy issue in the physical science classroom. The subject of automobile fuel economy benefits from a familiarity with thermodynamics, specifically heat engines, and is therefore applicable to a broad…

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-08-16

    During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

  4. A driver-adaptive stability control strategy for sport utility vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shenjin; He, Yuping

    2017-08-01

    Conventional vehicle stability control (VSC) systems are designed for average drivers. For a driver with a good driving skill, the VSC systems may be redundant; for a driver with a poor driving skill, the VSC intervention may be inadequate. To increase safety of sport utility vehicles (SUVs), this paper proposes a novel driver-adaptive VSC (DAVSC) strategy based on scaling the target yaw rate commanded by the driver. The DAVSC system is adaptive to drivers' driving skills. More control effort would be exerted for drivers with poor driving skills, and vice versa. A sliding mode control (SMC)-based differential braking (DB) controller is designed using a three degrees of freedom (DOF) yaw-plane model. An eight DOF nonlinear yaw-roll model is used to simulate the SUV dynamics. Two driver models, namely longitudinal and lateral, are used to 'drive' the virtual SUV. By integrating the virtual SUV, the DB controller, and the driver models, the performance of the DAVSC system is investigated. The simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the DAVSC strategy.

  5. SUV rollover in single vehicle crashes and the influence of ESC and SSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallan, Michael J; Jermakian, Jessica Steps

    2008-10-01

    The modern Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) fleet continues to go through a transformation in response to the concern that they are at an increased risk of rollover. Our research objective was to look at changes in rollover rates for single vehicle crashes in the modern SUV fleet (corresponding to NCAP rollover testing model years) and the impact of electronic stability control (ESC) and lowered center of gravity. We looked at 2001-2006 NASS-GES data on a probability sample of 3,331 SUVs involved in single vehicle crashes, weighted to represent 324,149 crashes in the study population. Static Stability Factor (SSF) information from NCAP testing and ESC presence (from IIHS) were also incorporated. 20.2% of these SUVs were involved a rollover, which decreased by more than half from model year 2001 (25.3%) through 2006 (11.5%). Nearly 9% had ESC as a standard feature, including 47% in model year 2006. The majority of the late model year decline in rollover rates can be attributed to ESC presence and higher SSF. Rollover was two-thirds less likely (adjusted OR=0.33, 95% CI=0.20-0.55) in SUVs with ESC as a standard feature versus those known not to have ESC. Those SUVs with SSF > or = 1.20 were significantly less likely to rollover (adjusted OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.20-0.48). Additional significant predictors of rollover included SUV size, driver age and alcohol use. Our study builds on the previous work of NHTSA, IIHS, and others with regard to rollover risk by looking at an even wider array of late model year SUVs.

  6. Long Term Hydrogen Vehicle Fleet Operational Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    world settings. The implementation and qualification of these technologies addresses national objectives and improves the state of the art to advance...Gasoline Electric Sport Utility Vehicles (SUV). Figure 1 shows one of the H2ICE vehicles. The H2ICE vehicles have a full hybrid system capable of...Hickam NAC National Automotive Center PACOM Pacific Command SLI Starting, Lighting, and Ignition SUV Sport Utility Vehicle TARDEC Tank Automotive Research Development, and Engineering Center

  7. A Study of the Effect of the Front-End Styling of Sport Utility Vehicles on Pedestrian Head Injuries

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    Guanjun Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The number of sport utility vehicles (SUVs on China market is continuously increasing. It is necessary to investigate the relationships between the front-end styling features of SUVs and head injuries at the styling design stage for improving the pedestrian protection performance and product development efficiency. Methods. Styling feature parameters were extracted from the SUV side contour line. And simplified finite element models were established based on the 78 SUV side contour lines. Pedestrian headform impact simulations were performed and validated. The head injury criterion of 15 ms (HIC15 at four wrap-around distances was obtained. A multiple linear regression analysis method was employed to describe the relationships between the styling feature parameters and the HIC15 at each impact point. Results. The relationship between the selected styling features and the HIC15 showed reasonable correlations, and the regression models and the selected independent variables showed statistical significance. Conclusions. The regression equations obtained by multiple linear regression can be used to assess the performance of SUV styling in protecting pedestrians’ heads and provide styling designers with technical guidance regarding their artistic creations.

  8. Determinan Nilai Pelanggan dan Implikasinya pada Dependensi Pelanggan Bengkel Suv Premium

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    Aditya Wardhana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available he implementation of ASEAN Economic Community (AEC for Indonesia making its big market more capitalized and and grow rapidly. The Indonesian automotive industrial market has become ASEAN’s biggest auto market. Automotive products in Indonesia is divided into two is a variant of commercial vehicles and passenger vehicle. Passenger vehicle is divided into three types namely: sedan, multi purpose vehicle (MPV, sport utility vehicle (SUV. The aim of this study is to investigate the determinants of customer value such as service quality and customer relationship management (CRM and its implications on customer dependence. This research using a method of survey with a number of population 63.015 customers and 400 respondents as customers at premium SUV authorized service station in urban areas in West Java with using slovin formula. Analysis of data using path analysis. The result of this research concluded that the service quality and customer relationship management influenced partially significant on the perceived value of customers of car workshop premium SUV.

  9. SUV driving "masculinizes" risk behavior in females: a public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Wanka, Anna; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    Involvement of sport utility vehicles (SUV) in accidents especially with children is of increasing importance. Studies have indicated a more risky behavior in SUV drivers. We conducted an observational study focusing on traffic violations, car type, and the gender of the driver in Vienna. The study was conducted on five weekdays at the beginning of school term. Three busy intersections were selected.Drivers of 43,168 normal cars and 5653 SUVs were counted at the intersections during the observation period. In total 13.8% drivers were unbelted, 3.1% were using a handheld mobile phone, and 2.5% violated traffic lights. These frequencies were significantly higher in SUV drivers than in normal passenger car drivers. This "SUV effect" also occurred in women for all violations, although male drivers violated traffic laws more often than female drivers. However, for driving unbelted the difference between males and females was smaller in SUV drivers.

  10. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles: Tier 2 Motor Vehicle Emissions Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing more protective tailpipe emissions standards for all passenger vehicles, including sport utility vehicles (SUVs), minivans, vans and pick-up trucks.

  11. Analysis of the economic and ecological performances in the transient regimes of the European driving cycle for a midsize SUV equipped with a DHEP, using the simulation platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancă, Gheorghe; Ivan, Florian; Iozsa, Daniel; Nisulescu, Valentin

    2017-10-01

    Currently, the tendency of the car manufacturers is to continue the expansion of the global production of SUVs (Sport Utility Vehicle), while observing the requirements imposed by the new pollution standards by developing new technologies like DHEP (Diesel Hybrid Electric Powertrain). Experience has shown that the transient regimes are the most difficult to control from an economic and ecological perspective. As a result, this paper will highlight the behaviour of such engines that are provided in a middle class SUV (Sport Utility Vehicle), which operates in such states. We selected the transient regimes characteristic to the NMVEG (New Motor Vehicle Emissions Group) cycle. The investigations using the modelling platform AMESim allowed for rigorous interpretations for the 16 acceleration and 18 deceleration states. The results obtained from the simulation will be validated by experiments.

  12. 75 FR 17605 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... that the challenge was to push to a level where the safety benefits are still reasonable in relation to... it is inequitable to those who travel in large vans and large sport utility vehicles (SUVs) for those... pickup trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles that have the capacity to seat three or more occupants...

  13. 78 FR 24817 - Visual-Manual NHTSA Driver Distraction Guidelines for In-Vehicle Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Research Program 2 SUV Sport Utility Vehicle TEORT Total Eyes-Off-Road Time TGT Total Glance Time to Task... Critical Incidents, Driver Restart Period, Sleep Quantity, and Crash Countermeasures in Commercial Vehicle...

  14. Performance Investigation of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator for Military SUV Application

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    Rui Quan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the thermoelectric power generation for sports utility vehicle (SUV application, a novel thermoelectric generator (TEG based on low-temperature Bi2Te3 thermoelectric modules (TEMs and a chaos-shaped brass heat exchanger is constructed. The temperature distribution of the TEG is analyzed based on an experimental setup, and the temperature uniformity optimization method is performed by chipping peak off and filling valley is taken to validate the improved output power. An automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG using four TEGs connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series is assembled into a prototype military SUV, its temperature distribution, output voltage, output power, system efficiency, inner resistance, and backpressure is analyzed, and several important influencing factors such as vehicle speed, clamping pressure, engine coolant flow rate, and ambient temperature on its output performance are tested. Experimental results demonstrate that higher vehicle speed, larger clamping pressure, faster engine coolant flow rate and lower ambient temperature can enhance the overall output performance, but the ambient temperature and coolant flow rate are less significant. The maximum output power of AETEG is 646.26 W, the corresponding conversion efficiency is 1.03%, and the increased backpressure changes from 1681 Pa to 1807 Pa when the highest vehicle speed is 125 km/h.

  15. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

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    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  16. The estimated reduction in the odds of loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles equipped with electronic stability control.

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    Green, Paul E; Woodrooffe, John

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the NASS General Estimates System (GES), the method of induced exposure was used to assess the effects of electronic stability control (ESC) on loss-of-control type crashes for sport utility vehicles. Sport utility vehicles were classified into crash types generally associated with loss of control and crash types most likely not associated with loss of control. Vehicles were then compared as to whether ESC technology was present or absent in the vehicles. A generalized additive model was fit to assess the effects of ESC, driver age, and driver gender on the odds of loss of control. In addition, the effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were compared to effects on roads that were dry. Overall, the estimated percentage reduction in the odds of a loss-of-control crash for sport utility vehicles equipped with ESC was 70.3%. Both genders and all age groups showed reduced odds of loss-of-control crashes, but there was no significant difference between males and females. With respect to driver age, the maximum percentage reduction of 73.6% occurred at age 27. The positive effects of ESC on roads that were not dry were significantly greater than on roads that were dry.

  17. Crash fatality risk and unibody versus body-on-frame structure in SUVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    In crashes between cars and SUVs, car occupants are more likely to be killed than if they crashed with another car. An increasing proportion of SUVs are built with unibody, rather than truck-like body-on-frame construction. Unibody SUVs are generally lighter, less stiff, and less likely to roll over than body-on-frame SUVs, but whether unibody structure affects risk of death in crashes is unknown. To determine whether unibody SUVs differ from body-on-frame SUVs in the danger they pose to occupants of other vehicles and in the self-protection they offer to their own occupants. Case-control study of crashes between one compact SUV and one other passenger vehicle in the US during 1995-2008, in which the SUV was model year 1996-2006. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes, one control was selected from each non-fatal crash. Occupants of passenger vehicles that crashed with compact unibody SUVs were at 18% lower risk of death compared to those that crashed with compact body-on-frame SUVs (adjusted odds ratio 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.73-0.94)). Occupants of compact unibody SUVs were also at lower risk of death compared to occupants of body-on-frame SUVs (0.86 (0.72-1.02)). In two-vehicle collisions involving compact SUVs, unibody structure was associated with lower risk of death both in occupants of other vehicles in the crash, and in SUVs' own occupants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential Rollover Risk in Vehicle-to-Traffic Barrier Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J.; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2009-01-01

    In the roadside safety community, there has been debate over the influence of vehicle and barrier type on rollover rates in traffic barrier crashes. This study investigated rollover rates between sport utility vehicles (SUVs), pickup trucks, and cars in vehicle-traffic barrier crashes and has examined the effect of barrier type on rollover risk for concrete barrier and metal barrier impacts. The analysis included 955 barrier impact cases that were selected from 11-years of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). In real world tow-away level longitudinal barrier collisions, the most important predictors of vehicle rollover were found to be vehicle type and whether the vehicle was tracking prior to barrier impact. Based on binary logistic regression, SUVs were found to have 8 times the risk of rollover as cars in barrier impacts. Although pickups were found to have an increased risk of rollover compared to cars, the risk was not as pronounced as that found for SUVs. This finding has direct implications for the full scale crash testing of longitudinal barriers as the testing procedures have been predicated on the assumption that the pickup truck provides a critical or worst case impact scenario. In towaway crashes, our study does not support the notion that concrete barriers have a higher risk of vehicle rollover than metal beam barriers. PMID:20184839

  19. Vehicle rollover risk and electronic stability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, P A; Marshall, T; Griffin, R; Purcell, M; McGwin, G; Rue, L W

    2008-06-01

    Electronic stability control (ESC) systems were developed to reduce motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) caused by loss of control. Introduced in Europe in 1995 and in the USA in 1996, ESC is designed to improve vehicle lateral stability by electronically detecting and automatically assisting drivers in unfavorable situations. To examine the relationship between vehicle rollover risk and presence of ESC using a large national database of MVCs. A retrospective cohort study for the period 1995 through 2006 was carried out using data obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System. All passenger cars and sport utility vehicles (SUVs)/vans of model year 1996 and later were eligible. Vehicle ESC (unavailable, optional, standard) was determined on the basis of make, model, and model year. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated to compare rollover risk by vehicle ESC group. For all crashes, vehicles equipped with standard ESC had decreased risk of rollover (RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.77) compared with vehicles with ESC unavailable. The association was consistent for single-vehicle MVCs (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.82); passenger cars had decreased rollover risk (RR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.12), but SUVs/vans had a more dramatically decreased risk (RR = 0.40, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.61). This study supports previous results showing ESC to be effective in reducing the risk of rollover. ESC is more effective in SUVs/vans for rollovers related to single-vehicle MVCs.

  20. Is passenger vehicle incompatibility still a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death

  1. Vehicle Unsteady Dynamics Characteristics Based on Tire and Road Features

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    Bin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During automotive related accidents, tire and road play an important role in vehicle unsteady dynamics as they have a significant impact on the sliding friction. The calculation of the rubber viscoelastic energy loss modulus and the true contact area model is improved based on the true contact area and the rubber viscoelastic theory. A 10 DOF full vehicle dynamic model in consideration of the kinetic sliding friction coefficient which has good accuracy and reality is developed. The stability test is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the model, and the simulation test is done in MATLAB to analyze the impact of tire feature and road self-affine characteristics on the sport utility vehicle (SUV unsteady dynamics under different weights. The findings show that it is a great significance to analyze the SUV dynamics equipped with different tire on different roads, which may provide useful insights into solving the explicit-implicit features of tire prints in systematically and designing active safety systems.

  2. A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

    2013-01-01

    Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Life-cycle private costs of hybrid electric vehicles in the current Chinese market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chengtao; Wu, Tian; Ou, Xunmin; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Xiliang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the life-cycle private cost (LCPC) of the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is important for market feasibility analysis. An HEV LCPC model was established to evaluate HEV market prospects in China compared with traditional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV). The Kluger HV, a full-hybrid HEV sports utility vehicle (SUV), aimed at the Chinese market, was simulated as the 2010 model's technology details were well publicized. The LCPC of the Kluger HV was roughly the same (about 1.06 times) as that of its comparable ICEV (Highlander SUV). This aligns with other compact and midsize HEV cars (e.g., Toyota Prius, Honda Civic and Toyota Camry HEV) in China. With oil prices predicted to rise in the long-term, the advantage of HEVs energy saving will partly compensate the high manufacturing costs associated with their additional motor/battery components. Besides supporting technology development, enabling policy should be implemented to introduce HEV technology into taxi fleets and business cars. This technology's cost-competitiveness, compared with traditional ICEVs, is advantageous for these higher mileage vehicles. - Highlights: ► A model is set up to evaluate the life-cycle private cost of HEVs. ► Life-cycle private costs of HEVs are higher than conventional cars in China. ► HEVs become competitive when the oil price rises

  4. Study of an image-derived SUV and a modified SUV using mouse FDG-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Xiujuan, E-mail: zhengxj@eie.polyu.edu.h [Department of Electronic Information Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Yu, Chin-Lung; Sha Wei; Radu, Caius; Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California Los Angeles, CA (United States); Feng Dagan [Department of Electronic Information Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); School of Information Technologies, the University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Introduction: Standard uptake value (SUV) is calculated without consideration of the differences in plasma 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) clearance. Its variability can be affected by changes of the amount of excreted FDG by renal function. Moreover, the estimation of SUV is quite sensitive to errors in the measurements of body weight and injected dose. This study aims to develop an image-based method to obtain an image-derived SUV (iSUV) and a modified SUV (mSUV) to overcome these problems. Methods: Thirty-one tumor-planted SCID mice were scanned in micro-positron emission tomography (PET) at {approx}60 min post FDG injection and then scanned in micro-computed tomographic (CT). Using image-based method, the body weight and injected dose were derived from the microPET/CT images to calculate iSUV. The volumes and the total activities of FDG within the bladder and the whole-body were also obtained to calculate mSUV. For the selected targets, the iSUVs and mSUVs were compared against their corresponding SUVs. Results: Compared with SUV factor (injected dose/body weight), iSUV factor had an average percentage error of -0.7%. The linear regressions between SUV and iSUV had a slope of 0.99 with correlation coefficient of 0.95. Compared with SUV and iSUV, coefficient of variation of mSUV decreased while the tumor-to-background separation of mSUV increased. Conclusions: Using this image-based method, the iSUV can replace SUV when the actual measurements were missing or unreliable. The mSUV can reduce the inter-subject variability and enhance the tumor-to-background separation in mouse FDG-PET studies.

  5. Study of an image-derived SUV and a modified SUV using mouse FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiujuan; Yu, Chin-Lung; Sha Wei; Radu, Caius; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Feng Dagan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Standard uptake value (SUV) is calculated without consideration of the differences in plasma 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) clearance. Its variability can be affected by changes of the amount of excreted FDG by renal function. Moreover, the estimation of SUV is quite sensitive to errors in the measurements of body weight and injected dose. This study aims to develop an image-based method to obtain an image-derived SUV (iSUV) and a modified SUV (mSUV) to overcome these problems. Methods: Thirty-one tumor-planted SCID mice were scanned in micro-positron emission tomography (PET) at ∼60 min post FDG injection and then scanned in micro-computed tomographic (CT). Using image-based method, the body weight and injected dose were derived from the microPET/CT images to calculate iSUV. The volumes and the total activities of FDG within the bladder and the whole-body were also obtained to calculate mSUV. For the selected targets, the iSUVs and mSUVs were compared against their corresponding SUVs. Results: Compared with SUV factor (injected dose/body weight), iSUV factor had an average percentage error of -0.7%. The linear regressions between SUV and iSUV had a slope of 0.99 with correlation coefficient of 0.95. Compared with SUV and iSUV, coefficient of variation of mSUV decreased while the tumor-to-background separation of mSUV increased. Conclusions: Using this image-based method, the iSUV can replace SUV when the actual measurements were missing or unreliable. The mSUV can reduce the inter-subject variability and enhance the tumor-to-background separation in mouse FDG-PET studies.

  6. Choice of teenagers' vehicles and views on vehicle safety: survey of parents of novice teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinga, Laurie A; McCartt, Anne T; Haire, Emily R

    2007-01-01

    To examine parental decisions about vehicles driven by teenagers and parental knowledge of vehicle safety. About 300 parents were interviewed during spring 2006 in Minnesota, North Carolina, and Rhode Island while teenagers took their first on-road driving tests. Fewer than half of parents surveyed said teenagers would be the primary drivers of the chosen vehicles. Parents most often cited safety, existing family vehicle, and reliability when explaining the choices for their teenagers' vehicles. About half of the vehicles intended for teenagers were small/mini/sports cars, pickups, or SUVs - vehicles considered less safe for teenagers than midsize/large cars or minivans. A large majority of vehicles were 2001 models or earlier. Vehicles purchased in anticipation of adding a new driver to the family were more likely to be the sizes/types considered less safe than vehicles already owned. Few parents insisted on side airbags or electronic stability control, despite strong evidence of their safety benefits. Even when asked to identify ideal vehicles for their teenagers to drive, about half of parents identified less safe vehicle sizes/types. Most parents knew that midsize/large vehicles are safer than small vehicles, and at least half of parents said SUVs and pickups are not safe for teenage drivers, citing instability. The majority of parents understood some of the important criteria for choosing safe vehicles for their teenagers. However, parents actually selected many vehicles for teenagers that provide inferior crash protection. Vehicle safety varies substantially by vehicle size, type, and safety features. Many teenagers are driving inferior vehicles in terms of crashworthiness and crash avoidance.

  7. Light trucks and highway fatalities : the role of network effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Light trucks, such as sport utility vehicles (SUVs) : and pickups, impose greater risks of injury and : death on other motorists than do cars, while at the : same time providing their occupants with increased : protection against these risks relative...

  8. Análisis competitivo por parte de los fabricantes de automóviles y camionetas SUV mediante el Uso del Valor Percibido por el cliente como una herramienta para ese propósito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Baby Moreno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata del uso del Valor Percibido por el Cliente como herramienta para el análisis competitivo por parte de ensambladoras y concesionarios de Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV. Se muestra cómo se determinan la importancia relativa de los atributos que los compradores tienen en cuenta para evaluar el desempeño de un concesionario y la evaluación de desempeño de los principales proveedores de este tipo de vehículo. Posteriormente, se ilustra la manera como una marca visualiza su posición competitiva. También muestra la brecha entre los valores ideales esperados por el mercado y el valor percibido por el mercado, lo cual se constituye en un mapa de oportunidades para las firmas actualmente presentes en el mercado y para nuevos participantes.

  9. Crash fatality and vehicle incompatibility in collisions between cars and light trucks or vans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    In crashes between a car and a light truck or van (LTV), car occupants are more likely to be killed than LTV occupants. The extent this is due to the greater harm imposed by LTVs on cars or the greater protection they offer their own occupants is not known. We conducted a case-control study of collisions between two passenger vehicles in the USA during 1990-2008. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes (N=157,684); one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes (N=379,458). Adjusted for the type of vehicle they were riding in and other confounders, occupants of vehicles colliding with any type of LTVs (categorised as compact sport utility vehicles (SUV), full-size SUVs, minivans, full-size vans, compact pickups and full-size pickups) were at higher risk of death compared with occupants colliding with cars. Adjusted for the type of vehicle they crashed with and other confounders, occupants of LTVs in a collision with any vehicle were at lower risk of death compared with car occupants. Compared with a crash between two cars, the overall RR of death in a crash between any of the other 27 different combinations of vehicle types was 1.0 or greater, except for crashes between two full-size pickups, where the RR of death was 0.9. Although LTVs protect their own occupants better than cars do, LTVs are associated with an excess total risk of death in crashes with cars or other LTVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Strengthening Security during Sporting Events by Unmannde Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows how Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can improve security in major sporting events. Given the increase in violence among sports fans it is important to timely monitor possible conflict locations. A UAV can patrol and remotely monitor the activity at these locations. Such a patrol

  11. Overestimation of on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory caused by exhaust plumes of a vehicle ahead in dense traffic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sang-Hee; Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Chang Hyeok; Yook, Se-Jin; Jeon, Sangzin; Kwon, Sangil; Kim, Jeongsoo; Lee, Seung-Bok

    2016-11-01

    The unintended influence of exhaust plumes emitted from a vehicle ahead to on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory (ML) at 20-40 km h -1 in dense traffic areas was investigated by experiment and life-sized computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) simulation. The ML equipped with variable sampling inlets of five columns by four rows was used to measure the spatial distribution of CO 2 and NO x concentrations when following 5-20 m behind a sport utility vehicle (SUV) as an emitter vehicle equipped with a portable emission monitoring system (PEMS). The PEMS measured exhaust gases at the tailpipe for input data of the CFD simulations. After the CFD method was verified with experimental results of the SUV, dispersion of exhaust plumes emitted from a bus and a sedan was numerically analyzed. More dilution of the exhaust plume was observed at higher vehicle speeds, probably because of eddy diffusion that was proportional to turbulent kinetic energy and vehicle speed. The CO 2 and NO x concentrations behind the emitter vehicle showed less overestimation as both the distance between the two vehicles and their background concentrations increased. If the height of the ML inlet is lower than 2 m and the ML travels within 20 m behind a SUV and a sedan ahead at 20 km h -1 , the overestimation should be considered by as much as 200 ppb in NO x and 80 ppm in CO 2 . Following a bus should be avoided if possible, because effect of exhaust plumes from a bus ahead could not be negligible even when the distance between the bus and the ML with the inlet height of 2 m, was more than 40 m. Recommendations are provided to avoid the unintended influence of exhaust plumes from vehicles ahead of the ML during on-road measurement in urban dense traffic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maximizing utilization of sport halls during peak hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Evald Bundgård; Forsberg, Peter

    the number of participants 7.5 persons higher pr. activity compared to club activities. This implies that clubs during peak hours could include more participants. Another possibility to increase utilization is if the management of sport facilities forced sport clubs and other organisers to adapt...... their activities to a smaller amount of floor space, which would make it possible to have more than one activity on the floor at the same time. Hence, to achieve better utilization during prime time, further analysis and research could focus on how activities in sport halls can be adapted to include more......BACKGROUNDDuring peak hours (4.30pm-8pm) demand for timeslots in sport halls in Denmark are high and there are few timeslots available. Further, focus on how public resources are spent most efficient is increasing (Iversen, 2013). This makes it interesting to analyse how utilization could...

  13. MODELLING AND VALIDATION OF A TESTING TRAILER FOR ABS AND TYRE INTERACTION ON ROUGH TERRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Žuraulis, Vidas; van der Merwe, Nico A.; Scholtz, Odette; Els, P. Schalk

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of a vehicle anti-lock braking system (ABS) is to prevent the tyres from locking-up in order to brake efficiently whilst maintaining steering control and stability. Sport utility vehicles (SUV) are designed to drive on various roads under different driving conditions, making it challenging to identify optimal operating conditions for ABS algorithms to be implemented. This paper describes the development and modelling of a testing trailer that is designed to benefit the res...

  14. Shared Perception for Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-24

    minivan or sport utility vehicle (SUV) may be around 1.8 meters tall. Next, a height distribution of ~ 1.5, 0.3 was used to project the car detections...Vision, vol. 60, no. 2, 2004, pp. 91–110. 4. N. Snavely, S.M. Seitz, and R. Szeliski, “Photo Tourism : Exploring Photo Collections in 3D,” Proceedings of

  15. Design and Simulation of the Robust ABS and ESP Fuzzy Logic Controller on the Complex Braking Maneuvers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Aksjonov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Automotive driving safety systems such as an anti-lock braking system (ABS and an electronic stability program (ESP assist drivers in controlling the vehicle to avoid road accidents. In this paper, ABS and the ESP, based on the fuzzy logic theory, are integrated for vehicle stability control in complex braking maneuvers. The proposed control algorithm is implemented for a sport utility vehicle (SUV and investigated for braking on different surfaces. The results obtained for the vehicle software simulator confirm the robustness of the developed control strategy for a variety of road profiles and surfaces.

  16. Ratio of mediastinal lymph node SUV to primary tumor SUV in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for nodal staging in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Hyuk; Choe, Jae Gol; Pahk, Kisoo; Choi, Sun Ju; Kwon, Hye Ryeong; Kim, Sun Geun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, Jae Seon; Seo, Hyo Jung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chul Han [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Following determination of the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of the mediastinal lymph nodes (SUV-LN) and of the primary tumor (SUV-T) on 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the aim of the study was to determine the value of the SUV-LN/SUV-T ratio in lymph node staging in comparison with that of SUV-LN. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 289 mediastinal lymph node stations from 98 patients with NSCLC who were examined preoperatively for staging and subsequently underwent pathologic studies of the mediastinal lymph nodes. We determined SUV-LN and SUV-R for each lymph node station on 18F-FDG PET/CT and then classified each station into one of three groups based on SUV-T (low, medium and high SUV-T groups). Diagnostic performance was assessed based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and the optimal cut-off values that would best discriminate metastatic from benign lymph nodes were determined for each method. The average of SUV-R of malignant lymph nodes was significantly higher than that of benign lymph nodes (0.79 ± 0.45 vs. 0.36 ± 0.23, P < 0.0001). In the ROC curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of SUV-R was significantly higher than that of SUV-LN in the low SUV-T group (0.885 vs. 0.810, P = 0.019). There were no significant differences between the AUCs of SUV-LN and of SUV-R in the medium and high SUV-T groups. The optimal cut-off value for SUV-R in the low SUV-T group was 0.71 (sensitivity 87.5 %, specificity 85.9 %). The SUV-R performed well in distinguishing between metastatic and benign lymph nodes. In particular, SUV-R was found to have a better diagnostic performance than SUV-LN in the low SUV-T group.

  17. Fuel Economy and Emissions Effects of Low Tire Pressure, Open Windows, Roof Top and Hitch-Mounted Cargo, and Trailer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the fuel economy (FE) effect of some common vehicle accessories or alterations, a compact passenger sedan and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) were subjected to SAE J2263 coastdown procedures. Coastdowns were conducted with low tire pressure, all windows open, with a roof top or hitch-mounted cargo carrier, and with the SUV pulling an enclosed cargo trailer. From these coastdowns, vehicle dynamometer coefficients were developed which enabled the execution of vehicle dynamometer experiments to determine the effect of these changes on vehicle FE and emissions over standard drive cycles and at steady highway speeds. The FE penalty associated with the rooftop cargo box mounted on the compact sedan was as high as 25-27% at higher speeds, where the aerodynamic drag is most pronounced. For both vehicles, use of a hitch mounted cargo tray carrying a similar load resulted in very small FE penalties, unlike the rooftop cargo box. The results for the SUV pulling a 3500 pound enclosed cargo trailer were rather dramatic, resulting in FE penalties ranging from 30%, for the city cycle, to 50% at 80 mph, at which point significant CO generation indicated protective enrichment due to high load. Low tire pressure cases resulted in negligible to 10% FE penalty depending on the specific case and test point. Driving with all four windows open decreased FE by 4-8.5% for the compact sedan, and 1-4% for the SUV.

  18. MED-SUV Data Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangianantoni, Agata; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Tulino, Sabrina

    2015-04-01

    The MED-SUV project aims to implement a digital e-infrastructure for data access in order to promote the monitoring and study of key volcanic regions prone to volcanic hazards, and thus improve hazard assessment, according to the rationale of Supersite GEO initiative to Vesuvius- Campi Flegrei and Mt Etna, currently identified as Permanent Supersites. The present study focuses on the life cycle of MED-SUV data generated in the first period of the project and highlights the managing approach, as well as the crucial steps to be implemented for ensuring that data will be properly and ethically managed and can be used and accessed from both MED-SUV and the external community. The process is conceived outlining how research data being handled as the project progresses, describing what data are collected, processed or generated and how these data are going to be shared and made available through Open Access. Data cycle begins with their generation and ends with the deposit in the digital infrastructure, its key series of stages through which MED-SUV data passes are Collection, Data citation, Categorization of data, Approval procedure, Registration of datasets, Application of licensing models, and PID assignment. This involves a combination of procedures and practices taking into account the scientific core mission and the priorities of the project as well as the potential legal issues related to the management and protection of the Intellectual Property. We believe that the implementation of this process constitutes a significant encouragement in MED-SUV data sharing and as a consequence a better understanding on the volcanic processes, hazard assessment and a better integration with other Supersites projects.

  19. A study of automobile exhaust noise preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Jay B.; Carney, Melinda J.; Cheenne, Dominique J.

    2005-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between preferences in automobile exhaust noise and the demographic factors of a listening jury. Noise samples of four different vehicles were recorded at idle as well as at 3000 RPM, and 1/3 octave sound spectra were acquired simultaneously. The recordings were presented to the jury using headphones and a preference survey was administered. Zwicker loudness was computed for all samples. Demographic factors such as gender, age, current and future vehicle ownership, were correlated to listening preferences, and unforeseen results were found, especially in regards to sport utility vehicles (SUV).

  20. SUV Tracks On Mars? The 'Devil' is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) on Mars? Imagine the MOC imaging team's surprise on the morning of April 27, 1998, as the latest images came in from the 'Red Planet.'A picture taken by the camera on Mars Global Surveyor just one day earlier showed several thin, dark lines that--at first glance--looked like pathways blazed by off-road sport utility vehicles. Who's been driving around on Mars?The MOC image in question (#26403), seen here at full resolution of 13.8 meters (45 feet) per pixel, was obtained around 10:22 a.m. PDT on April 26, 1998, during Mars Global Surveyor's 264th orbit. North is approximately up, illumination is from the lower right. Located in eastern Arabia Terra near 16.5o N latitude, 311.4o W longitude, the image showed a number of natural features--small craters formed by meteor impact, several buttes and mesas left by erosion of the surrounding terrain, small dunes and drifts, and a mantle of dust that varies in thickness from place to place. But the new picture also showed two dark lines--each varying in width up to about 15 meters (49 feet)--that extended several kilometers/miles across the image.Lines like these have been seen before on Mars. They are most likely the result of dust devils--columnar vortices of wind that move across the landscape, pick up dust, and look somewhat like miniature tornadoes. Dust devils are a common occurrence in dry and desert landscapes on Earth as well as Mars. They form when the ground heats up during the day, warming the air immediately above the surface. As pockets of warm air rise and interfere with one another, they create horizontal pressure variations that, combined with other meteorological winds, cause the upward moving air to spin (the direction of the spin is controlled by the same Coriolis forces that cause terrestrial hurricanes to spin in specific directions). As the spinning column of air moves across the surface, it occasionally encounters dust on the surface, which it can suck upward. This dust

  1. Optimization of a fuel cell powertrain for a sport utility vehicle. Paper no. IGEC-1-087

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.B.; Mendes, C.; Mali, T.J.; Fowler, M.W.; Fraser, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    A central composite design was utilized to study the effects of fuel cell powertrain sizing and efficiencies on vehicle performance based on a Chevrolet Equinox platform. Simulations were performed using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), a vehicle simulator that constructs and executes various Simulink vehicle models. Once parametric equations relating performance metrics and subcomponent sizing and efficiency were fit, optimal design points were obtained using non-linear optimization. Optimized architectures were used to compare fuel cell powertrains incorporating ultracapacitors, nickel-metal hydride battery packs, and lithium-ion battery packs. The performance metrics also provided a basis for comparison with conventional, battery, and hybrid configurations. The fuel cell configurations exhibited similar or improved acceleration performance, with approximately double the mileage of the stock vehicle. The range of the fuel cell Equinox was reduced from the stock vehicle to approximately 300 miles. The battery vehicles showed the highest efficiencies and mileages, but exhibited an unacceptable range of approximately 100 miles. The hybrid configuration showed notable improvements over the stock vehicle, but still lacked the degree of benefits provided by the fuel cell (FCVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Also, the acceleration time for the hybrid vehicle was sluggish, likely due to the increase weight of the configuration. The work described in this study was performed by members of the University Of Waterloo Alternate Fuels Team (UWAFT) as part of the Challenge X Vehicle Competition. (author)

  2. Sport as a vehicle for social mobility and regulation of disadvantaged urban youth: lessons from Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses sport's contribution to social mobility of disadvantaged urban youth through an analysis of the Sport Steward Program in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Sport-based social intervention programs are conceptualized as potential vehicles for the creation of different forms of capital

  3. Effects of ambient conditions on fuel cell vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsson, K.; Alvfors, P.

    Ambient conditions have considerable impact on the performance of fuel cell hybrid vehicles. Here, the vehicle fuel consumption, the air compressor power demand, the water management system and the heat loads of a fuel cell hybrid sport utility vehicle (SUV) were studied. The simulation results show that the vehicle fuel consumption increases with 10% when the altitude increases from 0 m up to 3000 m to 4.1 L gasoline equivalents/100 km over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). The increase is 19% on the more power demanding highway US06 cycle. The air compressor is the major contributor to this fuel consumption increase. Its load-following strategy makes its power demand increase with increasing altitude. Almost 40% of the net power output of the fuel cell system is consumed by the air compressor at the altitude of 3000 m with this load-following strategy and is thus more apparent in the high-power US06 cycle. Changes in ambient air temperature and relative humidity effect on the fuel cell system performance in terms of the water management rather in vehicle fuel consumption. Ambient air temperature and relative humidity have some impact on the vehicle performance mostly seen in the heat and water management of the fuel cell system. While the heat loads of the fuel cell system components vary significantly with increasing ambient temperature, the relative humidity did not have a great impact on the water balance. Overall, dimensioning the compressor and other system components to meet the fuel cell system requirements at the minimum and maximum expected ambient temperatures, in this case 5 and 40 °C, and high altitude, while simultaneously choosing a correct control strategy are important parameters for efficient vehicle power train management.

  4. Vehicle rollover sensor test modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCoy, R.W.; Chou, C.C.; Velde, R. van de; Twisk, D.; Schie, C. van

    2007-01-01

    A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension

  5. Influence of N-butylscopolamine on SUV in FDG PET of the bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghera, B.; Emmott, J.; Chambers, J.; Wong, W.L.; Wellsted, D.

    2009-01-01

    Peristalsis can lead to confusing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) bowel uptake artefacts and potential for recording inaccurate mean standardised uptake value (SUV) measurements in PET-CT scans. Accordingly, we investigate the influence of different SUV normalisations on FDG PET uptake of the bowel and assess which one(s) have least dependence on body size factors in patients with and without the introduction of the anti-peristalsis agent N-butylscopolamine (Buscopan). This study consisted of 92 prospective oncology patients, each having a whole body 18 F-FDG PET scan. Correlations were investigated between height, weight, glucose, body mass index (bmi), lean body mass (lbm) and body surface area (bsa) with maximum and mean SUV recorded for bowel normalised to weight (SUV w ), lbm (SUV lbm ), bsa (SUV bsa ) and blood glucose corrected versions (SUV wg , SUV lbmg , SUV bsag ). Standardised uptake value normalisations were significantly different between control and Buscopan groups with less variability experienced within individual SUV normalisations by the administration of Buscopan. Mean SUV normalisations accounted for 80% of correlations in the control group and 100% in the Buscopan group. Further, >86% of all correlations across both groups were dominated by mean SUV normalisations of which, about 69% were accounted for by SUV bsa and SUV bsag . We recommend avoiding mean SUV bsa and individual glucose normalisations especially, mean SUV bsag as these dominated albeit relatively weak correlations with body size factors in control and Buscopan groups. Mean and maximum SUV w , and SUV lbm were shown to be independent of any body size parameters investigated in both groups and therefore considered suitable for monitoring FDG PET uptake in the normal bowel for our patient cohort. (author)

  6. Electric vehicle utilization for ancillary grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicle has been developed through several decades as transportation mean, without paying sufficient attention of its utilization for other purposes. Recently, the utilization of electric vehicle to support the grid electricity has been proposed and studied intensively. This utilization covers several possible services including electricity storage, spinning reserve, frequency and voltage regulation, and emergency energy supply. This study focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of utilization of electric vehicles and their used batteries to support a small-scale energy management system. Charging rate of electric vehicle under different ambient temperature (seasonal condition) is initially analyzed to measure the correlation of charging rate, charging time, and state-of-charge. It is confirmed that charging under warmer condition (such as in summer or warmer region) shows higher charging rate than one in colder condition, therefore, shorter charging time can be achieved. In addition, in the demonstration test, each five electric vehicles and used batteries from the same electric vehicles are employed and controlled to support the electricity of the office building. The performance of the system is evaluated throughout a year to measure the load leveling effect during peak-load time. The results show that the targeted peak-load can be shaved well under certain calculated peak-shaving threshold. The finding confirms that the utilization of electric vehicle for supporting the electricity of grid or certain energy management system is feasible and deployable in the future.

  7. SUV navigator enables rapid [18F]-FDG PET/CT image interpretation compared with 2D ROI and 3D VOI evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okizaki, Atsutaka; Nakayama Michihiro; Ishitoya, Shunta; Nakajima, Kaori; Yamashina Masaaki; Aburano, Tamio; Takahashi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) is a useful technique for assessing malignant tumors. Measurements of SUV max in multiple lesions per patient frequently require many time-consuming procedures. To address this issue, we designed a novel interface named SUV Navigator (SUVnavi), and the purpose of this study was to investigate its utility. We measured SUV max in 661 lesions from 100 patients with malignant tumors. Diagnoses and SUV max measurements were made with SUVnavi, 2D, and 3D measurements. SUV measurement accuracy in each method were also evaluated. The average reduction in time with SUVnavi versus 2D was 53.8% and 3D was 37.5%; time required with SUVnavi was significantly shorter than with 2D and 3D (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The time reduction and lesion number had a positive correlation (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). SUV max agreed with precise SUV max in all lesions measured with SUVnavi and 3D but in only 466 of 661 lesions (70.5%) measured with 2D. Conclusion SUVnavi may be useful for rapid [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomogra phy/computed tomography ([ 18 F]-FDG PET/CT) image interpretation without reducing the accuracy of SUV max measurement. (author)

  8. 41 CFR 109-38.5103 - Motor vehicle utilization standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5103 Motor vehicle utilization standards. (a) The following average utilization standards...

  9. Exhaust energy conversion by thermoelectric generator: Two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karri, M.A.; Thacher, E.F.; Helenbrook, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports predictions of the power and fuel savings produced by thermoelectric generators (TEG) placed in the exhaust stream of a sports utility vehicle (SUV) and a stationary, compressed-natural-gas-fueled engine generator set (CNG). Results are obtained for generators using either commercially-available bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) or quantum-well (QW) thermoelectric material. The simulated tests are at constant speed in the SUV case and at constant AC power load in the CNG case. The simulations make use of the capabilities of ADVISOR 2002, the vehicle modeling system, supplemented with code to describe the thermoelectric generator system. The increase in power between the QW- and Bi 2 Te 3 -based generators was about three times for the SUV and seven times for the CNG generator under the same simulation conditions. The relative fuel savings for the SUV averaged around -0.2% using Bi 2 Te 3 and 1.25% using QW generators. For the CNG case the fuel savings was around 0.4% using Bi 2 Te 3 and around 3% using QW generators. The negative fuel gains in the SUV were caused by parasitic losses. The power to transport the TEG system weight was the dominant parasitic loss for the SUV but was absent in the CNG generator. The lack of space constraint and the absence of parasitic loss from the TEG system weight in the CNG case allowed an increase in the TEG system size to generate more power.

  10. Light-Duty Vehicle CO2 and Fuel Economy Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides data on the fuel economy, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and technology trends of new light-duty vehicles (cars, minivans, sport utility vehicles, and pickup trucks) for model years 1975 to present in the United States.

  11. WE-H-207A-03: The Universality of the Lognormal Behavior of [F-18]FLT PET SUV Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpelli, M; Eickhoff, J; Perlman, S; Jeraj, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Log transforming [F-18]FDG PET standardized uptake values (SUVs) has been shown to lead to normal SUV distributions, which allows utilization of powerful parametric statistical models. This study identified the optimal transformation leading to normally distributed [F-18]FLT PET SUVs from solid tumors and offers an example of how normal distributions permits analysis of non-independent/correlated measurements. Methods: Forty patients with various metastatic diseases underwent up to six FLT PET/CT scans during treatment. Tumors were identified by nuclear medicine physician and manually segmented. Average uptake was extracted for each patient giving a global SUVmean (gSUVmean) for each scan. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test distribution normality. One parameter Box-Cox transformations were applied to each of the six gSUVmean distributions and the optimal transformation was found by selecting the parameter that maximized the Shapiro-Wilk test statistic. The relationship between gSUVmean and a serum biomarker (VEGF) collected at imaging timepoints was determined using a linear mixed effects model (LMEM), which accounted for correlated/non-independent measurements from the same individual. Results: Untransformed gSUVmean distributions were found to be significantly non-normal (p<0.05). The optimal transformation parameter had a value of 0.3 (95%CI: −0.4 to 1.6). Given the optimal parameter was close to zero (which corresponds to log transformation), the data were subsequently log transformed. All log transformed gSUVmean distributions were normally distributed (p>0.10 for all timepoints). Log transformed data were incorporated into the LMEM. VEGF serum levels significantly correlated with gSUVmean (p<0.001), revealing log-linear relationship between SUVs and underlying biology. Conclusion: Failure to account for correlated/non-independent measurements can lead to invalid conclusions and motivated transformation to normally distributed SUVs. The log

  12. WE-H-207A-03: The Universality of the Lognormal Behavior of [F-18]FLT PET SUV Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, M; Eickhoff, J; Perlman, S; Jeraj, R

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Log transforming [F-18]FDG PET standardized uptake values (SUVs) has been shown to lead to normal SUV distributions, which allows utilization of powerful parametric statistical models. This study identified the optimal transformation leading to normally distributed [F-18]FLT PET SUVs from solid tumors and offers an example of how normal distributions permits analysis of non-independent/correlated measurements. Methods: Forty patients with various metastatic diseases underwent up to six FLT PET/CT scans during treatment. Tumors were identified by nuclear medicine physician and manually segmented. Average uptake was extracted for each patient giving a global SUVmean (gSUVmean) for each scan. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test distribution normality. One parameter Box-Cox transformations were applied to each of the six gSUVmean distributions and the optimal transformation was found by selecting the parameter that maximized the Shapiro-Wilk test statistic. The relationship between gSUVmean and a serum biomarker (VEGF) collected at imaging timepoints was determined using a linear mixed effects model (LMEM), which accounted for correlated/non-independent measurements from the same individual. Results: Untransformed gSUVmean distributions were found to be significantly non-normal (p<0.05). The optimal transformation parameter had a value of 0.3 (95%CI: −0.4 to 1.6). Given the optimal parameter was close to zero (which corresponds to log transformation), the data were subsequently log transformed. All log transformed gSUVmean distributions were normally distributed (p>0.10 for all timepoints). Log transformed data were incorporated into the LMEM. VEGF serum levels significantly correlated with gSUVmean (p<0.001), revealing log-linear relationship between SUVs and underlying biology. Conclusion: Failure to account for correlated/non-independent measurements can lead to invalid conclusions and motivated transformation to normally distributed SUVs. The log

  13. Exhaust energy conversion by thermoelectric generator: Two case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karri, M.A.; Thacher, E.F.; Helenbrook, B.T. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, PO Box 5725, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    This study reports predictions of the power and fuel savings produced by thermoelectric generators (TEG) placed in the exhaust stream of a sports utility vehicle (SUV) and a stationary, compressed-natural-gas-fueled engine generator set (CNG). Results are obtained for generators using either commercially-available bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) or quantum-well (QW) thermoelectric material. The simulated tests are at constant speed in the SUV case and at constant AC power load in the CNG case. The simulations make use of the capabilities of ADVISOR 2002, the vehicle modeling system, supplemented with code to describe the thermoelectric generator system. The increase in power between the QW- and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-based generators was about three times for the SUV and seven times for the CNG generator under the same simulation conditions. The relative fuel savings for the SUV averaged around -0.2% using Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 1.25% using QW generators. For the CNG case the fuel savings was around 0.4% using Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and around 3% using QW generators. The negative fuel gains in the SUV were caused by parasitic losses. The power to transport the TEG system weight was the dominant parasitic loss for the SUV but was absent in the CNG generator. The lack of space constraint and the absence of parasitic loss from the TEG system weight in the CNG case allowed an increase in the TEG system size to generate more power. (author)

  14. Variability of average SUV from several hottest voxels is lower than that of SUVmax and SUVpeak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffon, E. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Pessac (France); Universite de Bordeaux 2, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); INSERM U 1045, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); Lamare, F.; Clermont, H. de [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Pessac (France); Burger, I.A. [University Hospital of Zurich, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department Medical Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Marthan, R. [Universite de Bordeaux 2, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); INSERM U 1045, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France)

    2014-08-15

    To assess variability of the average standard uptake value (SUV) computed by varying the number of hottest voxels within an {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG)-positive lesion. This SUV metric was compared with the maximal SUV (SUV{sub max}: the hottest voxel) and peak SUV (SUV{sub peak}: SUV{sub max} and its 26 neighbouring voxels). Twelve lung cancer patients (20 lesions) were analysed using PET dynamic acquisition involving ten successive 2.5-min frames. In each frame and lesion, average SUV obtained from the N = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 hottest voxels (SUV{sub max-N}){sub ,} SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} were assessed. The relative standard deviations (SDrs) from ten frames were calculated for each SUV metric and lesion, yielding the mean relative SD from 20 lesions for each SUV metric (SDr{sub N}, SDr{sub max} and SDr{sub peak}), and hence relative measurement error and repeatability (MEr-R). For each N, SDr{sub N} was significantly lower than SDr{sub max} and SDr{sub peak}. SDr{sub N} correlated strongly with N: 6.471 x N{sup -0.103} (r = 0.994; P < 0.01). MEr-R of SUV{sub max-30} was 8.94-12.63 % (95 % CL), versus 13.86-19.59 % and 13.41-18.95 % for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak} respectively. Variability of SUV{sub max-N} is significantly lower than for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub peak}. Further prospective studies should be performed to determine the optimal total hottest volume, as voxel volume may depend on the PET system. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of the Relationship Between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety, and Implications for Federal Fuel Economy Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P.

