WorldWideScience

Sample records for sport-caught great lakes

  1. Maternal exposure to Great Lakes sport-caught fish and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene, but not polychlorinated biphenyls, is associated with reduced birth weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, M.G.; Anderson, H.A.; Hanrahan, L.P.; Kanarek, M.S.; Falk, C.M.; Steenport, D.M.; Draheim, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Fish consumption may be beneficial for a developing human fetus, but fish may also contain contaminants that could be detrimental. Great Lakes sport-caught fish (GLSCF) are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), but the effects of these contaminants on birth outcome are not clear. To distinguish potential contaminant effects, we examined (1) whether the decrease over time in contaminant levels in GLSCF is paralleled by an increase in birth weight of children of GLSCF-consuming mothers and (2) the relation between maternal serum concentrations of these contaminants and birth weight. Mothers (n=511) were interviewed from 1993 to 1995, and maternal serum was collected from 1994 to 1995 (n=143). Potential confounders considered were child gender, maternal age at delivery, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, maternal cigarette and alcohol use during pregnancy, maternal education level, maternal parity, and maternal breastfeeding. Children born during 1970-1977, 1978-1984, and 1985-1993 to mothers who ate more than 116 meals of GLSCF before pregnancy were, on average, 164 g lighter, 46 g heavier, and 134 g heavier, respectively, than children of mothers who ate no GLSCF before pregnancy (P trend=0.05). GLSCF-consuming mothers had higher serum PCB and DDE concentrations, but only increased DDE was associated with lower birth weight. The data suggest that fetal DDE exposure (as indicated by maternal serum DDE concentration) may decrease birth weight and that decreased birth weight effects associated with GLSCF consumption have decreased over time

  2. Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The Great Lakes region, as defined here, includes the Great Lakes and their drainage basins in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The region also includes the portions of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the 21 northernmost counties of Illinois that lie in the Mississippi River drainage basin, outside the floodplain of the river. The region spans about 9º of latitude and 20º of longitude and lies roughly halfway between the equator and the North Pole in a lowland corridor that extends from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Ocean.The Great Lakes are the most prominent natural feature of the region (Fig. 1). They have a combined surface area of about 245,000 square kilometers and are among the largest, deepest lakes in the world. They are the largest single aggregation of fresh water on the planet (excluding the polar ice caps) and are the only glacial feature on Earth visible from the surface of the moon (The Nature Conservancy 1994a).The Great Lakes moderate the region’s climate, which presently ranges from subarctic in the north to humid continental warm in the south (Fig. 2), reflecting the movement of major weather masses from the north and south (U.S. Department of the Interior 1970; Eichenlaub 1979). The lakes act as heat sinks in summer and heat sources in winter and are major reservoirs that help humidify much of the region. They also create local precipitation belts in areas where air masses are pushed across the lakes by prevailing winds, pick up moisture from the lake surface, and then drop that moisture over land on the other side of the lake. The mean annual frost-free period—a general measure of the growing-season length for plants and some cold-blooded animals—varies from 60 days at higher elevations in the north to 160 days in lakeshore areas in the south. The climate influences the general distribution of wild plants and animals in the region and also influences the activities and distribution of the human

  3. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  4. Great Lakes Bathymetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lakes Michigan, Erie, Saint Clair, Ontario and Huron has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and...

  5. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  6. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  7. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J. Iwan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  8. Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Great Lakes Environmental Database (GLENDA) houses environmental data on a wide variety of constituents in water, biota, sediment, and air in the Great Lakes area.

  9. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  10. Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NOAA-GLERL and its partners conduct innovative research on the dynamic environments and ecosystems of the Great Lakes and coastal regions to provide information for...

  11. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5–10.2 cal ka BP; 10–9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column — a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  12. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  13. Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Great Lakes Mussel Watch(2009-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, the...

  14. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  15. Great Lakes CoastWatch Node

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program within which the Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL)...

  16. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  17. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  18. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  19. Great Lakes Research Review, 1982. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    presently limited to two species; and finally the question of tihe bioavailability . (p. 24) 1978 Annual Report ScienL~sts have different opinions on...substances into the Great ’akes and their environmental and human health effects (p. 7) methodology for determining relative bioavailability of various...institutiuns which are nut incluoea ir, this review that ricmy unuertake sone projects dealing with the Great Lakes. However, the intention of this

  20. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  1. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald

    2011-04-15

    Phytoplankton production is an important factor in determining both ecosystem stability and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. The expansive and economically important North American Great Lakes are subjected to multiple stressors and understanding their responses to those stresses is important for understanding system-wide ecological controls. Here we show gradual increases in spring silica concentration (an indicator of decreasing growth of the dominant diatoms) in all basins of Lakes Michigan and Huron (USA and Canadian waters) between 1983 and 2008. These changes indicate the lakes have undergone gradual oligotrophication coincident with and anticipated by nutrient management implementation. Slow declines in seasonal drawdown of silica (proxy for seasonal phytoplankton production) also occurred, until recent years, when lake-wide responses were punctuated by abrupt decreases, putting them in the range of oligotrophic Lake Superior. The timing of these dramatic production drops is coincident with expansion of populations of invasive dreissenid mussels, particularly quagga mussels, in each basin. The combined effect of nutrient mitigation and invasive species expansion demonstrates the challenges facing large-scale ecosystems and suggest the need for new management regimes for large ecosystems.

  2. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  3. Great Lakes maritime education program for K-12 teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Michigan Technological University has led an educational/outreach effort for the Great Lake Maritime Research Institute since 2006. : Despite Michigan Techs relative isolation and long distance from most locations in the Great Lakes Basin, every s...

  4. CHECKLIST OF DIATOMS FROM THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An updated diatom (Bacillariophyta) checklist for the Great Lakes has been completed (J. Great Lakes Res. 1999) and supplants the preliminary checklist (J. Great Lakes Res. 1978). The present list is effectively a 20-year update. The updated list is based upon: 1) the 1978 checkl...

  5. Utilization of a Marketing Strategy at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes, Great Lakes, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    UTILIZATION OF A MARKETING STRATEGY AToNAVAL REGIONAL MEDICAL CENTER GREAT LAKES NGREAT LAKES, ILLINOIS I DTIC S1 ELECTE I A Graduate Research...IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. rCCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (bw* u S.wufty asification) Utilization of A Marketing Strategy At Naval Regional Medical Center...Applied Research Question. ........ 37 Summary of the Steps of a Marketing Strategy .. ..... 38 Applicability to the Military Health Care System

  6. ROV dives under Great Lakes ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsenga, S.J.; Gannon, John E.; Kennedy, Gregory; Norton, D.C.; Herdendorf, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the underside of ice have a wide variety of applications. Severe under-ice roughness can affect ice movements, rough under-ice surfaces can scour the bottom disturbing biota and man-made structures such as pipelines, and the flow rate of rivers is often affected by under-ice roughness. A few reported observations of the underside of an ice cover have been made, usually by cutting a large block of ice and overturning it, by extensive boring, or by remote sensing. Such operations are extremely labor-intensive and, in some cases, prone to inaccuracies. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can partially solve these problems. In this note, we describe the use, performance in a hostile environment, and results of a study in which a ROV was deployed under the ice in Lake Erie (North American Great Lakes).

  7. Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzel, F.

    1993-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Biomass Energy Program (GLRBEP) was initiated September, 1983, with a grant from the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The program provides resources to public and private organizations in the Great Lakes region to increase the utilization and production of biomass fuels. The objectives of the GLRBEP are to: (1) improve the capabilities and effectiveness of biomass energy programs in the state energy offices; (2) assess the availability of biomass resources for energy in light of other competing needs and uses; (3) encourage private sector investments in biomass energy technologies; (4) transfer the results of government-sponsored biomass research and development to the private sector; (5) eliminate or reduce barriers to private sector use of biomass fuels and technology; (6) prevent or substantially mitigate adverse environmental impacts of biomass energy use. The Program Director is responsible for the day-to-day activities of the GLRBEP and for implementing program mandates. A 40 member Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) sets priorities and recommends projects. The governor of each state in the region appoints a member to the Steering Council, which acts on recommendations of the TAC and sets basic program guidelines. The GLRBEP is divided into three separate operational elements. The State Grants component provides funds and direction to the seven state energy offices in the region to increase their capabilities in biomass energy. State-specific activities and interagency programs are emphasized. The Subcontractor component involves the issuance of solicitations to undertake projects that address regional needs, identified by the Technical Advisory Committee. The Technology Transfer component includes the development of nontechnical biomass energy publications and reports by Council staff and contractors, and the dissemination of information at conferences, workshops and other events

  8. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  9. Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have substantial impacts in the Great Lakes region of the United States. One intent of this presentation is to introduce the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments Center (GLISA), a recently-funded NOAA RISA center. The goals and unique organizational structure of GLISA will be described along with core activities that support impact and assessment studies in the region. Additionally, observed trends in temperature, precipitation including lake effect snowfall, and lake temperatures and ice cover will be summarized for the Great Lakes region, and vulnerabilities to, and potential impacts of, climate change will be surveyed for critical natural and human systems. These include forest ecosystems, water resources, traditional and specialized agriculture, and tourism/recreation. Impacts and vulnerabilities unique to the Great Lakes region are emphasized.

  10. 78 FR 38725 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2013-0568] Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee (GLPAC) will meet virtually on July 15, 2013... be held during the meeting on July 15, 2013, after the committee completes its work on the agenda...

  11. 78 FR 5474 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2013-0029] Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee (GLPAC) will meet on February 11, 2013, in..., 2013, after the committee completes its work on the agenda given under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  12. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [USCG-2012-0359] Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee (GLPAC) will meet on June 7, 2012, in..., after the committee completes its work on the agenda given under SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. Speakers are...

  13. Wildlife in the Upper Great Lakes Region: a community profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janine M. Benyus; Richard R. Buech; Mark D. Nelson

    1992-01-01

    Wildlife habitat data from seven Great Lakes National Forests were combined into a wildlife-habitat matrix named NORTHWOODS. The composite NORTHWOODS data base is summarized. Multiple queries of NORTHWOODS were used to profile the wildlife community of the Upper Great Lakes region.

  14. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... St. Lawrence River shall be considered as a part of the Great Lakes. In addition, the Victoria Bridge, Montreal, Canada, is the dividing line between fresh water and salt water in the St. Lawrence River. [CGFR... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST...

  15. Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Baskin, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program.The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation’s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. In meeting these goals, the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at Federal, State, and local levels.A major design feature of the NAWQA Program will enable water-quality information at different areal scales to be integrated. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, which ae the principal building blocks of the program upon which national-level assessment activities will be based. The 60 study-unit investigations that make up the program are hydrologic systems that include principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. These study units cover areas from less than 1.000 to greater than 60,000 mi2 and incorporate from about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation’s water use and population served by public water supply. In 1993, assessment activities began in the Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study unit.

  16. Great Lakes Ice Charts, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the...

  17. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  18. 2010 Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Bathymetric Lidar: Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained in this file contain hydrographic and topographic data collected by the Fugro LADS Mk II system along the Lake Superior coast of Minnessota,...

  19. Cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical collections of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepod crustaceans in the Great Lakes have mainly been based on samples taken with plankton nets in deeper waters (>5 m). Of the non-calanoid copepod species known from the Great Lakes, 58 or 64 live primarily on or in the sediments and rarely are collected in plankton samples. Because of their small size, they are rarely retained in the coarse sieves used to concentrate samples of benthic invertebrates. Thus, the abundance and distribution of most species of these two groups of copepods have never been adequately documented in the Great Lakes. We examined the stomach contents of small, bottom-feeding fishes such as slimy sculpin which feed on benthic copepods that live in deep, inaccessible rocky areas of the Great Lakes to collect some of the material. We also collected in shallow nearshore habitats, including wetlands. We present an annotated checklist of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods based on published records and our recent collections in the Great Lakes. We have added 14 species of cyclopoid copepods to the Great Lakes record, increasing the total to 30. Because we probably have accounted for most of the cyclopoid species, we provide a key to the identification of this group. We have added 19 species of harpacticoid copepods to the 15 previously known to the Great Lakes, and suspect that additional species remain to be discovered. In individual lakes, there were approximately as many species of cyclopoids as harpacticoids; the total number of species per lake ranged from 35 to 57. The most speciose genera were Bryocamptus (7), Canthocamptus (5), and Moraria (5) in the Harpacticoida, and Diacyclops (6) and Acanthocyclops (5) in the Cyclopoida. The origin of introduced species, our ability to classify copepod habitat, and the ecological significance of copepods are discussed.

  20. GLERL Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Base, 1966-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the winters of 1965/66 through 1976/77, NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) collected weekly ice thickness and stratigraphy data at up...

  1. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Steinman, Alan D.; Wiley, Michael J.; Carlson Mazur, Martha; Pebbles, Victoria; Braun, Heather A.; Seelbach, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    At the interface of the Great Lakes and their tributary rivers lies the rivermouths, a class of aquatic ecosystem where lake and lotic processes mix and distinct features emerge. Many rivermouths are the focal point of both human interaction with the Great Lakes and human impacts to the lakes; many cities, ports, and beaches are located in rivermouth ecosystems, and these human pressures often degrade key ecological functions that rivermouths provide. Despite their ecological uniqueness and apparent economic importance, there has been relatively little research on these ecosystems as a class relative to studies on upstream rivers or the open-lake waters. Here we present a synthesis of current knowledge about ecosystem structure and function in Great Lakes rivermouths based on studies in both Laurentian rivermouths, coastal wetlands, and marine estuarine systems. A conceptual model is presented that establishes a common semantic framework for discussing the characteristic spatial features of rivermouths. This model then is used to conceptually link ecosystem structure and function to ecological services provided by rivermouths. This synthesis helps identify the critical gaps in understanding rivermouth ecology. Specifically, additional information is needed on how rivermouths collectively influence the Great Lakes ecosystem, how human alterations influence rivermouth functions, and how ecosystem services provided by rivermouths can be managed to benefit the surrounding socioeconomic networks.

  2. Reaching Regional and Local Learners via a Great Lakes MOOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) took a regional approach to climate change education in a 4-week MOOC (Massive Open On-line Course) on the Changing Weather and Climate in the Great Lakes Region launched in February 2015. Featuring a different season each week, this Great Lakes MOOC includes lectures about seasonal weather conditions, observed changes, and societal impacts of regional climate change, as well as actions with co-benefits to slow future climate change. To better connect with learners, CIMSS facilitated 21 discussion groups at public libraries around Wisconsin each week. Participants discussed climate change impacts in their communities as well as strategies to mitigate climate change. Not surprisingly, initial survey results show library participants were more committed, engaged, climate literate, and community minded. This session will share lessons learned and survey results from the Great Lakes MOOC which remains open and accessible on Coursera through February 2016 at https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate.

  3. Draft Mercury Aquatic Wildlife Benchmarks for Great Salt Lake ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the EPA Region 8's rationale for selecting aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue mercury benchmarks for use in interpreting available data collected from the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands. EPA Region 8 has conducted a literature review to update and refine the aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue benchmarks for mercury that may be used for data assessment until water quality criteria can be derived. The document describes how aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue benchmarks for mercury have been compiled for existing literature sources and the approach for how they will be used to evaluate whether the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands meet its designated use for aquatic wildlife.

  4. Forecasting Lake-Effect Precipitation in the Great Lakes Region Using NASA Enhanced-Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Lake-effect precipitation is common in the Great Lakes region, particularly during the late fall and winter. The synoptic processes of lake-effect precipitation are well understood by operational forecasters, but individual forecast events still present a challenge. Locally run, high resolution models can assist the forecaster in identifying the onset and duration of precipitation, but model results are sensitive to initial conditions, particularly the assumed surface temperature of the Great Lakes. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has created a Great Lakes Surface Temperature (GLST) composite, which uses infrared estimates of water temperatures obtained from the MODIS instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, other coarser resolution infrared data when MODIS is not available, and ice cover maps produced by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). This product has been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS), used within forecast offices to run local, high resolution forecasts. The sensitivity of the model forecast to the GLST product was analyzed with a case study of the Lake Effect Storm Echinacea, which produced 10 to 12 inches of snowfall downwind of Lake Erie, and 8 to 18 inches downwind of Lake Ontario from 27-29 January 2010. This research compares a forecast using the default Great Lakes surface temperatures from the Real Time Global sea surface temperature (RTG SST), in the WRF-EMS model to the enhanced NASA SPoRT GLST product to study forecast impacts. Results from this case study show that the SPoRT GLST contained less ice cover over Lake Erie and generally cooler water temperatures over Lakes Erie and Ontario. Latent and sensible heat fluxes over Lake Ontario were decreased in the GLST product. The GLST product decreased the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), which can be correlated to the decrease in temperatures and heat

  5. Understanding Obstacles to Peace in the Great Lakes Region ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, it has also been noted that the interests of certain actors have taken on a life of their own independent of the root causes of the conflicts, and that these are affecting the implementation and sustainability of the peace agreements. This project will attempt to explain the protracted conflict in the Great Lakes Region ...

  6. Building a reference inventory of Great Lakes aquatic fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the existence of numerous publications and web-pages that address aspects of species composition and distribution in the Great Lakes, there is at present no single resource that brings all this information together. This poster describes our progress towards generating a ...

  7. Sustainable Peace and Development in the Great Lakes Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus for this paper is to recall some of possible areas of socio-economic areas that can be reinforced under cooperation between Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) for sustainable peace; leading to sustainable development in the Great Lakes region, Africa. It has been revealed that ...

  8. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivermouth ecosystems contribute to both the ecological dynamics and the human social networks that surround and depend on the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, understanding and management of these systems would be enhanced by viewing them with a new, holistic focus. Here, focu...

  9. Climate change and water quality in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Great Lakes Basin is subjected to several stresses, such as land use changes, chemical contamination, nutrient over-enrichment, alien invasive species, and acid precipitation. Climate change is now added to this list. The Water Quality Board was asked to provide advice concerning the impacts of climate change on the water quality of the Great Lakes and on how to address the issue. A White Paper was commissioned by the Board to address four key questions: (1) what are the Great Lakes water quality issues associated with climate change, (2) what are potential impacts of climate change on beneficial uses, (3) how might impacts vary across the Great Lakes region, and (4) what are the implications for decision making. The conclusions and findings of the White Paper were then discussed at a workshop held in May 2003. Part 1 of the document provides an executive summary. The advice of the Water Quality Board was based on the findings of the White Paper and presented in Part 2. Part 3 presented the White Paper, while a summary of the workshop was provided in Part 4. A presentation on cross border tools and strategies was also presented by a workshop participant.

  10. Understanding Obstacles to Peace in the Great Lakes Region ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa's Great Lakes region is home to violent and prolonged conflicts that cause a lot of suffering and block socioeconomic progress. Several initiatives are underway to bring peace to the region. But, most of these focus on specific countries and have not taken into account the interrelated and overlapping nature of the ...

  11. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  12. Changes in the dreissenid community in the lower Great Lakes with emphasis on southern Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward L.; Chrisman, Jana R.; Baldwin, Brad; Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Howell, Todd; Roseman, Edward F.; Raths, Melinda K.

    1999-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the lower Great Lakes to assess changes in spatial distribution and population structure of dreissenid mussel populations. More specifically, the westward range expansion of quagga mussel into western Lake Erie and toward Lake Huron was investigated and the shell size, density, and biomass of zebra and quagga mussel with depth in southern Lake Ontario in 1992 and 1995 were compared. In Lake Erie, quagga mussel dominated the dreissenid community in the eastern basin and zebra mussel dominated in the western basin. In southern Lake Ontario, an east to west gradient was observed with the quagga mussel dominant at western sites and zebra mussel dominant at eastern locations. Mean shell size of quagga mussel was generally larger than that of zebra mussel except in western Lake Erie and one site in eastern Lake Erie. Although mean shell size and our index of numbers and biomass of both dreissenid species increased sharply in southern Lake Ontario between 1992 and 1995, the increase in density and biomass was much greater for quagga mussels over the 3-year period. In 1995, zebra mussels were most abundant at 15 to 25 m whereas the highest numbers and biomass of quagga mussel were at 35 to 45 m. The quagga mussel is now the most abundant dreissenid in areas of southern Lake Ontario where the zebra mussel was once the most abundant dreissenid; this trend parallels that observed for dreissenid populations in the Dneiper River basin in the Ukraine.

  13. The Younger Dryas phase of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Zachary, C.; Mahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Field investigations at the Public Shooting Grounds (a wildlife-management area on the northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake) and radiocarbon dating show that the Great Salt Lake rose to the Gilbert shoreline sometime between 12.9 and 11.2 cal ka. We interpret a ripple-laminated sand unit exposed at the Public Shooting Grounds, and dated to this time interval, as the nearshore sediments of Great Salt Lake deposited during the formation of the Gilbert shoreline. The ripple-laminated sand is overlain by channel-fill deposits that overlap in age (11.9-11.2 cal ka) with the sand, and by wetland deposits (11.1 to 10.5 cal ka). Consistent accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages were obtained from samples of plant fragments, including those of emergent aquatic plants, but mollusk shells from spring and marsh deposits yielded anomalously old ages, probably because of a variable radiocarbon reservoir effect. The Bonneville basin was effectively wet during at least part of the Younger Dryas global-cooling interval, however, conflicting results from some Great Basin locations and proxy records indicate that the regional effects of Younger Dryas cooling are still not well understood. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  15. Lake Morphometry for NHD Lakes in Great Lakes Region 4 HUC

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Lake morphometry metrics are known to influence productivity in lakes and are important for building various types of ecological and environmental models of lentic...

  16. Lake whitefish and Diporeia spp. in the Great lakes: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepa, Thomas F.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Henderson, Bryan A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Schneeberger, Philip J.

    2005-01-01

    Because of growing concern in the Great Lakes over declines in abundance and growth of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and declines in abundance of the benthic amphipod Diporeia spp., a workshop was held to examine past and current trends, to explore trophic links, and to discuss the latest research results and needs. The workshop was divided into sessions on the status of populations in each of the lakes, bioenergetics and trophic dynamics, and exploitation and management. Abundance, growth, and condition of whitefish populations in Lakes Superior and Erie are stable and within the range of historical means, but these variables are declining in Lakes Michigan and Ontario and parts of Lake Huron. The loss of Diporeia spp., a major food item of whitefish, has been a factor in observed declines, particularly in Lake Ontario, but density-dependent factors also likely played a role in Lakes Michigan and Huron. The loss of Diporeia spp. is temporally linked to the introduction and proliferation of dreissenid mussels, but a direct cause for the negative response of Diporeia spp. has not been established. Given changes in whitefish populations, age-structured models need to be re-evaluated. Other whitefish research needs to include a better understanding of what environmental conditions lead to strong year-classes, improved aging techniques, and better information on individual population (stock) structure. Further collaborations between assessment biologists and researchers studying the lower food web would enhance an understanding of links between trophic levels.

  17. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. L. Sills

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region.

    The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  18. GLERL Great Lakes Air Temperature/Degree Day Climatology, 1897-1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily maximum and minimum temperatures for 25 stations around the Great Lakes, 1897 to 1983, were given to NSIDC by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research...

  19. Great Lakes maritime education program for K-12 teachers, year 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Michigan Technological University has led an educational/outreach effort for the Great Lake Maritime Research Institute since 2006. : Despite Michigan Techs relative isolation and long distance from most locations in the Great Lakes Basin, every s...

  20. Environmental conditions synchronize waterbird mortality events in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Karine; Chipault, Jennifer G.; White, C. LeAnn; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Since the 1960s, periodic outbreaks of avian botulism type E have contributed to large-scale die-offs of thousands of waterbirds throughout the Great Lakes of the United States. In recent years, these events have become more common and widespread. Occurring during the summer and autumn months, the prevalence of these die-offs varies across years and is often associated with years of warmer lake temperatures and lower water levels. Little information exists on how environmental conditions mediate the spatial and temporal characteristics of mortality events.In 2010, a citizen science programme, Avian Monitoring for Botulism Lakeshore Events (AMBLE), was launched to enhance surveillance efforts and detect the appearance of beached waterbird carcasses associated with avian botulism type E outbreaks in northern Lake Michigan. Using these data, our goal was to quantify the within-year characteristics of mortality events for multiple species, and to test whether the synchrony of these events corresponded to fluctuations in two environmental factors suspected to be important in the spread of avian botulism: water temperature and the prevalence of green macroalgae.During two separate events of mass waterbird mortality, we found that the detection of bird carcasses was spatially synchronized at scales of c. 40 km. Notably, the extent of this spatial synchrony in avian mortality matched that of fluctuations in lake surface water temperatures and the prevalence of green macroalgae.Synthesis and applications. Our findings are suggestive of a synchronizing effect where warmer lake temperatures and the appearance of macroalgae mediate the characteristics of avian mortality. In future years, rising lake temperatures and a higher propensity of algal masses could lead to increases in the magnitude and synchronization of avian mortality due to botulism. We advocate that citizen-based monitoring efforts are critical for identifying the potential environmental conditions associated

  1. Microbial mat mineralization in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACE, Aurélie; Bouton, Anthony; Bourillot, Raphaël; Vennin, Emmanuelle; Visscher, Pieter; Dupraz, Christophe; Thomazo, Christophe; Serge, Galaup; Sophie, Leleu; Anna, Kwasniewski; Léa, Pigot; Michel, Franceschi

    2015-04-01

    Great Salt Lake is located in the Basin and Range province of Utah (USA). Its average surface is 4480 Km2 and its maximum depth is of about 15m. It is a partly rainfed endorheic hypersaline lake (average salinity: 140g/L). Due to the high salinity, little or no grazing organisms are present, favoring the development of microbialites that cover the margin of the lake. This work aims to understand the products and processes of mineralization in recent and modern microbialites on the western margin of Antelope Island. The distribution of microbialites and their morphology has been studied along lakeshore to center transects, showing a contrasting spatial distribution in bay versus headland. Fossil microbialites show a great diversity of macro- and microfabrics, some microbialites being essentially built by microbial-mediated carbonate precipitation, while other show the predominance of trapping and binding processes. The nature and composition of the microbial carbonates have been determined through polarizing, cathodoluminescence, reflected fluorescence microscopy, X-Ray diffractometry and isotope geochemistry (δ 18O and δ13C) in order to investigate the preservation of environmental signals in microbialites. Petrophysics analysis such as permeability and porosimetry, have been done to observe the structure of the microbialite. Microprobe and silver foils method have been used respectively to characterize oxygen production and sulfate reduction in living microbial mats. Mineralization zones seem to coincide with sulfate reduction hotspots. This mineralization results in mixed clotted-laminated fabric at the macro- and microscale. Several analysis such as Cryo-SEM, environmental SEM and raman spectroscopy three phases of mineralization allowed us to distinguish three type of minerals inside the mat: (1) a Mg and Si-rich clay developing on the organic matrix; (2) an intracellular Al-rich clay. (3) aragonite clots replacing the organic matrixes and embedding bacteria

  2. 75 FR 82141 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study AGENCY: Maritime Administration... Administration's U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study. The three meetings will be identical in terms... participation. The U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study will examine the current and potential...

  3. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on the Great Lakes and inland waters is valid on all of the inland waters of the United States as defined in...

  4. 78 FR 21937 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Request: Comment Request; Great Lakes Accountability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Collection Request: Comment Request; Great Lakes Accountability System (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental... an information collection request (ICR), ``Great Lakes Accountability System'' (EPA ICR No. 2379.02... using www.regulations.gov (our preferred method) or by mail to: Great Lakes Accountability System, Attn...

  5. 75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, Coventry Rhode Island AGENCY: Environmental... and future response costs concerning the Great Lakes Container Corporation Superfund Site, located in...), Boston, MA 02109-3912, (617) 918-1216. Comments should reference the Great Lakes Container Corporation...

  6. Northern Great Basin Seasonal Lakes: Vulnerability to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, M.; Eitel, J.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal alkaline lakes in southeast Oregon, northeast California, and northwest Nevada serve as important habitat for migrating birds utilizing the Pacific Flyway, as well as local plant and animal communities. Despite their ecological importance, and anecdotal suggestions that these lakes are becoming less reliable, little is known about the vulnerability of these lakes to climate change. Our research seeks to understand the vulnerability of Northern Great Basin seasonal lakes to climate change. For this, we will be using historical information from the European Space Agency's Global Surface Water Explorer and the University of Idaho's gridMET climate product, to build a model that allows estimating surface water extent and timing based on climate variables. We will then utilize downscaled future climate projections to model surface water extent and timing in the coming decades. In addition, an unmanned aerial system (UAS) will be utilized at a subset of dried basins to obtain precise 3D bathymetry and calculate water volume hypsographs, a critical factor in understanding the likelihood of water persistence and biogeochemical habitat suitability. These results will be incorporated into decision support tools that land managers can utilize in water conservation, wildlife management, and climate mitigation actions. Future research may pair these forecasts with animal movement data to examine fragmentation of migratory corridors and species-specific impacts.

  7. Earliest Cucurbita from the Great Lakes, Northern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, G. William; Lovis, William A.; Egan-Bruhy, Kathryn C.

    2006-03-01

    Directly dated Cucurbita from archaeological sites near Lake Huron expand the range and human usage of adventive, cultivated wild gourds or squash into the Great Lakes region, USA, by 4000 14C yr BP. The data also show that domesticated C. pepo squash was cultivated there by 3000 14C yr BP. Although milder Hypsithermal climate may have been a contributing factor, squash and gourds expanded northward during the mid-Holocene mainly by human agency and may be the first human-introduced adventive plant in temperate North America. Even after 3000 14C yr BP, when domesticated squash generally replaced wild varieties at northern sites, squash stands were probably informally managed rather than intensively cultivated.

  8. Hydrologic Factors Determining Linkages of Great Lake Coastal Wetlands to Watershed and Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water can enter Great Lakes coastal wetlands (CWs) from both watershed and offshore sources. Identifying the relative contribution of these potential sources, and the spatial scale at which sources are influenced by human activities, are critical steps in wetland protection. We d...

  9. The Life of the Lakes: The Great Lakes Fishery. [Multimedia Package].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan Sea Grant Extension, East Lansing.

    This multimedia package includes a 55-minute videocassettes, a guide, and six posters and was designed to provide teaching outlines/plans for a two-week thematic unit on Great Lakes fisheries for middle school or high school youth. The guide can be used in both formal school settings and nonformal school settings such as youth organizations and…

  10. Air pollution and environmental justice in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Bryan

    While it is true that air quality has steadily improved in the Great Lakes region, air pollution remains at unhealthy concentrations in many areas. Research suggests that vulnerable and susceptible groups in society -- e.g., minorities, the poor, children, and poorly educated -- are often disproportionately impacted by exposure to environmental hazards, including air pollution. This dissertation explores the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution (interpolated concentrations of fine particulate matter, PM2.5) and sociodemographic factors (race, housing value, housing status, education, age, and population density) at the Census block-group level in the Great Lakes region of the United States. A relatively novel approach to quantitative environmental justice analysis, geographically weighted regression (GWR), is compared with a simplified approach: ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. While OLS creates one global model to describe the relationship between air pollution exposure and sociodemographic factors, GWR creates many local models (one at each Census block group) that account for local variations in this relationship by allowing the value of regression coefficients to vary over space, overcoming OLS's assumption of homogeneity and spatial independence. Results suggest that GWR can elucidate patterns of potential environmental injustices that OLS models may miss. In fact, GWR results show that the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and sociodemographic characteristics is non-stationary and can vary geographically and temporally throughout the Great Lakes region. This suggests that regulators may need to address environmental justice issues at the neighborhood level, while understanding that the severity of environmental injustices can change throughout the year.

  11. Ecotoxicology of organochlorine chemicals in birds of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Giesy, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Silent Spring was fulfilled in the United States with passage of environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Toxic Substance Control Act in the 1970s. Carson's writings, television interviews, and testimony before Congress alerted a nation and the world to the unintended effects of persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals on populations of fish, wildlife, and possibly humans. Her writings in the popular press brought attention to scientific findings that declines in populations of a variety of birds were directly linked to the widespread use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in agriculture, public health, and horticulture. By the 1970s, DDT and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were being banned or phased out, and the intent of these regulatory acts became apparent in a number of locations across the United States, including the Great Lakes. Concentrations of DDT and its major product of transformation, dichlorodiphenylchloroethane (DDE), were decreasing in top predators, such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), colonial waterbirds, and other fish-eating wildlife. Eggshell thinning and the associated mortality of bird embryos caused by DDE had decreased in the Great Lakes and elsewhere by the early 1980s.

  12. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzel, Frederic

    2009-09-01

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRP's overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  13. Forest-Product Imports and Exports Via the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway Through Upper Lakes Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene M. Carpenter

    1966-01-01

    The expanded Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway system was opened in the early spring of 1959, and for the first time deep-draft ocean-going vessels could visit inland Great Lakes ports. In 1963 the Station published a Research Note reporting what effect this expansion may have had on the volume of forest products moving through Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan ports;...

  14. Questioning the Origin of the Great Salt Lake "Microbialites"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, C.; Matyjasik, M.; Newell, D. L.; Vanden Berg, M. D.; Park, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) of Utah contains abundant carbonate mounds that have been described in the literature as "biostromes", "bioherms", "stromatolites", and "microbialites". The structures are commonly cited as being rare examples of modern lacustrine microbialites, which implies that they are actively-forming and biogenic. Indeed, at least in some regions of the lake, the mounds are covered in a mixed community of cyanobacteria, algae, insect larval casings, microbial heterotrophs, and other organisms that is thought to contribute significantly to benthic primary productivity in GSL. However, the presence of a modern surface microbial community does not implicate a biogenic or modern origin for the mounds. The few studies to date GSL microbialites indicate that they are ancient, with radiocarbon calendar ages in the late Pleistocene and Holocene ( 13 - 3 cal ka). However, could they still be actively growing, and are the surface microbial communities playing a role? Here, we present results of a suite geochemical measurements used to constrain parameters—including groundwater seepage—influencing carbonate saturation and precipitation in the vicinity of one currently-submerged "microbialite reef" on the northern shore of Antelope Island in the South Arm of GSL. Our data suggests that calcium-charged brackish groundwater input to the lake through a permeable substratum in this location results in locally supersaturated conditions for aragonite, which could lead to modern, abiogenic mineralization. In addition, a series of laboratory experiments suggest that the modern surface microbial communities that coat the mounds do not appreciably facilitate carbonate precipitation in simulated GSL conditions, although they may serve as a template for precipitation when local waters become supersaturated.

  15. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-03-31

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  16. Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.A.; Lepper, K.; Endres, A.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Baedke, S.J.; Argyilan, E.P.; Booth, R.K.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1. ka. The first beach ridge formed ~ 6. ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70. years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5. ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell > 4. m during the following 500. years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes. ...

  18. Water clarity of the Upper Great Lakes: tracking changes between 1998-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, F.; Shuchman, R. A.; Sayers, M.; Fahnenstiel, G.; Henareh Khalyani, A.

    2016-12-01

    Water clarity trends in three upper Great Lakes, Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron, were assessed via satellite imagery from 1998 to 2012. Water attenuation coefficients (Kd490) from SeaWiFS and Aqua MODIS satellites compared favorably with in situ measurements. Significant temporal and spatial trends and differences in Kd490 were noted within all three of the lakes. Lake-wide average Kd490 for Lake Superior did not exhibited any changes between 1998 and 2012. Annual Kd490 values for Lake Huron, however, showed a significant negative trend during the study period using both SeaWiFS and MODIS datasets. Similarly, annual Kd490 values of Lake Michigan declined between 1998 and 2010. Additionally, Kd490 trend for depths >90m in northern Lake Michigan reversed (increased) after 2007. Photic depth increased significantly in both Lake Michigan (≃5m), and Lake Huron (≃10m) when comparing annual Kd490 for pre- (1998-2001) and post-mussel (2006-2010). At seasonal level, significant decreases in Kd490 in lakes Michigan and Huron were mainly noted for the spring/fall/winter mixing periods. After current changes in water clarity, lake-wide photic depths in lakes Michigan and Huron superseded Lake Superior; thus, making Lake Superior no longer the clearest Great Lake. Combination of several factors (filtering activities of quagga mussels [Dreissena bugensis rostriformis], phosphorus abatement, climate change, etc.) are likely responsible for these large changes.

  19. Toxicity to Daphnia pulex and QSAR predictions for polycyclic hydrocarbons representative of Great Lakes contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passino-Reader, D.R.; Hickey, J.P.; Ogilvie, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the toxicity of several types of polycyclic hydrocarbons characteristic of Great Lakes samples to Daphnia pulex, a Great Lakes zooplankter, (2) to investigate the influence of different structural characteristics on toxicity, and (3) to determine the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters and model that describe these compounds. These results will be related to comparative toxicity of other Great Lakes environmental compounds and to their application in site specific risk assessment.

  20. 3 CFR - National Policy for the Oceans, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Agencies The oceans, our coasts, and the Great Lakes provide jobs, food, energy resources, ecological services, recreation, and tourism opportunities, and play critical roles in our Nation's...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 132 - Great Lakes Water Quality Initiative Antidegradation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concern are subject to best technology in process and treatment requirements. Lake Superior Basin... to the Lake Superior Basin shall identify the best technology in process and treatment to eliminate... shall adopt an antidegradation standard applicable to all waters of the Great Lakes System and identify...

  2. Ecological assessment of Great Lota Lake (Turkey) on the base of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diatoms are very important component for aquatic ecosystems. Turkey has a rich lake potential and many of the lakes have high level of endemism. For this reason, the Great Lota Lake was investigated between October 2000 and October 2001 in sampling periods of approximately per 15 days from one station. Totally ...

  3. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  4. Isotopic Fractionation of Mercury in Great Lakes Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous bioaccumulative neurotoxin, and atmospheric deposition is a primary way in which mercury enters terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the chemical processes and transport regimes that mercury undergoes from emission to deposition are not well understood. Thus the use of mercury isotopes to characterize the biogeochemical cycling of mercury is a rapidly growing area of study. Precipitation samples were collected in Chicago, IL, Holland, MI, and Dexter, MI from April 2007 - October 2007 to begin examining the isotopic fractionation of atmospheric mercury in the Great Lakes region. Results show that mass-dependent fractionation relative to NIST-3133 (MDF - δ202Hg) ranged from -0.8‰ to 0.2‰ (±0.2‰) in precipitation samples, while mass-independent fractionation (MIF - Δ199Hg) varied from 0.1‰ to 0.6‰ (±0.1‰). Although clear urban-rural differences were not observed, this may be due to the weekly collection of precipitation samples rather than collection of individual events, making it difficult to truly characterize the meteorology and source influences associated with each sample and suggesting that event-based collection is necessary during future sampling campaigns. Additionally, total vapor phase mercury samples were collected in Dexter, MI in 2009 to examine isotopic fractionation of mercury in ambient air. In ambient samples δ202Hg ranged from 0.3‰ to 0.5‰ (±0.1‰), however Δ199Hg was not significant. Because mercury in precipitation is predominantly Hg2+, while ambient vapor phase mercury is primarily Hg0, these results may suggest the occurrence of MIF during the oxidation of Hg0 to Hg2+ prior to deposition. Furthermore, although it has not been previously reported or predicted, MIF of 200Hg was also detected. Δ200Hg ranged from 0.0‰ to 0.2‰ in precipitation and from -0.1‰ to 0.0‰ in ambient samples. This work resulted in methodological developments in the collection and processing of

  5. From top to bottom: Do Lake Trout diversify along a depth gradient in Great Bear Lake, NT, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarie, Louise; Howland, Kimberly L.; Harris, Les N.; Hansen, Michael J.; Harford, William J.; Gallagher, Colin P.; Baillie, Shauna M.; Malley, Brendan; Tonn, William M.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Depth is usually considered the main driver of Lake Trout intraspecific diversity across lakes in North America. Given that Great Bear Lake is one of the largest and deepest freshwater systems in North America, we predicted that Lake Trout intraspecific diversity to be organized along a depth axis within this system. Thus, we investigated whether a deep-water morph of Lake Trout co-existed with four shallow-water morphs previously described in Great Bear Lake. Morphology, neutral genetic variation, isotopic niches, and life-history traits of Lake Trout across depths (0–150 m) were compared among morphs. Due to the propensity of Lake Trout with high levels of morphological diversity to occupy multiple habitat niches, a novel multivariate grouping method using a suite of composite variables was applied in addition to two other commonly used grouping methods to classify individuals. Depth alone did not explain Lake Trout diversity in Great Bear Lake; a distinct fifth deep-water morph was not found. Rather, Lake Trout diversity followed an ecological continuum, with some evidence for adaptation to local conditions in deep-water habitat. Overall, trout caught from deep-water showed low levels of genetic and phenotypic differentiation from shallow-water trout, and displayed higher lipid content (C:N ratio) and occupied a higher trophic level that suggested an potential increase of piscivory (including cannibalism) than the previously described four morphs. Why phenotypic divergence between shallow- and deep-water Lake Trout was low is unknown, especially when the potential for phenotypic variation should be high in deep and large Great Bear Lake. Given that variation in complexity of freshwater environments has dramatic consequences for divergence, variation in the complexity in Great Bear Lake (i.e., shallow being more complex than deep), may explain the observed dichotomy in the expression of intraspecific phenotypic diversity between shallow- vs. deep-water habitats

  6. Compsopogon cf. coeruleus, a benthic red alga (Rhodophyta) new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Wujek, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    We found Compsopogon cf. coeruleus for the first time in the Laurentian Great Lakes, growing on limestone rocks at a depth of 21 m on Six Fathom Bank in central Lake Huron. It is the first freshwater red alga to be found in the Great Lakes and the only red alga ever found on an offshore reef in the Great Lakes. However, because this alga usually inhabits water 10–28 °C and has not survived freezing winter temperatures elsewhere, it may not be a permanent member of the flora.

  7. Regulatory impact analysis of the proposed great lakes water quality guidance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raucher, R.; Dixon, A.; Trabka, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Regulatory Impact Analysis provides direction to the Great Lakes States and Tribes on minimum water quality standards and contains numerical water quality criteria for 32 pollutants as well as methodologies for the development of water quality criteria for additional pollutants discharged to these waters. It also provides guidance to the Great Lakes States and Tribes on antidegradation policies and standards and implementation procedures

  8. 46 CFR 180.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes... Craft § 180.206 Survival craft—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by... with the survival craft required by § 180.205 (a) through (e), as appropriate. (b) Each vessel...

  9. 46 CFR 117.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes... PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Number and Type of Survival Craft § 117.206 Survival craft... vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided with the survival craft required...

  10. Eighteen Years of the Great Lakes Regional Counseling Psychology Conference: Revisiting the Need for Regional Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Bowman, Sharon L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Conference on Counseling Psychology is the only conference to continuously fulfill the 1987 mandate issued by Division 17 for regional counseling conferences. The rationale for regional conferences is reviewed, and the 18-year history of the Great Lakes Regional Conference is examined. The authors conclude by noting the…

  11. Genetic population structure of muskellunge in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapuscinski, Kevin L.; Sloss, Brian L.; Farrell, John M.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified genetic relationships among Muskellunge Esox masquinongy from 15 locations in the Great Lakes to determine the extent and distribution of measurable population structure and to identify appropriate spatial scales for fishery management and genetic conservation. We hypothesized that Muskellunge from each area represented genetically distinct populations, which would be evident from analyses of genotype data. A total of 691 Muskellunge were sampled (n = 10–127/site) and genetic data were collected at 13 microsatellite loci. Results from a suite of analyses (including pairwise genetic differentiation, Bayesian admixture prediction, analysis of molecular variance, and tests of isolation by distance) indicated the presence of nine distinct genetic groups, including two that were approximately 50 km apart. Geographic proximity and low habitat complexity seemed to facilitate genetic similarity among areas, whereas Muskellunge from areas of greater habitat heterogeneity exhibited high differentiation. Muskellunge from most areas contained private alleles, and mean within-area genetic variation was similar to that reported for other freshwater fishes. Management programs aimed at conserving the broader diversity and long-term sustainability of Muskellunge could benefit by considering the genetically distinct groups as independent fisheries, and individual spawning and nursery habitats could subsequently be protected to conserve the evolutionary potential of Muskellunge.

  12. Do invasive quagga mussels alter CO2 dynamics in the Laurentian Great Lakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peng; Guo, Laodong

    2016-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels. The increased CO2 supersaturation is most prominent in Lakes Huron and Michigan, followed by Lakes Ontario and Erie, but no evident change was observed in Lake Superior. This trend mirrors the infestation extent of invasive quagga mussels in the Great Lakes and is consistent with the decline in primary production and increase in water clarity observed pre- and post-Dreissena introduction, revealing a close linkage between invasive species and carbon dynamics. The Great Lakes have become a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere, emitting >7.7 ± 1.0 Tg-C annually, which is higher than the organic carbon burial rate in global inland-seas and attesting to the significant role of the Laurentian Great Lakes in regional/global CO2 budget and cycling.

  13. Factors of ecologic succession in oligotrophic fish communities of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1972-01-01

    Oligotrophic fish communities of the Great Lakes have undergone successive disruptions since the mid-1800s. Major contributing factors have been intensive selective fisheries, extreme modification of the drainage, invasion of marine species, and progressive physical–chemical changes of the lake environments. Lake Ontario was the first to be affected as its basin was settled and industrialized earliest, and it was the first to be connected by canals to the mid-Atlantic where the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which ultimately became established in the Great Lakes were abundant. Oligotrophic fish communities were successively disrupted in Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior as the affects of population growth, industrialization, and marine invaders spread upward in the Laurentian drainage.The degree and sequence of response of families offish and species within families differed for each factor, but the sequence of change among families and species has been the same in response to each factor as it affected various lakes at different times. The ultimate result of the disruption of fish communities has been a reduction of productivity of oligotrophic species that ranges from extreme in Lake Ontario to moderate in Lake Superior, and which has reached a state of instability and rapid change in the upper three Great Lakes by the rnid-1900s similar to the situation in Lake Ontario in the mid-1800s. Since oligotrophic species (primarily salmonines, coregonines, and deepwater cottids) are the only kinds of fish that fully occupied the entire volume of the deepwater Great Lakes (Ontario, Huron, Michigan, and Superior), the fish biomass of these lakes has been reduced as various species declined or disappeared. In Lake Erie, which is shallow, and in the shallow bays of the deep lakes, oligotrophic species were replaced by mesotrophic species, primarily percids, which have successively increased and declined. All oligotrophic

  14. Classification of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attack marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Everett Louis

    1980-01-01

    Criteria for the classification of marks inflicted by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into nine categories were developed from laboratory studies in an attempt to refine the classification system used in field assessment work. These criteria were based on characteristics of the attachment site that could be identified under field conditions by unaided visual means and by touching the attachment site. Healing of these marks was somewhat variable and was influenced by the size of lamprey, duration of attachment, severity of the wound at lamprey detachment, season and water temperature, and by other less obvious factors. Even under laboratory conditions staging of some wounds was difficult, especially at low water temperatures. If these criteria are to be used effectively and with precision in the field, close examination of individual fish may be required. If the feeding and density of specific year-classes of sea lampreys are to be accurately assessed on an annual basis, close attention to the wound size (as it reflects the size of the lamprey's oral disc) and character of wounds on fish will be required as well as consideration of the season of the year in which they are observed.Key words: sea lamprey, attack marks, lake trout, Great Lakes

  15. Managing mercury in the great lakes: an analytical review of abatement policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Satya P; Nikolova, Iana; Mitchell, Anne

    2007-04-01

    Mercury, a toxic metal known to have several deleterious affects on human health, has been one of the principal contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes basin. There are numerous anthropogenic sources of mercury to the Great Lakes area. Combustion of coal, smelting of non ferrous metals, and incineration of municipal and medical waste are major sources of mercury emissions in the region. In addition to North American anthropogenic emissions, global atmospheric emissions also significantly contribute to the deposition of mercury in the Great Lakes basin. Both the USA and Canada have agreed to reduce human exposure to mercury in the Great Lakes basin and have significantly curtailed mercury load to this region through individual and joint efforts. However, many important mercury sources, such as coal-fired power plants, still exist in the vicinity of the Great Lakes. More serious actions to drastically reduce mercury sources by employing alternative energy sources, restricting mercury trade and banning various mercury containing consumer products, such as dental amalgam are as essential as cleaning up the historical deposits of mercury in the basin. A strong political will and mass momentum are crucial for efficient mercury management. International cooperation is equally important. In the present paper, we have analyzed existing policies in respective jurisdictions to reduce mercury concentration in the Great Lakes environment. A brief review of the sources, occurrence in the Great Lakes, and the health effects of mercury is also included.

  16. Representation of the Great Lakes in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Version 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briley, L.; Rood, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Great Lakes play a significant role in modifying regional temperatures and precipitation, and as the lakes change in response to a warming climate (i.e., warmer surface water temperatures, decreased ice cover, etc) lake-land-atmosphere dynamics are affected. Because the lakes modify regional weather and are a driver of regional climate change, understanding how they are represented in climate models is important to the reliability of model based information for the region. As part of the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments (GLISA) Ensemble project, a major effort is underway to evaluate the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version (CMIP) 5 global climate models for how well they physically represent the Great Lakes and lake-effects. The CMIP models were chosen because they are a primary source of information in many products developed for decision making (i.e., National Climate Assessment, downscaled future climate projections, etc.), yet there is very little description of how well they represent the lakes. This presentation will describe the results of our investigation of if and how the Great Lakes are represented in the CMIP5 models.

  17. Climate change projections for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) recruitment in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, T. Douglas; Lofgren, Brent M.

    2015-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is an ecologically, culturally, and economically important species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lake whitefish have been a staple food source for thousands of years and, since 1980, have supported the most economically valuable (annual catch value ≈ US$16.6 million) and productive (annual harvest ≈ 7 million kg) commercial fishery in the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior). Climate changes, specifically changes in temperature, wind, and ice cover, are expected to impact the ecology, production dynamics, and value of this fishery because the success of recruitment to the fishery has been linked with these climatic variables. We used linear regression to determine the relationship between fall and spring air temperature indices, fall wind speed, winter ice cover, and lake whitefish recruitment in 13 management units located in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes ceded by the Ottawa and Chippewa nations, a culturally and commercially important region for the lake whitefish fishery. In eight of the 13 management units evaluated, models including one or more climate variables (temperature, wind, ice cover) explained significantly more variation in recruitment than models with only the stock–recruitment relationship, using corrected Akaike's Information Criterion comparisons (ΔAICc > 3). Isolating the climate–recruitment relationship and projecting recruitment with the Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model (CHARM) indicated the potential for increased lake whitefish recruitment in the majority of the 1836 Treaty Waters management units. These results can inform adaptive management strategies by providing anticipated implications of climate on lake whitefish recruitment.

  18. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  19. Great Lakes restoration success through science: U.S. Geological Survey accomplishments 2010 through 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes (Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario) are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth and serve as an important source of drinking water, transportation, power, and recreational opportunities for the United States and Canada. They also support an abundant commercial and recreational fishery, are crucial for agriculture, and are essential to the economic vitality of the region. The Great Lakes support a wealth of biological diversity, including over 200 globally rare plants and animals and more than 40 species that are found nowhere else in the world. However, more than a century of environmental degradation has taken a substantial toll on the Great Lakes. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. The GLRI is an interagency collaboration that seeks to address the most significant environmental problems in the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI is composed of five focus areas that address these issues: Cleaning up toxic substances and Areas of Concern,

  20. New insight into the spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from a recovering population in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas R.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Riley, Stephen C.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Bronte, Charles R.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, is poorly understood, relative to stream-dwelling salmonines. Underwater video records of spawning in a recovering population from the Drummond Island Refuge (Lake Huron) represent the first reported direct observations of lake trout spawning in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These observations provide new insight into lake trout spawning behavior and expand the current conceptual model. Lake trout spawning consisted of at least four distinct behaviors: hovering, traveling, sinking, and gamete release. Hovering is a new courtship behavior that has not been previously described. The apparent concentration of hovering near the margin of the spawning grounds suggests that courtship and mate selection might be isolated from the spawning act (i.e., traveling, sinking, and gamete release). Moreover, we interpret jockeying for position displayed by males during traveling as a unique form of male-male competition that likely evolved in concert with the switch from redd-building to itinerant spawning in lake trout. Unlike previous models, which suggested that intra-sexual competition and mate selection do not occur in lake trout, our model includes both and is therefore consistent with evolutionary theory, given that the sex ratio on spawning grounds is skewed heavily towards males. The model presented in this paper is intended as a working hypothesis, and further revision may become necessary as we gain a more complete understanding of lake trout spawning behavior.

  1. Biology and status of the shortnose cisco Coregonus reighardi Koelz in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Shane A.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1995-01-01

    The shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi, a member of the endemic species assemblage of Coregoninae in the Laurentian Great Lakes, was commercially important until overfishing and competition pressures from induced planktivores extirpated the species in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Spawning shortnose ciscoes have been collected from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron since 1956, however, no individuals have been collected from these habitats since 1985. Shortnose ciscoes were not collected during surveys of the cisco fishery of Georgian Bay during the summer of 1992 and spring of 1993. The lack of captures in the last eight years coupled with captures of only lone individuals in the last 16 years suggests the species may be extinct in all of the Laurentian system. The life history traits examined for Lake Huron shortnose ciscoes were similar to the conditions recorded for Lake Michigan and Ontario shortnose ciscoes, although Lake Huron fish were smaller.

  2. Tree-ring reconstruction of the level of Great Salt Lake, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; Shih-Yu Wang; Brendan M. Buckley; Matthew F. Bekker

    2014-01-01

    Utah's Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a closed-basin remnant of the larger Pleistocene-age Lake Bonneville. The modern instrumental record of the GSL-level (i.e. elevation) change is strongly modulated by Pacific Ocean coupled ocean/atmospheric oscillations at low frequency, and therefore reflects the decadalscale wet/dry cycles that characterize the region. A within-...

  3. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns in the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Time Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined changes in agricultural cropping patterns across the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Specific research objectives were to characterize the distribut...

  4. An Electronic Atlas of Great Lakes Ice Cover, Winters 1973-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is distributed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL). The atlas contains...

  5. Great Lakes Surface Ice Reports from U.S. Coast Guard

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data consist of ice observations from U.S. Coast Guard vessels operating on the Great Lakes, and from Coast Guard shore stations reported via teletype messages and...

  6. 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study Fish Tissue Data Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Science and Technology (OST) is providing the fish tissue results from the 2010 Great Lakes Human Health Fish Tissue Study (GLHHFTS). This document includes the “data dictionary” for Mercury, PFC, PBDE and PCBs.

  7. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  8. Materials for Public Listening Session - Stakeholder Input on Public Notice for CSOs in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materials for the Public Listening Session on September 14, 2016, to obtain information from the public to help inform development of a new regulation establishing requirements for public notification of CSO discharges in the Great Lakes.

  9. Beneficial use of dredged materials in Great Lakes commercial ports for transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    This report describes an effort to facilitate beneficial use of dredged materials (DM) from Great Lakes ports and harbors as an alternative construction : material in transportation-related earthwork applications. The overall objective is to link tog...

  10. Analysis of fish movements between Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitat via otolith microchemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are unique habitats with physical connections with near shore environments. This facilitates the exchange of energy between habitats in a principle known as habitat coupling. Coupling can be facilitated by movements of consumers; however, wetland us...

  11. Regional freight information resources for market opportunities in the Great Lakes maritime transportation system : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The Great Lakes Maritime Information Delivery System (GLMIDS) is designed to facilitate the acquisition, storage, management, analysis and exchange of data between analysts and decision-makers within maritime commerce. (See http://maritime.utoledo.ed...

  12. 2016 RFA for Great Lakes Long-Term Biology Monitoring Program: Phytoplankton Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Request for Applications solicits applications from eligible entities for a cooperative agreement to be awarded for a project to continue the long-term monitoring of phytoplankton in the open waters of the Great Lakes.

  13. An ecosystem approach to the health effects of mercury in the Great Lakes basin ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertson, Michael; Carpenter, D.O.

    2004-01-01

    New concerns about the global presence and human health significance of mercury have arisen as a result of recent epidemiological data demonstrating subtle neurological effects from consumption of mercury-contaminated fish. In the Great Lakes Basin, the complexity of the diverse sources, pools, and sinks of mercury and of the pathways of distribution, fate, and biotransformation requires an ecosystem approach to the assessment of exposures of Great Lakes' human populations. Further epidemiological research is needed to verify preliminary indications of harmful effects in people living near the Great Lakes. Great Lakes fish are valuable resources for subsistence nutrition, recreation, and commerce, but the benefits of fish consumption must be balanced by concern for the hazards from the contaminants that they may contain. The efficacy of fish consumption advisories in reducing exposures should continue to be evaluated while planning continues for remedial actions on contaminated sediments from historic industrial activities and for regulatory action to control sources

  14. Aerosol Emissions from Great Lakes Harmful Algal Blooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Nathaniel W. [Department; Olson, Nicole E. [Department; Panas, Mark [Department; Axson, Jessica L. [Department; Tirella, Peter S. [Department; Kirpes, Rachel M. [Department; Craig, Rebecca L. [Department; Gunsch, Matthew J. [Department; China, Swarup [William; Laskin, Alexander [William; Ault, Andrew P. [Department; Department; Pratt, Kerri A. [Department; Department

    2017-12-20

    In freshwater lakes, harmful algal blooms (HABs) of Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) produce toxins that impact human health. However, little is known about the chemical species present in lake spray aerosol (LSA) produced from wave-breaking in freshwater HABs. In this study, a laboratory LSA generator produced aerosols from freshwater samples collected from Lake Michigan and Lake Erie during HAB and non-bloom conditions. Particles were analyzed for size and chemical composition by single particle mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy, with three distinct types of LSA identified with varying levels of organic carbon and biological material associated with calcium salts. LSA autofluorescence increases with blue-green algae concentration, showing that organic molecules of biological origin are incorporated in LSA from HABs. The number fraction of LSA with biological mass spectral markers also increases with particle diameter (greater than 0.5 μm), showing that HABs have size-dependent impacts on aerosol composition. The highest number fraction of LSA enriched in organic carbon were observed in particles less than 0.5 μm in diameter. Understanding the transfer of organic and biogenic material from freshwater to the atmosphere via LSA particles is crucial for determining health and climate effects due to HABs.

  15. First evidence of microplastics in the African Great Lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares John; Mayoma, Bahati Sosthenes; Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    on the southern shore of Lake Victoria. The gastrointestinal tracts of locally fished Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were examined for plastics. Plastics were confirmed in 20% of fish from each species by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR...

  16. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain oceanographic uses. [upwelling, water circulation, and pollution in Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Upwelling along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan was occurring during the 3 and 21 August 1973 visits by ERTS-1. The NOAA-2 VHRR thermal-IR data are being digitized for comparison. Early indications are that these upwellings induced a calcium carbonate precipitate to form in the surface waters. It is most pronounced in the MSS-4 channel. On the lake bottom this jell-like sediment is known as marl and adds to the eutrophication of the lake. This phenomenon may help to explain the varve-like nature of bottom cores that have been observed in the Great Lakes.

  17. Factors Affecting Mercury Stable Isotopic Distribution in Piscivorous Fish of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Ryan F; Janssen, Sarah E; Yin, Runsheng; Krabbenhoft, David P; Ogorek, Jacob M; DeWild, John F; Tate, Michael T; Holsen, Thomas M; Hurley, James P

    2018-03-06

    Identifying the sources of methylmercury (MeHg) and tracing the transformations of mercury (Hg) in the aquatic food web are important components of effective strategies for managing current and legacy Hg sources. In our previous work, we measured stable isotopes of Hg (δ 202 Hg, Δ 199 Hg, and Δ 200 Hg) in the Laurentian Great Lakes and estimated source contributions of Hg to bottom sediment. Here, we identify isotopically distinct Hg signatures for Great Lakes trout ( Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye ( Sander vitreus), driven by both food-web and water-quality characteristics. Fish contain high values for odd-isotope mass independent fractionation (MIF) with averages ranging from 2.50 (western Lake Erie) to 6.18‰ (Lake Superior) in Δ 199 Hg. The large range in odd-MIF reflects variability in the depth of the euphotic zone, where Hg is most likely incorporated into the food web. Even-isotope MIF (Δ 200 Hg), a potential tracer for Hg from precipitation, appears both disconnected from lake sedimentary sources and comparable in fish among the five lakes. We suggest that similar to the open ocean, water-column methylation also occurs in the Great Lakes, possibly transforming recently deposited atmospheric Hg deposition. We conclude that the degree of photochemical processing of Hg is controlled by phytoplankton uptake rather than by dissolved organic carbon quantity among lakes.

  18. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  19. Food habits of diving ducks in the Great Lakes after the zebra mussel invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  20. Distribution of fallout plutonium in the waters of the lower Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, J.J.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of fallout 239 240 Pu in the surface waters from all the Great Lakes were slightly lower in 1976 samples than in those from 1973. The same trend of higher concentrations in the surface waters of the upper lakes as in the surface waters of the lower lakes was observed for both years. In addition, the 239 240 Pu concentration in samples of deep water collected during the summer of 1976 was higher than in the surface waters but was similar to the surface water values of the 1973 spring samples. This observation is significant in that it suggests that the surface waters of all the Great Lakes undergo a seasonal decrease in plutonium concentration similar to that already observed in Lake Michigan

  1. New data on mitochondrial diversity and origin of Hemimysis anomala in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Questel, Jennifer M.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Smith, Randall J.; Welsh, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    The most recent Ponto-Caspian species to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes is the crustacean Hemimysis anomala, first reported in 2006. A previous study described three haplotype groups (A, B, C) of H. anomala in native and invaded areas within Europe, but only one haplotype (A1) in a sample from Lake Michigan. Our study expands these results to additional populations in the Great Lakes basin, and evaluates relationships among North American and European populations. A 549-bp fragment of themitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was analyzed from populations of H. anomala in Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and the St. Lawrence River.Two different haplotypes, A1 and B1,were observed in the sampled populations of H. anomala and in a previous analysis from H. anomala in Oneida Lake (New York). Our results, in contrast with a previous study, detect an additional haplotype in North America.

  2. Pluvial lakes in the Great Basin of the western United States: a view from the outcrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Adams, Kenneth D.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bacon, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Paleo-lakes in the western United States provide geomorphic and hydrologic records of climate and drainage-basin change at multiple time scales extending back to the Miocene. Recent reviews and studies of paleo-lake records have focused on interpretations of proxies in lake sediment cores from the northern and central parts of the Great Basin. In this review, emphasis is placed on equally important studies of lake history during the past ∼30 years that were derived from outcrop exposures and geomorphology, in some cases combined with cores. Outcrop and core records have different strengths and weaknesses that must be recognized and exploited in the interpretation of paleohydrology and paleoclimate. Outcrops and landforms can yield direct evidence of lake level, facies changes that record details of lake-level fluctuations, and geologic events such as catastrophic floods, drainage-basin changes, and isostatic rebound. Cores can potentially yield continuous records when sampled in stable parts of lake basins and can provide proxies for changes in lake level, water temperature and chemistry, and ecological conditions in the surrounding landscape. However, proxies such as stable isotopes may be influenced by several competing factors the relative effects of which may be difficult to assess, and interpretations may be confounded by geologic events within the drainage basin that were unrecorded or not recognized in a core. The best evidence for documenting absolute lake-level changes lies within the shore, nearshore, and deltaic sediments that were deposited across piedmonts and at the mouths of streams as lake level rose and fell. We review the different shorezone environments and resulting deposits used in such reconstructions and discuss potential estimation errors. Lake-level studies based on deposits and landforms have provided paleohydrologic records ranging from general changes during the past million years to centennial-scale details of fluctuations during the

  3. Great Lakes waters: radiation dose commitments, potential health effects, and cost-benefit considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.

    1977-07-01

    In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern nondegradation of Great Lakes waters and maintenance of levels of radioactivity or other potential pollutants at levels considered as low as practicable. A refined radioactivity objective of one millirem is proposed in the Water Quality Agreement. The implications of adoption of this objective are not known fully. The Division of Environmental Impact Studies was commissioned by ERDA's Division of Technology Overview to summarize the information available on the current levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters, compute radiation-dose commitment (integrated dose over 50 years after consumption of 2.2 liters of water of one year), and to comment on the feasibility and cost-benefit considerations associated with the refined one-millirem objective. Current levels of radioactivity in the waters of Lakes Michigan, Ontario, Erie, and Huron result in dose commitments in excess of 1 mrem for whole body and 6 mrem for bone. Future projections of isotope concentrations in Great lakes water indicate similar dose commitments for drinking water in the year 2050. Reduction of the levels of radioactivity in Great Lakes waters is not feasible, but cost-benefit considerations support removal of 226 Ra and 90 Sr through interceptive technology before water consumption. Adoption of the one-millirem objective is not propitious

  4. Air-water gas exchange of chiral and achiral organochlorine pesticides in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, Liisa M.; Helm, Paul A.; Ridal, Jeffrey J.; Bidleman, Terry F.

    Parallel air and water samples were taken on lakes Superior, Huron, Erie and Ontario between 1996 and 2000 to determine the occurrence and levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), trans-chlordane (TC), cis-chlordane (CC), dieldrin (DIEL) and the metabolite heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX). Concentrations in the water varied greatly among the lakes, but air concentrations were similar, thus resulting fugacity ratios varied by lake and compound. The enantiomer fraction, EF = (+)/[(+) + (-)], was determined for α-HCH, TC, CC and HEPX. Enantioselective degradation of (+)α-HCH was found in water of all the lakes where the depletion was greatest for Lake Superior, which has the longest water residence time. Preferential loss of (+)TC and enrichment of (+)HEPX were found in lakes Superior and Ontario, with similar EFs in both lakes. CC was racemic in Lake Superior and showed depletion of the (+) enantiomer in Lake Ontario. Depletion of (+)α-HCH, (+)TC and enrichment of (+)HEPX was seen in all air samples. CC varied from depletion of the (+) or (-) enantiomer and was racemic in some cases. Higher concentrations of α-HCH in the air over Lake Superior were correlated with less racemic composition, providing evidence of water-to-air exchange. Fugacity ratios for the HCHs approached equilibrium conditions within a factor of 2, with slight excursions toward net volatilization or deposition, where generally higher excursions were seen for the cyclodienes.

  5. Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus is not the cause of thiamine deficiency impeding lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) recruitment in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Catherine A.; Evans, Allison N.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Zajicek, James L.; Heppell, Scott A.; Riley, Stephen C.; Krueger, Charles C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is a global concern affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans. In Great Lakes salmonines, thiamine deficiency causes embryo mortality and is an impediment to restoration of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocks. Thiamine deficiency in fish may result from a diet of prey with high levels of thiaminase I. The discoveries that the bacterial species Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus produces thiaminase I, is found in viscera of thiaminase-containing prey fish, and causes mortality when fed to lake trout in the laboratory provided circumstantial evidence implicating P. thiaminolyticus. This study quantified the contribution of P. thiaminolyticus to the total thiaminase I activity in multiple trophic levels of Great Lakes food webs. Unexpectedly, no relationship between thiaminase activity and either the amount of P. thiaminolyticus thiaminase I protein or the abundance of P. thiaminolyticus cells was found. These results demonstrate that P. thiaminolyticus is not the primary source of thiaminase activity affecting Great Lakes salmonines and calls into question the long-standing assumption that P. thiaminolyticus is the source of thiaminase in other wild and domestic animals.

  6. Life history differences between fat and lean morphs of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) in Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history characteristics (size, age, plumpness, buoyancy, survival, growth, and maturity) were compared between fat and lean morphs of lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in Great Slave Lake, Canada, to determine if differences may reflect effects of resource polymorphism. Lake charr were sampled using graded-mesh gill nets set in three depth strata. Of 236 lake charr captured, 122 were a fat morph and 114 were a lean morph. Males and females did not differ from each other in any attributes for either fat or lean morphs. The fat morph averaged 15 mm longer, 481 g heavier, and 4.7 years older than the lean morph. The fat morph averaged 26% heavier and 48% more buoyant at length than the lean morph. Survival of the fat morph was 1.7% higher than that of the lean morph. The fat morph grew at a slower annual rate to a shorter asymptotic length than the lean morph. Fat and lean morphs matured at similar lengths and ages. We concluded that the connection between resource polymorphism and life histories in lean versus fat lake charr suggests that morph-specific restoration objectives may be needed in lakes where lake charr diversity is considered to be a restoration goal.

  7. Remote Sensing as a Tool to Track Algal Blooms in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, S. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Naftz, D.; Moore, T.; Haney, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake is a large hypersaline, terminal water body in northern Utah, USA. The lake has both a significant economic importance to the local community as a source of brine shrimp and mineral resources, as well as, an ecological importance to large numbers of migratory waterfowl. Due to nutrient input from sewage treatment plants, sections of the Great Salt Lake are subjected to highly eutrophic conditions. One of the main tributaries, Farmington Bay, experiences massive blooms of cyanobacteria which can reach concentrations in excess of 300 mg l-1 in the bay. Effects of these blooms can be observed stretching into the rest of the lake. The detrimental outcomes of the blooms include unsightly scums, foul odor and the danger of cyanobacterial toxins. While the blooms have an obvious effect on Farmington Bay, it is quite possible that the cyanobacteria impact a much wider area of the lake as currents move eutrophic water masses. Of particular interest is the reaction of brine shrimp to the plumes of cyanobacteria-rich water leaving Farmington Bay. We are employing remote sensing as a tool to map the distribution of algae throughout the lake and produce lake-wide maps of water quality on a regular basis. On-lake reflectance measurements have been coupled with MODIS satellite imagery to produce a time series of maps illustrating changes in algal distribution. The successes and shortcomings of our remote sensing technique will be a central topic of this presentation.

  8. Implications of climate change for water resources in the Great Lakes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clamen, M.

    1990-01-01

    Several authors have suggested the following impacts of global warming for the Great Lakes region. The average annual warming is predicted by one model to be ca 4.5 degree C, slightly more in winter and slightly less in summer. Annual precipitation is projected to increase by ca 8% for points in the central and western basin, but to decrease by 3-6% for the eastern basin. Basin snowpack could be reduced by up to 100% and the snow season shortened by 2-4 weeks, resulting in a reduction of more than 50% in available soil moisture. Buoyancy-driven turnovers of the water column on four of the six lakes may not occur at all. Presently the phenomena occurs twice per year on all the lakes. Ice formation would be greatly reduced. Maximum ice cover may decline from 72-0% for Lake Superior, 38-0% for Lake Michigan, 65-0% for Lake Huron, 90-50% for Lake Erie and 33-0% for Lake Ontario. Net basin supplies would be reduced probably in the range 15-25% below the current mean value. Possible responses include integrated studies and research, better and continually updated information, assessment of public policies in the U.S. and Canada, enhanced private planning efforts, and increased global cooperation

  9. Great Lakes prey fish populations: A cross-basin overview of status and trends in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.; Bunnell, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Assessments of prey fishes in the Great Lakes have been conducted annually since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. Prey fish assessments differ among lakes in the proportion of a lake covered, seasonal timing, bottom trawl gear used, sampling design, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique in one or more important aspects, a direct comparison of prey fish catches among lakes is problematic. All of the assessments, however, produce indices of abundance or biomass that can be standardized to facilitate comparisons of trends among lakes and to illustrate present status of the populations. We present indices of abundance for important prey fishes in the Great Lakes standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake: cisco (Coregonus artedi), bloater (C. hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). We also provide indices for round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), an invasive fish presently spreading throughout the basin. Our intent is to provide a short, informal report emphasizing data presentation rather than synthesis; for this reason we intentionally avoid use of tables and cited references.For each lake, standardized relative indices for annual biomass and density estimates of important prey fishes were calculated as the fraction relative to the largest value observed in the times series. To determine whether basin-wide trends were apparent for each species, we first ranked standardized index values within each lake. When comparing ranked index values from three or more lakes, we calculated the Kendall coefficient of concordance (W), which can range from 0 (complete discordance or disagreement among trends) to 1 (complete concordance or agreement among trends). The P-value for W provides the probability of agreement across the lakes. When comparing ranked index values from two lakes, we calculated

  10. Mercury contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes region: Introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiener, James G.; Evers, David C.; Gay, David A.; Morrison, Heather A.; Williams, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America contains substantial aquatic resources and mercury-contaminated landscapes, fish, and wildlife. This special issue emanated from a bi-national synthesis of data from monitoring programs and case studies of mercury in the region, here defined as including the Great Lakes, the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes, the province of Ontario, and Lake Champlain. We provide a retrospective overview of the regional mercury problem and summarize new findings from the synthesis papers and case studies that follow. Papers in this issue examine the chronology of mercury accumulation in lakes, the importance of wet and dry atmospheric deposition and evasion to regional mercury budgets, the influence of land–water linkages on mercury contamination of surface waters, the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in aquatic foods webs; and ecological and health risks associated with methylmercury in a regionally important prey fish. - Highlights: ► We describe a bi-national synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region. ► Emission controls have reduced Hg inputs to inland lakes about 20% since the 1980s. ► Wet and dry deposition and evasion are regionally important atmospheric Hg fluxes. ► Land use affects Hg inputs to surface waters and bioaccumulation of methylmercury. ► In some waters, Hg levels in yellow perch pose risks to fish, wildlife, and humans. - A synthesis of Hg data from the Great Lakes region reveals the chronology of contamination; the importance of wet and dry deposition and evasion to Hg budgets; the influence of land–water linkages; bioaccumulation in aquatic foods webs; and risks associated with Hg in an important prey fish.

  11. Shallow Water Offshore Wind Optimization for the Great Lakes (DE-FOA-0000415) Final Report: A Conceptual Design for Wind Energy in the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wissemann, Chris [Freshwater Wind I, LLC, Youngstown, OH (United States); White, Stanley M [Stanley White Engineering LLC, Noank, CT (United States)

    2014-02-28

    The primary objective of the project was to develop a innovative Gravity Base Foundation (GBF) concepts, including fabrication yards, launching systems and installation equipment, for a 500MW utility scale project in the Great Lakes (Lake Erie). The goal was to lower the LCOE by 25%. The project was the first to investigate an offshore wind project in the Great Lakes and it has furthered the body of knowledge for foundations and installation methods within Lake Erie. The project collected historical geotechnical information for Lake Erie and also used recently obtained data from the LEEDCo Icebreaker Project (FOA DE-EE0005989) geotechnical program to develop the conceptual designs. Using these data-sets, the project developed design wind and wave conditions from actual buoy data in order to develop a concept that would de-risk a project using a GBF. These wind and wave conditions were then utilized to create reference designs for various foundations specific to installation in Lake Erie. A project partner on the project (Weeks Marine) provided input for construction and costing the GBF fabrication and installation. By having a marine contractor with experience with large marine projects as part of the team provides credibility to the LCOE developed by NREL. NREL then utilized the design and construction costing information as part of the LCOE model. The report summarizes the findings of the project; Developed a cost model and “baseline” LCOE; Documented Site Conditions within Lake Erie; Developed Fabrication, Installation and Foundations Innovative Concept Designs; Evaluated LCOE Impact of Innovations; Developed Assembly line “Rail System” for GBF Construction and Staging; Developed Transit-Inspired Foundation Designs which incorporated: Semi-Floating Transit with Supplemental Pontoons Barge mounted Winch System; Developed GBF with “Penetration Skirt”; Developed Integrated GBF with Turbine Tower; Developed Turbine, Plant Layout and O&M Strategies. The

  12. The Great Lakes Spill Co-op and how it works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, D.

    1994-01-01

    A major program was launched by spill control professionals and industry in 1990 when it created the Great Lakes Spill Cooperative (GLSCOOP). The major objective of this cooperative is to provide a network to facilitate quick response in crises situations in the Great Lakes region. Specifically, the Great Lakes Spill Cooperative will: (1) coordinate environmental response activities in connection with emergency conditions as a result of spills of petroleum and hazardous substances in the Great Lakes; (2) apply state-of-the-art management, training and equipment technology during emergency environmental response operations, consistent with local, state and federal regulations; and (3) promote cooperation with its members, governmental agencies as well as allied trade and professional associations, consistent with the existing laws, in mobilizing equipment and expertise in controlling or mitigating pollution incidents in the Great Lakes. In this presentation the author discusses how the cooperative was formed, how it will operate, the members of the group and their individual roles as well as the organization's partnership with government--local, state and federal. He also discusses his involvement in the formation of the Mamne Response Alliance (MRA). This co-op was utilized recently by one of its members to provide 100 personnel who were Haz-Woper trained for the recent Tampa Bay Spill in August of last year

  13. Renegotiation of the 1987 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: From Confusion to Promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Krantzberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For nearly four decades, the Great Lakes regime has invoked the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement as the mechanism for binational cooperation on programs and policies. Many advances in water quality have led to unquestionable improvements in ecosystem quality, habitat and biodiversity, and water infrastructure. Still, Great Lakes scientists have issued compelling evidence that the ecological health of the basin ecosystem is at significant risk. In 2012, the Agreement will be revised for the first time in 25 years. The degree of engagement in a future Agreement, including scope, issues of significant importance, governance and collaboration will hinge on a thorough analytical process, so far seemingly absent, coupled with real consultation, so far marginally evident. Renegotiating the Agreement to generate a revitalized and sustainable future mandates that science inform contemporary public policy, and that inclusive discourse and public engagement be integral through the process. Many of these steps are still absent, and the analysis presented here strongly suggests that the constituents of the Great Lakes regime voice their views critically, emphatically, and often. If the negotiators listen, we can collectively make the Lakes Great.

  14. Morphometric variation among spawning cisco aggregations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: are historic forms still present?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Moore, Seth A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Salawater, Lorrie L.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cisco (Coregonus artedi Leseur, formerly lake herring Leucichthys artedi Leseur) populations in each of the Laurentian Great Lakes collapsed between the late 1920s and early 1960s following a multitude of stressors, and never recovered in Lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Prior to their collapse, Koelz (1929) studied Leucichthys spp. in the Great Lakes basin and provided a description of their diversity. Three cisco morphotypes were described; a ‘slim terete’morphotype (L. artedi artedi), a ‘deep compressed’ morphotype (L. artedi albus), and a deep-bodied form resembling tullibee in western Canadian lakes (L. artedi manitoulinus). Based on body measurements of 159 individuals (Koelz 1929), we used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to discriminate historic morphotypes. Shapes of historic morphotypes were found to vary significantly (Pillai’s trace = 1.16, P cisco. Important discriminating measurements included body depth, eye diameter, and dorsal fin base and height. Between October-November of 2007-2011, we sampled cisco from 16 Great Lakes sites collecting digital photographs of over 1, 700 individuals. We applied the DFA model to their body measurements and classified each individual to a morphotype. Contemporary cisco from Lakes Superior, Ontario and Michigan were predominantly classified as artedi, while the most common classifications from northern Lake Huron were albus and manitoulinus. Finding historic morphotypes is encouraging because it suggests that the morphological variation present prior to their collapse still exists. We conclude that contemporary cisco having shapes matching the missing historic morphotypes in the lower lakes warrant special consideration as potential donor populations in reestablishment efforts.

  15. Climate change and waterborne disease risk in the Great Lakes region of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Vavrus, Stephen J; Uejio, Christopher K; McLellan, Sandra L

    2008-11-01

    Extremes of the hydrologic cycle will accompany global warming, causing precipitation intensity to increase, particularly in middle and high latitudes. During the twentieth century, the frequency of major storms has already increased, and the total precipitation increase over this time period has primarily come from the greater number of heavy events. The Great Lakes region is projected to experience a rise these extreme precipitation events. For southern Wisconsin, the precipitation rate of the 10 wettest days was simulated using a suite of seven global climate models from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report. For each ranking, the precipitation rate of these very heavy events increases in the future. Overall, the models project that extreme precipitation events will become 10% to 40% stronger in southern Wisconsin, resulting in greater potential for flooding, and for the waterborne diseases that often accompany high discharge into Lake Michigan. Using 6.4 cm (2.5 in) of daily precipitation as the threshold for initiating combined sewer overflow into Lake Michigan, the frequency of these events is expected to rise by 50% to 120% by the end of this century. The combination of future thermal and hydrologic changes may affect the usability of recreational beaches. Chicago beach closures are dependent on the magnitude of recent precipitation (within the past 24 hours), lake temperature, and lake stage. Projected increases in heavy rainfall, warmer lake waters, and lowered lake levels would all be expected to contribute to beach contamination in the future. The Great Lakes serve as a drinking water source for more than 40 million people. Ongoing studies and past events illustrate a strong connection between rain events and the amount of pollutants entering the Great Lakes. Extreme precipitation under global warming projections may overwhelm the combined sewer systems and lead to overflow events that can threaten both human

  16. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products found in the Great Lakes above concentrations of environmental concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Benjamin D; Crago, Jordan P; Hedman, Curtis J; Klaper, Rebecca D

    2013-11-01

    The monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) has focused on the distribution in rivers and small lakes, but data regarding their occurrence and effects in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, are sparse. Wastewater treatment processes have not been optimized to remove influent PPCPs and are a major source of PPCPs in the environment. Furthermore, PPCPs are not currently regulated in wastewater effluent. In this experiment we evaluated the concentration, and corresponding risk, of PPCPs from a wastewater effluent source at varying distances in Lake Michigan. Fifty-four PPCPs and hormones were assessed on six different dates over a two-year period from surface water and sediment samples up to 3.2 km from a wastewater treatment plant and at two sites within a harbor. Thirty-two PPCPs were detected in Lake Michigan and 30 were detected in the sediment, with numerous PPCPs being detected up to 3.2 km away from the shoreline. The most frequently detected PPCPs in Lake Michigan were metformin, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, and triclosan. To determine the ecological risk, the maximum measured environmental concentrations were compared to the predicted no-effect concentration and 14 PPCPs were found to be of medium or high ecological risk. The environmental risk of PPCPs in large lake systems, such as the Great Lakes, has been questioned due to high dilution; however, the concentrations found in this study, and their corresponding risk quotient, indicate a significant threat by PPCPs to the health of the Great Lakes, particularly near shore organisms. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of Phytoplankton Nutrient Limitation in Farmington Bay and the Great Salt Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Marcarelli, Amy

    2004-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake is bordered to the south and east by a growing metropolitan area that contributes high nutrients to Farmington Bay. This large bay is eutrophic, and there is concern that continued increases in effluents from the Salt Lake City area could extend to impact the much larger, and currently less productive, Gilbert Bay. This study focused on determining how nutrient supplies might limit, and therefore control, algal populations in Farmington Bay and Gilbert Bay at different sal...

  18. The effects of restricted circulation on the salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1970-1972 water years a net load of dissolved solids of 0.26 billion tons moved from the south to north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah, through the causeway of the Southern Pacific Transportation Co. The load loss from the south part during the 1972 water year was only 0.01 billion tons, thus indicating that the salt balance between the two parts of the lake was near equilibrium for inflow conditions such as those of 1972.

  19. Biological and ecological science for Wisconsin—A Great Lakes and Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-03-06

    Wisconsin and natural resources go hand-in-hand. Tourism, which generates $19 billion annually and sustains about 200,000 jobs, depends on an abundance of lakes, rivers, shorelines, and woodlands for fishing, hunting, boating, and other outdoor recreation. Rivers and floodplains in the Upper Mississippi Basin, including the Mississippi River, are part of a five-State corridor that generates more than $300 billion annually and sustains millions of manufacturing, tourism, transportation, and agricultural jobs. Wisconsin also is a Great Lakes State with more than 800 miles of shoreline, and the fisheries of lakes Superior and Michigan deliver $185 million annually and provide thousands of jobs.

  20. Distribution and Modeled Transport of Plastic Pollution in the Great Lakes, the World's Largest Freshwater Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Cable

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most plastic pollution originates on land. As such, freshwater bodies serve as conduits for the transport of plastic litter to the ocean. Understanding the concentrations and fluxes of plastic litter in freshwater ecosystems is critical to our understanding of the global plastic litter budget and underpins the success of future management strategies. We conducted a replicated field survey of surface plastic concentrations in four lakes in the North American Great Lakes system, the largest contiguous freshwater system on the planet. We then modeled plastic transport to resolve spatial and temporal variability of plastic distribution in one of the Great Lakes, Lake Erie. Triplicate surface samples were collected at 38 stations in mid-summer of 2014. Plastic particles >106 μm in size were quantified. Concentrations were highest near populated urban areas and their water infrastructure. In the highest concentration trawl, nearly 2 million fragments km−2 were found in the Detroit River—dwarfing previous reports of Great Lakes plastic abundances by over 4-fold. Yet, the accuracy of single trawl counts was challenged: within-station plastic abundances varied 0- to 3-fold between replicate trawls. In the smallest size class (106–1,000 μm, false positive rates of 12–24% were determined analytically for plastic vs. non-plastic, while false negative rates averaged ~18%. Though predicted to form in summer by the existing Lake Erie circulation model, our transport model did not predict a permanent surface “Lake Erie Garbage Patch” in its central basin—a trend supported by field survey data. Rather, general eastward transport with recirculation in the major basins was predicted. Further, modeled plastic residence times were drastically influenced by plastic buoyancy. Neutrally buoyant plastics—those with the same density as the ambient water—were flushed several times slower than plastics floating at the water's surface and exceeded the

  1. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change.

  2. The Right Scale for the Question Asked: A Challenge for Great Lakes Hydrology and Restoration Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R.; Walker, J. F.; Christiansen, D.

    2012-12-01

    Water is a primary metric for viewing Great Lakes health and restoration. Our ability to characterize and forecast hydrologic conditions continues to improve, but challenges remain. One notable issue is the scale of the Great Lakes system. Because of its size, constructing a tractable model that encompasses the entire watershed requires extensive simplification. Questions that require higher spatial and temporal resolution, however, often cannot be well-simulated using the coarse resolution of Great Lakes watershed-scale tools. In work conducted for the Great Lake Restoration Initiative, a regional Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model has been constructed for the entire Lake Michigan watershed. The model was parameterized using Hydrologic Response Units of about 207 square kilometers, and 148 stream gages ranging in HUC 8-12 scales. This representation of the system is useful for annual and perhaps seasonal/monthly characterizations of water fluxes to Lake Michigan. Likewise, this scale of forecast can be useful for certain predictions, such as lake stage forecasts where Lake Michigan is the basinwide receptor - a receptor that is a natural integrator of large space and time. Many questions need a more refined characterization of the dynamics and processes operating within the system. For these, such a coarse representation of space and time is not appropriate. Many Great Lakes issues, such as localized Areas of Concern (AOCs) and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), are not well represented by basinwide averages. For example, annual flows are not useful for assessing the resilience of a sand-capping restoration activity to future climate variability. In this work, a spatially detailed PRMS model has been refined from the regional PRMS model to construct more representative forecasts for these types of questions. The sub-basin model needs to answer the smaller scale question, but must also be consistent with the conceptualization and parameterization of the

  3. Renegotiating the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: The Process for a Sustainable Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Krantzberg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a defining moment for the Great Lakes St Lawrence region, with the opportunity to renovate the regime for ecosystem improvement, protection and sustainability. The binational Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was first signed in 1972. The outcome of a 2007 review of the Agreement by government and citizens, resulted in a broad call for and revisions to the Agreement, so that it can once again serve as a visionary document driving binational cooperation to address long-standing, new and emerging Great Lakes environmental issues in the 21st century. A prescription for renegotiating the Agreement to generate a revitalized and sustainable future mandates that science inform contemporary public policy, third Party Mediation presses for and coordinates a deliberate negotiation, and inclusive discourse and public engagement be integral through the process.

  4. Toward Integrated Resource Management: Lessons About the EcosystemApproach from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACKENZIE

    1997-03-01

    / The ecosystem approach is an innovative tool for integratedresource management. Its goal is to restore, enhance, and protect ecosystemintegrity through a holistic and integrated mode of planning. Under thisapproach, the ecosystem itself becomes the unit of analysis and organizingprinciple for environmental management. Utilizing the ecosystem approachchallenges the prevailing structure and function of contemporary resourcemanagement agencies. This paper explores a number of important policy andmanagement issues in the context of a ten-year initiative to remediate theLaurentian Great Lakes using the ecosystem approach. The lessons gleaned fromthe Great Lakes experience are relevant to other areas in North America andabroad where resource management responsibilities are held by multiple andsometimes overlapping jurisdictions.KEY WORDS: Integrated resource management; Ecosystem approach; Watershedmanagement; Great Lakes

  5. The Great Lakes Fisheries Specimen Bank: a Canadian perspective in environmental specimen banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriluk, R M; Whittle, D M; Keir, M J; Carswell, A A; Huestis, S Y

    1997-05-01

    Since 1977 the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) has maintained a specimen bank for retrospective chemical analyses. The Great Lakes Fisheries Specimen Bank (GLFSB) is a complementary activity to the department's ongoing Great Lakes Contaminants Surveillance Program that has annually, since 1977, monitored levels of metals and organochlorines in aquatic biota throughout the Canadian Great Lakes. Past activities have focused on defining the effects of long-term frozen storage on the integrity of organochlorine residues in archived biological tissues. Archived samples have been reanalyzed for total PCBs, PCB congeners including co-planar PCBs, dioxin and furan isomers, and 22 toxaphene congeners. More recently, archived samples of predatory fish have been analyzed for stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta 15N) and carbon (delta 13C), as indicators of historical changes in food web dynamics. A catalogue or user-guide has recently been completed describing all information associated with samples stored in the GLFSB.

  6. Ecological risk assessment of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) for the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Cynthia S.; Cudmore, Becky

    2017-01-01

    Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an herbivorous, freshwater fish that was first introduced in the United States in the early 1960s for use in biological control of aquatic vegetation. It has since escaped and dispersed through the Mississippi River basin towards the Great Lakes. To characterize the risk of Grass Carp to the Great Lakes basin, a binational ecological risk assessment of Grass Carp was conducted.This risk assessment covered both triploid (sterile) and diploid (fertile) Grass Carp and assessed the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread, and the magnitude of the ecological consequences within 5, 10, 20 and 50 years from 2014 (i.e., the baseline year) to the connected Great Lakes basin (defined as the Great Lakes basin and its tributaries to the first impassable barrier; risk was assessed based on current climate conditions and at the individual lake scale but does not address a finer geographical scale (e.g., bay or sub-region).For triploid Grass Carp, the probability of occurrence (likelihood of arrival, survival, and spread) was assessed, and for diploid Grass Carp the probability of introduction (likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment and spread) was assessed.

  7. Probabilistic projections of regional climatic changes over the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Baetz, Brian W.; Zhao, Shan

    2017-10-01

    As the largest surface fresh water system on earth, the Great Lakes is facing the threat of climate change. Understanding how the hydrologic cycle in the Great Lakes region would be affected by human-induced global warming is important for developing informed adaptation strategies. In this study, high-resolution regional climate ensemble simulations based upon the PRECIS modeling system are conducted to project future climatic changes over the Great Lakes Basin. The results show that the Great Lakes Basin is very likely to experience a continuous warming-up throughout the 21st century. Particularly, mean air temperatures will rise by 2.6 °C in the forthcoming decades (i.e., 2030s), 3.8 °C in the middle of the century (i.e., 2050s), and 5.6 °C to the end of the century (i.e., 2080s), respectively. The warming air temperatures are very likely to result in more precipitation over the entire basin. The annual total precipitation over the Great Lakes Basin is projected to increase by 8.9% in the 2030s and 12.2% in the 2050s, while the magnitude of precipitation increase would decline to 7.1% in the 2080s. The slow-down of the precipitation increase from the 2050s to the 2080s indicates a shift from the aggressive increase of precipitation before and in the middle of this century to the eventual decrease by the end of this century, suggesting that a nonlinear response relationship between precipitation and temperature may exist in the Great Lakes Basin and such a relationship is also likely to vary in response to global warming.

  8. Satellite winds as a tool for offshore wind resource assessment: The Great Lakes Wind Atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doubrawa, Paula; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Pryor, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new observational wind atlas for the Great Lakes, and proposes a methodology to combine in situ and satellite wind observations for offshore wind resource assessment. Efficient wind energy projects rely on accurate wind resource estimates, which are complex to obtain offshore...... the North American Regional Reanalysis. Generalized wind climates are obtained for each buoy and coastal site with the wind model WAsP, and combined into a single wind speed estimate for the Great Lakes region. The method of classes is used to account for the temporal sparseness in the SAR data set...

  9. Collaborations, research, and adaptive management to address nonnative Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-06-30

    Phragmites australis, also known as common reed, is a native North American wetland grass that has grown in North America for thousands of years. More recently, a nonnative, invasive variety of Phragmites from Eurasia is rapidly invading wetlands across the continental United States and other parts of North America, where it negatively impacts humans and the environment. U.S. Geological Survey scientists, funded by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, are leading innovative efforts to improve management of nonnative Phragmites in the Great Lakes Basin.

  10. Ooid formation in the Great Salt Lake, Utah: Insights from clumped isotope paleothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. P.; Bird, J. T.; Meneske, M.; Stefurak, E. J.; Berelson, W.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Shapiro, R. S.; Sessions, A. L.; Tripati, A.; Corsetti, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    Ooids (coated grains formed in agitated environments) are a relatively common constituent of the sedimentary record through time, but details of their formation remain enigmatic. Although not as abundant today as at other times in the past, ooids are known from several key carbonate environments, including the Bahamas, Persian Gulf, Shark Bay, and the Great Salt Lake. We collected ooids from the Great Salt Lake in association with the International GeoBiology Summer Course in 2012 and 2013 from the north shore of Antelope Island and Spiral Jetty in order to investigate their origin. Petrographic investigation reveals the ooids are composed of aragonite, and display an alternating radial, concentric, and radial-concentric fabric. The delicate nature of the radial fabric is suggestive, but not conclusive, that they form currently (agitation would abrade the fabric). The nuclei are typically rod shaped micritic peloids (up to 80%) or siliciclastic mineral grains. The Great Salt Lake surface water temperature undergoes a predictable annual cycle, with summer months approaching 25 degrees C or more, and winter months dipping to 5 degrees C or less, depending on the region of the lake. Clumped isotope temperatures allow us to constrain ooid formation to the warm months. A contrast between the isotopic composition of the waters for Antelope Island (~0 per mill), likely affected by spring runoff, and the ooids of the same location (~4.5 per mill) further suggest ooid formation took place after the spring runoff, constraining ooid formation to between mid-June and October. We calculated the summer and winter carbonate saturation state of the lake, and while the lake is supersaturated throughout the year, it is significantly more saturated during the summer months. Our results give new insight into ooid formation in the Great Salt Lake, and suggest that the ooids form predominantly during the warm months following the spring runoff.

  11. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: hydroclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, C.J.; Read, J.S.; Holman, K.D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A.J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time-series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically-driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13y) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P-E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the mid-latitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by a ~12y downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region-wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  12. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  13. Tides and lake-level variations in the great Patagonian lakes: Observations, modelling and geophysical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marderwald, Eric; Richter, Andreas; Horwath, Martin; Hormaechea, Jose Luis; Groh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In Patagonia, the glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) to past ice-mass changes (Ivins & James 2004; Klemann et al. 2007) is of particular interest in the context of the determination of the complex regional rheology related to plate subduction in a triple-junction constellation. To further complicate the situation, GIA is overlaid with load deformation not only due to present ice mass changes but also due to water-level changes in the lakes surrounding the icefields and the ocean surrounding Patagonia. These elastic deformations affect the determination of glacial-isostatic uplift rates from GPS observations (Dietrich et al. 2010; Lange et al. 2014). Observations of lake tides and their comparison with the theoretical tidal signal have been used previously to validate predictions of ocean tidal loading and have revealed regional deviations from conventional global elastic earth models (Richter et al. 2009). In this work we investigate the tides and lake-level variations in Lago Argentino, Lago Viedma, Lago San Martín/O'Higgins and Lago Buenos Aires/General Carrera. This allows us to test, among other things, the validity of tidal loading models. We present pressure tide-gauge records from two sites in Lago Argentino extending over 2.5 years (Richter et al. 2015). These observations are complemented by lake-level records provided by the Argentine National Hydrometeorological Network. Based on these lake-level time series the principal processes affecting the lake level are identified and quantified. Lake-level changes reflecting variations in lake volume are dominated by a seasonal cycle exceeding 1 m in amplitude. Lake-volume changes occur in addition with a daily period in response to melt water influx from surrounding glaciers. In Lago Argentino sporadic lake-volume jumps are caused by bursting of the ice dam of Perito Moreno glacier. Water movements in these lakes are dominated by surface seiches reaching 20 cm in amplitude. A harmonic tidal analysis of the lake

  14. Added value from 576 years of tree-ring records in the prediction of the Great Salt Lake level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Gillies; Oi-Yu Chung; S.-Y. Simon Wang; R. Justin DeRose; Yan Sun

    2015-01-01

    Predicting lake level fluctuations of the Great Salt Lake (GSL) in Utah - the largest terminal salt-water lake in the Western Hemisphere - is critical from many perspectives. The GSL integrates both climate and hydrological variations within the region and is particularly sensitive to low-frequency climate cycles. Since most hydroclimate variable records cover...

  15. Landscape-scale modeling of water quality in Lake Superior and Lake Michigan watersheds: How useful are forest-based indicators? Journal of Great Lakes Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus S. Seilheimer; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Kirk M. Stueve; Charles H. Perry

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes watersheds have an important influence on the water quality of the nearshore environment, therefore, watershed characteristics can be used to predict what will be observed in the streams. We used novel landscape information describing the forest cover change, along with forest census data and established land cover data to predict total phosphorus and...

  16. Great Lake beach-goer behavior during a retrospectively detected bloom of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacteria blooms pose a potential health risk to beachgoers. We conducted a prospective study of weekend beachgoers at a public Great Lake site during July – September 2003. We recorded each person’s health status and activity during their beach visit. We measured...

  17. Learning about War and Peace in the Great Lakes Region of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lyndsay

    2007-01-01

    Two-thirds of the world's conflicts are in Africa. In particular, the Great Lakes region (Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Tanzania) continues to see conflicts that are complex, extreme and seemingly intractable. By exploring the narrative experiences of those most affected by the conflicts in the region--specifically…

  18. Investigating Human-Induced Changes of Elemental Cycles in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mark; Bratton, John

    2013-07-01

    Food webs and associated elemental cycles in the Laurentian Great Lakes have been considerably altered over the past 30 years due to factors such as phosphorus abatement, introduction of zebra and quagga mussels, and climate change. These perturbations provide a unique opportunity to document how this natural system has responded and possibly to predict future changes in biogeochemical cycling.

  19. Mapping ecosystem service indicators in a Great Lakes estuarine Area of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuaries provide multiple ecosystem services from which humans benefit. Currently, thirty-six Great Lakes estuaries in the United States and Canada are designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) due to a legacy of chemical contamination, degraded habitat, and non-point-source polluti...

  20. Assessing the Accuracy of MODIS-NDVI Derived Land-Cover Across the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the accuracy assessment process for a land-cover dataset developed for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). This land-cover dataset was developed from the 2007 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250 m time-series data. Tr...

  1. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite data product (MOD12Q) was used to develop annual cropland and crop-specific map products (corn, soybeans, and wheat) for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Th...

  2. Mapping Cropland and Major Crop Types Across the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research evaluated the potential for using the MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite (MOD13Q) 250-m time-series data to develop a cropland mapping capability throughout the 480 000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Cropland mapping was conducted usi...

  3. Ecosystem Services in the Great Lakes – Results of a Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided ...

  4. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2002-01-01

    We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles...

  5. 75 FR 43021 - Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ..., food, energy resources, ecological services, recreation, and tourism opportunities, and play critical... impacts, facilitate compatible uses, and preserve critical ecosystem services to meet economic... a public policy process for society to better determine how the ocean, our coasts, and Great Lakes...

  6. 78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... the Great Lakes, each zone will be relatively small and only enforced in any one particular geographic... representative. For these reasons, restrictions on vessel movement within any particular geographic area of the... you think that your business, organization, or governmental jurisdiction qualifies as a small entity...

  7. 78 FR 25410 - Safety Zone; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... geographic area for a minimal time. This is because the safety zones will follow the tall ships through the... particular geographic area of the Great Lakes are expected to be minimal, and therefore, the Coast Guard... for the reasons discussed in the Regulatory Planning and Review section above. If you think that your...