    2010-03-02

    or footprint increases. Our analysis indicates that, after excluding crashes involving young male and elderly drivers, and crashes in very rural and very urban counties, and accounting for vehicle weight and footprint, sports cars, pickup trucks and truck-based SUVs have higher risk to their drivers than cars, while import luxury cars and crossover SUVs have lower risk to their drivers than cars. Similarly, pickups and sports cars impose a large casualty risk on drivers of other vehicles, after accounting for vehicle weight and footprint. Our analysis suggests that excluding young male and elderly drivers, and crashes in very rural and urban counties, accounting for vehicle weight, footprint, and type explains only about half of the variability in casualty risk to drivers, and to drivers of other vehicles, by vehicle model.

  16. Suv39h1 Protects from Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of ischemic events. Suv39h1 is a histone methyltransferase that catalyzes the methylation of histone 3 lysine 9, which is associated with the suppression of inflammatory genes in diabetes. However, the role of Suv39h1 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury under diabetic condition has not been evaluated. Methods: To generate diabetic model, male SD rats were fed with 60% fat diet followed by intraperitoneal injection with 40mg/kg streptozotocin. Adenovirus encoding Suv39h1 gene was used for Suv39h1 overexpression. Each rat received injections of adenovirus at five myocardial sites. Three days after gene transfection, each rat was subjected to left main coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. After 30 min ischemia and reperfusion for 4 h, the rats were euthanized for real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemical staining, and morphometric analysis. Results: Delivery of Ad-Suv39h1 into the hearts of diabetic rats could markedly increase Suv39h1 expression. Up-regulation of Suv39h1 significantly reduced infarct size and tissue damage after I/R injury, which was associated with protection from apoptosis of cardiac myocytes and reduction of inflammatory response. In addition, compared with injury group, Ad-Suv39h1 led to a decreased activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase family and its down-steam transcriptional factor NF-κB. Conclusion: Overexpression of Suv39h1 results in the de-activation of proinflammatory pathways and reduced apoptosis and myocardial injury. Therefore, Suv39h1 might represent a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce I/R injury under diabetic condition.

  17. EG-17SUV420-MEDIATED HETEROCHROMATIN CHANGES IN PEDIATRIC BRAIN CANCERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Timothy E.; Terry, Jocelyn; Rockwell, Nathan; Goggin, Sarah; Nethala, Priya; Khan, Asadullah

    2014-01-01

    Silencing mechanisms play a role in genomic stability by maintaining condensed, non-active regions of the genome. SUV420 enzymes contain a SET domain conferring methyltransferase activity toward histones. The Histone H4 lysine 20 trimethylation (H4K20me3) mark maintained by SUV420H2 is associated with heterochromatin formation and gene silencing, whereas the dimethylated mark (H4K20me2) is associated with DNA repair. In studies of epigenetic factors in large patient cohorts with ependymoma, it was found that SUV420H2 expression was lost or diminished in patients with reciprocal increases in prognostic markers such as hTERT. To better understand the normal function of Suv4-20H1/H2 enzyme in neural progenitors, and pathological changes in cancers, a variety of differentiation paradigms were used. The NT2D1 neurally restricted cell line, and BGO1V and H9 human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and differentiated progeny, were used alongside tumors to better understand enzyme targets and functional outcomes (e.g.,lineage, differentiation, regional chromatin modifications). Lineage stages were verified with stage-specific markers by immunofluorescence and qPCR. Suv4-20 H1 and H2 were present in ESCs and neural progenitors and decreased thereafter. RNAi knockdown of SUV420 enzymes led to decreased H4K20 methylation in cancer cells. DNA methylation microarrays and ChIP-PCR suggest 1) that SUV420 is not regulated by DNA methylation in ependymomas; 2) that active chromatin marks such as H3K4 dimethylation are enriched near the transcriptional start site in the SUV420H2 gene, and 3) that hTERT is hyper-methylated at specific CpG islands and histones in a tumor sub-group-specific manner. This data supports the hypothesis that Suv4-20H2 is highly active in progenitor cells and functionally lost in some brain cancers. These studies begin to elucidate coincident mechanisms of gene silencing active in neural progenitors that may be altered in a subset of pediatric brain cancers.

  18. Characterization of PTO and Idle Behavior for Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Eric S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This report presents the results of analyses performed on utility vehicle data composed primarily of aerial lift bucket trucks sampled from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to characterize power takeoff (PTO) and idle operating behavior for utility trucks. Two major data sources were examined in this study: a 75-vehicle sample of Odyne electric PTO (ePTO)-equipped vehicles drawn from multiple fleets spread across the United States and 10 conventional PTO-equipped Pacific Gas and Electric fleet vehicles operating in California. Novel data mining approaches were developed to identify PTO and idle operating states for each of the datasets using telematics and controller area network/onboard diagnostics data channels. These methods were applied to the individual datasets and aggregated to develop utilization curves and distributions describing PTO and idle behavior in both absolute and relative operating terms. This report also includes background information on the source vehicles, development of the analysis methodology, and conclusions regarding the study's findings.

  19. New roles of the human Suv3 helicase in genome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venø, Susanne Trillingsgaard

    During her PhD studies, Susanne Trillingsgaard Venø carried out research into the role of the human Suv3 protein in stabilising the human genome – DNA. Suv3 is a helicase that separates the two strands of the DNA’s double helix. Throughout our lives, the DNA in our cells is constantly exposed...... maintenance. Based on these new research results, the Suv3 protein could be a valuable model for genome stability as an important factor in our understanding of why we get old....

  20. Grassroot Sports: Conveyor Belt for Sports Development in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper took a look at some factors such as administration and funding that bedevil Nigeria‟s Sports development efforts and saw grass root sports as a veritable vehicle for the realization of our sports development objective. Grass root sport was seen as the exposure of young and old, male and female all over the ...

  1. Cylindrical SUV distribution model for detecting skin lesions in body trunk FDG-PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Nomura, Yukihiro; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Hanaoka, Shouhei

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a computerized detection method for skin lesions in body trunk fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT images. Spots on the skin with a high standard uptake value (SUV) are due not only to glucose metabolism in skin lesions but also to the physiological metabolism of organs near the skin. The distribution pattern of regional SUV on the skin is important information for the differential diagnosis of such high-SUV spots. In this study, we have developed a new skin lesion detection method based on a cylindrical SUV distribution model of the skin. The shape of the SUV distribution model is an approximation of the body trunk, and the SUV distribution model includes standard values for regional skin SUV. Classifier ensembles based on CT image features, SUV features, and subtraction features between the SUVs in FDG-PET images and the values in the SUV distribution model are used to extract and classify candidate regions for skin lesions. In a study of skin lesion detection using FDG-PET/CT images in 36 clinical cases, the true-positive rate was 61.7%, with 11.7 false-positive regions per case. The training results of the classifier ensemble for extracting and classifying candidate regions showed the effective features for detecting skin lesions in the study. (author)

  2. Strategy study of quantification harmonization of SUV in PET/CT images; Estudo da estrategia de harmonizacao da quantificacao do SUV em imagens de PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Andreia Caroline Fischer da Silveira

    2014-07-01

    In clinical practice, PET/CT images are often analyzed qualitatively by visual comparison of tumor lesions and normal tissues uptake; and semi-quantitatively by means of a parameter called SUV (Standardized Uptake Value). To ensure that longitudinal studies acquired on different scanners are interchangeable, and information of quantification is comparable, it is necessary to establish a strategy to harmonize the quantification of SUV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the strategy to harmonize the quantification of PET/CT images, performed with different scanner models and manufacturers. For this purpose, a survey of the technical characteristics of equipment and acquisition protocols of clinical images of different services of PET/CT in the state of Rio Grande do Sul was conducted. For each scanner, the accuracy of SUV quantification, and the Recovery Coefficient (RC) curves were determined, using the reconstruction parameters clinically relevant and available. From these data, harmonized performance specifications among the evaluated scanners were identified, as well as the algorithm that produces, for each one, the most accurate quantification. Finally, the most appropriate reconstruction parameters to harmonize the SUV quantification in each scanner, either regionally or internationally were identified. It was found that the RC values of the analyzed scanners proved to be overestimated by up to 38%, particularly for objects larger than 17mm. These results demonstrate the need for further optimization, through the reconstruction parameters modification, and even the change of the reconstruction algorithm used in each scanner. It was observed that there is a decoupling between the best image for PET/CT qualitative analysis and the best image for quantification studies. Thus, the choice of reconstruction method should be tied to the purpose of the PET/CT study in question, since the same reconstruction algorithm is not adequate, in one scanner, for qualitative

  3. Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) criteria as functions of vehicle design and consumer expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichel, Daniel R.

    2005-09-01

    The criteria for NVH design are to a large degree determined by the types of vehicles and the perceived desires of the purchasers of vehicles, as well as the cost of incorporating NVH measures. Vehicles may be classified into specific types, e.g., economy car, midsize passenger, near-luxury and luxury passenger cars, sports cars, vans, minivans, and sports utility vehicles of varying sizes. The owner of a luxury sedan would expect a quiet ride with minimal vibration and harshness-however, if that sedan is to display sporting characteristics, some aspects of NVH may actually have to be increased in order to enhance a feeling of driver exhilaration. A discussion of the requirements for specific types of vehicles is provided, with due regard for effects on the usability of installed sound/video systems, driver and passenger fatigue, feel of steering mechanisms and other mechanical components, consumer market research, etc. A number of examples of vehicles on the market are cited.

  4. The Relationship between Vehicle Weight/Size and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Tom; Ross, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Light-duty vehicles account for about 20% of US CO2 emissions. However, new vehicle fuel economy standards have not been significantly tightened since they were first enacted three decades ago. A historical impediment to imposing tougher fuel economy standards has been the long-standing perception that reducing the mass of a car or truck would make it more dangerous to its occupants in a crash. One often hears that this perception is dictated by "simple physics:" that, all else being equal, you are at greater risk in a lighter vehicle than in a heavier one. Our research on driver fatality risk has found that, when it comes to vehicle safety, all else is never equal. Vehicle mass is not the most important variable in determining occupant safety, not even in frontal crashes between two vehicles. You are at no greater risk driving an average car than you are driving a much heavier (and less fuel efficient) truck-based SUV. And larger and heavier truck-based SUVs and pickups impose enormous risks on car occupants. We summarize the most recent research on the interplay between vehicle weight, size and safety, and what the implications are for new state and federal standards to reduce vehicle CO2 emissions.

  5. Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Amber M; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Pomtree, Mindy M; Ulloa, Erin M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Saylors, Marie E

    2017-08-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. Epidemiologic study, level III; Therapeutic study, level V.

  6. Amphibious vehicles come of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowers, J.

    2007-11-15

    , sea, snow, tundra, ice, rivers, sand, lakes and boggy conditions that are impassable for ordinary sport utility vehicles (SUVs). Although the unit has not gone into mass production, the entrepreneur is hopeful that the prototype will go into commercialization in the near future. 2 figs.

  7. Relationship between pSUV of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and pathological diagnosis in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Pathological Diagnosis associated with pSUV uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. We had enrolled 39 women that underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT before operative. We evaluated whether there was correlation between the pSUV of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and prognostic factors. As a results, pSUV level increase according to tumor size but pSUV had no significant association with tumor size. pSUV of high histologic grade was higher than low histologic grade, and pSUV showed positive correlations with histologic grade. The ER and PR showed significant negative correlations with the pSUV of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Therefore, our results demonstrated that an correlation exists between pSUV and prognostic factors such as histologic grade, ER and PR.

  8. Strategy study of quantification harmonization of SUV in PET/CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Andreia Caroline Fischer da Silveira

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, PET/CT images are often analyzed qualitatively by visual comparison of tumor lesions and normal tissues uptake; and semi-quantitatively by means of a parameter called SUV (Standardized Uptake Value). To ensure that longitudinal studies acquired on different scanners are interchangeable, and information of quantification is comparable, it is necessary to establish a strategy to harmonize the quantification of SUV. The aim of this study is to evaluate the strategy to harmonize the quantification of PET/CT images, performed with different scanner models and manufacturers. For this purpose, a survey of the technical characteristics of equipment and acquisition protocols of clinical images of different services of PET/CT in the state of Rio Grande do Sul was conducted. For each scanner, the accuracy of SUV quantification, and the Recovery Coefficient (RC) curves were determined, using the reconstruction parameters clinically relevant and available. From these data, harmonized performance specifications among the evaluated scanners were identified, as well as the algorithm that produces, for each one, the most accurate quantification. Finally, the most appropriate reconstruction parameters to harmonize the SUV quantification in each scanner, either regionally or internationally were identified. It was found that the RC values of the analyzed scanners proved to be overestimated by up to 38%, particularly for objects larger than 17mm. These results demonstrate the need for further optimization, through the reconstruction parameters modification, and even the change of the reconstruction algorithm used in each scanner. It was observed that there is a decoupling between the best image for PET/CT qualitative analysis and the best image for quantification studies. Thus, the choice of reconstruction method should be tied to the purpose of the PET/CT study in question, since the same reconstruction algorithm is not adequate, in one scanner, for qualitative

  9. Monitoring scanner calibration using the image-derived arterial blood SUV in whole-body FDG-PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Jens; Hofheinz, Frank; Apostolova, Ivayla; Kreissl, Michael C; Kotzerke, Jörg; van den Hoff, Jörg

    2018-05-15

    The current de facto standard for quantification of tumor metabolism in oncological whole-body PET is the standardized uptake value (SUV) approach. SUV determination requires accurate scanner calibration. Residual inaccuracies of the calibration lead to biased SUV values. Especially, this can adversely affect multicenter trials where it is difficult to ensure reliable cross-calibration across participating sites. The goal of the present work was the evaluation of a new method for monitoring scanner calibration utilizing the image-derived arterial blood SUV (BSUV) averaged over a sufficiently large number of whole-body FDG-PET investigations. Data of 681 patients from three sites which underwent routine 18 F-FDG PET/CT or PET/MR were retrospectively analyzed. BSUV was determined in the descending aorta using a three-dimensional ROI concentric to the aorta's centerline. The ROI was delineated in the CT or MRI images and transferred to the PET images. A minimum ROI volume of 5 mL and a concentric safety margin to the aortic wall was observed. Mean BSUV, standard deviation (SD), and standard error of the mean (SE) were computed for three groups of patients at each site, investigated 2 years apart, respectively, with group sizes between 53 and 100 patients. Differences of mean BSUV between the individual groups and sites were determined. SD (SE) of BSUV in the different groups ranged from 14.3 to 20.7% (1.7 to 2.8%). Differences of mean BSUV between intra-site groups were small (1.1-6.3%). Only one out of nine of these differences reached statistical significance. Inter-site differences were distinctly larger (12.6-25.1%) and highly significant (PPET investigations is a viable approach for ensuring consistent scanner calibration over time and across different sites. We propose this approach as a quality control and cross-calibration tool augmenting established phantom-based procedures.

  10. Vehicle choices for teenage drivers: A national survey of U.S. parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Angela H; Teoh, Eric R; McCartt, Anne T

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has shown that many newly licensed teenagers in the United States are driving vehicles with inferior crash protection. The objective of this study was to update and extend previous research on U.S. parents' choices of vehicles for their teenagers. Telephone surveys were conducted with parents in May 2014 using a random sample of U.S. households likely to include teenagers. Participation was restricted to parents or guardians of teenagers who lived in the household and held either an intermediate or full driver's license. Parents were interviewed about the vehicle their teenager drives, the reason they chose the vehicle for their teenager, and the cost of purchased vehicles. Teenagers most often were driving 2000-06 model year vehicles (41%), with 30% driving a more recent model year and 19% driving an older model year. Teenagers most often were driving midsize or large cars (27%), followed by SUVs (22%), mini or small cars (20%), and pickups (14%). Far fewer were driving minivans (6%) or sports cars (1%). Forty-three percent of the vehicles driven by teenagers were purchased when the teenager started driving or later. A large majority (83%) were used vehicles. The median cost of the vehicles purchased was $5300, and the mean purchase price was $9751. Although parents report that the majority of teenagers are driving midsize or larger vehicles, many of these vehicles likely do not have key safety features, such as electronic stability control, which would be especially beneficial for teenage drivers. Many teenagers were driving older model year vehicles or vehicle types or sizes that are not ideal for novice drivers. Parents, and their teenage drivers, may benefit from consumer information about optimal vehicle choices for teenagers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  11. Human SUV3 helicase regulates growth rate of the HeLa cells and can localize in the nucleoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Maciej; Fedoryszak-Kuśka, Natalia; Tkaczuk, Katarzyna; Dobrucki, Jurek; Waligórska, Agnieszka; Stępień, Piotr P

    2017-01-01

    The human SUV3 helicase (SUV3, hSUV3, SUPV3L1) is a DNA/RNA unwinding enzyme belonging to the class of DexH-box helicases. It localizes predominantly in the mitochondria, where it forms an RNA-degrading complex called mitochondrial degradosome with exonuclease PNP (polynucleotide phosphorylase). Association of this complex with the polyA polymerase can modulate mitochondrial polyA tails. Silencing of the SUV3 gene was shown to inhibit the cell cycle and to induce apoptosis in human cell lines. However, since small amounts of the SUV3 helicase were found in the cell nuclei, it was not clear whether the observed phenotypes of SUV3 depletion were of mitochondrial or nuclear origin. In order to answer this question we have designed gene constructs able to inhibit the SUV3 activity exclusively in the cell nuclei. The results indicate that the observed growth rate impairment upon SUV3 depletion is due to its nuclear function(s). Unexpectedly, overexpression of the nuclear-targeted wild-type copies of the SUV3 gene resulted in a higher growth rate. In addition, we demonstrate that the SUV3 helicase can be found in the HeLa cell nucleoli, but it is not detectable in the DNA-repair foci. Our results indicate that the nucleolar-associated human SUV3 protein is an important factor in regulation of the cell cycle.

  12. A method of adjusting SUV for injection-acquisition time differences in {sup 18}F-FDG PET Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laffon, Eric [Hopital du Haut Leveque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France); Hopital du Haut-Leveque, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pessac (France); Clermont, Henri de [Hopital du Haut Leveque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Marthan, Roger [Hopital du Haut Leveque, CHU de Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique, Bordeaux (France)

    2011-11-15

    A time normalisation method of tumour SUVs in {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is proposed that has been verified in lung cancer patients. A two-compartment model analysis showed that, when SUV is not corrected for {sup 18}F physical decay (SUV{sub uncorr}), its value is within 5% of its peak value (t = 79 min) between 55 and 110 min after injection, in each individual patient. In 10 patients, each with 1 or more malignant lesions (n = 15), two PET acquisitions were performed within this time delay, and the maximal SUV of each lesion, both corrected and uncorrected, was assessed. No significant difference was found between the two uncorrected SUVs, whereas there was a significant difference between the two corrected ones: mean differences were 0.04 {+-} 0.22 and 3.24 {+-} 0.75 g.ml{sup -1}, respectively (95% confidence intervals). Therefore, a simple normalisation of decay-corrected SUV for time differences after injection is proposed: SUV{sub N} = 1.66*SUV{sub uncorr}, where the factor 1.66 arises from decay correction at t = 79 min. When {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging is performed within the range 55-110 min after injection, a simple SUV normalisation for time differences after injection has been verified in patients with lung cancer, with a {+-}2.5% relative measurement uncertainty. (orig.)

  13. Child seat belt guidelines: Examining the 4 feet 9 inches rule as the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Amber M; Aitken, Mary E; Mullins, Samantha H; Miller, Beverly K; Pomtree, Mindy M; Ulloa, Erin M; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Saylors, Marie E

    2017-11-01

    Current American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations regarding transition from child safety/booster seat to adult safety belt use indicate that children should be at least 4 feet 9 inches, 8 years old, or 80 pounds. Proper fit in the vehicle seat, assessed with a five-point fit test, should also be met. Although most children reach 4 feet 9 inches around age 8 years, each child and vehicle presents a unique combination; thus a child may not fit appropriately in all vehicle types using only the 4 feet 9 inches requirement. We enrolled children, aged 7 years to 12 years, into our study. Height, weight, and demographic data were obtained. A Child Passenger Safety Technician then performed the five-point fit test in each of a uniform lineup of five vehicles. Data were collected on fit in the standard vehicle seat and also in a booster seat. We set 90% as the threshold proportion of children who meet all criteria for proper fit to validate current recommendations of a height of 4 feet 9 inches. Data were collected on 388 children. The percentage of 90% proper fit was met in the compact car and small sport-utility vehicle (SUV). However, only 80 (77%) of 104 students (p guidelines for an adult seat belt do not meet safety requirements for fit, especially in larger, commonly used vehicles (large SUVs and trucks). This emphasizes the need for evaluation of fit by a trained personnel and/or development of standard back seat dimensions in all vehicles for maximum safety. Epidemiologic level 1.

  14. HydroGEM, a hydrogen fuelled utility vehicle. Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoevenaars, A.J.; Kraaij, G.J.; De Bruijne, M.; Weeda, M.

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the conversion of a Global Electric Motorcars (GEM, a Chrysler company) electric utility vehicle into a Fuel Cell Vehicle called HydroGEM, at the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). The report is prepared as a case study within the framework of Task 18 on 'Evaluation of Integrated Hydrogen Systems' of the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement. The vehicle's fuel cell system was designed in 2005, manufactured and built into the vehicle in 2006 and operated from 2007 onwards. The design-choices, assembly, operation and maintenance-issues are presented and discussed.

  15. Obesity and vehicle type as risk factors for injury caused by motor vehicle collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, John P; Griffin, Russell Lee; Sathiakumar, Nalini; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    This study sought to describe variations in the risk of motor vehicle collision (MVC) injury and death by occupant body mass index (BMI) class and vehicle type. We hypothesized that the relationship between BMI and the risk of MVC injury or mortality would be modified by vehicle type. This is a retrospective cohort study of occupants involved in MVCs using data from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network and the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Occupants were grouped based on vehicle body style (passenger car, sport utility vehicle, or light truck) and vehicle size (compact or normal, corresponding to below- or above-average curb weight). The relationship between occupant BMI class (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) and risk of injury or mortality was examined for each vehicle type. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for various occupant and collision characteristics were estimated. Of an estimated 44 million occupants of MVCs sampled from 2000 to 2009, 37.1% sustained an injury. We limited our analysis to injuries achieving an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or more severe, totaling 17 million injuries. Occupants differed substantially in terms of demographic and collision characteristics. After adjustment for confounding factors, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality caused by MVC (OR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0). When stratified by vehicle type, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality in larger vehicles, including any-sized light trucks (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5), normal-sized passenger cars (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and normal-sized sports utility vehicles or vans (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8). Being overweight was a risk factor in any-sized light trucks (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). We identified a significant interaction between occupant BMI class and vehicle type in terms of MVC-related mortality risk. Both factors should be taken into account when

  16. Major satellite repeat RNA stabilize heterochromatin retention of Suv39h enzymes by RNA-nucleosome association and RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camacho, Oscar Velazquez; Galan, Carmen; Swist-Rosowska, Kalina; Ching, Reagan; Gamalinda, Michael; Karabiber, Fethullah; La Rosa-Velazquez, De Inti; Engist, Bettina; Koschorz, Birgit; Shukeir, Nicholas; Onishi-Seebacher, Megumi; De Nobelen, Van Suzanne; Jenuwein, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Suv39h1 and Suv39h2 histone lysine methyltransferases are hallmark enzymes at mammalian heterochromatin. We show here that the mouse Suv39h2 enzyme differs from Suv39h1 by containing an N-terminal basic domain that facilitates retention at mitotic chromatin and provides an additional affinity

  17. Determination of reliability for Dacia 1304 1,9 D utility vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiul Berghian, A.; Vasiu, T.

    2015-06-01

    The study analyses running and failure of Dacia 1304, 1,9D utility vehicle. The study comprises plotting the Pareto diagram in accordance with the data collected by observation of utility vehicle running/failure and determination of its reliability using the Weibull++8 specialized software of the company ReliaSoft, conclusions being presented in graphic form within this study.

  18. Comparison of SUV and Patlak slope for monitoring of cancer therapy using serial PET scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Nanette M.T.; Sundaram, Senthil K.; Kurdziel, Karen; Carrasquillo, Jorge A.; Whatley, Millie; Carson, Joann M.; Sellers, David; Libutti, Steven K.; Yang, James C.; Bacharach, Stephen L.

    2003-01-01

    The standardized uptake value (SUV) and the slope of the Patlak plot (K) have both been proposed as indices to monitor the progress of disease during cancer therapy. Although a good correlation has been reported between SUV and K, they are not equivalent, and may not be equally affected by metabolic changes occurring during disease progression or therapy. We wished to compare changes in tumor SUV with changes in K during serial positron emission tomography (PET) scans for monitoring therapy. Thirteen patients enrolled in a protocol to treat renal cell carcinoma metastases were studied. Serial dynamic fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans were performed once prior to treatment, once at 36±2 days after the start of treatment, and (in 7/13 subjects, 16/27 lesions) a third time at 92±9 days after the start of treatment. This resulted in a total of 33 scans, and 70 tumor Patlak and SUV values (one value for each lesion at each time point). SUV and K were measured over one to four predefined tumors/patient at each time point. The input function was obtained from regions of interest over the heart, combined, if necessary, with late blood samples. Over all tumors and scans, SUV and K correlated well (r=0.97, P<0.0001). However, change in SUV with treatment over all tumor scan pairs was much less well correlated with the corresponding change in K (r=0.73, P<0.0001). The absolute difference in % change was outside the 95% confidence limits expected from previous variability studies in 6 of 43 pairs of tumor scans, and greater than 50% in 2 of 43 tumor scan pairs. In four of the six cases, the two indices predicted opposing therapeutic outcomes. Similar results were obtained for SUV normalized by body weight or body surface area and for SUVs using mean or maximum count. Changes in CT and MR tumor cross-product dimensions correlated poorly with each other (r=0.47, P=NS), and so could not be used to determine the

  19. Ethical potentialities on physical education as a vehicle for ethical education through sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Ávila da Costa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sports occupies an interesting ethical space from a pedagogic point of view, being included in physical education curricula in most Western countries (Renaud, 2014. The approach of physical education as vehicle for ethical education, is too limited when restricted to its minimal functional, constitutive and regulatory goals (Gagliardini Graça M.L. and Lacerda T.O., 2012. The aim of this essay is to argue to what extent the ethical potential of physical education extrapolates them in order to, with Sousa Santos, state against to what we consider a waste of sport’s experience (Sousa Santos, 2000.In order to achieve this, we present data from nineteen exploratory interviews with philosophy, sports and physical education experienced researchers and teachers concerning the ethical potentialities of physical education. The sample includes individuals from six different nationalities, whose work shows concerns with the subject under study.

  20. Benefits of recent improvements in vehicle fuel economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    For the past several years, we have calculated (on a monthly basis) the average, sales-weighted fuel economy of all light-duty vehicles (cars, pickup trucks, vans, and SUVs) sold in : the U.S. The results indicate that, from October 2007 to September...

  1. Improving the performance of a hybrid electric vehicle by utilization regenerative braking energy of vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Mohamed [Automotive and Tractors Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    Environmentally friendly vehicles with range and performance capabilities surpassing those of conventional ones require a careful balance among competing goals for fuel efficiency, performance and emissions. It can be recuperated the energy of deceleration case of the vehicle to reuse it to recharge the storage energy of hybrid electric vehicle and increase the state of charge of batteries under the new conditions of vehicle operating in braking phase. Hybrid electric vehicle has energy storage which allows decreasing required peak value of power from prime mover, which is the internal combustion engine. The paper investigates the relationships between the driving cycle phases and the recuperation energy to the batteries system of hybrid electric vehicle. This work describes also a methodology for integrating this type of hybrid electric vehicle in a simulation program. A design optimization framework is then used to find the best position that we can utilize the recuperation energy to recharge the storage batteries of hybrid electric vehicle.

  2. Emergency Vehicle Scheduling Problem with Time Utility in Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Gan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible emergency rescue system which is chiefly composed of three parts, namely, disaster assistance center, relief vehicles, and disaster areas. A novel objective of utility maximization is used to evaluate the entire system in disasters. Considering the uncertain road conditions in the relief distribution, we implement triangular fuzzy number to calculate the vehicle velocity. As a consequence, a fuzzy mathematical model is built to maximize the utility of emergency rescue system and then converted to the crisp counterpart. Finally, the results of numerical experiments obtained by particle swarm optimization (PSO prove the validity of this proposed mathematical model.

  3. Will the light truck bumper height-matching standard reduce deaths in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    In a collision between a car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) or pickup truck, car occupants are more likely to be killed than if they crashed with another car. Some of the excess risk may be due to the propensity of SUVs and pickups with high bumpers to override the lower bumpers in cars. To reduce this incompatibility, particularly in head-on collisions, in 2003 automobile manufacturers voluntarily established a bumper height-matching standard for pickups and SUVs. To assess whether height-matching bumpers in pickups and SUVs were associated with the risk of death in either car occupants or pickup and SUV occupants. Case-control study of collisions between one car and one SUV or pickup in the US during 2000-2008, in which the SUV or pickup was model year 2000-2006. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes; one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes. Occupants of cars that crashed with SUVs or pickups with height-matching bumpers may be at slightly reduced risk of death compared to those that crashed with other SUVs or pickups (adjusted odds ratio: 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.13)). There was no evidence of a reduction in risk in head-on crashes (1.09 (0.66-1.79)). In crashes in which the SUV or pickup struck the car on the side, height-matched bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death (0.68 (0.48-0.97)). Occupants of SUVs and pickups with height-matching bumpers may also be at slightly reduced risk of death (0.91 (0.64-1.28)). Height-matching bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death among car occupants in crashes in which SUVs or pickups struck cars in the side, but there was little evidence of an effect in head-on crashes. The new bumper height-matching standard may not achieve its primary goal of reducing deaths in head-on crashes, but may modestly reduce overall deaths in crashes between cars and SUVs or pickups because of unanticipated benefits to car occupants in side crashes, and a

  4. Biodistribution of the 18F-FPPRGD2 PET radiopharmaceutical in cancer patients: an atlas of SUV measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Jamali, Mehran; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Barkhodari, Amir; Mosci, Camila; Mittra, Erik; Iagaru, Andrei; Shen, Bin; Chin, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) ( 18 F-FPPRGD 2 ) in cancer patients and to compare its uptake in malignant lesions with 18 F-FDG uptake. A total of 35 patients (11 men, 24 women, mean age 52.1 ± 10.8 years) were enrolled prospectively and had 18 F-FPPRGD 2 PET/CT prior to treatment. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) and mean SUV (SUV mean ) were measured in 23 normal tissues in each patient, as well as in known or suspected cancer lesions. Differences between 18 F-FPPRGD 2 uptake and 18 F-FDG uptake were also evaluated in 28 of the 35 patients. Areas of high 18 F-FPPRGD 2 accumulation (SUV max range 8.9 - 94.4, SUV mean range 7.1 - 64.4) included the bladder and kidneys. Moderate uptake (SUV max range 2.1 - 6.3, SUV mean range 1.1 - 4.5) was found in the choroid plexus, salivary glands, thyroid, liver, spleen, pancreas, small bowel and skeleton. Compared with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FPPRGD 2 showed higher tumor-to-background ratio in brain lesions (13.4 ± 8.5 vs. 1.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.001), but no significant difference in body lesions (3.2 ± 1.9 vs. 4.4 ± 4.2, P = 0.10). There was no significant correlation between the uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) for 18 F FPPRGD 2 and those for 18 F-FDG. The biodistribution of 18 F-FPPRGD 2 in cancer patients is similar to that of other RGD dimer peptides and it is suitable for clinical use. The lack of significant correlation between 18 F-FPPRGD 2 and 18 F-FDG uptake confirms that the information provided by each PET tracer is different. (orig.)

  5. Fuel economy of new passenger cars in Mexico: Trends from 1988 to 2008 and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Chávez-Baeza, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes trends in fuel economy (kilometers per liter) of new passenger vehicles in Mexico over a period of 20 years from 1988 to 2008. Results show that in this period, fuel economy of the new passenger vehicle fleet, including multipurpose vehicles (a category similar to sport utility vehicles, SUVs), increased by only 6.3%. A simple Laspeyres index analysis was developed to evaluate both the impact of changes in vehicle sales structure by category and the changes in fuel economy. Results show that increased sales of heavier, multipurpose vehicles in place of subcompact and compact vehicles, impacted negatively on the fleet average fuel economy. If the structure of sales had continued in the same proportions across all categories as in 1988, fuel economy would have increased by 11.0%, instead of the actual 6.3%. This result coincides with trends in other countries. The paper also presents different scenarios of passenger car fuel economy for the year 2020, and its implications for gasoline consumption and CO 2 emissions. The results may influence the new passenger vehicle fuel economy standard that is currently under discussion in Mexico.

  6. Extracurricular school-based sports as a motivating vehicle for sports participation in youth: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracurricular school-based sports are considered to be an ideal means of reaching children who are not active in community sports. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent to which pupils not engaging in community sports do participate in extracurricular school-based sports, and to assess whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or more autonomously motivated towards sports in daily life than children who do not participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Methods One thousand forty-nine children (53.7% boys; M age = 11.02 years, SD = 0.02) out of 60 classes from 30 Flemish elementary schools, with an extracurricular school-based sports offer, completed validated questionnaires to assess physical activity (Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire) and motivation (Behavioral Regulations in Physical Education Questionnaire). Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the data generated from these questionnaires. Results More than three quarters of the children (76%) reported participating in extracurricular school-based sports during the current school year and 73% reported engaging in organized community sports. Almost two third of the children (65%) not participating in community sports stated that they did participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Extracurricular school-based sports participants were significantly more physically active than children not participating in extracurricular school-based sports (β = 157.62, p sports participation × community sports participation) were found for autonomous motivation, with boys engaging in extracurricular school-based sports but not in community sports being significantly more autonomously motivated towards sports than boys not engaging in community or extracurricular school-based sports (β = 0.58, p = 0.003). Such differences were not noted among girls. Conclusions If extracurricular school-based sports are offered

  7. All Electric Passenger Vehicle Sales in India by 2030: Value proposition to Electric Utilities, Government, and Vehicle Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sheppard, Colin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    In India, there is growing interest among policymakers, planners, and regulators for aggressive electrification of passenger vehicles. For example, Piyush Goyal, the Minister of State for India’s Ministry of Coal, Power, New and Renewable Energy, announced an aspirational goal of converting all vehicle sales in India to battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by 2030 (Economic Times, 2016). In 2012, India has already announced the National Mission on Electric Mobility (NMEM) sets a countrywide goal of deploying 6 to 7 million hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) by 2020 (DHI, 2012). A major policy motivation for transport electrification is to reduce India’s oil import dependency. The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of full electrification of vehicle sales in India by 2030 on the key stakeholders such as BEV owners, electric utilities, and the government. Specifically, we attempt to answer the following questions: (a) How does the total vehicle ownership cost of BEVs compare with the conventional vehicles? (b) What is the additional load due BEV charging? (c) What is the impact on the power sector investments, costs, and utility revenue? (d) How can smart BEV charging help renewable energy grid integration? (e) What is the impact on the crude oil imports? (f) What is the impact on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions?

  8. Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle for EVA, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC proposes to develop a new type of planetary rover called a Lunar All-terrain Utility Vehicle ("Lunar ATV") to assist extra-vehicular activities...

  9. Lunar All-Terrain Utility Vehicle for EVA, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC proposes to develop a new type of planetary rover called a Lunar All-terrain Utility Vehicle ("LATUV") to assist extra-vehicular activities in...

  10. Examination of SUV of regional activity concentration for simultaneous emission/transmission acquisition using the mask technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinji; Nishino, Masanari; Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To achieve quantitative accuracy of simultaneous emission/transmission (SET) acquisition using the mask technique, we determined the factor of expression that derives the true transmission data from the measured transmission and emission data. We then evaluated the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the regional activity concentration derived respectively from the SET scans and conventional scans. First, to determine the attenuation factor for the transmission source when the photons of the cylindrical phantom filled with 18 F solution reached emission memory, SET scans were performed with a dummy transmission source and under the blank status of the transmission source. Second, to evaluate the SUV, we used a hollow-sphere phantom filled with 18 F solution whose activity concentrations were approximately 3 and 5 times that of the background. Then we performed conventional and SET scans of the phantom for solutions ranging from the higher concentration to the lower concentration. All of the data were reconstructed with the decay correction, and the SUV of each sphere was derived. The results demonstrated that, when the conventional factor was used, SUV was underestimated according to the increasing activity concentration of the solution. However, when a new factor that took into account the attenuation of the transmission source was used, there was no significant difference in the SUV. We estimated the SUV derived from the SET scans was within 3% for the large spheres and within 16% for the small spheres. (author)

  11. Siim Nestor soovitab : DJ Suv. Reaalsessioonid Tartus / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    DJ Suv esineb koos MC Guyvoriga üritusel Dzhungli kellad 21. detsembril Kunstiakadeemias, hiljaaegu valmis tema soolo debüüt-LP "Desert Rose". 21. detsembril Tartu klubis Illegaard toimuvast CD-kogumiku "Tallinn: psühhedeelne linn" esitlus-kontsert-peost

  12. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be.

  13. SU-E-J-263: Repeatability of SUV and Texture Parameters in Serial PET Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J; Humm, J; Nehmeh, S; Schoder, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized uptake values (SUV) are standard quantitative PET measures of FDG tumor uptake used,and are used as a tool to monitor response to therapy. Textural analysis is emerging as a new tool for assessing intratumoral heterogeneity which may allow better tissue characterization and improved prediction of response and survival rate.Understanding what variations may be expected in these parameters is key in order to make decisions based on how the change throughout the course of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess repeatability in SUV measures and texture parameters,and establish criteria that differentiate changes associated with treatment rather than statistical variability. Methods: Eighty patients,167 random lesions total,were scanned in a GE Discovery STE PET/CT Scanner. One field-of-view was chosen centered on the largest lesion observed in a clinical whole-body FDG PET.Immediately following,a gated 9 min scan was acquired in list mode,without changing the patient’s position between any scans. Data was replayed into 3 time bins,3 min each,in order to insure equivalent noise characteristics in each replicate.Data was reconstructed into 128×128×47 square matrices.One VOI was drawn over each lesion for each patient and used to segment all 3 replicates. The mean.max and peak SUV were calculated for each VOI and replicate. First-order textural features were also calculated (skewness and kurtosis). Repeatability was calculated as the average standard deviation over the mean for the 3 repeated measurements for each lesion. Results: The average percent error in the SUV max,peak and mean were 3.4%(0– 12.9%),1.9% (0–7.5%),2.8% (0–12.2%),respectively.For skewness and kurtosis they were 10.9% and 17.8%. Conclusion: We have shown that there is a large variation in %error in SUV measures across patients. SUVpeak is the least variable and kurtosis and skewness parameters are less reliable thatn SUVs.Higher order textures are be

  14. MEditerranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project: from objectives to results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia

    2017-04-01

    The MEditerranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) was a FP7 3-year lasting project aimed at improving the assessment of volcanic hazards at two of the most active European volcanic areas - Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius and Mt. Etna. More than 3 million people are exposed to potential hazards in the two areas, and the geographic location of the volcanoes increases the number of people extending the impact to a wider region. MED-SUV worked on the (1) optimisation and integration of the existing and new monitoring systems, (2) understanding of volcanic processes, and on the (3) relationship between the scientific and end-user communities. MED-SUV fully exploited the unique multidisciplinary long-term in-situ datasets available for these volcanoes and integrated them with Earth observations. Technological developments and implemented algorithms allowed better constraint of pre-, sin- and post-eruptive phases. The wide range of styles and intensities of the volcanic phenomena observed at the targeted volcanoes - archetypes of 'closed' and 'open' conduit systems - observed by using the long-term multidisciplinary datasets, exceptionally upgraded the understanding of a variety of geo-hazards. Proper experiments and studies were carried out to advance the understanding of the volcanoes' internal structure and processes, and to recognise signals related to impending unrest/eruptive phases. Indeed, the hazard quantitative assessment benefitted from the outcomes of these studies and from their integration with cutting edge monitoring approaches, thus leading to step-changes in hazard awareness and preparedness, and leveraging the close relationship between scientists, SMEs, and end-users. Among the MED-SUV achievements, we can list the (i) implementation of a data policy compliant with the GEO Open Data Principles for ruling the exploitation and shared use of the project outcomes; (ii) MED-SUV e-infrastructure creation as test bed for designing an interoperable infrastructure to

  15. Differentiation of thyroid lesion detected by FDG PET/CT using SUV ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sahn; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We investigated the usefulness of SUV ratio to discriminate focal thyroid lesion incidentally detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET) in patients with malignant disease. A total of 2167 subjects with malignant tumor underwent PET/CT for staging. Forty-five of 2167 subjects (2.1%) showed hypermetabolic thyroid lesions on FDG PET. Of 45, 21 lesions were confirmed by pathology (n = 16) or follow up exam (n=5). Seventeen patients had focal FDG uptakes, while 4 patients had diffuse thyroid uptakes. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured by drawing region of interest (ROI) on bilateral thyroid lobes and liver. From 21 patients, 12 thyroid lesions were confirmed as malignant lesions and 9 lesions as benign lesions. All of bilateral thyroid FDG uptakes were determined as benign disease such as thyroiditis. From seventeen focal thyroid incidentaloma, FDG PET had 100 % (12/12) of sensitivity and 60 % (3/5) of specificity, retrospectively. Malignant nodules had a significantly higher lesion to liver ratio than those of benign nodules (2.10.9 vs. 1.20.6, p=0.029). With ROC curve, the best cut-off value of lesion to liver was 1.0 with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 60 % (area under the curve=0.783). The SUV ratio of lesion to contralateral lobe do not have statistical significance to determine malignancy (3.72.1 vs. 2.61.7, p=0.079). This study showed that focal thyroidal FDG uptake detected by FDG PET could be differentiated with best performance by SUV ratio of lesion to liver.

  16. The design of a comprehensive microsimulator of household vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The report describes a comprehensive vehicle fleet composition, utilization, and evolution : simulator that can be used to forecast household vehicle ownership and mileage by type of : vehicle over time. The components of the simulator are developed ...

  17. Analysis of electric vehicle impacts in New Mexico urban utility distribution infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, B. [Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sena, Santiago [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lavrova, Olga [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stratton, S. [Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdollahy, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hawkins, J. [Public Utility Service Company of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-06-16

    Modeling is going to play a crucial role for utilities as Electric Vehicle (EV) ownership percentage increases. Utilities anticipate new demand peaks due to EV charging loads, particularly at high penetration levels.