  8. Regulations and policies that limit the growth of the U.S. Great Lakes cruising market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The worldwide cruise industry has seen remarkable growth since the 1990s. The cruise market on the Great Lakes has lagged the worldwide growth and compared to historical records, has fallen far short of its full potential. This paper reviews the hist...

  9. Fringe benefit: Value of restoring coastal wetlands for Great Lakes fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishery support is recognized as a valuable ecosystem service provided by Great Lakes coastal wetlands, but it is challenging to quantify because multiple species and habitats are involved. Recent studies indicate that coastal wetland area is proportional to fishery harvest among...

  10. Great Lakes Ice Cover Classification and Mapping Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S.; Leshkevich, G.; Kwok, R.

    1998-01-01

    Owing to the size and extent of the Great Lakes and the variety of ice types features found there, the timely and objective qualities inherent in computer processing of satellite data make it well suited for monitoring and mapping ice cover.

  11. The context for great lakes silviculture in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    David D. Reed

    2004-01-01

    Great Lakes forests were subject to a severe pulse of disturbance from the mid-19th century through the early 20th century that resulted from extensive harvesting and subsequent fires following European settlement. Today?s forest, in many ways, is exhibiting changes in area and demography that reflect recovery from this pulse of disturbance, as well as response to...

  12. PHYTOPLANKTON PIGMENT ANALYSIS BY HPLC FOR ASSESSING COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique to rapidly assess phytoplankton dynamics is being evaluated for its utility in the Great Lakes. Comparison to traditional microscopic techniques and to more recent in-situ FluoroProbe technology will allow us to determine if HPLC pigment analysis can provide unique a...

  13. National Water-Quality Assessment Program: Great Salt Lake basins study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.

    1999-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins NAWQA study will increase the scientific understanding of the factors that influence surface- and ground-water quality. This information will benefit water-resources managers that need, but often lack, the data required to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  14. 75 FR 51191 - Great Lakes Pilotage Rates-2011 Annual Review and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... the Great Lakes to generate sufficient revenue to cover allowable expenses, target pilot compensation, and return on investment. The proposed update reflects a projected August 1, 2011, increase in... adjusting the pilotage rates for the 2011 shipping season to generate sufficient revenue to cover allowable...

  15. The Fox River PCB transport study: Stepping stone to a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    1996-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Great Lakes Despite being banned since the 1970's, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to pose a threat to the environment because of their persistence and toxicity to organisms ranging from minute algae to fish, waterfowl, and human beings. PCBs, a set of 209 related chlorinated organic compounds, had various industrial uses such as in hydraulic fluids, cutting oils, sealants, and pesticides. Despite the manufacturing ban in the mid-1970's, PCBs remain ubiquitous in the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes of the Midwest. PCBs and other toxic compounds contaminate bottom sediments at almost all designated "areas of concern" (AOC)(figure 1, upper left inset). The International Joint Commission, a binational group from Canada and the United States, has identified these AOCs in their efforts to restore and protect Great Lakes ecosystems. One such area, the Fox River which flows into Green Bay, has been the focus of much scientific study in an effort to improve not only that river but to apply lessons learned to other AOCs. The final goal is a healthy Great Lakes food chain with fish and waterfowl that are safe to consume.

  16. The Dynamics of American Indian Diplomacy in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Shkwegnaabi, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Throughout the nineteenth century Anishinaabeg leaders from the Great Lakes met in treaty councils with U.S. commissioners. Trained for years as astute listeners and eloquent speakers, these diplomats put their skills to the test as they negotiated with their non-Indian counterparts, whose primary responsibility was to serve the interests of the…

  17. Development of a GIS interface for WEPP Model application to Great Lakes forested watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. R. Frankenberger; S. Dun; D. C. Flanagan; J. Q. Wu; W. J. Elliot

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will highlight efforts on development of a new online WEPP GIS interface, targeted toward application in forested regions bordering the Great Lakes. The key components and algorithms of the online GIS system will be outlined. The general procedures used to provide input to the WEPP model and to display model output will be demonstrated.

  18. Detectability of groundwater storage change within the Great Lakes Water Basin using GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Halpenny, J.; Van der Wal, W.; Klatt, C.; James, T.S.; Rivera, A.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is a primary hydrological reservoir of the Great Lakes Water Basin (GLB), which is an important region to both Canada and US in terms of culture, society and economy. Due to insufficient observations, there is a knowledge gap about groundwater storage variation and its interaction with

  19. Evaluation of a rural demonstration program to increase seat belt use in the Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Six States in the Great Lakes Region (Region 5) participated in a Rural Demonstration Program to increase seat belt : use in rural areas and among high-risk occupants, such as young males and occupants of pickup trucks. These : efforts, which include...

  20. FINDING AND READING ECOLOGICAL SIGNALS IN THE NEARSHORE OF THE GREAT LAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjunct UMD faculty make annual presentations on research interest to IBS graduate students and faculty. Talks engage students in research and application to environmental problems. This presentation discusses the ecology of the nearshore areas of the Great Lakes, and ways to fi...

  1. Evaluation of regional climate simulations over the Great Lakes region driven by three global data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyuan Zhong; Xiuping Li; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; L. Ruby Leung; William I. Jr. Gustafson

    2012-01-01

    The performance of regional climate simulations is evaluated for the Great Lakes region. Three 10-year (1990-1999) current-climate simulations are performed using the MM5 regional climate model (RCM) with 36-km horizontal resolution. The simulations employed identical configuration and physical parameterizations, but different lateral boundary conditions and sea-...

  2. A synthesis of rates and controls on elemental mercury evasion in the Great Lakes Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkenberger, Joseph S.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Eckley, Chris S.; Cohen, Mark; Selvendiran, Pranesh

    2012-01-01

    Rates of surface-air elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) fluxes in the literature were synthesized for the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). For the majority of surfaces, fluxes were net positive (evasion). Digital land-cover data were combined with representative evasion rates and used to estimate annual Hg 0 evasion for the GLB (7.7 Mg/yr). This value is less than our estimate of total Hg deposition to the area (15.9 Mg/yr), suggesting the GLB is a net sink for atmospheric Hg. The greatest contributors to annual evasion for the basin are agricultural (∼55%) and forest (∼25%) land cover types, and the open water of the Great Lakes (∼15%). Areal evasion rates were similar across most land cover types (range: 7.0–21.0 μg/m 2 -yr), with higher rates associated with urban (12.6 μg/m 2 -yr) and agricultural (21.0 μg/m 2 -yr) lands. Uncertainty in these estimates could be partially remedied through a unified methodological approach to estimating Hg 0 fluxes. - Highlights: ► Considerable variability exists across spatial/temporal scales in Hg 0 evasion rates. ► Methodological approaches vary for estimating and reporting gaseous Hg 0 fluxes. ► Hg 0 evasion from the Great Lakes Basin is estimated at 7.7 Mg/yr (10.2 μg/m 2 -yr). ► Hg flux estimates suggest region is a net sink for atmospheric Hg. ► 95% of Hg 0 evasion in the region is from agriculture, forest, and the Great Lakes. - A synthesis of Hg evasion was conducted and this information was used to develop an estimate of Hg evasion for the Great Lakes Basin.

  3. Alien invasive species and biological pollution of the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem[Great Lakes Water Quality Board : Report to the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The displacement of important native species in the Great Lakes is a result of an invasion by a succession of non indigenous aquatic species. These invasion also resulted in interference with the proper human water uses and cost billions of dollars. The problem was considered serious enough that the International Joint Commission asked the Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1999 to review the regulations in place and make recommendations, if necessary, for the implementation of additional measures that could be considered to keep control over the introduction of alien invasive species. Escapes from aquaria, aquaculture, research and educational facilities, canal and diversion water flows, and release of live bait are all sources of this invasion. The effectiveness of alternative technologies to control the invasion was to be examined by the Board. Other efforts taking place to address the situation in the basin are being complemented by the publication of this report. It is considered that the most important source of alien invasive species (AIS) to the Great Lakes is the discharge of ballast water from shipping vessels coming from outside the United States and Canada. A major concern is the role played by vessels reporting no ballast on board (NOBOB) upon entering the basin. A number of recommendations were made concerning: (1) implementation and enforcement of the ballast water discharge standards agreed upon by both countries, (2) the evaluation of the effectiveness of alternative technologies to achieve ballast water discharge standards over the long term, combined with the use of chemical treatment while the evaluation is being performed, (3) the implementation of optimal management practices to control sediments in shipping vessels, (4) modifications to the design of shipping vessels, and (5) the monitoring and contingency plans in the event of a repeat scenario in the future. Composed of an equal number representatives from the United States and Canada, at

  4. The present status of the United States commercial fisheries of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosten, John

    1949-01-01

    This review of the trends in production on the Great Lakes suggests that great biological changes have taken place. The general abundance of the choicer varieties, and of some of the less choice fishes, has been lowered considerably; and the prospects are that this level will fall still farther. In addition, the niches occupied by these finer species in the lakes have not been filled by coarser forms. Much of the reduced abundance in modern fishery must be attributed to overfishing or unwise fishing (cisco, whitefish, lake trout, chubs). Part of it we believe was caused by an infectious disease as was true for the smelt; part of it by the parasitic predator, the sea lamprey. Perhaps increased competition for space or food such as might have been brought about by the smelt in Lakes Huron and Michigan or the alewives in Lake Ontario may have played a role. Pollution, too, may have taken its toll. Often we have no better explanation to offer than to state that some unknown change in the environment was responsible.

  5. Great Lakes clams find refuge from zebra mussels in restored, lake-connected marsh (Ohio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, more than 95 percent of the freshwater clams once found in Lake Erie have died due to the exotic zebara mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Zebra mussels attach themselves to native clams in large numbers, impeding the ability of the clams to eat and burrow. However, in 1996, we discovered a population of native clams in Metzger Marsh in western Lake Erie (about 50 miles [80 km] east of Toledo) that were thriving despite the longtime presence of zebra mussel in surrounding waters. At that time, Metzger Marsh was undergoing extensive restoration, including construction of a dike to replace the eroded barrier beach and of a water-control structure to maintain hydrologic connections with the lake (Wilcox and Whillans 1999). The restoration plan called for a drawdown of water levels to promote plant growth from the seedbank -- a process that would also destroy most of the clam population. State and federal resource managers recommended removing as many clams as possible to a site that was isolated from zebra mussels, and then returning them to the marsh after it was restored. We removed about 7,000 native clams in 1996 and moved them back to Metzger Marsh in 1999.

  6. Stakeholder views of management and decision support tools to integrate climate change into Great Lakes Lake Whitefish management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; McCright, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Decision support tools can aid decision making by systematically incorporating information, accounting for uncertainties, and facilitating evaluation between alternatives. Without user buy-in, however, decision support tools can fail to influence decision-making processes. We surveyed fishery researchers, managers, and fishers affiliated with the Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis fishery in the 1836 Treaty Waters of Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior to assess opinions of current and future management needs to identify barriers to, and opportunities for, developing a decision support tool based on Lake Whitefish recruitment projections with climate change. Approximately 64% of 39 respondents were satisfied with current management, and nearly 85% agreed that science was well integrated into management programs. Though decision support tools can facilitate science integration into management, respondents suggest that they face significant implementation barriers, including lack of political will to change management and perceived uncertainty in decision support outputs. Recommendations from this survey can inform development of decision support tools for fishery management in the Great Lakes and other regions.

  7. Molecular characterization of the Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV isolate from USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakharia Vikram N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV is a highly contagious viral disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide. VHSV caused several large scale fish kills in the Great Lakes area and has been found in 28 different host species. The emergence of VHS in the Great Lakes began with the isolation of VHSV from a diseased muskellunge (Esox masquinongy caught from Lake St. Clair in 2003. VHSV is a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus, within the family Rhabdoviridae. It has a linear single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome of approximately 11 kbp, with six genes. VHSV replicates in the cytoplasm and produces six monocistronic mRNAs. The gene order of VHSV is 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. This study describes molecular characterization of the Great Lakes VHSV strain (MI03GL, and its phylogenetic relationships with selected European and North American isolates. Results The complete genomic sequences of VHSV-MI03GL strain was determined from cloned cDNA of six overlapping fragments, obtained by RT-PCR amplification of genomic RNA. The complete genome sequence of MI03GL comprises 11,184 nucleotides (GenBank GQ385941 with the gene order of 3'-N-P-M-G-NV-L-5'. These genes are separated by conserved gene junctions, with di-nucleotide gene spacers. The first 4 nucleotides at the termini of the VHSV genome are complementary and identical to other novirhadoviruses genomic termini. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis show that the Great Lakes virus is closely related to the Japanese strains JF00Ehi1 (96% and KRRV9822 (95%. Among other novirhabdoviruses, VHSV shares highest sequence homology (62% with snakehead rhabdovirus. Conclusion Phylogenetic tree obtained by comparing 48 glycoprotein gene sequences of different VHSV strains demonstrate that the Great Lakes VHSV is closely related to the North American and Japanese genotype IVa, but forms a distinct genotype IVb, which is clearly different from the three European genotypes. Molecular

  8. Great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo predation on pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L. in shallow eutrophic lakes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traczuk Piotr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in the population abundance of the piscivorous great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo has led to conflicts with fisheries. Cormorants are blamed for decreased fish catches in many lakes in Poland. The aim of this paper is to describe to role of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca in the diet of cormorants nesting in a colony on the island in Lake Warnołty. Since the breeding colony is located in the vicinity of Lake OEniardwy, the largest lake in Poland, the cormorants use the resources in this lake. In 2009-2016, 18,432 regurgitated fish were collected, of which 593 were pikeperch. The share of pikeperch among fish collected in 2009-2012 did not exceed 2%, but from 2013 this increased substantially to maximum of 38.2% in 2015. The smallest pikeperch had a standard length of 8.4 cm, and the largest 42.5 cm. Pikeperch mean length differed by year, and the length distribution was close to normal. The sizes of the regurgitated pikeperch indicate that cormorants prey almost exclusively on juvenile specimens. The results of the present study indicate that cormorant predation has a significant impact on pikeperch populations in lakes in the vicinity of the colony, and the great cormorants are possibly a significant factor in the effectiveness of pikeperch management. When planning for the management of fish populations in lakes subjected to cormorant predation pressure, it should be borne in mind that predation by this piscivorous bird species impacts the abundance and size-age structure of fish populations.

  9. 75 FR 18451 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...-AA87 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to establish temporary safety and security zones around each Tall Ship visiting the Great Lakes during the Tall Ships Challenge 2010 race series. These safety and security zones...

  10. Inventory and transport of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew J; Hittinger, Eric

    2017-02-15

    Plastic pollution in the world's oceans has received much attention, but there has been increasing concern about the high concentrations of plastic debris in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Using census data and methodologies used to study ocean debris we derive a first estimate of 9887 metric tonnes per year of plastic debris entering the Great Lakes. These estimates are translated into population-dependent particle inputs which are advected using currents from a hydrodynamic model to map the spatial distribution of plastic debris in the Great Lakes. Model results compare favorably with previously published sampling data. The samples are used to calibrate the model to derive surface microplastic mass estimates of 0.0211 metric tonnes in Lake Superior, 1.44 metric tonnes in Huron, and 4.41 metric tonnes in Erie. These results have many applications, including informing cleanup efforts, helping target pollution prevention, and understanding the inter-state or international flows of plastic pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Satellite remote sensing for modeling and monitoring of water quality in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffield, S. R.; Crosson, W. L.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Barik, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Consistent and accurate monitoring of the Great Lakes is critical for protecting the freshwater ecosystems, quantifying the impacts of climate change, understanding harmful algal blooms, and safeguarding public health for the millions who rely on the Lakes for drinking water. While ground-based monitoring is often hampered by limited sampling resolution, satellite data provide surface reflectance measurements at much more complete spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we implemented NASA data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to build robust water quality models. We developed and validated models for chlorophyll-a, nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity based on combinations of the six MODIS Ocean Color bands (412, 443, 488, 531, 547, and 667nm) for 2003-2016. Second, we applied these models to quantify trends in water quality through time and in relation to changing land cover, runoff, and climate for six selected coastal areas in Lakes Michigan and Erie. We found strongest models for chlorophyll-a in Lake Huron (R2 = 0.75), nitrogen in Lake Ontario (R2=0.66), phosphorus in Lake Erie (R2=0.60), and turbidity in Lake Erie (R2=0.86). These offer improvements over previous efforts to model chlorophyll-a while adding nitrogen, phosphorus, and turbidity. Mapped water quality parameters showed high spatial variability, with nitrogen concentrated largely in Superior and coastal Michigan and high turbidity, phosphorus, and chlorophyll near urban and agricultural areas of Erie. Temporal analysis also showed concurrence of high runoff or precipitation and nitrogen in Lake Michigan offshore of wetlands, suggesting that water quality in these areas is sensitive to changes in climate.

  12. The effect of the United States Great Lakes on the maintenance of derecho-producing mesoscale convective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M.; Sparks, J.; Graham, R.

    2003-04-01

    The primary aim of this research is to investigate the influence of the United States Great Lakes on the intensity of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). One of the greatest nowcast challenges during the warm season is anticipating the impact of the Great Lakes on severe convection, particularly MCSs capable of producing damaging widespread windstorms known as derechos. Since a major derecho activity corridor lies over the Great Lakes region, it is important to understand the effects of the Lakes on the intensity and propagation of severe wind producing MCSs. Specific objectives of the research include: 1) The development of a short-term climatology of MCS events that have impacted the Great Lakes region over the past seven years; 2) An analysis of radar, satellite, surface (including buoy and lighthouse observations), and lake surface temperature data to determine the environmental conditions impacting the evolution of MCSs passing over a Great Lake; 3) An examination of MCS initiation times and seasonal frequencies of occurrence to delineate temporal consistencies in MCS evolution due to changing lake surface temperatures; and 4) The development of conceptual and forecast models to help anticipate MCS intensity and morphology as these systems interact with the Great Lakes environment.

  13. Biological effects-based tools for monitoring impacted surface waters in the Great Lakes: a multiagency program in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Drew R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Blazer, Vicki; Collette, Timothy W.; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jorgensen, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Mazik, Pat M.; Miller, David H.; Perkins, Edward J.; Smith, Edwin T.; Tietge, Joseph E.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particularly with regard to monitoring potentially toxic chemicals and assessing Areas of Concern (AOCs), as envisioned by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). Our strategy includes use of both targeted and open-ended/discovery techniques, as appropriate to the amount of information available, to guide a priori end point and/or assay selection. Specifically, a combination of in vivo and in vitro tools is employed by using both wild and caged fish (in vivo), and a variety of receptor- and cell-based assays (in vitro). We employ a work flow that progressively emphasizes in vitro tools for long-term or high-intensity monitoring because of their greater practicality (e.g., lower cost, labor) and relying on in vivo assays for initial surveillance and verification. Our strategy takes advantage of the strengths of a diversity of tools, balancing the depth, breadth, and specificity of information they provide against their costs, transferability, and practicality. Finally, a series of illustrative scenarios is examined that align EBMS options with management goals to illustrate the adaptability and scaling of EBMS approaches and how they can be used in management decisions.

  14. Trends of chlorinated organic contaminants in great lakes trout and walleye from 1970 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J P; Batterman, S A; Chernyak, S M

    2006-01-01

    Levels of chlorinated organic contaminants in predator fish have been monitored annually in each of the Great Lakes since the 1970s. This article updates earlier reports with data from 1991 to 1998 for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and (Lake Erie only) walleye (Sander vitreus) to provide a record that now extends nearly 30 years. Whole fish were analyzed for a number of industrial contaminants and pesticides, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, toxaphene, and mirex, and contaminant trends were quantified using multicompartment models. As in the past, fish from Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron have the highest levels of PCBs, DDT, and dieldrin; Superior has the highest levels of toxaphene; and Ontario has the highest levels of mirex. In the period after curtailment of chemical use, concentrations rapidly decreased, represented by relatively short half-lives from approximately 1 to 9 years. Although trends depend on both the contaminant and the lake, in many cases the rate of decline has been decreasing, and concentrations are gradually approaching an irreducible concentration. For dioxin-like PCBs, levels have not been decreasing during the most recent 5-year period (1994 to 1998). In some cases, the year-to-year variation in contaminant levels is large, mainly because of food-web dynamics. Although this variation sometimes obscures long-term trends, the general pattern of a rapid decrease followed by slowing or leveling-off of the downward trend seems consistent across the Great Lakes, and future improvements of the magnitude seen in the 1970s and early 1980s likely will take much longer.

  15. Trends of chlorinated organic contaminants in Great Lakes trout and walleye from 1970-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, J.P.; Batterman, S.A.; Chernyak, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Levels of chlorinated organic contaminants in predator fish have been monitored annually in each of the Great Lakes since the 1970s. This article updates earlier reports with data from 1991 to 1998 for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and (Lake Erie only) walleye (Sander vitreus) to provide a record that now extends nearly 30 years. Whole fish were analyzed for a number of industrial contaminants and pesticides, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, toxaphene, and mirex, and contaminant trends were quantified using multicompartment models. As in the past, fish from Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron have the highest levels of PCBs, DDT, and dieldrin; Superior has the highest levels of toxaphene; and Ontario has the highest levels of mirex. In the period after curtailment of chemical use, concentrations rapidly decreased, represented by relatively short half-lives from approximately 1 to 9 years. Although trends depend on both the contaminant and the lake, in many cases the rate of decline has been decreasing, and concentrations are gradually approaching an irreducible concentration. For dioxin-like PCBs, levels have not been decreasing during the most recent 5-year period (1994 to 1998). In some cases, the year-to-year variation in contaminant levels is large, mainly because of food-web dynamics. Although this variation sometimes obscures long-term trends, the general pattern of a rapid decrease followed by slowing or leveling-off of the downward trend seems consistent across the Great Lakes, and future improvements of the magnitude seen in the 1970s and early 1980s likely will take much longer.

  16. Climate change as a long-term stressor for the fisheries of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingsworth, Paris D.; Bunnell, David B.; Murray, Michael W.; Kao, Yu-Chun; Feiner, Zachary S.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Lofgren, Brent M.; Höök, Tomas O.; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes of North America provide valuable ecosystem services, including fisheries, to the surrounding population. Given the prevalence of other anthropogenic stressors that have historically affected the fisheries of the Great Lakes (e.g., eutrophication, invasive species, overfishing), climate change is often viewed as a long-term stressor and, subsequently, may not always be prioritized by managers and researchers. However, climate change has the potential to negatively affect fish and fisheries in the Great Lakes through its influence on habitat. In this paper, we (1) summarize projected changes in climate and fish habitat in the Great Lakes; (2) summarize fish responses to climate change in the Great Lakes; (3) describe key interactions between climate change and other stressors relevant to Great Lakes fish, and (4) summarize how climate change can be incorporated into fisheries management. In general, fish habitat is projected to be characterized by warmer temperatures throughout the water column, less ice cover, longer periods of stratification, and more frequent and widespread periods of bottom hypoxia in productive areas of the Great Lakes. Based solely on thermal habitat, fish populations theoretically could experience prolonged optimal growth environment within a changing climate, however, models that assess physical habitat influences at specific life stages convey a more complex picture. Looking at specific interactions with other stressors, climate change may exacerbate the negative impacts of both eutrophication and invasive species for fish habitat in the Great Lakes. Although expanding monitoring and research to consider climate change interactions with currently studied stressors, may offer managers the best opportunity to keep the valuable Great Lakes fisheries sustainable, this expansion is globally applicable for large lake ecosystem dealing with multiple stressors in the face of continued human-driven changes.

  17. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embke, Holly S.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Richter, Catherine A.; Pritt, Jeremy J.; Christine M. Mayer,; Qian, Song

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an invasive species of Asian carp, has been stocked for many decades in the United States for vegetation control. Adult individuals have been found in all of the Great Lakes except Lake Superior, but no self-sustaining populations have yet been identified in Great Lakes tributaries. In 2012, a commercial fisherman caught four juvenile diploid grass carp in the Sandusky River, a major tributary to Lake Erie. Otolith microchemistry and the capture location of these fish permitted the conclusion that they were most likely produced in the Sandusky River. Due to this finding, we sampled ichthyoplankton using paired bongo net tows and larval light traps during June–August of 2014 and 2015 to determine if grass carp are spawning in the Sandusky River. From the samples collected in 2015, we identified and staged eight eggs that were morphologically consistent with grass carp. Five eggs were confirmed as grass carp using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for a grass carp-specific marker, while the remaining three were retained for future analysis. Our finding confirms that grass carp are naturally spawning in this Great Lakes tributary. All eggs were collected during high-flow events, either on the day of peak flow or 1–2 days following peak flow, supporting an earlier suggestion that high flow conditions favor grass carp spawning. The next principal goal is to identify the spawning and hatch location(s) for the Sandusky River. Predicting locations and conditions where grass carp spawning is most probable may aid targeted management efforts.

  18. Managing the financial risk of low water levels in Great Lakes with index-based contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E.; Characklis, G. W.; Brown, C. M.; Moody, P.

    2014-12-01

    Low water levels in the Great Lakes have recently had significant financial impacts on the region's commercial shipping, responsible for transporting millions of dollars' worth of bulk goods each year. Low lake levels can significantly affect shipping firms, as cargo capacity is a function of draft, or the distance between water level and the ship's bottom. Draft increases with weight, and lower lake levels force ships to reduce cargo to prevent running aground in shallow harbors, directly impacting the finances of shipping companies. Risk transfer instruments may provide adaptable, yet unexplored, alternatives for managing these financial risks, at significantly less expense than more traditional solutions (e.g., dredging). Index-based financial instruments can be particularly attractive as contract payouts are directly linked to well-defined transparent metrics (e.g., lake levels), eliminating the need for subjective adjustors, as well as concerns over moral hazard. In developing such instruments, a major challenge is identifying an index that is well correlated with financial losses, and thus a contract that reliably pays out when losses are experienced (low basis risk). In this work, a relationship between lake levels and shipping revenues is developed, and actuarial analyses of the frequency and magnitude of revenue losses is completed using this relationship and synthetic water level data. This analysis is used to develop several types of index-based contracts. A standardized suite of binary contracts is developed, with each indexed to lake levels and priced according to predefined thresholds. These are combined to form portfolios with different objectives (e.g. options, collars), with optimal portfolio structure and length of coverage determined by limiting basis risk and contract cost, using simulations over the historic dataset. Results suggest that portfolios of these binary contracts can substantially reduce the risk of financial losses during periods of

  19. Restoring piscivorous fish populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes causes seabird dietary change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, C.E.; Weseloh, D.V.C.; Idrissi, A.; Arts, M.T.; O'Gorman, R.; Gorman, O.T.; Locke, B.; Madenjian, C.P.; Roseman, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystem change often affects the structure of aquatic communities thereby regulating how much and by what pathways energy and critical nutrients flow through food webs. The availability of energy and essential nutrients to top predators such as seabirds that rely on resources near the water's surface will be affected by changes in pelagic prey abundance. Here, we present results from analysis of a 25-year data set documenting dietary change in a predatory seabird from the Laurentian Great Lakes. We reveal significant declines in trophic position and alterations in energy and nutrient flow over time. Temporal changes in seabird diet tracked decreases in pelagic prey fish abundance. As pelagic prey abundance declined, birds consumed less aquatic prey and more terrestrial food. This pattern was consistent across all five large lake ecosystems. Declines in prey fish abundance may have primarily been the result of predation by stocked piscivorous fishes, but other lake-specific factors were likely also important. Natural resource management activities can have unintended consequences for nontarget ecosystem components. Reductions in pelagic prey abundance have reduced the capacity of the Great Lakes to support the energetic requirements of surface-feeding seabirds. In an environment characterized by increasingly limited pelagic fish resources, they are being offered a Hobsonian choice: switch to less nutritious terrestrial prey or go hungry. ?? 2008 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Are great Cascadia earthquakes recorded in the sedimentary records from small forearc lakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Morey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Here we investigate sedimentary records from four small inland lakes located in the southern Cascadia forearc region for evidence of earthquakes. Three of these lakes are in the Klamath Mountains near the Oregon–California border, and one is in the central Oregon Coast range. The sedimentary sequences recovered from these lakes are composed of normal lake sediment interbedded with disturbance event layers. The thickest of these layers are graded, and appear to be turbidites or linked debrites (turbidites with a basal debris-flow deposit, suggesting rapid deposition. Variations in particle size and organic content of these layers are reflected in the density and magnetic susceptibility data. The frequency and timing of these events, based on radiocarbon ages from detrital organics, is similar to the offshore seismogenic turbidite record from trench and slope basin cores along the Cascadia margin. Stratigraphic correlation of these anomalous deposits based on radiocarbon ages, down-core density, and magnetic susceptibility data between lake and offshore records suggest synchronous triggering. The areal extent and multiple depositional environments over which these events appear to correlate suggest that these deposits were most likely caused by shaking during great Cascadia earthquakes.

  1. Modeling detection probability to improve marsh bird surveys in southern Canada and the Great Lakes states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Tozer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marsh birds are notoriously elusive, with variation in detection probability across species, regions, seasons, and different times of day and weather. Therefore, it is important to develop regional field survey protocols that maximize detections, but that also produce data for estimating and analytically adjusting for remaining differences in detections. We aimed to improve regional field survey protocols by estimating detection probability of eight elusive marsh bird species throughout two regions that have ongoing marsh bird monitoring programs: the southern Canadian Prairies (Prairie region and the southern portion of the Great Lakes basin and parts of southern Québec (Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region. We accomplished our goal using generalized binomial N-mixture models and data from ~22,300 marsh bird surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 by Bird Studies Canada's Prairie, Great Lakes, and Québec Marsh Monitoring Programs. Across all species, on average, detection probability was highest in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence region from the beginning of May until mid-June, and then fell throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was lowest in the Prairie region in mid-May and then increased throughout the remainder of the season until the end of June; was highest during darkness compared with light; and did not vary significantly according to temperature (range: 0-30°C, cloud cover (0%-100%, or wind (0-20 kph, or during morning versus evening. We used our results to formulate improved marsh bird survey protocols for each region. Our analysis and recommendations are useful and contribute to conservation of wetland birds at various scales from local single-species studies to the continental North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Program.

  2. Exploring the potential impacts of climate change on North America's Laurentian Great Lakes tourism sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the major challenges facing the global hospitality and tourism sector in the coming century and, given the important role that weather and climate play in all aspects of the tourism experience, tourism businesses owners need to start thinking about and enacting climate change adaptation strategies now. This work has utilized a combination of social science and physical science methods to (1) understand how the Great Lakes tourism sector could be impacted by climate ch...

  3. Low Frequency Climate Variability: Understanding the Rise and Fall of the Great Salt Lake

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Michael E.; Lall, Upmanu; Saltzman, Barry

    1994-01-01

    Connections between the Great Salt Lake (GSL) volume (V) and large-scale climate variations are developed through an analysis of the time series of the month-to-month differences in V (change in V), local precipitation and streamflow, and gridded U.S. sea level pressure and global temperature data. We isolate decadal and secular mdoes of cliamte variability that are coherent with change in V variations. The decada...

  4. Modeling species invasions in Ecopath with Ecosim: an evaluation using Laurentian Great Lakes models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, Brian J.; Rogers, Mark; Zhang, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species affect the structure and processes of ecosystems they invade. Invasive species have been particularly relevant to the Laurentian Great Lakes, where they have played a part in both historical and recent changes to Great Lakes food webs and the fisheries supported therein. There is increased interest in understanding the effects of ecosystem changes on fisheries within the Great Lakes, and ecosystem models provide an essential tool from which this understanding can take place. A commonly used model for exploring fisheries management questions within an ecosystem context is the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modeling software. Incorporating invasive species into EwE models is a challenging process, and descriptions and comparisons of methods for modeling species invasions are lacking. We compared four methods for incorporating invasive species into EwE models for both Lake Huron and Lake Michigan based on the ability of each to reproduce patterns in observed data time series. The methods differed in whether invasive species biomass was forced in the model, the initial level of invasive species biomass at the beginning of time dynamic simulations, and the approach to cause invasive species biomass to increase at the time of invasion. The overall process of species invasion could be reproduced by all methods, but fits to observed time series varied among the methods and models considered. We recommend forcing invasive species biomass when model objectives are to understand ecosystem impacts in the past and when time series of invasive species biomass are available. Among methods where invasive species time series were not forced, mediating the strength of predator–prey interactions performed best for the Lake Huron model, but worse for the Lake Michigan model. Starting invasive species biomass at high values and then artificially removing biomass until the time of invasion performed well for both models, but was more complex than starting invasive species

  5. Developing fish trophic interaction indicators of climate change for the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Richard T.; Knight, Carey T.; Gorman, Ann Marie; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Weidel, Brian C.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    This project addressed regional climate change effects on aquatic food webs in the Great Lakes. We sought insights by examining Lake Erie as a representative system with a high level of anthropogenic impacts, strong nutrient gradients, seasonal hypoxia, and spatial overlap of cold- and cool-water fish guilds. In Lake Erie and in large embayments throughout the Great Lakes basin, this situation is a concern for fishery managers, as climate change may exacerbate hypoxia and reduce habitat volume for some species. We examined fish community composition, fine-scale distribution, prey availability, diets, and biochemical tracers for dominant fishes from study areas with medium-high nutrient levels (mesotrophic, Fairport study area), and low nutrient levels (oligotrophic, Erie study area). This multi-year database (2011-2013) provides the ability to contrast years with wide variation in rainfall, winter ice-cover, and thermal stratification. In addition, multiple indicators of dietary and distributional responses to environmental variability will allow resource managers to select the most informative approach for addressing specific climate change questions. Our results support the incorporation of some relatively simple and cost-efficient approaches into existing agency monitoring programs to track the near-term condition status of fish and fish community composition by functional groupings. Other metrics appear better suited for understanding longer-term changes, and may take more resources to implement on an ongoing basis. Although we hypothesized that dietary overlap and similarity in selected species would be sharply different during thermal stratification and hypoxic episodes, we found little evidence of this. Instead, to our surprise, this study found that fish tended to aggregate at the edges of hypoxia, highlighting potential spatial changes in catch efficiency of the fishery. This work has had several positive impacts on a wide range of resource management and

  6. Trend and climate signals in seasonal air concentration of organochlorine pesticides over the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin; Cao, Zuohao; Dove, Alice; Zhang, Lisheng

    2010-08-01

    Following worldwide bans or restrictions, the atmospheric level of many organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) over the Great Lakes exhibited a decreasing trend since the 1980s in various environmental compartments. Atmospheric conditions also influence variation and trend of OCPs. In the present study a nonparametric Mann-Kendall test with an additional process to remove the effect of temporal (serial) correlation was used to detect the temporal trend of OCPs in the atmosphere over the Great Lakes region and to examine the statistical significance of the trends. Using extended time series of measured air concentrations over the Great Lakes region from the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network, this study also revisits relationships between seasonal mean air concentration of OCPs and major climate variabilities in the Northern Hemisphere. To effectively extract climate signals from the temporal trend of air concentrations, we detrended air concentrations through removing their linear trend, which is driven largely by their respective half-lives in the atmosphere. The interannual variations of the extended time series show a good association with interannual climate variability, notably, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. This study demonstrates that the stronger climate signals can be extracted from the detrended time series of air concentrations of some legacy OCPs. The detrended concentration time series also help to interpret, in addition to the connection with interannual variation of the NAO, the links between atmospheric concentrations of OCPs and decadal or interdecadal climate change.

  7. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: I. Patterns of occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lee, Kathy E.; Banda, Jo A.; Choy, Steven J.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2017-01-01

    Human activities introduce a variety of chemicals to the Laurentian Great Lakes including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, plasticizers, and solvents (collectively referred to as contaminants of emerging concern or CECs) potentially threatening the vitality of these valuable ecosystems. We conducted a basin-wide study to identify the presence of CECs and other chemicals of interest in 12 U.S. tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes during 2013 and 2014. A total of 292 surface-water and 80 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for approximately 200 chemicals. A total of 32 and 28 chemicals were detected in at least 30% of water and sediment samples, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.0284 (indole) to 72.2 (cholesterol) μg/L in water and 1.75 (diphenhydramine) to 20,800 μg/kg (fluoranthene) in sediment. Cluster analyses revealed chemicals that frequently co-occurred such as pharmaceuticals and flame retardants at sites receiving similar inputs such as wastewater treatment plant effluent. Comparison of environmental concentrations to water and sediment-quality benchmarks revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations often exceeded benchmarks in both water and sediment. Additionally, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dichlorvos concentrations exceeded water-quality benchmarks in several rivers. Results from this study can be used to understand organism exposure, prioritize river basins for future management efforts, and guide detailed assessments of factors influencing transport and fate of CECs in the Great Lakes Basin.

  8. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: I. Patterns of occurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Elliott

    Full Text Available Human activities introduce a variety of chemicals to the Laurentian Great Lakes including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, plasticizers, and solvents (collectively referred to as contaminants of emerging concern or CECs potentially threatening the vitality of these valuable ecosystems. We conducted a basin-wide study to identify the presence of CECs and other chemicals of interest in 12 U.S. tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes during 2013 and 2014. A total of 292 surface-water and 80 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for approximately 200 chemicals. A total of 32 and 28 chemicals were detected in at least 30% of water and sediment samples, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.0284 (indole to 72.2 (cholesterol μg/L in water and 1.75 (diphenhydramine to 20,800 μg/kg (fluoranthene in sediment. Cluster analyses revealed chemicals that frequently co-occurred such as pharmaceuticals and flame retardants at sites receiving similar inputs such as wastewater treatment plant effluent. Comparison of environmental concentrations to water and sediment-quality benchmarks revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations often exceeded benchmarks in both water and sediment. Additionally, bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate and dichlorvos concentrations exceeded water-quality benchmarks in several rivers. Results from this study can be used to understand organism exposure, prioritize river basins for future management efforts, and guide detailed assessments of factors influencing transport and fate of CECs in the Great Lakes Basin.

  9. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: I. Patterns of occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Banda, Jo A.; Choy, Steven J.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2017-01-01

    Human activities introduce a variety of chemicals to the Laurentian Great Lakes including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, plasticizers, and solvents (collectively referred to as contaminants of emerging concern or CECs) potentially threatening the vitality of these valuable ecosystems. We conducted a basin-wide study to identify the presence of CECs and other chemicals of interest in 12 U.S. tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes during 2013 and 2014. A total of 292 surface-water and 80 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for approximately 200 chemicals. A total of 32 and 28 chemicals were detected in at least 30% of water and sediment samples, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.0284 (indole) to 72.2 (cholesterol) μg/L in water and 1.75 (diphenhydramine) to 20,800 μg/kg (fluoranthene) in sediment. Cluster analyses revealed chemicals that frequently co-occurred such as pharmaceuticals and flame retardants at sites receiving similar inputs such as wastewater treatment plant effluent. Comparison of environmental concentrations to water and sediment-quality benchmarks revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations often exceeded benchmarks in both water and sediment. Additionally, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dichlorvos concentrations exceeded water-quality benchmarks in several rivers. Results from this study can be used to understand organism exposure, prioritize river basins for future management efforts, and guide detailed assessments of factors influencing transport and fate of CECs in the Great Lakes Basin. PMID:28953889

  10. Groundwater science relevant to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, Norman G.; Van Stempvoort, Dale

    2016-01-01

    When the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) was signed in 1972 by the Governments of Canada and the United States (the “Parties”) (Environment Canada, 2013a), groundwater was not recognized as important to the water quality of the Lakes. At that time, groundwater and surface water were still considered as two separate systems, with almost no appreciation for their interaction. When the GLWQA was revised in 1978 (US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2012), groundwater contamination, such as that reported at legacy industrial sites such as those at Love Canal near the Niagara River, was squarely in the news. Consequently, the potential impacts of contaminated groundwater from such sites on Great Lakes water quality became a concern (Beck, 1979), and Annex 16 was added to the agreement, to address “pollution from contaminated groundwater” (Francis, 1989). However, no formal process for reporting under this annex was provided. The GLWQA Protocol in 1987 modified Annex 16 and called for progress reports beginning in 1988 (USEPA, 1988). The Protocol in 2012 provided a new Annex 8 to address groundwater more holistically (Environment 2 Canada, 2013b). Annex 8 (Environment Canada, 2013b) commits the Parties to coordinate groundwater science and management actions; as a first step, to “publish a report on the relevant and available groundwater science” by February 2015 (this report); and to “identify priorities for science activities and actions for groundwater management, protection, and remediation…” The broader mandate of Annex 8 is to (1) “identify groundwater impacts on the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Waters of the Great Lakes;” (2) “analyze contaminants, including nutrients in groundwater, derived from both point and non-point sources impacting the Waters of the Great Lakes;” (3) “assess information gaps and science needs related to groundwater to protect the quality of the Waters of the Great Lakes

  11. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utah's Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S White

    Full Text Available Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utah's Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Survey's Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses.

  12. Holocene climate in the western Great Lakes national parks and lakeshores: Implications for future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Margaret; Douglas, Christine; Cole, K.L.; Winkler, Marge; Flaknes, Robyn

    2000-01-01

    We reconstruct Holocene climate history (last 10,000 years) for each of the U.S. National Park Service units in the western Great Lakes region in order to evaluate their sensitivity to global warming. Annual precipitation, annual temperature, and July and January temperatures were reconstructed by comparing fossil pollen in lake sediment with pollen in surface samples, assuming that ancient climates were similar to modern climate near analogous surface samples. In the early Holocene, most of the parks experienced colder winters, warmer summers, and lower precipitation than today. An exception is Voyageurs National Park in northern Minnesota where, by 8000 years ago, January temperatures were higher than today. The combination of high mean annual temperature and lower precipitation at Voyageurs resulted in a dry period between 8000 and 5000 years ago, similar to the Prairie Period in regions to the south and west. A mid-Holocene warm-dry period also occurred at other northern and central parks but was much less strongly developed. In southern parks there was no clear evidence of a mid-Holocene warm-dry period. These differences suggest that global model predictions of a warm, dry climate in the northern Great Plains under doubled atmospheric CO2 may be more applicable to Voyageurs than to the other parks. The contrast in reconstructed temperatures at Voyageurs and Isle Royale indicates that the ameliorating effect of the Great Lakes on temperatures has been in effect throughout the Holocene and presumably will continue in the future, thus reducing the potential for species loss caused by future temperature extremes. Increased numbers of mesic trees at all of the parks in the late Holocene reflect increasing annual precipitation. This trend toward more mesic conditions began 6000 years ago in the south and 4000 years ago in the north and increased sharply in recent millennia at parks located today in lake-effect snow belts. This suggests that lake-effect snowfall is

  13. Stimulating a Great Lakes coastal wetland seed bank using portable cofferdams: implications for habitat rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.; Wiley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetland seed banks exposed by low lake levels or through management actions fuel the reestablishment of emergent plant assemblages (i.e., wetland habitat) critical to Great Lakes aquatic biota. This project explored the effectiveness of using portable, water-filled cofferdams as a management tool to promote the natural growth of emergent vegetation from the seed bank in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. A series of dams stretching approximately 450??m was installed temporarily to isolate hydrologically a 10-ha corner of the Crane Creek wetland complex from Lake Erie. The test area was dewatered in 2004 to mimic a low-water year, and vegetation sampling characterized the wetland seed bank response at low, middle, and high elevations in areas open to and protected from bird and mammal herbivory. The nearly two-month drawdown stimulated a rapid seed-bank-driven response by 45 plant taxa. Herbivory had little effect on plant species richness, regardless of the location along an elevation gradient. Inundation contributed to the replacement of immature emergent plant species with submersed aquatic species after the dams failed and were removed prematurely. This study revealed a number of important issues that must be considered for effective long-term implementation of portable cofferdam technology to stimulate wetland seed banks, including duration of dewatering, product size, source of clean water, replacement of damaged dams, and regular maintenance. This technology is a potentially important tool in the arsenal used by resource managers seeking to rehabilitate the functions and values of Great Lakes coastal wetland habitats.

  14. Integrated Measures of Anthropogenic Stress in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danz, Nicholas P.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Regal, Ronald R.; Hollenhorst, Tom; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Hanowski, Joann M.; Axler, Richard P.; Ciborowski, Jan J. H.; Hrabik, Thomas; Brady, Valerie J.; Kelly, John R.; Morrice, John A.; Brazner, John C.; Howe, Robert W.; Johnston, Carol A.; Host, George E.

    2007-05-01

    Integrated, quantitative expressions of anthropogenic stress over large geographic regions can be valuable tools in environmental research and management. Despite the fundamental appeal of a regional approach, development of regional stress measures remains one of the most important current challenges in environmental science. Using publicly available, pre-existing spatial datasets, we developed a geographic information system database of 86 variables related to five classes of anthropogenic stress in the U.S. Great Lakes basin: agriculture, atmospheric deposition, human population, land cover, and point source pollution. The original variables were quantified by a variety of data types over a broad range of spatial and classification resolutions. We summarized the original data for 762 watershed-based units that comprise the U.S. portion of the basin and then used principal components analysis to develop overall stress measures within each stress category. We developed a cumulative stress index by combining the first principal component from each of the five stress categories. Maps of the stress measures illustrate strong spatial patterns across the basin, with the greatest amount of stress occurring on the western shore of Lake Michigan, southwest Lake Erie, and southeastern Lake Ontario. We found strong relationships between the stress measures and characteristics of bird communities, fish communities, and water chemistry measurements from the coastal region. The stress measures are taken to represent the major threats to coastal ecosystems in the U.S. Great Lakes. Such regional-scale efforts are critical for understanding relationships between human disturbance and ecosystem response, and can be used to guide environmental decision-making at both regional and local scales.

  15. Non-indigenous species in the North and Baltic Seas and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River region

    OpenAIRE

    Casties, Isabel; Seebens, Hanno; Briski, Elizabeta

    2016-01-01

    List of non-indigenous species (NIS) established in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River region and the North and Baltic Seas region, their geographic origin, and taxonomic assignment. Asterisks mark the NIS that occur in both the North and Baltic Seas and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River regions. GL, SL, NW, NE, SW and SE denote the Great Lakes, St. Lawrence River, north-west, north-east, south-west, and south-east, respectively. Eurasia represents inland freshwaters except Yangtze River, In...

  16. Geochemistry of great Salt Lake, Utah II: Pleistocene-Holocene evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R.J.; Eugster, H.P.; Jones, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    Sedimentologic and biostratigraphic evidence is used to develop a geochemical model for Great Salt Lake, Utah, extending back some 30,000 yrs. B.P. Hydrologie conditions as defined by the water budget equation are characterized by a lake initially at a low, saline stage, rising by about 17,000 yrs. B.P. to fresh water basin-full conditions (Bonneville level) and then, after about 15,000 yrs. B.P., dropping rapidly to a saline stage again, as exemplified by the present situation. Inflow composition has changed through time in response to the hydrologie history. During fresh-water periods high discharge inflow is dominated by calcium bicarbonate-type river waters; during saline stages, low discharge, NaCl-rich hydrothermal springs are significant solute sources. This evolution in lake composition to NaCl domination is illustrated by the massive mirabilite deposition, free of halite, following the rapid drawdown until about 8,000 years ago, while historic droughts have yielded principally halite. Hydrologic history can be combined with inferred inflow composition to derive concentration curves with time for each major solute in the lake. Calcium concentrations before the drawdown were controlled by calcite solubility, and afterwards by aragonite. Significant amounts of solutes are removed from the lake by diffusion into the sediments. Na+, Cl- and SO42- are also involved in salt precipitation. By including pore fluid data, a surprisingly good fit has been obtained between solute input over the time period considered and the amounts actually found in lake brines, pore fluids, salt beds and sediments. Excess amounts are present for calcium, carbonate and silica, indicating detrital input. ?? 1985.

  17. Characterizing chemical transport of ozone and fine particles in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Scott N.

    This dissertation presents a science framework relevant to evaluating impacts of land use policy scenarios, energy technologies, and climate on urban and regional air quality. Emerging from collaboration with urban planners, this work provides a means for employing atmospheric chemical transport modeling to understand environmental ramifications of long-term, spatially disaggregated changes in population and automobile emissions at the census tract level, and to assess the sensitivity of these changes to densification strategies. Toward these goals, the framework is used to evaluate model skill in resolving contemporary characteristics of ozone (O3) and speciated fine particles (PM2.5) in the Great Lakes region of North America, and to quantitatively explore meteorological processes that bring about observed features of these pollutants in the region. The Great Lakes were chosen due to a population concentrated in sprawling metropolitan areas, consistently high and widespread pollutant burdens, and seasonal effects of the lakes on the atmosphere. In annual simulation at 36 km resolution, the Community Multiscale Air Quality model is evaluated using speciated PM2.5 measurements taken at regulatory monitoring networks orientated to sample urban, rural, and remote areas. Performance relative to ad-hoc regional modeling goals and prior studies is average to excellent for most species throughout the year. Both pollution episodes and seasonality are captured. The Great Lakes affect pollution seasonality: strong winds advect aerosols around the deep marine boundary layer to lower surface PM2.5 in fall and winter, while O3 over the lakes is enhanced throughout the year, driven by temperature in the cool seasons and lake breeze circulation in spring and summer. Simulations confirm observational evidence that rural and small-city sources are responsible for most regional PM2.5. Sensitivities to urban and rural reductions are of comparable magnitude on a percentage basis

  18. First record of Neoergasilus japonicus (Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a parasitic copepod new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The parasitic copepod Neoergasilus japonicus, native to eastern Asia, was first collected from 4 species of fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides; pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus; and yellow perch, Perca flavescens) in July 1994 in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan. Further sampling in the bay in 2001 revealed infections on 7 additional species (bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus; carp, Cyprinus carpio; channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus; goldfish, Carassius auratus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; rock bass, Ambloplites rupestris; and smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu). An additional 21 species examined in 2001 were devoid of the parasite. A limited collection of fish from Lake Superior (n = 8) and Lake Michigan (n = 46) in 1994 showed no infection. Neoergasilus japonicus is most frequently found attached to the dorsal fin and, in decreasing frequency, on the anal, tail, pelvic, and pectoral fins. Prevalence generally ranged from 15 to 70 and intensity from 1 to 10. The greatest number of copepods on a single host was 44. The copepod Neoergasilus japonicus appears to disperse over long distances rather quickly, spreading across Europe in 20 yr and then moving on to North America over a span of 10 yr. Its main vehicle of transport and introduction into the Great Lakes is probably exotic fish hosts associated with the fish-culture industry.