  18. Development of a simple unified volatility-based scheme (SUVS for secondary organic aerosol formation using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Xia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to simplify complex atmospheric chemistry reaction schemes, while preserving SOA formation properties, using genetic algorithms. The method is first applied in this study to the gas-phase α-pinene oxidation scheme. The simple unified volatility-based scheme (SUVS reflects the multi-generation evolution of chemical species from a near-explicit master chemical mechanism (MCM and, at the same time, uses the volatility-basis set speciation for condensable products. The SUVS also unifies reactions between SOA precursors with different oxidants under different atmospheric conditions. A total of 412 unknown parameters (product yields of parameterized products, reaction rates, etc. from the SUVS are estimated by using genetic algorithms operating on the detailed mechanism. The number of organic species was reduced from 310 in the detailed mechanism to 31 in the SUVS. Output species profiles, obtained from the original subset of the MCM reaction scheme for α-pinene oxidation, are reproduced with maximum fractional error at 0.10 for scenarios under a wide range of ambient HC/NOx conditions. Ultimately, the same SUVS with updated parameters could be used to describe the SOA formation from different precursors.

  19. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO x and CO 2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NO x and CO 2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO 2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small-less than 1% of total utility emissions even vath the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO 2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO 2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles

  20. Relationship Between Vehicle Size and Fatality Risk in Model Year 1985-93 Passenger Cars and Light Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Fatality rates per million exposure years are computed by make, model and model year, : based on the crash experience of model year 1985-93 passenger cars and light trucks (pickups) vans : and sport utility vehicles) in the United States during calen...

  1. Dirt bikes and all terrain vehicles: the real threat to pediatric kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yang; Gaines, Barbara A

    2007-10-01

    Recent reviews show that bicycles are the major cause of significant renal injury with few injuries occurring during contact sports. All-terrain vehicles are also responsible for significant pediatric renal trauma. We determined whether dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles cause more significant renal injuries than contact sports. A retrospective review of our pediatric trauma database revealed 115 consecutive patients treated for renal trauma from 2000 to 2005. A total of 20 bicycle injuries occurred, including 6 on dirt bikes. A total of 13 all-terrain vehicle injuries occurred, including 4 involving rollovers. A total of 12 contact sport injuries occurred, including 2 during pick-up games. The mean grade of renal injury was compared among the mechanisms, with grades III-V considered high grade. In descending order of renal injury the mechanisms were dirt bike (2.8), all-terrain vehicle rollover (2.8), bicycle (2.3), all-terrain vehicle (2.1), contact sports (1.8) and organized contact sports (1.4). Dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicle rollovers caused significantly greater renal trauma than organized contact sports (2.8 vs 1.4, p = 0.007 and 0.02, respectively), whereas overall bicycle and all-terrain vehicle accidents resulted in similar renal trauma grades compared to those of all contact sports. The 2 high grade renal injuries during contact sports occurred during pick-up football games without protective gear. Physician advice regarding children with a solitary kidney should include avoiding dirt bikes and all-terrain vehicles. Efforts to limit all-terrain vehicle use in children younger than 16 years would decrease the risk of significant renal injury in this population more effectively than limiting contact sports participation.

  2. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Loehr, Mario [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq {sup 177}Lu-DOTATOC or {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV{sub max} in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm{sup 3} was a median of 23.4 x 10{sup -6} (range 0.4 x 10{sup -6} to 68.3 x 10{sup -6}). A strong correlation was observed between SUV{sub max} and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P < 0.01). Excluding one patient who showed large differences in biokinetics between PET and PRRT and another patient with incomplete data, linear regression analysis indicated significant correlations between SUV{sub max} and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV{sub max} and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10{sup -6} (maximum 9.3 x 10{sup -6}) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) {sup 177}Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with {sup 68}Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour

  3. The Effects of Vehicle Redesign on the Risk of Driver Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Lund, Adrian K

    2015-01-01

    This study updates a 2006 report that estimated the historical effects of vehicle design changes on driver fatality rates in the United States, separate from the effects of environmental and driver behavior changes during the same period. In addition to extending the period covered by 8 years, this study estimated the effect of design changes by model year and vehicle type. Driver death rates for consecutive model years of vehicle models without design changes were used to estimate the vehicle aging effect and the death rates that would have been expected if the entire fleet had remained unchanged from the 1985 calendar year. These calendar year estimates are taken to be the combined effect of road environment and motorist behavioral changes, with the difference between them and the actual calendar year driver fatality rates reflecting the effect of changes in vehicle design and distribution of vehicle types. The effects of vehicle design changes by model year were estimated for cars, SUVs, and pickups by computing driver death rates for model years 1984-2009 during each of their first 3 full calendar years of exposure and comparing with the expected rates if there had been no design changes. As reported in the 2006 study, had there been no changes in the vehicle fleet, driver death risk would have declined during calendar years 1985-1993 and then slowly increased from 1993 to 2004. The updated results indicate that the gradual increase would have continued through 2006, after which driver fatality rates again would have declined through 2012. Overall, it is estimated that there were 7,700 fewer driver deaths in 2012 than there would have been had vehicle designs not changed. Cars were the first vehicle type whose design safety generally exceeded that of the 1984 model year (starting in model year 1996), followed by SUVs (1998 models) and pickups (2002 models). By the 2009 model year, car driver fatality risk had declined 51% from its high in 1994, pickup driver

  4. Electric vehicles from the point of view of an energy utility; Elektrofahrzeuge aus Sicht eines Energieversorgers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corpataux, M.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Marcel Corpataux from the Elektra Baselland utility (EBL) takes a look at the utility's activities in the renewable energies sector and the need for balancing energy supply and demand. Various methods on the demand side are briefly looked at and the use of 'vehicle-to-grid' concepts that use hybrid vehicles as storage facilities for electrical power are commented on. The chances offered to electricity utilities by using hybrid vehicles as buffer storage for electrical power are discussed.

  5. Biodistribution of the {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} PET radiopharmaceutical in cancer patients: an atlas of SUV measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Jamali, Mehran; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam [Stanford University, Stanford, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Barkhodari, Amir; Mosci, Camila; Mittra, Erik; Iagaru, Andrei [Stanford University, Stanford, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Shen, Bin; Chin, Frederick [Stanford University, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution of 2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide (PEG3-E[c{RGDyk}]2) ({sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2}) in cancer patients and to compare its uptake in malignant lesions with {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. A total of 35 patients (11 men, 24 women, mean age 52.1 ± 10.8 years) were enrolled prospectively and had {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} PET/CT prior to treatment. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) and mean SUV (SUV{sub mean}) were measured in 23 normal tissues in each patient, as well as in known or suspected cancer lesions. Differences between {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} uptake and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were also evaluated in 28 of the 35 patients. Areas of high {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} accumulation (SUV{sub max} range 8.9 - 94.4, SUV{sub mean} range 7.1 - 64.4) included the bladder and kidneys. Moderate uptake (SUV{sub max} range 2.1 - 6.3, SUV{sub mean} range 1.1 - 4.5) was found in the choroid plexus, salivary glands, thyroid, liver, spleen, pancreas, small bowel and skeleton. Compared with {sup 18}F-FDG, {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} showed higher tumor-to-background ratio in brain lesions (13.4 ± 8.5 vs. 1.1 ± 0.5, P < 0.001), but no significant difference in body lesions (3.2 ± 1.9 vs. 4.4 ± 4.2, P = 0.10). There was no significant correlation between the uptake values (SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}) for {sup 18}F FPPRGD{sub 2} and those for {sup 18}F-FDG. The biodistribution of {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} in cancer patients is similar to that of other RGD dimer peptides and it is suitable for clinical use. The lack of significant correlation between {sup 18}F-FPPRGD{sub 2} and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake confirms that the information provided by each PET tracer is different. (orig.)

  6. Age-Associated Decrease of the Histone Methyltransferase SUV39H1 in HSC Perturbs Heterochromatin and B Lymphoid Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dounia Djeghloul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC to generate B lymphocytes declines with age, contributing to impaired immune function in the elderly. Here we show that the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 plays an important role in human B lymphoid differentiation and that expression of SUV39H1 decreases with age in both human and mouse HSC, leading to a global reduction in H3K9 trimethylation and perturbed heterochromatin function. Further, we demonstrate that SUV39H1 is a target of microRNA miR-125b, a known regulator of HSC function, and that expression of miR-125b increases with age in human HSC. Overexpression of miR-125b and inhibition of SUV39H1 in young HSC induced loss of B cell potential. Conversely, both inhibition of miR-125 and enforced expression of SUV39H1 improved the capacity of HSC from elderly individuals to generate B cells. Our findings highlight the importance of heterochromatin regulation in HSC aging and B lymphopoiesis.

  7. Eccentric utilization ratio: effect of sport and phase of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Michael R; Doyle, Timothy L A; Newton, Michael; Edwards, Dylan J; Nimphius, Sophia; Newton, Robert U

    2006-11-01

    The eccentric utilization ratio (EUR), which is the ratio of countermovement jump (CMJ) to static jump (SJ) performance, has been suggested as a useful indicator of power performance in athletes. The purpose of the study was to compare the EUR of athletes from a variety of different sports and during different phases of training. A total of 142 athletes from rugby union, Australian Rules Football, soccer, softball, and field hockey were tested. Subjects performed both CMJ and SJ on a force plate integrated with a position transducer. The EUR was measured as the ratio of CMJ to SJ for jump height and peak power. The rugby union, Australian Rules Football, and hockey athletes were tested during off-season and preseason to provide EUR data during different phases of training. For men, EUR for soccer, Australian Rules Football, and rugby was greater than softball (effect size range, 0.83-0.92). For women, EUR for soccer was greater than field hockey and softball (0.86- 1.0). There was a significant difference between the jump height and peak power method for the Australian Rules Football, rugby, and field hockey tests conducted preseason (p sports such as soccer, rugby union, and Australian Rules Football appear to have higher EUR values, which reflects the greater reliance on stretch shortening activities in these sports. It does appear that EUR can be used to track changes in training with the values significantly increasing from off-season to preseason. The EUR provides the practitioner with information about the performance of athletes and appears to be sensitive to changes in the type of training being undertaken.

  8. Urban Youth, Worklessness and Sport: A Comparison of Sports-based Employability Programs in Rotterdam and Stoke-on-Trent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.; Magee, J.; Jeanes, R.

    2013-01-01

    The potential value of sport as a vehicle through which urban regeneration and social renewal policy can be delivered has been extensively examined. However, there are an increasing number of initiatives aiming to use sports-based programmes as a way to address worklessness and social exclusion

  9. Determination of maintainability for Dacia 1304, 1,9 D utility vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiul Berghian, A.; Vasiu, T.; Birtok Baneasa, C.

    2018-01-01

    The study analyses the ability to be maintained or rehabilitation of Dacia 1304, 1,9D utility vehicle. The paper comprises the determination of its maintainability using the Weibull++8 specialized software.

  10. Utilization of excess wind power in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Wilfried; Mischinger, Stefan; Linssen, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the assessment of future wind power utilization for charging electric vehicles (EVs) in Germany. The potential wind power production in the model years 2020 and 2030 is derived by extrapolating onshore wind power generation and offshore wind speeds measured in 2007 and 2010 to the installed onshore and offshore wind turbine capacities assumed for 2020 and 2030. The energy consumption of an assumed fleet of 1 million EVs in 2020 and 6 million in 2030 is assessed using detailed models of electric vehicles, real world driving cycles and car usage. It is shown that a substantial part of the charging demand of EVs can be met by otherwise unused wind power, depending on the amount of conventional power required for stabilizing the grid. The utilization of wind power is limited by the charging demand of the cars and the bottlenecks in the transmission grid. -- Highlights: •Wind power available for charging depends on minimum required conventional power (must-run). •With 20 GW must-run power, 50% of charging can be met by excess wind power. •Grid bottlenecks decrease charging met by wind power from 50 % to 30 %. •With zero must-run power, only very little wind power is available for charging

  11. Quantitative evaluation of bone metastases from prostate cancer with simultaneous [18F] choline PET/MRI. Combined SUV and ADC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, A.; Lipponer, C.; Nensa, F.; Schlosser, T.W.; Lauenstein, T.C.; Heusch, P.; Ruebben, H.; Poeppel, T.D.; Nagarajah, J.

    2014-01-01

    To quantitatively analyze bone metastases from prostate cancer and correlate the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and standardized uptake values (SUVs). Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer or suspected recurrent prostate cancer were examined with simultaneous [ 18 F] choline Positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI at 3 T. In 11 patients, thirty-two PET-positive bone lesions could be identified that were located in the field-of-view of the Diffusion weighted imaging-sequence. Region-of-interest and volume-of-interest analyses were performed to measure the mean and minimal ADCs and to assess maximum and mean SUVs of every bone lesion. Correlations between maximum and mean SUVs and mean and minimal ADCs were calculated. The SUV max of all lesions was 5.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD). The SUV mean was 1.8 ± 0.9. The mean ADC (ADC mean ) of all lesions was 0.67 ± 0.13 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. The minimal ADC (ADC min ) of all lesions was 0.56 ± 0.14 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s. There was a moderate but significant inverse correlation of SUV max vs. ADC mean with a correlation coefficient of -0.4 (p=0.02). There was also a significant inverse correlation of SUV max vs. ADC min with r=-0.41 (p=0.02). Our initial results demonstrate a moderate but significant inverse correlation between increased choline metabolism and ADC values of bone metastases from prostate cancer. Further research on a multimodality approach using simultaneous PET/MRI in bone metastasis of prostate cancer seems to be justified. (author)

  12. PET SUV correlates with radionuclide uptake in peptide receptor therapy in meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenscheid, Heribert; Buck, Andreas K.; Samnick, Samuel; Kreissl, Michael; Sweeney, Reinhart A.; Flentje, Michael; Loehr, Mario; Verburg, Frederik A.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether the tumour uptake of radionuclide in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of meningioma can be predicted by a PET scan with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogue. In this pilot trial, 11 meningioma patients with a PET scan indicating somatostatin receptor expression received PRRT with 7.4 GBq 177 Lu-DOTATOC or 177 Lu-DOTATATE, followed by external beam radiotherapy. A second PET scan was scheduled for 3 months after therapy. During PRRT, multiple whole-body scans and a SPECT/CT scan of the head and neck region were acquired and used to determine the kinetics and dose in the voxel with the highest radionuclide uptake within the tumour. Maximum voxel dose and retention of activity 1 h after administration in PRRT were compared to the maximum standardized uptake values (SUV max ) in the meningiomas from the PET scans before and after therapy. The median SUV max in the meningiomas was 13.7 (range 4.3 to 68.7), and the maximum fractional radionuclide uptake in voxels of size 0.11 cm 3 was a median of 23.4 x 10 -6 (range 0.4 x 10 -6 to 68.3 x 10 -6 ). A strong correlation was observed between SUV max and the PRRT radionuclide tumour retention in the voxels with the highest uptake (Spearman's rank test, P max and the therapeutic uptake (r = 0.95) and between SUV max and the maximum voxel dose from PRRT (r = 0.76). Observed absolute deviations from the values expected from regression were a median of 5.6 x 10 -6 (maximum 9.3 x 10 -6 ) for the voxel fractional radionuclide uptake and 0.40 Gy per GBq (maximum 0.85 Gy per GBq) 177 Lu for the voxel dose from PRRT. PET with 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues allows the pretherapeutic assessment of tumour radionuclide uptake in PRRT of meningioma and an estimate of the achievable dose. (orig.)

  13. Vibration isolation analysis of a stabilized platform mounted on a small off-road vehicle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, Anria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available (up to ±15N at velocities below ±0.15m/s), resulting in a very low energy demand (only 5W). As part of future work the joint connecting the stabilised platform to the Baja vehicle will be revised and extended to include the yaw degree of freedom..., p433-453, 2010. 11 Simon, D.E. “An investigation of the effectiveness of skyhook suspensions for controlling roll dynamics of sport utility vehicles using magneto-rheological dampers”, PhD Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State...

  14. The tomato Fni3 lysine-63-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and suv ubiquitin E2 variant positively regulate plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mural, Ravi V; Liu, Yao; Rosebrock, Tracy R; Brady, Jennifer J; Hamera, Sadia; Connor, Richard A; Martin, Gregory B; Zeng, Lirong

    2013-09-01

    The activation of an immune response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) against Pseudomonas syringae relies on the recognition of E3 ligase-deficient forms of AvrPtoB by the host protein kinase, Fen. To investigate the mechanisms by which Fen-mediated immunity is regulated, we characterize in this study a Fen-interacting protein, Fni3, and its cofactor, S. lycoperiscum Uev (Suv). Fni3 encodes a homolog of the Ubc13-type ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that catalyzes exclusively Lys-63-linked ubiquitination, whereas Suv is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant. The C-terminal region of Fen was necessary for interaction with Fni3, and this interaction was required for cell death triggered by overexpression of Fen in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Fni3 was shown to be an active E2 enzyme, but Suv displayed no ubiquitin-conjugating activity; Fni3 and Suv together directed Lys-63-linked ubiquitination. Decreased expression of Fni3, another tomato Ubc13 homolog, Sl-Ubc13-2, or Suv in N. benthamiana leaves diminished cell death associated with Fen-mediated immunity and cell death elicited by several other resistance (R) proteins and their cognate effectors. We also discovered that coexpression of Fen and other R proteins/effectors with a Fni3 mutant that is compromised for ubiquitin-conjugating activity diminished the cell death. These results suggest that Fni3/Sl-Ubc13-2 and Suv regulate the immune response mediated by Fen and other R proteins through Lys-63-linked ubiquitination.

  15. Sports in postmodern era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Miron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to make a resume from a socio-cultural point of view of the sportiv peisage analized in the evolutionof society trying to answer some questions such as: What is the place of sports in our modern society? How does sportinfluence social and cultural evolutions? What are the cultural tendencies which can be distinguished in the sports practice?These are a few questions which could lead to establishing raports between sports, culture and society. Sport is more andmore amrked by the charactersitics of postmoderinsm. New social values are being vehiclated by current generations whichinfluence sportive behaviours. The popularity of sports has a big influence in the process of globalisation of politics,economics and culture. In our days we observe the fact that some contradictions are being manifested: globalisation andindividualisation, „sportivisation” and „desportivisation”, a culture of health and a culture of amusement and finally,spontaneity and fragmentation compared to the security and autentification of the individual.

  16. The effect of intravenous contrast on SUV value in 18F-FDG PET/CT using diagnostic high energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young

    2006-01-01

    According to the development of CT scanner in PET/CT system, the role of CT unit as a diagnostic tool has been more important. To improve the diagnostic ability of CT scanner, it is a key aspect that CT scanning has to be performed with high dose energy and intravenous (IV) contrast. So we investigated the effect of IV contrast media on the maximum SUV (maxSUV) of normal tissues and pathologic lesions using PET/CT scanner with high dose CT scanning. The study enrolled 13 patients who required PET/CT evaluation. At first, the patients were performed whole body non-contrast CT (NCCT - 120 kVp, 130 mAs) scan. Than contrast enhanced CT (CECT) scan was performed immediately. Finally PET scan was followed. The PET emission data were reconstructed twice, once with the NCCT and again with the CECT. We measured the maxSUV of 10 different body regions that were considered as normal in all patients. Also pathologic lesions were investigated. There were not seen focal artifacts in PET images based on CT with IV contrast agent. Firstly, 130 normal regions in 13 patients were evaluated. The maxSUV was significantly different between two PET images (p < 0.001). The maxSUV was 1.1 ± 0.5 in PET images with CECT-corrected attenuation and 1.0 ± 0.5 in PET images with NCCT-corrected attenuation. The limit of agreement was 0.1 ± 0.3 in Bland-Altman analysis. Especially there were significant differences in 6 of 10 regions, apex and base of the right lung, ascending aorta, segment 6 and segment 8 of the liver and spleen (p <0.05). Secondly, 39 pathologic lesions were evaluated. The maxSUV was significantly different between two PET images (p < 0.001). The maxSUV was 4.7 ± 2.0 in PET images with CECT-corrected attenuation and 4.4 ± 2.0 in PET images with NCCT- corrected attenuation. The limit of agreement was 0.4 ± 0.8 in Bland-Altman analysis. Although there were increases of maxSUVs in the PET images based on CT with IV contrast agent, it was very narrow in the range of limit of

  17. How hybrid-electric vehicles are different from conventional vehicles: the effect of weight and power on fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, C; Kandlikar, M

    2007-01-01

    An increasingly diverse set of hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) is now available in North America. The recent generation of HEVs have higher fuel consumption, are heavier, and are significantly more powerful than the first generation of HEVs. We compare HEVs for sale in the United States in 2007 to equivalent conventional vehicles and determine how vehicle weight and system power affects fuel consumption within each vehicle set. We find that heavier and more powerful hybrid-electric vehicles are eroding the fuel consumption benefit of this technology. Nonetheless, the weight penalty for fuel consumption in HEVs is significantly lower than in equivalent conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). A 100 kg change in vehicle weight increases fuel consumption by 0.7 l/100 km in ICEVs compared with 0.4 l/100 km in HEVs. When the HEVs are compared with their ICEV counterparts in an equivalence model that differentiates between cars and sports-utility vehicles, the average fuel consumption benefit was 2.7 l/100 km. This analysis further reveals that a HEV which is 100 kg heavier than an identical ICEV would have a fuel consumption penalty of 0.15 l/100 km. Likewise, an increase in the HEV's power by 10 kW results in a fuel consumption penalty of 0.27 l/100 km

  18. ED utilization trends in sports-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Holly R; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Gittelman, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Emergency department (ED) visits for sports-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have risen. This study evaluated how the number and severity of admissions have changed as ED visits for sports-related TBIs have increased. A retrospective study of children aged 0 to 19 years at a level 1 trauma center was performed. Patients from 2002 to 2011 with a primary or secondary diagnosis of TBI were identified from the hospital's inpatient and outpatient trauma registries. Frequencies were used to characterize the population, χ(2) analysis was performed to determine differences between groups, and regression analysis looked at relationship between year and injury severity score or length of stay. Sport was responsible for injury in 3878 (15.4%) cases during the study period; 3506 (90.4%) were discharged from the hospital, and 372 (9.6%) were admitted. Seventy-three percent were male patients and 78% Caucasian; mean age was 13 ± 3.5 years. ED visits for sports-related TBIs increased 92% over the study period, yet there was no significant change (χ(2) = 9.8, df = 9, P = .37) in the percentage of children admitted. Mean injury severity score for those admitted decreased from 7.8 to 4.8 (β = -0.46; P = .006); length of stay trended downward (β = -0.05; P = .05). The percentage of children being admitted from the ED with sports-related TBI has not changed over the past 10 years. The severity of admitted sports-related TBI is decreasing. Additional research is needed to correlate these trends with other TBI mechanisms.

  19. FDG Dose Extravasations in PET/CT: Frequency and Impact on SUV Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Medhat M.; Muzaffar, Razi; Altinyay, M. Erkan; Teymouri, Cyrus

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with 18F-FDG has proven to be effective in detecting and assessing various types of cancers. However, due to cancer and/or its therapy, intravenous (IV) FDG injection may be problematic resulting in dose extravasations. In the most frequently used field of view (FOV), arms-up, and base of skull to upper thigh [limited whole body (LWB)], the injection site may not be routinely imaged. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of dose extravasations in FDG PET and the potential impact on standard uptake value (SUV) measurements. Methods: True whole body FDG PET/CT scans (including all extremities) of 400 patients were retrospectively reviewed. A log recorded cases of IV dose extravasations. When possible, SUVs were measured in two frequently used reference locations: mediastinum and liver. The SUVs were obtained in the same patients who had studies with and without FDG extravasations within an average of 3 months without interval therapy. Results: Of the 400 scans, 42 (10.5%) had extravasations on the maximum intensity projections images. In scans with or without dose infiltration, FDG injection site was at or distal to the antecubital fossa in 97% of studies. Of those 42 cases, dose infiltration was within the LWB FOV in 29/42 (69%) and outside in the remaining 13/42 (31%). Of those 42 patients, 5 had repeat PET studies with no interval therapy. For those 5 patients, liver maximum SUV was 11.7% less in patients with infiltration than those without (2.22 ± 0.54 vs. 2.48 ± 0.6). Mediastinum SUVmax was 9.3% less in patients with infiltration than those without (1.72 ± 0.54 vs. 1.88 ± 0.49). Conclusion: We conclude dose extravasations were commonly encountered (10.5%) in PET/CT. However, it is underreported by at least 31% due to omitting injection site from the FOV. When present, extravasations may lead to underestimation of SUVmax. Therefore, it should not only be avoided but also reported in order to

  20. FDG dose extravasations in PET/CT: frequency and impact on SUV measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhat M Osman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: PET/CT with 18F-FDG has proven to be effective in detecting and assessing various types of cancers. However, due to cancer and/or its therapy, intravenous (IV FDG injection may be problematic resulting in dose extravasations. In the most frequently used field of view (FOV, arms-up and base of skull to upper-thigh (limited Whole Body (LWB, the injection site may not be routinely imaged. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of dose extravasations in FDG PET and the potential impact on SUV measurements.Methods: True Whole Body (TWB FDG-PET/CT scans (including all extremities of 400 patients were retrospectively reviewed. A log recorded cases of IV dose extravasations. When possible, SUVs were measured in two frequently used reference locations: mediastinum and liver. The SUVs were obtained in the same patients who had studies with and without FDG extravasations within an average of 3 months without interval therapy.Results: Of the 400 scans, 42 (10.5% had extravasations on the maximum intensity projections (MIP images. In scans with or without dose infiltration, FDG injection site was at or distal to the antecubital fossa in 97% of studies. Of those 42 cases, dose infiltration was within the LWB FOV in 29/42 (69% and outside in the remaining 13/42 (31%. Of those 42 patients, 5 had repeat PET studies with no interval therapy. For those 5 patients, liver maximum SUV was 11.7% less in patients with infiltration than those without (2.22 ± 0.54 vs. 2.48 ± 0.6. Mediastinum SUVmax was 9.3% less in patients with infiltration than those without (1.72 ± 0.54 vs. 1.88 ± 0.49.Conclusion: We conclude dose extravasations were commonly encountered (10.5% in PET/CT. However, it is underreported by at least 31% due to omitting injection site from the FOV. When present, extravasations may lead to underestimation of SUVmax. Therefore, it should not only be avoided but also reported in order to avoid false interpretations of the exam.

  1. Cost-utility of a six-month programmed sports therapy (PST) in patients with haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeberlein-Neu, J; Runkel, B; Hilberg, T

    2018-03-30

    Recurrent musculoskeletal haemorrhages in people with haemophilia (PwH) lead to restrictions in the locomotor system and, as a result, in physical performance, too. Due to its physical and psychological benefits, sport is increasingly re-commended for haemophilic patients. Evidence on the cost-effectiveness of sports therapy is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a 6-month programmed sports therapy (PST). The cost-effectiveness of the 6-month PST was assessed from a societal perspective alongside a RCT using cost-utility analysis. The analysis included 50 PwH with moderate-to-severe haemophilia A and B and a training period over 6 months. The health-related quality of life was measured with the EuroQoL-domain questionnaire. Resource utilization was assessed by questionnaire before and after the intervention. A cost-effectiveness acceptability curve was constructed, and sensitivity analyses were performed. During the 6-month study period, mean adjusted total healthcare costs were lower (mean difference: -22 805 EUR; 95%-CI: -73 944-48 463; P = .59) and the number of QALYs was higher in the intervention group (mean difference: 0.3733; 95%-CI: 0.0014-0.0573; P = .04). The probability of an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <50 000 EUR per QALY was 71%. The performed sensitivity analysis confirmed these results. Results showed that the PST is effective in terms of a significant gain of QALYs. Furthermore, results weakly indicate the potential of the PST to reduce healthcare costs. Future studies should expand the observation period to have a closer look at the influence of PST on lifetime costs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Análise da variedade de produto na indústria automotiva brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Castro Fettermann

    2015-06-01

    objective of this work is to identify the association between the variety of vehicles in the Brazilian market and the sale of vehicles. The sample represents the year 2013 and incorporates 94,35% of volume of sold cars in Brazil, with a total of 118 different models analyzed. The results presented confirm that the variety of cars available in Brazil is significantly associated with the sale of vehicles. Moreover, according to the market segment (entry, compact, sedan, SUV and utility, it was also analyzed the association between product variety and the amount of sales. It was identified a positive and significant correlation at the 5% level in all categories, except for SUV type vehicles. Among these market segments, it was noticed that the available variety is especially related with the segments of entry cars and utilities.These findings imply that in the Brazilian market the variety of products has a strong association with sales in the automotive industry, unlike it was shown in international researches and may contribute to the strategic orientation of the companies.

  3. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.

    2015-02-01

    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  4. Science and the major racket sports: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Adrian

    2003-09-01

    The major racket sports include badminton, squash, table tennis and tennis. The growth of sports science and the commercialization of racket sports in recent years have focused attention on improved performance and this has led to a more detailed study and understanding of all aspects of racket sports. The aim here, therefore, is to review recent developments of the application of science to racket sports. The scientific disciplines of sports physiology and nutrition, notational analysis, sports biomechanics, sports medicine, sports engineering, sports psychology and motor skills are briefly considered in turn. It is evident from these reviews that a great deal of scientific endeavour has been applied to racket sports, but this is variable across both the racket sports and the scientific disciplines. A scientific approach has helped to: implement training programmes to improve players' fitness; guide players in nutritional and psychological preparation for play; inform players of the strategy and tactics used by themselves and their opponents; provide insight into the technical performance of skills; understand the effect of equipment on play; and accelerate the recovery from racket-arm injuries. Racket sports have also posed a unique challenge to scientists and have provided vehicles for developing scientific methodology. Racket sports provide a good model for investigating the interplay between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism and the effect of nutrition, heat and fatigue on performance. They have driven the development of mathematical solutions for multi-segment interactions within the racket arm during the performance of shots, which have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms of both performance and injury. They have provided a unique challenge to sports engineers in relation to equipment performance and interaction with the player. Racket sports have encouraged developments in notational analysis both in terms of analytical procedures and the

  5. Testing and injury potential analysis of rollovers with narrow object impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Steven E; Forrest, Stephen; Herbst, Brian; Hayden, Joshua; Orton, Tia; Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam

    2004-01-01

    Recent statistics highlight the significant risk of serious and fatal injuries to occupants involved in rollover collisions due to excessive roof crush. The government has reported that in 2002. Sports Utility Vehicle rollover related fatalities increased by 14% to more than 2400 annually. 61% of all SUV fatalities included rollovers [1]. Rollover crashes rely primarily upon the roof structures to maintain occupant survival space. Frequently these crashes occur off the travel lanes of the roadway and, therefore, can include impacts with various types of narrow objects such as light poles, utility poles and/or trees. A test device and methodology is presented which facilitates dynamic, repeatable rollover impact evaluation of complete vehicle roof structures with such narrow objects. These tests allow for the incorporation of Anthropomorphic Test Dummies (ATDs) which can be instrumented to measure accelerations, forces and moments to evaluate injury potential. High-speed video permits for detailed analysis of occupant kinematics and evaluation of injury causation. Criteria such as restraint performance, injury potential, survival space and the effect of roof crush associated with various types of design alternatives, countermeasures and impact circumstances can also be evaluated. In addition to presentation of the methodology, two representative vehicle crash tests are also reported. Results indicated that the reinforced roof structure significantly reduced the roof deformation compared to the production roof structure.

  6. Sport and Children's Nutrition: What Can We Learn from the Junior Australian Football Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sam; Velardo, Stefania; Drummond, Murray; Drummond, Claire

    2016-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that sport participation inherently enhances health among youth. Such a perception often motivates parents to encourage children's initial and ongoing involvement in organised sport and physical activity. While sport certainly comprises an important vehicle for accruing physical activity, the sport environment may not…

  7. Consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles: Comparing a utility maximization and a regret minimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorus, Caspar G.; Koetse, Mark J.; Hoen, Anco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a utility-based and a regret-based model of consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles, based on a large-scale stated choice-experiment held among company car leasers in The Netherlands. Estimation and application of random utility maximization and random regret minimization discrete choice models shows that while the two models achieve almost identical fit with the data and differ only marginally in terms of predictive ability, they generate rather different choice probability-simulations and policy implications. The most eye-catching difference between the two models is that the random regret minimization model accommodates a compromise-effect, as it assigns relatively high choice probabilities to alternative fuel vehicles that perform reasonably well on each dimension instead of having a strong performance on some dimensions and a poor performance on others. - Highlights: • Utility- and regret-based models of preferences for alternative fuel vehicles. • Estimation based on stated choice-experiment among Dutch company car leasers. • Models generate rather different choice probabilities and policy implications. • Regret-based model accommodates a compromise-effect

  8. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  9. Learning through the Adventure of Youth Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Tarkington J.; Kim, Melissa; Tucker, Anita R.; Alvarez, M. Antonio G.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Participation in youth sport is often associated with a variety of positive development outcomes. In order to effectively utilize sport as a context of learning and development, the sport must be intentionally designed and programed. One often-used approach is known as sport-based positive youth development (PYD). Recently, to further…

  10. Evaluation of a cumulative SUV-volume histogram method for parameterizing heterogeneous intratumoural FDG uptake in non-small cell lung cancer PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Floris H.P. van; Cheebsumon, Patsuree; Yaqub, Maqsood; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald; Smit, Egbert F.

    2011-01-01

    Standardized uptake values (SUV) are commonly used for quantification of whole-body [ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Changes in SUV following therapy, however, only provide a proper measure of response in case of homogeneous FDG uptake in the tumour. The purpose of this study was therefore to implement and characterize a method that enables quantification of heterogeneity in tumour FDG uptake. Cumulative SUV-volume histograms (CSH), describing % of total tumour volume above % threshold of maximum SUV (SUV max ), were calculated. The area under a CSH curve (AUC) is a quantitative index of tumour uptake heterogeneity, with lower AUC corresponding to higher degrees of heterogeneity. Simulations of homogeneous and heterogeneous responses were performed to assess the value of AUC-CSH for measuring uptake and/or response heterogeneity. In addition, partial volume correction and image denoising was applied prior to calculating AUC-CSH. Finally, the method was applied to a number of human FDG scans. Partial volume correction and noise reduction improved CSH curves. Both simulations and clinical examples showed that AUC-CSH values corresponded with level of tumour heterogeneity and/or heterogeneity in response. In contrast, this correspondence was not seen with SUV max alone. The results indicate that the main advantage of AUC-CSH above other measures, such as 1/COV (coefficient of variation), is the possibility to measure or normalize AUC-CSH in different ways. AUC-CSH might be used as a quantitative index of heterogeneity in tracer uptake. In response monitoring studies it can be used to address heterogeneity in response. (orig.)

  11. Diffusion weighted MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): Does the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) correlate with tracer uptake (SUV)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regier, M.; Derlin, T.; Schwarz, D.; Laqmani, A.; Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Buhk, J.-H.; Kooijman, H.; Adam, G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: To investigate the potential correlation of the apparent diffusion coefficient assessed by diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and glucose metabolism determined by the standardized uptake value (SUV) at 18F-FDG PET/CT in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods: 18F-FDG PET/CT and DWI (TR/TE, 2000/66 ms; b-values, 0 and 500 s/mm 2 ) were performed in 41 consecutive patients with histologically verified NSCLC. Analysing the PET-CT data calculation of the mean (SUV mean ) and maximum (SUV max ) SUV was performed. By placing a region-of-interest (ROI) encovering the entire tumor mean (ADC mean ) and minimum ADC (ADC min ) were determined by two independent radiologists. Results of 18F-FDG PET-CT and DWI were compared on a per-patient basis. For statistical analysis Pearson's correlation coefficient, Bland–Altman and regression analysis were assessed. Results: Data analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of the ADC min and SUV max (r = −0.46; p = 0.032). Testing the correlation of the ADC min and SUV max for each histological subtype separately revealed that the inverse correlation was good for both adenocarcinomas (r = −0.47; p = 0.03) and squamouscell carcinomas (r = −0.71; p = 0.002), respectively. No significant correlation was found for the comparison of ADC min and SUV mean (r = −0.29; p = 0.27), ADC mean vs. SUV mean (r = −0.28; p = 0.31) or ADC mean vs. SUV max (r = −0.33; p = 0.23). The κ-value of 0.88 indicated a good agreement between both observers. Conclusion: This preliminary study is the first to verify the relation between the SUV and the ADC in NSCLC. The significant inverse correlation of these two quantitative imaging approaches points out the association of metabolic activity and tumor cellularity. Therefore, DWI with ADC measurement might represent a new prognostic marker in NSCLC

  12. A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population.

  13. Evaluation of a cumulative SUV-volume histogram method for parameterizing heterogeneous intratumoural FDG uptake in non-small cell lung cancer PET studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velden, Floris H.P. van; Cheebsumon, Patsuree; Yaqub, Maqsood; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smit, Egbert F. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    Standardized uptake values (SUV) are commonly used for quantification of whole-body [{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies. Changes in SUV following therapy, however, only provide a proper measure of response in case of homogeneous FDG uptake in the tumour. The purpose of this study was therefore to implement and characterize a method that enables quantification of heterogeneity in tumour FDG uptake. Cumulative SUV-volume histograms (CSH), describing % of total tumour volume above % threshold of maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}), were calculated. The area under a CSH curve (AUC) is a quantitative index of tumour uptake heterogeneity, with lower AUC corresponding to higher degrees of heterogeneity. Simulations of homogeneous and heterogeneous responses were performed to assess the value of AUC-CSH for measuring uptake and/or response heterogeneity. In addition, partial volume correction and image denoising was applied prior to calculating AUC-CSH. Finally, the method was applied to a number of human FDG scans. Partial volume correction and noise reduction improved CSH curves. Both simulations and clinical examples showed that AUC-CSH values corresponded with level of tumour heterogeneity and/or heterogeneity in response. In contrast, this correspondence was not seen with SUV{sub max} alone. The results indicate that the main advantage of AUC-CSH above other measures, such as 1/COV (coefficient of variation), is the possibility to measure or normalize AUC-CSH in different ways. AUC-CSH might be used as a quantitative index of heterogeneity in tracer uptake. In response monitoring studies it can be used to address heterogeneity in response. (orig.)

  14. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  15. What are the trends and demographics in sports-related pediatric spinal cord injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Vidushan; Jauregui, Julio J; Perfetti, Dean; Shasti, Mark; Koh, Eugene Y; Henn, Ralph Frank

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric spinal cord injury (PSCI) is a devastating injury that can cause significant long-term consequences. The purpose of this study is to calculate and report the prevalence of PSCI, identify risk factors for sports-related PSCI, and evaluate associated factors. The data sets of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) from 2000-2012 were analyzed using ICD-9-CM external cause of injury codes to identify the mechanism of injury contributing to PSCI hospitalization. We then extracted demographic data on each admission including age, gender, race, and year of admission. We further stratified the data by sports-related cases of injury. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors. Of our study population, 0.8% had a documented diagnosis of spinal cord injury (SCI). The most common documented external cause of injury code was motor vehicle accidents, representing roughly half of all cases in patients 0-9 years-old (p = 0.001). PSCI due to sports as an external cause of injury was more prevalent in patients 10-17 years old, and was especially prevalent in the 10-13 year-old age category in which sports-related PSCI reached a high of 25.6%. Risk factors for traumatic PSCI after a sports-related external cause included being of older age, male, and white. The prevalence of SCI increased with age. Given the popularity of youth sports in the United States, parents and sports officials should be aware of the increased risk of sports-related PSCI among patients 10-17 years old. Level III, retrospective cohort study.

  16. Comparative evaluation of SUV, tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR), and dual time point measurements for assessment of the metabolic uptake rate in FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Hoff, Jörg van den; Steffen, Ingo G; Lougovski, Alexandr; Ego, Kilian; Amthauer, Holger; Apostolova, Ivayla

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated recently that the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) as a surrogate of the metabolic uptake rate K m of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), overcoming several of the known shortcomings of the SUV approach: excellent linear correlation of SUR and K m from Patlak analysis was found using dynamic imaging of liver metastases. However, due to the perfectly standardized uptake period used for SUR determination and the comparatively short uptake period, these results are not automatically valid and applicable for clinical whole-body examinations in which the uptake periods (T) are distinctly longer and can vary considerably. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between SUR derived from clinical static whole-body scans and K m-surrogate derived from dual time point (DTP) measurements. DTP (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 90 consecutive patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the PET images, the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV, an aorta region of interest (ROI) was delineated manually in the attenuation CT and transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values from the early time point of each DTP measurement were scan time corrected to 75 min postinjection (SURtc). As surrogate of K m, we used the SUR(T) slope, K slope, derived from DTP measurements since it is proportional to the latter under the given circumstances. The correlation of SUV and SURtc with K slope was investigated. The prognostic value of SUV, SURtc, and K slope for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was investigated with univariate Cox regression in a homogeneous subgroup (N=31) treated with primary chemoradiation. Correlation analysis revealed for both, SUV and SURtc, a

  17. An exploratory study on the relationship between parents' passion for sport/exercise and children's self- and task-perceptions in sport/exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yueh

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parents' passion for sport/exercise and children's self- and task-perceptions in sport and exercise. Paired samples of 312 children, 312 fathers, and 312 mothers were collected using two-stage sampling; parents were classified based on their passion for sport and exercise as high concordance if both parents had a high passion for sport and exercise, low concordance if neither parent had a passion for sport and exercise, or discordant. Intrinsic interest value, attainment value/importance, extrinsic utility value, ability/expectancy, task difficulty, and required effort were measured, as well as harmonious and obsessive passion. Children's self- and task-perceptions in sport and exercise were examined with respect to parents' passion for sport and exercise. The results of the study indicated that children of parents with high concordance in harmonious passion for sport and exercise scored higher on intrinsic interest value, attainment value/importance, extrinsic utility value, ability/expectancy, task difficulty, and required effort in sport and exercise than counterparts with discordant and low concordance parents. Similar patterns were found for obsessive passion in parents.

  18. ENHANCING THE STABILITY OF UNMANNED GROUND SPORT UTILITY VEHICLES THROUGH COORDINATED CONTROL UNDER MU-SPLIT AND GUST OF WIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FITRI YAKUB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a comparative study of steering and yaw moment control manoeuvres in model predictive control (MPC and linear quadratic control approaches for path following unmanned vehicles for different control manoeuvres: two-wheel steering, four-wheel steering, and direct yaw moment control. We then propose MPC with a proportional-integral (PI controller for the coordination of active front steering (AFS and active braking system, which particularly highlights direct yaw moment control (DYC manoeuvres. Based on the known trajectory, we tested a vehicle at middle forward speed with the disturbance consideration of the road surface adhesion and the wind for a double lane change scenario in order to follow the desired trajectory as close as possible, minimizing tracking errors, and enhancing vehicle stability and drivability. We compared two different controllers; i MPC with PI of an AFS and, ii MPC with PI for coordination of AFS and DYC. The operation of the proposed integrated control is demonstrated in a Matlab simulation environment by manoeuvring the vehicle along the desired trajectory. Simulation results showed that the proposed method had yielded better tracking performances, and were able to enhance the vehicle’s stability at a given speed even under road surface coefficient and wind.

  19. The Tomato Fni3 Lysine-63–Specific Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme and Suv Ubiquitin E2 Variant Positively Regulate Plant Immunity[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mural, Ravi V.; Liu, Yao; Rosebrock, Tracy R.; Brady, Jennifer J.; Hamera, Sadia; Connor, Richard A.; Martin, Gregory B.; Zeng, Lirong

    2013-01-01

    The activation of an immune response in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) against Pseudomonas syringae relies on the recognition of E3 ligase–deficient forms of AvrPtoB by the host protein kinase, Fen. To investigate the mechanisms by which Fen-mediated immunity is regulated, we characterize in this study a Fen-interacting protein, Fni3, and its cofactor, S. lycoperiscum Uev (Suv). Fni3 encodes a homolog of the Ubc13-type ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that catalyzes exclusively Lys-63–linked ubiquitination, whereas Suv is a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant. The C-terminal region of Fen was necessary for interaction with Fni3, and this interaction was required for cell death triggered by overexpression of Fen in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Fni3 was shown to be an active E2 enzyme, but Suv displayed no ubiquitin-conjugating activity; Fni3 and Suv together directed Lys-63–linked ubiquitination. Decreased expression of Fni3, another tomato Ubc13 homolog, Sl-Ubc13-2, or Suv in N. benthamiana leaves diminished cell death associated with Fen-mediated immunity and cell death elicited by several other resistance (R) proteins and their cognate effectors. We also discovered that coexpression of Fen and other R proteins/effectors with a Fni3 mutant that is compromised for ubiquitin-conjugating activity diminished the cell death. These results suggest that Fni3/Sl-Ubc13-2 and Suv regulate the immune response mediated by Fen and other R proteins through Lys-63–linked ubiquitination. PMID:24076975

  20. Pretreatment tumor SUV{sub max} predicts disease-specific and overall survival in patients with head and neck soft tissue sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Seung Cheol; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungsu S.; Moon, Hyojeong; Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Ja [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Departments of Pathology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Head and neck soft tissue sarcoma (HNSTS) is a rare type of tumor with various histological presentations and clinical behaviors. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is being increasingly used for staging, grading, and predicting treatment outcomes in various types of human cancers, although this modality has been rarely studied in the survival prediction of HNSTS. Here we examined the prognostic value of tumor metabolic parameters measured using {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with HNSTS. This study included 36 consecutive patients with HNSTS who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scanning prior to treatment at our institution. Tumor gross total volume (GTV) was measured from pretreatment contrast-enhanced CT scans, and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured using pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to identify associations between imaging parameters and disease-specific survival (DSS) or overall survival (OS). Univariate analyses showed that SUV{sub max}, MTV, and TLG, but not GTV, were significantly associated with DSS and OS (all P < 0.05). After controlling for clinicopathological factors, SUV{sub max}, MTV, and TLG were significantly associated with DSS and OS (all P < 0.05). Patients with a tumor SUV{sub max} value of >7.0 experienced an approximately fivefold increase in mortality in terms of DSS and OS relative to those with a tumor SUV{sub max} <7.0. Quantitative metabolic measurements on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can yield values that are significantly predictive of survival after treatment for HNSTS. (orig.)