  19. Stock discrimination in Great Lakes Walleye using mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, N.; Hebert, P.D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two years it has become evident that because of its strict maternal inheritance and rapid rate of evolutionary differentiation, mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity offers exceptional promise in the discrimination of fish stocks. The current project aims to determine the extent of mt DNA variation among stocks of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from the Great Lakes. At this point, mt DNA has been isolated from 68 walleye representing the Thames River stock and a reef breeding stock from western Lake Erie, as well as from individuals of S. canadense, a species which hybridizes with S. vitreum. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from livers of these fish, purified by CsCl density gradient centrifugation and digested using 20 endonucleases. Polymorphisms were detected with 8 of the enzymes. There was a great deal of variation among fish from both spawning populations, so much so that individual fish could be identified by this technique. No single enzyme allowed discrimination of the two stocks, but restriction pattern variation following Dde I digestion permitted separation of 50% of Lake Erie fish from Thames River stock. Comparison of mt DNA restriction patterns of walleye and sauger showed that two species are easily separable, setting the stage for a more detailed study of hybridization between the taxa

  20. Are Predators Limiting Zebra Mussel Colonization of Unionid Mussels in Great Lake Coastal Wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Szalay, F. A.; Bowers, R.

    2005-05-01

    Although many native mollusc populations have been eliminated in the Laurentian Great Lakes by the exotic zebra mussel, recent surveys have found abundant unionid (Bivalvia: Unionidae) populations in some coastal wetlands. Unionid burrowing in soft sediments and predation by fish have been shown to reduce numbers of attached zebra mussels, and we tested these factors in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. In 2002, we held live unionids (Leptodea fragilis, Quadrula quadrula) and Pyganodon grandis shells in exclosures with wire mesh bottoms that were buried to sediment depths of either 5, 10, or 20 cm. After 2 months, numbers of attached dreissenids on unionids were significantly higher inside all exclosure treatments than outside exclosures. This indicated that either unionid burrowing was prevented in all sediment depth treatments or molluscivores were excluded by exclosures. In 2004, we measured dreissenid colonization on Q. quadrula and PVC plates in bottomless exclosures with different mesh sizes. After 6 months, dreissenid numbers on PVC plates and on Q. quadrula in 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm and 5 cm X 10 cm mesh exclosures were significantly higher than in open exclosures. These data suggest that molluscivores are important in limiting dreissenids in Great Lake coastal wetlands.

  1. 76 FR 1665 - Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2010-0111] Stakeholder Meetings Regarding the U.S.-Flag Great Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study; Correction AGENCY: Maritime... Lakes Fleet Revitalization Study. MARAD inadvertently listed the incorrect time zone for the listening...

  2. Decadal trends and common dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal characteristics of the African Great Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Loiselle

    Full Text Available The Great Lakes of East Africa are among the world's most important freshwater ecosystems. Despite their importance in providing vital resources and ecosystem services, the impact of regional and global environmental drivers on this lacustrine system remains only partially understood. We make a systematic comparison of the dynamics of the bio-optical and thermal properties of thirteen of the largest African lakes between 2002 and 2011. Lake surface temperatures had a positive trend in all Great Lakes outside the latitude of 0° to 8° south, while the dynamics of those lakes within this latitude range were highly sensitive to global inter-annual climate drivers (i.e. El Niño Southern Oscillation. Lake surface temperature dynamics in nearly all lakes were found to be sensitive to the latitudinal position of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. Phytoplankton dynamics varied considerably between lakes, with increasing and decreasing trends. Intra-lake differences in both surface temperature and phytoplankton dynamics occurred for many of the larger lakes. This inter-comparison of bio-optical and thermal dynamics provides new insights into the response of these ecosystems to global and regional drivers.

  3. The Proliferation and Illicit Trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons in the Great Lakes and Horn of Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiugu, Aphaxard M

    2007-01-01

    In Africa, the effect of the proliferation of small arms and light weapons (SALW) continues to impact negatively on socioeconomic development, particularly within the Great Lakes and Horn of Africa...

  4. 76 FR 12730 - Notice of Issuance of Federal Operating Permit to Great Lakes Gas Transmission Limited Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ...), Chicago, Illinois 60604. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Genevieve Damico, Environmental Engineer, EPA... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [MN91; FRL-9276-5] Notice of Issuance of Federal Operating Permit to Great Lakes Gas Transmission Limited Partnership AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  5. Life in extreme environments: microbial diversity in Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi, Loubna; Breakwell, Donald P; Harker, Alan R; Crandall, Keith A

    2014-05-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) represents one of the world's most hypersaline environments. In this study, the archaeal and bacterial communities at the North and South arms of the lake were surveyed by cloning and sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. The sampling locations were chosen for high salt concentration and the presence of unique environmental gradients, such as petroleum seeps and high sulfur content. Molecular techniques have not been systematically applied to this extreme environment, and thus the composition and the genetic diversity of microbial communities at GSL remain mostly unknown. This study led to the identification of 58 archaeal and 42 bacterial operational taxonomic units. Our phylogenetic and statistical analyses displayed a high biodiversity of the microbial communities in this environment. In this survey, we also showed that the majority of the 16S rRNA gene sequences within the clone library were distantly related to previously described environmental halophilic archaeal and bacterial taxa and represent novel phylotypes.

  6. Halotolerant extremophile bacteria from the Great Salt Lake for recycling pollutants in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattieri, Matteo; Suvira, Milomir; Hasan, Kamrul; Minteer, Shelley D.

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of hypersaline wastewater (approximately 5% of the wastewater worldwide) cannot be performed by classical biological techniques. Herein the halotolerant extremophile bacteria obtained from the Great Salt Lake (Utah) were explored in single chamber microbial fuel cells with Pt-free cathodes for more than 18 days. The bacteria samples collected in two different locations of the lake (Stansbury Bay and Antelope Island) showed different electrochemical performances. The maximum achieved power output of 36 mW m-2 was from the microbial fuel cell based on the sample originated from Stansbury Bay, at a current density of 820 mA m-2. The performances throughout the long-term operation are discussed and a bioelectrochemical mechanism is proposed.

  7. Great Lakes O shore Wind Project: Utility and Regional Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, Amirhossein [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Loparo, Kenneth A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); D' Aquila, Robert [General Electric (GE), Albany, NY (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Waligorski, Joseph G. [FirstEnergy, Akron, OH (United States); Baker, Scott [PJM Interconnection, Audubon, PA (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project aims to identify transmission system upgrades needed to facilitate offshore wind projects as well as operational impacts of offshore generation on operation of the regional transmission system in the Great Lakes region. A simulation model of the US Eastern Interconnection was used as the test system as a case study for investigating the impact of the integration of a 1000MW offshore wind farm operating in Lake Erie into FirstEnergy/PJM service territory. The findings of this research provide recommendations on offshore wind integration scenarios, the locations of points of interconnection, wind profile modeling and simulation, and computational methods to quantify performance, along with operating changes and equipment upgrades needed to mitigate system performance issues introduced by an offshore wind project.

  8. Ascent, dominance, and decline of the alewife in the Great Lakes: Food web interactions and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Robert; Stewart, Thomas J.; Taylor, William W.; Ferreri, C. Paola

    1999-01-01

    This article chronicles the ascent, dominance, and decline of the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Great Lakes and tracks the gradual accumulation of knowledge on the fish's effect on the aquatic community. Changes in management strategies for alewife are followed, and the current management dilemma is framed in light of the alewife's effect on inidigenous fishes and the changing biota and trophic status of the Great Lakes.

  9. A comparison of water quality criteria for the Great Lakes based on human and wildlife health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, James P.; Giesy, John P.; Summer, Cheryl L.; Bowerman, William; Aulerich, Richard J.; Bursian, Steven J.; Auman, Heidi J.; Jones, Paul D.; Williams, Lisa L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gilbertson, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Water quality criteria (WQC) can be derived in several ways. The usual techniques involve hazard and risk assessment procedures. For non-persistent, non-biomagnified compounds and elements, WQC are experimentally derived from their acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. For those persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) that are bioaccumulated and biomagnified, these traditional techniques have not been effective, partly because effects higher in the food web were not considered. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the bioaccumulative synthetic chemicals of primary toxicological significance to the Great Lakes biota which have caused widespread injury to wildlife. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the primary emphasis of hazard assessments has been on the potential for adverse effects in humans who eat fish. The primary regulatory endpoint of traditional hazard and risk assessments underlying current WQC are the probabilities of additional cancers occurring in the human population. The analysis presented here indicates that this is not adequate to restore sensitive wildlife species that are highly exposed to PCBs, especially those that have suffered serious population declines. Because WQC are legal instruments, the methods of deriving WQC have large implications for remediation, litigation, and damage assessments. Here WQC are derived for six species based on the responses of wildlife in the field or produced by feeding fish to surrogate species, rather than projecting a potential of increased cancer rates in humans. If the most sensitive wildlife species are restored and protected for very sensitive reproductive endpoints, then all components of the ecosystem, including human health, should be more adequately protected. The management of Great Lakes wildlife requires an understanding of the injury and causal relationships to persistent toxic substances.

  10. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations. PMID:28953953

  11. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linnea M.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, D.J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations.

  12. Measurement and Analysis of Extreme Wave and Ice Actions in the Great Lakes for Offshore Wind Platform Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Tony [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; van Nieuwstadt, Lin [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; De Roo, Roger [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Karr, Dale [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Lozenge, David [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering; Meadows, Guy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). College of Engineering

    2016-05-30

    This project, funded by the Department of Energy as DE-EE0005376, successfully measured wind-driven lake ice forces on an offshore structure in Lake Superior through one of the coldest winters in recent history. While offshore regions of the Great Lakes offer promising opportunities for harvesting wind energy, these massive bodies of freshwater also offer extreme and unique challenges. Among these challenges is the need to anticipate forces exerted on offshore structures by lake ice. The parameters of interest include the frequency, extent, and movement of lake ice, parameters that are routinely monitored via satellite, and ice thickness, a parameter that has been monitored at discrete locations over many years and is routinely modeled. Essential relationships for these data to be of use in the design of offshore structures and the primary objective of this project are measurements of maximum forces that lake ice of known thicknesses might exert on an offshore structure.

  13. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination in osprey eggs and nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes basin, 1991-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Pamela A; De Solla, Shane R; Ewins, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Populations of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the Great Lakes basin declined dramatically during the 1950s-1970s due largely to adverse effects of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons, ingested in their fish prey, on eggshell thickness and adult survival. Nevertheless, these contaminants were not measured in osprey tissues during the decades of decline on the Canadian Great Lakes. Between 1991 and 1995, we monitored recovering osprey populations on the Great Lakes, including Georgian Bay and the St. Marys River area on Lake Huron and the St. Lawrence Islands National Park, as well as at two inland sites within the basin. Current OC levels, even from the most contaminated lakes, were typically lower than those associated with reproductive effects. DDE levels in fresh eggs averaged 1.2-2.9 microg/g, well below the 4.2 microg/g level associated with significant eggshell thinning and shell breakage. Nevertheless, a proportion of eggs from all study areas did exceed this level. PCB levels in eggs seldom exceeded 5 microg/g except in one lake of high breeding density in the Kawartha Lakes inland study area, where the mean sum PCB level was 7.1 microg/g and the maximum concentration measured was 26.5 microg/g. On average, mean reproductive output (0.78-2.75 young per occupied nest) of breeding populations in Great Lakes basin study areas exceeded the threshold of 0.8 young thought necessary to maintain stable populations. We concluded that, although eggs and especially nestling plasma, are useful in reflecting local contaminant levels, ospreys are relatively insensitive, at least at the population level, to health effects of current levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the Canadian Great Lakes.

  14. A spatial classification and database for management, research, and policy making: The Great Lakes aquatic habitat framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Riseng, Catherine M.; Mason, Lacey; Werhrly, Kevin; Rutherford, Edward; McKenna, James E.; Castiglione, Chris; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Infante, Dana M.; Sowa, Scott P.; Robertson, Mike; Schaeffer, Jeff; Khoury, Mary; Gaiot, John; Hollenhurst, Tom; Brooks, Colin N.; Coscarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Managing the world's largest and most complex freshwater ecosystem, the Laurentian Great Lakes, requires a spatially hierarchical basin-wide database of ecological and socioeconomic information that is comparable across the region. To meet such a need, we developed a spatial classification framework and database — Great Lakes Aquatic Habitat Framework (GLAHF). GLAHF consists of catchments, coastal terrestrial, coastal margin, nearshore, and offshore zones that encompass the entire Great Lakes Basin. The catchments captured in the database as river pour points or coastline segments are attributed with data known to influence physicochemical and biological characteristics of the lakes from the catchments. The coastal terrestrial zone consists of 30-m grid cells attributed with data from the terrestrial region that has direct connection with the lakes. The coastal margin and nearshore zones consist of 30-m grid cells attributed with data describing the coastline conditions, coastal human disturbances, and moderately to highly variable physicochemical and biological characteristics. The offshore zone consists of 1.8-km grid cells attributed with data that are spatially less variable compared with the other aquatic zones. These spatial classification zones and their associated data are nested within lake sub-basins and political boundaries and allow the synthesis of information from grid cells to classification zones, within and among political boundaries, lake sub-basins, Great Lakes, or within the entire Great Lakes Basin. This spatially structured database could help the development of basin-wide management plans, prioritize locations for funding and specific management actions, track protection and restoration progress, and conduct research for science-based decision making.

  15. Climate Change Impacts on Nutrient Losses of Two Watersheds in the Great Lakes Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-point sources (NPS of agricultural chemical pollution are one major reason for the water quality degradation of the Great Lakes, which impacts millions of residents in the states and provinces that are bordering them. Future climate change will further impact water quality in both direct and indirect ways by influencing the hydrological cycle and processes of nutrient transportation and transformation, but studies are still rare. This study focuses on quantifying the impacts of climate change on nutrient (Nitrogen and Phosphorus losses from the two small watersheds (Walworth watershed and Green Lake watershed within the Great Lakes region. Analysis focused on changes through this century (comparing the nutrient loss prediction of three future periods from 2015 to 2099 with 30 years for each period against the historical nutrient estimation data from 1985 to 2008. The effects on total phosphorus and nitrate-nitrogen losses due to changes in precipitation quantity, intensity, and frequency, as well as air temperature, are evaluated for the two small watersheds, under three special report emission scenarios (SRES A2, A1B, B1. The newly developed Water Erosion Prediction Project-Water Quality (WEPP-WQ model is utilized to simulate nutrient losses with downscaled and bias corrected future climate forcing from two General Circulation Models (GFDL, HadCM3. For each watershed, the observed runoff and nutrient loads are used to calibrate and validate the model before the application of the WEPP-WQ model to examine potential impacts from future climate change. Total phosphorus loss is projected to increase by 28% to 89% for the Green Lake watershed and 25% to 108% for the Walworth watershed mainly due to the combined effects of increase of precipitation quantity, extreme storm events in intensity and frequency, and air temperature. Nitrate-nitrogen losses are projected to increase by 1.1% to 38% for the Green Lake watershed and 8% to 95% for the

  16. An Integrated Approach To Offshore Wind Energy Assessment: Great Lakes 3D Wind Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthelmie, R. J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Sibley School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering; Pryor, S. C. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

    2017-09-18

    This grant supported fundamental research into the characterization of flow parameters of relevance to the wind energy industry focused on offshore and the coastal zone. A major focus of the project was application of the latest generation of remote sensing instrumentation and also integration of measurements and numerical modeling to optimize characterization of time-evolving atmospheric flow parameters in 3-D. Our research developed a new data-constrained Wind Atlas for the Great Lakes, and developed new insights into flow parameters in heterogeneous environments. Four experiments were conducted during the project: At a large operating onshore wind farm in May 2012; At the National Renewable Energy Laboratory National Wind Technology Center (NREL NWTC) during February 2013; At the shoreline of Lake Erie in May 2013; and At the Wind Energy Institute of Canada on Prince Edward Island in May 2015. The experiment we conducted in the coastal zone of Lake Erie indicated very complex flow fields and the frequent presence of upward momentum fluxes and resulting distortion of the wind speed profile at turbine relevant heights due to swells in the Great Lakes. Additionally, our data (and modeling) indicate the frequent presence of low level jets at 600 m height over the Lake and occasions when the wind speed profile across the rotor plane may be impacted by this phenomenon. Experimental data and modeling of the fourth experiment on Prince Edward Island showed that at 10-14 m escarpment adjacent to long-overseas fetch the zone of wind speed decrease before the terrain feature and the increase at (and slightly downwind of) the escarpment is ~3–5% at turbine hub-heights. Additionally, our measurements were used to improve methods to compute the uncertainty in lidar-derived flow properties and to optimize lidar-scanning strategies. For example, on the basis of the experimental data we collected plus those from one of our research partners we advanced a new methodology to

  17. Chemicals of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: an analysis of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Gary; Persoon, Carolyn; Currie, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This review and statistical analysis was conducted to better understand the nature and significance of environmental exposures in the Great Lakes Basin and watershed to a variety of environmental contaminants. These contaminants of interest included current-use pesticides, pharmaceuticals, organic wastewater contaminants, alkylphenol ethoxylates, perfluorinated surfactants, flame retardants, and chlorinated paraffins. The available literature was critically reviewed and used to develop a database containing 19,611 residue values for 326 substances. In many papers, sampling locations were characterized as being downstream from municipal wastewater discharges, receiving waters for industrial facilities, areas susceptible to agricultural or urban contamination, or harbors and ports. To develop an initial assessment of their potential ecological significance, the contamination levels found were compared with currently available regulatory standards, guidelines, or criteria. This review was prepared for the IJC multi-board work group, and served as background material for an expert consultation, held in March, 2009, in which the significance of the contaminants found was discussed. Moreover, the consultation attempted to identify and assess opportunities for strengthening future actions that will protect the Great Lakes. Based on the findings and conclusions of the expert consultation, it is apparent that a wide variety of chemicals of emerging concern have been detected in environmental media (air, water, sediment, biota) from the Great Lakes Basin, although many are present at only trace levels. Although the presence of these contaminants raises concerns in the public and among the scientific community, the findings must be placed in context. Significant scientific interpretation is required to understand the extent to which these chemicals may pose a threat to the ecosystem and to human health. The ability to detect chemicals in environmental media greatly surpasses

  18. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume I. The Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F. III.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 20 power plants located on the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  19. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume I. The Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajendra K.; Freeman, III, Richard F.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 20 power plants located on the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  20. Using medically-derived iodine-131 to track sewage effluent in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenero, Michael P; Dilbone, Elizabeth K; Waples, James T

    2017-10-15

    Tracking sewage wastewater in a large lake is difficult. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals that can be used as indicator compounds are quickly diluted and not easy to measure. In this study, we examined the potential of using medically-derived iodine-131 ( 131 I, t ½  = 8.02 d) as a tracer for Milwaukee sewage effluent in Lake Michigan. 131 I activities in sewage effluent from two Milwaukee wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were measured in conjunction with 131 I activities in water, sediment and biota in the Milwaukee Outer Harbor and Lake Michigan. 131 I discharge rates from both WWTPS ranged from 34 ± 15 to 1807 ± 24 MBq d -1 , with average and median 131 I discharges of 278 and 129 MBq d -1 . A budget of 131 I in the Milwaukee Outer Harbor - based on measured sediment and water column inventories - showed that ∼11% of the 131 I discharged to the harbor was scavenged to bottom sediments, ∼19% decayed in the harbor water column, and ∼70% was flushed out of the harbor to Lake Michigan. From this budget, we derived a harbor flushing rate of 3.1 days. In Lake Michigan, 131 I activity was found in Cladophora algae (undetected to 91 ± 2 Bq kg -1 ) along ∼40 km of shoreline. Benthic trawl samples showed 131 I activity up to 8 km from shore. Calculated 131 I length scales were 30 km alongshore and 3.4 km offshore and corresponded to sewage effluent dispersion rates of ∼2.6 km d -1 and ∼0.3 km d -1 in along- and offshore directions. Using 131 I as a tracer of sewage effluent from other coastal municipalities to the Laurentian Great Lakes appears feasible, particularly for larger (>10 5 ) population centers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genome sequences of lower Great Lakes Microcystis sp. reveal strain-specific genes that are present and expressed in western Lake Erie blooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Anthony Meyer

    Full Text Available Blooms of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis are increasing worldwide. In the Laurentian Great Lakes they pose major socioeconomic, ecological, and human health threats, particularly in western Lake Erie. However, the interpretation of "omics" data is constrained by the highly variable genome of Microcystis and the small number of reference genome sequences from strains isolated from the Great Lakes. To address this, we sequenced two Microcystis isolates from Lake Erie (Microcystis aeruginosa LE3 and M. wesenbergii LE013-01 and one from upstream Lake St. Clair (M. cf aeruginosa LSC13-02, and compared these data to the genomes of seventeen Microcystis spp. from across the globe as well as one metagenome and seven metatranscriptomes from a 2014 Lake Erie Microcystis bloom. For the publically available strains analyzed, the core genome is ~1900 genes, representing ~11% of total genes in the pan-genome and ~45% of each strain's genome. The flexible genome content was related to Microcystis subclades defined by phylogenetic analysis of both housekeeping genes and total core genes. To our knowledge this is the first evidence that the flexible genome is linked to the core genome of the Microcystis species complex. The majority of strain-specific genes were present and expressed in bloom communities in Lake Erie. Roughly 8% of these genes from the lower Great Lakes are involved in genome plasticity (rapid gain, loss, or rearrangement of genes and resistance to foreign genetic elements (such as CRISPR-Cas systems. Intriguingly, strain-specific genes from Microcystis cultured from around the world were also present and expressed in the Lake Erie blooms, suggesting that the Microcystis pangenome is truly global. The presence and expression of flexible genes, including strain-specific genes, suggests that strain-level genomic diversity may be important in maintaining Microcystis abundance during bloom events.

  2. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Duane C.; Davis, J. Jeremiah; Jenkins, Jill A.; Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Miner, Jeffrey G.; Farver, John; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    We use aging techniques, ploidy analysis, and otolith microchemistry to assess whether four grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella captured from the Sandusky River, Ohio were the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin. All four fish were of age 1 +. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that these fish were not aquaculture-reared and that they were most likely the result of successful reproduction in the Sandusky River. First, at least two of the fish were diploid; diploid grass carp cannot legally be released in the Great Lakes Basin. Second, strontium:calcium (Sr:Ca) ratios were elevated in all four grass carp from the Sandusky River, with elevated Sr:Ca ratios throughout the otolith transect, compared to grass carp from Missouri and Arkansas ponds. This reflects the high Sr:Ca ratio of the Sandusky River, and indicates that these fish lived in a high-strontium environment throughout their entire lives. Third, Sandusky River fish were higher in Sr:Ca ratio variability than fish from ponds, reflecting the high but spatially and temporally variable strontium concentrations of southwestern Lake Erie tributaries, and not the stable environment of pond aquaculture. Fourth, Sr:Ca ratios in the grass carp from the Sandusky River were lower in their 2011 growth increment (a high water year) than the 2012 growth increment (a low water year), reflecting the observed inverse relationship between discharge and strontium concentration in these rivers. We conclude that these four grass carp captured from the Sandusky River are most likely the result of natural reproduction within the Lake Erie Basin.

  3. Association of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum with the macroalga Cladophora in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Ochsner, Urs; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Tepp, William H.; Lin, Guangyun; Johnson, Eric A.; Peller, Julie; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Avian botulism, a paralytic disease of birds, often occurs on a yearly cycle and is increasingly becoming more common in the Great Lakes. Outbreaks are caused by bird ingestion of neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum, a spore-forming, gram-positive, anaerobe. The nuisance, macrophytic, green alga Cladophora (Chlorophyta; mostly Cladophora glomerata L.) is a potential habitat for the growth of C. botulinum. A high incidence of botulism in shoreline birds at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) in Lake Michigan coincides with increasingly massive accumulations of Cladophora in nearshore waters. In this study, free-floating algal mats were collected from SLBE and other shorelines of the Great Lakes between June and October 2011. The abundance of C. botulinum in algal mats was quantified and the type of botulism neurotoxin (bont) genes associated with this organism were determined by using most-probable-number PCR (MPN-PCR) and five distinct bont gene-specific primers (A, B, C, E, and F). The MPN-PCR results showed that 16 of 22 (73%) algal mats from the SLBE and 23 of 31(74%) algal mats from other shorelines of the Great Lakes contained the bont type E (bont/E) gene. C. botulinum was present up to 15 000 MPN per gram dried algae based on gene copies of bont/E. In addition, genes for bont/A and bont/B, which are commonly associated with human diseases, were detected in a few algal samples. Moreover, C. botulinum was present as vegetative cells rather than as dormant spores in Cladophora mats. Mouse toxin assays done using supernatants from enrichment of Cladophora containing high densities of C. botulinum (>1000 MPN/g dried algae) showed that Cladophora-borne C. botulinum were toxin-producing species (BoNT/E). Our results indicate that Cladophora provides a habitat for C. botulinum, warranting additional studies to better understand the relationship between this bacterium and the alga, and how this interaction potentially contributes to botulism

  4. Evaluation of Satellite-Based Surface Energy Budget Products with Surface Measurements Over the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Loeb, N. G.; Lenters, J. D.; Spence, C.; Blanken, P.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is fundamentally driven by the global energy balance. While Earth's energy budget at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) is well understood, satellite-based estimates of the global mean surface energy budget yield an imbalance of 15-20 Wm-2. The data products used to infer the components of the surface energy budget are often based upon physical or empirical models and ancillary input data sets of varying quality. In order to make progress, comparisons between satellite-based estimates of the surface energy budget components and direct surface measurements are critically needed. This study evaluates surface radiative fluxes from NASA CERES EBAF and surface turbulent heat fluxes from OAFLUX by comparing them with surface station measurements from the Great Lakes Evaporation Network (GLEN). The GLEN measurements are collected using instruments on lighthouses in the Great Lakes, and include surface evaporation measurement via eddy covariance technique. The evaluation is performed for 3 offshore and 1 nearshore Great Lakes sites. We highlight results for Stannard Rock in Lake Superior, which is the farthest lighthouse from shore ( 40km from the nearest land). Relative to the GLEN observations, the OAFLUX underestimates latent heat flux by 12 Wm-2 (19 Wm-2) at Stannard Rock (4-station average), in part due to its weaker near surface wind speed, and overestimates sensible heat flux by 12 Wm-2 (6 Wm-2), which is partly contributed by its colder surface air temperature. The CERES EBAF-Surface overestimates the surface downward all-sky shortwave (longwave) flux by 8 Wm-2 (7 Wm-2) at Stannard Rock, and is comparable to the 4-station average. As a result, the surface estimated using EBAF-Surface and OAFLUX receives 16 Wm-2 (13 Wm-2) more than the GLEN observations at Stannard Rock (4-station average). The above surface energy flux differences will be further discussed based on a comparison between the input data sets used in the satellite-based estimates and

  5. Developing Flexible, Integrated Hydrologic Modeling Systems for Multiscale Analysis in the Midwest and Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, A. F.; Chiu, C. M.; Sharma, A.; Byun, K.; Hanson, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Physically based hydrologic modeling of surface and groundwater resources that can be flexibly and efficiently applied to support water resources policy/planning/management decisions at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales are greatly needed in the Midwest, where stakeholder access to such tools is currently a fundamental barrier to basic climate change assessment and adaptation efforts, and also the co-production of useful products to support detailed decision making. Based on earlier pilot studies in the Pacific Northwest Region, we are currently assembling a suite of end-to-end tools and resources to support various kinds of water resources planning and management applications across the region. One of the key aspects of these integrated tools is that the user community can access gridded products at any point along the end-to-end chain of models, looking backwards in time about 100 years (1915-2015), and forwards in time about 85 years using CMIP5 climate model projections. The integrated model is composed of historical and projected future meteorological data based on station observations and statistical and dynamically downscaled climate model output respectively. These gridded meteorological data sets serve as forcing data for the macro-scale VIC hydrologic model implemented over the Midwest at 1/16 degree resolution. High-resolution climate model (4km WRF) output provides inputs for the analyses of urban impacts, hydrologic extremes, agricultural impacts, and impacts to the Great Lakes. Groundwater recharge estimated by the surface water model provides input data for fine-scale and macro-scale groundwater models needed for specific applications. To highlight the multi-scale use of the integrated models in support of co-production of scientific information for decision making, we briefly describe three current case studies addressing different spatial scales of analysis: 1) Effects of climate change on the water balance of the Great Lakes, 2) Future

  6. Assessing Canadian inventories to understand the environmental impacts of mercury releases to the Great Lakes region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trip, Luke; Bender, Tonya; Niemi, David

    2004-01-01

    North American pollutant release and transfer registries have been continuously developing with an eye to understanding source/receptor relationships and ensuring that the polluter-paid principle is applied to the appropriate parties. The potential contribution of mercury to the Great Lakes Basin arising from the rerelease of historic mercury pollution from contaminated aquatic and terrestrial media is poorly understood and the subject of concern. Although a considerable amount of data may be available on the atmospheric component of mercury releases to the Basin, further inventory work is needed to quantify the rerelease of the historic mercury. Much of the related existing inventory information is either not derived from direct measurement or not bounded by a mass-balance accounting. Critical to this determination is an increased confidence in the inventories of mercury from past and current practices. This may be enhanced through comprehensive and thorough surveys of contributions from specific products and their life-cycle assessments. An even greater challenge is to determine the bioavailability of the mercury emanating from land-based sources and from aquatic media. This paper describes the interplay among the sources and receptors of mercury and provides a quantitative assessment of current Canadian contributions of mercury as a contaminant to the Great Lakes. Recommendations for improved assessments are provided

  7. Mercury exposure and neurochemical impacts in bald eagles across several Great Lakes states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Nam, Dong-Ha; Cooley, Thomas; Neumann, Kay; Padilla, Irene Bueno; Route, William; Strom, Sean; Basu, Niladri

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we assessed mercury (Hg) exposure in several tissues (brain, liver, and breast and primary feathers) in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from across five Great Lakes states (Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) between 2002-2010, and assessed relationships between brain Hg and neurochemical receptors (NMDA and GABA(A)) and enzymes (glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)). Brain total Hg (THg) levels (dry weight basis) averaged 2.80 μg/g (range: 0.2-34.01), and levels were highest in Michigan birds. THg levels in liver (r(p) = 0.805) and breast feathers (r(p) = 0.611) significantly correlated with those in brain. Brain Hg was not associated with binding to the GABA(A) receptor. Brain THg and inorganic Hg (IHg) were significantly positively correlated with GS activity (THg r(p) = 0.190; IHg r(p) = 0.188) and negatively correlated with NMDA receptor levels (THg r(p) = -0245; IHg r(p) = -0.282), and IHg was negatively correlated with GAD activity (r(s) = -0.196). We also report upon Hg demethylation and relationships between Hg and Se in brain and liver. These results suggest that bald eagles in the Great Lakes region are exposed to Hg at levels capable of causing subclinical neurological damage, and that when tissue burdens are related to proposed avian thresholds approximately 14-27% of eagles studied here may be at risk.

  8. Forecasting the remaining reservoir capacity in the Laurentian Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alighalehbabakhani, Fatemeh; Miller, Carol J.; Baskaran, Mark; Selegean, James P.; Barkach, John H.; Dahl, Travis; Abkenar, Seyed Mohsen Sadatiyan

    2017-12-01

    Sediment accumulation behind a dam is a significant factor in reservoir operation and watershed management. There are many dams located within the Laurentian Great Lakes watershed whose operations have been adversely affected by excessive reservoir sedimentation. Reservoir sedimentation effects include reduction of flood control capability and limitations to both water supply withdrawals and power generation due to reduced reservoir storage. In this research, the sediment accumulation rates of twelve reservoirs within the Great Lakes watershed were evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The estimated sediment accumulation rates by SWAT were compared to estimates relying on radionuclide dating of sediment cores and bathymetric survey methods. Based on the sediment accumulation rate, the remaining reservoir capacity for each study site was estimated. Evaluation of the anthropogenic impacts including land use change and dam construction on the sediment yield were assessed in this research. The regression analysis was done on the current and pre-European settlement sediment yield for the modeled watersheds to predict the current and natural sediment yield in un-modeled watersheds. These eleven watersheds are in the state of Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New York, and Wisconsin.

  9. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds ( 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of the

  10. Detectability of groundwater storage change within the Great Lakes Water Basin using GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Halpenny, J.; van der Wal, W.; Klatt, C.; James, T. S.; Rivera, A.

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater is a primary hydrological reservoir of the Great Lakes Water Basin (GLB), which is an important region to both Canada and US in terms of culture, society and economy. Due to insufficient observations, there is a knowledge gap about groundwater storage variation and its interaction with the Great Lakes. The objective of this study is to examine the detectability of the groundwater storage change within the GLB using the monthly models from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, auxiliary soil moisture, snow and lake (SMSL) data, and predictions from glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models. A two-step filtering method is developed to optimize the extraction of GRACE signal. A two dimensional basin window weight function is also introduced to reduce ringing artifacts caused by the band-limited GRACE models in estimating the water storage change within the GLB. The groundwater storage (GWS) as deviation from a reference mean storage is estimated for the period of 2002 to 2009. The average GWS of the GLB clearly show an annual cycle with an amplitude range from 27 to 91 mm in water thickness equivalent (WTE), and a phase range of about two months. The estimated phases of GWS variations have a half year shift with respect to the phase of SMSL water storage variations which show peaks in March and April. The least squares estimation gives a GWS loss trend of from 2.3 to 9.3 km3/yr within the GLB for the period of study. This wide range of the GRACE GWS results is caused largely by the differences of soil moisture and snow storage from different land surface models (LSMs), and to a lesser extent by the GRACE commission and omission errors, and the GIA model error.

  11. Population synchrony of a native fish across three Laurentian Great Lakes: Evaluating the effects of dispersal and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, D.B.; Adams, J.V.; Gorman, O.T.; Madenjian, C.P.; Riley, S.C.; Roseman, E.F.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Climate and dispersal are the two most commonly cited mechanisms to explain spatial synchrony among time series of animal populations, and climate is typically most important for fishes. Using data from 1978-2006, we quantified the spatial synchrony in recruitment and population catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) for bloater (Coregonus hoyi) populations across lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. In this natural field experiment, climate was highly synchronous across lakes but the likelihood of dispersal between lakes differed. When data from all lakes were pooled, modified correlograms revealed spatial synchrony to occur up to 800 km for long-term (data not detrended) trends and up to 600 km for short-term (data detrended by the annual rate of change) trends. This large spatial synchrony more than doubles the scale previously observed in freshwater fish populations, and exceeds the scale found in most marine or estuarine populations. When analyzing the data separately for within- and between-lake pairs, spatial synchrony was always observed within lakes, up to 400 or 600 km. Conversely, between-lake synchrony did not occur among short-term trends, and for long-term trends, the scale of synchrony was highly variable. For recruit CPUE, synchrony occurred up to 600 km between both lakes Michigan and Huron (where dispersal was most likely) and lakes Michigan and Superior (where dispersal was least likely), but failed to occur between lakes Huron and Superior (where dispersal likelihood was intermediate). When considering the scale of putative bloater dispersal and genetic information from previous studies, we concluded that dispersal was likely underlying within-lake synchrony but climate was more likely underlying between-lake synchrony. The broad scale of synchrony in Great Lakes bloater populations increases their probability of extirpation, a timely message for fishery managers given current low levels of bloater abundance. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  12. Mercury levels in herring gulls and fish: 42 years of spatio-temporal trends in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blukacz-Richards, E Agnes; Visha, Ariola; Graham, Matthew L; McGoldrick, Daryl L; de Solla, Shane R; Moore, David J; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-04-01

    Total mercury levels in aquatic birds and fish communities have been monitored across the Canadian Great Lakes by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the past 42 years (1974-2015). These data (22 sites) were used to examine spatio-temporal variability of mercury levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), walleye (Sander vitreus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Trends were quantified with dynamic linear models, which provided time-variant rates of change of mercury concentrations. Lipid content (in both fish and eggs) and length in fish were used as covariates in all models. For the first three decades, mercury levels in gull eggs and fish declined at all stations. In the 2000s, trends for herring gull eggs reversed at two sites in Lake Erie and two sites in Lake Ontario. Similar trend reversals in the 2000s were observed for lake trout in Lake Superior and at a single station in Lake Ontario. Mercury levels in lake trout continued to slowly decline at all of the remaining stations, except for Lake Huron, where the levels remained stable. A post-hoc Bayesian regression analysis suggests strong trophic interactions between herring gulls and rainbow smelt in Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but also pinpoints the likelihood of a trophic decoupling in Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Continued monitoring of mercury levels in herring gulls and fish is required to consolidate these trophic shifts and further evaluate their broader implications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PCBs in sediments of the Great Lakes - Distribution and trends, homolog and chlorine patterns, and in situ degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li An [School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago (United States)], E-mail: anli@uic.edu; Rockne, Karl J. [Department of Civil and Materials Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago (United States); Sturchio, Neil [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago (United States); Song Wenlu; Ford, Justin C.; Wei Hua [School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago (United States)

    2009-01-15

    A region-wide data analysis on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediment of the Great Lakes reveals a total accumulation of approximately 300 {+-} 50 tonnes, representing a >30% reduction from the 1980s. Evidence of in situ degradation of sediment PCB was found, with estimated t{sub 1/2} of 11 and 17 years, at two open water locations in Lake Ontario. The relative abundance of heavy homologs as well as para-chlorines decreases with increasing depth, while the opposite is true for medium and light homologs and ortho-chlorines. In Lake Michigan, the vertical pattern features enrichment of heavier congeners and reduction of ortho-chlorines in deeper sediment layers, opposite to the trend in Lake Ontario. PCBs decrease log-linearly with increasing latitude and longitude. Air deposition of PCBs to lake sediment decreases at about 0.077 ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} per degree latitude (N) for the geographic region extending from the Great Lakes to within the Arctic Circle. - Data analysis on PCBs in the Great Lakes sediments reveals decline of overall burden, occurrence of in situ degradation, and the geographic gradient in the region and beyond.

  14. Direct groundwater discharge and vulnerability to hidden nutrient loads along the Great Lakes coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knights, Deon; Parks, Kevin C.; Sawyer, Audrey H.; David, Cédric H.; Browning, Trevor N.; Danner, Kelsey M.; Wallace, Corey D.

    2017-11-01

    Direct groundwater discharge delivers nutrients from land and lakebed sediments to the Great Lakes, which impacts lake water quality. Broad spatial distributions of discharging groundwater are often difficult to measure directly. We present high resolution estimates of direct groundwater discharge across 43% of the Great Lakes coastline based on a water budget approach that uses hydroclimatic models and high-resolution hydrographic data available within the United States. We also integrate land use data to identify coastal areas vulnerable to high groundwater-borne nutrient loads. Estimated rates of direct groundwater discharge along the Great Lakes coast are highly variable, but generally are greatest for Lake Erie and Lake Michigan. Almost one-third of Lake Erie's United States coastline is vulnerable to groundwater sources of nutrients. To assess uncertainties and limitations in our vulnerability analysis, a vulnerable site along Lake Erie was selected for detailed field measurements of direct groundwater discharge rates and nutrient fluxes. Measured discharge rates were significantly lower than water budget-based estimates (354 ± 25 m3 y-1 m-1 compared to 588 ± 181 m3 y-1 m-1). Dissolved phosphorous concentrations in the lakebed were elevated compared to onshore groundwater, while nitrate concentrations were lower, indicative of a highly reactive sediment-water interface. Some of the measured phosphorus may be locally sourced from desorption of legacy P or mineralization of organic matter in the lakebed, which our vulnerability framework does not include. Much of the land-derived nitrogen may be transformed along groundwater flow paths prior to discharge. While model-based estimates of direct groundwater discharge and vulnerability to nutrient loading are important for managing Great Lakes water quality, direct field observations remain essential for quantifying fluxes.

  15. Deep Learning Methods for Quantifying Invasive Benthic Species in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, G.; Skinner, K.; Johnson-Roberson, M.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, invasive species such as the round goby and dreissenid mussels have greatly impacted the Great Lakes ecosystem. It is critical to monitor these species, model their distribution, and quantify the impacts on the native fisheries and surrounding ecosystem in order to develop an effective management response. However, data collection in underwater environments is challenging and expensive. Furthermore, the round goby is typically found in rocky habitats, which are inaccessible to standard survey techniques such as bottom trawling. In this work we propose a robotic system for visual data collection to automatically detect and quantify invasive round gobies and mussels in the Great Lakes. Robotic platforms equipped with cameras can perform efficient, cost-effective, low-bias benthic surveys. This data collection can be further optimized through automatic detection and annotation of the target species. Deep learning methods have shown success in image recognition tasks. However, these methods often rely on a labelled training dataset, with up to millions of labelled images. Hand labeling large numbers of images is expensive and often impracticable. Furthermore, data collected in the field may be sparse when only considering images that contain the objects of interest. It is easier to collect dense, clean data in controlled lab settings, but this data is not a realistic representation of real field environments. In this work, we propose a deep learning approach to generate a large set of labelled training data realistic of underwater environments in the field. To generate these images, first we draw random sample images of individual fish and mussels from a library of images captured in a controlled lab environment. Next, these randomly drawn samples will be automatically merged into natural background images. Finally, we will use a generative adversarial network (GAN) that incorporates constraints of the physical model of underwater light propagation

  16. Mercury and selenium contamination in waterbird eggs and risk to avian reproduction at Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Isanhart, John P.; Herring, Garth; Vaughn, Sharon; Cavitt, John F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Browers, Howard; Cline, Chris; Vest, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem are recognized regionally, nationally, and hemispherically for their importance as breeding, wintering, and migratory habitat for diverse groups of waterbirds. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and provides critical breeding habitat for more than 60 bird species. However, the Great Salt Lake ecosystem also has a history of both mercury and selenium contamination, and this pollution could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of mercury and selenium contamination to birds breeding within Great Salt Lake, especially at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, and to identify the waterbird species and areas at greatest risk to contamination. We sampled eggs from 33 species of birds breeding within wetlands of Great Salt Lake during 2010 ̶ 2012 and focused on American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) for additional studies of the effects of contaminants on reproduction.

  17. Regional Climate Models as a Tool for Assessing Changes in the Laurentian Great Lakes Net Basin Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, B.; Mailhot, E.; Nadeau, D.; Irambona, C.; Frigon, A.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last decades, there has been growing concern about the effects of climate change on the Great Lakes water supply. Most of the modelling studies focusing on the Laurentian Great Lakes do not allow two-way exchanges of water and energy between the atmosphere and the underlying surface, and therefore do not account for important feedback mechanisms. Moreover, energy budget constraint at the land surface is not usually taken into account. To address this issue, several recent climate change studies used high resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for evaluating changes in the hydrological regime of the Great Lakes. As RCMs operate on the concept of water and energy conservation, an internal consistency of the simulated energy and water budget components is assured. In this study we explore several recently generated Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations to investigate the Great Lakes' Net Basin Supply (NBS) in a changing climate. These include simulations of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) supplemented by simulations from several others RCMs participating to the North American CORDEX project (CORDEX-NA). The analysis focuses on the NBS extreme values under nonstationary conditions. The results are expected to provide useful information to the industries in the Great Lakes that all need to include accurate climate change information in their long-term strategy plans to better anticipate impacts of low and/or high water levels.

  18. Assessment of impacts of climate change on water resources ? a case study of the Great Lakes of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Mcbean, E.; Motiee, H.

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Historical trends in precipitation, temperature, and streamflows in the Great Lakes are examined using regression analysis and Mann-Kendall statistics, with the result that many of these variables demonstrate statistically significant increases ongoing for a six decade period. Future precipitation rates as predicted using fitted regression lines are compared with scenarios from Global Climate Change Models (GCMs) and demonstrate similar forecast predictions for Lake Su...

  19. Economic feasibility of sail power devices on Great Lakes bulk carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-09-22

    Three ships were examined, the ED RYERSON, the ST. CLAIR, and the STEWART CORT to determine if retro-fitting these ships with a 3000 sq ft soft sail cat rig is economically feasible. By using existing weather data taken from recorded observations on Lake Michigan and Lake Superior and known performance characteristics of both the sailplan and hull, a computer program was written to model the problem. Three cases for each ship were estimated. The first was the average fuel savings, second was an optimistic estimate of fuel savings, and the third was a pessimistic estimate of fuel savings. Several considerations had to be taken into account that had serious consequences for the economic viability of the idea. One was the fact that all of the aforementioned ships have self unloading equipment that require about 80% of the deck space to be clear. This limited the choice of sailplans to one per ship. Another consideration is that due to bridge clearance problems an air draft of less than 125' was required. These two factors limited the size and efficiency of the sail plan. The third consideration is that due to the very tight shipping channels on the Great Lakes, there is no provision for altering course to take advantage of prevailing winds in order to maximize the usefulness of the sail device. The sail device on the ED RYERSON does not seem to be economically feasible. Even at the lowest interest rate investigated in this study (8%) the average annual cost improves only in the optimistic estimates. At 12% interest even this slight advantage disappears. The sail devices on the STEWART CORT and ST. CLAIR seem to be marginally feasible at low interest rates and the present cost of fuel. The STEWART CORT seems to benefit most from the fitting of a sail device. A modest increase in fuel prices, perhaps possible, will make both of these ships look substantially better.

  20. Using Scenario Development to Encourage Tourism Business Resilience in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, N.; Day, J.; Sydnor, S.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tourism is an economic sector anticipated to be greatly affected by climate change, but the potential impacts of climate change on tourism have rarely been examined in detail in existing research. Past research has shown, however, that the small and medium businesses that dominate the tourism sector could be greatly impacted by climate change. We have presented global climate and hydrologic model research results to pre-selected coastal tourism business owners in the Great Lakes region to determine the best methods for delivering user-friendly future climate scenarios, given that existing research suggests that climate change adaptive behaviors and resilience increase with information (message) clarity. Model output analyses completed for this work have focused on temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events due to their economic impact on tourism activities. We have also experimented with the development and use of infographics because of their ability to present information quickly and clearly. Initial findings of this work will be presented as well as lessons learned from stakeholder interactions. Two main results include that (1) extreme weather events may have more meaning to tourism business owners than general trends in climate and (2) long-term planning for climate is extremely difficult for tourism business owners because they operate on a much shorter planning timeline than those generally used for climate change analyses.

  1. Plastic Debris in 29 Great Lakes Tributaries: Relations to Watershed Attributes and Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K; Corsi, Steven R; Mason, Sherri A

    2016-10-04

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m 3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m 3 . Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  2. Hedging the financial risk from water scarcity for Great Lakes shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eliot S.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Brown, Casey; Moody, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Low water levels in the Great Lakes have recently had significant financial impacts on the region's commercial shipping, which transports hundreds of millions of dollars' worth of bulk goods each year. Cargo capacity is a function of a ship's draft, the distance between water level and the ship's bottom, and lower water levels force ships to reduce cargo loads to prevent running aground in shallow harbors and locks. Financial risk transfer instruments, such as index-based insurance contracts, may provide an adaptable method for managing these financial risks. In this work, a relationship between water levels and shipping revenues is developed and used in an actuarial analysis of the frequency and magnitude of revenue losses. This analysis is used to develop a standardized suite of binary financial contracts, which are indexed to water levels and priced according to predefined thresholds. These contracts are then combined to form hedging portfolios with different objectives for the shippers. Results suggest that binary contracts could substantially reduce the risk of financial losses during low lake level periods and at a relatively low cost of only one to three percent of total revenues, depending on coverage level.

  3. Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Mason, Sherri; Wilson, Stiv; Box, Carolyn; Zellers, Ann; Edwards, William; Farley, Hannah; Amato, Stephen

    2013-12-15

    Neuston samples were collected at 21 stations during an ~700 nautical mile (~1300 km) expedition in July 2012 in the Laurentian Great Lakes of the United States using a 333 μm mesh manta trawl and analyzed for plastic debris. Although the average abundance was approximately 43,000 microplastic particles/km², station 20, downstream from two major cities, contained over 466,000 particles/km², greater than all other stations combined. SEM analysis determined nearly 20% of particles less than 1 mm, which were initially identified as microplastic by visual observation, were aluminum silicate from coal ash. Many microplastic particles were multi-colored spheres, which were compared to, and are suspected to be, microbeads from consumer products containing microplastic particles of similar size, shape, texture and composition. The presence of microplastics and coal ash in these surface samples, which were most abundant where lake currents converge, are likely from nearby urban effluent and coal burning power plants.

  4. Plastic debris in 29 Great Lakes tributaries: Relations to watershed attributes and hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven; Mason, Sherri A.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is a growing contaminant of concern in freshwater environments, yet sources, transport, and fate remain unclear. This study characterized the quantity and morphology of floating micro- and macroplastics in 29 Great Lakes tributaries in six states under different land covers, wastewater effluent contributions, population densities, and hydrologic conditions. Tributaries were sampled three or four times each using a 333 μm mesh neuston net. Plastic particles were sorted by size, counted, and categorized as fibers/lines, pellets/beads, foams, films, and fragments. Plastics were found in all 107 samples, with a maximum concentration of 32 particles/m3 and a median of 1.9 particles/m3. Ninety-eight percent of sampled plastic particles were less than 4.75 mm in diameter and therefore considered microplastics. Fragments, films, foams, and pellets/beads were positively correlated with urban-related watershed attributes and were found at greater concentrations during runoff-event conditions. Fibers, the most frequently detected particle type, were not associated with urban-related watershed attributes, wastewater effluent contribution, or hydrologic condition. Results from this study add to the body of information currently available on microplastics in different environmental compartments, including unique contributions to quantify their occurrence and variability in rivers with a wide variety of different land-use characteristics while highlighting differences between surface samples from rivers compared with lakes.

  5. Synthetic musk fragrances in urban and rural air of Iowa and the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    Synthetic musk fragrances are semivolatile organic compounds used to scent a variety of household and personal care products. In this study, six polycyclic musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN, ATII, AHMI, ADBI, and DPMI) and two nitro musk fragrances (musk xylene and musk ketone) were evaluated in 181 air samples collected at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Iowa and the Great Lakes. This is the largest reported study of the compounds in ambient air and reveals the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants. HHCB and AHTN were detected most frequently and at the highest concentrations at all sites. Synthetic musk fragrance concentrations were highest in urban locations, including Milwaukee, WI (previously reported) and an urban location in Cedar Rapids, IA. Urban concentrations of HHCB and AHTN are on the order of 1-5 ng m -3 and background terrestrial concentrations are about an order of magnitude less. In rural Iowa, the concentrations and frequency of detection of the synthetic musk fragrances are comparable to (and often greater than) gas-phase pesticide concentrations. The concentrations measured at the suburban location in Iowa City, IA and over the Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan were generally intermediate of those measured at the rural and urban locations. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN were correlated with temperature at the sampling sites in Iowa.

  6. Concentrations and spatial variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other organohalogen compounds in Great Lakes air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, B; Dodder, N G; Basu, I; Hites, R A

    2001-03-15

    Air samples were analyzed from urban, rural, and remote sites near the Great Lakes to investigate the occurrence, concentrations, and spatial and temporal differences of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in air. The concentrations of PBDEs were compared to those of other organohalogen compounds such as PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. The samples were collected in 1997-1999 as part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN). To minimize the variability of the data, we selected only samples taken when the atmospheric temperature was 20 +/- 3 degrees C. PBDEs were found in all samples, indicating that these compounds are widely distributed and that they can be transported through the atmosphere to remote areas. The total concentrations of PBDEs were similar to some of the organochlorine pesticides such as sigmaDDT and ranged from 5 pg/m3 near Lake Superior to about 52 pg/m3 in Chicago. In fact, the spatial trend was well correlated to those of PCBs. Our results indicate a relatively constant level from mid-1997 to mid-1999. At 20 +/- 3 degrees C, about 80% of the tetrabromo homologues are in the gas phase and about 70% of the hexabromo homologues are associated with the particle phase. Thus, particle-to-gas partitioning in the atmosphere is an important process for these compounds.

  7. Money, management, and manipulation: Environmental mobilization in the Great Lakes basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This document examines variations in the responses of communities to local pollution problems affecting Great Lakes water quality. The study is based on research conducted at six such communities, at sites that have been designated as 'Areas of Concern' by the International Joint Commission. The roles of economic dependency or diversity, access to scientific and political resources, community size, social visibility of pollution, and consciousness- and unconsciousness-making activities are examined as they relate to grass roots political mobilization in response to local, lake-related environmental issues. Of particular interest is the participation of national and regional environmental social movement organizations, Federal, State/Provincial and local governments, and local industry. National and regional environmental social movement organizations appear to have a greater mobilizing impact on communities that are closest to the urban centers in which these organizations are based. State and Provincial environmental agencies play a centrist role in promoting minimal remediation. Local governments typically oppose the definition of local environmental disorganization as a problem

  8. Microsatellite and mtDNA analysis of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories: impacts of historical and contemporary evolutionary forces on Arctic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Les N; Howland, Kimberly L; Kowalchuk, Matthew W; Bajno, Robert; Lindsay, Melissa M; Taylor, Eric B

    2013-01-01

    Resolving the genetic population structure of species inhabiting pristine, high latitude ecosystems can provide novel insights into the post-glacial, evolutionary processes shaping the distribution of contemporary genetic variation. In this study, we assayed genetic variation in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Great Bear Lake (GBL), NT and one population outside of this lake (Sandy Lake, NT) at 11 microsatellite loci and the mtDNA control region (d-loop). Overall, population subdivision was low, but significant (global FST θ = 0.025), and pairwise comparisons indicated that significance was heavily influenced by comparisons between GBL localities and Sandy Lake. Our data indicate that there is no obvious genetic structure among the various basins within GBL (global FST = 0.002) despite the large geographic distances between sampling areas. We found evidence of low levels of contemporary gene flow among arms within GBL, but not between Sandy Lake and GBL. Coalescent analyses suggested that some historical gene flow occurred among arms within GBL and between GBL and Sandy Lake. It appears, therefore, that contemporary (ongoing dispersal and gene flow) and historical (historical gene flow and large founding and present-day effective population sizes) factors contribute to the lack of neutral genetic structure in GBL. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of history (e.g., post-glacial colonization) and contemporary dispersal ecology in shaping genetic population structure of Arctic faunas and provide a better understanding of the evolutionary ecology of long-lived salmonids in pristine, interconnected habitats. PMID:23404390

  9. Contaminants of emerging concern presence and adverse effects in fish: A case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Thomas, Linnea M.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Randolph, Eric C.; Choy, Steven J.; Alvarez, David; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2018-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are a valuable natural resource that is affected by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including sex steroid hormones, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and new generation pesticides. However, little is known about the fate and biological effects of CECs in tributaries to the Great Lakes. In the current study, 16 sites on three rivers in the Great Lakes basin (Fox, Cuyahoga, and Raquette Rivers) were assessed for CEC presence using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and grab water samplers. Biological activity was assessed through a combination of in vitro bioassays (focused on estrogenic activity) and in vivo assays with larval fathead minnows. In addition, resident sunfish, largemouth bass, and white suckers were assessed for changes in

  10. Assessing potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin: A binational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.H.; Mortsch, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and variability on the Great Lakes environment are serious and complex. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Basin is home to 42.5 million US and Canadian citizens and is the industrial and commercial heartland of both nations. The region is rich in human and natural resources, with diverse economic activities and substantial infrastructure which would be affected by major shifts in climate. For example, water level changes could affect wetland distribution and functioning; reductions in streamflow would alter assimilative capacities while warmer water temperatures would influence spring and fall turnover and incidence of anoxia. A binational program has been initiated to conduct interdisciplinary, integrated impact assessments for the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. The goal of this program is to undertake interdisciplinary, integrated studies to improve the understanding of the complex interactions between climate, the environment, and socioeconomic systems in order to develop informed regional adaptation responses

  11. Contaminants of emerging concern presence and adverse effects infish: A case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Thomas, Linnea M.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Randolph, Eric C.; Choy, Steven J.; Alvarez, David; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Lee, Kathy E.; Furlong, Edward T.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2018-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are a valuable natural resource that is affected by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including sex steroid hormones, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and new generation pesticides. However, little is known about the fate and biological effects of CECs in tributaries to the Great Lakes. In the current study, 16 sites on three rivers in the Great Lakes basin (Fox, Cuyahoga, and Raquette Rivers) were assessed for CEC presence using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and grab water samplers. Biological activity was assessed through a combination of in vitro bioassays (focused on estrogenic activity) and in vivo assays with larval fathead minnows. In addition, resident sunfish, largemouth bass, and white suckers were assessed for changes in

  12. Economic feasibility of sail power devices on Great Lakes bulk carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-24

    Progress is reported in a project to determine whether retro-fitting existing Great Lakes bulk carriers with auxiliary sail powering devices is economically feasible. The approach being used is to apply known technology both in terms of sail devices and calculation methods to determine the amount of fuel that can be saved and the probable cost of the sail device. Progress includes the identification and collection of data needed to determine the state of the art as well as to model the problem. Several sail powering devices were compared and an unstayed cat rig was chosen for further analysis and its performance characteristics were incorporated into a computer model, which is flow charted. (LEW)

  13. Silurian sequence stratigraphy in the North American craton, Great Lakes area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, R.H.; ,

    1996-01-01

    A notable circumstance of late Early through Late Silurian sedimentation on the Great Lakes area craton is that at least two and possibly three cycles of third-order duration (if eustatically considered) are recognized in basin and shallow-platform settings alike. Both virtually pure and siliciclastic-rich carbonate rocks exist in parts of platform-situated sections in contrast to siliciclastic-rich to evaporite-dominated basin sections. Knowledge of the reef history, together with evidence of incidental periodic incursions of siliciclastic sediments, permitted understanding of a regional event or sequence stratigraphy more than 15 years ago before conventional biostratigraphic and physical stratigraphic evidence became adequate to corroborate. This midwestern US and Ontario Silurian record has become strategic for testing different schools of thought that champion either tectonism or eustasy to explain cyclical sequences.

  14. Research on pathogens at Great Lakes beaches: sampling, influential factors, and potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with many Federal, State, and local agencies and universities, has conducted research on beach health issues in the Great Lakes Region for more than a decade. The work consists of four science elements that align with the USGS Beach Health Initiative Mission: real-time assessments of water quality; coastal processes; pathogens and source tracking; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The ongoing or completed research for the pathogens and source tracking topic is described in this fact sheet.

  15. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. -K. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Mrozowski, T. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Harrell-Seyburn, A. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Ehrlich, N. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Hembroff, L. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Lieburn, B. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Mazor, M. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); McIntyre, A. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Mutton, C. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Parsons, G. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Syal, M. G. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States); Wilkinson, R. [Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) Team, Midland, MI (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This project report details activities and results of the "Market Characterization" project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University, and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within the Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as "archetypes" by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market.

  16. Historical Trends, Drivers, and Future Projections of Ice Phenology in Small North Temperate Lakes in the Laurentian Great Lakes Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey A. Hewitt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake ice phenology (timing of ice breakup and freeze up is a sensitive indicator of climate. We acquired time series of lake ice breakup and freeze up, local weather conditions, and large-scale climate oscillations from 1981–2015 for seven lakes in northern Wisconsin, USA, and two lakes in Ontario, Canada. Multiple linear regression models were developed to understand the drivers of lake ice phenology. We used projected air temperature and precipitation from 126 climate change scenarios to forecast the day of year of ice breakup and freeze up in 2050 and 2070. Lake ice melted 5 days earlier and froze 8 days later over the past 35 years. Warmer spring and winter air temperatures contributed to earlier ice breakup; whereas warmer November temperatures delayed lake freeze. Lake ice breakup is projected to be 13 days earlier on average by 2070, but could vary by 3 days later to 43 days earlier depending upon the degree of climatic warming by late century. Similarly, the timing of lake freeze up is projected to be delayed by 11 days on average by 2070, but could be 1 to 28 days later. Shortened seasonality of ice cover by 24 days could increase risk of algal blooms, reduce habitat for coldwater fisheries, and jeopardize survival of northern communities reliant on ice roads.

  17. Detection of changes in hydrologic system memory associated with urbanization in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G.; Bowling, L. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Lakes region has experienced large land-cover / land-use change (LCLUC) in the last century, especially the growth of urban areas accompanied with increased human activities. Many hydrologic impacts of urbanization have been documented due to the reduction of the perviousness of urban landscapes, e.g. the reduced infiltration rate and runoff response time, the increased flashiness of daily streamflow and the magnitude of flood peaks. Such changes might be equivalently interpreted as a decrease in hydrologic system memory with urbanization, i.e. the current discharge in a flow time series has less correlation with its prior flows. Based on observed streamflow at several USGS gauge stations in the Great Lakes region, appropriate fractional autoregressive integrated moving average (FARIMA) models are introduced for daily and monthly streamflow respectively. The recently improved Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with urban representation is applied to simulate the water and energy response in many basins in the region with various degrees of urbanization. The VIC model is driven by different years’ land use/cover maps, including a 1992 base map and a 2030 map predicted by the Land Transformation Model (LTM). A no-urban scenario was also created by removing urban and rescaling other vegetations’ fraction based on the 1992 map. The simulated daily and monthly streamflow from some gauged basins is validated using the above fitted FARIMA models. The difference in the fitted FARIMA model parameters, e.g. AR(1) and Hurst exponent representing short and long memory respectively, between different land use/cover scenarios is mainly induced by differences in urban area. In order to further explore the relationship among urban growth, hydrologic system memory and other hydrologic change, metrics relating to the flow distribution, daily variation in streamflow and frequency of high-flow events are also calculated for selected basins.

  18. Graduated driver licensing policy in the Great Lakes states: current benefits and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Timothy E; Tonellato, Daniel J; Frisch, Keri B; Laud, Purushottam W

    2009-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of teenage deaths in the United States. Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) policies effectively decrease teenage crash deaths. Emerging research is identifying the most effective components of GDL. This study examines GDL policies across 6 Great Lakes states, describing the beneficial impact, and investigating how evidence-based policy modifications could further reduce teenage driving deaths and injuries. GDL policies were reviewed in 6 Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin). Incidence rate ratios for fatal and injury crashes for 16-year-old drivers were obtained from the Nationwide Review of GDL Study. Ratios were applied to the fatal and injury crashes reported from each state between 2002 and 2006 for 16-year-old drivers. The potential impact (crashes avoided) for each state was determined based on the state using a 3-phase GDL policy (a learner and intermediate stage prior to full licensure). In addition, the impact on crash reductions for each state if they had employed 5 of the recommended GDL components was determined. All 6 states had a 3-phase GDL policy, resulting in potential avoidance of 124 fatal and more than 21,000 injury crashes. The 6 states had 1 to 3 of the qualifying GDL components. If these states had adopted 5 of the qualifying components, an additional 309 fatal and more than 27,000 injury crashes could have been avoided. Three-phase GDL policy is effective at saving the lives of teenage drivers and vehicle occupants; evidence-based modification of GDL has the potential to further reduce teenage motor vehicle crash deaths and injuries.

  19. Virulence and biodegradation potential of dynamic microbial communities associated with decaying Cladophora in Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Peller, Julie R.; Shively, Dawn; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Staley, Christopher; Zhang, Qian; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Cladophora mats that accumulate and decompose along shorelines of the Great Lakes create potential threats to the health of humans and wildlife. The decaying algae create a low oxygen and redox potential environment favoring growth and persistence of anaerobic microbial populations, including Clostridium botulinum, the causal agent of botulism in humans, birds, and other wildlife. In addition to the diverse population of microbes, a dynamic chemical environment is generated, which involves production of numerous organic and inorganic substances, many of which are believed to be toxic to the sand and aquatic biotic communities. In this study, we used 16S-rDNA-based-amplicon sequencing and microfluidic-based quantitative PCR approaches to characterize the bacterial community structure and the abundances of human pathogens associated with Cladophora at different stages (up to 90 days) of algal decay in laboratory microcosms. Oxygen levels were largely depleted after a few hours of incubation. As Cladophora decayed, the algal microbial biodiversity decreased within 24 h, and the mat transitioned from an aerobic to anaerobic environment. There were increasing abundances of enteric and pathogenic bacteria during decomposition of Cladophora, including Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Kluyvera, Cedecea, and others. In contrast, there were no or very few sequences (< 0.07%) assigned to such groups in fresh Cladophora samples. Principal coordinate analysis indicated that the bacterial community structure was dynamic and changed significantly with decay time. Knowledge of microbial communities and chemical composition of decaying algal mats is critical to our further understanding of the role that Cladophora plays in a beach ecosystem's structure and function, including the algal role in trophic interactions. Based on these findings, public and environmental health concerns should be considered when decaying Cladophora mats accumulate Great Lakes shorelines.

  20. Water Quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Giddings, Elise M.; Baskin, Robert L.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Albano, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1998-2001 assessment of water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to water quality in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Great Salt Lake Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed at http://ut.water.usgs.gov. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed at the national NAWQA Web site http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa.

  1. Bacterial pathogen gene abundance and relation to recreational water quality at seven Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Ryan J.; Wijesinghe, Rasanthi U.; Fogarty, Lisa Reynolds; Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Riley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of bacterial pathogens, their geographic variability, and distribution in various matrices at Great Lakes beaches are limited. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to test for genes from E. coli O157:H7 (eaeO157), shiga-toxin producing E. coli (stx2), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), Shigella spp. (ipaH), and a Salmonella enterica-specific (SE) DNA sequence at seven Great Lakes beaches, in algae, water, and sediment. Overall, detection frequencies were mapA>stx2>ipaH>SE>eaeO157. Results were highly variable among beaches and matrices; some correlations with environmental conditions were observed for mapA, stx2, and ipaH detections. Beach seasonal mean mapA abundance in water was correlated with beach seasonal mean log10E. coli concentration. At one beach, stx2 gene abundance was positively correlated with concurrent daily E. coli concentrations. Concentration distributions for stx2, ipaH, and mapA within algae, sediment, and water were statistically different (Non-Detect and Data Analysis in R). Assuming 10, 50, or 100% of gene copies represented viable and presumably infective cells, a quantitative microbial risk assessment tool developed by Michigan State University indicated a moderate probability of illness for Campylobacter jejuni at the study beaches, especially where recreational water quality criteria were exceeded. Pathogen gene quantification may be useful for beach water quality management.

  2. A sensor architecture for real-time, in situ measurement of overlake evaporation on the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Fries, K. J.; Gronewold, A.; Lenters, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    While overlake evaporation is a major component of the Great Lakes' water balance, our scientific understanding of the climatic drivers of evaporation and its effects on water levels is significantly impeded by limited data. Existing measurement methods, such as eddy covariance, are not easily implemented in offshore applications. As such, there are only a handful of sites making direct, overlake measurements of evaporation on the entire Great Lakes, where the lake surface area comprises nearly one third of the entire basin. Long-term forecasts of water levels are thus very uncertain, particularly relating to climatic forcing, which is known to be a major driver of evaporation. We present a novel sensor architecture which is deployed on buoys, both tethered and drifting, to provide real-time measurements of overlake evaporation across the Great Lakes. Our system is comprised of a hierarchy of low-power, cost-effective sensor nodes, which carry out on-board computations to estimate evaporation in real-time. An ultra-low power microcontroller samples a suite of sensors to compute evaporation based on the Bowen ratio energy budget approach. The readings are then transmitted via satellite modules to a cloud-based server infrastructure for real-time updated scientific analysis and forecasting. Initial assessment of our new satellite drifter platform indicates robust field performance, validating its use in ongoing efforts to deploy a large-scale evaporation observation network across the Great Lakes basin.

  3. Mysis diluviana and Hemimysis anomala: reviewing the roles of a native and invasive mysid in the Laurentian Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Maureen G.; Boscarino, Brent T.; Marty, Jérôme; Johannsson, Ora E.

    2012-01-01

    Mysis diluviana and Hemimysis anomala are the only two species of mysid shrimps in the order Mysidacea that are present in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. M. diluviana has inhabited the deep, cold waters of this region since Pleistocene-era glacial retreat and is widely considered to have a central role in the functioning of offshore food webs in systems they inhabit. More recently, the Great Lakes were invaded by the Ponto-Caspian native Hemimysis, a species that inhabits warmer water and shallower depths relative to M. diluviana. Hemimysis has rapidly expanded throughout the Great Lakes region and has become integrated into nearshore food webs as both food for planktivorous fish and predators and competitors of zooplankton. This special issue is composed of 14 papers that represent the most recent advances in our understanding of the ecological importance of both species of mysids to lake and river ecosystems in the Great Lakes region of North America. Topics discussed in this special issue will inform future research in all systems influenced by mysid ecology.

  4. Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments: Connecting Users and Generators of Scientific Information to Inform Climate Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baule, W. J.; Briley, L.; Brown, D.; Gibbons, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes Integrated Sciences + Assessments (GLISA) is one of eleven NOAA Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISAs) and is a co-hosted by the University of Michigan and Michigan State University. The Great Lakes region falls between areas that are typically defined as the Midwest and Northeast in the United States and also includes portions of Ontario in Canada. This unique and complex region holds approximately 21% of global surface fresh water and is home to 23 million people on the United States side of the basin alone. GLISA functions as a bridge between climate science researchers and boundary organizations in the Great Lakes region, with the goals of contributing to the long-term sustainability of the region in face of a changing climate and to facilitate smart decision-making backed by sound scientific knowledge. Faculty and staff associated with GLISA implement physical and social science practices in daily operations, which includes but is not limited to: activating the boundary chain model to facilitate the transfer of knowledge through the community, integrating local and historical climate data into decision-making processes, addressing uncertainty and the downscaling of climate information, and implementing network analyses to find key access points to information networks across the Great Lakes region. GLISA also provides funding for projects related to climate and climate change adaptation in the Great Lakes region, as well as expertise to partner organizations through collaborations. Information from boundary organizations, stakeholders, and collaborators also flows back to GLISA to aid in the determination of the physical and social science needs of the region. Recent findings point to GLISA playing a crucial role in the scaling information across scales of government and ensuring that federal agencies and local stakeholders are able to learn from one another and share experiences and knowledge to continue building climate ready

  5. Unraveling the complex local-scale flows influencing ozone patterns in the southern Great Lakes of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Levy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the complexity of various processes influencing summertime ozone levels in the southern Great Lakes region of North America. Results from the Border Air Quality and Meteorology (BAQS-Met field campaign in the summer of 2007 are examined with respect to land-lake differences and local meteorology using a large array of ground-based measurements, aircraft data, and simulation results from a high resolution (2.5 km regional air-quality model, AURAMS.

    Analyses of average ozone mixing ratio from the entire BAQS-Met intensive campaign period support previous findings that ozone levels are higher over the southern Great Lakes than over the adjacent land. However, there is great heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of surface ozone over the lakes, particularly over Lake Erie during the day, with higher levels located over the southwestern end of the lake. Model results suggest that some of these increased ozone levels are due to local emission sources in large nearby urban centers. While an ozone reservoir layer is predicted by the AURAMS model over Lake Erie at night, the land-lake differences in ozone mixing ratios are most pronounced during the night in a shallow inversion layer of about 200 m above the surface. After sunrise, these differences have a limited effect on the total mass of ozone over the lakes and land during the day, though they do cause elevated ozone levels in the lake-breeze air in some locations.

    The model also predicts a mean vertical circulation during the day with an updraft over Detroit-Windsor and downdraft over Lake St. Clair, which transports ozone up to 1500 m above ground and results in high ozone over the lake.

    Oscillations in ground-level ozone mixing ratios were observed on several nights and at several ground monitoring sites, with amplitudes of up to 40 ppbv and time periods of 15–40 min. Several possible mechanisms for these oscillations are discussed, but a

  6. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and gene markers of pathogenic bacteria in Great Lakes tributaries, March-October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Angela K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Totten, Alexander R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    From March through October 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), conducted a study to determine the frequency of occurrence of pathogen gene markers and densities of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in 22 tributaries to the Great Lakes. This project was funded as part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) and included sampling at 22 locations throughout 6 states that border the Great Lakes.

  7. Shoreline vegetation distribution in relation to wave exposure and bay characteristics in a tropical great lake, Lake Victoria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azza, N.; Van de Koppel, J.; Denny, P.; Kansiime, F.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the presumption that wind-wave exposure is a major regulator of vegetation distribution within lakes. Along a 675-km stretch of shore in northern Lake Victoria (Uganda), the pattern of vegetation distribution in relation to shoreline features, and the variation of shoreline swamp

  8. Holocene evolution of the Tonle Sap Lake: valley network infill and rates of sedimentation in Cambodia's Great Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, J.; Darby, S. E.; Langdon, P. G.; Hackney, C. R.; Leyland, J.; Parsons, D. R.; Aalto, R. E.; Marti, M.

    2017-12-01

    Tonle Sap Lake, the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia (c. 120km long and 35 km wide), is a vital ecosystem that provides 40-60% of the protein for the population of Cambodia. The lake is fed by flow from the Mekong River that causes the lake rise in level by c. 8m during monsoonal and cyclone-related floods, with drainage of the lake following the monsoon. Hydropower dam construction on the Mekong River has raised concerns as to the fragility of the Tonle Sap habitat due to any changing water levels and sedimentation rates within the lake. This paper details results of sub-bottom profiling surveys of Tonle Sap Lake in October 2014 that detailed the stratigraphy of the lake and assessed rates of infill. An Innomar Parametric Echo Sounder (PES) was used to obtain c. 250 km of sub-bottom profiles, with penetration up to 15m below the lake bed at a vertical resolution of c. 0.20m. These PES profiles were linked to cores from the north of the lake and previous literature. The PES profiles reveal a network of valleys, likely LGM, with relief up to c. 15-20m, that have been infilled by a suite of Holocene sediments. The valley surface is picked out as a strong reflector throughout the lake, and displays a series of valleys that are up to c. 15m deep and commonly 50-200m wide, although some of the largest valleys are 1.2km in width. Modelling of channel network incision during LGM conditions generates landscapes consistent with our field observations. The Tonle Sap valley network is infilled by sediments that show firstly fluvial and/or subaerial slope sedimentation, and then by extensive, parallel-bedded, lacustrine sedimentation. Lastly, the top c. 1m of sedimentation is marked by a distinct basal erosional surface that can be traced over much of the Tonle Sap Lake, and that is overlain by a series of parallel PES reflections. This upper sediment layer is interpreted to represent sedimentation in the Tonle Sap lake due to sediment suspension settling but after a period

  9. Inputs and internal cycling of nitrogen to a causeway influenced, hypersaline lake, Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen inputs to Great Salt Lake (GSL), located in the western USA, were quantified relative to the resident nitrogen mass in order to better determine numeric nutrient criteria that may be considered at some point in the future. Total dissolved nitrogen inputs from four surface-water sources entering GSL were modeled during the 5-year study period (2010–2014) and ranged from 1.90 × 106 to 5.56 × 106 kg/year. The railroad causeway breach was a significant conduit for the export of dissolved nitrogen from Gilbert to Gunnison Bay, and in 2011 and 2012, net losses of total nitrogen mass from Gilbert Bay via the Causeway breach were 9.59 × 105 and 1.51 × 106 kg. Atmospheric deposition (wet + dry) was a significant source of nitrogen to Gilbert Bay, exceeding the dissolved nitrogen load contributed via the Farmington Bay causeway surface-water input by >100,000 kg during 2 years of the study. Closure of two railroad causeway culverts in 2012 and 2013 likely initiated a decreasing trend in the volume of the higher density Deep Brine Layer and associated declines in total dissolved nitrogen mass contained in this layer. The large dissolved nitrogen pool in Gilbert Bay relative to the amount of nitrogen contributed by surface-water inflow sources is consistent with the terminal nature of GSL and the predominance of internal nutrient cycling. The opening of the new railroad causeway breach in 2016 will likely facilitate more efficient bidirectional flow between Gilbert and Gunnison Bays, resulting in potentially substantial changes in nutrient pools within GSL.

  10. Environmentally Relevant Chemical Mixtures of Concern in Waters of U.S. Tributaries to the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M; Brigham, Mark E; Kiesling, Richard L; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Jorgenson, Zachary G

    2018-03-08

    The North American Great Lakes are a vital natural resource that provide fish and wildlife habitat, as well as drinking water and waste assimilation services for millions of people. Tributaries to the Great Lakes receive chemical inputs from various point and non-point sources, and thus are expected to have complex mixtures of chemicals. However, our understanding of the co-occurrence of specific chemicals in complex mixtures is limited. To better understand the occurrence of specific chemical mixtures in the U.S. Great Lakes basin, surface water from 24 U.S. tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes was collected and analyzed for diverse suites of organic chemicals, primarily focused on chemicals of concern (e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products, fragrances, etc.). A total of 181 samples and 21 chemical classes were assessed for mixture compositions. Basin wide, 1,664 mixtures occurred in at least 25% of sites. The most complex mixtures identified were comprised of nine chemical classes and occurred in 58% of sampled tributaries. Pharmaceuticals typically occurred in complex mixtures, reflecting pharmaceutical-use patterns and wastewater facility outfall influences. Fewer mixtures were identified at lake or lake-influenced sites than at riverine sites. As mixture complexity increased, the probability of a specific mixture occurring more often than by chance greatly increased, highlighting the importance of understanding source contributions to the environment. This empirically-based analysis of mixture composition and occurrence may be used to focus future sampling efforts or mixture toxicity assessments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Forecasting effects of climate change on Great Lakes fisheries: models that link habitat supply to population dynamics can help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Zhao, Yingming; Stockwell, Jason D.

    2006-01-01

    Future changes to climate in the Great Lakes may have important consequences for fisheries. Evidence suggests that Great Lakes air and water temperatures have risen and the duration of ice cover has lessened during the past century. Global circulation models (GCMs) suggest future warming and increases in precipitation in the region. We present new evidence that water temperatures have risen in Lake Erie, particularly during summer and winter in the period 1965–2000. GCM forecasts coupled with physical models suggest lower annual runoff, less ice cover, and lower lake levels in the future, but the certainty of these forecasts is low. Assessment of the likely effects of climate change on fish stocks will require an integrative approach that considers several components of habitat rather than water temperature alone. We recommend using mechanistic models that couple habitat conditions to population demographics to explore integrated effects of climate-caused habitat change and illustrate this approach with a model for Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreum). We show that the combined effect on walleye populations of plausible changes in temperature, river hydrology, lake levels, and light penetration can be quite different from that which would be expected based on consideration of only a single factor.

  12. Delivered costs of Western coal shipped on the Great Lakes versus Eastern coal for Eastern Great Lakes hinterland utility plants. With appendices on relative cost impacts of coal scrubbing and on other Western coal transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.M.

    1979-02-01

    This report analyzes the present and projected delivered cost competitiveness of Great Lakes shipped, low sulfur Western coal with low and high sulfur Eastern coal at Eastern Great Lakes hinterland utility plants. Its findings are based upon detailed data acquired from appropriate transportation firms and four eastern utility companies which use or have studied using the appropriate coal types. Two appendices provide: (1) a tentative, preliminary analysis of this competition with additional costs required by likely EPA scrubbing (sulfur removal) requirements, and (2) background information on other Western coal transport systems. Briefly, the findings of this report are that if Western coal is shipped via the Great Lakes to utility plants in the eastern Great Lakes hinterlands (i.e., inland from ports up to 200 miles): currently, based upon delivered costs only, it cannot compete with any type of Eastern coal; by 1989, with favorable interim Western versus Eastern cost escalation rate advantages on minemouth coal and transportation costs, Western coal delivered costs can begin competing with those of Eastern low sulfur, but not high sulfur coal; by 1999, with favorable relative cost escalation rate advantages, Western coal's delivered costs can become substantially less expensive than Eastern low sulfur coal's, and just begin to be competitive with Eastern high sulfur coal's; extremely high Eastern rail costs due to port area system characteristics are the main cost factor driving Western coal delivered costs to uneconomic levels.

  13. Physical Monitoring of Flow Into and Within Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, T. A.; Naftz, D. L.; Perschon, W. C.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the hydrologic terminus for the eastern part of the Great Basin. As the largest inland waterbody in the Western United States, GSL plays a critical ecologic role for many migratory bird species. In terms of harvest quantity and quality, the brine shrimp (Artemia) fishery of GSL is among the strongest in the world. The characteristic of GSL as a hydrologic sink amplifies anthropogenic activities throughout the basin, most specifically activities that occur along its eastern and southern shores, the urban corridor of the Wasatch Front. In 1959 GSL was divided into north and south parts by a rock-fill railroad causeway. Since then, an extreme density gradient between the north and south part exists as a result of limited conveyance of water from the south part where more than 95 percent of the total freshwater input occurs (Loving, and others, 2000). To date, little is known about the loading and cycling of various chemical constituents associated with human activities including nutrients, selenium, and mercury. Hydroacoustic technology, specifically acoustic Doppler technology, is currently being used to obtain a better physical understanding of GSL. Since 1999, stratified bi-directional discharge has been measured at the causeway breach with an acoustic Doppler current profiler. From these measurements, net flow components to the north and south have been used to assess the movement of water and salt through the causeway. Low hydraulic gradients and variable backwater conditions at the two largest inflows to GSL required the deployment of in-situ acoustic Doppler velocity meters to accurately compute continuous discharge, critical for constituent loading analyses. These discharge records, computed using the index velocity method, show sensitivity to large wind events that can lead to a complete reversal of flow. Velocity profiles acquired during two multi-day water-quality synoptic sampling runs with acoustic Doppler current profilers have

  14. Assessment of impact of climate change on water resources: a long term analysis of the Great Lakes of North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. McBean

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the threshold of the appearance of global warming from theory to reality, extensive research has focused on predicting the impact of potential climate change on water resources using results from Global Circulation Models (GCMs. This research carries this further by statistical analyses of long term meteorological and hydrological data. Seventy years of historical trends in precipitation, temperature, and streamflows in the Great Lakes of North America are developed using long term regression analyses and Mann-Kendall statistics. The results generated by the two statistical procedures are in agreement and demonstrate that many of these variables are experiencing statistically significant increases over a seven-decade period. The trend lines of streamflows in the three rivers of St. Clair, Niagara and St. Lawrence, and precipitation levels over four of the five Great Lakes, show statistically significant increases in flows and precipitation. Further, precipitation rates as predicted using fitted regression lines are compared with scenarios from GCMs and demonstrate similar forecast predictions for Lake Superior. Trend projections from historical data are higher than GCM predictions for Lakes Michigan/Huron. Significant variability in predictions, as developed from alternative GCMs, is noted.

    Given the general agreement as derived from very different procedures, predictions extrapolated from historical trends and from GCMs, there is evidence that hydrologic changes particularly for the precipitation in the Great Lakes Basin may be demonstrating influences arising from global warming and climate change.

  15. Elucidating causes of Diporeia decline in the Great Lakes via metabolomics: physiological responses after exposure to different stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Suman; Jannasch, Amber; Adamec, Jiri; Watkins, James M; Nalepa, Thomas; Höök, Tomas O; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    The benthic macroinvertebrate Diporeia spp. have been extirpated from many areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes, but the mechanisms underlying such declines are not fully understood. Diporeia declines coinciding with the invasion of exotic dreissenid mussels (zebra and quagga) have led to the hypothesis that Diporeia declines are a result of decreased food availability from increasing competition with dreissenids for diatoms. There is additional evidence that Diporeia are negatively affected when in close proximity to dreissenids, probably because of exposure to toxins present in the mussels' pseudofeces. Diporeia are also known to be sensitive to anthropogenic contaminants (such as polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]) present in Great Lakes sediments. To better understand the physiological responses of Diporeia to diverse stressors, we conducted three 28-d experiments evaluating changes in the metabolomes of Diporeia (1) fed diatoms (Cyclotella meneghiniana) versus starved, (2) exposed (from Lake Michigan and Cayuga Lake) to quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis), and (3) exposed to sediments contaminated with PCBs. The metabolomes of samples were examined using both two-dimensional gas and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Each stressor elicited a unique metabolome response characterized by enhanced citric acid cycle, fatty acid biosynthesis, and protein metabolism in diatom-fed Diporeia; impaired glycolysis, protein catabolism, and folate metabolism in Diporeia from Lake Michigan irrespective of quagga mussel exposure, suggesting lake-specific adaptation mechanisms; and altered cysteine and phospholipid metabolism during PCB exposure. Subsequent comparisons of these stressor-specific metabolic responses with metabolomes of a feral Diporeia population would help identify stressors affecting Diporeia populations throughout the Great Lakes.

  16. Weather and eared grebe winter migration near the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Augusta A.; Laird, Neil F.

    2017-10-01

    This study provides insight from the use of weather radar observations to understand the characteristics of the eared grebe migration near the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and provides unique information on weather conditions connected to these migration events. Doppler weather radar measurements from the Salt Lake City, Utah WSR-88D radar site (KMTX), along with meteorological surface and rawinsonde data, were used to identify and examine 281 eared grebe migration events across 15 winters from 1997/1998 through 2011/2012. An average of about 19 migration events occurred each winter with considerable interannual variability, as well as large variance in the spatial area and number of birds departing the GSL during each event. The migration events typically occurred during clear sky conditions in the presence of surface high pressure and colder than average surface temperatures. Migration events began 55 min after sunset, on average across the winter seasons, and in one case we demonstrate that an extended, nonstop flight was initiated of the departing eared grebes to northern Mexico. Eared grebes leaving the GSL largely flew above the freezing level with a mean northerly tailwind at flight altitude of 3.1 m s-1 and a westerly, cross-flight wind of 5.0 m s-1 while having an average flight speed at cruising altitude of 16.9 m s-1, or 61 km h-1. In addition to determining the variability of meteorological conditions during migration events across the 15 winters, atmospheric conditions during the largest migration event observed are presented and discussed.

  17. Weather and eared grebe winter migration near the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Augusta A.; Laird, Neil F.

    2018-03-01

    This study provides insight from the use of weather radar observations to understand the characteristics of the eared grebe migration near the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and provides unique information on weather conditions connected to these migration events. Doppler weather radar measurements from the Salt Lake City, Utah WSR-88D radar site (KMTX), along with meteorological surface and rawinsonde data, were used to identify and examine 281 eared grebe migration events across 15 winters from 1997/1998 through 2011/2012. An average of about 19 migration events occurred each winter with considerable interannual variability, as well as large variance in the spatial area and number of birds departing the GSL during each event. The migration events typically occurred during clear sky conditions in the presence of surface high pressure and colder than average surface temperatures. Migration events began 55 min after sunset, on average across the winter seasons, and in one case we demonstrate that an extended, nonstop flight was initiated of the departing eared grebes to northern Mexico. Eared grebes leaving the GSL largely flew above the freezing level with a mean northerly tailwind at flight altitude of 3.1 m s-1 and a westerly, cross-flight wind of 5.0 m s-1 while having an average flight speed at cruising altitude of 16.9 m s-1, or 61 km h-1. In addition to determining the variability of meteorological conditions during migration events across the 15 winters, atmospheric conditions during the largest migration event observed are presented and discussed.

  18. Tree rings and environmental change during deglaciation in the N. American Great Lakes area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, S. W.; Panyushkina, I. P.

    2010-12-01

    Greenland ice-core proxies give a high-resolution perspective on the remarkable climate variability since the last full-glacial period, but high-resolution tree-ring records could provide valuable added insight into this variability and its manifestations in terrestrial settings. Only a single oak/pine tree-ring chronology from Europe extends from the present to beyond 10,000 years ago, so inferring high-resolution mid-N. American environmental variability during this period is a particularly challenging but worthwhile objective, because trajectories of human and mega-fauna populations are likely linked to this variability, and some of the abrupt hemispheric- to global-scale climate events may have even been triggered in this region. Fortunately, the geologic circumstances of this post-glacial period have been favorable to preservation of wood in the time frame from 8000 to 14,000 years ago. In an ongoing project originating in 2002, we have been slowly accumulating wood samples from around the Great Lakes area variously preserved in glacial till, sands of alluvial and lacustrine origin, peat deposits, and submerged in lakes. In addition to contributing an expanding set of “floating” tree-ring chronologies for discrete time intervals within the 6000-year period, some coeval chronologies are from different locations so spatial variability can be gleaned. This presentation reports on the progress of this project with respect to sites, chronologies, ring-width and isotope analysis, patterns of change in variability through time, and comparison with modern trees. Among the most notable discoveries thus far has been a Younger Dryas event-age forest, whose unusual history is chronicled through the tree-ring micro-features and measurements.

  19. Weather and eared grebe winter migration near the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Augusta A; Laird, Neil F

    2018-03-01

    This study provides insight from the use of weather radar observations to understand the characteristics of the eared grebe migration near the Great Salt Lake (GSL) and provides unique information on weather conditions connected to these migration events. Doppler weather radar measurements from the Salt Lake City, Utah WSR-88D radar site (KMTX), along with meteorological surface and rawinsonde data, were used to identify and examine 281 eared grebe migration events across 15 winters from 1997/1998 through 2011/2012. An average of about 19 migration events occurred each winter with considerable interannual variability, as well as large variance in the spatial area and number of birds departing the GSL during each event. The migration events typically occurred during clear sky conditions in the presence of surface high pressure and colder than average surface temperatures. Migration events began 55 min after sunset, on average across the winter seasons, and in one case we demonstrate that an extended, nonstop flight was initiated of the departing eared grebes to northern Mexico. Eared grebes leaving the GSL largely flew above the freezing level with a mean northerly tailwind at flight altitude of 3.1 m s -1 and a westerly, cross-flight wind of 5.0 m s -1 while having an average flight speed at cruising altitude of 16.9 m s -1 , or 61 km h -1 . In addition to determining the variability of meteorological conditions during migration events across the 15 winters, atmospheric conditions during the largest migration event observed are presented and discussed.

  20. Advanced Offshore Wind Turbine/Foundation Concept for the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Windpower, Nautica [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States); Marrone, Joseph [OCC COWI, Vancouver (Canada); Wagner, Thomas [Nautica Windpower, Olmsted Falls, OH (United States)

    2013-08-29

    This project investigated a conceptual 2-bladed rotor wind turbine design and assessed its feasibility for installation in the Great Lakes. The levelized cost of energy was used for this purpose. A location in Lake Erie near the coast of Cleveland, Ohio was selected as the application site. The loading environment was defined using wind and wave data collected at a weather station in Lake Erie near Cleveland. In addition, the probability distributions of the annual significant wave height and wind speed were determined. A model of the dependence of the above two quantities was also developed and used in the study of wind turbine system loads. Loads from ice floes and ridges were also included.The NREL 5 MW 3-bladed rotor wind turbine concept was used as the baseline design. The proposed turbine design employs variable pitch blade control with tip-brakes and a teeter mechanism. The rotor diameter, rated power and the tower dimensions were selected to closely match those of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine.A semi-floating gravity base foundation was designed for this project primarily to adapt to regional logistical constraints to transport and install the gravity base foundation. This foundation consists of, from bottom to top, a base plate, a buoyancy chamber, a taper zone, a column (with ice cone), and a service platform. A compound upward-downward ice cone was selected to secure the foundation from moving because of ice impact.The turbine loads analysis was based on International ElectroTechnical Committee (IEC) Standard 61400-1, Class III winds. The NREL software FAST was the primary computational tool used in this study to determine all design load cases. An initial set of studies of the dynamics of wind turbines using Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) demonstrated that FAST and ADAMS load predictions were comparable. Because of its relative simplicity and short run times, FAST was selected for this study. For ice load calculations, a method

  1. Climate and climate variability of the wind power resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Li; S. Zhong; X. Bian; W.E. Heilman

    2010-01-01

    The climate and climate variability of low-level winds over the Great Lakes region of the United States is examined using 30 year (1979-2008) wind records from the recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a three-dimensional, high-spatial and temporal resolution, and dynamically consistent climate data set. The analyses focus on spatial distribution...

  2. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Mark B.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Hope, Kristine M.; Eckerlin, Geofrey E.; Casey, Rufina N.; Groocock, Geoffrey H.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Bowser, Paul R.; Winton, James R.; Batts, William N.; Cangelosi, Allegra; Casey, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government attention on the introduction and spread of aquatic animal pathogens in freshwaters. We investigated the relations between VHSV dispersion and shipping and boating activity in the Great Lakes by sampling fish and water at sites that were commercial shipping harbors, recreational boating centers, and open shorelines. Fish and water samples were individually analyzed for VHSV using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and cell culture assays. Of 1,221 fish of 17 species, 55 were VHSV positive with highly varied qRT-PCR titers (1 to 5,950,000 N gene copies). The detections of VHSV in fish and water samples were closely associated and the virus was detected in 21 of 30 sites sampled. The occurrence of VHSV was not related to type of site or shipping related invasion hotspots. Our results indicate that VHSV is widely dispersed in the Great Lakes and is both an enzootic and epizootic pathogen. We demonstrate that pathogen distribution information could be developed quickly and is clearly needed for aquatic ecosystem conservation, management of affected populations, and informed regulation of the worldwide trade of aquatic organisms.

  3. 75 FR 33506 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes, Cleveland, OH, Bay City, MI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ...-AA87 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes, Cleveland, OH, Bay City, MI...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing temporary safety and security zones around... Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge [[Page 33507

  4. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE MITTEN CRAB (ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS) INTRODUCED TO THE NORTH AMERICAN GREAT LAKES AND ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) is a globally invasive organism, with established non-native populations in Europe and California, USA. Since 1965, there have been sixteen confirmed catches of E. sinensis in the North American Great Lakes and their associated waterw...

  5. Site index comparisons for forest species in the Upper Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard H. Carmean; Jerold T. Hahn; Ronald E. McRoberts; D. Kaisershot

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes six studies that compare site index relations between 24 hardwood and conifer species in the Upper Great Lakes area of the United States and Canada. These six studies have many regression models and graphs for comparing site index between forest species thus providing tools for estimating site index for alternative tree species based on direct...

  6. Great Lakes water quality initiative technical support document for human health criteria and values (January 1993 draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the human health criteria and values for the Great Lakes is the protection of humans from unacceptable exposure to toxicants from consumption of contaminated fish, drinking water and water related to recreational activities. Emphasis is on the protection of the individual in evaluating toxicity information and its application in the derivation of criteria and values

  7. 77 FR 73646 - Essar Steel Minnesota, LLC v. Great Lakes Gas Transmission Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Transmission Limited Partnership (Respondent), alleging that the Respondent has failed to comply with the... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RP13-313-000] Essar Steel Minnesota, LLC v. Great Lakes Gas Transmission Limited Partnership; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on...

  8. 33 CFR 151.66 - Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating requirements: Discharge of garbage in the Great Lakes and other navigable waters. 151.66 Section 151.66 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION VESSELS CARRYING OIL...

  9. HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING, GPS, AND GIS APPLICATIONS IN OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES MONITORING OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems of the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbance. LGL wetlands have undergone losses in the biological diversity that coincides with an increase in the presen...

  10. Applying the collective impact approach to address non-native species: A case study of the Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H. B.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Hollins, K.

    2016-01-01

    To address the invasion of non-native Phragmites in the Great Lakes, researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey—Great Lakes Science Center partnered with the Great Lakes Commission in 2012 to establish the Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative (GLPC). The GLPC is a regional-scale partnership established to improve collaboration among stakeholders and increase the effectiveness of non-native Phragmites management and research. Rather than forming a traditional partnership with a narrowly defined goal, the GLPC follows the principles of collective impact to engage stakeholders, guide progress, and align resources to address this complex, regional challenge. In this paper, the concept and tenets of collective impact are described, the GLPC is offered as a model for other natural resource-focused collective impact efforts, and steps for establishing collaboratives are presented. Capitalizing on the interactive collective impact approach, the GLPC is moving toward a broadly accepted common agenda around which agencies and individuals will be able to better align their actions and generate measureable progress in the regional campaign to protect healthy, diverse ecosystems from damage caused by non-native Phragmites.

  11. Developmental plasticity of shell morphology of quagga mussels from shallow and deep-water habitats of the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzanne Peyer; John C. Hermanson; Carol Eunmi Lee

    2010-01-01

    The invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has quickly colonized shallow-water habitats in the North American Great Lakes since the 1980s but the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) is becoming dominant in both shallow and deep-water habitats. While quagga mussel shell morphology differs between shallow and deep habitats, functional causes and consequences of such...

  12. Recreation conflict of riparian landowners with personal watercraft and motorboat use along the New York's Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Ping Wang; Chad P. Dawson

    2002-01-01

    Riparian landowners of the New York's Great Lakes (NYGL) are reportedly in conflict with some motorboat and personal watercraft (PWC) use. Goal interference theory was used to explain landowners' perceived conflict caused by motorboat and PWC use. A study conducted in the NYGL area surveyed the riparian landowners' perceived conflict and problems caused...

  13. Evaluation of Sugar Maple Dieback in the Upper Great Lakes Region and Development of a Forest Health Youth Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar Maple, "Acer saccharum" Marsh., is one of the most valuable trees in the northern hardwood forests. Severe dieback was recently reported by area foresters in the western Upper Great Lakes Region. Sugar Maple has had a history of dieback over the last 100 years throughout its range and different variables have been identified as…

  14. The use of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in Great Lakes precipitation as a tool for pollution source attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The anthropogenic emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals including mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) presents human health and environmental concerns. Although it is known that local and regional sources of these metals contribute to deposition in the Great Lakes region, it ...

  15. Analysis of long-term forest bird monitoring data from national forests of the western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Niemi; Robert W. Howe; Brian R. Sturtevant; Linda R. Parker; Alexis R. Grinde; Nicholas P. Danz; Mark D. Nelson; Edmund J. Zlonis; Nicholas G. Walton; Erin E. Gnass Giese; Sue M. Lietz

    2016-01-01

    Breeding bird communities in forests of the western Great Lakes region are among the most diverse in North America, but the forest environment in this region has changed dramatically during the past 150 years. To address concerns about loss of biodiversity due to ongoing forest harvesting and to better inform forest planning, researchers have systematically monitored...

  16. Novel effects-based monitoring approaches to evaluate chemicals of emerging concern in Great Lakes areas of concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of an on-going program of research in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, we have been developing effects-based biomonitoring tools to evaluate the occurrence and potential hazards associated with Chemicals of Emerging Concern (CECs). Over three field seaso...

  17. Year-round presence of neonicotinoid insecticides in tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L; Corsi, Steven R; Kolpin, Dana W; Baldwin, Austin K; Blackwell, Brett R; Cavallin, Jenna E

    2018-04-01

    To better characterize the transport of neonicotinoid insecticides to the world's largest freshwater ecosystem, monthly samples (October 2015-September 2016) were collected from 10 major tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA. For the monthly tributary samples, neonicotinoids were detected in every month sampled and five of the six target neonicotinoids were detected. At least one neonicotinoid was detected in 74% of the monthly samples with up to three neonicotinoids detected in an individual sample (10% of all samples). The most frequently detected neonicotinoid was imidacloprid (53%), followed by clothianidin (44%), thiamethoxam (22%), acetamiprid (2%), and dinotefuran (1%). Thiacloprid was not detected in any samples. The maximum concentration for an individual neonicotinoid was 230 ng L -1 and the maximum total neonicotinoids in an individual sample was 400 ng L -1 . The median detected individual neonicotinoid concentrations ranged from non-detect to 10 ng L -1 . The detections of clothianidin and thiamethoxam significantly increased as the percent of cultivated crops in the basins increased (ρ = 0.73, P = .01; ρ = 0.66, P = .04, respectively). In contrast, imidacloprid detections significantly increased as the percent of the urbanization in the basins increased (ρ = 0.66, P = .03). Neonicotinoid concentrations generally increased in spring through summer coinciding with the planting of neonicotinoid-treated seeds and broadcast applications of neonicotinoids. More spatially intensive samples were collected in an agriculturally dominated basin (8 sites along the Maumee River, Ohio) twice during the spring, 2016 planting season to provide further information on neonicotinoid inputs to the Great Lakes. Three neonicotinoids were ubiquitously detected (clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam) in all water samples collected within this basin. Maximum individual neonicotinoid concentrations was 330 ng L -1 and maximum total

  18. Potential for Waterborne and Invertebrate Transmission of West Nile Virus in the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Dusek, Robert J; Shivers, Jan; Hofmeister, Erik

    2017-07-15

    In November and December of 2013, a large mortality event involving 15,000 to 20,000 eared grebes ( Podiceps nigricollis ) occurred at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT. The onset of the outbreak in grebes was followed by a mortality event in >86 bald eagles ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ). During the die-off, West Nile virus (WNV) was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) or viral culture in the carcasses of grebes and eagles submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center. However, no activity of mosquitoes, the primary vectors of WNV, was detected by the State of Utah's WNV monitoring program. The transmission of WNV has rarely been reported during the winter in North America in the absence of known mosquito activity; however, the size of this die-off, the habitat in which it occurred, and the species involved are unique. We experimentally investigated whether WNV could survive in water with a high salt content, as found at the GSL, and whether brine shrimp, the primary food of migrating eared grebes on the GSL, could have played a role in the transmission of WNV to feeding birds. We found that WNV can survive up to 72 h at 4°C in water containing 30 to 150 ppt NaCl, and brine shrimp incubated with WNV in 30 ppt NaCl may adsorb WNV to their cuticle and, through feeding, infect epithelial cells of their gut. Both mechanisms may have potentiated the WNV die-off in migrating eared grebes on the GSL. IMPORTANCE Following a major West Nile virus die-off of eared grebes and bald eagles at the Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, in November to December 2013, this study assessed the survival of West Nile virus (WNV) in water as saline as that of the GSL and whether brine shrimp, the major food for migrating grebes, could have played a role as a vector for the virus. While mosquitoes are the major vector of WNV, under certain circumstances, transmission may occur through contaminated water and invertebrates as food. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Year-round presence of neonicotinoid insecticides in tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Corsi, Steven; Kolpin, Dana W.; Baldwin, Austin K.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Cavallin, Jenna E.