  1. Propulsion integration of hypersonic air-breathing vehicles utilizing a top-down design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brad Kenneth

    In recent years, a focus of aerospace engineering design has been the development of advanced design methodologies and frameworks to account for increasingly complex and integrated vehicles. Techniques such as parametric modeling, global vehicle analyses, and interdisciplinary data sharing have been employed in an attempt to improve the design process. The purpose of this study is to introduce a new approach to integrated vehicle design known as the top-down design methodology. In the top-down design methodology, the main idea is to relate design changes on the vehicle system and sub-system level to a set of over-arching performance and customer requirements. Rather than focusing on the performance of an individual system, the system is analyzed in terms of the net effect it has on the overall vehicle and other vehicle systems. This detailed level of analysis can only be accomplished through the use of high fidelity computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The utility of the top-down design methodology is investigated through its application to the conceptual and preliminary design of a long-range hypersonic air-breathing vehicle for a hypothetical next generation hypersonic vehicle (NHRV) program. System-level design is demonstrated through the development of the nozzle section of the propulsion system. From this demonstration of the methodology, conclusions are made about the benefits, drawbacks, and cost of using the methodology.

  2. A performance comparison of urban utility vehicles powered with IC engine and solid polymer fuel cell technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teachman, M.E.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Utility vehicles provide ground transportation for crew and electric power at work sites that lack grid supply. The performances of utility vehicles designed with conventional architectures (spark ignition engine for propulsion and a motor generator for electric power) and with a fuel cell/battery architectures, are compared over a range of vehicle missions. Results indicate that fuel cell/battery hybrid systems are lighter than conventional systems for missions requiring short driving distances and work site power levels exceeding 10 kW. Conventional spark ignition engine/gen-set power systems are lighter for missions requiring more than 1 hour of driving and less than 10 kW of work site power. Fuel cell/battery systems are more efficient than spark ignition engine/gen-set systems for all missions. 7 figs., 3 tabs., 20 refs

  3. Comparative Field Tests of Pressurised Rover Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G. A.; Wood, N. B.; Clarke, J. D.; Piechochinski, S.; Bamsey, M.; Laing, J. H.

    The conceptual designs, interior layouts and operational performances of three pressurised rover prototypes - Aonia, ARES and Everest - were field tested during a recent simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. A human factors experiment, in which the same crew of three executed the same simulated science mission in each of the three vehicles, yielded comparative data on the capacity of each vehicle to safely and comfortably carry explorers away from the main base, enter and exit the vehicle in spacesuits, perform science tasks in the field, and manage geological and biological samples. As well as offering recommendations for design improvements for specific vehicles, the results suggest that a conventional Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) would not be suitable for analog field work; that a pressurised docking tunnel to the main habitat is essential; that better provisions for spacesuit storage are required; and that a crew consisting of one driver/navigator and two field science crew specialists may be optimal. From a field operations viewpoint, a recurring conflict between rover and habitat crews at the time of return to the habitat was observed. An analysis of these incidents leads to proposed refinements of operational protocols, specific crew training for rover returns and again points to the need for a pressurised docking tunnel. Sound field testing, circulating of results, and building the lessons learned into new vehicles is advocated as a way of producing ever higher fidelity rover analogues.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography studies with [11C]PBR28 in the Healthy Rodent Brain: Validating SUV as an Outcome Measure of Neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Miklós; Doorduin, Janine; Häggkvist, Jenny; Varrone, Andrea; Amini, Nahid; Halldin, Christer; Gulyás, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging of the 18 kD Translocator protein (TSPO) with positron emission tomography (PET) is of great value for studying neuroinflammation in rodents longitudinally. Quantification of the TSPO in rodents is, however, quite challenging. There is no suitable reference region and the use of plasma-derived input is not an option for longitudinal studies. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the use of the standardized uptake value (SUV) as an outcome measure for TSPO imaging in rodent brain PET studies, using [11C]PBR28. In the first part of the study, healthy male Wistar rats (n = 4) were used to determine the correlation between the distribution volume (VT, calculated with Logan graphical analysis) and the SUV. In the second part, healthy male Wistar rats (n = 4) and healthy male C57BL/6J mice (n = 4), were used to determine the test-retest variability of the SUV, with a 7-day interval between measurements. Dynamic PET scans of 63 minutes were acquired with a nanoScan PET/MRI and nanoScan PET/CT. An MRI scan was made for anatomical reference with each measurement. The whole brain VT of [11C]PBR28 in rats was 42.9 ± 1.7. A statistically significant correlation (r2 = 0.96; p < 0.01) was found between the VT and the SUV. The test-retest variability in 8 brain region ranged from 8 to 20% in rats and from 7 to 23% in mice. The interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was acceptable to excellent for rats, but poor to acceptable for mice. The SUV of [11C]PBR28 showed a high correlation with VT as well as good test-retest variability. For future longitudinal small animal PET studies the SUV can thus be used to describe [11C]PBR28 uptake in healthy brain tissue. Based on the present observations, further studies are needed to explore the applicability of this approach in small animal disease models, with special regard to neuroinflammatory models.

  5. The Mediterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) Project: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    The EC FP7 MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) EC-FP7 Project, which started on June 2013, aims to improve the capacity of the scientific institutions, end users and SME forming the project consortium to assess the volcanic hazards at Italian Supersites, i.e. Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius. The Project activities will focus on the optimisation and integration of ground and space monitoring systems, the breakthrough in understanding of volcanic processes, and on the increase of the effectiveness of the coordination between the scientific and end-user communities in the hazard management. The overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Supersites GEO initiative to Mt. Etna and Campi Flegrei/Vesuvius, considered as cluster of Supersites. For the purpose MED-SUV will integrate long-term observations of ground-based multidisciplinary data available for these volcanoes, i.e. geophysical, geochemical, and volcanological datasets, with Earth Observation (EO) data. Merging of different parameters over a long period will provide better understanding of the volcanic processes. In particular, given the variety of styles and intensities of the volcanic activity observed at these volcanoes, and which make them sort of archetypes for 'closed conduit ' and 'open conduit' volcanic systems, the combination of different data will allow discrimination between peculiar volcano behaviours associated with pre-, syn- and post-eruptive phases. Indeed, recognition of specific volcano patterns will allow broadening of the spectrum of knowledge of geo-hazards, as well as better parameterisation and modelling of the eruptive phenomena and of the processes occurring in the volcano supply system; thus improving the capability of carrying out volcano surveillance activities. Important impacts on the European industrial sector, arising from a partnership integrating the scientific community and SMEs to implement together new observation/monitoring sensors/systems, are

  6. Commuting, Exercise and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....

  7. Advanced PEFC development for fuel cell powered vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatsu, Shigeyuki

    Vehicles equipped with fuel cells have been developed with much progress. Outcomes of such development efforts include a Toyota fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) using hydrogen as the fuel which was developed and introduced in 1996, followed by another Toyota FCEV using methanol as the fuel, developed and introduced in 1997. In those Toyota FCEVs, a fuel cell system is installed under the floor of each RAV4L, to sports utility vehicle. It has been found that the CO concentration in the reformed gas of methanol reformer can be reduced to 100 ppm in wide ranges of catalyst temperature and gas flow rate, by using the ruthenium (Ru) catalyst as the CO selective oxidizer, instead of the platinum (Pt) catalyst known from some time ago. It has been also found that a fuel cell performance equivalent to that with pure hydrogen can be ensured even in the reformed gas with the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration of 100 ppm, by using the Pt-Ru (platinum ruthenium alloy) electrocatalyst as the anode electrocatalyst of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), instead of the Pt electrocatalyst known from some time ago.

  8. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  9. Feasibility and performance of novel software to quantify metabolically active volumes and 3D partial volume corrected SUV and metabolic volumetric products of spinal bone marrow metastases on 18F-FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torigian, Drew A; Lopez, Rosa Fernandez; Alapati, Sridevi; Bodapati, Geetha; Hofheinz, Frank; van den Hoff, Joerg; Saboury, Babak; Alavi, Abass

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to assess feasibility and performance of novel semi-automated image analysis software called ROVER to quantify metabolically active volume (MAV), maximum standardized uptake value-maximum (SUV(max)), 3D partial volume corrected mean SUV (cSUV(mean)), and 3D partial volume corrected mean MVP (cMVP(mean)) of spinal bone marrow metastases on fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computerized tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT). We retrospectively studied 16 subjects with 31 spinal metastases on FDG-PET/CT and MRI. Manual and ROVER determinations of lesional MAV and SUV(max), and repeated ROVER measurements of MAV, SUV(max), cSUV(mean) and cMVP(mean) were made. Bland-Altman and correlation analyses were performed to assess reproducibility and agreement. Our results showed that analyses of repeated ROVER measurements revealed MAV mean difference (D)=-0.03±0.53cc (95% CI(-0.22, 0.16)), lower limit of agreement (LLOA)=-1.07cc, and upper limit of agreement (ULOA)=1.01cc; SUV(max) D=0.00±0.00 with LOAs=0.00; cSUV(mean) D=-0.01±0.39 (95% CI(-0.15, 0.13)), LLOA=-0.76, and ULOA=0.75; cMVP(mean) D=-0.52±4.78cc (95% CI(-2.23, 1.23)), LLOA=-9.89cc, and ULOA=8.86cc. Comparisons between ROVER and manual measurements revealed volume D= -0.39±1.37cc (95% CI (-0.89, 0.11)), LLOA=-3.08cc, and ULOA=2.30cc; SUV(max) D=0.00±0.00 with LOAs=0.00. Mean percent increase in lesional SUV(mean) and MVP(mean) following partial volume correction using ROVER was 84.25±36.00% and 84.45±35.94% , respectively. In conclusion, it is feasible to estimate MAV, SUV(max), cSUV(mean), and cMVP(mean) of spinal bone marrow metastases from (18)F-FDG-PET/CT quickly and easily with good reproducibility via ROVER software. Partial volume correction is imperative, as uncorrected SUV(mean) and MVP(mean) are significantly underestimated, even for large lesions. This novel approach has great potential for practical, accurate, and precise combined structural-functional PET

  10. Salt tolerant SUV3 overexpressing transgenic rice plants conserve physicochemical properties and microbial communities of rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ranjan K; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Key concerns in the ecological evaluation of GM crops are undesirably spread, gene flow, other environmental impacts, and consequences on soil microorganism's biodiversity. Numerous reports have highlighted the effects of transgenic plants on the physiology of non-targeted rhizospheric microbes and the food chain via causing adverse effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop transgenics with insignificant toxic on environmental health. In the present study, SUV3 overexpressing salt tolerant transgenic rice evaluated in New Delhi and Cuttack soil conditions for their effects on physicochemical and biological properties of rhizosphere. Its cultivation does not affect soil properties viz., pH, Eh, organic C, P, K, N, Ca, Mg, S, Na and Fe(2+). Additionally, SUV3 rice plants do not cause any change in the phenotype, species characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of rhizospheric bacteria. The population and/or number of soil organisms such as bacteria, fungi and nematodes were unchanged in the soil. Also, the activity of bacterial enzymes viz., dehydrogenase, invertase, phenol oxidases, acid phosphatases, ureases and proteases was not significantly affected. Further, plant growth promotion (PGP) functions of bacteria such as siderophore, HCN, salicylic acid, IAA, GA, zeatin, ABA, NH3, phosphorus metabolism, ACC deaminase and iron tolerance were, considerably, not influenced. The present findings suggest ecologically pertinent of salt tolerant SUV3 rice to sustain the health and usual functions of the rhizospheric organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The CT Findings and the Peak SUV on PET/CT according to the Levels of Cyfra 21-1 and CEA in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Sung Shick; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Park, Jeong Mi; Park, Jai Soung; Hwang, Jung Hwa

    2009-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the CT findings and the peak SUV according to the levels of cyfra 21-1 and CEA in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We evaluated the TNM staging, cell types, the CT findings and peak SUV of the NSCLC in 234 patients with NSCLC according to the tumor marker levels. The correlations of the CT findings and the peak SUV with the tumor markers were evaluated in 35 patients with stage I disease. The sensitivities of the combined tumor markers cyfra 21-1 and CEA in the NSCLC for each TNM staging (I-IV) were 48.5%, 66.7%, 78.3% and 84.3%, respectively (p<0.05). Cyfra 21-1 was more sensitive for squamous cell carcinoma and CEA was more sensitive for adenocarcinoma. The tumor size, tumor necrosis and peak SUV were greater in the NSCLC with an elevated cyfra 21-1 level than that in the NSCLC without an elevated cyfra 21-1 level (p<0.05). For stage I disease, the level of cyfra 21-1 was linearly correlated with the tumor size (r=0.54) and the peak SUV (r=0.46), and the level of CEA was high in the spiculated masses (p<0.05). The NSCLC with an elevated cyfra 21-1 level shows larger, more frequently necrosis and a higher peak SUV than the NSCLC without an elevated Cyfra 21-1 level. For stage 1 disease, the tumor size and peak SUV correlate with the level of cyfra 21-1, and spiculated masses show an elevated level of CEA

  12. The CT Findings and the Peak SUV on PET/CT according to the Levels of Cyfra 21-1 and CEA in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jou, Sung Shick; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Hyung Hwan [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Mi; Park, Jai Soung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jung Hwa [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    We wanted to evaluate the CT findings and the peak SUV according to the levels of cyfra 21-1 and CEA in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We evaluated the TNM staging, cell types, the CT findings and peak SUV of the NSCLC in 234 patients with NSCLC according to the tumor marker levels. The correlations of the CT findings and the peak SUV with the tumor markers were evaluated in 35 patients with stage I disease. The sensitivities of the combined tumor markers cyfra 21-1 and CEA in the NSCLC for each TNM staging (I-IV) were 48.5%, 66.7%, 78.3% and 84.3%, respectively (p<0.05). Cyfra 21-1 was more sensitive for squamous cell carcinoma and CEA was more sensitive for adenocarcinoma. The tumor size, tumor necrosis and peak SUV were greater in the NSCLC with an elevated cyfra 21-1 level than that in the NSCLC without an elevated cyfra 21-1 level (p<0.05). For stage I disease, the level of cyfra 21-1 was linearly correlated with the tumor size (r=0.54) and the peak SUV (r=0.46), and the level of CEA was high in the spiculated masses (p<0.05). The NSCLC with an elevated cyfra 21-1 level shows larger, more frequently necrosis and a higher peak SUV than the NSCLC without an elevated Cyfra 21-1 level. For stage 1 disease, the tumor size and peak SUV correlate with the level of cyfra 21-1, and spiculated masses show an elevated level of CEA.

  13. SU-D-9A-02: Relative Effects of Threshold Choice and Spatial Resolution Modeling On SUV and Volume Quantification in F18-FDG PET Imaging of Anal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Shandong Cancer Hospital and Insititute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Bowsher, J; Palta, M; Czito, B; Willett, C; Yin, F [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: PET imaging with F18-FDG is utilized for treatment planning, treatment assessment, and prognosis. A region of interest (ROI) encompassing the tumor may be determined on the PET image, often by a threshold T on the PET standard uptake values (SUVs). Several studies have shown prognostic value for relevant ROI properties including maximum SUV value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total glycolytic activity (TGA). The choice of threshold T may affect mean SUV value (SUVmean), MTV, and TGA. Recently spatial resolution modeling (SRM) has been introduced on many PET systems. SRM may also affect these ROI properties. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relative influence of SRM and threshold choice T on SUVmean, MTV, TGA, and SUVmax. Methods: For 9 anal cancer patients, 18F-FDG PET scans were performed prior to treatment. PET images were reconstructed by 2 iterations of Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM), with and without SRM. ROI contours were generated by 5 different SUV threshold values T: 2.5, 3.0, 30%, 40%, and 50% of SUVmax. Paired-samples t tests were used to compare SUVmean, MTV, and TGA (a) for SRM on versus off and (b) between each pair of threshold values T. SUVmax was also compared for SRM on versus off. Results: For almost all (57/60) comparisons of 2 different threshold values, SUVmean, MTV, and TGA showed statistically significant variation. For comparison of SRM on versus off, there were no statistically significant changes in SUVmax and TGA, but there were statistically significant changes in MTV for T=2.5 and T=3.0 and in SUVmean for all T. Conclusion: The near-universal statistical significance of threshold choice T suggests that, regarding harmonization across sites, threshold choice may be a greater concern than choice of SRM. However, broader study is warranted, e.g. other iterations of OSEM should be considered.

  14. SU-D-9A-02: Relative Effects of Threshold Choice and Spatial Resolution Modeling On SUV and Volume Quantification in F18-FDG PET Imaging of Anal Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, F; Bowsher, J; Palta, M; Czito, B; Willett, C; Yin, F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: PET imaging with F18-FDG is utilized for treatment planning, treatment assessment, and prognosis. A region of interest (ROI) encompassing the tumor may be determined on the PET image, often by a threshold T on the PET standard uptake values (SUVs). Several studies have shown prognostic value for relevant ROI properties including maximum SUV value (SUVmax), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total glycolytic activity (TGA). The choice of threshold T may affect mean SUV value (SUVmean), MTV, and TGA. Recently spatial resolution modeling (SRM) has been introduced on many PET systems. SRM may also affect these ROI properties. The purpose of this work is to investigate the relative influence of SRM and threshold choice T on SUVmean, MTV, TGA, and SUVmax. Methods: For 9 anal cancer patients, 18F-FDG PET scans were performed prior to treatment. PET images were reconstructed by 2 iterations of Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM), with and without SRM. ROI contours were generated by 5 different SUV threshold values T: 2.5, 3.0, 30%, 40%, and 50% of SUVmax. Paired-samples t tests were used to compare SUVmean, MTV, and TGA (a) for SRM on versus off and (b) between each pair of threshold values T. SUVmax was also compared for SRM on versus off. Results: For almost all (57/60) comparisons of 2 different threshold values, SUVmean, MTV, and TGA showed statistically significant variation. For comparison of SRM on versus off, there were no statistically significant changes in SUVmax and TGA, but there were statistically significant changes in MTV for T=2.5 and T=3.0 and in SUVmean for all T. Conclusion: The near-universal statistical significance of threshold choice T suggests that, regarding harmonization across sites, threshold choice may be a greater concern than choice of SRM. However, broader study is warranted, e.g. other iterations of OSEM should be considered

  15. Study questions environmental impact of fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-cell electric vehicles are seen by many as an environmentally friendly technology that can reduce greenhousegas emissions by producing no harmful emissions. But a new study has found that overall a fuel cell electric vehicle has about the same negative environmental impact as a luxury sports car.

  16. Methods for diagnosing the level of preparedness of future specialists of physical education and sports unto the organization labour staff of youth sports school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepletchikov D.A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical questions of determination of level of readiness of future specialists are examined to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The plan of creation of structural functional model of readiness of specialists is presented to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. Procedure of determination of specific gravity of factors of professional readiness of specialists is described to organization of activity of child's sporting schools. The qualimetry vehicle of determination of level of their professional readiness is given. The general view of form of expert estimation of this readiness is presented.

  17. Utilizing the energy from induced wind produce by highway vehicle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Tong, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    A research work has been conducted at the Faculty of mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to utilize energy from airflow induced by moving vehicles along the highway for advertising and signboard lighting. Series of data collections have been made at Km 20 Johor Bahru - Kuala Lumpur Plus Highway. Wind anemometer equipped with data recorder has been placed at the highway divider to measure the wind speed induced by the vehicles moving from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur and vice versa. From the data analysis it has been found that the to and from Kuala Lumpur motion of the vehicles induced a stable and continuous source of airflow (wind) ranges from 2 to 4 m/s. The energy in this induced wind has been estimated and has the potential to be used for the above said purpose. Five design models have been tested in the Faculty of mechanical Engineering Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the twisted vertical blades with circular end covers has proven to be the most efficient and suitable. The optimum sizing of the vertical axis wind turbine has also been determined. The details of the collection of wind induced data and analysis, estimation of energy content, the vertical axis wind turbine models testing and results are presented in this paper. (Author)

  18. Attitude towards materialism in sport and materialism tendencies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In today's media-rich world sport celebrities are viewed as potential role models and are often used as marketing vehicles. ... force on society in that tertiary education is correlated with a higher earning potential and a higher social class status.

  19. Analysis of Sport Management Literature: European Sport Management Quarterly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Pitts

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A profession must be built upon a sound body of knowledge in order for its professional status to be recognized and considered credible by society (Zeigler, 1987. The body of literature should also reflect and define the field (Fielding, Pitts, & Miller, 1991. To that end, examining the state of a body of literature is essential as the findings can reveal such significant information as content, trends, author collaboration, and topical gaps and disparities. The purpose of this study was to examine the European Sport Management Quarterly and its predecessor the European Journal for Sport Management. A content analysis of the journal from 1994 to 2012 was the methodology employed. Results determined that a vast majority of the papers are in four content areas – “Management and Organizational Skills in Sport”, “Sport Business in the Social Context”, “Sport Marketing”, and “Sport Economics”. Sport business industry segments as a focus of the papers stayed relatively the same over the years, although “International Sport” increased much more than any other industry segment. The gender focus of the articles was primarily male, and the authorship and editorial membership was also male-focused. The geographical dispersion of both authors and editorial review board members has broadened over time to be less European. Academics may find information from this study useful in developing strategies and lines of inquiry in research agendas. As well, editors of journals may utilize the findings to plan strategies related to addressing gaps or disparities.

  20. Methylotroph cloning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R.S.; Allen, L.N.

    1989-04-25

    A cloning vehicle comprising: a replication determinant effective for replicating the vehicle in a non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host and in a C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA effective to allow the vehicle to be mobilized from the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing host to the C[sub 1]-utilizing host; DNA providing resistance to two antibiotics to which the wild-type C[sub 1]-utilizing host is susceptible, each of the antibiotic resistance markers having a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease; a cos site; and a means for preventing replication in the C[sub 1]-utilizing host. The vehicle is used for complementation mapping as follows. DNA comprising a gene from the C[sub 1]-utilizing organism is inserted at the restriction nuclease recognition site, inactivating the antibiotic resistance marker at that site. The vehicle can then be used to form a cosmid structure to infect the non-C[sub 1]-utilizing (e.g., E. coli) host, and then conjugated with a selected C[sub 1]-utilizing mutant. Resistance to the other antibiotic by the mutant is a marker of the conjugation. Other phenotypical changes in the mutant, e.g., loss of an auxotrophic trait, is attributed to the C[sub 1] gene. The vector is also used to inactivate genes whose protein products catalyze side reactions that divert compounds from a biosynthetic pathway to a desired product, thereby producing an organism that makes the desired product in higher yields. 3 figs.

  1. 75 FR 58077 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are conducting a joint rulemaking to redesign and add information to the current fuel economy label that is posted on the window sticker of all new cars and light- duty trucks sold in the U.S. The redesigned label will provide new information to American consumers about the fuel economy and consumption, fuel costs, and environmental impacts associated with purchasing new vehicles beginning with model year 2012 cars and trucks. This action will also develop new labels for certain advanced technology vehicles, which are poised to enter the U.S. market, in particular plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles. NHTSA and EPA are proposing these changes because the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 imposes several new labeling requirements, because the agencies believe that the current labels can be improved to help consumers make more informed vehicle purchase decisions, and because the time is right to develop new labels for advanced technology vehicles that are being commercialized. This proposal is also consistent with the recent joint rulemaking by EPA and NHTSA that established harmonized federal greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for new cars, sport utility vehicles, minivans, and pickup trucks for model years 2012-2016.

  2. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged.

  3. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A.; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged. PMID:29708114

  4. Bumper and grille airbags concept for enhanced vehicle compatibility in side impact: phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat, Saeed; Li, Xiaowei; Prasad, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental physics and numerous field studies have shown a higher injury and fatality risk for occupants in smaller and lighter vehicles when struck by heavier, taller and higher vehicles. The consensus is that the significant parameters influencing compatibility in front-to-side crashes are geometric interaction, vehicle stiffness, and vehicle mass. The objective of this research is to develop a concept of deployable bumper and grille airbags for improved vehicle compatibility in side impact. The external airbags, deployed upon signals from sensors, may help mitigate the effect of weight, geometry and stiffness differences and reduce side intrusions. However, a highly reliable pre-crash sensing system is required to enable the reliable deployment, which is currently not technologically feasible. Analytical and numerical methods and hardware testing were used to help develop the deployable external airbags concept. Various Finite Element (FE) models at different stages were developed and an extensive number of iterations were conducted to help optimize airbag and inflator parameters to achieve desired targets. The concept development was executed and validated in two phases. This paper covers Phase II ONLY, which includes: (1) Re-design of the airbag geometry, pressure, and deployment strategies; (2) Further validation using a Via sled test of a 48 kph perpendicular side impact of an SUV-type impactor against a stationary car with US-SID-H3 crash dummy in the struck side; (3) Design of the reaction surface necessary for the bumper airbag functionality. The concept was demonstrated through live deployment of external airbags with a reaction surface in a full-scale perpendicular side impact of an SUV against a stationary passenger car at 48 kph. This research investigated only the concept of the inflatable devices since pre-crash sensing development was beyond the scope of this research. The concept design parameters of the bumper and grille airbags are presented in

  5. Textural features and SUV-based variables assessed by dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in locally advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vicente, Ana María; Molina, David; Pérez-Beteta, Julián; Amo-Salas, Mariano; Martínez-González, Alicia; Bueno, Gloria; Tello-Galán, María Jesús; Soriano-Castrejón, Ángel

    2017-12-01

    To study the influence of dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT in textural features and SUV-based variables and their relation among them. Fifty-six patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were prospectively included. All of them underwent a standard 18F-FDG PET/CT (PET-1) and a delayed acquisition (PET-2). After segmentation, SUV variables (SUVmax, SUVmean, and SUVpeak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were obtained. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) textural measures were computed including: run-length matrices (RLM) features, co-occurrence matrices (CM) features, and energies. Differences between all PET-derived variables obtained in PET-1 and PET-2 were studied. Significant differences were found between the SUV-based parameters and MTV obtained in the dual time point PET/CT, with higher values of SUV-based variables and lower MTV in the PET-2 with respect to the PET-1. In relation with the textural parameters obtained in dual time point acquisition, significant differences were found for the short run emphasis, low gray-level run emphasis, short run high gray-level emphasis, run percentage, long run emphasis, gray-level non-uniformity, homogeneity, and dissimilarity. Textural variables showed relations with MTV and TLG. Significant differences of textural features were found in dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT. Thus, a dynamic behavior of metabolic characteristics should be expected, with higher heterogeneity in delayed PET acquisition compared with the standard PET. A greater heterogeneity was found in bigger tumors.

  6. A literature review of sports-related orofacial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, David P; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    This literature review evaluates the significance of dental injuries and their relationship to specific sports activities. Many studies have been published on individual sports or groups of sports but most pertain to specific age groups or levels of competition. Research suggests that many sports that do not require mouthguards should encourage male and female participants to use orofacial protectors. Athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic trainers, parents, and members of the dental community should be aware of how individuals who participate in sporting activities are at risk for dental trauma. Any sport where the potential for dental trauma can exist (such as basketball, soccer, or wrestling) should consider utilizing mouthguards to protect the competitors. The establishment of mouthguard programs for athletes of all ages, genders, and sports may help to reduce the incidence of dental trauma. A sports-related, orofacial/dental trauma reporting system is considered.

  7. Suv4-20h histone methyltransferases promote neuroectodermal differentiation by silencing the pluripotency-associated Oct-25 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Nicetto

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications (PTMs of histones exert fundamental roles in regulating gene expression. During development, groups of PTMs are constrained by unknown mechanisms into combinatorial patterns, which facilitate transitions from uncommitted embryonic cells into differentiated somatic cell lineages. Repressive histone modifications such as H3K9me3 or H3K27me3 have been investigated in detail, but the role of H4K20me3 in development is currently unknown. Here we show that Xenopus laevis Suv4-20h1 and h2 histone methyltransferases (HMTases are essential for induction and differentiation of the neuroectoderm. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of the two HMTases leads to a selective and specific downregulation of genes controlling neural induction, thereby effectively blocking differentiation of the neuroectoderm. Global transcriptome analysis supports the notion that these effects arise from the transcriptional deregulation of specific genes rather than widespread, pleiotropic effects. Interestingly, morphant embryos fail to repress the Oct4-related Xenopus gene Oct-25. We validate Oct-25 as a direct target of xSu4-20h enzyme mediated gene repression, showing by chromatin immunoprecipitaton that it is decorated with the H4K20me3 mark downstream of the promoter in normal, but not in double-morphant, embryos. Since knockdown of Oct-25 protein significantly rescues the neural differentiation defect in xSuv4-20h double-morphant embryos, we conclude that the epistatic relationship between Suv4-20h enzymes and Oct-25 controls the transit from pluripotent to differentiation-competent neural cells. Consistent with these results in Xenopus, murine Suv4-20h1/h2 double-knockout embryonic stem (DKO ES cells exhibit increased Oct4 protein levels before and during EB formation, and reveal a compromised and biased capacity for in vitro differentiation, when compared to normal ES cells. Together, these results suggest a regulatory mechanism, conserved

  8. Sport and recreation participation preferences in the Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport and recreation are used as vehicles to create military readiness. Botswana Defence Force (BDF) soldiers are constantly deployed to border posts and other areas where their missions involve anti-poaching activities, disaster management and foreign peace-keeping. When not deployed, they reside with their families ...

  9. Seasonal variation in orthopedic health services utilization in Switzerland: the impact of winter sport tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Widmer, Marcel; Busato, André

    2006-03-03

    Climate- or holiday-related seasonality in hospital admission rates is well known for many diseases. However, little research has addressed the impact of tourism on seasonality in admission rates. We therefore investigated the influence of tourism on emergency admission rates in Switzerland, where winter and summer leisure sport activities in large mountain regions can generate orthopedic injuries. Using small area analysis, orthopedic hospital service areas (HSAo) were evaluated for seasonality in emergency admission rates. Winter sport areas were defined using guest bed accommodation rate patterns of guest houses and hotels located above 1000 meters altitude that show clear winter and summer peak seasons. Emergency admissions (years 2000-2002, n = 135'460) of local and nonlocal HSAo residents were evaluated. HSAo were grouped according to their area type (regular or winter sport area) and monthly analyses of admission rates were performed. Of HSAo within the defined winter sport areas 70.8% show a seasonal, summer-winter peak hospital admission rate pattern and only 1 HSAo outside the defined winter sport areas shows such a pattern. Seasonal hospital admission rates in HSAo in winter sport areas can be up to 4 times higher in winter than the intermediate seasons, and they are almost entirely due to admissions of nonlocal residents. These nonlocal residents are in general -and especially in winter- younger than local residents, and nonlocal residents have a shorter length of stay in winter sport than in regular areas. The overall geographic distribution of nonlocal residents admitted for emergencies shows highest rates during the winter as well as the summer in the winter sport areas. Small area analysis using orthopedic hospital service areas is a reliable method for the evaluation of seasonality in hospital admission rates. In Switzerland, HSAo defined as winter sport areas show a clear seasonal fluctuation in admission rates of only nonlocal residents, whereas

  10. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Darshan P.; Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Majercik, Sarah D.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Craig, James R.; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...

  11. Sport photojournalism: the influence of television in printed image Fotojornalismo esportivo: a influência da televisão na imagem impressa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Boni

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the spectacularization in sport photojournalism, particularly football, a sport which is considered the “national passion”. Graphic and imagetic sources for spectacularization, formerly exclusive to television, now become utilized in printed vehicles as well. The study draws a parallel between television images and those of daily newspaper Lance!, considered the greatest sports daily in the country. It is detected that television images are influential over those of Lance!. Este artigo discute a espetacularização no fotojornalismo esportivo, especialmente no futebol, esporte considerado a “paixão nacional”. Recursos gráficos e imagéticos de espetacularização, antes exclusividade da televisão, passam a ser utilizados também pelos veículos impressos. O estudo traça um paralelo entre as imagens televisivas e as do jornal diário Lance!, considerado o maior diário esportivo do país. Detecta que as imagens televisivas exercem influência sobre as do Lance!.

  12. Optimizing Waste Heat Utilization in Vehicle Bio-Methane Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Current vehicle bio-methane plants have drawbacks associated with high energy consumption and low recovery levels of waste heat produced during the gasification process. In this paper, we have optimized the performance of heat exchange networks using pinch analysis and through the introduction of heat pump integration technology. Optimal results for the heat exchange network of a bio-gas system producing 10,000 cubic meters have been calculated using a pinch point temperature of 50 °C, a minimum heating utility load of 234.02 kW and a minimum cooling utility load of 201.25 kW. These optimal parameters are predicted to result in energy savings of 116.08 kW (19.75%, whilst the introduction of new heat pump integration technology would afford further energy savings of 95.55 kW (16.25%. The combined energy saving value of 211.63 kW corresponds to a total energy saving of 36%, with economic analysis revealing that these reforms would give annual savings of 103,300 USD. The installation costs required to introduce these process modifications are predicted to require an initial investment of 423,200 USD, which would take 4.1 years to reach payout time based on predicted annual energy savings.

  13. Investigations on the braking safety of utility vehicles with retarders; Untersuchungen zur Bremssicherheit von Nutzfahrzeugen mit Retardern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittius, R.

    1996-12-31

    When the use of retarders in utility vehicles increased in the middle of the 80s, the Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik (FAT) commissioned a study on the safety aspect of this braking technology in trucks. Retarders are wear-free permanent brakes that are fitted in the drive transmission system of utility vehicles, thereby generating braking forces only at the wheels of the live shaft. The question of the possible overbraking of the live shafts was just as well investigated as the interaction between the retarder and service brake in so-called integrated braking systems, and both under conditions of low adhesion as well as in the border area of the dynamics of vehicle movement. This subject met with considerable joint interest on the part of the motor vehicle industry as well as of manufacturers of towed vehicles and unit sets. FAT, therefore, commissioned the Institut fuer Kraftfahrwesen of the University of Hannover to carry out a three-phase research project on the braking behaviour and dynamics of vehicle movement of two-axle, single vehicles as well as of two- and three-part trailer trains equipped with retarders. (orig.) [Deutsch] Als Mitte der 80er Jahre der Einsatz von Retardern in Nutzfahrzeugen zunahm, hat die Forschungsvereinigung Automobiltechnik e.V. (FAT) den Sicherheitsaspekt dieser Bremstechnik im Lastzug untersuchen lassen. Retarder sind verschleissfreie Dauerbremsen, die im Triebstrang von Nutzfahrzeugen eingebaut werden und somit Bremskraefte nur an den Raedern der Antriebsachsen erzeugen. Die Frage einer moeglichen Ueberbremsung der Antriebsachsen sollte ebenso untersucht werden wie die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Retarder und Betriebsbremsanlage in sogenannten integrierten Bremssystemen, und zwar sowohl bei niedrigen Kraftschlussbdingungen als auch im fahrdynamischen Grenzbereich. An dieser Thematik bestand ein erhebliches gemeinsames Interesse der Motorwagenindustrie sowie der Anhaenger- und Aggregathersteller. Die FAT hat deshalb das

  14. Sports-related concussions and the Louisiana Youth Concussion Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Goldman, Rose; Testa, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Concussion, also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), is defined as a "complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces." Various symptoms may be observed in patients with concussions. All of these might not be evident at the time of the injury and be intermittent in their nature. It is estimated that 300,000 of the yearly TBIs in the United States are sports-related, the second leading cause for TBIs after motor vehicle accidents among people aged 15 to 24 years old. Due to some recently reported high profile injuries and deaths of sports personalities, sports-related concussion has seen increasing media and public interest in the last decade. We review the role of football in youth concussions and analyze the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2007 to 2009 to elucidate the outcome and costs associated with sports-related concussions of the youth in the United States. We also review the latest state legislative efforts to decrease the incidence of dangerous sports-related concussions in youth--the Louisiana Youth Concussion Act.

  15. Correcting for respiratory motion in liver PET/MRI: preliminary evaluation of the utility of bellows and navigated hepatobiliary phase imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, Thomas A.; Verdin, Emily F.; Bergsland, Emily K.; Ohliger, Michael A.; Corvera, Carlos University; Nakakura, Eric K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of bellows-based respiratory compensation and navigated hepatobiliary phase imaging to correct for respiratory motion in the setting of dedicated liver PET/MRI. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Six patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor were imaged using Ga-68 DOTA-TOC PET/MRI. Whole body imaging and a dedicated 15-min liver PET acquisition was performed, in addition to navigated and breath-held hepatobiliary phase (HBP) MRI. Liver PET data was reconstructed three ways: the entire data set (liver PET), gated using respiratory bellows (RC-liver PET), and a non-gated data set reconstructed using the same amount of data used in the RC-liver PET (shortened liver PET). Liver lesions were evaluated using SUV max , SUV peak , SUV mean , and Vol isocontour . Additionally, the displacement of each lesion between the RC-liver PET images and the navigated and breath-held HBP images was calculated. Respiratory compensation resulted in a 43 % increase in SUVs compared to ungated data (liver vs RC-liver PET SUV max 26.0 vs 37.3, p < 0.001) and a 25 % increase compared to a non-gated reconstruction using the same amount of data (RC-liver vs shortened liver PET SUV max 26.0 vs 32.6, p < 0.001). Lesion displacement was minimized using navigated HBP MRI (1.3 ± 1.0 mm) compared to breath-held HBP MRI (23.3 ± 1.0 mm). Respiratory bellows can provide accurate respiratory compensation when imaging liver lesions using PET/MRI, and results in increased SUVs due to a combination of increased image noise and reduced respiratory blurring. Additionally, navigated HBP MRI accurately aligns with respiratory compensated PET data.

  16. Correcting for respiratory motion in liver PET/MRI: preliminary evaluation of the utility of bellows and navigated hepatobiliary phase imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hope, Thomas A. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Verdin, Emily F. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Bergsland, Emily K. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ohliger, Michael A. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA (United States); Corvera, Carlos University; Nakakura, Eric K. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2015-09-18

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of bellows-based respiratory compensation and navigated hepatobiliary phase imaging to correct for respiratory motion in the setting of dedicated liver PET/MRI. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained. Six patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor were imaged using Ga-68 DOTA-TOC PET/MRI. Whole body imaging and a dedicated 15-min liver PET acquisition was performed, in addition to navigated and breath-held hepatobiliary phase (HBP) MRI. Liver PET data was reconstructed three ways: the entire data set (liver PET), gated using respiratory bellows (RC-liver PET), and a non-gated data set reconstructed using the same amount of data used in the RC-liver PET (shortened liver PET). Liver lesions were evaluated using SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, SUV{sub mean}, and Vol{sub isocontour}. Additionally, the displacement of each lesion between the RC-liver PET images and the navigated and breath-held HBP images was calculated. Respiratory compensation resulted in a 43 % increase in SUVs compared to ungated data (liver vs RC-liver PET SUV{sub max} 26.0 vs 37.3, p < 0.001) and a 25 % increase compared to a non-gated reconstruction using the same amount of data (RC-liver vs shortened liver PET SUV{sub max} 26.0 vs 32.6, p < 0.001). Lesion displacement was minimized using navigated HBP MRI (1.3 ± 1.0 mm) compared to breath-held HBP MRI (23.3 ± 1.0 mm). Respiratory bellows can provide accurate respiratory compensation when imaging liver lesions using PET/MRI, and results in increased SUVs due to a combination of increased image noise and reduced respiratory blurring. Additionally, navigated HBP MRI accurately aligns with respiratory compensated PET data.

  17. Development of a Real-Time Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicles (PUV via GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Development of a Real-Time-Based Smoke Belching Monitoring System for Public Utility Vehicle is designed in order to monitor smoke belchers or violators among public utility vehicles (PUV that uses diesel such as jeepneys or buses. The concept of the project is to measure the opacity of the smoke being emitted by the PUV with the use of a predesigned sensor unit incorporated by Light Dependent Resistor Sensor and Light Source facing each other, 4 inches apart. By allowing the smoke to pass through the LDR and Light Source, the desired resistance is acquired and processed by the microcontroller to obtain the Light Absorption Coefficient. This value is the basis for being a smoke belcher (If it exceeds 2.5 k. The system then sends the data (Plate Number and K -value for every one (1 hour to the Database System and to the operator with the aid of GSM Microcontroller that leads to a real time monitoring. The system is possible to implement and has a potential to be used for emission testing centers since it has the features of the commercial opacity meter which is common in emission centers to measure the smoke emitted by the diesel-fueled vehicles. This project serves as an innovation in emission testing because it monitors the smoke belchers in real-time and operators or owners of the vehicle are not required anymore to go to the emission testing center every year to renew their car registration.

  18. Ties That Bond: Youth Sport as a Vehicle for Social Identity and Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Balish, Shea M; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A

    2017-06-01

    An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social identity and PYD in youth sport. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social identity and PYD in sport. Youth engaged in recreational sport (N = 219; M age  = 11.61 years, SD = 1.39 years) completed measures of social identity and PYD in sport. The social identity measure assessed 3 dimensions including ingroup ties (IGT; perceptions of similarity, bonding, belongingness), cognitive centrality (importance of being a team member), and ingroup affect (IGA; feelings associated with group membership). A regression analysis was performed separately for 4 PYD outcomes (personal and social skills, goal setting, initiative, negative experiences) with the 3 dimensions of social identity entered as predictors. Regression analyses revealed that IGT and IGA were positively associated with personal and social skills (R 2 Adj. = .29). Further, IGT predicted initiative (R 2 Adj. = .16), whereas IGA was positively associated with goal setting (R 2 Adj. = .17) and negatively associated with negative experiences (R 2 Adj. = .08). The findings extend previous research highlighting the benefits of social identity on teammate behavior and team performance and demonstrate how social identity may contribute to PYD through sport.

  19. Incorporating kettlebells into a lower extremity sports rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumitt, Jason; En Gilpin, Hui; Brunette, Meredith; Meira, Erik P

    2010-12-01

    The primary goal of a sports rehabilitation program is to return the injured athlete back to competition as quickly and as safely as possible. Sports physical therapists utilize a variety of exercise equipment to help an athlete restore function after an injury. An injured athlete's therapeutic exercise program frequently includes the prescription of functional strengthening and power exercises during the later stages of rehabilitation. One piece of exercise equipment, the kettlebell, has gained popularity for its ability to allow the user to perform functional power exercises. The unique exercises that can be performed with kettlebells may have utility in sports physical therapy practice. This clinical suggestion outlines the clinical rationale for the inclusion of kettlebell exercises when rehabilitating an athlete with a lower extremity injury.

  20. [Medicine in sports or sport medicine?] ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M

    2001-01-01

    Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.

  1. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darshan P; Redshaw, Jeffrey D; Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, Thomas G; Erickson, Bradley A; Majercik, Sarah D; Gaither, Thomas W; Craig, James R; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M; Brant, William O; Myers, Jeremy B

    2015-07-01

    Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. We identified patients with AAST grades III-V blunt renal injuries from four level 1 trauma centres across the United States between 1/2005 and 1/2014. Patients were divided into "Sport" or "Non-sport" related groups. Outcomes included rates of hypotension (systolic blood pressure 110bpm), concomitant abdominal injury, and procedural/surgical intervention between sports and non-sports related injury. 320 patients met study criteria. 18% (59) were sports-related injuries with the most common mechanisms being skiing, snowboarding and contact sports (25%, 25%, and 24%, respectively). Median age was 24 years for sports and 30 years for non-sports related renal injuries (p=0.049). Males were more commonly involved in sports related injuries (85% vs. 72%, p=0.011). Median injury severity score was lower for sports related injuries (10 vs. 27, pinjury scale scores. Sports related trauma was more likely to be isolated without other significant injury (69% vs. 39% (psports and non-sports renal injuries (p=0.30). Sports injuries had lower transfusion (7% vs. 47%, psports vs. 18% non-sports, p=0.95). High-grade sports-related blunt renal trauma is more likely to occur in isolation without other abdominal or thoracic injuries and clinicians must have a high suspicion of renal injury with significant blows to the flank during sports activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pick-up and Delivery: A Comparison of Functional Alignments and the Impact on Customer Service and Vehicle Operator Utilization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Booher, Shawn K

    2005-01-01

    ...) to the Vehicle Operations section (LGRVO). The motivation of this initiative, more specifically referred to as Supply/Transportation Reengineering, was to streamline similar processes, and to effectively and efficiently utilize resources...

  3. Wearable Performance Devices in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan T; Kling, Scott R; Salata, Michael J; Cupp, Sean A; Sheehan, Joseph; Voos, James E

    2016-01-01

    Wearable performance devices and sensors are becoming more readily available to the general population and athletic teams. Advances in technology have allowed individual endurance athletes, sports teams, and physicians to monitor functional movements, workloads, and biometric markers to maximize performance and minimize injury. Movement sensors include pedometers, accelerometers/gyroscopes, and global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Physiologic sensors include heart rate monitors, sleep monitors, temperature sensors, and integrated sensors. The purpose of this review is to familiarize health care professionals and team physicians with the various available types of wearable sensors, discuss their current utilization, and present future applications in sports medicine. Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database. Included studies searched development, outcomes, and validation of wearable performance devices such as GPS, accelerometers, and physiologic monitors in sports. Clinical review. Level 4. Wearable sensors provide a method of monitoring real-time physiologic and movement parameters during training and competitive sports. These parameters can be used to detect position-specific patterns in movement, design more efficient sports-specific training programs for performance optimization, and screen for potential causes of injury. More recent advances in movement sensors have improved accuracy in detecting high-acceleration movements during competitive sports. Wearable devices are valuable instruments for the improvement of sports performance. Evidence for use of these devices in professional sports is still limited. Future developments are needed to establish training protocols using data from wearable devices. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Girls' Participation in Sports: An Important Tool in Teen Pregnancy Prevention. Policy Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Nancy M.