    2018-01-01

    To better characterize the transport of neonicotinoid insecticides to the world's largest freshwater ecosystem, monthly samples (October 2015–September 2016) were collected from 10 major tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA. For the monthly tributary samples, neonicotinoids were detected in every month sampled and five of the six target neonicotinoids were detected. At least one neonicotinoid was detected in 74% of the monthly samples with up to three neonicotinoids detected in an individual sample (10% of all samples). The most frequently detected neonicotinoid was imidacloprid (53%), followed by clothianidin (44%), thiamethoxam (22%), acetamiprid (2%), and dinotefuran (1%). Thiacloprid was not detected in any samples. The maximum concentration for an individual neonicotinoid was 230 ng L−1 and the maximum total neonicotinoids in an individual sample was 400 ng L−1. The median detected individual neonicotinoid concentrations ranged from non-detect to 10 ng L−1. The detections of clothianidin and thiamethoxam significantly increased as the percent of cultivated crops in the basins increased (ρ = 0.73, P = .01; ρ = 0.66, P = .04, respectively). In contrast, imidacloprid detections significantly increased as the percent of the urbanization in the basins increased (ρ = 0.66, P = .03). Neonicotinoid concentrations generally increased in spring through summer coinciding with the planting of neonicotinoid-treated seeds and broadcast applications of neonicotinoids. More spatially intensive samples were collected in an agriculturally dominated basin (8 sites along the Maumee River, Ohio) twice during the spring, 2016 planting season to provide further information on neonicotinoid inputs to the Great Lakes. Three neonicotinoids were ubiquitously detected (clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam) in all water samples collected within this basin. Maximum individual neonicotinoid concentrations was 330 ng L−1

  20. Hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens in Great Lakes tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaker, Peter L.; Corsi, Steven; Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.; Baldwin, Austin K.; Lutz, Michelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Great Lakes tributaries are known to deliver waterborne pathogens from a host of sources. To examine the hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens (i.e. protozoa (2), pathogenic bacteria (4) human viruses, (8) and bovine viruses (8)) eight rivers were monitored in the Great Lakes Basin over 29 months from February 2011 to June 2013. Sampling locations represented a wide variety of land cover classes from urban to agriculture to forest. A custom automated pathogen sampler was deployed at eight sampling locations which provided unattended, flow-weighted, large-volume (120–1630 L) sampling. Human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria were detected by real-time qPCR in 16%, 14%, and 1.4% of 290 samples collected while protozoa were never detected. The most frequently detected pathogens were: bovine polyomavirus (11%), and human adenovirus C, D, F (9%). Human and bovine viruses were present in 16.9% and 14.8% of runoff-event samples (n = 189) resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 13.9% and 12.9% of low-flow samples (n = 101), respectively, indicating multiple delivery mechanisms could be influential. Data indicated human and bovine virus prevalence was different depending on land cover within the watershed. Occurrence, concentration, and flux of human viruses were greatest in samples from the three sampling locations with greater than 25% urban influence than those with less than 25% urban influence. Similarly, occurrence, concentration, and flux of bovine viruses were greatest in samples from the two sampling locations with greater than 50 cattle/km2 than those with less than 50 cattle/km2. In seasonal analysis, human and bovine viruses occurred more frequently in spring and winter seasons than during the fall and summer. Concentration, occurrence, and flux in the context of hydrologic condition, seasonality, and land use must be considered for each watershed individually to develop effective watershed management

  1. Glacial dispersal and flow history, East Arm area of Great Slave Lake, NWT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, D. R.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.; Knight, R. D.; Russell, H. A. J.; Kerr, D. E.

    2017-06-01

    Little work has been completed on paleo-ice-sheet flow indicators of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, west of the Keewatin Ice Divide. Field mapping, sampling and analysis of glaciogenic sediment (∼500 sample sites) in a ∼33,000 km2 region near the East Arm of Great Slave Lake in northwestern Canada, provided a rare opportunity to improve understanding of sediment erosion and transport patterns. Glacially-eroded bedrock and sedimentary landforms record east to west flow with NW and SW divergence, mapped within a portion of the Great Slave Lake flow tract. Transported till reflects a similar divergent flow pattern based on dispersal geometries for multiple indicators (e.g., heavy minerals and lithic fragments), which are aligned with the dominant and latest ice flow direction. Glaciofluvial erosion (e.g., s-forms and till removal), transport, and deposition (mainly as esker sediment) are set within 0.3-3 km wide meltwater erosional corridors, spaced regularly at 10-15 km intervals. Transport paths and distances are comparable in till and esker sediment, however, distances appear to be greater (∼5-25 km) in some esker constituents and indicator minerals are typically more concentrated in esker sediment than in till. Corridors form a divergent array identical to the pattern of ice-flow features. The congruence of ice and meltwater flow features is interpreted to be a response to a similar ice sheet gradient, and close timing of events (late dominant glacial ice flow and meltwater flow). The similarity in glacial and glaciofluvial flow patterns has important ramifications for event reconstruction and for exploration geologists utilizing mineral and geochemical tracing methods in this region, and possibly other parts of northern Canada. The correspondence between East Arm dispersal patterns, landforms and flow indicators supports interpretation of a simple and predictable single flow divergence model. This is in contrast to previous, multi-flow models, in which fan

  2. Water Availability and Use Pilot-A multiscale assessment in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Howard W.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, water availability and use were assessed for the U.S. part of the Great Lakes Basin through the Great Lakes Basin Pilot of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) national assessment of water availability and use. The goals of a national assessment of water availability and use are to clarify our understanding of water-availability status and trends and improve our ability to forecast the balance between water supply and demand for future economic and environmental uses. This report outlines possible approaches for full-scale implementation of such an assessment. As such, the focus of this study was on collecting, compiling, and analyzing a wide variety of data to define the storage and dynamics of water resources and quantify the human demands on water in the Great Lakes region. The study focused on multiple spatial and temporal scales to highlight not only the abundant regional availability of water but also the potential for local shortages or conflicts over water. Regional studies provided a framework for understanding water resources in the basin. Subregional studies directed attention to varied aspects of the water-resources system that would have been difficult to assess for the whole region because of either data limitations or time limitations for the project. The study of local issues and concerns was motivated by regional discussions that led to recent legislative action between the Great Lakes States and regional cooperation with the Canadian Great Lakes Provinces. The multiscale nature of the study findings challenges water-resource managers and the public to think about regional water resources in an integrated way and to understand how future changes to the system-driven by human uses, climate variability, or land-use change-may be accommodated by informed water-resources management.

  3. Atmospheric Transference of the Toxic Burden of Atmosphere-Surface Exchangeable Pollutants to the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Perlinger, J. A.; Giang, A.; Zhang, H.; Selin, N. E.; Wu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Toxic pollutants that share certain chemical properties undergo repeated emission and deposition between Earth's surfaces and the atmosphere. Following their emission through anthropogenic activities, they are transported locally, regionally or globally through the atmosphere, are deposited, and impact local ecosystems, in some cases as a result of bioaccumulation in food webs. We call them atmosphere-surface exchangeable pollutants or "ASEPs", wherein this group is comprised of thousands of chemicals. We are studying potential future contamination in the Great Lakes region by modeling scenarios of the future for three compounds/compound classes, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this presentation we focus on mercury and future scenarios of contamination of the Great Lake region. The atmospheric transport of mercury under specific scenarios will be discussed. The global 3-D chemical transport model GEOS-Chem has been applied to estimate future atmospheric concentrations and deposition rates of mercury in the Great Lakes region for selected future scenarios of emissions and climate. We find that, assuming no changes in climate, annual mean net deposition flux of mercury to the Great Lakes Region may increase by approximately 50% over 2005 levels by 2050, without global or regional policies addressing mercury, air pollution, and climate. In contrast, we project that the combination of global and North American action on mercury could lead to a 21% reduction in deposition from 2005 levels by 2050. US action alone results in a projected 18% reduction over 2005 levels by 2050. We also find that, assuming no changes in anthropogenic emissions, climate change and biomass burning emissions would, respectively, cause annual mean net deposition flux of mercury to the Great Lakes Region to increase by approximately 5% and decrease by approximately 2% over 2000 levels by 2050.

  4. A comparison of mercury levels in feathers and eggs of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the North American Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K D; Ewins, P J; Clark, K E

    1997-11-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs and chick feathers were collected for mercury analysis from nests at four Great Lakes study areas in Ontario (three "naturally formed" lakes in southern Ontario and one reservoir in northern Ontario) and two New Jersey study areas in 1991-1994. Adult osprey feathers were sampled from three Great Lakes study areas in 1991. Feathers sampled from chicks (approximately 28-35 days old) appear to be better indicators of local contaminant conditions since spatial patterns of mercury in known prey, yellow perch (Perca flavescens), also collected in these areas, were more similar to chick feathers than to eggs. Mercury levels were less variable in chick feathers than in eggs. Estimates of biomagnification factors using prey of known size at these areas were also less variable in feathers than in eggs. At naturally formed lakes, no significant correlation in mercury levels between eggs and chick feathers from the same nest was apparent, suggesting that the source of mercury contamination was not the same in these two tissues: mercury levels in eggs reflect mercury acquired on the breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and migratory route; mercury levels in chick feathers reflect local dietary conditions on the breeding grounds. Mercury levels in both osprey eggs and chick feathers were higher at the Ogoki Reservoir than at naturally formed lakes. Adult osprey feathers had higher mercury concentrations than chick feathers. Mercury levels in osprey eggs, chick feathers, and adult feathers did not approach levels associated with toxic reproductive effects.

  5. Selected aquatic biological investigations in the Great Salt Lake basins, 1875-1998, National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Elise M.P.; Stephens, Doyle W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes previous investigations of aquatic biological communities, habitat, and contaminants in streams and selected large lakes within the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The Great Salt Lake Basins study unit is one of 59 such units designed to characterize water quality through the examination of chemical, physical, and biological factors in surface and ground waters across the country. The data will be used to aid in the planning, collection, and analysis of biological information for the NAWQA study unit and to aid other researchers concerned with water quality of the study unit. A total of 234 investigations conducted during 1875-1998 are summarized in this report. The studies are grouped into three major subjects: (1) aquatic communities and habitat, (2) contamination of streambed sediments and biological tissues, and (3) lakes. The location and a general description of each study is listed. The majority of the studies focus on fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Studies of algal communities, aquatic habitat, riparian wetlands, and contamination of streambed sediment or biological tissues are less common. Areas close to the major population centers of Salt Lake City, Provo, and Logan, Utah, are generally well studied, but more rural areas and much of the Bear River Basin are lacking in detailed information, except for fish populations..

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Great Slave Lake are very low but vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Cott, Peter A.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Total polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations (ΣPCBs) in whole fish were determined for 18 ripe female burbot Lota lota and 14 ripe male burbot from Great Slave Lake, a lake with no known point sources of PCBs. In addition, ΣPCBs were determined both in the somatic tissue and in the gonads for a randomly selected subset of five females and five males. Mean ΣPCBs for females and males were 2.89 and 3.76 ng/g, respectively. Thus, males were 30 % greater in ΣPCB than females. Based on ΣPCB determinations for somatic tissue and gonads, ΣPCBs of females and males would be expected to decrease by 18 % and increase by 6 %, respectively, immediately after spawning due to release of gametes. Results from a previous study in eastern Lake Erie indicated that males were 28 and 71 % greater in ΣPCB than females from populations of younger (ages 6-13) and older (ages 14-17) burbot, respectively. Thus, although younger burbot from Lake Erie were about 50 times greater in ΣPCB than Great Slave Lake burbot, the relative difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes was remarkably similar across both populations. Our results supported the contention that the widening of the difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes in older burbot from Lake Erie was attributable to a “hot spot” effect operating on older burbot, as Lake Erie has received PCB point source loadings. Our results also supported the contention that male fish expend energy at a rate between 15 and 30 % greater than that of females. Eventually, these results will be useful in developing sex-specific bioenergetics models for fish.

  7. Development of a Site-specific Standard for Selenium in Open Waters of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moellmer, W. O.; Miller, T.; Ohlendorf, H.; Denbleyker, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a unique terminal lake located adjacent to a rapidly growing metropolitan area in the western United States. The open water of the GSL is protected for its current beneficial uses through the application of a narrative criteria clause in the state water quality standards. The Utah Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) initiated a process in 2004 to develop a site-specific numeric water quality standard for selenium for the open waters of the GSL to balance protection of the GSL's unique ecology and beneficial uses with burgeoning development. The process the DEQ initiated included the formation of a Great Salt Lake Water Quality Steering Committee and a Science Panel to identify the studies required, manage the studies and finally recommend a site-specific standard. Great Salt Lake Water Quality Steering Committee. The DEQ established the GSL Water Quality Steering Committee (Steering Committee) to provide a forum for stakeholders to assist in guiding the process of developing numeric standards for the lake. This group consists of federal and state regulatory agencies, other public entities, conservation organizations, recreation groups, and industrial users of the lake. Great Salt Lake Science Panel. The DEQ established the GSL Science Panel (Science Panel) to advise the DEQ and Steering Committee and provide overall technical direction and review for the program. The Science Panel is composed of 9 members representing federal and state regulatory agencies, industry and academia. The purpose of the panel is to identify data gaps in the literature, design and oversee scientific investigations to fill critical data gaps, and finally recommend a numeric water quality standard to the Steering Committee. Studies Currently Underway. A partnership of researchers—including local and national experts from education and industry—are collaborating with the DEQ, the Steering Committee, and the Science Panel to complete the studies required

  8. Mercury trends in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of temperature and other climate drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa

    2013-11-19

    Here we report on trends in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these trends. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no trend was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly temperature, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the temperature coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that trends were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that trends may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported trends of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these trends were directly driven by increasing temperatures and productivity.

  9. Great Lakes prey fish populations: A cross-basin Overview of status and trends based on bottom trawl surveys, 1978-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.; Weidel, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of Great Lakes prey fish stocks have been conducted annually with bottom trawls since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. These stock assessments provide data on the status and trends of prey fish that are consumed by important commercial and recreational fishes. Although all these annual surveys are conducted using

  10. Best Practices for Wind Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebbles, Victoria; Hummer, John; Haven, Celia

    2011-07-19

    This report offers a menu of 18 different, yet complementary, preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. Each best practice describes the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, academia, and federal, state and local government regulators. The practices were identified through a year-long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors. Optimally, a suite of these best practices would be applied in an appropriate combination to fit the conditions of a particular wind project or a set of wind projects within a given locality or region.

  11. Habitat capacity for cougar recolonization in the Upper Great Lakes region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T O Neil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings indicate that cougars (Puma concolor are expanding their range into the midwestern United States. Confirmed reports of cougar in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have increased dramatically in frequency during the last five years, leading to speculation that cougars may re-establish in the Upper Great Lakes (UGL region, USA. Recent work showed favorable cougar habitat in northeastern Minnesota, suggesting that the northern forested regions of Michigan and Wisconsin may have similar potential. Recolonization of cougars in the UGL states would have important ecological, social, and political impacts that will require effective management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS, we extended a cougar habitat model to Michigan and Wisconsin and incorporated primary prey densities to estimate the capacity of the region to support cougars. Results suggest that approximately 39% (>58,000 km2 of the study area could support cougars, and that there is potential for a population of approximately 500 or more animals. An exploratory validation of this habitat model revealed strong association with 58 verified cougar locations occurring in the study area between 2008 and 2013. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatially explicit information derived from this study could potentially lead to estimation of a viable population, delineation of possible cougar-human conflict areas, and the targeting of site locations for current monitoring. Understanding predator-prey interactions, interspecific competition, and human-wildlife relationships is becoming increasingly critical as top carnivores continue to recolonize the UGL region.

  12. 350 Years of Fire-Climate-Human Interactions in a Great Lakes Sandy Outwash Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Guyette

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout much of eastern North America, quantitative records of historical fire regimes and interactions with humans are absent. Annual resolution fire scar histories provide data on fire frequency, extent, and severity, but also can be used to understand fire-climate-human interactions. This study used tree-ring dated fire scars from red pines (Pinus resinosa at four sites in the Northern Sands Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin to quantify the interactions among fire occurrence and seasonality, drought, and humans. New methods for assessing the influence of human ignitions on fire regimes were developed. A temporal and spatial index of wildland fire was significantly correlated (r = 0.48 with drought indices (Palmer Drought Severity Index, PDSI. Fire intervals varied through time with human activities that included early French Jesuit missions, European trade (fur, diseases, war, and land use. Comparisons of historical fire records suggest that annual climate in this region has a broad influence on the occurrence of fire years in the Great Lakes region.

  13. Assessment of compliance costs resulting from implementation of the proposed Great Lakes water quality guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenner, K.; Podar, M.; Snyder, B.

    1993-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to develop an estimate of the incremental cost to direct dischargers resulting from the implementation of the proposed Great Lakes Water Quality Guidance (GLWQG). This estimate reflects the incremental cost of complying with permit requirements developed using the Implementation Procedures and water quality criteria proposed in the GLWQG versus permit requirements based on existing State water quality standards. Two secondary analyses were also performed, one to develop a preliminary estimate of the costs that would be incurred by indirect dischargers to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), and another to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the GLWQG. Finally, several sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of several major assumptions on the estimated compliance costs. To estimate compliance costs, permit limitations and conditions based on existing State water quality standards were compared to water quality-based limitations and conditions based on the proposed GLWQG criteria and Implementation Procedures for a sample of plants. The control measures needed to comply with the proposed GLWQG-based effluent limitations were evaluated. Individual plant compliance costs were estimated for these control measures based on information on treatment technology and cost analyses available in the literature. An overall compliance cost was projected from the sample based on statistical methods

  14. Organochlorine-induced immunosuppression in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasman, K.A. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States). Dept. of Biology; Scanlon, P.F. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Fox, G.A. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    This investigation studied the effects of environmental contaminants on immune function in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes and evaluated the use of immunological tests as biomarkers for contaminant exposure in wild birds. During 1991--1994, specific immune functions and general hematological parameters were measured in herring gull (Larus argentatus) and Caspian tern (Stema caspia) chicks. Study sites were chosen across a wide range of organochlorine contamination caused primarily by PCBs. In herring gull adults, the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio decreased as liver EROD, an index of contaminant exposure, increased, In herring gull chicks, thymus mass decreased as EROD increased. At highly contaminated sites, gull and tern chicks showed a marked reduction in T cell-mediated immunity as measured by the phytohemagglutinin skin test. The thymic atrophy and T cell suppression were consistent with documented effects of PCBs in laboratory animals during development and growth. In both species, chicks exhibited biologically significant differences in antibody production among sites, but any relationships to contaminants or other factors remain unclear. In laboratory animals, PCBs exhibit variable effects on antibody production. Structural and functional parameters related to the immune system are useful biomarkers for assessing the effects of contaminants on wild birds.

  15. Growth-climate relationships across topographic gradients in the northern Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, S.F.; D'Amato, A.W.; Kolka, R.K.; Bolstad, P.V.; Sebestyen, S.D.; Bradford, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Climatic conditions exert important control over the growth, productivity, and distribution of forests, and characterizing these relationships is essential for understanding how forest ecosystems will respond to climate change. We used dendrochronological methods to develop climate–growth relationships for two dominant species, Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) and Pinus resinosa (red pine), in the upper Great Lakes region to understand how climate and water availability influence annual forest productivity. Trees were sampled along a topographic gradient at the Marcell Experimental Forest (Minnesota, USA) to assess growth response to variations in temperature and different water availability metrics (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration (PET), cumulative moisture index (CMI), and soil water storage). Climatic variables were able to explain 33–58% of the variation in annual growth (as measured by ring-width increment) for quaking aspen and 37–74% of the variation for red pine. Climate–growth relationships were influenced by topography for quaking aspen but not for red pine. Annual ring growth for quaking aspen decreased with June CMI on ridges, decreased with temperature in the November prior to the growing season on sideslopes, and decreased with June PET on toeslopes. Red pine growth increased with increasing July PET across all topographic positions. These results indicate the sensitivity of both quaking aspen and red pine to local climate and show several vulnerabilities of these species to shifts in water supply and temperature because of climate change.

  16. Occurrence of alkylphenolic substances in a Great Lakes coastal marsh, Cootes Paradise, ON, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, T. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)]. E-mail: tanya.mayer@ec.gc.ca; Bennie, D. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Rosa, F. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Rekas, G. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Palabrica, V. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada); Schachtschneider, J. [National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols (APs), known endocrine disruptors, were investigated in a Great Lakes coastal wetland, Cootes Paradise, ON. The wetland, which receives discharges from a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) and several Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs), is an important spawning ground for fish and crucial habitat for other fauna. Elevated concentrations of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) and their degradation product nonylphenol (NP) were found in water and sediment samples near the sources. Since transfer of APs through the food chain is of concern, we compared their concentrations in invertebrates from clean and contaminated sites. The results reveal transfer of alkylphenolics from sediments to biota and their accumulation in the invertebrate tissue, particularly the highly hydrophobic 4-NP, whose concentrations ranged from 1.9 to 6.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate AP concentrations in tissue of benthic invertebrates under real environmental conditions. - Concentrations of alkylphenolic compounds in water, sediments and benthic invertebrates in a large coastal wetland and implications for trophic transfer.

  17. Estimating ecological water stress caused by anthropogenic uses in the US Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alian, S.; Mayer, A. S.; Maclean, A.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Gyawali, R.; Mirchi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropocentric water resources management that prioritizes socio-economic growth can cause harmful ecological water stress by depriving aquatic ecosystems of the water needed to sustain habitats. It is important to better understand the impacts of water withdrawal by different economic sectors (e.g., agriculture, power utilities, manufacturing, etc.), withdrawal sources, and extent of return flow (i.e., return of water to river system) at different spatial and temporal scales in order to characterize potentially harmful streamflow disturbances, and to inform water management. Herein, GIS technology is used to characterize and map ecological water stress in the Great Lakes region by compiling and analyzing water withdrawal data for different use categories. An integrative geospatial method is developed to quantify catchment scale streamflow disturbance as the sum of flow depletion and return flow, and propagate it along the stream network in order to calculate water stress index as function of consumptive use and impacted streamflow. Results for the Kalamazoo River Watershed, Michigan, illustrate that although average annual and July water stress is generally relatively low, protective management actions may be necessary in a significant number of catchments, especially in urban catchments with very high water stress. Water stress is significantly higher under low flow conditions, indicating the need to adjust withdrawals to reduce adverse resource impacts on sensitive streams.

  18. On-line Education Initiatives to Galvanize Climate Mitigation in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) is supporting two different on-line education initiatives that teach about climate change while emphasizing informed and effective responses. The first is an on-line introductory level course for undergraduate students (http://c3.ssec.wisc.edu/) offered through the University of Wisconsin-Madison Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (AOS) department. Along with a lighter carbon footprint and the convenience of web-based access, students interact via Drupal forums, Google hangouts and twitter. Activities include several pedagogical tools with sustainability-related content and a final project requiring a discussion of regionally relevant mitigation responses to achieve low emission scenarios for assigned locations. The other initiative is a MOOC (massive open online course) focusing on the changing weather and climate in the Great Lakes Region. This 4-week course is set to launch February 23 2015. One of the primary goals of this MOOC will be having participants change four habits, one per week. Each behavior change will provide a personal benefit to participating individuals while also helping to mitigate the collective impacts of climate change. This presentation will share strategies and insights from both projects.

  19. Best Practices for Sustainable WInd Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Great Lakes Commission; Victoria Pebbles; John Hummer; Celia Haven

    2011-07-19

    This document offers a menu of 18 different, yet complimentary preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. The practices include those that have been previously tested and proven effective, as well as new practices that were identified by experts in the field as needed for future wind developments. Each best practice includes information about the opportunities and challenges (pros and cons), and offers a case example that illustrates how that best practice is being utilized by a particular jurisdiction or wind project. The practices described in this publication were selected by a diverse group of interests from the Great Lakes Wind Collaborative that included environmental groups, industry, and federal, state and local government regulators. They were identified through a year long process that included a literature review, online survey and interviews with individuals from the public, private and non-profit sectors.

  20. Micronuclei and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities in fishes from the Great Lakes Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Ryan P.; Blazer, Vicki; Shaw, Cassidy H.; Mazik, Patricia M.

    2017-01-01

    Biological markers (biomarkers) sensitive to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination in fishes are widely used to identify exposure effects in aquatic environments. The micronucleus assay was incorporated into a suite of indicators to assess exposure to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination at five Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs), as well as one non-AOC (reference) site. The assay allowed enumeration of micronuclei as well as other nuclear abnormalities for both site and species comparisons. Erythrocyte abnormality data was also compared to skin and liver tumor prevalence and hepatic transcript abundance. Erythrocyte abnormalities were observed at all sites with variable occurrence and severity among sites and species. Benthic-oriented brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) expressed lower rates of erythrocyte abnormalities, but higher rates of skin and liver neoplasms, when compared to pelagic-oriented largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at the same site. The reduced erythrocyte abnormalities, increased transcript abundance associated with Phase I and II toxicant responsive pathways, and increased neoplastic lesions among benthic-oriented taxa may indicate the development of contaminant resistance of these species to more acute effects.

  1. Multiple metals exposure and neurotoxic risk in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from two Great Lakes states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Basu, Niladri

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, the authors determined concentrations of several elements (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, Sb, Zn) in the brains and livers of 46 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from two Great Lakes states, Michigan and Minnesota. To explore whether exposures are of neurological concern, the authors assessed their associations with neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate [NMDA] and γ-aminobutyric acid A [GABA(A)]) and enzymes (glutamine synthetase [GS] and glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD]) that play critical roles in vertebrate neurobehavior and reproduction. For most elements, levels in the livers and brains did not differ between region and gender. Hepatic Pb levels averaged 33.1 ppm (dry wt), 30.4% of all carcasses exceeded proposed avian Pb thresholds (>26.4 ppm), and in 30.8% of the birds examined evidence of Pb pellets or fragments was found. Significant changes in the activities of GS and GAD were related to brain concentrations of several metals (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Zn). No relationships were found among any of the nine elements and NMDA or GABA(A) receptor levels. When combined with the authors' previous study on these same eagles that showed Hg-associated alterations in GS, GAD, and NMDA receptor levels, the present research suggests that bald eagles are exposed to various elements, especially Pb and Hg, that are capable of causing changes in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. The functional significance of these neurochemical changes warrants attention. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Partial least squares for efficient models of fecal indicator bacteria on Great Lakes beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wesley R.; Fienen, Michael N.; Corsi, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    At public beaches, it is now common to mitigate the impact of water-borne pathogens by posting a swimmer's advisory when the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceeds an action threshold. Since culturing the bacteria delays public notification when dangerous conditions exist, regression models are sometimes used to predict the FIB concentration based on readily-available environmental measurements. It is hard to know which environmental parameters are relevant to predicting FIB concentration, and the parameters are usually correlated, which can hurt the predictive power of a regression model. Here the method of partial least squares (PLS) is introduced to automate the regression modeling process. Model selection is reduced to the process of setting a tuning parameter to control the decision threshold that separates predicted exceedances of the standard from predicted non-exceedances. The method is validated by application to four Great Lakes beaches during the summer of 2010. Performance of the PLS models compares favorably to that of the existing state-of-the-art regression models at these four sites.

  3. Extreme precipitation and beach closures in the great lakes region: evaluating risk among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Kathleen F; Fossani, Cheryl L; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Gronlund, Carina J; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-14

    As a result of climate change, extreme precipitation events are expected to increase in frequency and intensity. Runoff from these extreme events poses threats to water quality and human health. We investigated the impact of extreme precipitation and beach closings on the risk of gastrointestinal illness (GI)-related hospital admissions among individuals 65 and older in 12 Great Lakes cities from 2000 to 2006. Poisson regression models were fit in each city, controlling for temperature and long-term time trends. City-specific estimates were combined to form an overall regional risk estimate. Approximately 40,000 GI-related hospital admissions and over 100 beach closure days were recorded from May through September during the study period. Extreme precipitation (≥90th percentile) occurring the previous day (lag 1) is significantly associated with beach closures in 8 of the 12 cities (p < 0.05). However, no association was observed between beach closures and GI-related hospital admissions. These results support previous work linking extreme precipitation to compromised recreational water quality.

  4. Comparative embryology of five species of lampreys of the upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Allen J.; Howell, John H.; Piavis, George W.

    1968-01-01

    The four species of lampreys native to the upper Great Lakes (American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamotteni; chestnut lamprey, Ichthyomyzon castaneus; northern brook lamprey, I. fossor; and silver lamprey, I. unicuspis) were collected in various stages of their life cycle and maintained in the laboratory until sexually mature. Secondary sex characters of the four native species are compared. Several batches of eggs of each species were reared at 18.4A?C and their development was compared to that of the exotic sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The temperature of 18.4A?C was previously determined to be optimum for development of the sea lamprey. The high percentage survival of many batches of eggs of native species to prolarvae indicated that 18.4A?C was near the optimum for them. Survival to the burrowing stage varied considerably among different batches of eggs from the same species; some batches failed to produce prolarvae. The staging characteristics used for the sea lamprey were applicable to the native species, except for the end point of the burrowing stage. Embryos of the native species in each stage of development appeared according to the time sequence established for the sea lamprey.

  5. Climatic change and variability: The effects of an altered water regime on Great Lakes coastal wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortsch, L.

    1990-01-01

    Wetlands of Canada are disappearing at a rapid rate due to urban encroachment and agricultural land drainage. Climatic change may be another threat to their continued viability. Wetlands perform numerous functions such as providing wildlife habitat, enhancing water quality, providing recreation opportunities and supporting commercial activities. Impact scenarios of global warming on Great Lakes hydrology and wetland ecosystem response to water level changes are tabulated. Wetland response to lower annual water levels depends on the type of wetland, its geomorphology and bathymetry. Marshes and open water wetland adapt more readily to lower levels than swamps. Swamps are less resilient since trees cannot regenerate and colonize quickly. Enclosed and barrier beach wetlands are more prone to drying out and loosing wetland vegetation during low water periods. In open shoreline wetlands, the areal extent could increase if there is a gentle slope and other suitable conditions. Precambrian Shield wetlands are located in areas of irregular slope and rocky substrate, and would have fewer sites for successful colonization. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Laurentian Great Lakes Phytoplankton and Their Water Quality Characteristics, Including a Diatom-Based Model for Paleoreconstruction of Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavie, Euan D.; Heathcote, Adam J.; Shaw Chraïbi, Victoria L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent shifts in water quality and food web characteristics driven by anthropogenic impacts on the Laurentian Great Lakes warranted an examination of pelagic primary producers as tracers of environmental change. The distributions of the 263 common phytoplankton taxa were related to water quality variables to determine taxon-specific responses that may be useful in indicator models. A detailed checklist of taxa and their environmental optima are provided. Multivariate analyses indicated a strong relationship between total phosphorus (TP) and patterns in the diatom assemblages across the Great Lakes. Of the 118 common diatom taxa, 90 (76%) had a directional response along the TP gradient. We further evaluated a diatom-based transfer function for TP based on the weighted-average abundance of taxa, assuming unimodal distributions along the TP gradient. The r2 between observed and inferred TP in the training dataset was 0.79. Substantial spatial and environmental autocorrelation within the training set of samples justified the need for further model validation. A randomization procedure indicated that the actual transfer function consistently performed better than functions based on reshuffled environmental data. Further, TP was minimally confounded by other environmental variables, as indicated by the relatively large amount of unique variance in the diatoms explained by TP. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the transfer function by hindcasting TP concentrations using fossil diatom assemblages in a Lake Superior sediment core. Passive, multivariate analysis of the fossil samples against the training set indicated that phosphorus was a strong determinant of historical diatom assemblages, verifying that the transfer function was suited to reconstruct past TP in Lake Superior. Collectively, these results showed that phytoplankton coefficients for water quality can be robust indicators of Great Lakes pelagic condition. The diatom-based transfer function can be used in

  7. Spatial Distribution of Ammonia and its Contribution to Particulate Matter Formation in the Great Salt Lake Region in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Baasandorj, M.; Fibiger, D. L.; Franchin, A.; Goldberger, L.; McDuffie, E. E.; McKeen, S. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Womack, C.; Brown, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter air pollution in urban areas is a major global concern due to increased levels of fine particulate matter (PM) affecting public health. The Great Salt Lake region regularly experiences periods of high particulate matter during winter persistent cold air pool events (PCAPs), periods of atmospheric stagnation. Previous studies have shown that ammonium nitrate is responsible for up to 70% of PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns) in the Great Salt Lake region during these periods. Ammonium nitrate is formed from ammonia (NH3) and nitric acid (HNO3); therefore understanding sources of NH3 and its role in the formation of particulate matter is crucial for mitigation of air pollution in this region. In this study, we measured NH3 aboard a Twin Otter aircraft within the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) using Quantum Cascade Laser Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (QC-TILDAS). A total of 23 flights were performed in the period from 16 Jan to 12 Feb 2017 covering the Salt Lake City urban area, the Great Salt Lake and nearby valleys. The spatial distribution of NH3 during flights is presented and identifies major NH3 sources and their role in particle formation for the region. Substantial variation of NH3 was observed over the entire region with highest NH3 mixing ratios over agricultural areas and the lowest NH3 abundance over the Great Salt Lake. Regional WRF-Chem model simulations are used to compare the measurements to available NH3 emission inventories and to improve our understanding of the vertical distribution of NH3. The relative influence of the atmospheric stability for the formation of ammonium nitrate is investigated.

  8. Modeling transport and deposition of contaminants to ecosystems of concern: a case study for the Laurentian Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, Matthew; Mackay, Don

    2004-01-01

    Transfer efficiency (TE) is introduced as a model output that can be used to characterize the relative ability of chemicals to be transported in the environment and deposited to specific target ecosystems. We illustrate this concept by applying the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America) to identify organic chemicals with properties that result in efficient atmospheric transport and deposition to the Laurentian Great Lakes. By systematically applying the model to hypothetical organic chemicals that span a wide range of environmental partitioning properties, we identify combinations of properties that favor efficient transport and deposition to the Lakes. Five classes of chemicals are identified based on dominant transport and deposition pathways, and specific examples of chemicals in each class are identified and discussed. The role of vegetation in scavenging chemicals from the atmosphere is assessed, and found to have a negligible influence on transfer efficiency to the Great Lakes. Results indicate chemicals with octanol-water (K ow ) and air-water (K aw ) partition coefficients in the range of 10 5 -10 7 and 10 -4 -10 -1 combine efficient transport and deposition to the Great Lakes with potential for biaccumulation in the aquatic food web once they are deposited. A method of estimating the time scale for atmospheric transport and deposition process is suggested, and the effects of degrading reactions in the atmosphere and meteorological conditions on transport efficiency of different classes of chemicals are discussed. In total, this approach provides a method of identifying chemicals that are subject to long-range transport and deposition to specific target ecosystems as a result of their partitioning and persistence characteristics. Supported by an appropriate contaminant fate model, the approach can be applied to any target ecosystem of concern. - Transfer Efficiency is defined as a model-based measure of sources of POPs to

  9. Three air quality studies: Great Lakes ozone formation and nitrogen dry deposition; and Tucson aerosol chemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Theresa

    (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, and nickel) in the southern Tucson metropolitan area. A Tucson company that uses beryllium oxide to manufacture thermally conductive ceramics has prompted strong citizen concern. This study found that the study area has good air quality with respect to PM10 and metals, with ambient concentrations meeting US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization standards. Beryllium was detected only once (during a dust storm) and was ascribed to naturally-occurring beryllium in the suspended soil. The third paper (to be submitted to the Journal of Great Lakes Research) studies nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Numerous studies have shown that wet and dry deposition of nitrogen has contributed to the eutrophication of coastal waters and declining productivity of marine fisheries. Nitrogen dry deposition over the Great Lakes themselves, as opposed to the shorelines, has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature. This paper calculates nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, using aircraft measurements from the LADCO Aircraft Study, and finds that over-water, nitrogen dry deposition is a significant source of nitrogen to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.

  10. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway, 1987-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loving, Brian L.; Miller, Craig W.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    2000-01-01

    The Southern Pacific Transportation Company completed a rock-fill causeway across Great Salt Lake in 1959. The effect of the causeway was to change the water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake by creating two separate but interconnected parts of the lake, with more than 95 percent of freshwater surface inflow entering the lake south of the causeway.The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of the causeway that divides the lake into south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway consist of two 15-foot-wide culverts, a 290-foot-wide breach, and permeable rock-fill material.

  11. Micronuclei and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities in fishes from the Great Lakes Basin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Ryan P; Blazer, Vicki S; Shaw, Cassidy H; Mazik, Patricia M

    2017-10-01

    Biological markers (biomarkers) sensitive to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination in fishes are widely used to identify exposure effects in aquatic environments. The micronucleus assay was incorporated into a suite of indicators to assess exposure to genotoxic and mutagenic contamination at five Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs), as well as one non-AOC (reference) site. The assay allowed enumeration of micronuclei as well as other nuclear abnormalities for both site and species comparisons. Erythrocyte abnormality data was also compared to skin and liver tumor prevalence and hepatic transcript abundance. Erythrocyte abnormalities were observed at all sites with variable occurrence and severity among sites and species. Benthic-oriented brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) and white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) expressed lower rates of erythrocyte abnormalities, but higher rates of skin and liver neoplasms, when compared to pelagic-oriented largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) at the same site. The reduced erythrocyte abnormalities, increased transcript abundance associated with Phase I and II toxicant responsive pathways, and increased neoplastic lesions among benthic-oriented taxa may indicate the development of contaminant resistance of these species to more acute effects. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:570-581, 2017. © 2017 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society. © 2017 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Environmental Mutagen Society.

  12. Environmental DNA detection of rare and invasive fish species in two Great Lakes tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasingham, Katherine D; Walter, Ryan P; Mandrak, Nicholas E; Heath, Daniel D

    2018-01-01

    The extraction and characterization of DNA from aquatic environmental samples offers an alternative, noninvasive approach for the detection of rare species. Environmental DNA, coupled with PCR and next-generation sequencing ("metabarcoding"), has proven to be very sensitive for the detection of rare aquatic species. Our study used a custom-designed group-specific primer set and next-generation sequencing for the detection of three species at risk (Eastern Sand Darter, Ammocrypta pellucida; Northern Madtom, Noturus stigmosus; and Silver Shiner, Notropis photogenis), one invasive species (Round Goby, Neogobius melanostomus) and an additional 78 native species from two large Great Lakes tributary rivers in southern Ontario, Canada: the Grand River and the Sydenham River. Of 82 fish species detected in both rivers using capture-based and eDNA methods, our eDNA method detected 86.2% and 72.0% of the fish species in the Grand River and the Sydenham River, respectively, which included our four target species. Our analyses also identified significant positive and negative species co-occurrence patterns between our target species and other identified species. Our results demonstrate that eDNA metabarcoding that targets the fish community as well as individual species of interest provides a better understanding of factors affecting the target species spatial distribution in an ecosystem than possible with only target species data. Additionally, eDNA is easily implemented as an initial survey tool, or alongside capture-based methods, for improved mapping of species distribution patterns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diversity of fungal endophytes in non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Keith; Shearin, Zachery; Bourke, Kimberly; Bickford, Wesley A.; Kowalski, Kurt P.

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbial interactions may play a key role in plant invasions. One common microbial interaction takes place between plants and fungal endophytes when fungi asymptomatically colonize host plant tissues. The objectives of this study were to isolate and sequence fungal endophytes colonizing non-native Phragmites australis in the Great Lakes region to evaluate variation in endophyte community composition among three host tissue types and three geographical regions. We collected entire ramets from multiple clones and populations, surface sterilized plant tissues, and plated replicate tissue samples from leaves, stems, and rhizomes on corn meal agar plates to culture and isolate fungal endophytes. Isolates were then subjected to Sanger sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Sequences were compared to fungal databases to define operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were analyzed statistically for community composition. In total, we obtained 173 endophyte isolates corresponding to 55 OTUs, 39 of which were isolated only a single time. The most common OTU corresponded most closely to Sarocladium strictum and comprised 25 % of all fungal isolates. More OTUs were found in stem tissues, but endophyte diversity was greatest in rhizome tissues. PERMANOVA analyses indicated significant differences in endophyte communities among tissue types, geographical regions, and the interaction between those factors, but no differences among individual ramets were detected. The functional role of the isolated endophytes is not yet known, but one genus isolated here (Stagonospora) has been reported to enhance Phragmites growth. Understanding the diversity and functions of Phragmites endophytes may provide targets for control measures based on disrupting host plant/endophyte interactions.

  14. Environmental DNA (eDNA metabarcoding assays to detect invasive invertebrate species in the Great Lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy E Klymus

    Full Text Available Describing and monitoring biodiversity comprise integral parts of ecosystem management. Recent research coupling metabarcoding and environmental DNA (eDNA demonstrate that these methods can serve as important tools for surveying biodiversity, while significantly decreasing the time, expense and resources spent on traditional survey methods. The literature emphasizes the importance of genetic marker development, as the markers dictate the applicability, sensitivity and resolution ability of an eDNA assay. The present study developed two metabarcoding eDNA assays using the mtDNA 16S RNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform to detect invertebrate fauna in the Laurentian Great Lakes and surrounding waterways, with a focus for use on invasive bivalve and gastropod species monitoring. We employed careful primer design and in vitro testing with mock communities to assess ability of the markers to amplify and sequence targeted species DNA, while retaining rank abundance information. In our mock communities, read abundances reflected the initial input abundance, with regressions having significant slopes (p<0.05 and high coefficients of determination (R2 for all comparisons. Tests on field environmental samples revealed similar ability of our markers to measure relative abundance. Due to the limited reference sequence data available for these invertebrate species, care must be taken when analyzing results and identifying sequence reads to species level. These markers extend eDNA metabarcoding research for molluscs and appear relevant to other invertebrate taxa, such as rotifers and bryozoans. Furthermore, the sphaeriid mussel assay is group-specific, exclusively amplifying bivalves in the Sphaeridae family and providing species-level identification. Our assays provide useful tools for managers and conservation scientists, facilitating early detection of invasive species as well as improving resolution of mollusc diversity.

  15. Natural resource damage assessment models for Great Lakes, coastal, and marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.P.; Reed, M.

    1993-01-01

    A computer model of the physical fates, biological effects, and economic damages resulting from releases of oil and other hazardous materials has been developed by Applied Science Associates to be used in Type A natural resource damage assessments under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Natural resource damage assessment models for great lakes environments and for coastal and marine environments will become available. A coupled geographical information system allows gridded representation of complex coastal boundaries, variable bathymetry, shoreline types, and multiple biological habitats. The physical and biological models are three dimensional. Direct mortality from toxic concentrations and oiling, impacts of habitat loss, and food web losses are included in the model. Estimation of natural resource damages is based both on the lost value of injured resources and on the costs of restoring or replacing those resources. The models are implemented on a personal computer, with a VGA graphical user interface. Following public review, the models will become a formal part of the US regulatory framework. The models are programmed in a modular and generic fashion, to facilitate transportability and application to new areas. The model has several major components. Physical fates and biological effects submodels estimate impacts or injury resulting from a spill. The hydrodynamic submodel calculates currents that transport contaminant(s) or organisms. The compensable value submodel values injuries to help assess damages. The restoration submodel determines what restoration actions will most cost-effectively reduce injuries as measured by compensable values. Injury and restoration costs are assessed for each of a series of habitats (environments) affected by the spill. Environmental, chemical, and biological databases supply required information to the model for computing fates and effects (injury)

  16. Virtual water flows and Water Balance Impacts of the U.S. Great Lakes Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.; Mubako, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impacts of human water use and trade on water balances, we estimate virtual water flows for counties in the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes basin. This is a water-rich region, but one where ecohydrological 'hotspots' are created by water scarcity in certain locations (Mubako et al., 2012). Trade shifts water uses from one location to another, causing water scarcity in some locations but mitigating water scarcity in other locations. A database of water withdrawals was assembled to give point-wise withdrawals by location, source, and use category (commercial, thermoelectric power, industrial, agricultural, mining). Point-wise consumptive use is aggregated to the county level, giving direct, virtual water exports by county. A county-level trade database provides import and export data for the various use categories. We link the annual virtual water exported from a county for a given use category to corresponding annual trade exports. Virtual water balances for each county by use category are calculated, and then compared with the renewable annual freshwater supply. Preliminary findings are that overall virtual water balances (imports - exports) are positive for almost all counties, because urban areas import goods and services that are more water intensive than the exported goods and services. However, for some agriculturally-intensive counties, the overall impact of virtual water trade on the water balance is close to zero, and the balance for agricultural sector virtual water trade is negative, reflecting a net impact of economic trade on the water balance in these locations. We also compare the virtual water balance to available water resources, using annual precipitation less evapotranspiration as a crude estimate of net renewable water availability. In some counties virtual water exports approach 30% of the available water resources, indicating the potential for water scarcity, especially from an aquatic ecosystem standpoint.

  17. Diel variation of selenium and arsenic in a wetland of the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicataldo, G.; Johnson, W.P.; Naftz, D.L.; Hayes, D.F.; Moellmer, W.O.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    Diel (24-h) changes in Se and As concentrations in a freshwater wetland pond bordering the Great Salt Lake (GSL) were examined. Selenium concentrations (filtered and unfiltered) changed on a diel basis, i.e., were depleted during early morning and enriched during daytime over August 17-18. During the May 24-25, 2006 and September 29-30 diel studies, no significant 24-h trends were observed in Se concentrations compared to August, which showed daily maximums up to 59% greater than the daily minimum. Both filtered and unfiltered As concentrations also varied on a diel cycle, with increased concentrations during early morning and decreased concentrations during daytime. Filtered As concentrations increased 110% during the May 24-25, 2006 diel study. Selenium varied in phase with pH, dissolved O2 (DO), and water temperature (Tw) whereas As varied opposite to Se, pH, DO and Tw. Changes in pH, DO and Tw showed a direct linear correlation (r=0.74, 0.75, and 0.55, respectively) to filtered Se. Also pH, DO and Tw were inversely correlated to filtered As concentration (r=-0.88, -0.87, and -0.84, respectively). Equilibrium geochemical speciation and sorption models were used to examine the potential oxidation state changes in Se and As, and sorption and desorption reactions corresponding to the observed 24-h variations in pe and pH. In this wetland it was postulated that diel Se variation was driven by sorption and desorption due to photosynthesis-induced changes in pH and redox conditions. Diel variations of As were hypothesized to be linked to pH-driven sorption and desorption as well as co-precipitation and co-dissolution with mineral phases of Mn. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Freshwater wrack along Great Lakes coasts harbors Escherichia coli: Potential for bacterial transfer between watershed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevers, Meredith; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Spoljaric, Ashley; Shively, Dawn A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence, persistence, and growth potential of Escherichia coli associated with freshwater organic debris (i.e., wrack) frequently deposited along shorelines (shoreline wrack), inputs from rivers (river CPOM), and parking lot runoffs (urban litter). Samples were collected from 9 Great Lakes beaches, 3 creeks, and 4 beach parking lots. Shoreline wrack samples were mainly composed of wood chips, straw, sticks, leaf litter, seeds, feathers, and mussel shells; creek and parking lot samples included dry grass, straw, seeds, wood chips, leaf/pine needle litter; soil particles were present in parking lot samples only. E. coli concentrations (most probable number, MPN) were highly variable in all sample types: shoreline wrack frequently reached 105/g dry weight (dw), river CPOM ranged from 81 to 7,916/g dw, and urban litter ranged from 0.5 to 24,952/g dw. Sequential rinsing studies showed that 61–87% of E. coli concentrations were detected in the first wash of shoreline wrack, with declining concentrations associated with 4–8 subsequent washings; viable counts were still detected even after 8 washes. E. coli grew readily in shoreline wrack and river CPOM incubated at 35 °C. At 30°C, growth was only detected in river CPOM and not in shoreline wrack or urban litter, but the bacteria persisted for at least 16 days. In summary, freshwater wrack is an understudied component of the beach ecosystem that harbors E. coli and thus likely influences estimations of water quality and the microbial community in the nearshore as a result of transfer between environments.

  19. Housing Archetype Analysis for Home Energy-Efficient Retrofit in the Great Lakes Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Mrozowski, T.; Harrell-Seyburn, A.; Ehrlich, N.; Hembroff, L.; Bieburn, B.; Mazor, M.; McIntyre, A.; Mutton, C.; Parsons, G.; Syal, M. G.; Wilkinson, R.

    2014-09-01

    This project report details activities and results of the 'Market Characterization' project undertaken by the Cost Effective Energy Retrofit (CEER) team targeted toward the DOE goal of achieving 30%-50% reduction in existing building energy use. CEER consists of members from the Dow Chemical Company, Michigan State University, Ferris State University and Habitat for Humanity Kent County. The purpose of this market characterization project was to identify housing archetypes which are dominant within Great Lakes region and therefore offer significant potential for energy-efficient retrofit research and implementation due to the substantial number of homes possessing similar characteristics. Understanding the characteristics of housing groups referred to as 'archetypes' by vintage, style, and construction characteristics can allow research teams to focus their retrofit research and develop prescriptive solutions for those structure types which are prevalent and offer high potential uptake within a region or market. Key research activities included; literature review, statistical analysis of national and regional data of the American Housing Survey (AHS) collected by the U.S. Census Bureau, analysis of Michigan specific data, development of a housing taxonomy of architectural styles, case studies of two local markets (i.e., Ann Arbor and Grand Rapids in Michigan) and development of a suggested framework (or process) for characterizing local markets. In order to gain a high level perspective, national and regional data from the U.S. Census Bureau was analyzed using cross tabulations, multiple regression models, and logistic regression to characterize the housing stock and determine dominant house types using 21 variables.

  20. Effects of future urban and biofuel crop expansions on the riverine export of phosphorus to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBeau, Meredith B.; Robertson, Dale M.; Mayer, Alex S.; Pijanowski, Bryan C.; Saad, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Increased phosphorus (P) loadings threaten the health of the world’s largest freshwater resource, the Laurentian Great Lakes (GL). To understand the linkages between land use and P delivery, we coupled two spatially explicit models, the landscape-scale SPARROW P fate and transport watershed model and the Land Transformation Model (LTM) land use change model, to predict future P export from nonpoint and point sources caused by changes in land use. According to LTM predictions over the period 2010–2040, the GL region of the U.S. may experience a doubling of urbanized areas and agricultural areas may increase by 10%, due to biofuel feedstock cultivation. These land use changes are predicted to increase P loadings from the U.S. side of the GL basin by 3.5–9.5%, depending on the Lake watershed and development scenario. The exception is Lake Ontario, where loading is predicted to decrease by 1.8% for one scenario, due to population losses in the drainage area. Overall, urban expansion is estimated to increase P loadings by 3.4%. Agricultural expansion associated with predicted biofuel feedstock cultivation is predicted to increase P loadings by an additional 2.4%. Watersheds that export P most efficiently and thus are the most vulnerable to increases in P sources tend to be found along southern Lake Ontario, southeastern Lake Erie, western Lake Michigan, and southwestern Lake Superior where watershed areas are concentrated along the coastline with shorter flow paths. In contrast, watersheds with high soil permeabilities, fractions of land underlain by tile drains, and long distances to the GL are less vulnerable.

  1. Evaluation of an operational water cycle prediction system for the Laurentian Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Vincent; Durnford, Dorothy; Smith, Gregory; Dyck, Sarah; Martinez, Yosvany; Mackay, Murray; Winter, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) is implementing new numerical guidance products based on fully coupled numerical models to better inform the public as well as specialized users on the current and future state of various components of the water cycle, including stream flow and water levels. Outputs from this new system, named the Water Cycle Prediction System (WCPS), have been available for the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River watershed since June 2016. WCPS links together ECCC's weather forecasting model, GEM, the 2-D ice model C-ICE, the 3-D lake and ocean model NEMO, and a 2-D hydrological model, WATROUTE. Information concerning the water cycle is passed between the models at intervals varying from a few minutes to one hour. It currently produces two forecasts per day for the next three days of the complete water cycle in the Great Lakes region, the largest freshwater lake system in the world. Products include spatially-varying precipitation, evaporation, river discharge, water level anomalies, surface water temperatures, ice coverage, and surface currents. These new products are of interest to water resources and management authority, flood forecasters, hydroelectricity producers, navigation, environmental disaster managers, search and rescue teams, agriculture, and the general public. This presentation focuses on the evaluation of various elements forecasted by the system, and weighs the advantages and disadvantages of running the system fully coupled.

  2. The use of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in Great Lakes precipitation as a tool for pollution source attribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Laura S., E-mail: lsaylors@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Blum, Joel D. [University of Michigan, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, 1100 N. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dvonch, J. Timothy [University of Michigan, Air Quality Laboratory, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gratz, Lynne E. [University of Washington-Bothell, 18115 Campus Way NE, Bothell, WA 98011 (United States); Landis, Matthew S. [U.S. EPA, Office of Research and Development, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The anthropogenic emission and subsequent deposition of heavy metals including mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) present human health and environmental concerns. Although it is known that local and regional sources of these metals contribute to deposition in the Great Lakes region, it is difficult to trace emissions from point sources to impacted sites. Recent studies suggest that metal isotope ratios may be useful for distinguishing between and tracing source emissions. We measured Pb, strontium (Sr), and Hg isotope ratios in daily precipitation samples that were collected at seven sites across the Great Lakes region between 2003 and 2007. Lead isotope ratios ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.8062 to 0.8554) suggest that Pb deposition was influenced by coal combustion and processing of Mississippi Valley-Type Pb ore deposits. Regional differences in Sr isotope ratios ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.70859 to 0.71155) are likely related to coal fly ash and soil dust. Mercury isotope ratios (δ{sup 202}Hg = − 1.13 to 0.13‰) also varied among the sites, likely due to regional differences in coal isotopic composition, and fractionation occurring within industrial facilities and in the atmosphere. These data represent the first combined characterization of Pb, Sr, and Hg isotope ratios in precipitation collected across the Great Lakes region. We demonstrate the utility of multiple metal isotope ratios in parallel with traditional trace element multivariate statistical modeling to enable more complete pollution source attribution. - Highlights: • We measured Pb, Sr, and Hg isotopes in precipitation from the Great Lakes region. • Pb isotopes suggest that deposition was impacted by coal combustion and metal production. • Sr isotope ratios vary regionally, likely due to soil dust and coal fly ash. • Hg isotopes vary due to fractionation occurring within facilities and the atmosphere. • Isotope results support conclusions of previous trace element receptor modeling.

  3. Climate in the Great Lakes Region between 14,000 and 4000 years ago from isotopic composition of conifer wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven W. Leavitt; Irina P. Panyushkina; Todd Lange; Alex Wiedenhoeft; Li Cheng; R. Douglas Hunter; John Hughes; Frank Pranschke; Allan F. Schneider; Joseph Moran; Ron Stieglitz

    2006-01-01

    The isotopic composition of ancient wood has the potential to provide information about past environments. We analyzed the ä13C, ä18O, and ä2H of cellulose of conifer trees from several cross-sections at each of 9 sites around the Great Lakes region ranging from ~4000 to 14,000 cal BP. Isotopic values of Picea, Pinus, and Thuja species seem inter-changeable for ä18O...

  4. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  5. Population ecology of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) as an invasive species in the Laurentian Great Lakes and an imperiled species in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Slade, Jeffrey W.; Steeves, Todd B.; Almeida, Pedro R.; Quintella, Bernardo R.

    2016-01-01

    The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus) is both an invasive non-native species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America and an imperiled species in much of its native range in North America and Europe. To compare and contrast how understanding of population ecology is useful for control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in Europe, we review current understanding of the population ecology of the sea lamprey in its native and introduced range. Some attributes of sea lamprey population ecology are particularly useful for both control programs in the Great Lakes and restoration programs in the native range. First, traps within fish ladders are beneficial for removing sea lampreys in Great Lakes streams and passing sea lampreys in the native range. Second, attractants and repellants are suitable for luring sea lampreys into traps for control in the Great Lakes and guiding sea lamprey passage for conservation in the native range. Third, assessment methods used for targeting sea lamprey control in the Great Lakes are useful for targeting habitat protection in the native range. Last, assessment methods used to quantify numbers of all life stages of sea lampreys would be appropriate for measuring success of control in the Great Lakes and success of conservation in the native range.

  6. Use of Fish Telemetry in Rehabilitation Planning, Management, and Monitoring in Areas of Concern in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. L.; Boston, C.; Doka, S.; Gorsky, D.; Gustavson, K.; Hondorp, D.; Isermann, D.; Midwood, J. D.; Pratt, T. C.; Rous, A. M.; Withers, J. L.; Krueger, C. C.; Cooke, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems provide many ecosystem services; however, they are often degraded as a result of human activity. To address ecosystem degradation in the Laurentian Great Lakes, Canada and the United States of America established the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA). In 1987, 43 highly polluted and impacted areas were identified under the GLWQA as having one or more of 14 Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs) to the physical and chemical habitat for fish, wildlife and humans, and were designated as Areas of Concern (AOC). Subnational jurisdictions combined with local stakeholders, with support from federal governments, developed plans to remediate and restore these sites. Biotelemetry (the tracking of animals using electronic tags) provides information on the spatial ecology of fish in the wild relevant to habitat management and stock assessment. Here, seven case studies are presented where biotelemetry data were directly incorporated within the AOC Remedial Action Plan (RAP) process. Specific applications include determining seasonal fish-habitat associations to inform habitat restoration plans, identifying the distribution of pollutant-indicator species to identify exposure risk to contamination sources, informing the development of fish passage facilities to enable fish to access fragmented upstream habitats, and assessing fish use of created or restored habitats. With growing capacity for fish biotelemetry research in the Great Lakes, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of incorporating biotelemetry into AOC RAP processes to improve the science and practice of restoration and to facilitate the delisting of AOCs.

  7. Big Ship Data: Using vessel measurements to improve estimates of temperature and wind speed on the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Kevin; Kerkez, Branko

    2017-05-01

    The sheer size of many water systems challenges the ability of in situ sensor networks to resolve spatiotemporal variability of hydrologic processes. New sources of vastly distributed and mobile measurements are, however, emerging to potentially fill these observational gaps. This paper poses the question: How can nontraditional measurements, such as those made by volunteer ship captains, be used to improve hydrometeorological estimates across large surface water systems? We answer this question through the analysis of one of the largest such data sets: an unprecedented collection of one million unique measurements made by ships on the North American Great Lakes from 2006 to 2014. We introduce a flexible probabilistic framework, which can be used to integrate ship measurements, or other sets of irregular point measurements, into contiguous data sets. The performance of this framework is validated through the development of a new ship-based spatial data product of water temperature, air temperature, and wind speed across the Great Lakes. An analysis of the final data product suggests that the availability of measurements across the Great Lakes will continue to play a large role in the confidence with which these large surface water systems can be studied and modeled. We discuss how this general and flexible approach can be applied to similar data sets, and how it will be of use to those seeking to merge large collections of measurements with other sources of data, such as physical models or remotely sensed products.

  8. Ecosystem transformations of the Laurentian Great Lake Michigan by nonindigenous biological invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhel, Russell L; Aguilar, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Lake Michigan, a 58,000-km(2) freshwater inland sea, is large enough to have persistent basin-scale circulation yet small enough to enable development of approximately balanced budgets for water, energy, and elements including carbon and silicon. Introduction of nonindigenous species-whether through invasion, intentional stocking, or accidental transplantation-has transformed the lake's ecosystem function and habitat structure. Of the 79 nonindigenous species known to have established reproductive populations in the lake, only a few have brought considerable ecological pressure to bear. Four of these were chosen for this review to exemplify top-down (sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus), middle-out (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus), and bottom-up (the dreissenid zebra and quagga mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, respectively) transformations of Lake Michigan ecology, habitability, and ultimately physical environment. Lampreys attacked and extirpated indigenous lake trout, the top predator. Alewives outcompeted native planktivorous fish and curtailed invertebrate populations. Dreissenid mussels-especially quagga mussels, which have had a much greater impact than the preceding zebra mussels-moved ecosystem metabolism basin-wide from water column to bottom dominance and engineered structures throughout the lake. Each of these non indigenous species exerted devastating effects on commercial and sport fisheries through ecosystem structure modification.

  9. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  10. Asynchronous onset of eutrophication among shallow prairie lakes of the Northern Great Plains, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheaux, Heather; Leavitt, Peter R; Jackson, Leland J

    2016-01-01

    Coherent timing of agricultural expansion, fertilizer application, atmospheric nutrient deposition, and accelerated global warming is expected to promote synchronous fertilization of regional surface waters and coherent development of algal blooms and lake eutrophication. While broad-scale cyanobacterial expansion is evident in global meta-analyses, little is known of whether lakes in discrete catchments within a common lake district also exhibit coherent water quality degradation through anthropogenic forcing. Consequently, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether agricultural development since ca. 1900, accelerated use of fertilizer since 1960, atmospheric deposition of reactive N, or regional climate warming has resulted in coherent patterns of eutrophication of surface waters in southern Alberta, Canada. Unexpectedly, analysis of sedimentary pigments as an index of changes in total algal abundance since ca. 1850 revealed that while total algal abundance (as β-carotene, pheophytin a) increased in nine of 10 lakes over 150 years, the onset of eutrophication varied by a century and was asynchronous across basins. Similarly, analysis of temporal sequences with least-squares regression revealed that the relative abundance of cyanobacteria (echinenone) either decreased or did not change significantly in eight of the lakes since ca. 1850, whereas purple sulfur bacteria (as okenone) increased significantly in seven study sites. These patterns are consistent with the catchment filter hypothesis, which posits that lakes exhibit unique responses to common forcing associated with the influx of mass as water, nutrients, or particles. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Application of the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to seasonal water supply forecasting in the Great Lakes basin through the use of the Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Apps, D.; Fry, L. M.; Bolinger, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) contribution to the internationally coordinated 6-month forecast of Great Lakes water levels relies on several water supply models, including a regression model relating a coming month's water supply to past water supplies, previous months' precipitation and temperature, and forecasted precipitation and temperature. Probabilistic forecasts of precipitation and temperature depicted in the Climate Prediction Center's seasonal outlook maps are considered to be standard for use in operational forecasting for seasonal time horizons, and have provided the basis for computing a coming month's precipitation and temperature for use in the USACE water supply regression models. The CPC outlook maps are a useful forecast product offering insight into interpretation of climate models through the prognostic discussion and graphical forecasts. However, recent evolution of USACE forecast procedures to accommodate automated data transfer and manipulation offers a new opportunity for direct incorporation of ensemble climate forecast data into probabilistic outlooks of water supply using existing models that have previously been implemented in a deterministic fashion. We will present results from a study investigating the potential for applying data from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble to operational water supply forecasts. The use of NMME forecasts is facilitated by a new, publicly available, Great Lakes Seasonal Climate Forecast Tool that provides operational forecasts of monthly average temperatures and monthly total precipitation summarized for each lake basin.

  12. [Parasitism in fishes and human riverside communities of the Huillinco and Natri lakes (Great Island of Chiloé), Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P; Ruíz, E; Rebolledo, C; Mira, A; Cubillos, V; Navarrete, N; Gesche, W; Montefusco, A; Valdés, L; Alberdi, A

    1990-01-01

    In April and December 1989, 35 fish from Lake Huillinco (42 degrees 48'S, 74 degrees 02'W) and 36 fish from Lake Natri (42 degrees 48'S, 73 degrees 50'W), in the Great Island of Chiloé (Chile) were examined. Coprological samples from 159 persons, 17 dogs, 19 pigs and 4 cats from around both lakes were examined for Diphyllobothrium spp. infection. In the Lake Huillinco the following helminths of fishes were determined: Contracaecum sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in Salmo trutta, Cauque mauleanum and Eleginops maclovinus; Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) dichelyneformis in S. trutta and E. maclovinus and Scolex pleuronectis in S. trutta. One specimen of Mugil cephalus did not show helminth parasites. Prevalence of infection were greater for Contracaecum sp. in S. trutta (75.0%) and C. mauleanum (76.0%); and Hysterothylacium sp. in E. maclovinus (75.0%). Mean intensity was higher for D. (C.) dichelyneformis in E. maclovinus. Contracaecum sp. in S. trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Oncorhynchus kisutch and Galaxias maculatus; Acanthocephalus sp. in S. trutta and G. maculatus, S. pleuronectis in O. mykiss and Cystidicoloides sp. in G. maculatus were determined at Lake Natri. Prevalence and intensity of infection were higher for Contracaecum sp. in S. trutta and O. kisutch. Infection by Diphyllobothrium sp. was determined in one domestic cat. Prevalence of infection by intestinal protozoan and helminths in human population only showed significative differences for Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura that were higher in the Lake Huillinco. Importance of natural infection by helminth parasites for fish in cultured condition and possible mechanisms of infections in relation to the diet of fishes are discussed.

  13. Late quaternary changes in lakes, vegetation, and climate in the Bonneville Basin reconstructed from sediment cores from Great Salt Lake: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Honke, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John

    2016-01-01

    Sediment cores from Great Salt Lake (GSL) provide the basis for reconstructing changes in lakes, vegetation, and climate for the last ~ 40 cal ka. Initially, the coring site was covered by a shallow saline lake and surrounded by Artemisia steppe or steppe-tundra under a cold and dry climate. As Lake Bonneville began to rise (from ~ 30 to 28 cal ka), Pinus and subalpine conifer pollen percentages increased and Artemisia declined, suggesting the onset of wetter conditions. Lake Bonneville oscillated near the Stansbury shoreline between ~ 26 and ~ 24 cal ka, rose to the Bonneville shoreline by ~ 18 cal ka, and then fell to the Provo shoreline, which it occupied until ~ 15 cal ka. Vegetation changed during this time span, albeit not always with the same direction or amplitude as the lake. The pollen percentages of Pinus and subalpine conifers were high from ~ 25 to 21.5 cal ka, indicating cool and moist conditions during the Stansbury oscillation and for much of the rise toward the Bonneville shoreline. Pinus percentages then decreased and Artemisia became codominant, suggesting drier and perhaps colder conditions from ~ 21 to ~ 15 cal ka, when Lake Bonneville was at or near its highest levels.Lake Bonneville declined to a low level by ~ 13 cal ka, while Pinus pollen percentages increased, indicating that conditions remained cooler and moister than today. During the Younger Dryas interval, the brief Gilbert episode rise in lake level was followed by a shallow lake with a stratified water column. This lake rise occurred as Pinus pollen percentages were declining and those of Artemisia were rising (reflecting increasingly dry conditions), after which Artemisia pollen was at very high levels (suggesting cold and dry conditions) for a brief period.Since ~ 10.6 cal ka lacustrine conditions have resembled those of present-day GSL. Pollen spectra for the period from ~ 10.6 to 7.2 cal ka have low levels of conifer pollen and high (for the

  14. Observation of thermal plumes from submerged discharges in the Great Lakes and their implications for modeling and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J.D.; Paddock, R.A.; Frigo, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of thermal plumes from submerged discharges of power plant cooling waters into the Great Lakes provide the opportunity to view the mixing processes at prototype scales and to observe the effects of the ambient environment on those processes. Examples of thermal plume behavior in Great Lakes' ambient environments are presented to demonstrate the importance of measurements of the detailed structure of the ambient environment, as well as of the plumes, for interpretation of prototype data for modeling and monitoring purposes. The examples are drawn from studies by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) at the Zion Nuclear PowerStation and the D. C. Cook Nuclear Plant on Lake Michigan and at the J. A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant on Lake Ontario. These studies included measurements of water temperatures from a moving boat which provide a quasi-synoptic view of the three-dimensional temperature structure of the thermal plume and ambient water environment. Additional measurements of water velocities, which are made with continuously recording, moored, and profiling current meters, and of wind provide data on the detailed structure of the ambient environment. The detailed structure of the ambient environment, in terms of current, current shear, variable winds, and temperature stratification, often influence greatly thermal plume behavior. Although predictive model techniques and monitoring objectives often ignore the detailed aspects of the ambient environment, useful interpretation of prototype data for model evaluation or calibration and monitoring purposes requires detailed measurement of the ambient environment. Examination of prototype thermal plume data indicates that, in several instances, attention to only the gross characteristics of the ambient environment can be misleading and could result in significant errors in model calibration and extrapolation of data bases gathered in monitoring observations

  15. Modeling transport and deposition of contaminants to ecosystems of concern: a case study for the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Matthew; Mackay, Don

    2004-01-01

    Transfer efficiency (TE) is introduced as a model output that can be used to characterize the relative ability of chemicals to be transported in the environment and deposited to specific target ecosystems. We illustrate this concept by applying the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America) to identify organic chemicals with properties that result in efficient atmospheric transport and deposition to the Laurentian Great Lakes. By systematically applying the model to hypothetical organic chemicals that span a wide range of environmental partitioning properties, we identify combinations of properties that favor efficient transport and deposition to the Lakes. Five classes of chemicals are identified based on dominant transport and deposition pathways, and specific examples of chemicals in each class are identified and discussed. The role of vegetation in scavenging chemicals from the atmosphere is assessed, and found to have a negligible influence on transfer efficiency to the Great Lakes. Results indicate chemicals with octanol-water (K(ow)) and air-water (K(aw)) partition coefficients in the range of 10(5)-10(7) and 10(-4)-10(-1) combine efficient transport and deposition to the Great Lakes with potential for biaccumulation in the aquatic food web once they are deposited. A method of estimating the time scale for atmospheric transport and deposition process is suggested, and the effects of degrading reactions in the atmosphere and meteorological conditions on transport efficiency of different classes of chemicals are discussed. In total, this approach provides a method of identifying chemicals that are subject to long-range transport and deposition to specific target ecosystems as a result of their partitioning and persistence characteristics. Supported by an appropriate contaminant fate model, the approach can be applied to any target ecosystem of concern.

  16. Prevalence of toxin-producing Clostridium botulinum associated with the macroalga Cladophora in three Great Lakes: growth and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Kahn, Chase I.; Borchert, Andrew J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Peller, Julie R.; Pier, Christina; Lin, Guangyun; Johnson, Eric A.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The reemergence of avian botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum type E has been observed across the Great Lakes in recent years. Evidence suggests an association between the nuisance algae, Cladophoraspp., and C. botulinum in nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. However, the nature of the association between Cladophora and C. botulinum is not fully understood due, in part, to the complex food web interactions in this disease etiology. In this study, we extensively evaluated their association by quantitatively examining population size and serotypes of C. botulinum in algal mats collected from wide geographic areas in lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Erie in 2011–2012 and comparing them with frequencies in other matrices such as sand and water. A high prevalence (96%) of C. botulinum type E was observed inCladophora mats collected from shorelines of the Great Lakes in 2012. Among the algae samples containing detectable C. botulinum, the population size of C. Botulinum type E was 100–104 MPN/g dried algae, which was much greater (up to 103 fold) than that found in sand or the water column, indicating thatCladophora mats are sources of this pathogen. Mouse toxinantitoxin bioassays confirmed that the putativeC. botulinum belonged to the type E serotype. Steam treatment was effective in reducing or eliminating C. botulinum type E viable cells in Cladophora mats, thereby breaking the potential transmission route of toxin up to the food chain. Consequently, our data suggest that steam treatment incorporated with a beach cleaning machine may be an effective treatment of Cladophora-borne C. botulinum and may reduce bird mortality and human health risks.

  17. Magnetotelluric imaging of the crustal structure of the Great Slave Lake shear zone in Northwest Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, E.; Unsworth, M. J.; Chacko, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Alberta basement is part of the North American craton - Laurentia, which was assembled in the Paleoproterozoic era. The Great Slave Lake shear zone (GSLsz) is the major crustal-scale right-lateral strike-slip feature in northwest Laurentia. Because of the extensive coverage of the rocks of the WCSB, geological studies in northern Alberta are limited to studies of drill core samples. The crustal structures of northern Alberta were defined from potential field in combination with isotopic studies. Magnetotelluric method is helpful in this case, because it is sensitive to conductive bodies. New Broadband magnetotelluric data were collected across the GSLsz to give a clear image of the crustal structure. Dimensionality analyses showed that the data are two-dimensional at the crustal depth, even though 3-D effects are present at the lowest frequencies. Consequently, 2-D inversions were applied and a preferred resistivity model was achieved. The WCSB was imaged as a conductive layer on the top of the resistive Precambrian basement rocks. Four conductive bodies associate with terrane boundaries were identified. The largest conductor - KC is located coincident with the Kiskatinaw terrane at the mid-crustal depth. The second conductor - KCC is located at the boundary of the Ksituan and Chinchaga terranes at upper-crustal depth. The KC and KCC are suspected to be linear conductors that are consistent along the strikes of the Kiskatinaw terrane and the western boundary of the Chinchaga terrane, respectively. This is concluded when considering the result of this study in combination with the potential field data, a previously proposed 3-D resistivity model and a 2-D seismic reflection result. Both of the KC and KCC corresponds to seismically reflective zones. The third conductor - HC is imaged beneath the Hottah terrane. The GSLsz is close to the HC and they may be related in origin. The fourth conductor - CBHC is imaged at the boundary of the Chinchaga and Buffalo Head

  18. Spatial Distribution, Air-Water Fugacity Ratios and Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Lower Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be contaminants of concern across the Great Lakes. It is unclear whether current concentrations are driven by ongoing primary emissions from their original uses, or whether ambient PCBs are dominated by their environmental cycling. Freely dissolved PCBs in air and water were measured using polyethylene passive samplers across Lakes Erie and Ontario during summer and fall, 2011, to investigate their spatial distribution, determine and apportion their sources and to asses their air-water exchange gradients. Average gaseous and freely dissolved ∑29 PCB concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 160 pg/m(3) and 2.0 to 55 pg/L respectively. Gaseous concentrations were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.80) with the urban area within a 3-20 km radius. Fugacity ratios indicated that the majority of PCBs are volatilizing from the water thus acting as a secondary source for the atmosphere. Dissolved PCBs were probably linked to PCB emissions from contaminated sites and areas of concern. Positive matrix factorization indicated that although volatilized Aroclors (gaseous PCBs) and unaltered Aroclors (dissolved PCBs) dominate in some samples, ongoing non-Aroclor sources such as paints/pigments (PCB 11) and coal/wood combustion showed significant contributions across the lower Great Lakes. Accordingly, control strategies should give further attention to PCBs emitted from current use sources.

  19. Great Bear Lake, N.W.T. - 1963, No. 13 in 1964 Data Record Series, Canadian Oceanographic Data Center (NODC Accession 7500188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Great Bear Lake has an area of 29,500 km^2 and it is the fourth largest lake in North America. It is situated at an elevation of 169 m (515 ft) and has a maximum...

  20. Notes on a collection of Crustacea Decapoda from the Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, with a list of the species of Decapoda known from the Suez Canal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1956-01-01

    Between August 18 and September 5, 1950, Dr. C. Beets, geologist Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company, explored the aquatic fauna and flora of the Great Bitter Lake. In the course of this exploration dredge hauls were made at 47 stations, distributed all over the lake. An account of this work and a

  1. Seasonal patterns in growth, blood consumption, and effects on hosts by parasitic-phase sea lampreys in the Great Lakes: an individual-based model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Cochran, Philip A.; Bergstedt, Roger A.

    2003-01-01

    An individual-based model (IBM) was developed for sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The IBM was then calibrated to observed growth, by season, for sea lampreys in northern Lake Huron under two different water temperature regimes: a regime experienced by Seneca-strain lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and a regime experienced by Marquettestrain lake trout. Modeling results indicated that seasonal blood consumption under the Seneca regime was very similar to that under the Marquette regime. Simulated mortality of lake trout directly due to blood removal by sea lampreys occurred at nearly twice the rate during August and September under the Marquette regime than under the Seneca regime. However, cumulative sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout over the entire duration of the sea lamprey's parasitic phase was only 7% higher for the Marquette regime compared with the Seneca regime. Thus, these modeling results indicated that the strain composition of the host (lake trout) population was not important in determining total number of lake trout deaths or total blood consumption attributable to the sea lamprey population, given the sea lamprey growth pattern. Regardless of water temperature regime, both blood consumption rate by sea lampreys and rate of sea lamprey-induced mortality on lake trout peaked in late October. Elevated blood consumption in late October appeared to be unrelated to changes in water temperature. The IBM approach should prove useful in optimizing control of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  2. Sound velocity profiles collected by NOAA's Navigation Response Team No. 4 in the Great Lakes, July 5 - September 25, 2007 (NODC Accession 0020370)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected from NOAA Navigation Response Team-4 in the Great Lakes from 05 July 2007 to 25 September 2007. Sound velocity profiles...

  3. Great Lakes water quality initiative criteria documents for the protection of wildlife (proposed): DDT, mercury 2,3,7,8-TCDD and PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, S.; Nolt, C.; Goodman, B.; Stromborg, K.; Sullivan, J.

    1993-04-01

    The document outlines, for each category of contaminant listed in the title, the relevant literature, the calculation of mammalian wildlife value, the calculation of Avian Wildlife Value, and the Great Lakes Wildlife criterion

  4. Potential climate change effects on Great Lakes hydrodynamics and water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, D.C.L.; Schertzer, W.M. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The problem of climate change has become increasingly recognized as a major environmental concern. Its impact can affect many socio-economic and ecosystem components. This book provides a state-of-the-art review of the climate change effects on lake hydrodynamics and water quality. Most of the engineering cases covered deal with the ability of existing infrastructure to cope with extreme weather conditions. The aim is to provide sufficient case studies to illustrate the advancement in modeling research on lake hydrodynamics, thermal stratification, pollutant transport and water quality by highlighting the climate change aspects in the application of these techniques.

  5. It's like night and day: Diel net-effects on Cercopagidae densities in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenio, Patricia M.; Bunnell, David B.; Adams, Jean V.; Watson, Nicole M.; Woelmer, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, zooplankters are often sampled using standard ≤153 μm mesh nets without regard to the time of day they are collected. We sampled Cercopagidae during 2013–2014 in northern Lake Huron during day, dusk, and night using two different nets (a 0.5 m wide 153 μm mesh “standard” net and a 0.75 m wide 285 μm mesh “Bythotrephes” net) to determine if there were any differences in their sampled densities. Bythotrephes densities with the standard net were approximately 2.07-fold greater when captured at night than during the day. No time of day bias occurred with the Bythotrephes net. Nighttime Bythotrephes densities did not differ between the two net types. Cercopagis densities did not vary with net type or the time of day in this study, but future work should revisit this result given our low sample size and the low occurrence of Cercopagis in Lake Huron. To reduce bias and calculate accurate density estimates, Cercopagidae should be sampled at night if using a standard net or any time of day with the Bythotrephes net. Given the large impact of invasive predatory cladocerans Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi on food webs since their invasion in the Laurentian Great Lakes in the 1980s, proper estimation of their densities is essential.

  6. Radial ooids from Great Salt Lake (Utah) as paleoenvironmental archives: Insights from radiocarbon chronology and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, O. P.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bardsley, A.; Hammond, D. E.; Xu, X.; Walker, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Ooids (laminated, carbonate coated grains) are ubiquitous in the geologic record in marine and lacustrine settings, and thus remain a common target for geochemical analysis to understand modern and ancient aqueous environments. However, the processes governing ooid formation remain unclear. Recently, radiocarbon dating has revealed that modern marine ooids grow slowly (Beaupre et al. 2015), and laboratory experiments have highlighted the importance of sediment transport and abrasion on net growth rates and ooid size (Trower et al. 2017). Ooid cortex structure includes micritic, tangential and/or radially oriented fabrics. Most modern marine ooids have tangential or micritic cortices, whereas many ancient ooids have radial cortices—thus, there is a need to understand how radial ooids in ancient rocks might inform us about their depositional environment. The Great Salt Lake (GSL), Utah, provides a unique environment to assess the growth rate of primary radial aragonitic ooids. Ooids collected near Antelope Island in the south arm of GSL were sieved, the 355-500 µm fraction was sequentially leached, and 14C of the evolved gas was analyzed to provide a time series of growth. The oldest inorganic carbon of this size fraction has an apparent 14C age of 6600 yr BP, with subsequent growth spanning over 6,000 years. Closed-basin lakes are particularly susceptible to a "reservoir effect" which results in anomalously old apparent radiocarbon ages. The 14C age of the modern dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) of the south arm was measured to be 295 yr BP, a reservoir age comparable to estimates from lacustrine cave carbonates (McGee et al. 2012). Net growth rate of south arm ooids ranges between 0.01-0.025 µm per year. The δ13C of the outermost cortex suggests that the ooids resemble the modern DIC in the south arm water, suggesting ooids precipitate in equilibrium with lake water. Finer-scale structure in the δ13C of the ooid cortex through time suggests lake level changed

  7. Sampling design for aquatic invasive species early detection in Great Lakes ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2006-2012, we evaluated a pilot aquatic invasive species (AIS) early detection monitoring program in Lake Superior that was designed to detect newly introduced fishes. We established survey protocols for three major ports (Duluth-Superior, Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay) and ...

  8. 77 FR 44528 - Dry Cargo Residue Discharges in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... lake bottom sediment, which may cause a less than 10% increase in zebra and quagga mussel attachment... minimize DCR discharges using methods they would be required to document in DCR management plans. The... docket via http://www.regulations.gov on or before October 29, 2012 or reach the Docket Management...

  9. Natural regeneration of northern hardwoods in the northern Great Lakes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Reviews silvical and silvicultural information about natural regeneration pertinent to forestry practices in Lake State northern hardwood types. Seed production; effects of light, moisture, temperature and competition on establishment and growth; and how damage affects mortality rates and form are covered. Clearcutting, selection, and shelterwood experiments are...

  10. Canada's Response to the Recommendations in the Tenth Biennial Report on Great Lakes Water Quality of the International Joint Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The Government of Canada and Ontario are currently renegotiating the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA). They are committed to restoring and maintaining the basin's chemical, physical and biological integrity and ensuring that it has a healthy, sustainable future. The COA has established a strategic framework for coordinated federal-provincial responsibilities regarding the Great Lakes basin ecosystem. This document presents responses to the recommendations of the International Joint Commission's (IJC) Tenth Biennial Report on how to improve the performance and effectiveness of government programs such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. According to the IJC, there are many challenges ahead, including: cleanup of Canadian Areas of Concern; controlling and preventing the further introduction of exotic species; mitigating the impact of rapid urban growth on environmental conditions throughout the basin; and reducing contaminants transported in the atmosphere over long distances to the Great Lakes. This document presented the government's responses to each of the following IJC recommendations regarding remedial action plans, threats to human health with respect to consumption of fish, contaminated sediment, airborne toxic substances, Great Lakes binational toxics strategy, land use, alien invasive species, and information and data management. IJC also recommended that indicators should be reported regarding whether the Great Lakes surface waters are suitable for drinking, swimming and whether fish are edible.

  11. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.M.; Batts, W.N.; Faisal, M.; Bowser, P.; Casey, J.W.; Phillips, K.; Garver, K.A.; Winton, J.; Kurath, G.

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a fish rhabdovirus that causes disease in a broad range of marine and freshwater hosts. The known geographic range includes the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and recently it has invaded the Great Lakes region of North Ame­rica. The goal of this work was to characterize genetic diversity of Great Lakes VHSV isolates at the early stage of this viral emergence by comparing a partial glycoprotein (G) gene sequence (669 nt) of 108 isolates collected from 2003 to 2009 from 31 species and at 37 sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolates fell into sub-lineage IVb within the major VHSV genetic group IV. Among these 108 isolates, genetic diversity was low, with a maximum of 1.05% within the 669 nt region. There were 11 unique sequences, designated vcG001 to vcG011. Two dominant sequence types, vcG001 and vcG002, accounted for 90% (97 of 108) of the isolates. The vcG001 isolates were most widespread. We saw no apparent association of sequence type with host or year of isolation, but we did note a spatial pattern, in which vcG002 isolates were more prevalent in the easternmost sub-regions, including inland New York state and the St. Lawrence Seaway. Different sequence types were found among isolates from single disease outbreaks, and mixtures of types were evident within 2 isolates from ­individual fish. Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with ­previously naïve host populations.

  12. Developing the greatest Blue Economy: Water productivity, fresh water depletion, and virtual water trade in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, A. S.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mubako, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin hosts the world's most abundant surface fresh water reserve. Historically an industrial and natural resource powerhouse, the region has suffered economic stagnation in recent decades. Meanwhile, growing water resource scarcity around the world is creating pressure on water-intensive human activities. This situation creates the potential for the Great Lakes region to sustainably utilize its relative water wealth for economic benefit. We combine economic production and trade datasets with water consumption data and models of surface water depletion in the region. We find that, on average, the current economy does not create significant impacts on surface waters, but there is some risk that unregulated large water uses can create environmental flow impacts if they are developed in the wrong locations. Water uses drawing on deep groundwater or the Great Lakes themselves are unlikely to create a significant depletion, and discharge of groundwater withdrawals to surface waters offsets most surface water depletion. This relative abundance of surface water means that science-based management of large water uses to avoid accidentally creating "hotspots" is likely to be successful in avoiding future impacts, even if water use is significantly increased. Commercial water uses are the most productive, with thermoelectric, mining, and agricultural water uses in the lowest tier of water productivity. Surprisingly for such a water-abundant economy, the region is a net importer of water-derived goods and services. This, combined with the abundance of surface water, suggests that the region's water-based economy has room to grow in the 21st century.

  13. Problems with the claim of ecotype and taxon status of the wolf in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A.; Mech, L. David

    2009-01-01

    Koblmuller et al. (2009) analysed molecular genetic data of the wolf in the Great Lakes (GL) region of the USA and concluded that the animal was a unique ecotype of grey wolf and that genetic data supported the population as a discrete wolf taxon. However, some of the literature that the researchers used to support their position actually did not, and additional confusion arises from indefinite use of terminology. Herein, we discuss the problems with designation of a wolf population as a taxon or ecotype without proper definition and assessment of criteria.

  14. Great Lakes prey fish populations: a cross-basin overview of status and trends based on bottom trawl surveys, 1978-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.; Weidel, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of Great Lakes prey fish stocks have been conducted annually with bottom trawls since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. These stock assessments provide data on the status and trends of prey fish that are consumed by important commercial and recreational fishes. Although all these annual surveys are conducted using bottom trawls, they differ among the lakes in the proportion of the lake covered, seasonal timing, trawl gear used, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique, population indices were standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake for the following prey species: Cisco (Coregonus artedi), Bloater (C. hoyi), Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax), Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and Round Goby (Neogobius melanostomus). In this report, standardized indices are presented in graphical form along with synopses to provide a short, informal cross-basin summary of the status and trends of principal prey fishes. There was basin-wide agreement in the trends of age-1 and older biomass for all prey species, with the highest concordance occurring for coregonids and Rainbow Smelt, and weaker concordance for Alewife. For coregonids, the highest biomass occurred from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. Rainbow Smelt biomass declined slowly and erratically during the last quarter century. Alewife biomass was generally higher from the early 1980s through 1990s across the Great Lakes, but since the early 1990s, trends have been divergent across the lakes, though there has been a downward trend in all lakes since 2005. Recently, Lake Huron has shown resurgence in biomass of Bloater, achieving 75% of its maximum record in 2012 due to recruitment of a succession of strong and moderate year classes that appeared in 2005-2011. Also, strong recruitment of the 2010 year class of Alewife has led to a sharp increase in biomass of Alewife in

  15. Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1986. Part 3. Waterways and Harbors, Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-31

    Unclassified 22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDVIDUAL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL David L. Penick (504) 862-1404 CEWRC-NDC-CC DO Form...EA 0) THE LAKE GEORGE ARNCI TO 0.2 S PKEST NOIA nIPLIS 61LV. PROJECT DE’TH: 29 FEET II APPR1AC" C.HANNEL, 20 FElT IN PAROOR bASIN, 27 FEET IN CANAL

  16. Water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and simulation of water and salt movement through the causeway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Steven R.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1997-01-01

    The water and salt balance of Great Salt Lake primarily depends on the amount of inflow from tributary streams and the conveyance properties of a causeway constructed during 1957-59 that divides the lake into the south and north parts. The conveyance properties of the causeway originally included two culverts, each 15 feet wide, and the permeable rock-fill material.During 1980-86, the salt balance changed as a result of record high inflow that averaged 4,627,000 acre-feet annually and modifications made to the conveyance properties of the causeway that included opening a 300-foot-wide breach. In this study, a model developed in 1973 by Waddell and Bolke to simulate the water and salt balance of the lake was revised to accommodate the high water-surface altitude and modifications made to the causeway. This study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Lands and Forestry, updates the model with monitoring data collected during 1980-86. This report describes the calibration of the model and presents the results of simulations for three hypothetical 10-year periods.During January 1, 1980, to July 31, 1984, a net load of 0.5 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the south to the north part of the lake primarily as a result of record inflows. From August 1, 1984, when the breach was opened, to December 31,1986, a net load of 0.3 billion tons of dissolved salt flowed from the north to the south part of the lake primarily as a result of the breach.For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in the water-surface altitude decreasing from about 4,200 to 4,192 feet, there was a net movement of about 1.0 billion tons of dissolved salt from the south to the north part, and about 1.7 billion tons of salt precipitated in the north part. For simulated inflow rates during a hypothetical 10-year period resulting in a rise in water-surface altitude from about 4,200 to 4

  17. Developmental plasticity of shell morphology of quagga mussels from shallow and deep-water habitats of the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyer, Suzanne M; Hermanson, John C; Lee, Carol Eunmi

    2010-08-01

    The invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has quickly colonized shallow-water habitats in the North American Great Lakes since the 1980s but the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) is becoming dominant in both shallow and deep-water habitats. While quagga mussel shell morphology differs between shallow and deep habitats, functional causes and consequences of such difference are unknown. We examined whether quagga mussel shell morphology could be induced by three environmental variables through developmental plasticity. We predicted that shallow-water conditions (high temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype typical of wild quagga mussels from shallow habitats, while deep-water conditions (low temperature, food quantity, water motion) would yield a morphotype present in deep habitats. We tested this prediction by examining shell morphology and growth rate of quagga mussels collected from shallow and deep habitats and reared under common-garden treatments that manipulated the three variables. Shell morphology was quantified using the polar moment of inertia. Of the variables tested, temperature had the greatest effect on shell morphology. Higher temperature (approximately 18-20 degrees C) yielded a morphotype typical of wild shallow mussels regardless of the levels of food quantity or water motion. In contrast, lower temperature (approximately 6-8 degrees C) yielded a morphotype approaching that of wild deep mussels. If shell morphology has functional consequences in particular habitats, a plastic response might confer quagga mussels with a greater ability than zebra mussels to colonize a wider range of habitats within the Great Lakes.

  18. A multiagency and multijurisdictional approach to mapping the glacial deposits of the Great Lakes region in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Richard C.; Brown, Steven E.; Thomason, Jason F.; Hasenmueller, Nancy R.; Letsinger, Sally L.; Kincare, Kevin A.; Esch, John M.; Kehew, Alan E.; Thorleifson, L. Harvey; Kozlowski, Andrew L.; Bird, Brian C.; Pavey, Richard R.; Bajc, Andy F.; Burt, Abigail K.; Fleeger, Gary M.; Carson, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The Great Lakes Geologic Mapping Coalition (GLGMC), consisting of state geological surveys from all eight Great Lakes states, the Ontario Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey, was conceived out of a societal need for unbiased and scientifically defensible geologic information on the shallow subsurface, particularly the delineation, interpretation, and viability of groundwater resources. Only a small percentage (technological expertise to characterize the thick cover of glacial sediments. Since its inception in 1997, the GLGMC partners have conducted detailed surficial and 3-D geologic mapping within all jurisdictions, and concurrent significant scientific advancements have been made to increase understanding of the history and framework of geologic processes. More importantly, scientific information has been provided to public policymakers in understandable formats, emphasis has been placed on training early-career scientists in new mapping techniques and emerging technologies, and a successful model has been developed of state/provincial and federal collaboration focused on geologic mapping, as evidenced by this program's unprecedented and long-term successful experiment of 10 geological surveys working together to address common issues.

  19. Development of a Geographic Information System-Based Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Windfarm Sitings in Great Lakes Aquatic Habitats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrly, Kevin E. [Michigan Dept. Natural Resources and Environment, Lansing, MI (United States); Rutherford, Edward S. [Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., Ann Harbor, MI (United States); Wang, Lizhu [Michigan Dept. Natural Resources and Environment, Lansing, MI (United States); Breck, Jason [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment (UM-SNRE); Mason, Lacey [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Natural Resources and Environment (UM-SNRE); Nelson, Scott [USGS Great Lakes Science Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-07-31

    As an outcome of our research project, we developed software and data for the Lakebed Alteration Decision Support Tool (LADST), a web-based decision support program to assist resource managers in making siting decisions for offshore wind farms (as well as other lakebed-altering projects) in the United States' waters of the Great Lakes. Users of the LADST can create their own offshore wind farm suitability maps, based upon suitability criteria of their own choosing by visiting a public web site. The LADST can be used to represent the different priorities or values of different Great Lakes stakeholders for wind farm siting, as well as the different suitability requirements of wind farms (or different types of development projects) in a single suitability analysis system. The LADST makes this type of customized suitability analysis easily accessible to users who have no specialized software or experience with geographic information systems (GIS). It also may increase the transparency of the siting and permitting process for offshore wind farms, as it makes the suitability analysis equally accessible to resource managers, wind farm developers, and concerned citizens.

  20. Solving Nutrient Loading in the Great Lakes: An Integrative, Interdisciplinary and Ambidextrous Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrello, M. C.; Keeton, T.; Foley, T.; Frost, A.; Green, N.; Isler, J.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental impacts from industrialized agriculture have been studied extensively over the past two decades. Degradation of surface water occurs, primarily as a result of nutrient loading, causing algal blooms in streams and lakes. Discovery of the toxin microcystin in Lake Erie, a drinking water source for some municipalities, has been associated with agricultural runoff and created a new awareness in the general public. This study used data gathered over ten years by local residents, high school students and undergraduates on surface water around the Lower Peninsula of Michigan to test a simple correlation of nutrients (soluble reactive phosphorus and nitrogen ammonia) along with the presence of specific antibiotics and antibiotic resistance to identify dominant sources of nutrient loading in the Lake Huron Watershed. Data gathering came from multiple sources and were processed by faculty and students at an undergraduate, liberal arts institution. College students from various disciplines worked with community members and municipalities in an effort to describe the problem. Students proposed solutions which by-passed relatively inactive regulatory agencies to create an integrative, interactive resolution that involved a surprisingly wide extent of the community. Addressing cultural norms beginning with those most affected by a degraded environment has reaped some success in changing behavior and moving towards a sustainable solution. The research conducted and supervised by undergraduate students has significance in the broader, professional area of geochemistry, environmental health and sustainable agriculture. That fact plays an important role in how the students see themselves in the process and what motivated them to: 1. Choose to participate in the research in the first place, 2. Reach out to the broader community (scientific and regional) to carry out their research and 3. Pursue solutions beyond the classroom and summer research experience.

  1. Pesticide presence in Great Lakes tributaries and comparison to ToxCast and other water quality benchmarks to screen for potential biological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product Description:Pesticides are a broad category of current use chemicals that pose potential threats to aquatic organisms in and around the Great Lakes basin. In this study, we monitored for over 200 pesticides or their break down products in 16 major tributaries to the Great...

  2. Biological and ecological science for Michigan—The Great Lakes State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-04-04

    Michigan is rich in lakes, rivers, dune and rocky shorelines, forests, fish and wildlife, and has the longest freshwater coastline in the United States, 3,224 miles. Many enterprises critical to Michigan’s economy and cultural heritage are based on natural resources including commercial and sport fishing, hunting, and other outdoor recreation. Overall, outdoor recreation is enjoyed by more than 63 percent of Michigan residents, and has been estimated to generate $18.7 billion in consumer spending, create 194,000 jobs, and raise $1.4 billion in State and local tax revenue annually.

  3. Development of a Bi-National Great Lakes Coastal Wetland and Land Use Map Using Three-Season PALSAR and Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bourgeau-Chavez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods using extensive field data and three-season Landsat TM and PALSAR imagery were developed to map wetland type and identify potential wetland stressors (i.e., adjacent land use for the United States and Canadian Laurentian coastal Great Lakes. The mapped area included the coastline to 10 km inland to capture the region hydrologically connected to the Great Lakes. Maps were developed in cooperation with the overarching Great Lakes Consortium plan to provide a comprehensive regional baseline map suitable for coastal wetland assessment and management by agencies at the local, tribal, state, and federal levels. The goal was to provide not only land use and land cover (LULC baseline data at moderate spatial resolution (20–30 m, but a repeatable methodology to monitor change into the future. The prime focus was on mapping wetland ecosystem types, such as emergent wetland and forested wetland, as well as to delineate wetland monocultures (Typha, Phragmites, Schoenoplectus and differentiate peatlands (fens and bogs from other wetland types. The overall accuracy for the coastal Great Lakes map of all five lake basins was 94%, with a range of 86% to 96% by individual lake basin (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.

  4. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  5. Great Lakes Daily Ice Observations at NOAA Water Level Gauge Sites, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains daily visual ice observations taken yearly from 1 November to 30 April at NOAA/National Ocean Service water level gauge sites in the Great...

  6. Causes of variability in pesticide and PCB concentrations in air near the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Stephanie S; Basu, Ilora; Hites, Ronald A

    2004-01-15

    Data through 2001 from the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN) were used to investigate the causes of variability in gas-phase polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and pesticide concentrations measured near Lakes Michigan, Erie, and Superior. A multiple linear regression model that incorporates temperature and time was used explain the variability in the concentrations. Our approach used autocorrelation analyses of the residuals to help us determine the effectiveness of the regression. Autocorrelation plots forthe in-use pesticide lindane indicated that an agricultural application cycle was also present in the regression residual data at all sites. The addition of parameters for this effect to the regression equation accounted for, on average, 16% more of the variability in the data. Similar analyses forthe in-use pesticide endosulfan did not show an agricultural application effect. The banned compounds DDT and chlordane showed that temperature and time correctly accounted for the variability in the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds at all sites. In contrast to the other compounds, PCBs and hexachlorobenzene showed strong residual autocorrelation patterns near Lake Michigan of an unknown origin.