    This policy brief highlights the interrelationship between sports participation and teen pregnancy prevention, noting barriers that have prevented sports from being utilized in teen pregnancy prevention. Discrimination against girls and women in school sports persists 30 years after Congress enacted Title IX, and this prevents girls and young…

  5. 76 FR 39477 - Revisions and Additions to Motor Vehicle Fuel Economy Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are issuing a joint final rule establishing new requirements for the fuel economy and environment label that will be posted on the window sticker of all new automobiles sold in the U.S. The labeling requirements apply for model year 2013 and later vehicles with a voluntary manufacturer option for model year 2012. The labeling requirements apply to passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium duty passenger vehicles such as larger sport-utility vehicles and vans. The redesigned label provides expanded information to American consumers about new vehicle fuel economy and fuel consumption, greenhouse gas and smog-forming emissions, and projected fuel costs and savings, and also includes a smartphone interactive code that permits direct access to additional Web resources. Specific label designs are provided for gasoline, diesel, ethanol flexible fuel, compressed natural gas, electric, plug-in hybrid electric, and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. This rulemaking is in response to provisions in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 that imposed several new labeling requirements and new advanced-technology vehicles entering the market. NHTSA and EPA believe that these changes will help consumers to make more informed vehicle purchase decisions, particularly as the future automotive marketplace provides more diverse vehicle technologies from which consumers may choose. These new label requirements do not affect the methodologies that EPA uses to generate consumer fuel economy estimates, or the automaker compliance values for NHTSA's corporate average fuel economy and EPA's greenhouse gas emissions standards. This action also finalizes a number of technical corrections to EPA's light-duty greenhouse gas emission standards program.

  6. MEDiterranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED-SUV) project: state of the art and main achievements after the first 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spampinato, Letizia; Allard, Patrick; Baills, Audrey; Briole, Pierre; D'Auria, Luca; Dingwell, Donald; Martini, Marcello; Kueppers, Ulrich; Marzocchi, Warner; Minet, Christian; Vagner, Amélie

    2015-04-01

    Taking account of the valuable resources and information available for Mt. Etna, Campi Flegrei, and Vesuvius Supersites, MED-SUV aims at exploiting the huge record of geophysical, geochemical and volcanological data available for the three Supersite volcanoes and carry out experiments to fill gaps in the knowledge of the structure of these volcanoes and of the processes driving their activity. The project's activities have focused on (1) gaining new insights into the inner structure of these volcanoes; (2) evaluating the suitability of the current EO and in-situ observations to track the dynamics of the volcano supply system and/or the eruptive phenomena, (3) making the access to observations easy; (4) defining the effects of magma ascent on the stress/strain field (and vice versa); (5) assessing the capability of the Earth science community to forecast the occurrence of eruptions in terms of both location and time of an eruption; (6) optimizing the chain from observations to end-users during an eruptive event; and (7) making the project outcomes "exportable" to other European volcanic areas and elsewhere. Indeed, the overall goal of the project is to apply the rationale of the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories GEO-GEOSS initiative to the three volcanoes, in order to better assess the volcanic hazards they posed. In the first 18 months, MED-SUV consortium carried out activities relating to coordination, scientific/technological development, and dissemination. Coordination included mainly meetings organised in order to start the project and consortium activity and to strengthen the synergy with EC and international initiatives, such as geohazard activities of GEO-GEOSS, EPOS-PP and the other two FP7 Supersite projects, MARsite and FUTUREVOLC. The main scientific/technological results included the design and development of a prototype (NETVIS) for the optimization and implementation of processing tools for the analysis of Mt. Etna's camera network, design

  7. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  8. FTTS Utility Vehicle (UVI) Concept Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Branden

    2005-01-01

    Government concepts to support the future tactical truck systems (FTTS) development. This briefing explains the truck concept by describing the vehicle through major subsystem categories such as mobility, survivability, and C4I technologies...

  9. A comparison of electric vehicle integration projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Kempton, Willett

    2012-01-01

    .g. utilization of electric vehicles for ancillary services. To arrive at standardized solutions, it is helpful to analyze the market integration and utilization concepts, architectures and technologies used in a set of state-of-the art electric vehicle demonstration projects. The goal of this paper......It is widely agreed that an intelligent integration of electric vehicles can yield benefits for electric vehicle owner, power grid, and the society as a whole. Numerous electric vehicle utilization concepts have been investigated ranging from the simple e.g. delayed charging to the more advanced e...... is to highlight different approaches to electric vehicle integration in three such projects and describe the underlying technical components which should be harmonized to support interoperability and a broad set of utilization concepts. The projects investigated are the American University of Delaware's V2G...

  10. Involvement of EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a and associated molecules in pathogenesis of urethane induced mouse lung tumors: Potential targets for cancer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Manuraj; Sahay, Satya; Tiwari, Prakash; Upadhyay, Daya S.; Sultana, Sarwat; Gupta, Krishna P.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we showed the correlation of EZH2, SUV39H1 or G9a expression and histone modifications with the urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis in the presence or absence of antitumor agent, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). Tumorigenesis and the molecular events involved therein were studied at 1, 4, 12 or 36 weeks after the exposure. There were no tumors at 1 or 4 weeks but tumors started appearing at 12 weeks and grew further till 36 weeks after urethane exposure. Among the molecular events, upregulation of EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions appeared to be time dependent, but G9a expression was altered significantly only at later stages of 12 or 36 weeks. Alteration in miR-138 expression supports the upregulation of its target, EZH2. H3K9me2, H3K27me3 or H4K20me3 was found to be altered at 12 or 36 weeks. However, ChIP analysis of p16 and MLH1 promoters showed their binding with H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 which was maximum at 36 weeks. Thus, histone modification and their interactions with gene promoter resulted in the reduced expression of p16 and MLH1. IP6 prevented the incidence and the size of urethane induced lung tumors. IP6 also prevented the urethane induced alterations in EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a expressions and histone modifications. Our results suggest that the alterations in the histone modification pathways involving EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions are among the early events in urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis and could be exploited for cancer control. - Highlights: • Urethane induces mouse lung tumor in a time dependent manner. • EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a induced by urethane and progress with time • Downregulation of miRNA-138 supports the EZH2 upregulation. • Methylation of histones showed a consequence of upregulated EZH2, SUV39H1 and G9a. • IP6 inhibits urethane induced changes and prevents tumor development

  11. Involvement of EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a and associated molecules in pathogenesis of urethane induced mouse lung tumors: Potential targets for cancer control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Manuraj; Sahay, Satya; Tiwari, Prakash [Carcinogenesis Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow –226001 (India); Upadhyay, Daya S. [Laboratory Animals Services, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (India); Sultana, Sarwat [Dept. Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Krishna P., E-mail: krishnag522@yahoo.co.in [Carcinogenesis Laboratory, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow –226001 (India)

    2014-10-15

    In the present study, we showed the correlation of EZH2, SUV39H1 or G9a expression and histone modifications with the urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis in the presence or absence of antitumor agent, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6). Tumorigenesis and the molecular events involved therein were studied at 1, 4, 12 or 36 weeks after the exposure. There were no tumors at 1 or 4 weeks but tumors started appearing at 12 weeks and grew further till 36 weeks after urethane exposure. Among the molecular events, upregulation of EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions appeared to be time dependent, but G9a expression was altered significantly only at later stages of 12 or 36 weeks. Alteration in miR-138 expression supports the upregulation of its target, EZH2. H3K9me2, H3K27me3 or H4K20me3 was found to be altered at 12 or 36 weeks. However, ChIP analysis of p16 and MLH1 promoters showed their binding with H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 which was maximum at 36 weeks. Thus, histone modification and their interactions with gene promoter resulted in the reduced expression of p16 and MLH1. IP6 prevented the incidence and the size of urethane induced lung tumors. IP6 also prevented the urethane induced alterations in EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a expressions and histone modifications. Our results suggest that the alterations in the histone modification pathways involving EZH2 and SUV39H1 expressions are among the early events in urethane induced mouse lung tumorigenesis and could be exploited for cancer control. - Highlights: • Urethane induces mouse lung tumor in a time dependent manner. • EZH2, SUV39H1, G9a induced by urethane and progress with time • Downregulation of miRNA-138 supports the EZH2 upregulation. • Methylation of histones showed a consequence of upregulated EZH2, SUV39H1 and G9a. • IP6 inhibits urethane induced changes and prevents tumor development.

  12. A comparative evaluation of energy storage systems for a fuel cell vehicle. Paper no. IGEC-1-142

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.; Kazerani, M.

    2005-01-01

    The widespread operation of internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles has today become a great cause for concern due to the uncertainty of fossil fuel reserves, energy security issues, and numerous adverse environmental effects. Alternatives such as fuel cell vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and biodiesel vehicles provide the possibility to ease some or all of these concerns. The fuel cell vehicle, however, offers an excellent combination of reducing ICE vehicle problems while maintaining the performance, driving range, and convenience that consumers require. This paper documents a comparative evaluation of an extremely important facet of the fuel cell vehicle: the energy storage system (ESS). Batteries and ultracapacitors, the two most common choices for an ESS, are compared qualitatively to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each. Also, a quantitative comparison is made to choose the best technology for a small fuel cell-powered SUV having the design objectives of high performance and high efficiency. Practical issues such as availability and cost are also considered. The results of the analysis indicate that a battery ESS provides the best combination of efficiency, performance, and cost for a present-day fuel cell vehicle design. Yet, if the anticipated cost reductions and improvements in the energy storage capabilities of ultracapacitors do occur, ultracapacitors will become a very strong contender for energy storage solutions of future fuel cell vehicles. (author)

  13. Density and SUV Ratios from PET/CT in the Detection of Mediastinal Lymph Node Metastasis in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting SHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Mediastinal involvement in lung cancer is a highly significant prognostic factor for survival, and accurate staging of the mediastinum will correctly identify patients who will benefit the most from surgery. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT has become the standard imaging modality for the staging of patients with lung cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate 18-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (18F-FDG PET/CT imaging in the detection of mediastinal disease in lung cancer. Methods A total of 72 patients newly diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC who underwent preoperative whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT were retrospectively included. All patients underwent radical surgery and mediastinal lymph node dissection. Mediastinal disease was histologically confirmed in 45 of 413 lymph nodes. PET/CT doctors analyzed patients’ visual images and evaluated lymph node’s short axis, lymph node’s maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax, node/aorta density ratio, node/aorta SUV ratio, and other parameters using the histopathological results as the reference standard. The optimal cutoff value for each ratio was determined by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. Results Using a threshold of 0.9 for density ratio and 1.2 for SUV ratio yielded high accuracy for the detection of mediastinal disease. The lymph node’s short axis, lymph node’s SUVmax, density ratio, and SUV ratio of integrated PET/CT for the accuracy of diagnosing mediastinal lymph node was 95.2%. The diagnostic accuracy of mediastinal lymph node with conventional PET/CT was 89.8%, whereas that of PET/CT comprehensive analysis was 90.8%. Conclusion Node/aorta density ratio and SUV ratio may be complimentary to conventional visual interpretation and SUVmax measurement. The use of lymph node’s short axis, lymph node’s SUVmax, and both ratios in combination is better than either conventional PET/CT analysis or PET

  14. Ties That Bond: Youth Sport as a Vehicle for Social Identity and Positive Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W.; Balish, Shea M.; Forrest, Christopher; Brown, Sarah; Webber, Kristine; Gray, Emily; McGuckin, Matthew; Keats, Melanie R.; Rehman, Laurene; Shields, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    An emerging area of research has focused on understanding how the group dynamics of a sport team influence positive youth development (PYD). The identities that youth form through their membership in sport teams (i.e., social identities) have been found to influence teammate behavior and team performance. Yet, minimal work exists on social…

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Youth Club Athletes Toward Sport Specialization and Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M. Alison; Post, Eric G.; Trigsted, Stephanie M.; Schaefer, Daniel A.; Wichman, Daniel M.; Watson, Andrew M.; McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Background: There are a variety of proposed motivations for sport specialization, such as improving sport skills to an elite level, making all-star or travel teams, or receiving a scholarship or professional contract. However, there has not been a quantitative examination of the attitudes and beliefs that may be contributing to the trend of sport specialization and year-round sport participation. Purpose: The primary aim was to describe the attitudes and beliefs of youth club sport athletes regarding sport specialization and sport participation. A secondary objective was to investigate whether an association exists between the level of sport specialization and the belief in receiving a college scholarship. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 974 youth athletes (578 female; mean age, 14.2 ± 1.6 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire that focused on attitudes and beliefs toward sport specialization and sport participation. Questions were developed utilizing the feedback of a panel of content area experts and the University of Wisconsin Survey Center. Data were summarized using frequencies, proportions (%), and means ± SDs. Results: Fewer than half of all athletes (45.8%) believed that specialization increased their chances of getting injured either “quite a bit” or “a great deal.” However, 91% of athletes believed that specialization increased their chances of getting better at their sport either “quite a bit” or “a great deal.” Similarly, the majority of athletes believed that specialization increased their chances of making their high school team (80.9%) or a college team (66.9%) either “quite a bit” or “a great deal.” Overall, 15.7% of athletes believed that they were either “very” or “extremely” likely to receive a college scholarship based on athletic performance. Highly specialized athletes were nearly twice as likely to have a high belief in receiving a college scholarship

  16. Obtention and application of recovery coefficients in SUV values to quality control in PET equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cássio Miri; Sá, Lídia V. de; Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Mamede, Marcelo; Silva, Teógenes A. da

    2017-01-01

    The functional imaging technique Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using the radiopharmaceutical fluorodeoxyglucose ("1"8F-FDG) has been demonstrated an important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer tumors. However, the standard uptake values (SUV) quantification of a 'lesion' or a hot spot is influenced by partial volume effects (PVE). This is particularly important for evaluating solid tumour response to therapy, where SUV quantification could indicate treatment efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of "1"8F-FDG uptake correction in two image quantification modes (SUVmaximum and SUVmedium) through recovery coefficients (RC) application. The NEMA/IEC Body Phantom simulator was used and tested for an activity ratio lesion to background of 4:1, and at different acquisition times. The images quantification was performed with OsiriX® software. The obtained RCs were applied to the phantom images. The obtained SUVmedium values corrected by RCs presented satisfactory results, demonstrating small differences (1.1% a 2.3%) in relation to previously known SUVreference values. This did not occur for corrected SUVmaximum values where differences of up to 27.0% were observed between these and SUVreference values. These results demonstrate that the PVE correction by SUVmedium can more adequate to evaluate tumor's uptake. Therefore, this parameter should be used for equipment quality control in order to evaluate the response and degree of agreement between equipment. (author)

  17. Childhood Sports Participation and Adolescent Sport Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Importance of Folk Sports Teams in shaping the sports activity of rural areas young inhabitants in the Opole region in the years 2001-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Krawczyk-Sołtys

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the times of progressing commercialization, the existing sports organizations – Sports Folk Teams – seem to be areas of pure sport. Rural areas sports activists and sportsmen themselves present an altruistic and open attitude towards sport. The activity of the team members is voluntary and is often of a charitable character since the main objective of local clubs is both active and attractive utilization of the young rural community’s free time. The teams in focus play a vital role in bringing up both children and youth; sport is not only a test of physical strength or abilities, it teaches action and acting, compromising attitudes and patterns of behaviour, as well as loyalty towards partners. The aim of the article was depicting the sports teams as a form of promoting sport among the young people of the Opole voivodeship in the period discussed. Additionally, the tasks realized in 2010 by the Opole Province Association (Local Country Teams, performed owing to the cooperation and support of the provincial marshal’s office, are presented here.

  19. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  20. Sport as art, dance as sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Holt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that figure skating may count as art yet only in non-competitive contexts. Their burden is thus to explain why a routine (e.g., Torvill and Dean’s ‘Bolero’ may count as art in a showcase but not at the Olympics. The debate is also inevitably framed in terms of whether sport counts as art, neglecting the equally viable question of whether art in some form (e.g., competitive dance may also count as sport. I conclude in favour of an appropriately qualified sport-as-art thesis.

  1. Autonomous vehicle navigation utilizing fuzzy controls concepts for a next generation wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2008-01-01

    Three different positioning techniques were investigated to create an autonomous vehicle that could accurately navigate towards a goal: Global Positioning System (GPS), compass dead reckoning, and Ackerman steering. Each technique utilized a fuzzy logic controller that maneuvered a four-wheel car towards a target. The reliability and the accuracy of the navigation methods were investigated by modeling the algorithms in software and implementing them in hardware. To implement the techniques in hardware, positioning sensors were interfaced to a remote control car and a microprocessor. The microprocessor utilized the sensor measurements to orient the car with respect to the target. Next, a fuzzy logic control algorithm adjusted the front wheel steering angle to minimize the difference between the heading and bearing. After minimizing the heading error, the car maintained a straight steering angle along its path to the final destination. The results of this research can be used to develop applications that require precise navigation. The design techniques can also be implemented on alternate platforms such as a wheelchair to assist with autonomous navigation.

  2. An automatic window opening system to prevent drowning in vehicles sinking in water

    KAUST Repository

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G.; Percher, Michael; Brunet, Pierre; Richard, Yanik; Alexander, Marion; Bellemare, Alixandra; Rawal, Yash; Amassian, Aram; Mcdonald, Gerren

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Every year about 400 people die in submersed vehicles in North America and this number increases to 2,000–5,000 in all industrialized nations. The best way to survive is to quickly exit through the windows. An Automatic Window Opening System (AWOS; patent protected) was designed to sense when a vehicle is in water and to open the electric windows, but only when the vehicle is upright. Methods: The AWOS consists of a Detection Module (DM), in the engine compartment, and a Power Window Control Module (PWCM) inside the driver’s door. The DM contains a Water Sensor, a Level Sensor and a Microcontroller Unit (MCU). The Level Sensor provides the angular orientation of the car using a 3-axis acceleration sensor and prevents automatic window opening if the car is outside the orientation range (±20° in the roll axis, ±30° in the pitch axis, with a 2 s delay). Systems were installed on two cars and one SUV. A crane lowered vehicles in water either straight down (static tests) or by swinging the vehicles to produce forward movement (dynamic tests). Results: In all tests, when the vehicles landed upright, windows opened immediately and effectively. When vehicles landed inverted, or at a very steep angle, the system did not engage until an upright and level position was attained. Conclusions: This system may help decrease drowning deaths in sinking vehicles. If occupants do not know, or forget, what to do, the open window could hopefully prompt them to exit safely through that window.

  3. An automatic window opening system to prevent drowning in vehicles sinking in water

    KAUST Repository

    Giesbrecht, Gordon G.

    2017-07-12

    Objective: Every year about 400 people die in submersed vehicles in North America and this number increases to 2,000–5,000 in all industrialized nations. The best way to survive is to quickly exit through the windows. An Automatic Window Opening System (AWOS; patent protected) was designed to sense when a vehicle is in water and to open the electric windows, but only when the vehicle is upright. Methods: The AWOS consists of a Detection Module (DM), in the engine compartment, and a Power Window Control Module (PWCM) inside the driver’s door. The DM contains a Water Sensor, a Level Sensor and a Microcontroller Unit (MCU). The Level Sensor provides the angular orientation of the car using a 3-axis acceleration sensor and prevents automatic window opening if the car is outside the orientation range (±20° in the roll axis, ±30° in the pitch axis, with a 2 s delay). Systems were installed on two cars and one SUV. A crane lowered vehicles in water either straight down (static tests) or by swinging the vehicles to produce forward movement (dynamic tests). Results: In all tests, when the vehicles landed upright, windows opened immediately and effectively. When vehicles landed inverted, or at a very steep angle, the system did not engage until an upright and level position was attained. Conclusions: This system may help decrease drowning deaths in sinking vehicles. If occupants do not know, or forget, what to do, the open window could hopefully prompt them to exit safely through that window.

  4. Sport as art, dance as sport

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Holt

    2017-01-01

    A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes) whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that fig...

  5. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tew Garry A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives.

  6. A score combining baseline neutrophilia and primary tumor SUV{sub peak} measured from FDG PET is associated with outcome in locally advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schernberg, Antoine; Sun, Roger; Chargari, Cyrus [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Reuze, Sylvain [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Gustave Roussy, Universite Paris-Saclay, Department of Medical Physics, Villejuif (France); Orlhac, Fanny [INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA-SHFJ, IMIV, CEA, Inserm, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Buvat, Irene [Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA-SHFJ, IMIV, CEA, Inserm, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Orsay (France); Dercle, Laurent [Gustave Roussy, Universite Paris-Saclay, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1015, Villejuif (France); Limkin, Elaine [INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Escande, Alexandre; Haie-Meder, Christine [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); Deutsch, Eric [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Robert, Charlotte [Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Radiation Oncology Department, Villejuif (France); INSERM, U1030, Villejuif (France); Universite Paris-Saclay, Univ Paris Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Gustave Roussy, Universite Paris-Saclay, Department of Medical Physics, Villejuif (France)

    2018-02-15

    We investigated whether a score combining baseline neutrophilia and a PET biomarker could predict outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC). Patients homogeneously treated with definitive chemoradiation plus image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT) between 2006 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. We divided patients into two groups depending on the PET device used: a training set (TS) and a validation set (VS). Primary tumors were semi-automatically delineated on PET images, and 11 radiomics features were calculated (LIFEx software). A PET radiomic index was selected using the time-dependent area under the curve (td-AUC) for 3-year local control (LC). We defined the neutrophil SUV grade (NSG = 0, 1 or 2) score as the number of risk factors among (i) neutrophilia (neutrophil count >7 G/L) and (ii) high risk defined from the PET radiomic index. The NSG prognostic value was evaluated for LC and overall survival (OS). Data from 108 patients were analyzed. Estimated 3-year LC was 72% in the TS (n = 69) and 65% in the VS (n = 39). In the TS, SUV{sub peak} was selected as the most LC-predictive biomarker (td-AUC = 0.75), and was independent from neutrophilia (p = 0.119). Neutrophilia (HR = 2.6), high-risk SUV{sub peak} (SUV{sub peak} > 10, HR = 4.4) and NSG = 2 (HR = 9.2) were associated with low probability of LC in TS. In multivariate analysis, NSG = 2 was independently associated with low probability of LC (HR = 7.5, p < 0.001) and OS (HR = 5.8, p = 0.001) in the TS. Results obtained in the VS (HR = 5.2 for OS and 3.5 for LC, p < 0.02) were promising. This innovative scoring approach combining baseline neutrophilia and a PET biomarker provides an independent prognostic factor to consider for further clinical investigations. (orig.)

  7. PET/CT detectability and classification of simulated pulmonary lesions using an SUV correction scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Andrew N.; Matthews, Kenneth L., II; Bujenovic, Steven

    2008-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) together are a powerful diagnostic tool, but imperfect image quality allows false positive and false negative diagnoses to be made by any observer despite experience and training. This work investigates PET acquisition mode, reconstruction method and a standard uptake value (SUV) correction scheme on the classification of lesions as benign or malignant in PET/CT images, in an anthropomorphic phantom. The scheme accounts for partial volume effect (PVE) and PET resolution. The observer draws a region of interest (ROI) around the lesion using the CT dataset. A simulated homogenous PET lesion of the same shape as the drawn ROI is blurred with the point spread function (PSF) of the PET scanner to estimate the PVE, providing a scaling factor to produce a corrected SUV. Computer simulations showed that the accuracy of the corrected PET values depends on variations in the CT-drawn boundary and the position of the lesion with respect to the PET image matrix, especially for smaller lesions. Correction accuracy was affected slightly by mismatch of the simulation PSF and the actual scanner PSF. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study resulted in several observations. Using observer drawn ROIs, scaled tumor-background ratios (TBRs) more accurately represented actual TBRs than unscaled TBRs. For the PET images, 3D OSEM outperformed 2D OSEM, 3D OSEM outperformed 3D FBP, and 2D OSEM outperformed 2D FBP. The correction scheme significantly increased sensitivity and slightly increased accuracy for all acquisition and reconstruction modes at the cost of a small decrease in specificity.

  8. Affordable High Power Density Engine Designs for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation General Aviation (GA) Sport Class air vehicles limited to 1200lbs, represent the first opportunity to overhaul the FAA certification process...

  9. Affordable High Power Density Engine Designs for Personal Air Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next generation General Aviation (GA) Sport Class air vehicles limited to 1200lbs, represent the first opportunity to overhaul the FAA certification process...

  10. Investigation into sport motivations of university student, academic and administrative personal and their expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özdilek Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine rationales and motives of students, academic and administrative personnel from the Eskisehir Osmangazi University regarding participating in sport activities and their relevant expectations from them. Totally 198 individuals were responded to the study voluntarily while number of students, academic and administrative personnel were 94, 46 and 58, respectively. “Sport Participation Motivation Scale” and “Participation Motivation Scale” consisted of 30 items concerning individuals’ motives for their adherence to sport; and 8 sub-dimensions were employed as data collection tool. t-test and Variance Analysis (One-way Anova were utilized for paired comparisons and multiple comparisons for sport participation motivation, respectively (P<0.05. In assessment of demographical data, frequency and percentage were utilized. It was observed that the most significant sport motive addressed by respondents was “For my physical health” (N=47; 23.7%. Then, this was followed by the motive of “For my fitness” (N=31; 15.7%. It was determined that sport motivations of participants differs according to gender, age and position (P<0.05. Since exercise and sport participation are considered as a significant factor reducing risks related with various physical, psychological and social problem, significant motives associated with sport participation are required to be determined and the sport programs are required to be organized.

  11. Exploration of US men's professional sport organization concussion policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Graham Dean; Owen, Matthew; Ackerson, Joseph D; Hale, Matthew H; Gould, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Concussion policies are increasingly being developed and adopted among professional sports organizations. We sought to compare the policies of the National Hockey League (NHL), the National Basketball Association (NBA), the National Football League (NFL), and Major League Baseball (MLB). Our objective was to summarize each policy and evaluate the extent to which each policy is organization-specific and/or consistent with medical guidelines. We visited websites for the NHL, NBA, NFL, and MLB. We searched media articles reporting concussion policy. We utilized only publically available data. We collected information on each league's approach to the definition of concussion, education provided about concussion, baseline testing requirements, minimum return to play time and return to play protocol. We found that concussion policies vary across these organizations. Most organizations utilize the Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) definition (2013) to define concussion. The NFL and NBA mandate preseason education. All organizations require some type of baseline testing. All organizations require sideline evaluation after suspected concussion. The NFL and MLB require Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) testing for sideline evaluation of suspected concussion. MLB is the only organization to require minimum time before return to play. There is a return to play protocol in place for each organization. The NFL and MLB require independent neurologic consultation as part of their return to play protocol. There is variability in concussion policy among the professional sports organizations. The most pronounced variation from the CISG consensus statement is the variability in the minimum time to return to play. Further, the rules of the individual sports have a role in how concussion policy can be designed and implemented. Professional sports set an example for thousands of recreational sports enthusiasts so their publically available policies on concussion have a large impact.

  12. eSport: Construct specifications and implications for sport management

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...

  13. Relation between nodule size and 18F-FDG-PET SUV for malignant and benign pulmonary nodules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Yiping

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The most common semiquantitative method of evaluation of pulmonary lesions using 18F-FDG PET is FDG standardized uptake value (SUV. An SUV cutoff of 2.5 or greater has been used to differentiate between benign and malignant nodules. The goal of our study was to investigate the correlation between the size of pulmonary nodules and the SUV for benign as well as for malignant nodules. Methods Retrospectively, 173 patients were selected from 420 referrals for evaluation of pulmonary lesions. All patients selected had a positive CT and PET scans and histopathology biopsy. A linear regression equation was fitted to a scatter plot of size and SUVmax for malignant and benign nodules together. A dot diagram was created to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. Results The linear regression equations and (R2s as well as the trendlines for malignant and benign nodules demonstrated that the slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Twenty-eight nodules of group one (≤ 1.0 cm are plotted in a dot diagram using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated to be 85%, 36% and 54% respectively. Similarly, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 and found to be 91%, 47%, and 79% respectively for group 2 (1.1–2.0 cm; 94%, 23%, and 76%, respectively for group 3 (2.1–3.0 cm; and 100%, 17%, and 82%,, respectively for group 4 (> 3.0 cm. The previous results of the dot diagram indicating that the sensitivity and the accuracy of the test using an SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 are increased with an increase in the diameter of pulmonary nodules. Conclusion The slope of the regression line is greater for malignant than for benign nodules. Although, the SUVmax cutoff of 2.5 is a useful tool in the evaluation of large pulmonary nodules (> 1.0 cm, it has no or minimal value in the evaluation of small

  14. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steering wheel input on vehicle roll behavior. Then, a 9 degree of freedom (9-DOF full-car roll nonlinear model including vertical and lateral dynamics was developed to study vehicle roll dynamics with or without of road excitation. Based on a 6-DOF half-car roll model and 9-DOF full-car nonlinear model, relationship between three-dimensional (3-D road excitation and various steering wheel inputs on vehicle roll performance was studied. Finally, an E-Class (SUV level car model in CARSIM® was used, as a benchmark, with and without road input conditions. Both half-car and full-car models were analyzed under steering wheel inputs of 5°, 10° and 15°. Simulation results showed that the half-car model considering road input was found to have a maximum accuracy of 65%. Whereas, the full-car model had a minimum accuracy of 85%, which was significantly higher compared to the half-car model under the same scenario.

  15. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  16. Comparative economics of natural gas vehicles and other vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, R.T.; Blazek, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    The utilization of alternative fuels for transportation applications is now a certainty. The only real questions that remain to be answered involve the type of fuel (or fuels) to be adopted most extensively. While some alternative fuel advocates suggest that a niche will exist for all alternative fuels, the most likely scenario will involve widespread use of only a few major fuel types. Undoubtedly, reformulated gasoline will be a major force as an interim fuel, due to inertia and a predominant bias toward liquid fuels. The prospects for utilization of ethanol, methanol, MTBE, and ETBE appear to be most promising in the area of blending with gasoline to meet the needs of reformulated gasoline and flexible fueled vehicles (FFV's). Propane fueled vehicles will continue to grow in popularity, especially with fleets, but will never become a major force in the transportation market in the U.S. due to unresolvable supply limitations. The clear winner in the alternative fuels transportation market appears to be natural gas. Either in compressed or liquefied form, natural gas enjoys low costs, tremendous availability, and impressive environmental benefits. As shown in this analysis, natural gas competes favorably with gasoline in terms of economics. Natural gas is also preferential to other alternative fuels in terms of safety and heath issues as well as operational issues. Adoption of natural gas as a standard transportation fuel will probably require market segmentation characterized by compressed natural gas utilization in light-duty vehicles and liquefied natural gas utilization in heavy-duty vehicles. The most significant barrier to natural gas utilization will continue to be the creation of a refueling infrastructure. As these problems are resolved, however, natural gas will emerge as the transportation fuel of the future

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Automobile License Plate Recognition System for Institutional Parking Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Dasilva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones have many applications and they are a current trend across many industries. They can be used for delivery, sports, surveillance, professional photography, cinematography, military combat, natural disaster assistance, security, and the list grows every day. Programming opens an avenue to automate many processes of daily life and with the drone as aerial programmable eyes, security and surveillance can become more efficient and cost effective. At Barry University, parking is becoming an issue as the number of people visiting the school greatly outnumbers the convenient parking locations. This has caused a multitude of hazards in parking lots due to people illegally parking, as well as unregistered vehicles parking in reserved areas. In this paper, we explain how automated drone surveillance is utilized to detect unauthorized parking at Barry University. The automated process is incorporated into Java application and completed in three steps: collecting visual data, processing data automatically, and sending automated responses and queues to the operator of the system.

  18. Obtention and application of recovery coefficients in SUV values to quality control in PET equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cássio Miri; Sá, Lídia V. de; Santana, Priscila do Carmo; Mamede, Marcelo; Silva, Teógenes A. da, E-mail: cassio.miri@unifesp.br, E-mail: lidia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: mamede.mm@gmail.com, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Departmento de Diagnose por Imagem; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    The functional imaging technique Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using the radiopharmaceutical fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) has been demonstrated an important role in the diagnosis and staging of cancer tumors. However, the standard uptake values (SUV) quantification of a 'lesion' or a hot spot is influenced by partial volume effects (PVE). This is particularly important for evaluating solid tumour response to therapy, where SUV quantification could indicate treatment efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake correction in two image quantification modes (SUVmaximum and SUVmedium) through recovery coefficients (RC) application. The NEMA/IEC Body Phantom simulator was used and tested for an activity ratio lesion to background of 4:1, and at different acquisition times. The images quantification was performed with OsiriX® software. The obtained RCs were applied to the phantom images. The obtained SUVmedium values corrected by RCs presented satisfactory results, demonstrating small differences (1.1% a 2.3%) in relation to previously known SUVreference values. This did not occur for corrected SUVmaximum values where differences of up to 27.0% were observed between these and SUVreference values. These results demonstrate that the PVE correction by SUVmedium can more adequate to evaluate tumor's uptake. Therefore, this parameter should be used for equipment quality control in order to evaluate the response and degree of agreement between equipment. (author)

  19. 41 CFR 109-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Utilization guidelines... Management System Vehicles § 109-39.301 Utilization guidelines. DOE activities utilizing GSA IFMS motor... meeting DOE utilization guidelines or established local use objectives, as appropriate. Those vehicles not...

  20. SPORT MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  1. Inter-Vehicle Communication System Utilizing Autonomous Distributed Transmit Power Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuji; Sawa, Yoshitsugu; Goto, Yukio; Kumazawa, Hiroyuki

    In ad-hoc network such as inter-vehicle communication (IVC) system, safety applications that vehicles broadcast the information such as car velocity, position and so on periodically are considered. In these applications, if there are many vehicles broadcast data in a communication area, congestion incurs a problem decreasing communication reliability. We propose autonomous distributed transmit power control method to keep high communication reliability. In this method, each vehicle controls its transmit power using feed back control. Furthermore, we design a communication protocol to realize the proposed method, and we evaluate the effectiveness of proposed method using computer simulation.

  2. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Standardized Uptake Value (SUV-shape Scheme for Thyroid Volume Determination in Graves’ Disease: A Comparison with Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yangchun chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of thyroid volume measurement using 99mTc pertechnetate single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images, acquired by the standardized uptake value (SUV-shape scheme designed by our expert team.Methods: A total of 18 consecutive patients with Graves’ disease (GD were subjected to both ultrasonographic and 99mTc pertechnetate SPECT examinations of thyroid within a five-day interval. The volume of thyroid lobes and isthmus was measured by ultrasonography (US according to the ellipsoid volume equation. The total thyroid volume, determined as the sum of the volume of both lobes and isthmus, was recorded as TV-US (i.e., thyroid volume measured by US and set as the reference. The thyroid volume was defined according to our SUV-shape scheme and was recorded as TV-SS (i.e., thyroid volume determined by the SUV-shape scheme. The data were analyzed using the Bland-Altman plot, linear regression analysis, Spearman’s rank correlation, and paired t-test, if necessary.Results: The values of TV-SS (40.2±29.4 mL and TV-US (43.0±34.7 mL were not significantly different (t=0.813; P=0.43. The linear regression equation of the two values was determined as TV-US= 1.072 × TV-SS − 0.29(r=0.906; P

  3. Harmonizing SUVs in multicentre trials when using different generation PET systems: prospective validation in non-small cell lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnon, Charline; Quak, Elske [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Desmonts, Cedric [Caen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Gervais, Radj; Do, Pascal; Dubos-Arvis, Catherine [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Thoracic Oncology, Caen (France); Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Centre Francois Baclesse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Caen cedex 5 (France)

    2013-07-15

    We prospectively evaluated whether a strategy using point spread function (PSF) reconstruction for both diagnostic and quantitative analysis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients meets the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) guidelines for harmonization of quantitative values. The NEMA NU-2 phantom was used to determine the optimal filter to apply to PSF-reconstructed images in order to obtain recovery coefficients (RCs) fulfilling the EANM guidelines for tumour positron emission tomography (PET) imaging (PSF{sub EANM}). PET data of 52 consecutive NSCLC patients were reconstructed with unfiltered PSF reconstruction (PSF{sub allpass}), PSF{sub EANM} and with a conventional ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm known to meet EANM guidelines. To mimic a situation in which a patient would undergo pre- and post-therapy PET scans on different generation PET systems, standardized uptake values (SUVs) for OSEM reconstruction were compared to SUVs for PSF{sub EANM} and PSF{sub allpass} reconstruction. Overall, in 195 lesions, Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that the mean ratio between PSF{sub EANM} and OSEM data was 1.03 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.12] and 1.02 (95 % CI 0.90-1.14) for SUV{sub max} and SUV{sub mean}, respectively. No difference was noticed when analysing lesions based on their size and location or on patient body habitus and image noise. Ten patients (84 lesions) underwent two PET scans for response monitoring. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria, there was an almost perfect agreement between OSEM{sub PET1}/OSEM{sub PET2} (current standard) and OSEM{sub PET1}/PSF{sub EANM-PET2} or PSF{sub EANM-PET1}/OSEM{sub PET2} with kappa values of 0.95 (95 % CI 0.91-1.00) and 0.99 (95 % CI 0.96-1.00), respectively. The use of PSF{sub allpass} either for pre- or post-treatment (i.e. OSEM{sub PET1}/PSF{sub allpass-PET2} or PSF{sub allpass-PET1}/OSEM{sub PET2}) showed

  4. INCORPORATING KETTLEBELLS INTO A LOWER EXTREMITY SPORTS REHABILITATION PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Brumitt, Jason; En Gilpin, Hui; Brunette, Meredith; Meira, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of a sports rehabilitation program is to return the injured athlete back to competition as quickly and as safely as possible. Sports physical therapists utilize a variety of exercise equipment to help an athlete restore function after an injury. An injured athlete's therapeutic exercise program frequently includes the prescription of functional strengthening and power exercises during the later stages of rehabilitation. One piece of exercise equipment, the kettlebell, has gai...

  5. Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentop, Daryl

    2002-01-01

    Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…

  6. Correlation between tumour characteristics, SUV measurements, metabolic tumour volume, TLG and textural features assessed with 18F-FDG PET in a large cohort of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarignier, Charles; Martineau, Antoine; Teixeira, Luis; Vercellino, Laetitia; Espié, Marc; Merlet, Pascal; Groheux, David

    2017-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate 1) the relationship between PET image textural features (TFs) and SUVs, metabolic tumour volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and tumour characteristics in a large prospective and homogenous cohort of oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC) patients, and 2) the capability of those parameters to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). 171 consecutive patients with large or locally advanced ER+ BC without distant metastases underwent an 18 F-FDG PET examination before NAC. The primary tumour was delineated with an adaptive threshold segmentation method. Parameters of volume, intensity and texture (entropy, homogeneity, contrast and energy) were measured and compared with tumour characteristics determined on pre-treatment breast biopsy (Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The correlation between PET-derived parameters was determined using Spearman's coefficient. The relationship between PET features and pathological findings was determined using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Spearman's coefficients between SUV max and TFs were 0.43, 0.24, -0.43 and -0.15 respectively for entropy, homogeneity, energy and contrast; they were higher between MTV and TFs: 0.99, 0.86, -0.99 and -0.87. All TFs showed a significant association with the histological type (IDC vs. ILC; 0.02 < P < 0.03) but didn't with immunohistochemical characteristics. SUV max and TLG predicted the pathological response (P = 0.0021 and P = 0.02 respectively); TFs didn't (P: 0.27, 0.19, 0.94, 0.19 respectively for entropy, homogeneity, energy and contrast). The correlation of TFs was poor with SUV parameters and high with MTV. TFs showed a significant association with the histological type. Finally, while SUV max and TLG were able to predict response to NAC, TFs failed.

  7. FTTS Utility Vehicle UV2 Concept Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drake, Branden

    2005-01-01

    Government concepts to support the future tactical truck systems (FTTS) development. This briefing explains the truck concept by describing the vehicle through major subsystem categories such as mobility, survivability, and C4I technologies...

  8. State of development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Tikhonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.

  9. SPORTS MARKETING AS A BUSINESS FUNCTION IN MODERN SPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović

    2013-01-01

    Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...

  10. Electric Vehicle Preparedness Task 3: Detailed Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Joint Base Lewis McChord Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provides observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to the replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of charging infrastructure required to support this replacement. That is the subject of a separate report.

  11. Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-03-01

    The expanding availability of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles makes it easier than ever to reduce petroleum use, cut emissions, and save on fuel costs. The Clean Cities 2012 Vehicle Buyer's Guide features a comprehensive list of model year 2012 vehicles that can run on ethanol, biodiesel, electricity, propane or natural gas. Drivers and fleet managers across the country are looking for ways to reduce petroleum use, fuel costs, and vehicle emissions. As you'll find in this guide, these goals are easier to achieve than ever before, with an expanding selection of vehicles that use gasoline or diesel more efficiently, or forego them altogether. Plug-in electric vehicles made a grand entrance onto U.S. roadways in model year (MY) 2011, and their momentum in the market is poised for continued growth in 2012. Sales of the all-electric Nissan Leaf surpassed 8,000 in the fall of 2011, and the plug-in hybrid Chevy Volt is now available nationwide. Several new models from major automakers will become available throughout MY 2012, and drivers are benefiting from a rapidly growing network of charging stations, thanks to infrastructure development initiatives in many states. Hybrid electric vehicles, which first entered the market just a decade ago, are ubiquitous today. Hybrid technology now allows drivers of all vehicle classes, from SUVs to luxury sedans to subcompacts, to slash fuel use and emissions. Alternative fueling infrastructure is expanding in many regions, making natural gas, propane, ethanol, and biodiesel attractive and convenient choices for many consumers and fleets. And because fuel availability is the most important factor in choosing an alternative fuel vehicle, this growth opens up new possibilities for vehicle ownership. This guide features model-specific information about vehicle specs, manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP), fuel economy, and emissions. You can use this information to compare vehicles and help inform your buying

  12. Electric vehicle data acquisition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mathias; Winther-Jensen, Mads; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2014-01-01

    and industrial applications, e.g. research in electric vehicle driving patterns, vehicle substitutability analysis and fleet management. The platform is based on a embedded computer running Linux, and features a high level of modularity and flexibility. The system operates independently of the make of the car......, by using the On-board Diagnostic port to identify car model and adapt its software accordingly. By utilizing on-board Global Navigation Satellite System, General Packet Radio Service, accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer, the system not only provides valuable data for research in the field of electric......A data acquisition system for electric vehicles is presented. The system connects to the On-board Diagnostic port of newer vehicles, and utilizes the in-vehicle sensor network, as well as auxiliary sensors, to gather data. Data is transmitted continuously to a central database for academic...

  13. 41 CFR 109-38.5105 - Motor vehicle local use objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicle local use..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38.5105 Motor vehicle local use objectives. (a) Individual motor vehicle utilization cannot always be...

  14. SUV2, which encodes an ATR-related cell cycle checkpoint and putative plant ATRIP, is required for aluminium-dependent root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Caroline A; Larsen, Paul B

    2017-09-01

    A suppressor mutagenesis screen was conducted in order to identify second site mutations that could reverse the extreme hypersensitivity to aluminium (Al) seen for the Arabidopsis mutant, als3-1. From this screen, it was found that a loss-of-function mutation in the previously described SUV2 (SENSITIVE TO UV 2), which encodes a putative plant ATRIP homologue that is a component of the ATR-dependent cell checkpoint response, reversed the als3-1 phenotype. This included prevention of hallmarks associated with als3-1 including Al-dependent terminal differentiation of the root tip and transition to endoreduplication. From this analysis, SUV2 was determined to be required for halting cell cycle progression and triggering loss of the quiescent centre (QC) following exposure to Al. In conjunction with this, SUV2 was found to have a similar role as ATR, ALT2 and SOG1 in Al-dependent stoppage of root growth, all of which are required for promotion of expression of a suite of genes that likely are part of an Al-dependent DNA damage transcriptional response. This work argues that these Al response factors work together to detect Al-dependent damage and subsequently activate a DNA damage response pathway that halts the cell cycle and subsequently promotes QC differentiation and entrance into endocycling. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Youth Sports Coaches Regarding Sport Volume Recommendations and Sport Specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R

    2018-02-22

    Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.

  16. Analisis Pengaruh Parameter Operasional dan Penggunaan Stabilizer terhadap Perilaku Arah Belok Mobil Toyota Fortuner 4.0 V6 SR (AT 4X4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deva Andriansyah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu tipe mobil yang diminati oleh masyarakat Indonesia yaitu Toyota Fortuner yang termasuk dalam kelas mobil SUV (sport utility vehicle. Dalam pengoperasiannya mobil SUV harus mampu memberikan keamanan dan kenyamanan bagi pengendaranya. Salah satu faktor penunjang dari segi keamanan mobil ini yaitu perilaku arah beloknya. Dengan harga jual yang relatif tinggi di Indonesia, diharapkan mobil ini dapat memberikan perilaku arah belok yang baik. Terdapat dua tahapan dalam peneltian ini yaitu tahap analisis dan uji jalan pada radius belok tetap, 10 meter. Pada tahap analisis dilakukan perhitungan berdasarkan analisa slip, skid, dan guling untuk mengetahui perilaku arah belok mobil dengan variasi pada parameter operasionalnya yaitu: jumlah penumpang, kecepatan, sudut belok, kondisi permukaan jalan, dan tekanan ban. Selain itu, analisis pengaruh penggunaaan stabilizer terhadap perilaku arah belok mobil juga dilakukan. Uji jalan dilakukan untuk mengetahui Koefisien Understeer (KUS dari mobil tersebut pada jalan aspal dan tanah dengan kondisi mobil tanpa dan menggunakan stabilizer. Hasil yang didapatkan dari uji jalan akan dibandingkan dengan hasil dari analisis perhitungan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa mobil Toyota Fortuner mengalami kondisi belok paling baik ketika dinaiki oleh 2 orang penumpang dengan tekanan ban sebesar 35 Psi dan melintas pada jalan aspal karena kendaraan lebih sedikit mengalami oversteer dan memiliki (KUS positif terkecil serta tidak mudah mengalami skid. Penggunaan stabilizer pada mobil Toyota Fortuner tidak berpengaruh terhadap perilaku arah beloknya karena KUS yang dihasilkan pada uji jalan nilainya hampir sama yaitu 1,8045 dan 1,8115 pada jalan aspal serta 2,151 dan 2,1641 pada jalan tanah. Namun, penggunaan stabilizer bermanfaat untuk memperkecil sudut guling ketika mobil berbelok.

  17. Correlation between tumour characteristics, SUV measurements, metabolic tumour volume, TLG and textural features assessed with {sup 18}F-FDG PET in a large cohort of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemarignier, Charles; Groheux, David [Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); University Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, Paris (France); Martineau, Antoine; Vercellino, Laetitia; Merlet, Pascal [Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Teixeira, Luis; Espie, Marc [Saint-Louis Hospital, Breast Diseases Unit, Paris (France); University Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, Paris (France)

    2017-07-15

    The study was designed to evaluate 1) the relationship between PET image textural features (TFs) and SUVs, metabolic tumour volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and tumour characteristics in a large prospective and homogenous cohort of oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC) patients, and 2) the capability of those parameters to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). 171 consecutive patients with large or locally advanced ER+ BC without distant metastases underwent an {sup 18}F-FDG PET examination before NAC. The primary tumour was delineated with an adaptive threshold segmentation method. Parameters of volume, intensity and texture (entropy, homogeneity, contrast and energy) were measured and compared with tumour characteristics determined on pre-treatment breast biopsy (Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The correlation between PET-derived parameters was determined using Spearman's coefficient. The relationship between PET features and pathological findings was determined using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Spearman's coefficients between SUV{sub max} and TFs were 0.43, 0.24, -0.43 and -0.15 respectively for entropy, homogeneity, energy and contrast; they were higher between MTV and TFs: 0.99, 0.86, -0.99 and -0.87. All TFs showed a significant association with the histological type (IDC vs. ILC; 0.02 < P < 0.03) but didn't with immunohistochemical characteristics. SUV{sub max} and TLG predicted the pathological response (P = 0.0021 and P = 0.02 respectively); TFs didn't (P: 0.27, 0.19, 0.94, 0.19 respectively for entropy, homogeneity, energy and contrast). The correlation of TFs was poor with SUV parameters and high with MTV. TFs showed a significant association with the histological type. Finally, while SUV{sub max} and TLG were able to predict response to NAC, TFs failed. (orig.)

  18. Rapportage sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger

  19. Contact Dermatitis to Personal Sporting Equipment in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzario, Barbara; Burrows, Dianne; Skotnicki, Sandy

    2016-07-01

    Contact dermatitis to personal sporting equipment in youth is poorly studied. To review the results of patch testing 6 youth to their sporting equipment in a dermatology general private practice from 2006 to 2011. A retrospective analysis of 6 youth aged 11 to 14 who were evaluated for chronic and persistent dermatitis occurring in relation to sports equipment was conducted. All patients were subjected to epicutaneous (patch) testing, which included some or all of the following: North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACGD) series, textile series, rubber series, corticosteroid series, and raw material from the patients' own personal equipment. All cases had 1 or more positive patch test reactions to an allergen within the aforementioned series, and 3 subjects tested positive to their personal equipment in raw form. Allergic contact dermatitis, not irritant, was deemed the relevant cause of chronic dermatitis in 4 of the 6 patients due to positive reactions to epicutaneous tests and/or personal equipment. The utility of testing to patients' own sporting equipment was shown to be of additional value and should be considered when patch testing for contact allergy to sporting equipment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Epidemiology of Injuries Across the Weight-Training Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Winwood, Paul W

    2017-03-01

    Weight-training sports, including weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, strongman, Highland Games, and CrossFit, are weight-training sports that have separate divisions for males and females of a variety of ages, competitive standards, and bodyweight classes. These sports may be considered dangerous because of the heavy loads commonly used in training and competition. Our objective was to systematically review the injury epidemiology of these weight-training sports, and, where possible, gain some insight into whether this may be affected by age, sex, competitive standard, and bodyweight class. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Embase for injury epidemiology studies involving competitive athletes in these weight-training sports. Eligible studies included peer-reviewed journal articles only, with no limit placed on date or language of publication. We assessed the risk of bias in all studies using an adaption of the musculoskeletal injury review method. Only five of the 20 eligible studies had a risk of bias score ≥75 %, meaning the risk of bias in these five studies was considered low. While 14 of the studies had sample sizes >100 participants, only four studies utilized a prospective design. Bodybuilding had the lowest injury rates (0.12-0.7 injuries per lifter per year; 0.24-1 injury per 1000 h), with strongman (4.5-6.1 injuries per 1000 h) and Highland Games (7.5 injuries per 1000 h) reporting the highest rates. The shoulder, lower back, knee, elbow, and wrist/hand were generally the most commonly injured anatomical locations; strains, tendinitis, and sprains were the most common injury type. Very few significant differences in any of the injury outcomes were observed as a function of age, sex, competitive standard, or bodyweight class. While the majority of the research we reviewed utilized retrospective designs, the weight-training sports appear to have relatively low rates of injury compared with common team

  1. Utilization of Connected Vehicle Data to Support Traffic Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Automated vehicle technology is advancing rapidly, from concept to test vehicles on the streets of American cities. Some of the underlying technologies that enable automation, such as Bluetooth communications and GPS, are already available in many ca...

  2. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program semiannual progress report for October 1996 through March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses and higher temperatures of advanced designs limit the engine designers; advanced materials allow the design of components that may operate reliably at higher stresses and temperatures, thus enabling more efficient engine designs. Advanced materials also offer the opportunity to improve the emissions, NVH, and performance of diesel engines for pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. The principal areas of research are: (1) cost effective high performance materials and processing; (2) advanced manufacturing technology; (3) testing and characterization; and (4) materials and testing standards.

  3. Analysis of Non-Tactical Vehicle Utilization at Fort Carson

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    regenerative braking energy recovery. The mass of the vehicles monitored in this study was not known. However, some useful information may be...regeneration to add braking action when the driver demand for deceleration rate exceeds the power absorption capability of the regenerative energy...recovery system (for instance, at the beginning of a hard brake from high speeds and as the vehicle comes to rest). This action decreases the overall

  4. Opportunities and Challenges Facing NGOs Using Sport as a Vehicle for Development in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Ben; Phillips, Julie; Vanreusel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Post-apartheid South Africa manifests poor social indicators with over half the population living below the poverty line and the worst levels of inequality in the world, with much work needed to overcome the skewed legacy of apartheid. Sport suffered in this system resulting in unequal access to sporting facilities and opportunities, meaning many…

  5. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...

  6. An integrated framework for the optimisation of sport and athlete development: a practitioner approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbin, Jason P; Croser, Morag J; Morley, Elissa J; Weissensteiner, Juanita R

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new sport and athlete development framework that has been generated by multidisciplinary sport practitioners. By combining current theoretical research perspectives with extensive empirical observations from one of the world's leading sport agencies, the proposed FTEM (Foundations, Talent, Elite, Mastery) framework offers broad utility to researchers and sporting stakeholders alike. FTEM is unique in comparison with alternative models and frameworks, because it: integrates general and specialised phases of development for participants within the active lifestyle, sport participation and sport excellence pathways; typically doubles the number of developmental phases (n = 10) in order to better understand athlete transition; avoids chronological and training prescriptions; more optimally establishes a continuum between participation and elite; and allows full inclusion of many developmental support drivers at the sport and system levels. The FTEM framework offers a viable and more flexible alternative for those sporting stakeholders interested in managing, optimising, and researching sport and athlete development pathways.

  7. Comparison of eSports and Traditional Sports Consumption Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…

  8. Assessing Student Preconceptions of Sport Management Faculty: Where Do Women and Latinos Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Jason; Sagas, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Latino individuals and women as a group have found it difficult to become established within the professorate. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine student preconceptions of Latino professors within sport management. The study was conducted within a sport management class (N = 102), utilizing self-categorization theory based on race…

  9. A Ten-Value-Type Framework Associated With Spectator Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Shiue Gau

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior value studies in sport settings have been focused on participation rather than spectatorship. This study is an initial step in examining the values associated with spectator sports. Interviews and focus groups were utilized in this qualitative study within four progressive phases for triangulation, transferability, and constant comparative assessment. A total of 54 individuals participated in the study. Because values were subjectively perceived at the highest level of abstraction reflecting desirable preference experiences, the interviews were designed to include seven categories of questions: Three categories dealt with observed behaviors and implied metaphors, and four categories including questions comparing spectator sports and sport participation, religion, other leisure activities, and substitutes. Grounded data techniques guided the coding procedure. Using the transcriptions and notes from 26 interviews and three focus groups, five coders were used to provide evidence of interrater reliability. Based on the results of the data analyses, a 10-value-type framework was developed in relation to spectator sports: (a Enjoyment (pleasure and satisfaction, (b Sociability (social interaction through sport spectating, (c Identity (enhancing self-esteem, (d Status (pursuing social recognition, (e Moral, (f Spirituality (inner peace, strength, meaning, and purpose in life, (g Epistemic, (h Aesthetics, (i Ritual (sports spectating becomes a series of formal and serious acts followed regularly and invariably as end-experience, and (j no or negative values. Different from Kahle’s (1983, Maslow’s (1970a, and Schwartz’ (1992 value theories, the framework was specifically associated with spectator sports and is expected to better predict spectator sport behavior than does a scale measuring motivations of sports fans.

  10. Theoretical foundations of forming value orientation of pupils by means of school sports abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Kh. Turchyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the theoretical basis for the formation of value orientations of pupils by means of school sports facilities abroad. Material: detailed analysis of 14 published sources. Results: found that in a foreign academic and journalistic literature dominates positive appreciation of cultural values of humanistic school sports in the formation of value orientations of pupils. Found that school sport abroad plays an important role not only as a means of forming the basic values - health, but also an important area of communication, the manifestations of social activity. As well as physical and mental form of organization and leisure facilities, excellent vehicle impacts on other values of human life: the authority and position in society, work, the structure of moral and volitional characteristics, aesthetic ideals and other value orientations. Conclusions: confirmed that the global experience of formation values pupil means school sports deserves attention and requires selective introduction into the domestic education system.

  11. Identifying the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Sport Management) This study is strengthened by several studies that have indicated that the dualist nature of student-athletes is problematic, as well as the management thereof. The study aimed to identify the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development in athletics (throwers) at University of Johannesburg Sport, and offers recommendations for managing student-athletes. The methods utilized for this study included: i) self-desig...

  12. Sports-science roundtable: does sports-science research influence practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David; Burnett, Angus; Farrow, Damian; Gabbett, Tim; Newton, Robert

    2006-06-01

    As sports scientists, we claim to make a significant contribution to the body of knowledge that influences athletic practice and performance. Is this the reality? At the inaugural congress of the Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science, a panel of well-credentialed academic experts with experience in the applied environment debated the question, Does sports-science research influence practice? The first task was to define "sports-science research," and it was generally agreed that it is concerned with providing evidence that improves sports performance. When practices are equally effective, sports scientists also have a role in identifying practices that are safer, more time efficient, and more enjoyable. There were varying views on the need for sports-science research to be immediately relevant to coaches or athletes. Most agreed on the importance of communicating the results of sports-science research, not only to the academic community but also to coaches and athletes, and the need to encourage both short- and long-term research. The panelists then listed examples of sports-science research that they believe have influenced practice, as well as strategies to ensure that sports-science research better influences practice.

  13. Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role sports volunteering in the life of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Bondar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify the role sports volunteering in the life of university students. Material and Methods: 256 students of the Kharkov state academy of physical culture took part in research. The analysis of literary sources and documents was utillized; questioning (questionnaire, methods of the mathematical processing of data. Conclusions: sports volunteering is inalienable part of life of modern students and the 35% polled already were in a position to prove as helpers of organizers of sporting competitions of different level. In opinion of students, volunteering enables them to purchase experience of public activity, so the 25% polled consider, to find new friends – 20,8%, realized themselves – 18,3%. 34,5% respondents consider it-volunteering perspective direction the volunteers activity, the here 32,4% polled would like to prove as counsels of all of sporting volunteers work assignments

  15. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  16. Oil prices, SUVs, and Iraq. An investigation of automobile manufacturer oil price sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Ken [United States Navy (United States); Schnusenberg, Oliver [Department of Accounting and Finance, Coggin College of Business, The University of North Florida, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    There has been much speculation about the recent upsurge in crude oil prices and the effect it will have on the economy and business. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between oil prices and stock prices of automobile manufacturers. We add an oil price factor, measured alternatively by the excess change in WTI crude oil prices or the excess return on an energy ETF, to the Fama-French three-factor model over the period March 20, 2001 to September 30, 2008. Our dependent variable is the excess return on a price-weighted index of automobile manufacturers. Results indicate that oil prices add value to the pricing model, particularly for manufacturers specializing in SUVs and for a subperiod following the Iraq invasion on March 19, 2003. (author)

  17. The relationship between body weight and risk of death and serious injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles N; Grossman, David C; Kaufman, Robert P; Mack, Christopher D; Rivara, Frederick P

    2002-03-01

    We sought to investigate the effect of increased body weight on the risk of death and serious injury to occupants in motor vehicle crashes. We employed a retrospective cohort study design utilizing data from the National Automotive Sampling System, Crashworthiness Data System (CDS), 1993-1996. Subjects in the study included occupants involved in tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles. Two outcomes were analyzed: death within 30 days of the crash and injury severity score (ISS). Two exposures were considered: occupant body weight and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Occupant weight was available on 27263 subjects (76%) in the CDS database. Mortality was 0.67%. Increased body weight was associated with increased risk of mortality and increased risk of severe injury. The odds ratio for death was 1.013 (95% CI: 1.007, 1.018) for each kilogram increase in body weight. The odds ratio for sustaining an injury with ISS > or = 9 was 1.008 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.011) for each kilogram increase in body weight. After adjustment for potentially confounding variables (age, gender, seatbelt use, seat position and vehicle curbweight), the significant relationship between occupant weight and mortality persisted. After adjustment, the relationship between occupant weight and ISS was present, although less marked. Similar trends were found when BMI was analyzed as the exposure. In conclusion, increased occupant body weight is associated with increased mortality in automobile crashes. This is probably due in part to increased co-morbid factors in the more overweight occupants. However, it is possibly also due to an increased severity of injury in these occupants. These findings may have implications for vehicle safety design, as well as for transport safety policy.

  18. High School Sport Specialization Patterns of Current Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A

    Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.

  19. An unsupervised method for summarizing egocentric sport videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi Aghdam, Hamed; Jahani Heravi, Elnaz; Puig, Domenec

    2015-12-01

    People are getting more interested to record their sport activities using head-worn or hand-held cameras. This type of videos which is called egocentric sport videos has different motion and appearance patterns compared with life-logging videos. While a life-logging video can be defined in terms of well-defined human-object interactions, notwithstanding, it is not trivial to describe egocentric sport videos using well-defined activities. For this reason, summarizing egocentric sport videos based on human-object interaction might fail to produce meaningful results. In this paper, we propose an unsupervised method for summarizing egocentric videos by identifying the key-frames of the video. Our method utilizes both appearance and motion information and it automatically finds the number of the key-frames. Our blind user study on the new dataset collected from YouTube shows that in 93:5% cases, the users choose the proposed method as their first video summary choice. In addition, our method is within the top 2 choices of the users in 99% of studies.

  20. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  1. The Role of eycting in the Modern Traffic, Sport, Recreation and Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Missoni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available More than 500 million bicycles have been estimated to participatenowadays in the modem road transport. Bicycles arethe most numerous vehicles in the underdeveloped countries,whereas in the developed countries they are more frequent(vused for recreation and sport. Sudden revival of bicycle transportin modem times is like(v to continue, at a higher or lowerrate depending on the particular conditions in a certain country.The reason for this lies in the fact that bicycle is popular inunderdeveloped countries because of its low cost, and in the developedcountries it is preferred to motor vehicles because of itsecological, sport, and medical and recreational aspect.The present slow development of cycling in Croatia, is theresult of the war and post-war events, but this is expected tochange towards rapid growth in free Croatia. This should beour tendency out of the same reasons which hold for the developedcountries with special emphasis on tourism and environmentalprotection. Therefore, schoolchildren should be acquaintedat schools with all the advantages of riding bicycles,they should learn how to ride a bike and all about the trafficrules. For normal bicycle traffic, an appropriate bicycle lanenetwork should be constructed as soon as possible, for urbanand suburban traffic, as well as bicycle lanes for recreationaland tourist purposes. Moreover, the conditions should be createdand cycling promoted with the sport and racing spirit, inwhich Croatia has always had a great and brilliant tradition.

  2. Vehicle efficiency and agriculture transport in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaquis, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The vehicle operating cost (VOC) associated with the transportation of agricultural commodities in Ghana is studied, using the Kumasi and Ashanti region as a case study. The present state of the agriculture sector is described in terms of three interactive systems: the transport system, the agriculture system, and the flow pattern of vehicles and commodities. A survey is used as an information base to construct a total operating cost (TOC) model based on average actual operating conditions. The TOC model is expanded to include costs under three theoretical operating conditions: enforced loading, maximum vehicle utilization, and increased fuel efficiency. Three options identified as potentially beneficial to the transport industry and the Ghanian economy are presented and evaluated: using larger vehicles, maximizing vehicle utilization, and increasing fuel economy. The effects of implementation on the parties involved (producers, transport owners and operators, transport organizations and government) are taken into account. It is recommended that the Ghanian government institute the following programs and policies: enforce registered loading allowance; encourage higher vehicle utilization by controlling the number of vehicles registered and ensuring adequate service; and encourage use of larger vehicles. The benefits of using foreign aid to effect fleet and operational changes rather than focusing on capital-intensive infrastructure improvements to improve transport efficiency are recommended. 30 refs., 28 figs., 23 tabs

  3. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  4. Developing Sport Psychology in a Girls' Sport Academy Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…

  5. SPoRT Participation in the GOES-R and JPSS Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.

  6. Sports drink consumption and diet of children involved in organized sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2013-08-19

    Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p sport children. Children

  7. Individuals’ Motivation to Participate in Sport Tourism: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Aicher; Jessica Brenner

    2015-01-01

    Using self-determination theory (SDT) as a conceptual framework, we utilized previous research to develop a conceptual model to better understand individuals’ motivation to participate in sport tourism and events. The model represents the six propositions we put forward that depict the relationships between motivational factors associated with sport tourism and event participation and individuals’ controlled or autonomous motivation. Specifically, organizational motivations are proposed to en...

  8. Pilot study utilizing Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography for glycolytic phenotyping of canine mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Lynn R; Thamm, Doug H; Selmic, Laura E; Ehrhart, E J; Randall, Elissa

    2018-03-23

    The goal of this prospective pilot study was to use naturally occurring canine mast cell tumors of various grades and stages as a model for attempting to determine how glucose uptake and markers of biologic behavior are correlated. It was hypothesized that enhanced glucose uptake, as measured by 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F18 FDG PET-CT), would correlate with histologic grade. Dogs were recruited for this study from a population referred for treatment of cytologically or histologically confirmed mast cell tumors. Patients were staged utilizing standard of care methods (abdominal ultrasound and three view thoracic radiographs), followed by a whole body F18 FDG PET-CT. Results of the F18 FDG PET-CT were analyzed for possible metastasis and standard uptake value maximum (SUV max ) of identified lesions. Incisional or excisional biopsies of the accessible mast cell tumors were obtained and histology performed. Results were then analyzed to look for a possible correlation between the grade of mast cell tumors and SUV max . A total of nine animals were included in the sample. Findings indicated that there was a correlation between grade of mast cell tumors and SUV max as determined by F18 FDG PET-CT (p-value = 0.073, significance ≤ 0.1). Based on the limited power of this study, it is felt that further research to examine the relationship between glucose utilization and biologic aggressiveness in canine mast cell tumors is warranted. This study was unable to show that F18 FDG PET-CT was a better staging tool than standard of care methods. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian

    2017-01-01

    evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...

  10. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for

  11. Debating the utility of computerised neurocognitive testing in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article was to contribute to an argument regarding the utility of computerised baseline and follow-up neurocognitive testing within the sports concussion arena. Heated debate around this issue via a number of contributions has appeared recently in the journal Current Sports Medicine Reports, with its use ...

  12. Examining elite Parasport athletes with sport involvement and sports equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A

    2015-01-01

    Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  13. It is compatible the sport in scholar age with other social roles? A study through Self-Determination Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado Alonso, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perception of conflict or utility of the sport regarding other social roles and self-determination level in young athletes, focusing on differences among these variables with respect to sex. Hence, we used a sample size of 1897 players from different sport modalities, 1378 male and 519 female. Participants filled a questionnaire to assess self-determination level and other to measure conflict between social roles. Results showed that utility of sport was positive and significantly associated with self-determined motivation, whereas conflict between roles was related with amotivation. Moreover, male athletes showed higher scores in all types of motivation that refer Self-Determination Theory, being the group that perceived the greater incompatibility between sport and other social roles according to their growth age. As a conclusion, we emphasize the necessity to promote intrinsic motives of practice in both sex to increase commitment with the sport activity, and avoid sport dropout that might be happened because of the demands of other contexts that surround young athletes.

  14. Homogenization of Vehicle Fleet Frontal Crash Pulses from 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Toh, Akira; Belwadi, Aditya; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale vehicle crash tests are performed globally to assess vehicle structure and restraint system performance. The crash pulse, captured by accelerometers mounted within the occupant compartment, measures the motion of the vehicle during the impact event. From an occupant’s perspective, the crash pulse is the inertial event to which the vehicle’s restraint systems must respond in order to mitigate the forces and accelerations that act on a passenger, and thus reduce injury risk. The objective of this study was to quantify the characteristics of crash pulses for different vehicle types in the contemporary North American fleet, and delineate current trends in crash pulse evolution. NHTSA and Transport Canada crash test databases were queried for full-frontal rigid barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles model year 2000–2010 with impact angle equaling zero degrees. Acceleration-time histories were analyzed for all accelerometers attached to the vehicle structure within the occupant compartment. Custom software calculated the following crash pulse characteristics (CPCs): peak deceleration, time of peak deceleration, onset rate, pulse duration, and change in velocity. Vehicle body types were classified by adapting the Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) methodology, and vehicles were assigned a generation start year in place of model year in order to more accurately represent structural change over time. 1094 vehicle crash tests with 2795 individual occupant compartment-mounted accelerometers were analyzed. We found greater peak decelerations and and shorter pulse durations across multiple vehicle types in newer model years as compared to older. For midsize passenger cars, large passenger cars, and large SUVs in 56 km/h rigid barrier tests, maximum deceleration increased by 0.40, 0.96, and 1.57 g/year respectively, and pulse duration decreased by 0.74, 1.87, and 2.51 ms/year. We also found that the crash pulse characteristics are becoming more homogeneous in

  15. Some Sports Managers' Views about Values Education through Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç

    2017-01-01

    The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…

  16. A prospective analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with uveal melanoma: comparison between metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) and standardized uptake value (SUV) and correlations with histopathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Rufini, Vittoria; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy); Blasi, Maria Antonietta; Sammarco, Maria Grazia [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Ophthalmology, Roma (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi; Mule, Antonino [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Pathology, Roma (Italy); Indovina, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Physics Unit, Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    To evaluate whether standardized uptake value (SUV) and/or metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) are different among epithelioid, mixed, and spindle cell uveal melanomas, as well as between low and high risk melanomas; to correlate ultrasonographic data and metabolic parameters with histopathological features; and to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for evaluating prognosis. Of 34 eligible patients prospectively enrolled with clinical suspicion of medium/large uveal melanoma, 26 (15 men, mean age 62.8 {+-} 11.8 years) were evaluated. All patients underwent metastatic work-up, 3-D dynamic brain and whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and surgery. Of the 26 ocular lesions, 23 showed {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, with a sensitivity of 88 %. MRglu was significantly higher in the epithelioid cell melanomas than in the spindle cell melanomas, as well as in high-risk lesions than in low-risk lesions (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). SUV and MRglu were correlated with histopathological features while ultrasonographic data were not. MRglu is useful for distinguishing the different cell types in uveal melanoma, as well as high-risk from low-risk lesions, while SUV is not. MRglu provides a more accurate evaluation of glucose consumption, whereas SUV provides only an estimation. In addition, the metabolic parameters correlate with histopathological features, well also reflecting cellular behaviour in ocular malignancy. A longer follow-up is needed to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG in evaluating prognosis. (orig.)

  17. Drag reduction of a reverse-engineered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecrivain, G.; Slaouti, A.; Kennedy, I. [Manchester Metropolitan Univ., Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering and Technology

    2007-08-09

    The aerodynamic performance of a hand-made sports car was numerically assessed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of various shape modifications. The purpose was to achieve a lower drag design. Reverse-engineering was used to create a virtual model of complex 3D shapes for which no computer-aided drawings (CAD) data existed. From the predicted flow, the body could be redesigned for better performance prior to its remanufacturing. This paper described the multidisciplinary procedure involving reverse-engineering and CAD that was used to recreate a suitable watertight model of the sports car. The different errors embedded in the successive stages leading to the final model were accurately assessed and minimized. The whole vehicle was remodelled for drag reduction. Surface reconstruction was carried out, an an accurate set of high quality Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surfaces was produced over the polygonal mesh resulting in a fine visual surface finish with smooth lines and contours, as required in the automotive industry. Further modifications were implemented for the purpose of drag reduction and to improve its aerodynamic performance. The application described in this paper can be extended to any other similarly intricate vehicle or industrial component. 12 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  18. Analysis of Non-Tactical Vehicle Utilization at Fort Carson Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    regenerative braking energy recovery. The mass of the vehicles monitored in this study was not known. However, some useful information may be...Unclassified: Distribution A. Approved for Public Release 2012 NDIA GROUND VEHICLE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM MODELING... regenerative energy recovery potential for specific duty cycles was also quantified through a cumulative assessment of the number and severity of deceleration

  19. Utility of early dynamic and delayed post-diuretic 18F-FDG PET/CT SUVmax in predicting tumour grade and T-stage of urinary bladder carcinoma: results from a prospective single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Mete, Uttam K; Sood, Ashwani; Kakkar, Nandita; Gorla, Arun K R; Mittal, Bhagwant R

    2017-04-01

    Accurate pre-treatment grading and staging of bladder cancer are vital for better therapeutic decision and prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) calculated during early dynamic and post-diuretic fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT studies with grade and pT-stage of bladder cancer. 39 patients with suspected/proven bladder carcinoma underwent 10-min early dynamic pelvic imaging and delayed post-diuretic whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging. SUV max of the lesions derived from both studies was compared with grade and pT-stage. Relationship of SUV max with grade and pT-stage was analyzed using independent sample t-test and analysis of variance. SUV max of the early dynamic imaging showing tumour perfusion was independent from the SUV max of delayed imaging. High-grade tumours showed higher SUV max than low-grade tumours in the early dynamic imaging (5.4 ± 1.4 vs 4.7 ± 1.6; p-value 0.144) with statistically significant higher value in Stage pT1 tumours (6.8 ± 0.8 vs 5.5 ± 1.2; p-value 0.04). Non-invasive pTa tumours had significantly less SUV max than higher stage tumours during early dynamic imaging [F(4,29) = 6.860, p 0.001]. Early dynamic imaging may have a role in predicting the grade and aggressiveness of the bladder tumours and thus can help in treatment planning and prognostication. Advances in knowledge: Dynamic PET/CT is a limitedly explored imaging technique. This prospective pilot study demonstrates the utility of this modality as a potential adjunct to standard FDG PET/CT imaging in predicting the grade and aggressiveness of the bladder tumours and thus can impact the patient management.

  20. Sports physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...

  1. Traffic collisions between electric mobility devices (wheelchairs) and motor vehicles: Accidents, hubris, or self-destructive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBan, Myron M; Nabity, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    This study had its genesis in a personally observed collision between a motor vehicle and a motorized wheelchair (electric mobility device) on a busy street in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing. To the observer, at the time, this appeared to be a suicidal act. This investigation was initiated to both delineate the number of these crashes nationally and understand this phenomena as a potentially planned act of self-destruction. An initial survey of police reports was immediately frustrated by an inability to separate motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions from the much larger group that involved ambulatory citizens because both types were classified together as "pedestrian" accidents. Instead, the search engine NexisLexis was used to identify 107 newspaper articles each of which described a motor vehicle and electric mobility device accident. In the motor vehicle and electric mobility device collisions, men predominated women (3:1 ratio) with an average age of 56 yrs. Sixty of these accidents were fatal. Ninety-four percent involved an electric mobility device and 6% a manual wheelchair. In 50% of the cases, the motor vehicle was a truck, van, or sport utility vehicle. Fifty percent occurred at dusk or dawn or at night. The electric mobility device occupant was cited as the guilty party in 39% of the cases and the driver of the motor vehicle in 27%. Twenty percent were unwitnessed hit-and-run accidents, whereas "no fault" was found in 8% of the cases. Although many accidents do happen by chance, when an electric mobility device operator openly challenges busy traffic by attempting to traverse it in the middle of the block at an unmarked crossing, predisposing psychosocial factors must also be considered. Hubris or premeditated self-destructive behavior or both need to be explored as preeminent issues with reference to the prodromal of the "accident process."

  2. Exposure to sub-concussive head injury in boxing and other sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlanger, David M

    2015-01-01

    Current characterizations of chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI) in boxing, football and other sports are reviewed in the context of the history of research on sub-concussive brain trauma in athletes. The utility of exposure models for understanding CTBI in boxers is examined and concerns regarding the paucity of findings supportive of an exposure model for CTBI in football players are discussed. Recommendations for development of exposure models for sport-specific phenotypic characterizations of CTBI are presented.

  3. SPORT SUPPLEMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandаr Marinkov

    2016-01-01

    Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...

  4. Sports-specific injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M

    1996-04-01

    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  5. Using self-determination theory to explain sport persistence and dropout in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Calvo, Tomás; Cervelló, Eduardo; Jiménez, Ruth; Iglesias, Damián; Moreno Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2010-11-01

    Motivational characteristics are influential in shaping adolescents' desire to persist in sport or to discontinue their sport participation. Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) was utilized as the theoretical framework for this study. This theory examines whether sustained participatory involvement, defined as continued participation in the sport through the next year, was influenced by individuals' self-determined motivation and by the fulfillment of the three basic psychological needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Four hundred ninety two soccer players between the ages of 13 and 17 years comprised the sample. Results indicated sport dropout was explained by higher levels of amotivation, external regulation, and introjected regulation and by lower satisfaction of relatedness and autonomy needs. The findings of this study contribute to the knowledge base on sport dropout as they supported many of self-determination theory.

  6. INTERACTIVE MOTION PLATFORMS AND VIRTUAL REALITY FOR VEHICLE SIMULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evžen Thöndel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactive motion platforms are intended for vehicle simulators, where the direct interaction of the human body is used for controlling the simulated vehicle (e.g. bicycle, motorbike or other sports vehicles. The second use of interactive motion platforms is for entertainment purposes or fitness. The development of interactive motion platforms reacts to recent calls in the simulation industry to provide a device, which further enhances the virtual reality experience, especially with connection to the new and very fast growing business in virtual reality glasses. The paper looks at the design and control of an interactive motion platform with two degrees of freedom to be used in virtual reality applications. The paper provides the description of the control methods and new problems related to the virtual reality sickness are discussed here.

  7. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.

  8. The Legal Landscape of Concussion: Implications for Sports Medicine Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Andrew W; Senter, Carlin; Adler, Richard H; Herring, Stanley A; Asif, Irfan M

    2016-09-01

    Concussion legislation has been enacted in all 50 of the United States, aiming to prevent mild traumatic brain injuries and the potential long-term sequelae of these injuries in youth athletics. Sports medicine providers, in addressing this major public health concern, are tasked with adhering to the established standards of medical care while also considering the legal implications. The PubMed (2011-2016) database was searched using the following search terms: concussion, sports concussion, legislation, and concussion legislation. References from consensus statements, review articles, and book chapters were also utilized. Clinical review. Level 4. The Lystedt law and its progeny have increased awareness of the signs and symptoms of sports concussion, but adherence to state legislation can pose some challenges. The presence of concussion legislation places a responsibility on the sports medicine provider to have a firm understanding of the legality of concussion management in the state(s) in which they practice. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Use of Sports Science Knowledge by Turkish Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    KILIC, KORAY; INCE, MUSTAFA LEVENT

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the following research questions in Turkish coaching context: a) What are coaches’ perceptions on the application of sport science research to their coaching methods? b) What sources do coaches utilize to obtain the knowledge they need? c) What barriers do coaches encounter when trying to access and apply the knowledge they need for their sport? In addition, differences in research questions responses were examined based on gender, years of coaching experience, academic educational level, coaching certificate level, coaching team or individual sports, and being paid or unpaid for coaching. The participants were 321 coaches (255 men, 66 women) from diverse sports and coaching levels working in Ankara. The questionnaire “New Ideas for Coaches” by Reade, Rodgers and Hall (2008) was translated, adapted into Turkish, and validated for the current study. According to our findings among Turkish coaches, there is a high prevalence of beliefs that sport science contributes to sport (79.8%);however, there are gaps between what coaches are looking for and the research that is being conducted. Coaches are most likely to attend seminars or consult other coaches to get new information. Scientific publications were ranked very low by the coaches in getting current information. The barriers to coaches’ access to sport science research are finding out the sources of information, being able to implement the sport science knowledge into the field of coaching, lack of monetary support in acquiring knowledge, and language barriers. Also, differences in perceptions and preferences for obtaining new information were identified based on coaches’ gender, coaching contexts (i.e., professional-amateur), coaching settings (i.e., team/individual), and their other demographic characteristics (i.e., coaching experience, coaching educational level, and coaching certificate level). Future coach education programs should emphasize the development of

  10. Use of Sports Science Knowledge by Turkish Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Koray; Ince, Mustafa Levent

    The purpose of this study is to examine the following research questions in Turkish coaching context: a) What are coaches' perceptions on the application of sport science research to their coaching methods? b) What sources do coaches utilize to obtain the knowledge they need? c) What barriers do coaches encounter when trying to access and apply the knowledge they need for their sport? In addition, differences in research questions responses were examined based on gender, years of coaching experience, academic educational level, coaching certificate level, coaching team or individual sports, and being paid or unpaid for coaching. The participants were 321 coaches (255 men, 66 women) from diverse sports and coaching levels working in Ankara. The questionnaire "New Ideas for Coaches" by Reade, Rodgers and Hall (2008) was translated, adapted into Turkish, and validated for the current study. According to our findings among Turkish coaches, there is a high prevalence of beliefs that sport science contributes to sport (79.8%);however, there are gaps between what coaches are looking for and the research that is being conducted. Coaches are most likely to attend seminars or consult other coaches to get new information. Scientific publications were ranked very low by the coaches in getting current information. The barriers to coaches' access to sport science research are finding out the sources of information, being able to implement the sport science knowledge into the field of coaching, lack of monetary support in acquiring knowledge, and language barriers. Also, differences in perceptions and preferences for obtaining new information were identified based on coaches' gender, coaching contexts (i.e., professional-amateur), coaching settings (i.e., team/individual), and their other demographic characteristics (i.e., coaching experience, coaching educational level, and coaching certificate level). Future coach education programs should emphasize the development of coaches

  11. Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Light-Duty Vehicle Thermal Management Image of a semi improving the thermal efficiency of light-duty vehicles (LDVs) while maintaining the thermal comfort that utility vehicles, vans, and light trucks in use on U.S. roads, and the average American drives 11,300

  12. Promoting physical activity among children and youth in disadvantaged South Australian CALD communities through alternative community sport opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Edoardo; McGrath, Richard

    2016-02-29

    Issue addressed: Recently arrived migrants and refugees from a culturally and linguistically diverse background (CALD) may be particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. Participation in sport is endorsed as a vehicle to ease the resettlement process; however, in Australia, this is often thought as a simple matter of integration into existing sport structures (e.g. clubs). This approach fails to place actual community needs at the centre of sport engagement efforts. Methods: A consultation framework was established with South Australian CALD community leaders and organisations to scope needs for community-based alternatives to participation in traditional sport (e.g. clubs), co-design a suitable community sport program and pilot it in five communities. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participants, community representatives, stakeholders and volunteers. Results: Regular, free soccer activities engaged 263 young people from a great variety of nationalities, including over 50% refugees, in secondary state school and community-based sites. Conclusion: Alternative community sport programs can provide a basic but valuable forum to promote physical activity and associated well being in CALD and refugee communities. So what?: Alternative approaches can extend the health benefits of sport participation to disadvantaged children and youth who are excluded from traditional sport participation opportunities.

  13. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  14. Social neighborhood environment and sports participation among Dutch adults: does sports location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D; Stronks, K; Maas, J; Wingen, M; Kunst, A E

    2015-04-01

    Studies on the relation between the social neighborhood environment and sports participation have produced inconsistent results. Use of generic sports outcomes may have obscured associations only apparent for sports at certain locations. This study aims to assess the association between the social neighborhood environment and three location-specific sports outcomes. Repeated cross-sectional data on sports participation (any type of sports, sports at indoor sports clubs, sports at outdoor sports clubs, sports on streets) were obtained from 20 600 adults using the Dutch national health survey 2006-2009. Data on neighborhood social safety and social capital were obtained using the Dutch Housing Research 2006. Over 40% of Dutch adults participated in any type of sports. Indoor sports clubs were most popular. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that neighborhood social safety was positively associated with sports at indoor sports clubs [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.48), but not with the other sports outcomes. Contrary, neighborhood social capital was positively associated with sports on streets only (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.17-2.44). The results suggest that a positive social neighborhood environment enhances sports participation, but that this impact depends on the location of the sports activity. This study highlights the importance of using location-specific sports outcomes when assessing environmental determinants. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. SPORT MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  16. Virtual(ly) Athletes: Where eSports Fit within the Definition of "Sport"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Seth E.; Manning, R. Douglas; Keiper, Margaret C.; Olrich, Tracy W.

    2017-01-01

    Electronic sports, cybersports, gaming, competitive computer gaming, and virtual sports are all synonyms for the term eSports. Regardless of the term used, eSports is now becoming more accepted as a "sport" and gamers are being identified as "athletes" within society today. eSports has even infiltrated higher education in the…

  17. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  18. Sport Tourism Centres from Top Athletes’ Perspective: Differences among Sport Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polanec Anze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sport tourism plays an important role in the tourism industry and consequently in the economy. Sport tourism centres as providers of sport services need to be familiar with the basic needs of their customers and tailor their services accordingly. Objectives: The aim of the paper is to determine the models for customizing sport tourism services to address the needs specific for an individual sport. Methods/Approach: A questionnaire has been created and sent electronically or physically to top athletes from Slovenia, Central and Eastern Europe. Respondents were mainly from Slovenia and mostly representatives of national sports federations. The Mann Whitney and the Kruskall-Wallis tests were applied in order to test differences among sport groups. Results: The conducted Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests show that representatives of different sport groups have different perspectives on sport tourism services. Conclusions: The results of the study can be used by sport tourism centres in the process of tailoring their services, planning marketing activities or developing strategic projects.

  19. Energy management and vehicle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czysz, P.; Murthy, S. N. B.

    The major drivers in the development of launch vehicles for the twenty-first century are reduction in cost of vehicles and operations, continuous reusability, mission abort capability with vehicle recovery, and readiness. One approach to the design of such vehicles is to emphasize energy management and propulsion as being the principal means of improvements given the available industrial capability and the required freedom in selecting configuration concept geometries. A methodology has been developed for the rational synthesis of vehicles based on the setting up and utilization of available data and projections, and a reference vehicle. The application of the methodology is illustrated for a single stage to orbit (SSTO) with various limits for the use of airbreathing propulsion.

  20. Sports facilities: a problem of school sports in Nigeria | Olajide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...

  1. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    be interpreted considering the athlete's body-mass index (BMI) and phase of the competitive season; use of cystatin C could be a reliable alternative to creatinine. Exercise and training induce adaptations in glucose metabolism which improve glucose utilization in athletes and are beneficial for reducing insulin insensitivity in nonathletes. Glucose metabolism differs slightly for different sports disciplines, as revealed in laboratory levels. Sport activities induce a blood lipid profile superior to that of sedentary subjects. There are few reports for a definitive conclusion, however. The differences between athletes and sedentary subjects are mainly due to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) concentrations in physically active individuals, although some differences among sport disciplines exist. The effect of sports on serum and urinary markers for bone metabolism is not univocal; further studies are needed to establish the real and effective influence of sport on bone turnover and especially to establish its beneficial effect.

  2. Evidence - based medicine/practice in sports physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Robert C; Lehecka, B J

    2012-10-01

    A push for the use of evidence-based medicine and evidence-based practice patterns has permeated most health care disciplines. The use of evidence-based practice in sports physical therapy may improve health care quality, reduce medical errors, help balance known benefits and risks, challenge views based on beliefs rather than evidence, and help to integrate patient preferences into decision-making. In this era of health care utilization sports physical therapists are expected to integrate clinical experience with conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of research evidence in order to make clearly informed decisions in order to help maximize and optimize patient well-being. One of the more common reasons for not using evidence in clinical practice is the perceived lack of skills and knowledge when searching for or appraising research. This clinical commentary was developed to educate the readership on what constitutes evidence-based practice, and strategies used to seek evidence in the daily clinical practice of sports physical therapy.

  3. Talent Identification in Sport: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kathryn; Wattie, Nick; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Talent identification (TID) programs are an integral part of the selection process for elite-level athletes. While many sport organizations utilize TID programs, there does not seem to be a clear set of variables that consistently predict future success. This review aims to synthesize longitudinal and retrospective studies examining differences between performance variables in highly skilled and less-skilled athletes in elite-level sport. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to identify relevant studies (N = 20). There was a clear overrepresentation of studies that (1) examined physical profiles of athletes (60%); (2) focused on male samples (65%); (3) examined athletes between the ages of 10 and 20 years (60%); and (4) were published between the years 2010 and 2015 (65%). On closer examination, there was a high degree of variability in the factors that were found to discriminate between skilled and less-skilled individuals. Findings from this review highlight how little is known about TID in elite sport and emphasize the need for greater diversity in TID research.

  4. Adult sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic brain injury during aquatic sports was similarly associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOSs, medical complications, and failure to be discharged to

  5. Utilization of the Flexibility Potential of Electric Vehicles - an Alternative to Distribution Grid Reinforcements.

    OpenAIRE

    Ager-Hanssen, Siri Bruskeland; Myhre, Siri Olimb

    2015-01-01

    Today, the transport sector accounts for a large share of global emissions. Electric vehicles have many environmental advantages compared to conventional petrol vehicles. Hence, if electric vehicles can replace petrol vehicles, the transportation sector's total emissions can be significantly reduced. In Norway, due to policy incentives, it is expected that the number of electric vehicles will increase considerably in the near future. Despite the great advantages of electric vehicles, large pe...

  6. Dynamics of introduction of type teaching of senior pupils to sporting direction in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitovych I.N.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The indexes of dynamics of introduction of sporting direction of the type teaching of senior pupils in Ukraine are resulted. In research is utillized statistical information of different organizations in relation to activity of the type teaching. The percent distributing of students of sporting classes and establishments in which they study on regions is set. The levels of scope of senior pupils this type of studies are selected depending on the region of residence. The tendency of the personal interest of schoolboys a physical culture and sport at type level is marked. Sporting direction of the type teaching is selected, that allows organize professional preparation of students of senior school in industry of physical culture, sport and tourism. It is set that on the whole on Ukraine the middle index of percent of students which wished to visit the type classes of sporting direction hesitated from 2,6% to 3,0%.

  7. Sport's offer as an instrument of sports marketing mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .

  8. Sports drink consumption and diet of children involved in organized sport

    OpenAIRE

    Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children?s participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study wa...

  9. Age and pedestrian injury severity in motor-vehicle crashes: a heteroskedastic logit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joon-Ki; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F; Shankar, Venkataraman N; Kim, Sungyop

    2008-09-01

    This research explores the injury severity of pedestrians in motor-vehicle crashes. It is hypothesized that the variance of unobserved pedestrian characteristics increases with age. In response, a heteroskedastic generalized extreme value model is used. The analysis links explanatory factors with four injury outcomes: fatal, incapacitating, non-incapacitating, and possible or no injury. Police-reported crash data between 1997 and 2000 from North Carolina, USA, are used. The results show that pedestrian age induces heteroskedasticity which affects the probability of fatal injury. The effect grows more pronounced with increasing age past 65. The heteroskedastic model provides a better fit than the multinomial logit model. Notable factors increasing the probability of fatal pedestrian injury: increasing pedestrian age, male driver, intoxicated driver (2.7 times greater probability of fatality), traffic sign, commercial area, darkness with or without streetlights (2-4 times greater probability of fatality), sport-utility vehicle, truck, freeway, two-way divided roadway, speeding-involved, off roadway, motorist turning or backing, both driver and pedestrian at fault, and pedestrian only at fault. Conversely, the probability of a fatal injury decreased: with increasing driver age, during the PM traffic peak, with traffic signal control, in inclement weather, on a curved roadway, at a crosswalk, and when walking along roadway.

  10. ACL Return to Sport Guidelines and Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, George J; McCarty, Eric; Provencher, Matthew; Manske, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    Because of the epidemiological incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, the high reinjury rates that occur when returning back to sports, the actual number of patients that return to the same premorbid level of competition, the high incidence of osteoarthritis at 5-10-year follow-ups, and the effects on the long-term health of the knee and the quality of life for the patient, individualizing the return to sports after ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) is critical. However, one of the challenging but unsolved dilemmas is what criteria and clinical decision making should be used to return an athlete back to sports following an ACL-R. This article describes an example of a functional testing algorithm (FTA) as one method for clinical decision making based on quantitative and qualitative testing and assessment utilized to make informed decisions to return an athlete to their sports safely and without compromised performance. The methods were a review of the best current evidence to support a FTA. In order to evaluate all the complicated domains of the clinical decision making for individualizing the return to sports after ACL-R, numerous assessments need to be performed including the biopsychosocial concepts, impairment testing, strength and power testing, functional testing, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). The optimum criteria to use for individualizing the return to sports after ACL-R remain elusive. However, since this decision needs to be made on a regular basis with the safety and performance factors of the patient involved, this FTA provides one method of quantitatively and qualitatively making the decisions. Admittedly, there is no predictive validity of this system, but it does provide practical guidelines to facilitate the clinical decision making process for return to sports. The clinical decision to return an athlete back into competition has significant implications ranging from the safety of the athlete, to performance factors and actual

  11. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC SPORTS INJURIES: INDIVIDUAL SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Caine

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to

  12. oh sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.

  13. Sport Psychology: Myths in Sport Education and Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Joy

    2008-01-01

    From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…

  14. AMERICAN SPORT AND THE SPORTS HEROES OF THE ROARING TWENTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Mazurkiewicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to show the role of sport in American society against the background of a very important—for many reasons—period of great social transformation in the United States, one which visibly gathered pace in the 1920s. The author presents different aspects of popular culture, which was in full bloom on account of the following factors: the joy after World War I, a sense of optimism, the development of the economy and industry, the growth of big cities, and the greater affluence of the citizens. The analysis of that unusual decade corroborates the role of sport and its great power of influence on society. In an age when technology and mass production had robbed experiences and objects of their uniqueness, sports provided some of the unpredictability and drama that people craved when looking for romance and adventure. The reasons for the popularity of sport in the USA are presented, as well as the major sports diciplines and heroes of American sport who, in a time when mass production seemed to be making individuals less significant, met with a favorable response—people clung to the heroic personalities of sports figures. The analysis of the beginnings of professionalism in sport, the beginnings of organized support, and sports broadcasting, leaves no doubt as to the significance of the period. As the article demonstrates, it was a time of rapid and profound transformation in the realm of sport. Every serious examination of phenomena in contemporary American sport—and this is also true in the case of other countries—without a knowledge of the specificity of sport in the 1920s, would be far from perfect.

  15. Proximity to Sports Facilities and Sports Participation for Adolescents in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689

  16. Proximity to sports facilities and sports participation for adolescents in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K Reimers

    Full Text Available To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany.A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11-17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities.The logistic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively.Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas.

  17. Technology and Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...

  18. Population levels of sport participation: implications for sport policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Eime

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. Methods This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4–100 years by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan. Results Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian’s participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10–14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15–19 year age group compared to the 10–14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10–14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. Conclusions It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5–14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended

  19. MANAGEMENT PARTICULARITIES IN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN NEFERU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.

  20. Sport Tourism Centres from Top Athletes’ Perspective: Differences among Sport Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Polanec, Anže

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sport tourism plays an important role in the tourism industry and consequently in the economy. Sport tourism centres as providers of sport services need to be familiar with the basic needs of their customers and tailor their services accordingly. Objectives: The aim of the paper is to determine the models for customizing sport tourism services to address the needs specific for an individual sport. Methods/Approach: A questionnaire has been created and sent electronically or physic...

  1. Epidemiology of concussions among United States high school athletes in 20 sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marar, Mallika; McIlvain, Natalie M; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2012-04-01

    In the United States (US), an estimated 300,000 sports-related concussions occur annually. Among individuals 15 to 24 years of age, sports are second only to motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of concussions. To investigate the epidemiology of concussions in high school athletes by comparing rates and patterns of concussion among 20 sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using an Internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers from a large, nationally disperse sample of US high schools reported athlete exposure and injury data for 20 sports during the 2008-2010 academic years. During the study period, 1936 concussions were reported during 7,780,064 athlete-exposures (AEs) for an overall injury rate of 2.5 per 10,000 AEs. The injury rate was higher in competition (6.4) than practice (1.1) (rate ratio [RR], 5.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-6.3). The majority of concussions resulted from participation in football (47.1%, n = 912), followed by girls' soccer (8.2%, n = 159), boys' wrestling (5.8%, n = 112), and girls' basketball (5.5%, n = 107). Football had the highest concussion rate (6.4), followed by boys' ice hockey (5.4) and boys' lacrosse (4.0). Concussions represented a greater proportion of total injuries among boys' ice hockey (22.2%) than all other sports studied (13.0%) (injury proportion ratio [IPR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P sports, girls had a higher concussion rate (1.7) than boys (1.0) (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.0). The most common mechanisms of injury were player-player contact (70.3%) and player-playing surface contact (17.2%). In more than 40% of athletes in sports other than girls' swimming and girls' track, concussion symptoms resolved in 3 days or less. Athletes most commonly returned to play in 1 to 3 weeks (55.3%), with 22.8% returning in less than 1 week and 2.0% returning in less than 1 day. Although interest in sports-related concussions is usually focused on full-contact sports like football and ice hockey

  2. The nature of sport and its relation to the aesthetic dimension of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Kobiela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss the aesthetics of sport I shall start with some metaphysical considerations: instead of using the notion of essence (definition of sport, understood as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions, I shall try to base these considerations on the notion of the nature of sport. In my understanding, the nature of sport is a very basic phenomenon that lies at the origin and shapes the history of sport. It is a technology of training and mastering physical skills valued for themselves. Now, the aesthetic dimension of sport is based on the technically valuable qualities of sports, which are the consecutive properties of sport. Such qualities are present in all types of sport, not only in the so-called ‘aesthetic sports’ (Best or ‘performances’ (Suits. Finally, I advance a thesis that although sport is not a form of art, its aesthetic dimension is closer to the nature of sport than its ethical dimension.

  3. Report on Sport 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...

  4. [Music, pulse, heart and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Leischik, R

    2018-02-01

    Music, with its various elements, such as rhythm, sound and melody had the unique ability even in prehistoric, ancient and medieval times to have a special fascination for humans. Nowadays, it is impossible to eliminate music from our daily lives. We are accompanied by music in shopping arcades, on the radio, during sport or leisure time activities and in wellness therapy. Ritualized drumming was used in the medical sense to drive away evil spirits or to undergo holy enlightenment. Today we experience the varied effects of music on all sensory organs and we utilize its impact on cardiovascular and neurological rehabilitation, during invasive cardiovascular procedures or during physical activities, such as training or work. The results of recent studies showed positive effects of music on heart rate and in therapeutic treatment (e. g. music therapy). This article pursues the impact of music on the body and the heart and takes sports medical aspects from the past and the present into consideration; however, not all forms of music and not all types of musical activity are equally suitable and are dependent on the type of intervention, the sports activity or form of movement and also on the underlying disease. This article discusses the influence of music on the body, pulse, on the heart and soul in the past and the present day.

  5. Theoretical integration and the psychology of sport injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin King-Chung; Hagger, Martin S

    2012-09-01

    Integrating different theories of motivation to facilitate or predict behaviour change has received an increasing amount of attention within the health, sport and exercise science literature. A recent review article in Sports Medicine, by Keats, Emery and Finch presented an integrated model using two prominent theories in social psychology, self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), aimed at explaining and enhancing athletes' adherence to sport injury prevention. While echoing their optimistic views about the utility of these two theories to explain adherence in this area and the virtues of theoretical integration, we would like to seize this opportunity to clarify several conceptual principles arising from the authors' integration of the theories. Clarifying the theoretical assumptions and explaining precisely how theoretical integration works is crucial not only for improving the comprehensiveness of the integrated framework for predicting injury prevention behaviour, but also to aid the design of effective intervention strategies targeting behavioural adherence. In this article, we use the integration of SDT and TPB as an example to demonstrate how theoretical integration can advance the understanding of injury prevention behaviour in sport.

  6. Sport and Society: An Introduction to Sociology of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hilmi

    A theoretical framework for the study of sport sociology is provided in this text. It is intended for students of sport, arts and humanities, sociology, and social psychology. Sport and social organization are discussed first. Three models of societies and six theories of social organization are presented which form the basis of the eclectic…

  7. FUNCTION of MANAGEMENT IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.

  8. Capitalising on CSR-based partnerships in sports branding and sports sponsorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    . Inspired by Shank's (2009) notion of the sports brand building process, i.e.: 1) brand awareness; 2) brand image; 3) brand equity; 4) brand loyalty, the interacting nature of sports brands exemplified by how sports brands at the corporate level interact with sports brands at the personal and product levels......The purpose of this article is to develop a toolkit for academics and practitioners, which elaborates on how strategic application of corporate social responsibility (CSR) may guide sports branding initiatives and sponsorship partnerships and lead to increased levels of brand capitalisation...... is integrated in the article. This is done to propose how these interactions may increase the effect of the work with strategic CSR on corporate sports brands....

  9. Assessing the sociology of sport : On critical sport sociology and sport management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, Annelies Knoppers, one of the leading scholars in understanding the culture of sport in organizational settings, considers how the critical lens of sociology can enhance and mesh with research on sport management. Knoppers argues that there have been

  10. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided.

  11. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165

  12. Sport Specialization, Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420

  13. Psychosocial development through Masters sport: What can be gained from youth sport models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Stone, Rachael C; Gayman, Amy M

    2018-07-01

    Although sport participation is encouraged throughout the lifespan, little research has been conducted on the role of sport in development later in life. This qualitative study explored adults' experiences of development within the context of Masters sport. We interviewed 14 adults (nine men and five women) aged 46-61 years involved in Masters sport. Data was interpreted drawing upon frameworks from youth sport (i.e., Personal Assets Framework for Sport; Côté, J., Bruner, M., Strachan, L., Erickson, K., & Fraser-Thomas, J. (2010). Athletes' development and coaching. In J. Lyle & C. Cushion (Eds.), Sport coaching: Professionalism and practice (pp. 63-83). Oxford, UK: Elsevier, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Evans, M. B. (2014). The dynamic process of development through sport. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 20(3), 14-26, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Vieerima, M. (2016). A personal assets approach to youth sport. In K. Green & A. Smith (Eds.), Routledge handbook of youth sport (pp. 243-255). New York, NY: Routledge; 4/5Cs of positive youth development; Lerner, R. M., Fisher, C. B., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). Toward a science for and of the people: Promoting civil society through the application of developmental science. Child Development, 71(1), 11-20. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00113; Vierimaa, M., Erickson, K., Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2012). Positive youth development: A measurement framework for sport. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 7(3), 601-614. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.7.3.601), combined with past research on mid-life and older athletes. Six key themes emerged as contributing to adults' personal development through sport: competence and confidence, character, commitment, connection, cognition, and challenge. Masters sport contexts appeared to facilitate changes in assets (i.e., 6Cs) similar to those within youth sport, but assets often held different meanings within the context of later life. Applying frameworks from youth sport and developmental

  14. Sport and measurement of competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.

    Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are

  15. Writing lives in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those......Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...

  16. 10 CFR 490.307 - Option for Electric Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Option for Electric Utilities. 490.307 Section 490.307... Provider Vehicle Acquisition Mandate § 490.307 Option for Electric Utilities. (a) A covered person or its... selling, at wholesale or retail, electricity has the option of delaying the vehicle acquisition mandate...

  17. Report on Sport 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel

    2003-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not

  18. Spatial accessibility to specific sport facilities and corresponding sport practice: the RECORD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Chaix, Basile

    2013-04-20

    Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport activities should improve the spatial and

  19. Interlanguage comparison of sport discourse (on the material of sport analytic article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavryushina Ekaterina Alexandrovna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of cultural and mental specificity of language units in the sport communication. The study was conducted on the material of English, Russian and German analytical articles, thematically related to tennis. Using the technique of cross-language comparison it is revealed significant characteristic parameters of sports discourse. The proposed comparative procedure consists in three stages of analysis: linguistic, cognitive-communicative and linguistic-cultural. During the analysis at each step there were identified certain criteria specific to the sport discourse in three linguasocieties. Sport communication reflects not only the specificity and originality of the language, but also the traditions, history, mentality, culture, and behavior patterns of modern professional sport community. Comparative study of sport discourse reveals the cultural, linguistic and cognitive features of sublanguage sports and allows to get a common view of the structure of sport analytical articles.

  20. Sports cream overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  1. NANOTECHNOLOGY AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.

  2. Sporting Chance: Indigenous Participation in Australian Sport History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Gorman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For many non-Indigenous Australians the only time they have any engagement with Indigenous peoples, history or issues is through watching sport on television or being at a football match at the MCG. This general myopia and indifference by settler Australians with Indigenous Australians manifests itself in many ways but perhaps most obscenely in the simple fact that Indigenous Australians die nearly 20 years younger than the rest of Australias citizens. Many non-Indigenous Australians do not know this. Sport in many ways has offered Indigenous Australians a platform from which to begin the slow, hard process for social justice and equity to be actualised. This paper will discuss the participation of Indigenous Australians in sport and show how sport has enabled Indigenous Australians to create a space so that they can speak out against the injustices they have experienced and to further improve on relations going into the future. The central contention is that through sport all Australians can begin a process of engaging with Indigenous history as a means to improve race relations between the two groups.

  3. Practical strategies of wind energy utilization for uninhabited aerial vehicles in loiter flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Hong Yang

    Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is becoming increasingly attractive in missions where human presence is undesirable or impossible. Agile maneuvers and long endurance are among the most desired advantages of UAVs over aircraft that have human pilots onboard. Past studies suggest that the performance of UAVs may be considerably improved by utilizing natural resources, especially wind energy, during flights. The key challenge of exploiting wind energy in practical UAV operations lies in the availability of reliable and timely wind field information in the operational region. This thesis presents a practical onboard strategy that attempts to over-come this challenge, to enable UAVs in utilizing wind energy effectively during flights, and therefore to enhance performance. We propose and explore a strategy that combines wind measurement and optimal trajectory planning onboard UAVs. During a cycle of a loiter flight, a UAV can take measurements of wind velocity components over the flight region, use these measurements to estimate the local wind field through a model-based approach, and then compute a flight trajectory for the next flight cycle with the objective of optimizing fuel. As the UAV follows the planned trajectory, it continues to measure the wind components and repeats the process of updating the wind model with new estimations and planning optimal trajectories for the next flight cycle. Besides presenting an onboard trajectory planning strategy of wind energy exploration, estimation, and utilization, this research also develops a semi-analytical linearized solution to the formulated nonlinear optimal control problem. Simulations and numerical results indicate that the fuel savings of trajectories generated using the proposed scheme depend on wind speed, wind estimation errors, rates of change in wind speed, and the wind model structures. For a given wind field, the magnitude of potential fuel savings is also contingent upon UAVs' performance capabilities.

  4. Using Sport Education in a University Physical Activity Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Danielle; Wahl-Alexander, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    At a majority of colleges and universities around the country, basic activity courses are taught predicated on teaching students basic skills and instilling healthy habits. The purpose of this article is to outline and describe a physical conditioning course that utilized the sport education (SE) model and emphasized outside engagement to instill…

  5. Design considerations to improve cognitive ergonomic issues of unmanned vehicle interfaces utilizing video game controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppold, P; Rupp, M; Mouloua, M; Hancock, P A; Martin, J

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned (UAVs, UCAVs, and UGVs) systems still have major human factors and ergonomic challenges related to the effective design of their control interface systems, crucial to their efficient operation, maintenance, and safety. Unmanned system interfaces with a human centered approach promote intuitive interfaces that are easier to learn, and reduce human errors and other cognitive ergonomic issues with interface design. Automation has shifted workload from physical to cognitive, thus control interfaces for unmanned systems need to reduce mental workload on the operators and facilitate the interaction between vehicle and operator. Two-handed video game controllers provide wide usability within the overall population, prior exposure for new operators, and a variety of interface complexity levels to match the complexity level of the task and reduce cognitive load. This paper categorizes and provides taxonomy for 121 haptic interfaces from the entertainment industry that can be utilized as control interfaces for unmanned systems. Five categories of controllers were based on the complexity of the buttons, control pads, joysticks, and switches on the controller. This allows the selection of the level of complexity needed for a specific task without creating an entirely new design or utilizing an overly complex design.

  6. Field sports and conservation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, T E E; Smith, R J; Harrop, S R; Leader-Williams, N

    2003-05-29

    Many natural habitats exist on privately owned land outside protected areas, but few governments can afford to enforce or subsidize conservation of this biodiversity. Even in some developed countries, conservation subsidy schemes have only achieved limited success. Fortunately, some landowners may be willing to accept management costs in return for other benefits, although this remains controversial when it involves the killing of charismatic species. For example, participants in British field sports, such as fox hunting and game-bird shooting, may voluntarily conserve important habitats that are required by quarry species. Here we report results from a multidisciplinary study that addressed this issue by focusing on three sites across central England. We found that landowners participating in field sports maintained the most established woodland and planted more new woodland and hedgerows than those who did not, despite the equal availability of subsidies. Therefore, voluntary habitat management appears to be important for biodiversity conservation in Britain. Current debates on the future of field sports in Britain, and similar activities globally, may benefit from considering their utility as incentives to conserve additional habitat on private land.

  7. Coexistence and sport: the Israeli case

    OpenAIRE

    Yair Galily; Michael Leitner; Pini Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing sports and other recreational activities to foster peaceful relations and coexistence is an idea that has gained popularity in recent years, particularly in Israel. The aim of the current research is to fill a gap in the research literature on the subject of coexistence programming. The Mifalot organization conducts a program called “Get to Know Your Neighbor” in which Palestinian, Jordanian, and Israeli youth play soccer together. The program, based mainly on the participants’ love...

  8. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  9. Is there a link between previous exposure to sport injury psychology education and UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals' attitudes and behaviour towards sport psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Caroline A; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K

    2017-01-01

    The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not. Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists with a mean of 9.22 years' experience of working in sport) completed an online survey and were grouped according to their level of previous exposure to sport injury psychology education at an undergraduate/postgraduate level. Analyses were undertaken to establish whether there were any differences in sport psychology related attitude (MANOVA), usage (MANOVA), and referral behaviours (chi square) between the groups. The MANOVA and chi square tests conducted revealed that those who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury reported using significantly more sport psychology in their practice and making more referrals to sport psychologists. It was concluded that sport injury psychology education appears to be effective in increasing the sport psychology related behaviours (use of sport psychology and referral) of SIRPs and should be integrated into professional training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sports and Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...

  11. Art and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Anne G.

    1973-01-01

    An aesthetic dimension of sport appreciation is found in the paintings and sculptures of great masters who were intrigued by the subject of sports. This article presents specifics on bringing sports art into the classroom. (Authors/JA)

  12. 76 FR 4298 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... use, including passenger cars, race cars, station wagons, sport utility vehicles, minivans, mobile...--Identifies a tire intended primarily for service on passenger cars; LT--Identifies a tire intended primarily...

  13. 75 FR 64259 - Certain New Pneumatic Off-the-Road Tires From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... use, including passenger cars, race cars, station wagons, sport utility vehicles, minivans, mobile...--Identifies a tire intended primarily for service on passenger cars; LT--Identifies a tire intended primarily...

  14. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 2, data management plan - Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    The Wyoming Department of Transportations (WYDOT) Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot Deployment Program is intended to develop a suite of applications that utilize vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication technology to ...

  15. Utilization Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune. Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (Intertek) to conduct several U.S. Department of Defense base studies to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 1 consisted of a survey of the non-tactical fleet of vehicles at MCBCL to begin the review of vehicle mission assignments and types of vehicles in service. Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of the charging infrastructure required to support this replacement, which is the subject of a separate report. Intertek acknowledges the support of Idaho National Laboratory, Marine Corps headquarters, and Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune Fleet management and personnel for participation in this study. Intertek is pleased to provide this report and is encouraged by enthusiasm and support from MCBCL personnel.

  16. Refleksiv Sports Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Billy

    2013-01-01

    Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...

  17. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Scott B.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle purchase subsidies linked to EV battery capacity and subsidies for installing charging stations. We assess the cost-effectiveness of increased battery capacity vs. nondomestic charging infrastructure installation for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as alternate methods to reduce gasoline consumption for cars, trucks, and SUVs in the US. We find across a wide range of scenarios that the least-cost solution is for more drivers to switch to low-capacity plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (short electric range with gasoline backup for long trips) or gasoline-powered hybrid electric vehicles. If more gasoline savings are needed per vehicle, nondomestic charging infrastructure installation is substantially more expensive than increased battery capacity per gallon saved, and both approaches have higher costs than US oil premium estimates. Cost effectiveness of all subsidies are lower under a binding fuel economy standard. Comparison of results to the structure of current federal subsidies shows that policy is not aligned with fuel savings potential, and we discuss issues and alternatives. - Highlights: ► We compare cost of PHEV batteries vs. charging infrastructure per gallon of gasoline saved. ► The lowest cost solution is to switch more drivers to low-capacity PHEVs and HEVs. ► If more gasoline savings is needed, batteries offer a better value than chargers. ► Extra batteries and chargers are both more costly per gal than oil premium estimates. ► Current subsidies are misaligned with fuel savings. We discuss alternatives.

  18. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... assessment and management • Care of sports-related and general medical needs of athletes • Special populations (geriatric, disabled, women, youth, etc.) • Sports psychology issues • Substance use issues • Education and counseling on ...

  19. The Commonwealth Games as an Example of Bringing States Closer Through Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobierecki Michał Marcin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to investigate the issue of positive sports diplomacy directed at bringing countries closer and deepening cooperation between them. Generally, sports diplomacy is a broader term and may include various ways of utilizing sport, both negative and positive, even for the sake of nation-branding. Positive sports diplomacy most commonly refers to bringing hostile states closer together, but it may also be used to deepen political alliances or foster friendship and cooperation between states that are not mutually hostile. The research focuses on the latter form of positive sports diplomacy. The investigation is a case study concerning the Commonwealth Games, a sports event that is held once every four years and gathers countries and territories that used to belong to the former British Empire. The research therefore aims to determine whether this event, the second largest multisport event in the world, is significant from political and diplomatic perspectives. A second research question concerns whether the Commonwealth Games should be seen as an attempt by Great Britain to maintain influence in its former colonies. The research attempts to test the hypothesis that the Commonwealth Games are an important contributor to sustaining ties between states of the former British Empire.

  20. Connected Vehicle Pilot Deployment Program, Comprehensive Installation Plan - WYDOT CV Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-16

    The Wyoming Department of Transportation's (WYDOT) Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot Deployment Program is intended to develop a suite of applications that utilize vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication technology to re...

  1. The importance of sport psychology in school sport | le Roux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in sport, the effect of motivation in sport on academic performance, the fundamental cause of anxiety in sport, the fact that female athletes are likely to be relatively more comfortable with male authority figures as coaches, etcetera. The empirical research revealed that discrepancies exist between the perceptions of teacher ...

  2. Utilization of rotor kinetic energy storage for hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-05-03

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine, the power system comprises an electric machine (12) further comprising a first excitation source (47), a permanent magnet rotor (28) and a magnetic coupling rotor (26) spaced from the permanent magnet rotor and at least one second excitation source (43), the magnetic coupling rotor (26) also including a flywheel having an inertial mass to store kinetic energy during an initial acceleration to an operating speed; and wherein the first excitation source is electrically connected to the second excitation source for power cycling such that the flywheel rotor (26) exerts torque on the permanent magnet rotor (28) to assist braking and acceleration of the permanent magnet rotor (28) and consequently, the vehicle. An axial gap machine and a radial gap machine are disclosed and methods of the invention are also disclosed.

  3. Computerized neurocognitive testing in the management of sport-related concussion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-12-01

    Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings.

  4. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  5. Utilization Assessment of Target Electrification Vehicles at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island: Task 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Steve [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Several U.S. Department of Defense based studies have been conducted to identify potential U.S. Department of Defense transportation systems that are strong candidates for introduction or expansion of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Task 2 involved identifying daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and initiating data logging of vehicle movements in order to characterize the vehicle’s mission. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to PEV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (collectively referred to as PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements and provide observations related to placement of PEV charging infrastructure. This report provides the results of the data analysis and observations related to replacement of current vehicles with PEVs. This fulfills part of the Task 3 requirements. Task 3 also includes an assessment of the charging infrastructure required to support this replacement, which is the subject of a separate report.

  6. The benefits and costs of new fuels and engines for light-duty vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Ryan; Griffin, James P; Graham, John D

    2008-10-01

    Rising oil prices and concerns about energy security and climate change are spurring reconsideration of both automobile propulsion systems and the fuels that supply energy to them. In addition to the gasoline internal combustion engine, recent years have seen alternatives develop in the automotive marketplace. Currently, hybrid-electric vehicles, advanced diesels, and flex-fuel vehicles running on a high percentage mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E85) are appearing at auto shows and in driveways. We conduct a rigorous benefit-cost analysis from both the private and societal perspective of the marginal benefits and costs of each technology--using the conventional gasoline engine as a baseline. The private perspective considers only those factors that influence the decisions of individual consumers, while the societal perspective accounts for environmental, energy, and congestion externalities as well. Our analysis illustrates that both hybrids and diesels show promise for particular light-duty applications (sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks), but that vehicles running continuously on E85 consistently have greater costs than benefits. The results for diesels were particularly robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses. The results from the societal analysis are qualitatively similar to the private analysis, demonstrating that the most relevant factors to the benefit-cost calculations are the factors that drive the individual consumer's decision. We conclude with a brief discussion of marketplace and public policy trends that will both illustrate and influence the relative adoption of these alternative technologies in the United States in the coming decade.

  7. Rasch Calibration of Perceived Weights of Different Sports Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Jo; Kang, Minsoo

    2006-01-01

    In many countries, an athlete's performance at sporting competitions is often used as part of the selection criteria for entry into college. These criteria could be biased depending upon the procedures utilized by the authorities in a particular country. The purpose of this study was to calibrate, by using the Rasch rating scale model, the…

  8. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important functions of a sport business. This is because the sport marketing activities will define the business. The growth of the sport industry is phenomenal and shows no signs of slowing. Also, sport marketing is a process. A process is a continuous cycle. Therefore, marketing is a function that never ends. The sport marketing management model is an illustration of the elements and process of sport marketing. It should serve as a guide for managing the company’s marketing functions. The model illustrates the elements of marketing, the succession of elements and functions, the process of managing, and the interdependence of the elements This paper presents an overview of the model, sport marketing management, each element and the process.

  9. Sport injuries treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme S. Nunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The risk of injuries related to physical activity and sports may increase if there is predisposition, inappropriate training and/or coach guidance, and absence of sports medicine follow-up. Objective: To assess the frequency of injuries in athletes treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports. Methods: For the data collection was carried out the survey of injuries in records of athletes treated in eight years of activities. The data collected included: characteristics of patients, sport, injury kind, injury characteristics and affected body part. Results: From 1090 patient/athlete records, the average age was 25 years old, the athletes were spread across 44 different sports modalities, being the great majority men (75%. The most common type of injury was joint injury, followed by muscular and bone injuries. Chronic injury was the most frequent (47%, while the most common body part injured was the knee, followed by ankle and shoulder. Among all the sports, soccer, futsal, and track and field presented the highest number of injured athletes, respectively. Conclusion: Soccer was the most common sport among the injured athletes, injury kind most frequent was joint injuries and knee was the body part most injured. Chronic injuries were the most common.

  10. [Sport and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pène, Pierre; Touitou, Yvan

    2009-02-01

    The report of the National Academy of Medicine named "Sport and Health" underlines the medical, social and educational dimensions of sporting activities. Various kinds of sporting practices are described: they concern the approximately 7,000 high level athletes, around 8,000 professional (licensed) sportsmen, and sporting club members (approximately 15 millions people). A large number of amateurs do not practice in any structure and therefore are neither managed in their activities nor medically followed. Some characteristics of sporting practice at various stages of life have been documented. Around 50% of the teenagers from 12 to 17 years have a sporting practice out-of-school besides the weekly three hours applied at school or college; however, the withdrawal of sporting practice by a high number of teenagers results in a sedentary lifestyle with overweight and obesity, major risks factors for health. Elderly people take a profit from a regular and medically controlled physical activity. Functional capacities are thus improved, cardiovascular risks factors among other, which results in better quality of life of the aged and delays their dependence. The benefit upon public health of sporting practice has been pointed out in the primary prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and mood disturbances. It is currently well acknowledged that sporting practice is an important component of public health in both primary and secondary prevention of many diseases. Deleterious effects of which the most serious is the sudden death related to a cardiovascular anomaly, which generally occurs during an important physical effort. An important sport drift is the practice of doping to improve performances through the use of hormones, anabolics, EPO, transfusions, ... When a person exceeds his/her capacities of adaptation, because of a badly adapted or a too intense drive, this overtraining results in a

  11. Sport psychology education for sport injury rehabilitation professionals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Caroline A; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K; Rostron, Claire L

    2015-02-01

    Sport psychology education has been shown to have a positive impact on the practice of sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs). The purpose of this paper is to review recommendations relating to such education. The paper presents a review of existing literature relating to the content and mode of delivery for a sport psychology education programme for SIRPs. The review seeks to address four questions: (1) What topic areas do researchers suggest should be integrated into the sport psychology education of SIRPs? (2) What topic areas are currently being recommended by professional bodies? (3) What are the findings of research examining the impact of sport psychology education on SIRPs? and (4) What do researchers recommend to be the most appropriate mode of delivery for sport psychology education for SIRPs? The findings of the review suggest that in order to maximise adherence amongst already qualified SIRPs sport psychology education should be delivered in a flexible short duration package. Additionally three broad areas that sport psychology education should cover emerged: (1) understanding of the psychological impact of injury, (2) interventions and psychological skills/techniques, and (3) referral and professional boundaries. This has important implications for the future training of SIRPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Kinetic Model Describing Injury-Burden in Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W

    2017-12-01

    Injuries in team sports are normally characterised by the incidence, severity, and location and type of injuries sustained: these measures, however, do not provide an insight into the variable injury-burden experienced during a season. Injury burden varies according to the team's match and training loads, the rate at which injuries are sustained and the time taken for these injuries to resolve. At the present time, this time-based variation of injury burden has not been modelled. To develop a kinetic model describing the time-based injury burden experienced by teams in elite team sports and to demonstrate the model's utility. Rates of injury were quantified using a large eight-season database of rugby injuries (5253) and exposure (60,085 player-match-hours) in English professional rugby. Rates of recovery from injury were quantified using time-to-recovery analysis of the injuries. The kinetic model proposed for predicting a team's time-based injury burden is based on a composite rate equation developed from the incidence of injury, a first-order rate of recovery from injury and the team's playing load. The utility of the model was demonstrated by examining common scenarios encountered in elite rugby. The kinetic model developed describes and predicts the variable injury-burden arising from match play during a season of rugby union based on the incidence of match injuries, the rate of recovery from injury and the playing load. The model is equally applicable to other team sports and other scenarios.

  13. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...

  14. Parking infrastructure: energy, emissions, and automobile life-cycle environmental accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad; Madanat, Samer, E-mail: mchester@cal.berkeley.edu, E-mail: horvath@ce.berkeley.edu, E-mail: madanat@ce.berkeley.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The US parking infrastructure is vast and little is known about its scale and environmental impacts. The few parking space inventories that exist are typically regionalized and no known environmental assessment has been performed to determine the energy and emissions from providing this infrastructure. A better understanding of the scale of US parking is necessary to properly value the total costs of automobile travel. Energy and emissions from constructing and maintaining the parking infrastructure should be considered when assessing the total human health and environmental impacts of vehicle travel. We develop five parking space inventory scenarios and from these estimate the range of infrastructure provided in the US to be between 105 million and 2 billion spaces. Using these estimates, a life-cycle environmental inventory is performed to capture the energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases, CO, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub X}, VOC (volatile organic compounds), and PM{sub 10} (PM: particulate matter) from raw material extraction, transport, asphalt and concrete production, and placement (including direct, indirect, and supply chain processes) of space construction and maintenance. The environmental assessment is then evaluated within the life-cycle performance of sedans, SUVs (sports utility vehicles), and pickups. Depending on the scenario and vehicle type, the inclusion of parking within the overall life-cycle inventory increases energy consumption from 3.1 to 4.8 MJ by 0.1-0.3 MJ and greenhouse gas emissions from 230 to 380 g CO{sub 2}e by 6-23 g CO{sub 2}e per passenger kilometer traveled. Life-cycle automobile SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} emissions show some of the largest increases, by as much as 24% and 89% from the baseline inventory. The environmental consequences of providing the parking spaces are discussed as well as the uncertainty in allocating paved area between parking and roadways.

  15. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the composition problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the second one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding on the number of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet sizing problem - FS and types of vehicles in a fleet (the fleet composition problem - FC. The essence of both problems lies in balancing transportation supply and demand taking into account different demand types to be fulfilled and different vehicle types that can be put into a fleet. Vehicles, which can substitute each other while fulfilling different demand types. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FS/FC analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist some best fitted (optimal fleet size / composition matching company's transportation requirements. An optimal fleet size / composition allows for a significantly higher fleet utilization (10-15% higher than any other, including random fleet structure. Moreover, any changes in the optimal fleet size / composition, even small ones, result in a lower utilization of vehicles (lower by a few percent. Conclusions: The presented in this paper analysis, on the one hand, is consistent with a widespread opinion that the number of vehicle types in a fleet should be limited. In the other words it means that the versatility / interchangeability of vehicles is very important. On the other hand, the analysis proves that even small changes in a fleet size / fleet composition can result in an important changes of the fleet

  16. Comparison of SUVs normalized by lean body mass determined by CT with those normalized by lean body mass estimated by predictive equations in normal tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Kim, Dae Weung [Wonkwang Univ. School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Standardized uptake values (SUVs)normalized by lean body mass (LBM)determined by CT were compared with those normalized by LBM estimated using predictive equations (PEs)in normal liver, spleen, and aorta using {sup 18}F FDG PET/CT. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F FDG)positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)was conducted on 453 patients. LBM determined by CT was defined in 3 ways (LBM{sup CT1}-3). Five PEs were used for comparison (LBM{sup PE1}-5). Tissue SUV normalized by LBM (SUL) was calculated using LBM from each method (SUL{sup CT1}-3, SUL{sup PE1}-5). Agreement between methods was assessed by Bland Altman analysis. Percentage difference and percentage error were also calculated. For all liver SUL{sup CTS} vs. liver SUL{sup PES} except liver SUL{sup PE3}, the range of biases, SDs of percentage difference and percentage errors were -0.17-0.24 SUL, 6.15-10.17%, and 25.07-38.91%, respectively. For liver SUL{sup CTs} vs. liver SUL{sup PE3}, the corresponding figures were 0.47-0.69 SUL, 10.90-11.25%, and 50.85-51.55%, respectively, showing the largest percentage errors and positive biases. Irrespective of magnitudes of the biases, large percentage errors of 25.07-51.55% were observed between liver SUL{sup CT1}-3 and liver SUL{sup PE1}-5. The results of spleen and aorta SUL{sup CTs} and SUL{sup PEs} comparison were almost identical to those for liver. The present study demonstrated substantial errors in individual SUL{sup PEs} compared with SUL{sup CTs} as a reference value. Normalization of SUV by LBM determined by CT rather than PEs may be a useful approach to reduce errors in individual SUL{sup PEs}.

  17. Comparison of SUVs normalized by lean body mass determined by CT with those normalized by lean body mass estimated by predictive equations in normal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Kim, Dae Weung

    2012-01-01

    Standardized uptake values (SUVs)normalized by lean body mass (LBM)determined by CT were compared with those normalized by LBM estimated using predictive equations (PEs)in normal liver, spleen, and aorta using 18 F FDG PET/CT. Fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F FDG)positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)was conducted on 453 patients. LBM determined by CT was defined in 3 ways (LBM CT1 -3). Five PEs were used for comparison (LBM PE1 -5). Tissue SUV normalized by LBM (SUL) was calculated using LBM from each method (SUL CT1 -3, SUL PE1 -5). Agreement between methods was assessed by Bland Altman analysis. Percentage difference and percentage error were also calculated. For all liver SUL CTS vs. liver SUL PES except liver SUL PE3 , the range of biases, SDs of percentage difference and percentage errors were -0.17-0.24 SUL, 6.15-10.17%, and 25.07-38.91%, respectively. For liver SUL CTs vs. liver SUL PE3 , the corresponding figures were 0.47-0.69 SUL, 10.90-11.25%, and 50.85-51.55%, respectively, showing the largest percentage errors and positive biases. Irrespective of magnitudes of the biases, large percentage errors of 25.07-51.55% were observed between liver SUL CT1 -3 and liver SUL PE1 -5. The results of spleen and aorta SUL CTs and SUL PEs comparison were almost identical to those for liver. The present study demonstrated substantial errors in individual SUL PEs compared with SUL CTs as a reference value. Normalization of SUV by LBM determined by CT rather than PEs may be a useful approach to reduce errors in individual SUL PEs

  18. Sport-specific nutrition: practical strategies for team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs.

  19. What is a sports injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Bickenbach, Jerome; Finch, Caroline F; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2014-04-01

    Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, 'sports injury' denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; 'sports trauma' is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and 'sports incapacity' is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as 'sports disease' (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, 'sports illness' when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and 'sports sickness' when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.

  20. The Problem of Ideology in Making Sense of Physical Education and Sport: Reflections on the Colwell--Mansfield Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Two papers in the "European Physical Education Review" by Colwell (1999) and Mansfield (this issue) have argued respectively against, and in favour of, a potential synthesis between feminism and figurational sociology as a vehicle for making more adequate sense of physical education and sport. This paper offers both selective summaries and…

  1. EVALUATION OF OUTDOOR SPORTS CLOTHING BRAND PERSONALITY BY USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brand personality attributed to the brand is in case the condition of human character traits. One of the areas of the brand personality is the outdoor sports clothing also knowing as “outdoor” th at working city people’s adoption of opening up to the outdoor as new way events in a growing desire. In this study, the aims are personality characteristics of the outdoor sport clothing brands and determining the harmony of these personality characterist ics with brands. The research is in form of surveying study. The research population consists of people in Turkey who sports outdoor on land. In the sampling selection simple random sampling technique is utilized with asking concerned people to participate in the survey on a voluntary basis. The obtained data are analyzed and evaluated by using SPSS packet program. The survey that has been proven reliability and validity ( α = 0904 in the pilot application has sent to the related association members in a month - long through internet and a total of 103 people were replied. It has been identified that research participants are interesting in mostly as trekking , mountaineering, camping and biking outdoor sports and they are working in the public sector. Under research, in the result of factor analysis to determine the brand personality of outd oor sports brands, it had been seen that "competence", “ traditional ” and " androgen” dimensions were come through and the dimension of “excitement” was separated into three parts.

  2. Yeager Airport Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Williams [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was designed to have the National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC), together with its partners, manage the Hydrogen Vehicle Test Project at the Yeager Airport in conjunction with the Central West Virginia Regional Airport Authority (CWVRAA) in coordination with the United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE NETL). This program would allow testing and evaluation of the use of hydrogen vehicles in the state of West Virginia utilizing the hydrogen fueling station at Yeager Airport. The NAFTC and CWVRAA to raise awareness and foster a greater understanding of hydrogen fuel and hydrogen-powered vehicles through a targeted utilization and outreach and education effort. After initial implementation of the project, the project added, determine the source(s) of supply for hydrogen powered vehicles that could be used for the testing. After completion of this, testing was begun at Yeager Airport. During the course of the project, the station at Yeager Airport was closed and moved to Morgantown and the West Virginia University Research Corporation. The vehicles were then moved to Morgantown and a vehicle owned by the CWVRAA was purchased to complete the project at the new location. Because of a number of issues detailed in the report for DE-FE0002994 and in this report, this project did not get to evaluate the effectiveness of the vehicles as planned.

  3. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-07-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  4. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Govern, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  5. Mobile robot vehicles for physical security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-06-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Labs for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. These vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as test beds for developing concepts in the application of robotics to interior and exterior physical security. Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering through manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. With these vehicles, SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  6. Scheduling and location issues in transforming service fleet vehicles to electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirchandani, Pitu; Madsen, Oli B.G.; Adler, Jonathan

    There is much reason to believe that fleets of service vehicles of many organizations will transform their vehicles that utilize alternative fuels which are more sustainable. The electric vehicle is a good candidate for this transformation, especially which “refuels” by exchanging its spent...... batteries with charged ones. This paper discusses the issues that must be addressed if a transit service were to use electric vehicles, principally the issues related to the limited driving range of each electric vehicle’s set of charged batteries and the possible detouring for battery exchanges....... In particular, the paper addresses the optimization and analysis of infrastructure design alternatives dealing with (1) the number of battery-exchange stations, (2) their locations, (3) the recharging capacity and inventory management of batteries at each facility, and (4) routing and scheduling of the fleet...

  7. Advanced technology mobile robotics vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    A fleet of vehicles is being developed and maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for studies in remote control and autonomous operation. The vehicles range from modified commercial vehicles to specially constructed mobile platforms and are utilized as testbeds for developing concepts in the areas of remote control (teleoperation) and computer control (autonomy). Actuators control the vehicle speed, brakes, and steering via manual input from a remote driving station or through some level of digital computer control. On-board processing may include simple vehicle control functions or may allow for unmanned, autonomous operation. Communication links are provided for digital communication between control computers, television transmission for vehicle vision, and voice for local control. SNL can develop, test, and evaluate sensors, processing requirements, various methods of actuator implementation, operator controlled feedback requirements, and vehicle operations. A description of the major features and uses for each of the vehicles in the fleet is provided

  8. Can genotype determine the sports phenotype? A paradigm shift in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amit; Mahajan, Preetam B

    2016-06-01

    In last two decades, there has been an evolution in sports medicine. Several researchers have worked on different domains of sports medicine, like strength, endurance, sports injury, and psychology. Besides this, several groups have explored the changes at cellular and molecular levels during exercise, which has led to the development of the new domain in sports science known as genetic medicine. Genetic medicine deals with the genotypic basis of sports phenotype. In this article, we try to provide an up-to-date review on genetic determinants of sports performance, which will be like a journey from the nostalgic past towards the traditional present and the romantic future of sports medicine. Endurance and power performance are two important domains of athletes. They vary in individuals, even among trained athletes. Researches indicate that the genetic makeup of sportsmen play a vital role in their performance. Several genetic factors are reported to be responsible for endurance, power, susceptibility to injury, and even psychology of the individual. Besides this, proper training, nutrition, and environment are also important in shaping their potential. The aim of this discussion is to understand the influence of the environment and the genetic makeup on the performance of the athletes. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that genotype determines the sports phenotype in an athlete. Choosing the right sports activity based on genetic endowment is the key for achieving excellence in sports.

  9. The influence of Academic Sports Associations on the development of a sports career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people who continue their education at universities do not have to give up their physical activity. The existence of Academic Sports Unions allows you to continue and develop your sporting career. A significant number of students regularly participating in AZS classes have a chance to develop their sporting career. The possibility of obtaining a sports scholarship is an additional motivation for students to pursue their own scientific and sporting goals. Sport through the process of self-improvement introduces a specific discipline to everyday life, teaches regularity, diligence and good organization of time.The aim of the study: 1 Did you start your education at a university by limiting or giving up sports?, 2 Do universities and AZS help develop a sports career? 3 Did the students of AZS influence the development of their sports career? Material and methods: 204 students participated in the study, an original questionnaire consisting of 26 questions was used. The questions concerned, among others: forms of physical activity and training experience, the impact of undertaking education at a university on the development of a sports career. Results and conclusions: Over 80% of respondents did not give up their sport before starting their studies. Over 50% of respondents believe that AZS and universities support the development of young athletes, giving the opportunity to get better and better results.

  10. Drugs in sport

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, D

    2007-01-01

    This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...

  11. Influence of adapted sports on quality of life and life satisfaction in sport participants and non-sport participants with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Kamil; Yavuz, Ferdi; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2012-10-01

    The lack of controlled trials in the relationship between participation in adapted sports, and quality of life (QoL) and life satisfaction in people with physical disabilities encouraged us to consider conducting this study. The aim of this study was to compare the QoL and life satisfaction scores between people with physical disabilities who participated in adapted sports and those who did not participate in any adapted sports. This cross-sectional controlled study included 60 individuals with physical disabilities (paraplegia and amputee). Participants were divided into two groups based on sports participation and non-sports participation. Group one included 30 disabled elite athletes who participated in adapted sports. The control group included 30 disabled individuals not involved in any adapted sports. We compared scores on the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life Scale (WHOQoL-BREF) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) between the two groups. Participation in the community and QoL was examined as a reflection of participant's priority on sports participation. We found that WHOQoL-BREF physical, psychological, and social domain scores were significantly higher in group one than in the control group (p sports had significantly higher QoL and life satisfaction scores compared to people with physical disabilities not involved in any adapted sports. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated Vehicle Regulation: An Energy and Emissions Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron

    2016-05-18

    This presentation provides a summary of the current automated vehicles polices in the United States and how they related to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The presentation then looks at future automated vehicle trends that will increase and reduce GHG emissions and what current policies utilized in other areas of law could be adapted for automated vehicle GHG emissions.

  13. Sport Specialization, Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...

  14. Working with sports organizations and teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuff, David R; Garvin, Michelle

    2016-12-01

    Athletes and coaches at all competitive levels will utilize sports performance and psychiatric services at very high rates if the services are offered on-site and free of charge and are broad in scope and culturally sensitive. Services should be available throughout the team year and cover areas such as team building, mental preparation, stress control, substance prevention, sleep and energy regulation, injury recovery, crisis intervention, and mental disorder treatment. The staff offering these services should be diverse by gender, profession, and culture, and the fees should be paid by the organization. When these services are endorsed by the team's leaders and integrated with the athletic training/medical/player development staff, their utilization will grow quickly and lead to positive outcomes individually and collectively.

  15. The Relationship between University Libraries' Collection for Sports and Their Students' Sports Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Soichiro; Tsuji, Keita

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of university libraries, we investigated the relationship between university students' sports performances and their libraries collections of sports. By examining approximately 20 university libraries' collections and their sports ranks, as indicated by Waseda Sports 2008, we demonstrated their positive…

  16. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2009-10-27

    I appreciate the opportunity to provide comments on the joint rulemaking to establish greenhouse gas emission and fuel economy standards for light-duty vehicles. My comments are directed at the choice of vehicle footprint as the attribute by which to vary fuel economy and greenhouse gas emission standards, in the interest of protecting vehicle occupants from death or serious injury. I have made several of these points before when commenting on previous NHTSA rulemakings regarding CAFE standards and safety. The comments today are mine alone, and do not necessarily represent the views of the US Department of Energy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, or the University of California. My comments can be summarized as follows: (1) My updated analysis of casualty risk finds that, after accounting for drivers and crash location, there is a wide range in casualty risk for vehicles with the same weight or footprint. This suggests that reducing vehicle weight or footprint will not necessarily result in increased fatalities or serious injuries. (2) Indeed, the recent safety record of crossover SUVs indicates that weight reduction in this class of vehicles resulted in a reduction in fatality risks. (3) Computer crash simulations can pinpoint the effect of specific design changes on vehicle safety; these analyses are preferable to regression analyses, which rely on historical vehicle designs, and cannot fully isolate the effect of specific design changes, such as weight reduction, on crash outcomes. (4) There is evidence that automakers planned to build more large light trucks in response to the footprint-based light truck CAFE standards. Such an increase in the number of large light trucks on the road may decrease, rather than increase, overall safety.

  17. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  18. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP and return to activity criteria (RTAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logerstedt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  19. SPORTS ACTIVITIES SPONSORSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.

  20. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  1. Electric vehicles: Technology assessment and commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabot, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article traces the history of commercialization efforts relative to electric vehicles, assesses the state-of-the-art of electric vehicle technology and identifies the industrial firms that are investing heavily in this field. The main design problems affecting the commercialization of these vehicles (e.g., battery weight, autonomy, operating safety and toxicity) are pointed out. Comparisons of commercialization prospects are made with those for hydrogen fuelled vehicles. With regard to investments in research programs, it is argued that, in addition to car manufacturers and oil companies, the usual active participants in the transport sector, new participants are needed to give added support to the development of electric vehicles, namely, electric utilities and battery manufacturers

  2. Current generation time-of-flight 18F-FDG PET/CT provides higher SUVs for normal adrenal glands, while maintaining an accurate characterization of benign and malignant glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Daniëlle; Koopman, Daniëlle; van Dalen, Jorn A.; Stigt, Jos A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Knollema, Siert; Jager, Pieter L.

    ObjectiveModern PET/CT scanners have significantly improved detectors and fast time-of-flight (TOF) performance and this may improve clinical performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of a current generation TOF PET/CT scanner on standardized uptake values (SUV), lesion-background

  3. Attitude towards materialism in sport and materialism tendecies amongst black generation Y students

    OpenAIRE

    Bevan-Dye, A.L.; Surujlal, J.

    2011-01-01

    In today's media-rich world sport celebrities are viewed as potential role models and are often used as marketing vehicles. When they display materialistic tendencies they draw severe criticism as this is believed to be in contradiction to their role model obligations. Modern media has commoditised professional athletes, turning them into role models with significant celebrity status and making them a central force driving today's materialistic consumer culture. This study investigates the re...

  4. Web-Company Officals See Potential in Marketing College Sports Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Welch

    2000-01-01

    Reports that many college and university athletics departments are utilizing one of two companies, Fansonly or Total Sports, for their Web site development and maintenance. The companies propose to deliver advertising profits, merchandising revenues, and donations to the university but so far monetary gains have been slight, as the sites face…

  5. Electric Vehicle Interaction at the Electrical Circuit Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the Electric Vehicle Interaction at the Electrical Circuit Level project was to investigate electric vehicle (EV) charging as a means of mitigating transient over-voltages (TOVs) on the circuit level electric utility distribution gri...

  6. Report on Sport 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,

  7. An optimization algorithm for a capacitated vehicle routing problem ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, vehicle routing problem (VRP) with time windows and real world constraints are considered as a real-world application on google maps. Also, tabu search is used and Hopfield neural networks is utilized. Basic constraints consist of customer demands, time windows, vehicle speed, vehicle capacity andworking ...

  8. Family – Sport – Upbringing [Rodzina – Sport – Wychowanie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan CZECHOWSKI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Issues brought up in the literature of sport in the context of the upbringing carried out in families are particularly valuable and needed in the chaos of the contemporary world. Sought here are the answers to such questions as: in which aspect of the functioning of the contemporary family is it possible to address the issue of sport?; can sport become a specific ally in the upbringing and the effective intercommunication of individual family members?; in what way can sport be carried out in the family so that it becomes a part of the education process? Based on conducted examinations material was gathered in the form of data concerning issues of sport treated as one of tools used in bringing up the family. They used quality testing methods here: phenomenological, which most generally comes down to the honest description of the examined phenomenon and with hermeneutic method, thanks to the application of which it is possible to get to obtain tangible results into the meaning of collected contents. Also a method of the diagnostic survey was applied. Research groups for the study were: coaches and instructors, athletes, PE teachers, students of PE and Sport, academic teachers of sports colleges. The persons are examined as to their methods and programmes. They are also parents, devoting themselves largely to the upbringing and the care of their children.

  9. YOUTH SPORT AND PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Nešić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of contemporary sport is certainly a wide array of sports and sport discliplines young people can choose among. This is particularly obvious through establishment of numerous schools of sport as places where people can acquire fundamental sport knoweldge and skills. The point of selection for such an engagement is the school, or, in other words, primary school children. The development of young athletes starts at a very early stage. They are faced with high demands and exposed to training sessions of different scope and intensity. In order to direct complex processes in sport efficiently and well, various factors need to be considered that affect it to a lesser or higher degree. One of those factors is indisputably the family, i.e. the influence parents have on meeting the children’s need for physical (sport activity. In the process of children’s socialization that factor is given the greatest prominence. Therefore, parents are a crucial factor in young people’s sport engagement and, thus, cannot be taken as a constituent part of a sports organization’s surroundings, but as a partner in their development.

  10. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397

  11. Dynamics and Control of a Maglev Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, dynamics of a Maglev vehicle was analyzed and controls utilizing an optimized damping and an LQR algorithms were designed to stabilize the vehicle. The dynamics of magnetically levitated and propelled Maglev vehicle are complex and inherently unstable. Moreover, 6-DOF system dynamics is highly nonlinear and coupled. The proposed control schemes provide the dynamic stability and controllability, which computer simulations confirmed the effectiveness.

  12. Energy consumption of sport halls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The energy consumption of Finland's sports halls (ball games halls, ice hockey halls and swimming halls) represent approximately 1% of that of the country's whole building stock. In the light of the facts revealed by the energy study the potential energy saving rate in sports halls is 15-25%. The total savings would be something like FIM 30-40 million per annum, of which about a half would be achieved without energy-economic investments only by changing utilization habits and by automatic control measures. The energy-economic investments are for the most part connected with ventilation and their repayment period is from one to five years. On the basis of the energy study the following specific consumption are presented as target values: swimming halls: heat (kWh/m*H3/a)100, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)35, water (l/m*H3/a)1000 icehockey halls (warm): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)25, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)15, water (l/m*H3/a)200, ball games halls (multi-purpose halls): heat (kWh/m*H3/a)30, electricity (kWh/m*H3/a)25, water (l/m*H3/a)130. In the study the following points proved to be the central areas of energy saving in sports halls: 1. Flexible regulation of the temperature in sports spaces on the basis of the sport in question. 2. The ventilation of swimming halls should be adjusted in such a way that the humidity of the hall air would comply with the limit humidity curve determined by the quality of structures and the temperature of the outdoor air. 3. An ice skating hall is an establishment producing condensing energy from 8 to 9 months a year worth of approx. 100.000-150.000 Finnmarks. The development of the recovery of condensing energy has become more important. 4. The ventilation of ball games halls may account for over 50% of the energy consumption of the whole building. Therefore special attention should be paid to the optimatization of ventilation as a whole.

  13. Sport Sociology: Contemporary Themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others

    Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…

  14. 41 CFR 109-38.5102 - Utilization controls and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazards, particularly when mingled with other motor vehicle traffic; and (h) The use of electric vehicles..., TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 38-MOTOR EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT 38.51-Utilization of Motor Equipment § 109-38... motor vehicle is involved, such as assignments from motor pools, the individual's trip records must, as...

  15. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  16. Differences in dynamic balance scores in one sport versus multiple sport high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Rauh, Mitchell J; Kiesel, Kyle; Plisky, Phillip J

    2012-04-01

    Researchers have previously reported on the importance of dynamic balance in assessing an individual's risk for injury during sport. However, to date there is no research on whether multiple sport participation affects dynamic balance ability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in dynamic balance scores in high school athletes that competed in one sport only as compared athletes who competed in multiple sports, as tested by the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ). Ninety-two high school athletes who participated in one sport were matched, by age, gender and sport played, to athletes who participated in the same sport as well as additional sports. All individuals were assessed using the YBT-LQ to examine differences in composite reach score and reach direction asymmetry between single sport and multiple sport athletes. The greatest reach distance of three trials in each reach direction for right and left lower-extremities was normalized by limb length and used for analysis. A two-way ANOVA (gender x number of sports played) was used to statistically analyze the variables in the study. No significant interactions or main effects related to number of sports played were observed for any YBT-LQ score (p>0.05). Male athletes exhibited significantly greater normalized reach values for the posteromedial, posterolateral, and composite reach while also exhibiting a larger anterior reach difference when compared to the females. Athletes who participated in multiple sports had similar performances on the YBT-LQ when compared to athletes who participated in a single sport. The findings of this study suggest that the number of sports played by a high school athlete does not need to be controlled for when evaluating dynamic balance with the YBT-LQ.

  17. Somatotypes in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Teodor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.

  18. Participation in modified sports programs: a longitudinal study of children's transition to club sport competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Casey, Meghan M; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Young, Janet A; Payne, Warren R

    2015-07-14

    Many children are not physically active enough for a health benefit. One avenue of physical activity is modified sport programs, designed as an introduction to sport for young children. This longitudinal study identified trends in participation among children aged 4-12 years. Outcomes included continuation in the modified sports program, withdrawal from the program or transition to club sport competition. De-identified data on participant membership registrations in three popular sports in the Australian state of Victoria were obtained from each sport's state governing body over a 4-year period (2009-2012 for Sport A and 2010-2013 for Sports B and C). From the membership registrations, those who were enrolled in a modified sports program in the first year were tracked over the subsequent three years and classified as one of: transition (member transitioned from a modified sport program to a club competition); continue (member continued participation in a modified sport program; or withdraw (member discontinued a modified program and did not transition to club competition). Many modified sports participants were very young, especially males aged 4-6 years. More children withdrew from their modified sport program rather than transitioning. There were age differences between when boys and girls started, withdrew and transitioned from the modified sports programs. If we can retain children in sport it is likely to be beneficial for their health. This study highlights considerations for the development and implementation of sport policies and programming to ensure lifelong participation is encouraged for both males and females.

  19. A Part of and Apart from Sport: Practitioners’ Experiences Coaching in Segregated Youth Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport can present a site of exclusion for many youth who experience disability even when it has a focus on inclusion (Fitzgerald, 2009. While sport practitioners can play a critical role in creating inclusive environments, they frequently struggle to do so. As a consequence, the sport opportunities for young people who experience disability are often inadequate and inequitable. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of youth sport practitioners who teach and coach youth in primarily segregated settings. The overall goal was to gain a better understanding of how sport practitioners think about disability and sport within the context of their practices. Guided by the method of interpretive description, we interviewed 15 sport practitioners. Analysis of the data led to the overarching theme, ‘a part of and apart from sport’, highlighting the ways in which segregated youth sport was understood to be more or less inclusive/exclusive by sport practitioners. Within this overarching theme, four subthemes were drawn: a authentic connections, b diversity and adaptations, c expectations same…but different, and d (disability and competitive sport. While highlighting the need for self-reflective and knowledgeable coaches, our findings also bring attention to the concepts of ability and ableism and their impacts on the sport opportunities of youth who experience disability. Our discussion highlights the need to question assumptions underlying segregated sport.

  20. Sport and male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-09-01

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  1. Sports eyewear protective standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  2. Influence of sport participation on community integration and quality of life: a comparison between sport participants and non-sport participants with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Sonja A; Hitzig, Sander L; Craven, B Cathy

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether community integration and/or quality of life (QoL) among people living with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are superior among sport participants vs non-sport participants. Cross-sectional study. Persons (n=90) living in the community with SCI (ASIA Impairment Scale A-D), level C5 or below, > 15 years of age, >12 months postinjury, and requiring a wheelchair for >1 hours/day were divided into 2 groups based on their self-reported sport participation at interview: sport participants (n=45) and non-sport participants (n 5). Independent-sample t tests revealed that both Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) and Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNL) total mean scores were higher among sport participants vs nonsport participants (P sport participants. Similarly, the unadjusted odds ratio of a high RNL score was 7.00 (95% CI 2.3, 21.0) among current sport participants. Regression-adjusted odds ratios of high CIQ and high RNL scores were 1.36 (95% CI 0.09, 1.45) and 0.15 (95% CI 0.04, 0.55), respectively. The odds ratio for pre-SCI sport participation predicting post-SCI sport participation was 3.06 (95% CI 1.23, 7.65). CIQ and QoL scores were higher among sport participants compared to non-sport participants. There was an association between mean CIQ and RNL scores for both groups. Sport participants were 4.75 and 7.00 times as likely to have high CIQ and QoL scores. Both groups had a similar likelihood of high CIQ and RNL scores after adjusting for important confounders. Individuals who participated in sports prior to SCI were more likely to participate in sports post-SCI.

  3. Spatial planning of sports infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Leskovec

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmonious development of sports deals with the development of sports centres, buildings and training grounds in the built environment. Their basic objective is to provide to needs of professional and top quality sports, sports recreation and sports education in space. The methodological basis for establishing a spatial sports scheme was the Steinitz-Rogers model of planning sports-recreation centres, buildings and training grounds. One of the results of the scheme is a cartographically and digitally supported data base that can be complemented.

  4. Sports Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...

  5. Sports Specialization, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID

  6. Mass Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2017-03-01

    Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.

  7. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 2 : data management plan - Tampa (THEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Tampa Hillsborough Expressway Authority (THEA) Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot Deployment Program is intended to develop a suite of applications that utilize vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication technology to re...

  8. Injury surveillance in community sport: Can we obtain valid data from sports trainers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, C L; Gabbe, B J; Finch, C F

    2015-06-01

    A lack of available injury data on community sports participants has hampered the development of informed preventive strategies for the broad-base of sports participation. In community sports settings, sports trainers or first-aiders are well-placed to carry out injury surveillance, but few studies have evaluated their ability to do so. The aim of this study was to investigate the reporting rate and completeness of sports trainers' injury records and agreement between sports trainers' and players' reports of injury in community Australian football. Throughout the football season, one sports trainer from each of four clubs recorded players' injuries. To validate these data, we collected self-reported injury data from players via short message service (SMS). In total, 210 discrete injuries were recorded for 139 players, 21% by sports trainers only, 59% by players via SMS only, and 21% by both. Completeness of injury records ranged from 95% to 100%. Agreement between sports trainers and players ranged from K = 0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.37) for date of return to football to K = 1.00 for activity when injured. Injury data collected by sports trainers may be of adequate quality for providing an understanding of the profile of injuries. However, data are likely to underestimate injury rates and should be interpreted with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Marketing of sport tourism

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...

  10. High-Performance Sport, Learning and Culture: New Horizons for Sport Pedagogues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Dawn; McMahon, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research in sport coaching and sport pedagogy including studies published in this special issue bring to the fore the relationship between learning and culture in contexts of high-performance sport. This paper acknowledged that how learning, culture and their relationship are conceptualised is a crucial issue for researchers and…

  11. Manipulator vehicles and loading shovels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brudermueller, G.; Krueger, W.

    1992-01-01

    Kerntechnische Hilfsdienst GmbH (KHG) is an institution jointly founded by electricity utilities, fuel cycle industries, and national research centers to provide specialist equipment for removing the consequences of accidents inside plants and recognizing damage in the immediate vicinity of such plants, maintain such equipment in an operational condition, and provide personnel instructed in work of this kind. The specialized technical equipment developed includes carriages, carrier vehicles for manipulators, grabs, TV cameras or measuring gear. In addition to manipulator vehicles, especially loading shovels are used. Radio-controlled vehicles are used where cable operation is either not reliable enough or has failed. (orig.) [de

  12. Building Character through Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Sports are a focus of millions of Americans as they attend, view, and participate in sports. The World Series, Final Four, and Super Bowl often bring back memories of fun-filled parties and celebrations, but there may be several reasons why sports are so popular in the United States. The popularity of sports, however, does not necessarily mean it…

  13. Collective Efficacy in Sports and Physical Activities: Perceived Emotional Synchrony and Shared Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumeta, Larraitz N.; Oriol, Xavier; Telletxea, Saioa; Amutio, Alberto; Basabe, Nekane

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study analyzes the relationship between collective efficacy and two psychosocial processes involved in collective sport-physical activities. It argues that in-group identification and fusion with the group will affect collective efficacy (CE). A sample of 276 university students answered different scales regarding their participation in collective physical and sport activities. Multiple-mediation analyses showed that shared flow and perceived emotional synchrony mediate the relationship between in-group identification and CE, whereas the relationship between identity fusion and CE was only mediated by perceived emotional synchrony. Results suggest that both psychosocial processes explain the positive effects of in-group identification and identity fusion with the group in collective efficacy. Specifically, the role of perceived emotional synchrony in explaining the positive effects of participation in collective sport-physical activities is underlined. In sum, this study highlights the utility of collective actions and social identities to explain the psychosocial processes related to collective efficacy in physical and sports activities. Finally, practical implications are discussed. PMID:26779077

  14. Gender differences of athletes in different classification groups of sports and sport disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Tarasevych

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the percentage of masculine, androgynous and feminine figures in different classification groups, sports and sports disciplines, depending on the sport qualification. Material & Methods: the study was conducted on the basis of the Kharkiv State Academy of Physical Culture among students – representatives of different sports that have different athletic skills using analysis and compilation of scientific and methodical literature, survey, testing the procedure S. Bam "Masculinity / femininity "Processing and statistical data. Results: based on the testing method established S. Bam percentage masculine, androgynous and feminine personalities among athletes and athletes in various sports classification groups depending on their athletic skills. Conclusions: among sportsmen and women in a variety of classification groups of sports is not revealed feminine personalities; masculine identity, among both men and women predominate in sports; androgyny attitude towards men and women are different.

  15. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  16. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.

  17. Sport specificity background affects the principal component structure of vertical squat jump performance of young adult female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Various different profiles of FPD and TPD were detected due to different sporting background in young female athletes. Since TF superiority in SQJ was relied on the larger power production and a greater FPD, female indoor team sport athletes are suggested to execute jumping exercises adopting the jumping strategies utilized by TF.

  18. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  19. OH, SPORT! ARE YOU PEACE? (ABOUT DIFFERENT KINDS OF SPORTS MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kazimianec

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ways of description and interpretation of such socially meaningful event as the World Football Championship 2014 are considered in this article. The author justifies the importance of choosing a sports topic and in particular football in the modern world, showing that first of all the sports discourse is a journalistic discourse.That is why the ways of the representation and description of sports events are the basic means for creating its concept.The author has chosen one day of the World Football Championship 2014 for the analysis to show that not the sports events, but the acts of violence accompanying them are becoming the basic subject matter of the description. In relation to this, the author suggests to speak about a special type of sports discourse: a discourse of sports aggression. Its main features are: special lexical stock phrases, inaccuracy in the supply of information, lack of logic in the description of events, and expressiveness of the means used to describe the acts of violence. The author comes to the conclusion that it is difficult to make the precise cognitive diagram of the sport event reading due to the additional information, as the reader’s attention in such messages is focused only on the description of the details, which are connected with the facts of aggression that occurred in the sport action. The modern sports appear as the catalyst of aggressive actions instead of initiating the peace.

  20. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  1. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children's Viewing Times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry S O'Brien

    Full Text Available Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years. During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87% was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86% was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989, compared with the daytime (N = 235,233. In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1 than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94. Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.

  2. Knowledge of sugar content of sports drinks is not associated with sports drink consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zytnick, Deena; Park, Sohyun; Onufrak, Stephen J; Kingsley, Beverly S; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    To examine U.S. adult knowledge of the sugar content of sports drinks and whether this knowledge and other characteristics are associated with their sports drink consumption. Nonexperimental. Nationally representative 2011 Summer ConsumerStyles survey data. 3929 U.S. adults. The outcome variable was sports drink consumption in the past 7 days. The main exposure variable was knowledge about sports drinks containing sugar. The covariates were sociodemographic characteristics, physical activity, and weight status. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for adults consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk after controlling for other characteristics. Approximately 22% of adults reported consuming sports drinks ≥1 times/wk. Most adults (71%) agreed that sports drinks contain sugar; however, this agreement was not significantly associated with adults' sports drink consumption. The odds of drinking sports drinks ≥1 times/wk were significantly higher among younger adults aged 18 to 64 years (OR range: 5.46-2.71), males (OR = 2.09), high-school graduates (OR = 1.52), and highly active adults (OR = 2.09). There were disparities in sports drink consumption by sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity level; however, knowledge of sports drinks' sugar content was not associated with consumption. Understanding why some population groups are higher consumers may assist in the development of education, providing those groups with a better understanding of sports drinks' nutritional value and health consequences of excessive sugar consumption in any form.

  3. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children's Viewing Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm) and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.

  4. Pediatric sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, John K; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is a significant public health concern estimated to result in over 500,000 emergency department (ED) visits and more than 60,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Sports activities are one important mechanism leading to pediatric TBI. In this study, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in the pediatric population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and of increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from children (age 0-17 years) across 5 sports categories: fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were recorded in the NTDB, and these injuries represented 11,614 incidents nationally after sample weighting. Fall or interpersonal contact events were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (47.4%). Mild TBI represented 87.1% of the injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital and ICU were 2.68 ± 0.07 days and 2.73 ± 0.12 days, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%, and the prevalence of medical complications was 2.1% across all patients. Severities of head and extracranial injuries were significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Hypotension on admission to the ED was a significant predictor of failure to discharge to home (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07, p sports was independently associated with prolonged hospital LOS compared with FIC events (mean increase

  5. Sports Specialization, Part II: Alternative Solutions to Early Sport Specialization in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J

    2016-01-01

    Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Clinical review. Level 4. Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. B. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Orofacial Sports – Related Injuries In A Sports Festival In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiology, prevalence and types of oro-facial injuries in a sports festival in Nigeria Materials and Methods: A data form was designed to collect among others, information on age, gender, state of origin, sporting event and types of injury. All consecutive patients who sustained oro-facial sports- ...

  7. Vision-based vehicle detection and tracking algorithm design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Junyeon; Huh, Kunsoo; Lee, Donghwi

    2009-12-01

    The vision-based vehicle detection in front of an ego-vehicle is regarded as promising for driver assistance as well as for autonomous vehicle guidance. The feasibility of vehicle detection in a passenger car requires accurate and robust sensing performance. A multivehicle detection system based on stereo vision has been developed for better accuracy and robustness. This system utilizes morphological filter, feature detector, template matching, and epipolar constraint techniques in order to detect the corresponding pairs of vehicles. After the initial detection, the system executes the tracking algorithm for the vehicles. The proposed system can detect front vehicles such as the leading vehicle and side-lane vehicles. The position parameters of the vehicles located in front are obtained based on the detection information. The proposed vehicle detection system is implemented on a passenger car, and its performance is verified experimentally.

  8. Theory and practice in sport psychology and motor behaviour needs to be constrained by integrative modelling of brain and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, D; Holmes, P; Bennett, S; Davids, K; Smith, N

    2000-06-01

    Because of advances in technology, the non-invasive study of the human brain has enhanced the knowledge base within the neurosciences, resulting in an increased impact on the psychological study of human behaviour. We argue that application of this knowledge base should be considered in theoretical modelling within sport psychology and motor behaviour alongside existing ideas. We propose that interventions founded on current theoretical and empirical understanding in both psychology and the neurosciences may ultimately lead to greater benefits for athletes during practice and performance. As vehicles for exploring the arguments of a greater integration of psychology and neurosciences research, imagery and perception-action within the sport psychology and motor behaviour domains will serve as exemplars. Current neuroscience evidence will be discussed in relation to theoretical developments; the implications for sport scientists will be considered.

  9. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  10. 15 CFR 770.2 - Item interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... component of a complete unassembled (knocked-down) machine, is considered a component of a machine. In this... “civil automobile” means a passenger car, limousine, van or sport utility vehicle designed for the...

  11. Imaging of Muscle Injuries in Sports Medicine: Sports Imaging Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L; Regatte, Ravindar R; Crema, Michel D

    2017-03-01

    In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to confirm and assess the extent of sports-related muscle injuries and may help to guide management, which directly affects the prognosis. This is especially important when the diagnosis or grade of injury is unclear, when recovery is taking longer than expected, and when interventional or surgical management may be necessary. Several imaging techniques are widely available, with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging currently the most frequently applied in sports medicine. This state of the art review will discuss the main imaging modalities for the assessment of sports-related muscle injuries, including advanced imaging techniques, with the focus on the clinical relevance of imaging features of muscle injuries. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  12. Pre-sport games of Badminton for the sport for all

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maidelín Díaz Miranda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The games are the fundamental activity in the children by means of which you/they are developed physical and intellectually, of here the motivation of investigating on the application of several of them in the sport for all, specifically with the project badminton. Keeping in mind the few games that are used to contribute to the development of the abilities in this sport, is that we think about to structure pre-sport games with that purpose and to improve this way the assimilation of the dexterities of the children that practice this discipline in the Sport for All". For it, besides the theoretical methods, empiric methods were used as the observation and the interview. The work shows the assimilation of the abilities and technical basic of the badminton, through games, jointly with aspects on the sport for all, besides being presented 8 structured games, which contribute to the learning of the basic abilities of the badminton.

  13. The methodological foundations of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in the field of physical education and sports and related sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of application of scientific knowledge in physical education and sport in contiguous scientific directions are considered. The advanced studies of leading specialists in area of physical education and sport are analysed. It is rotined that on the modern stage scientific developments in area of physical education and sport attained a level, when can be utillized in fundamental and applied sciences. Scientific researches in area of physical education and sport to the application scientific areas, such as pedagogics, psychology, design, programming et al are related. One of examples of mutual integration of scientific knowledge in area of physical education and sport there is theoretical conception of individualization of preparation of sportsmen.

  14. Sports dance artistic expression culture analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zegang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, form, music, shape of the expressive force. In this paper, the study will be more in-depth excavation of the cultural connotation of sports dance, and promote the development of sports dance can be more comprehensive. In 20s of last century, Chinese Sports Dance Association officially joined the International Sports Dance Association, which also makes our country’s sports dance and international exchange more frequent. However, due to China’s sports dance sports dance learning time is not long, while learning is influenced by Chinese traditional culture, the sports dance movements are too conservative, there is a very large gap and international enthusiasm, bold and unrestrained, the pursuit of individual sports dance in the dance style, music and performance hand. Sports dance originated from abroad, it is produced in the daily life of people in foreign countries. China’s domestic sports dance players in learning dance at the same time, the production and the connotation of dance is not very understanding, therefore, it is difficult to better reflect the emotional expression of sports dance. Although the sports dance is a kind of similar to the competitive projects, but it is also a kind of dance culture, and to constitute a force from the dance art show a detailed study, detailed mining playing officer of sports dance performance further, reducing China’s sports dance and international sports dance gap.

  15. Radioactive materials transporting container and vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, S.L.

    1980-01-01

    A container and vehicle therefor for transporting radioactive materials is provided. The container utilizes a removable system of heat conducting fins made of a light weight highly heat conductive metal, such as aluminum or aluminum alloys. This permits a substantial reduction in the weight of the container during transport, increases the heat dissipation capability of the container and substantially reduces the scrubbing operation after loading and before unloading the radioactive material from the container. The vehicle utilizes only a pair of horizontal side beams interconnecting a pair of yoke members to support the container and provide the necessary strength and safety with a minimum of weight

  16. Problems of Sport Biomechanics and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.

  17. Sport-related anxiety: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford JL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, sport, performance, injury, sport medicine professional, sport psychology, mental health

  18. EDIN0613P weight estimating program. [for launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, G. N.

    1976-01-01

    The weight estimating relationships and program developed for space power system simulation are described. The program was developed to size a two-stage launch vehicle for the space power system. The program is actually part of an overall simulation technique called EDIN (Engineering Design and Integration) system. The program sizes the overall vehicle, generates major component weights and derives a large amount of overall vehicle geometry. The program is written in FORTRAN V and is designed for use on the Univac Exec 8 (1110). By utilizing the flexibility of this program while remaining cognizant of the limits imposed upon output depth and accuracy by utilization of generalized input, this program concept can be a useful tool for estimating purposes at the conceptual design stage of a launch vehicle.

  19. National survey on sports injuries in the Netherlands: target populations for sports injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-03-01

    To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.

  20. Genetic examination of SETD7 and SUV39H1/H2 methyltransferases and the risk of diabetes complications in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syreeni, Anna; El-Osta, Assam; Forsblom, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of vascular complications, which are the major sources of morbidity and mortality in diabetes. Furthermore, these vascular complications often persist and progress despite improved glucose control, possibly as a result of prior......, and SUV39H2 methyltransferases as predictors of risk for micro- and macrovascular complications in type 1 diabetes....

  1. Sports Specialization in Young Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...

  2. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In add...

  3. ETHICS AND CHANGES IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovo Radoš

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.

  4. Changing identity through sport: The Paralympic sport club experience among adolescents with mobility impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, Jennifer; Kang, Sangguk; Wells, Mary Sara; Nagata, Shinichi; Hoffman, Jamie; Taylor, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    Adolescents with mobility impairments have fewer opportunities to challenge identity as an athlete through sport participation. This study examined athletic identity impact of adolescent athletes with mobility impairments who participate in Paralympic Sport Clubs. This cross-sectional web-survey design examined demographics (gender, academic level, hours of time spent in sports participation, and preferred amount of time in sport participation) and athletic identity through the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS). Forty-seven adolescents (male = 34, female = 13) between the ages of 13-18 with mobility impairments who were currently participating in a Paralympic Sport Club were recruited for the study. Two factorial ANOVA examined the differences of AIMS scores by gender and academic level, and gender and hours of time spent in sports participation per week. Hours of time spent in sports participation by adolescent athletes with physical disabilities showed significant difference on athletes' identity. AIMS score increased along with augmented time spent in sport participation. However, gender and academic level made no significant difference on athletic identity. A one-way ANOVA test was applied to compare the effect of preferred amount of time in sport participation per week on scores for AIMS and showed significant group difference on AIMS. Participants who indicated more preferred amount of time in sport participation also scored higher on AIMS. These findings support the notion that hours of time spent and preferred amount of time in sports participation influences athletic identity. Sport participation, when available can influence athletic identity with this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Attitudes towards visual correction in sport: What coaches, physical education teachers and sports physicians think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeri, F; Livi, S; Maffioletti, S

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate sport professionals' attitudes towards visual correction in sport. A questionnaire was handed out in schools, gyms, sports centres and universities, to coaches, physical education teachers and final year students of motor science. The questionnaire was given to one group of sport physicians prior to a 1-day scientific update course on the benefits of contact lenses (CLs) in sport. At the end of the course, certain questions from the questionnaire were given out again in order to evaluate the effect of the update on their opinions. A total of 245 questionnaires were collected. The interviewees stated that correcting a vision defect during sports practice was important, but their propensity to suggest CLs for sport, though still rather high in value, showed a statistically significant drop. This drop did not occur if the CLs were recommended for competitive sports. This trend remained unchanged if a specific judgement was requested for the adolescent category. The tendency to suggest CLs was higher in CL wearers as compared to non-wearers. The sport with the lowest recommendation of CLs was swimming. In the sample of sports physicians, a specific education on the subject of CLs increased the propensity to adopt CLs in sports. The main "actors" in the sports sector regard correcting a vision defect during sport to be important. Nevertheless, their tendency to suggest CLs is significantly lower. Works that make these categories aware of the benefits of CLs in sport can certainly help to fill this gap. Copyright © 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Paralympic sport: an emerging area for research and consultancy in sports biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-09-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.

  7. Sport Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)

  8. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and ...

  9. Motion analysis systems as optimization training tools in combat sports and martial arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Polak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past years, a few review papers about possibilities of using motion analysis systems in sport were published, but there are no articles that discuss this problem in the field of combat sports and martial arts. Aim: This study presents the diversity of contemporary motion analysis systems both, those that are used in scientific research, as well as those that can be applied in daily work of coaches and athletes in combat sports and martial arts. An additional aim is the indication of example applications in scientific research and range of applications in optimizing the training process. It presents a brief description of each type of systems that are currently used in sport, specific examples of systems and the main advantages and disadvantages of using them. The presentation and discussion takes place in the following sections: motion analysis utility for combat sports and martial arts, systems using digital video and systems using markers, sensors or transmitters. Conclusions: Not all types of motion analysis systems used in sport are suitable for combat sports and martial arts. Scientific studies conducted so far showed the usefulness of video-based, optical and electromechanical systems. The use of research results made with complex motion analysis systems, or made with simple systems, local application and immediate visualization is important for the preparation of training and its optimization. It may lead to technical and tactical improvement in athletes as well as the prevention of injuries in combat sports and martial arts.

  10. [Sports purpura].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. THE HEURISTIC FUNCTION OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Petrović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.

  12. Geography of a Sports Metropolis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...

  13. SPORT I POLITIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mensur Memić

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.

  14. Operations management and reform combining with the principles of public service of the university sports venue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keyi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low utilization rate of opening-use, backward management and unreasonable configurations, university sports venue cannot produce some economic benefits, which makes the operating expenses in college stadiums extremely tense. Even sometimes it comes to the precarious situation. Therefore, there should be an operations management reform for college sports venue. Firstly, the article analyzes the current situation of stadium operations management. Secondly, with the actual experience of the authors, this essay discussed on how to strengthen the operation and management of modem college sports venues and reform, which includes the way enhancing the training about modem operational management knowledge of college stadiums, strengthening the diversified operation of college stadiums, highlighting the "people-oriented" in college sports venue design concepts and vigorously developing the training services about stylistic aspects of youth and, etc.,

  15. Sport Toekomstverkenning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker

    2017-01-01

    Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen

  16. Sport and globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...... dissemination around the world. In spite of resistance by the adherents of gymnastics or traditional movement cultures, sport with its focus on competition and records became popular all over the world. Both Great Britain and the United States induced their political and cultural hegemony via the soft power...... of modern sport which caused reactions, e.g. resistances or adaptations of indigenous, colonized, and other affected populations....

  17. Acquisition of Long-Duration, Low-Gravity Slosh Data Utilizing Existing ISS Equipment (SPHERES) for Calibration of CFD Models of Coupled Fluid-Vehicle Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Roth, Jacob; Marsell, Brandon; Kirk, Daniel; Gutierrez, Hector; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Dorney, Daniel; Moder, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Accurate prediction of coupled fluid slosh and launch vehicle or spacecraft dynamics (e.g., nutation/precessional movement about various axes, attitude changes, ect.) requires Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models calibrated with low-gravity, long duration slosh data. Recently completed investigations of reduced gravity slosh behavior have demonstrated the limitations of utilizing parabolic flights on specialized aircraft with respect to the specific objectives of the experiments. Although valuable data was collected, the benefits of longer duration low-gravity environments were clearly established. The proposed research provides the first data set from long duration tests in zero gravity that can be directly used to benchmark CFD models, including the interaction between the sloshing fluid and the tank/vehicle dynamics. To explore the coupling of liquid slosh with the motion of an unconstrained tank in microgravity, NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Launch Services Program has teamed up with the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the NASA Game Changing Development Program (GCD) to perform a series of slosh dynamics experiments on the International Space Station using the SPHERES platform. The Synchronized Position Hold Engage Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) testbed provides a unique, free-floating instrumented platform on ISS that can be utilized in a manner that would solve many of the limitations of the current knowledge related to propellant slosh dynamics on launch vehicle and spacecraft fuel tanks. The six degree of freedom (6-DOF) motion of the SPHERES free-flyer is controlled by an array of cold-flow C02 thrusters, supplied from a built-in liquid C02 tank. These SPHERES can independently navigate and re-orient themselves within the ISS. The intent of this project is to design an externally mounted tank to be driven inside the ISS by a set of two SPHERES devices (Figure 1). The tank geometry

  18. Acquisition of Long-Duration, Low-Gravity Slosh Data Utilizing Existing ISS Equipment (SPHERES) for Calibration of CFD Models of Coupled Fluid-Vehicle Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallhorn, Paul; Roth, Jacob; Marsell, Brandon; Kirk, Daniel; Gutierrez, Hector; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Dorney, Daniel; Moder, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of coupled fluid slosh and launch vehicle or spacecraft dynamics (e.g., nutation/precessional movement about various axes, attitude changes, ect.) requires Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models calibrated with low-gravity, long duration slosh data. Recently completed investigations of reduced gravity slosh behavior have demonstrated the limitations of utilizing parabolic flights on specialized aircraft with respect to the specific objectives of the experiments. Although valuable data was collected, the benefits of longer duration low-gravity environments were clearly established. The proposed research provides the first data set from long duration tests in zero gravity that can be directly used to benchmark CFD models, including the interaction between the sloshing fluid and the tank/vehicle dynamics. To explore the coupling of liquid slosh with the motion of an unconstrained tank in microgravity, NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Launch Services Program has teamed up with the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT), Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) to perform a series of slosh dynamics experiments on the International Space Station using the SPHERES platform. The Synchronized Position Hold Engage Reorient Experimental Satellites (SPHERES) testbed provides a unique, free-floating instrumented platform on ISS that can be utilized in a manner that would solve many of the limitations of the current knowledge related to propellant slosh dynamics on launch vehicle and spacecraft fuel tanks. The six degree of freedom (6-DOF) motion of the SPHERES free-flyer is controlled by an array of cold-flow C02 thrusters, supplied from a built-in liquid C02 tank. These SPHERES can independently navigate and re-orient themselves within the ISS. The intent of this project is to design an externally mounted tank to be driven inside the ISS by a set of two SPHERES devices (Figure 1 ). The tank geometry simulates

  19. Promoting social inclusion through Unified Sports for youth with intellectual disabilities: a five-nation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, R; Dowling, S; Hassan, D; Menke, S

    2013-10-01

    Although the promotion of social inclusion through sports has received increased attention with other disadvantaged groups, this is not the case for children and adults with intellectual disability who experience marked social isolation. The study evaluated the outcomes from one sports programme with particular reference to the processes that were perceived to enhance social inclusion. The Youth Unified Sports programme of Special Olympics combines players with intellectual disabilities (called athletes) and those without intellectual disabilities (called partners) of similar skill level in the same sports teams for training and competition. Alongside the development of sporting skills, the programme offers athletes a platform to socialise with peers and to take part in the life of their community. Unified football and basketball teams from five countries--Germany, Hungary, Poland, Serbia and Ukraine--participated. Individual and group interviews were held with athletes, partners, coaches, parents and community leaders: totalling around 40 informants per country. Qualitative data analysis identified four thematic processes that were perceived by informants across all countries and the two sports to facilitate social inclusion of athletes. These were: (1) the personal development of athletes and partners; (2) the creation of inclusive and equal bonds; (3) the promotion of positive perceptions of athletes; and (4) building alliances within local communities. Unified Sports does provide a vehicle for promoting the social inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities that is theoretically credible in terms of social capital scholarship and which contains lessons for advancing social inclusion in other contexts. Nonetheless, certain limitations are identified that require further consideration to enhance athletes' social inclusion in the wider community. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  20. Connected vehicle pilot deployment program phase 1, security management operational concept : ICF/Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    The Wyoming Department of Transportations (WYDOT) Connected Vehicle (CV) Pilot Deployment Program is intended to develop a suite of applications that utilize vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to vehicle (V2V) communication technology to ...

  1. Sport as a context for integration:newly arrived immigrant children in Sweden drawing sporting experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Hertting, Krister; Karlefors, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Sport is a global phenomenon, which can make sport an important arena for integration into new societies. However, sport is also an expression of national culture and identities. The aim of this study is to explore images and experiences that newly-arrived immigrant children in Sweden have about sport in their country of origin, and challenges that can arise in processes of integration through sport. We asked 20 newly arrived children aged 10 to 13 to make drawings about sporting experiences ...

  2. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  3. Sports dance artistic expression culture analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zegang

    2017-01-01

    At present, the sports dance has entered every stage of the people’s life, has become the public’s favorite sport. Sports dance has been well developed. This article mainly uses the literature material law to carry on the detailed analysis to the sports dance constitution, elaborated in detail the sports dance artistic expression. The composition of sports dance elements; sports dance is a form of dance art show; sports dance through the dance art can be divided into three aspects, namely, fo...

  4. Sanctions for doping in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.

  5. Epidemiology of Pediatric Sports Injuries: Individual Sports

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book enc...

  6. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  7. Who Wants to Play? Sport Motivation Trajectories, Sport Participation, and the Development of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Amemiya, Jamie

    2017-09-01

    Although sport involvement has the potential to enhance psychological wellbeing, studies have suggested that motivation to participate in sports activities declines across childhood and adolescence. This study incorporated expectancy-value theory to model children's sport ability self-concept and subjective task values trajectories from first to twelfth grade. Additionally, it examined if sport motivation trajectories predicted individual and team-based sport participation and whether sport participation in turn reduced the development of depressive symptoms. Data were drawn from the Childhood and Beyond Study, a cross-sequential longitudinal study comprised of three cohorts (N = 1065; 49% male; 92% European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave were 6.42, 7.39, and 9.36 years, respectively). Results revealed four trajectories of students' co-development of sport self-concept and task values: congruent stable high, incongruent stable high, middle school decreasing, and decreasing. Trajectory membership predicted individual and team-based sports participation, but only team-based sport participation predicted faster declines in depressive symptoms. The use of a person-centered approach enabled us to identify heterogeneity in trajectories of sport motivation that can aid in the development of nuanced strategies to increase students' motivation to participate in sports.

  8. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  9. Addressing mental health through sport: a review of sporting organizations' websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Sarah K; Deane, Frank P; Vella, Stewart A

    2017-04-01

    Mental health is a major concern among adolescents. Most mental illnesses have their onset during this period, and around 14% of all young people aged 12 to 17 years experience a mental illness in a 12-month period. However, only 65% of these adolescents access health services to address their mental health problems. Approximately 70% of all Australian adolescents participate in sport, and this presents an opportunity for mental health promotion. This paper reviewed current approaches by sporting organizations to mental health promotion, prevention and early intervention by searching peak body websites, as well as the wider Internet. Findings revealed many of the sport organizations reviewed acknowledged the importance of mental components of their sport to increase competitiveness, but few explicitly noted mental health problems or the potential of their sport to promote good mental health. Although some had participated in mental health promotion campaigns, there was no evaluation or reference to the evidence base for these campaigns. We describe a framework for integrating mental health promotion into sports organizations based on the MindMatters programme for schools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Retrospective case evaluation of gender differences in sports injuries in a Japanese sports medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2008-12-01

    Although both gender- and sports-specific injuries exist among athletes, gender differences in the types of injuries caused by sports activities, except for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and anterior knee pain, are not well established. An observational study with a retrospective case-series design was conducted to investigate gender-specific differences in the types of injuries sustained while engaging in sports activities common to both males and females. We analyzed injuries sustained during sports activities including basketball, volleyball, tennis, skiing, track and field, and swimming, using data on age, sex, sports activities, activity levels, and sports injuries that had been computerized at our sports medicine (orthopedics) clinic. Inclusion criteria were sports activities that had a record of >100 injuries in total and athletes aged sports activity. We determined the absolute number of patients in each category and their percentage (proportion) of our cohort. The proportions of common injuries caused by sports activities were investigated, and gender-specific differences in the types of common injuries caused by sports activities were clarified. The Fisher exact test was used to determine the significance (P gender-specific differences in the types of sports injuries. According to our database, during the 14-year period between October 1992 and December 2006, a total of 2,989 athletes (1,624 males and 1,365 females) aged sports activities described consulted our sports medicine clinic. The most common sports injuries were ACL injury (14.3%) and knee pain (13.7%), followed by ankle sprain (9.4%), lumbar disc disease (7.0%), meniscus injury (5.1%), stress fracture (2.9%), low back pain (2.5%), patellar tendinitis (2.1%), injury of the medial collateral ligament of the knee (2.0%), lumbar spondylolysis (1.7%), and muscle strain (1.5%). Among these 11 types of sports injuries, a significantly higher proportion of females who engaged in basketball

  11. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [A quantitative approach to sports training-adapted social determinants concerning sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Gómez, Martina K; Neira-Tolosa, Nury A

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantitatively analysing social determinants affecting disabled teenagers' inclusion/exclusion in high-performance sports. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 19 12- to 19-year-old athletes suffering physical and sensory disability and 17 staff from the District Institute of Recreation and Sport. Likert-type rating scales were used, based on four analysis categories, i.e. social structure, socio-economic, educational and living condition determinants. Social inequity pervades the national paralympic sports' system. This is because 74 % of individuals only become recognised as sportspeople when they have obtained meritorious results in set competition without appropriate conditions having been previously provided by such paralympic sports institution to enable them to overcome structural and intermediate barriers. The social structure imposed on district-based paralympic sport stigmatises individuals regarding their individual abilities, affects their empowerment and freedom due to the discrimination experienced by disabled teenagers regarding their competitive achievements.

  13. Economic characteristic of non-profit sport clubs and their relations with municipalities and sport federations

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Pavlik

    2013-01-01

    There is a running discussion about the system of financin