  7. Projected Precipitation Changes within the Great Lakes Region: A Multi-scale Analysis of Precipitation Intensity and Seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, S.; Steiner, A. L.; Brown, D.; Bryan, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes region supports a diverse network of agriculture, transportation and tourism centered on some of the largest freshwater bodies of water in the world. Precipitation affects these sectors as concerns about precipitation timing and intensity can affect the agricultural growing season, runoff, and subsequent water quality. Here, we examine precipitation projections for mid-century (2041-2065) within the Great Lakes basin (GLB) and two sub-regions using three climate model ensembles of varying resolutions to constrain and compare associated precipitation uncertainties. These include: 1. atmosphere-ocean models from the CMIP5 global simulations with the RCP 8.5 scenario (12 members, resolution ranging from ~1 to ~3 degrees), 2. dynamically downscaled regional climate models from NARCCAP with the SRES A2 scenario (4 members at ~0.5 degree resolution (50 km)), and 3. high resolution (~0.25 degree resolution (25 km)) regional climate model simulations with the RCP 8.5 scenario (RegCM (hereafter RCM3(HiRes)), 2 members). For the entire GLB, all three ensembles captured the intensity of historical events well, but with a bias in the high intensity precipitation events as compared to observed intensity, with fewer overprediction events by the NARCCAP and RCM3(HiRes) ensembles. Daily probability density functions from three model ensembles reveal consistent increases in high precipitation event probabilities for all seasons, even after accounting for wet model biases during the observation period (1980-1999). Comparing all three ensembles to the historical period for the GLB, both CMIP5 and NARCCAP ensembles capture the annual seasonal cycle with a wet bias in the winter and spring, while the RCM3(HiRes) ensemble shows a dry bias for all seasons except winter. For the Lake Michigan and Western Lake Erie basin sub-regions, the spring and winter biases remain present across ensembles, however the RCM3(HiRes) summer dry bias is reduced. Overall, the three climate

  8. Temperature variations in the southern Great Lakes during the last deglaciation: Comparison between pollen and GDGT proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Benjamin I.; Williams, John W.; Russell, James M.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Shane, Linda; Lowell, Thomas V.

    2018-02-01

    Our understanding of deglacial climate history in the southern Great Lakes region of the United States is primarily based upon fossil pollen data, with few independent and multi-proxy climate reconstructions. Here we introduce a new, well-dated fossil pollen record from Stotzel-Leis, OH, and a new deglacial temperature record based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) at Silver Lake, OH. We compare these new data to previously published records and to a regional stack of pollen-based temperature reconstructions from Stotzel-Leis, Silver Lake, and three other well-dated sites. The new and previously published pollen records at Stotzel-Leis are similar, but our new age model brings vegetation events into closer alignment with known climatic events such as the Younger Dryas (YD). brGDGT-inferred temperatures correlate strongly with pollen-based regional temperature reconstructions, with the strongest correlation obtained for a global soil-based brGDGT calibration (r2 = 0.88), lending confidence to the deglacial reconstructions and the use of brGDGT and regional pollen stacks as paleotemperature proxies in eastern North America. However, individual pollen records show large differences in timing, rates, and amplitudes of inferred temperature change, indicating caution with paleoclimatic inferences based on single-site pollen records. From 16.0 to 10.0ka, both proxies indicate that regional temperatures rose by ∼10 °C, roughly double the ∼5 °C estimates for the Northern Hemisphere reported in prior syntheses. Change-point analysis of the pollen stack shows accelerated warming at 14.0 ± 1.2ka, cooling at 12.6 ± 0.4ka, and warming from 11.6 ± 0.5ka into the Holocene. The timing of Bølling-Allerød (B-A) warming and YD onset in our records lag by ∼300-500 years those reported in syntheses of temperature records from the northern mid-latitudes. This discrepancy is too large to be attributed to uncertainties in radiocarbon dating, and

  9. Temperature variations in the southern Great Lakes during the last deglaciation: Comparison between pollen and GDGT proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Benjamin I.; Williams, John W.; Russell, James M.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Shane, Linda; Lowell, Thomas V.

    2018-01-01

    Our understanding of deglacial climate history in the southern Great Lakes region of the United States is primarily based upon fossil pollen data, with few independent and multi-proxy climate reconstructions. Here we introduce a new, well-dated fossil pollen record from Stotzel-Leis, OH, and a new deglacial temperature record based on branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) at Silver Lake, OH. We compare these new data to previously published records and to a regional stack of pollen-based temperature reconstructions from Stotzel-Leis, Silver Lake, and three other well-dated sites. The new and previously published pollen records at Stotzel-Leis are similar, but our new age model brings vegetation events into closer alignment with known climatic events such as the Younger Dryas (YD). brGDGT-inferred temperatures correlate strongly with pollen-based regional temperature reconstructions, with the strongest correlation obtained for a global soil-based brGDGT calibration (r2 = 0.88), lending confidence to the deglacial reconstructions and the use of brGDGT and regional pollen stacks as paleotemperature proxies in eastern North America. However, individual pollen records show large differences in timing, rates, and amplitudes of inferred temperature change, indicating caution with paleoclimatic inferences based on single-site pollen records. From 16.0 to 10.0ka, both proxies indicate that regional temperatures rose by ∼10 °C, roughly double the ∼5 °C estimates for the Northern Hemisphere reported in prior syntheses. Change-point analysis of the pollen stack shows accelerated warming at 14.0 ± 1.2ka, cooling at 12.6 ± 0.4ka, and warming from 11.6 ± 0.5ka into the Holocene. The timing of Bølling-Allerød (B-A) warming and YD onset in our records lag by ∼300–500 years those reported in syntheses of temperature records from the northern mid-latitudes. This discrepancy is too large to be attributed to uncertainties in

  10. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management

  11. Recreational water quality response to a filtering barrier at a Great Lakes beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Nevers, Meredith; Breitenbach, Cathy; Whitman, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has sought to determine the off- or onshore origin of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in order to improve local recreational water quality. In an effort to reduce offshore contamination, a filtering barrier (FB) was installed at Calumet Beach, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL. A horseshoe-shaped curtain (146 m long, 0.18 mm apparent opening size, 1.5–1.6 m deepest point) was designed to exclude FIB containing or promoting debris and thus reduce the number of swimming advisories during the examination period of July through September 2012. Mean water Escherichia coli concentrations were significantly lower at southern transects (S; outside FB) than at transects within the FB (WN) and at northern transects (N; outside FB) (1.45 log (MPN)/100 ml vs. 1.74 and 1.72, respectively, p sources of contamination and nearshore dynamics that may direct future beach management strategies.

  12. Spatial and temporal trends in poly- and per-fluorinated compounds in the Laurentian Great Lakes Erie, Ontario and St. Clair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codling, Garry; Sturchio, Neil C; Rockne, Karl J; Li, An; Peng, H; Tse, Timothy J; Jones, Paul D; Giesy, John P

    2018-03-01

    The temporal and spatial trends in sediment of 22 poly- and perfluorinated (PFAS) compounds were investigated in the southern Great Lakes Erie and Ontario as well as Lake St. Clair. Surface concentrations measured by Ponar grab samples indicated a trend for greater concentrations near to urban sites. Mean concentrations ∑ 22 PFAS were 15.6, 18.2 and 19 ng g -1 dm for Lakes St. Clair, Erie and Ontario, respectively. Perfluoro-n-butanoic acid (PFBA) and Perfluoro-n-hexanoic acid (PFHxA) were frequently determined in surface sediment and upper core samples indicating a shift in use patterns. Where PFBA was identified it was at relatively great concentrations typically >10 ng g -1 dm. However as PFBA and PFHxA are less likely to bind to sediment they may be indicative of pore water concentrations Sedimentation rates between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario differ greatly with greater rates observed in Lake Erie. In Lake Ontario, in general concentrations of PFAS observed in core samples closely follow the increase in use along with an observable change due to regulation implementation in the 1970s for water protection. However some of the more water soluble PFAS were observed in deeper core layers than the time of production could account for, indicating potential diffusion within the sediment. Given the greater sedimentation rates in Lake Erie, it was hoped to observe in greater resolution changes since the mid-1990s. However, though some decrease was observed at some locations the results are not clear. Many cores in Lake Erie had clearly observable gas voids, indicative of gas ebullition activity due to biogenic production, there were also observable mussel beds that could indicate mixing by bioturbation of core layers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Great lakes prey fish populations: a cross-basin overview of status and trends based on bottom trawl surveys, 1978-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of prey fish stocks in the Great Lakes have been conducted annually with bottom trawls since the 1970s by the Great Lakes Science Center, sometimes assisted by partner agencies. These stock assessments provide data on the status and trends of prey fish that are consumed by important commercial and recreational fishes. Although all these annual surveys are conducted using bottom trawls, they differ among the lakes in the proportion of the lake covered, seasonal timing, bottom trawl gear used, and the manner in which the trawl is towed (across or along bottom contours). Because each assessment is unique in one or more important aspects, direct comparison of prey fish catches among lakes is not straightforward. However, all of the assessments produce indices of abundance or biomass that can be standardized to facilitate comparisons of status and trends across all the Great Lakes. In this report, population indices were standardized to the highest value for a time series within each lake for the following principal prey species: cisco (Coregonus artedi), bloater (C. hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Indices were also provided for round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), an invasive fish that has proliferated throughout the basin over the past 18 years. These standardized indices represent the best available long-term indices of relative abundance for these fishes across all of the Great Lakes. In this report, standardized indices are presented in graphical form along with synopses to provide a short, informal cross-basin summary of the status and trends of principal prey fishes. In keeping with this intent, tables, references, and a detailed discussion were omitted.

  14. Daily energy expenditure of great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis wintering at Lake Chiemsee, Southern Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, T.M; Visser, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the winters of 1993/94 and 1994/95 the daily energy expenditure (DEE) of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis was measured using the doubly labelled water technique (DLW). This was the first time the method has been used on a Phalacrocoracid species. DLW trials were carried out on 5

  15. The Next Economy: Economic Recovery and Transformation in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vey, Jennifer S.; Austin, John C.; Bradley, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The nation's recuperation from the Great Recession remains sluggish, with high unemployment and a weak housing market continuing to squelch hopes that a full economic recovery will soon be at hand. The intensity and nature of the recession's lingering effects vary considerably across the country, however. Some metro areas, like Austin and…

  16. Life under ice: Investigating microbial-related biogeochemical cycles in the seasonally-covered Great Lake Onego, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Camille; Ariztegui, Daniel; Victor, Frossard; Emilie, Lyautey; Marie-Elodie, Perga; Life Under Ice Scientific Team

    2016-04-01

    The Great European lakes Ladoga and Onego are important resources for Russia in terms of drinking water, energy, fishing and leisure. Because their northern location (North of Saint Petersburgh), these lakes are usually ice-covered during winter. Due to logistical reasons, their study has thus been limited to the ice-free periods, and very few data are available for the winter season. As a matter of fact, comprehension of large lakes behaviour in winter is very limited as compared to the knowledge available from small subpolar lakes or perennially ice-covered polar lakes. To tackle this issue, an international consortium of scientists has gathered around the « life under ice » project to investigate physical, chemical and biogeochemical changes during winter in Lake Onego. Our team has mainly focused on the characterization and quantification of biological processes, from the water column to the sediment, with a special focus on methane cycling and trophic interactions. A first « on-ice » campaign in March 2015 allowed the sampling of a 120 cm sedimentary core and the collection of water samples at multiple depths. The data resulting from this expedition will be correlated to physical and chemical parameters collected simultaneously. A rapid biological activity test was applied immediately after coring in order to test for microbial activity in the sediments. In situ adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) measurements were carried out in the core and taken as an indication of living organisms within the sediments. The presence of ATP is a marker molecule for metabolically active cells, since it is not known to form abiotically. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) were extracted from these samples, and quantified. Quantitative polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed on archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes used to reconstruct phylogenies, as well as on their transcripts. Moreover, functional genes involved in the methane and nitrogen cycles

  17. Drought drove forest decline and dune building in eastern upper Michigan, USA, as the upper Great Lakes became closed basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Walter L.; Loope, Henry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lytle, David E.; Legg, Robert J.; Wysocki, Douglas A.; Hanson, Paul R.; Young, Aaron R.

    2012-01-01

    Current models of landscape response to Holocene climate change in midcontinent North America largely reconcile Earth orbital and atmospheric climate forcing with pollen-based forest histories on the east and eolian chronologies in Great Plains grasslands on the west. However, thousands of sand dunes spread across 12,000 km2 in eastern upper Michigan (EUM), more than 500 km east of the present forest-prairie ecotone, present a challenge to such models. We use 65 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages on quartz sand deposited in silt caps (n = 8) and dunes (n = 57) to document eolian activity in EUM. Dune building was widespread ca. 10–8 ka, indicating a sharp, sustained decline in forest cover during that period. This decline was roughly coincident with hydrologic closure of the upper Great Lakes, but temporally inconsistent with most pollen-based models that imply canopy closure throughout the Holocene. Early Holocene forest openings are rarely recognized in pollen sums from EUM because faint signatures of non-arboreal pollen are largely obscured by abundant and highly mobile pine pollen. Early Holocene spikes in nonarboreal pollen are recorded in cores from small ponds, but suggest only a modest extent of forest openings. OSL dating of dune emplacement provides a direct, spatially explicit archive of greatly diminished forest cover during a very dry climate in eastern midcontinent North America ca. 10–8 ka.

  18. Great Lakes water quality initiative technical support document for the procedure to determine bioaccumulation factors. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the document is to provide the technical information and rationale in support of the proposed procedures to determine bioaccumulation factors. Bioaccumulation factors, together with the quantity of aquatic organisms eaten, determine the extent to which people and wildlife are exposed to chemicals through the consumption of aquatic organisms. The more bioaccumulative a pollutant is, the more important the consumption of aquatic organisms becomes as a potential source of contaminants to humans and wildlife. Bioaccumulation factors are needed to determine both human health and wildlife tier I water quality criteria and tier II values. Also, they are used to define Bioaccumulative Chemicals of Concern among the Great Lakes Initiative universe of pollutants. Bioaccumulation factors range from less than one to several million

  19. Index of congenital Minamata disease in Canadian areas of concern in the Great Lakes: an eco-social epidemiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Cerebral palsy is one of the symptoms of congenital Minamata disease associated with exposure to methyl mercury. Cerebral palsy hospitalization rates for 17 Canadian Areas of Concern have been used as a health index in evaluating the effectiveness of the United States and Canadian governments in implementing their Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. Elevated rates in males in several locations was associated with historic uses of mercury and with natural sources indicating that the governments have failed to protect human health from exposures to this persistent toxic substance. Advances in epidemiological theory indicate that the reasons for this failure cannot be explained solely in scientific and technical frames but that the social, economic, and political contexts of the two nations need to be examined.

  20. Summer foods of American widgeon, mallards, and a green-winged teal near Great Slave Lake, N.W.T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonek, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    Foods found in three species of dabbling ducks collected during summer from bog ponds, and sedge pools in taiga on the north side of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, are described. Animal material in the esophageal contents of 10 adult American Widgeons (Mareca americana) averaged 31 i?? 34 per cent (P<0.05) by volume. A significantly higher percentage of animal material was found in Class I and II widgeon ducklings (66 i?? 22 per cent) than in Class IIIa ducklings and flying juveniles (12 i?? 20 per cent) of this species. Animal material comprised 87 i?? 35 per cent of esophageal contents from five Class II and flying juvenile Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and 100 per cent of that from an adult female Green-winged Teal (A. carolinensis).

  1. Measuring the embodied energy in drinking water supply systems: a case study in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weiwei; Nasiri, Fuzhan; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zhang, Qiong; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-12-15

    A sustainable supply of both energy and water is critical to long-term national security, effective climate policy, natural resource sustainability, and social wellbeing. These two critical resources are inextricably and reciprocally linked; the production of energy requires large volumes of water, while the treatment and distribution of water is also significantly dependent upon energy. In this paper, a hybrid analysis approach is proposed to estimate embodied energy and to perform a structural path analysis of drinking water supply systems. The applicability of this approach is then tested through a case study of a large municipal water utility (city of Kalamazoo) in the Great Lakes region to provide insights on the issues of water-energy pricing and carbon footprints. Kalamazoo drinking water requires approximately 9.2 MJ/m(3) of energy to produce, 30% of which is associated with indirect inputs such as system construction and treatment chemicals.

  2. Tumor frequencies in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) and sediment contaminants in tributaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Paul C.; Mac, Michael J.; Smith, Stephen B.; Harshbarger, John C.

    1991-01-01

    To better characterize neoplasm epizootics in the Great Lakes basin and their association with families of contaminants, we sampled five locations: the Fox and Menominee rivers, Lake Michigan; Munuscong Lake, St. Mary's River; and the Black and Cuyahoga rivers, Lake Erie. Frequencies of external and liver tumors were determined for brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) from all locations except the Black River and for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from the Lake Michigan and St. Mary's River sites. Sediment samples were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated aromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Liver neoplasms occurred in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River and Munuscong Lake; brown bullhead captured from Munuscong Lake were older than those collected from the other locations. Brown bullhead from these same two rivers had elevated hepatosomatic indexes. No liver neoplasms were found in brown bullhead from the Fox and Menominee rivers, although polychlorinated aromatics were highest in both Fox River sediment and Fox and Menominee brown bullhead, and arsenic was highest in Menominee River sediment and fish. Liver neoplasms in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River fit the prevailing hypothesis that elevated PAH in sediment can induce cancer in wild fish. The cause of the liver neoplasms in Munuscong Lake brown bullhead is undetermined.

  3. West Nile Virus transmission in winter: the 2013 Great Salt Lake Bald Eagle and Eared Grebes Mortality event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hon S.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; McFarlan, Leslie; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Dickson, Sammie L.; Baker, JoDee; Hatch, Gary; Cavender, Kimberly; Long, Renee Romaine; Bodenstein, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird mortality event involving between 15,000-20,000 Eared Grebes (Podiceps nigricollis) and over 40 Bald Eagles around the Great Salt Lake, Utah, in November-December 2013. Mortality in grebes was first reported in early November during a period when the area was unseasonably warm and the grebes were beginning to gather and stage prior to migration. Ten out of ten Eared Grebes collected during this period were WNV RT-PCR and/or isolation positive. This is the first report of WNV infection in Eared Grebes and the associated mortality event is matched in scale only by the combined outbreaks in American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) colonies in the north central states in 2002-2003. We cannot be sure that all of the grebes were infected by mosquito transmission; some may have become infected through contact with WNV shed orally or cloacally from other infected grebes. Beginning in early December, Bald Eagles in the Great Salt Lake area were observed to display neurological signs such as body tremors, limb paralysis and lethargy. At least 43 Bald Eagles had died by the end of the month. Nine of nine Bald Eagles examined were infected with WNV. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest single raptor mortality event since WNV became endemic in the USA. Because the majority of the eagles affected were found after onset of below-freezing temperatures, we suggest at least some of the Bald Eagles were infected with WNV via consumption of infected Eared Grebes or horizontal transmission at roost sites.

  4. Glacial isostatic adjustment at the Laurentide ice sheet margin: Models and observations in the Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Alexander; Kuo, Chung-Yen; Shum, C. K.; Wu, Patrick; van der Wal, Wouter; Fotopoulos, Georgia

    2008-10-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) modelling in North America relies on relative sea level information which is primarily obtained from areas far away from the uplift region. The lack of accurate geodetic observations in the Great Lakes region, which is located in the transition zone between uplift and subsidence due to the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet, has prevented more detailed studies of this former margin of the ice sheet. Recently, observations of vertical crustal motion from improved GPS network solutions and combined tide gauge and satellite altimetry solutions have become available. This study compares these vertical motion observations with predictions obtained from 70 different GIA models. The ice sheet margin is distinct from the centre and far field of the uplift because the sensitivity of the GIA process towards Earth parameters such as mantle viscosity is very different. Specifically, the margin area is most sensitive to the uppermost mantle viscosity and allows for better constraints of this parameter. The 70 GIA models compared herein have different ice loading histories (ICE-3/4/5G) and Earth parameters including lateral heterogeneities. The root-mean-square differences between the 6 best models and the two sets of observations (tide gauge/altimetry and GPS) are 0.66 and 1.57 mm/yr, respectively. Both sets of independent observations are highly correlated and show a very similar fit to the models, which indicates their consistent quality. Therefore, both data sets can be considered as a means for constraining and assessing the quality of GIA models in the Great Lakes region and the former margin of the Laurentide ice sheet.

  5. A scientific basis for restoring fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Roseman, Edward F.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; Boase, James C.; Craig, Jaquelyn; Bennion, David H.; Read, Jennifer; Vaccaro, Lynn; Chiotti, Justin A.; Drouin, Richard; Ellison, Roseanne

    2015-01-01

    Loss of functional habitat in riverine systems is a global fisheries issue. Few studies, however, describe the decision-making approach taken to abate loss of fish spawning habitat. Numerous habitat restoration efforts are underway and documentation of successful restoration techniques for spawning habitat of desirable fish species in large rivers connecting the Laurentian Great Lakes are reported here. In 2003, to compensate for the loss of fish spawning habitat in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers that connect the Great Lakes Huron and Erie, an international partnership of state, federal, and academic scientists began restoring fish spawning habitat in both of these rivers. Using an adaptive management approach, we created 1,100 m2 of productive fish spawning habitat near Belle Isle in the Detroit River in 2004; 3,300 m2 of fish spawning habitat near Fighting Island in the Detroit River in 2008; and 4,000 m2 of fish spawning habitat in the Middle Channel of the St. Clair River in 2012. Here, we describe the adaptive-feedback management approach that we used to guide our decision making during all phases of spawning habitat restoration, including problem identification, team building, hypothesis development, strategy development, prioritization of physical and biological imperatives, project implementation, habitat construction, monitoring of fish use of the constructed spawning habitats, and communication of research results. Numerous scientific and economic lessons learned from 10 years of planning, building, and assessing fish use of these three fish spawning habitat restoration projects are summarized in this article.

  6. Quantification of a male sea lamprey pheromone in tributaries of Laurentian Great Lakes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, X.; Johnson, N.S.; Brant, C.O.; Yun, S.-S.; Chambers, K.L.; Jones, A.D.; Li, W.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an assay for measuring 7α,12α,24-trihydroxy-5a-cholan-3-one-24-sulfate (3kPZS), a mating pheromone released by male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), at low picomolar concentrations in natural waters to assess the presence of invasive populations. 3kPZS was extracted from streamwater at a rate of recovery up to 90% using a single cation-exchange and reversed-phase mixed-mode cartridge, along with [2H5]3kPZS as an internal standard, and quantified using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was below 0.1 ng L–1 (210 fM), which was the lowest concentration tested. Intra- and interday coefficients of variation were between 0.3–11.6% and 4.8–9.8%, respectively, at 1 ng 3kPZS L–1 and 5 ng 3kPZS L–1. This assay was validated by repeat measurements of water samples from a stream spiked with synthesized 3kPZS to reach 4.74 ng L–1 or 0.24 ng L–1. We further verified the utility of this assay to detect spawning populations of lampreys; in the seven tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes sampled, 3kPZS concentrations were found to range between 0.15 and 2.85 ng L–1 during the spawning season in known sea lamprey infested segments and were not detectable in uninfested segments. The 3kPZS assay may be useful for the integrated management of sea lamprey, an invasive species in the Great Lakes where pheromone-based control and assessment techniques are desired.

  7. A GIS-based tool for bioaccumulation risk analysis and its application to study polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. Maciel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a GIS-based tool named Arc-BEST (Bioaccumulation Evaluation Screening Tool to perform spatially distributed bioaccumulation risk analyses. Estimating bioaccumulation risk is important to help predict potentially adverse effects from contaminants on ecosystems and human health, which are key factors in the development of sound public policy. Arc-BEST is based on the BEST model in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers BRAMS (Bioaccumulation Risk Assessment Modeling System software, released in 2012. It predicts concentration of concern contaminants in predators’ tissues from concentrations in organisms at the bottom of the food chain, and corresponding bioaccumulation factors. Additionally, it estimates carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for humans that consume those species. The greatest contribution of Arc-BEST is that it enables the automated use of digital spatial data sets, which improves model creation speed, analysis and visualization of results, and comparison and cross-referencing with other geographic datasets. Furthermore, the model was improved to consider up to four trophic levels. The code is written in Python and is open-source. In this work Arc-BEST is used as part of a screening-level risk assessment process in order to identify hot spots where further studies and monitoring should be performed to ensure humans and ecosystems health. The tool is successfully applied to a case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where long-term effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs is performed, based on measured concentrations in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, and local bioaccumulation factors from previous studies. Zebra mussels have a great filtration capacity and high bioconcentration rates, increasing the bioavailability of contaminants for predator species. PCBs concentrations in different-level predators are predicted. Furthermore, health risks for humans that consume sport fish are estimated for various

  8. Understanding beach health throughout the Great Lakes-Entering a new era of investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For over a decade, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been a leader in the science of beach health. The overall mission of this work is to provide science-based information and methods that will allow beach managers to more accurately make beach closure and advisory decisions, understand the sources and physical processes affecting beach contaminants, and understand how science-based information can be used to mitigate and restore beaches and protect the public. The work consists of four science elements-real-time assessments; pathogens and microbial source tracking; coastal processes; and data analysis, interpretation, and communication - which are described in this fact sheet. Some of the key questions for USGS beach research are the following: Are there better ways to inform the public whether they can use a beach without risking their health? How do new rapid analytical methods compare to traditional methods for determining concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria at beaches? Are pathogens present at beaches and, if so, how do they get to the beach, and what is their source? How do sand movement and wave action on the beach affect fecal-indicator-bacteria and pathogen concentrations in the lake water? What are the best indicators of pathogenic microorganisms? With so many potential sources of fecal contamination at a beach, what methods can be used to distinguish the contributions from humans? What characteristics of beaches contribute most to influencing bacterial indicator and pathogen concentrations in beach sands and groundwater?

  9. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  10. Changing Waters: Are Climate-Driven Changes in Discharge Regimes Increasing Eutrophication Risk in the Great Lakes Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-12-01

    In recent decades, the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) has experienced increasing precipitation, warming temperatures, and earlier spring thaws. During this same period, the region has been plagued by problems of water quality, with Lake Erie, in particular, experiencing a re-emergence of major eutrophication events, including an increased incidence of Harmful Algal Blooms. Although the prevailing paradigm is that eutrophication of inland waters is directly correlated with total phosphorus (P) inputs, recent decades have seen a decrease in the total P being delivered to the lakes from contributing watersheds. This apparent disconnect between inputs and outputs, i.e. decreasing P inputs but increased eutrophication, has led some to speculate that loading of total P is an insufficient metric of eutrophication risk and that increasing ratios of soluble reactive P (SRP) in relation to the total P (TP) entering inland water bodies may be a more important driver of algal growth. We hypothesize that changes in seasonal discharge patterns may be contributing to changes in the forms of P being delivered to the lakes, potentially due to changes in delivery pathways-for example surface pathways are more dominant in spring snowmelt, while shallow subsurface and tile pathways are more dominant during winter freeze-thaw events. To test this hypothesis, we have utilized data from more than 200 gaging stations across the GLB to explore the influences of climate and changing hydrologic patterns on biogeochemical processing and transport within the GLB. More specifically, we have asked the following questions: 1) How are discharge patterns changing across the GLB? 2) Are SRP:TP ratios increasing in subwatersheds of the GLB, and what are the spatial patterns in these changes? 3) Are climate-related changes in seasonality, e.g. earlier snowmelt, decreasing snowfall, longer growing seasons, linked to increased ratios of bioavailable P? Our results suggest that changes in precipitation as well

  11. Susceptibility of Representative Great Lakes Fish Species to the North Carolina Strain of Spring Viremia of Carp Virus (SVCV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonthai, Traimat; Loch, Thomas P; Standish, Isaac; Faisal, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is a notifiable pathogen of the World Organization of Animal Health. Since SVCV was isolated in Lake Ontario in 2007, concern has grown about its spread in the Great Lakes basin and its potential negative impacts on fish species of importance in stock enhancement programs basinwide. The susceptibility of representative fish species from the families Cyprinidae (Fathead Minnow Pimephales promelas, Golden Shiner Notemigonus crysoleucas, Spotfin Shiner Cyprinella spiloptera, and Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus), Centrarchidae (Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides), Percidae (Walleye Sander vitreus), Salmonidae (Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Esocidae (Muskellunge Esox masquinongy) to SVCV was evaluated by experimental infection under laboratory conditions. Morbidity and mortality were recorded, and virus re-isolation, seminested reverse transcription PCR, and histopathological assessments were performed. Using intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were highly susceptible to SVCV (40-70% mortality). All dead or moribund and apparently healthy surviving Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV positive. The SVCV was also detected in challenged but healthy Spotfin Shiners (30%) and Creek Chub (5%). However, noncyprinid species exhibited no morbidity or mortality and were free of SVCV following an observation period of 30 d. In a follow-up experimental challenge, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners were SVCV challenged at 10 3 and 10 5 PFU/mL by means of waterborne immersion. After immersion, Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners exhibited characteristic SVCV disease signs, but mortality was less (30% and 10% mortality, respectively) than that in fish with i.p. injections. The SVCV was detected in all mortalities and a subset of healthy Fathead Minnows and Golden Shiners. Necrotic changes were observed in the kidneys, liver, spleen, ovaries, and heart, and other histopathological lesions also

  12. Zoobenthic Indicators of Environmental Condition At Great Lakes Coastal Margins Derived From Standardized Multivariate Analyses Across Anthropogenic Stress Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciborowski, J. J.; Johnson, L. B.; Gathman, J. P.; Brady, V. J.; Holland, J.; Hollenhorst, T.; Schuldt, J. A.; Host, G. E.; Richards, C.

    2005-05-01

    We used multivariate methods to derive and map multiple indices of zoobenthic community composition across anthropogenic stress gradients at Great Lakes coastal margins (shorelines - 10 m depth). We collected up to 24 benthic samples and measured environmental characteristics in each of 150 "segment sheds", ranging from minimally disturbed (=reference) to greatly modified. "K" distinct suites of co-occurring biota from minimally stressed locations were identified using cluster analysis. Discriminant function analysis identified the environmental attributes of sample locations best distinguishing each of the suites (=habitat types). Benthic community data of all samples from each habitat type (ranging across the entire stress gradient) were individually ordinated. The benthic taxa best characterizing the ends of each stress gradient were used to create a gradient-specific biotic index with a standardized scale (0=minimum, 100=maximum stress) for each habitat type, providing a stress-specific score for each sample. Contour surface analysis of mapped sample-specific scores shows the spatial pattern and limits of the overall biotic response to stress, independently of habitat type. The spatial concordance between biotic index scores and environmental stress can indicate the degree to which equivalent-to-reference conditions exist in a particular area.

  13. Assessment of a new seasonal to inter-annual operational Great Lakes water supply, water levels, and connecting channel flow forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A.; Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T.; Pei, L.; Smith, J.; Lucier, H.; Mueller, R.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has recently operationalized a suite of ensemble forecasts of Net Basin Supply (NBS), water levels, and connecting channel flows that was developed through a collaboration among USACE, NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ontario Power Generation (OPG), New York Power Authority (NYPA), and the Niagara River Control Center (NRCC). These forecasts are meant to provide reliable projections of potential extremes in daily discharge in the Niagara and St. Lawrence Rivers over a long time horizon (5 years). The suite of forecasts includes eight configurations that vary by (a) NBS model configuration, (b) meteorological forcings, and (c) incorporation of seasonal climate projections through the use of weighting. Forecasts are updated on a weekly basis, and represent the first operational forecasts of Great Lakes water levels and flows that span daily to inter-annual horizons and employ realistic regulation logic and lake-to-lake routing. We will present results from a hindcast assessment conducted during the transition from research to operation, as well as early indications of success rates determined through operational verification of forecasts. Assessment will include an exploration of the relative skill of various forecast configurations at different time horizons and the potential for application to hydropower decision making and Great Lakes water management.

  14. Estimation of selenium loads entering the south arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, from May 2006 through March 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Johnson, William P.; Freeman, Michael L.; Beisner, Kimberly; Diaz, Ximena; Cross, VeeAnn A.

    2009-01-01

    Discharge and water-quality data collected from six streamflow-gaging stations were used in combination with the LOADEST software to provide an estimate of total (dissolved + particulate) selenium (Se) load to the south arm of Great Salt Lake (GSL) from May 2006 through March 2008. Total estimated Se load to GSL during this time period was 2,370 kilograms (kg). The 12-month estimated Se load to GSL for May 1, 2006, to April 30, 2007, was 1,560 kg. During the 23-month monitoring period, inflows from the Kennecott Utah Copper Corporation (KUCC) Drain and Bear River outflow contributed equally to the largest proportion of total Se load to GSL, accounting for 49 percent of the total Se load. Five instantaneous discharge measurements at three sites along the railroad causeway indicate a consistent net loss of Se mass from the south arm to the north arm of GSL (mean = 2.4 kg/day, n = 5). Application of the average daily loss rate equates to annual Se loss rate to the north arm of 880 kg (56 percent of the annual Se input to the south arm). The majority of Se in water entering GSL is in the dissolved (less than 0.45 micron) state and ranges in concentration from 0.06 to 35.7 micrograms per liter (ug/L). Particulate Se concentration ranged from less than 0.05 to 2.5 ug/L. Except for the KUCC Drain streamflow-gaging station, dissolved (less than 0.45 um) inflow samples contain an average of 21 percent selenite (SeO32-) during two sampling events (May 2006 and 2007). Selenium concentration in water samples collected from four monitoring sites within GSL during May 2006 through August 2007 were used to understand how the cumulative Se load was being processed by various biogeochemical processes within the lake. On the basis of the Mann-Kendall test results, changes in dissolved Se concentration at the four monitoring sites indicate a statistically significant (90-percent confidence interval) upward trend in Se concentration over the 16-month monitoring period. Furthermore

  15. Density-stratified flow events in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA: implications for mercury and salinity cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Carling, Gregory T.; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Pazmiño, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    Density stratification in saline and hypersaline water bodies from throughout the world can have large impacts on the internal cycling and loading of salinity, nutrients, and trace elements. High temporal resolution hydroacoustic and physical/chemical data were collected at two sites in Great Salt Lake (GSL), a saline lake in the western USA, to understand how density stratification may influence salinity and mercury (Hg) distributions. The first study site was in a causeway breach where saline water from GSL exchanges with less saline water from a flow restricted bay. Near-surface-specific conductance values measured in water at the breach displayed a good relationship with both flow and wind direction. No diurnal variations in the concentration of dissolved (total and MeHg loadings was observed during periods of elevated salinity. The second study site was located on the bottom of GSL where movement of a high-salinity water layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), is restricted to a naturally occurring 1.5-km-wide “spillway” structure. During selected time periods in April/May, 2012, wind-induced flow reversals in a railroad causeway breach, separating Gunnison and Gilbert Bays, were coupled with high-velocity flow pulses (up to 55 cm/s) in the DBL at the spillway site. These flow pulses were likely driven by a pressure response of highly saline water from Gunnison Bay flowing into the north basin of Gilbert Bay. Short-term flow reversal events measured at the railroad causeway breach have the ability to move measurable amounts of salt and Hg from Gunnison Bay into the DBL. Future disturbance to the steady state conditions currently imposed by the railroad causeway infrastructure could result in changes to the existing chemical balance between Gunnison and Gilbert Bays. Monitoring instruments were installed at six additional sites in the DBL during October 2012 to assess impacts from any future modifications to the railroad causeway.

  16. Age-specific light preferences and vertical migration patterns of a Great Lakes invasive invertebrate, Hemimysis anomala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Brent T.; Halpin, Kathleen E.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.

    2012-01-01

    We use a combination of spectral sensitivity analyses, laboratory behavioral observations and field distributions of a vertically migrating invertebrate, Hemimysis anomala (a recent invasive species to the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America), to determine if light preference and timing of emergence has an ontogenetic component. Juvenile Hemimysis (−3.4 and 10−2.4 mylux— a Hemimysis-specific unit of brightness derived from visual pigment analyses (wavelength of maximum absorbance = 500 nm; 1 mylux ~ 159 lx). These preferred light levels are equivalent to those present during nautical twilight on the Earth's surface and were several orders of magnitude brighter than those most preferred by adults (> 4.5 mm) in the laboratory (10−6.4 to 10−7.4 mylux). Both size classes completely avoided light levels of 10−0.4 mylux and greater, which are representative of daytime light levels at the Earth's surface. Net hauls taken at ~ 20-min intervals from sunset to the end of nautical twilight on two sampling occasions on Seneca Lake, New York (sampling depth = 2 m) revealed that juveniles emerged into the water column during civil twilight. Adult Hemimysis emerged later during nautical twilight when juveniles had already reached their maximum abundance in the water column. Laboratory-derived light preferences successfully predicted the timing of emergence and time of maximal abundance of both size classes on both sampling occasions. This study is one of the first to demonstrate that Hemimysis diel vertical migration has an ontogenetic component and to report the specific light levels likely to initiate and limit vertical movements.

  17. Application of NMR-based metabolomics for environmental assessment in the Great Lakes using zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Miki; Meyer, Kathryn A; Jackson, Tyler M; Schock, Tracey B; Johnson, W Edward; Bearden, Daniel W

    Zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha , in the Great Lakes is being monitored as a bio-indicator organism for environmental health effects by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Mussel Watch program. In order to monitor the environmental effects of industrial pollution on the ecosystem, invasive zebra mussels were collected from four stations-three inner harbor sites (LMMB4, LMMB1, and LMMB) in Milwaukee Estuary, and one reference site (LMMB5) in Lake Michigan, Wisconsin. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to evaluate the metabolic profiles of the mussels from these four sites. The objective was to observe whether there were differences in metabolite profiles between impacted sites and the reference site; and if there were metabolic profile differences among the impacted sites. Principal component analyses indicated there was no significant difference between two impacted sites: north Milwaukee harbor (LMMB and LMMB4) and the LMMB5 reference site. However, significant metabolic differences were observed between the impacted site on the south Milwaukee harbor (LMMB1) and the LMMB5 reference site, a finding that correlates with preliminary sediment toxicity results. A total of 26 altered metabolites (including two unidentified peaks) were successfully identified in a comparison of zebra mussels from the LMMB1 site and LMMB5 reference site. The application of both uni- and multivariate analysis not only confirmed the variability of altered metabolites but also ensured that these metabolites were identified via unbiased analysis. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of the NMR-based metabolomics approach to assess whole-body metabolomics of zebra mussels to study the physiological impact of toxicant exposure at field sites.

  18. EXOTIC AND INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANTS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO WATERSHED LAND USE AND PLANT RICHNESS AND COVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript provides previously unavailable information to researchers and managers concerning exotic plants in the Great Lakes...This work arises out of our broader efforts to describe biota - habitat relationships in coastal wetlands, and as such falls under Aquatic Stresso...

  19. 33 CFR 165.T09-0073 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Tall... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS... Guard District § 165.T09-0073 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes...

  20. Ten-year results from the long-term soil productivity study in aspen ecosystems of the northern Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Voldseth; Brian J. Palik; John Elioff

    2011-01-01

    Impacts of organic matter removal and compaction on soil properties and productivity are reported from the first 10 years of the Long-Term Soil Productivity Study in Great Lakes aspen ecosystems. Organic matter removal treatments included main bole, total tree harvest, and total tree harvest with forest floor removal. Compaction treatments included minimal compaction,...

  1. The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: Connecting with Ocean and Great Lakes Scientists to Investigate the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Chantelle M.; Adams, Jacqueline M.; Hinchey, Elizabeth K.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Patterson, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure increases rapidly with depth in a water body. Ocean and Great Lakes scientists often use this physical feature of water as the basis of a fun pastime performed aboard research vessels around the world: the shrinking of polystyrene cups. Depending on the depth to which the cups are deployed, the results can be quite striking! Capitalizing…

  2. ALL THAT "PHRAG": BRINGING ENGINEERING, WETLAND ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY TO BEAR ON THE QUESTION OF COMMON REED IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  3. In vivo and in vitro phenotypic differences between Great Lakes VHSV genotype IVb isolates with sequence types vcG001 and vcG002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanse, Sierra M.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Kurath, Gael; Bowser, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is an aquatic rhabdovirus first recognized in farmed rainbow trout in Denmark. In the past decade, a new genotype of this virus, IVb was discovered in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin and has caused several massive die-offs in some of the 28 species of susceptible North American freshwater fishes. Since its colonization of the Great Lakes, several closely related sequence types within genotype IVb have been reported, the two most common of which are vcG001 and vcG002. These sequence types have different spatial distributions in the Great Lakes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genotypic differences between representative vcG001 (isolate MI03) and vcG002 (isolate 2010-030 #91) isolates correspond to phenotypic differences in terms of virulence using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. In vitro infection of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), bluegill fry (BF-2), and Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE) cells demonstrated some differences in onset and rate of growth in EPC and BF-2 cells, without any difference in the quantity of RNA produced. In vivo infection of round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) via immersion exposure to different concentrations of vcG001 or vcG002 caused a significantly greater mortality in round gobies exposed to 102 plaque forming units ml− 1 of vcG001. These experiments suggest that there are phenotypic differences between Great Lakes isolates of VHSV genotype IVb.

  4. Climate change effects on wildland fire risk in the Northeastern and Great Lakes states predicted by a downscaled multi-model ensemble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerr, Gaige Hunter; DeGaetano, Arthur T.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Ward, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This study is among the first to investigate wildland fire risk in the Northeastern and the Great Lakes states under a changing climate. We use a multi-model ensemble (MME) of regional climate models from the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) together with the Canadian Forest

  5. The story of Kintu and his sons : naming, ethnic identity formation and power in the precolonial Great Lakes Region of East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, H.

    2017-01-01

    This essay investigates the historical background of ethnic disunity in today’s Western Uganda as part of the Great Lakes Region of East Africa. In general, there are two opposing views with respect to the existence of ethnicity in precolonial times. On the one hand, social scientists state that the

  6. Using traditional ecological knowledge as a basis for targeted forest inventory: paper birch (Betula papyrifera) in the US Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marla R. Emery; Alexandra Wrobel; Mark H. Hansen; Michael Dockry; W. Keith Moser; Kekek Jason Stark; Jonathan H. Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) has been proposed as a basis for enhanced understanding of ecological systems and their management. TEK also can contribute to targeted inventories of resources not included in standard mensuration. We discuss the results of a cooperative effort between the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC) and USDA Forest...

  7. Public perspectives of fire, fuels, and the Forest Service in the Great Lakes Region: a survey of citizen-agency communication and trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce A. Shindler; Eric Toman; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2009-01-01

    Relative to the western United States, where fire and fuel management programs have received greater emphasis, few community-based studies have focused on the Great Lakes region. The present paper describes public opinion research from counties surrounding National Forests inWisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan. Survey data address citizen perspectives on (1) fuel...

  8. A new moisture tagging capability in the Weather Research and Forecasting model: formulation, validation and application to the 2014 Great Lake-effect snowstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua-Costa, Damián; Miguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2018-02-01

    A new moisture tagging tool, usually known as water vapor tracer (WVT) method or online Eulerian method, has been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional meteorological model, enabling it for precise studies on atmospheric moisture sources and pathways. We present here the method and its formulation, along with details of the implementation into WRF. We perform an in-depth validation with a 1-month long simulation over North America at 20 km resolution, tagging all possible moisture sources: lateral boundaries, continental, maritime or lake surfaces and initial atmospheric conditions. We estimate errors as the moisture or precipitation amounts that cannot be traced back to any source. Validation results indicate that the method exhibits high precision, with errors considerably lower than 1 % during the entire simulation period, for both precipitation and total precipitable water. We apply the method to the Great Lake-effect snowstorm of November 2014, aiming at quantifying the contribution of lake evaporation to the large snow accumulations observed in the event. We perform simulations in a nested domain at 5 km resolution with the tagging technique, demonstrating that about 30-50 % of precipitation in the regions immediately downwind, originated from evaporated moisture in the Great Lakes. This contribution increases to between 50 and 60 % of the snow water equivalent in the most severely affected areas, which suggests that evaporative fluxes from the lakes have a fundamental role in producing the most extreme accumulations in these episodes, resulting in the highest socioeconomic impacts.

  9. Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Kenney, Terry; Waddell, Bruce; Darnall, Nathan; Silva, Steven; Perschon, Clay; Whitehead, John

    2008-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake (GSL), little is known about the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the lake. In response to increasing public concern regarding anthropogenic inputs to the GSL ecosystem, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated coordinated studies to quantify and evaluate the significance of nutrient and Hg inputs into GSL. A 6 per mille decrease in δ 15 N observed in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) samples collected from GSL during summer time periods is likely due to the consumption of cyanobacteria produced in freshwater bays entering the lake. Supporting data collected from the outflow of Farmington Bay indicates decreasing trends in δ 15 N in particulate organic matter (POM) during the mid-summer time period, reflective of increasing proportions of cyanobacteria in algae exported to GSL on a seasonal basis. The C:N molar ratio of POM in outflow from Farmington Bay decreases during the summer period, supportive of the increased activity of N fixation indicated by decreasing δ 15 N in brine shrimp and POM. Although N fixation is only taking place in the relatively freshwater inflows to GSL, data indicate that influx of fresh water influences large areas of the lake. Separation of GSL into two distinct hydrologic and geochemical systems from the construction of a railroad causeway in the late 1950s has created a persistent and widespread anoxic layer in the southern part of GSL. This anoxic layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has high rates of SO 4 2- reduction, likely increasing the Hg methylation capacity. High concentrations of methyl mercury (CH 3 Hg) (median concentration = 24 ng/L) were observed in the DBL with a significant proportion (31-60%) of total Hg in the CH 3 Hg form. Hydroacoustic and sediment-trap evidence indicate that turbulence introduced by internal waves generated during sustained wind events can

  10. Anthropogenic influences on the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and mercury in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftz, David [US Geological Survey, Salt Lake City 84119, UT (United States)], E-mail: dlnaftz@usgs.gov; Angeroth, Cory; Kenney, Terry [US Geological Survey, Salt Lake City 84119, UT (United States); Waddell, Bruce; Darnall, Nathan [US Fish and Wildlife Service, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Silva, Steven [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Perschon, Clay [Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Whitehead, John [Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake (GSL), little is known about the input and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and trace elements in the lake. In response to increasing public concern regarding anthropogenic inputs to the GSL ecosystem, the US Geological Survey (USGS) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) initiated coordinated studies to quantify and evaluate the significance of nutrient and Hg inputs into GSL. A 6 per mille decrease in {delta}{sup 15}N observed in brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) samples collected from GSL during summer time periods is likely due to the consumption of cyanobacteria produced in freshwater bays entering the lake. Supporting data collected from the outflow of Farmington Bay indicates decreasing trends in {delta}{sup 15}N in particulate organic matter (POM) during the mid-summer time period, reflective of increasing proportions of cyanobacteria in algae exported to GSL on a seasonal basis. The C:N molar ratio of POM in outflow from Farmington Bay decreases during the summer period, supportive of the increased activity of N fixation indicated by decreasing {delta}{sup 15}N in brine shrimp and POM. Although N fixation is only taking place in the relatively freshwater inflows to GSL, data indicate that influx of fresh water influences large areas of the lake. Separation of GSL into two distinct hydrologic and geochemical systems from the construction of a railroad causeway in the late 1950s has created a persistent and widespread anoxic layer in the southern part of GSL. This anoxic layer, referred to as the deep brine layer (DBL), has high rates of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} reduction, likely increasing the Hg methylation capacity. High concentrations of methyl mercury (CH{sub 3}Hg) (median concentration = 24 ng/L) were observed in the DBL with a significant proportion (31-60%) of total Hg in the CH{sub 3}Hg form. Hydroacoustic and sediment-trap evidence indicate that turbulence introduced by internal waves

  11. Assessment of general health of fishes collected at selected sites in the Great Lakes Basin In 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazik, Patricia M.; Braham, Ryan P.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Blazer, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, there has been a substantive increase in the detection of “emerging contaminants”, defined as a new substance, chemical, or metabolite in the environment; or a legacy substance with a newly expanded distribution, altered release, or a newly recognized effect (such as endocrine disruption). Emerging contaminants include substances such as biogenic hormones (human and animal), brominated flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, plasticizers, current use pesticides, detergents, and nanoparticles. These contaminants are frequently not regulated or inadequately regulated by state or Federal water quality programs. Information about the toxicity of these substances to fish and wildlife resources is generally limited, compared to more highly regulated contaminants, and some classes have been shown to cause affects (for example feminization of male fish, immunomodulation) that are not evaluated via traditional toxicity testing protocols. As a result, these compounds may pose a substantial, but currently poorly documented threat to aquatic ecosystems. Failure to identify and understand the impacts of these emerging contaminants on fish and wildlife resources may result in deleterious impacts to Great Lakes resources that can result in adverse ecological, economic and recreational consequences.

  12. Evaluating Principal Components Analysis for Identifying Optimal Bands Using Wetland Hyperspectral Measurements From the Great Lakes, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Becker

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mapping species composition is a focus of the wetland science community as this information will substantially enhance assessment and monitoring abilities. Hyperspectral remote sensing has been utilized as a cost-efficient approach. While hyperspectral instruments can record hundreds of contiguous narrow bands, much of the data are redundant and/or provide no increase in utility for distinguishing objects. Knowledge of the optimal bands allows users to efficiently focus on bands that provide the most information and several data reduction tools are available. The objective of this Communication was to evaluate Principal Components Analysis (PCA for identifying optimal bands to discriminate wetland plant species. In-situ hyperspectral reflectance measurements were obtained for thirty-five species in two diverse Great Lakes wetlands. PCA was executed on a suite of categories based on botanical plant/substrate characteristics and spectral configuration schemes. Results showed that the data dependency of PCA makes it a poor, stand alone tool for selecting optimal wavelengths. PCA does not allow diagnostic comparison across sites and wavelengths identified by PCA do not necessarily represent wavelengths that indicate biophysical attributes of interest. Further, narrow bands captured by hyperspectral sensors need to be substantially re-sampled and/or smoothed in order for PCA to identify useful information.

  13. Using prediction uncertainty analysis to design hydrologic monitoring networks: Example applications from the Great Lakes water availability pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, Michael N.; Doherty, John E.; Hunt, Randall J.; Reeves, Howard W.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of monitoring networks for resource-management decisions is becoming more recognized, in both theory and application. Quantitative computer models provide a science-based framework to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of existing and possible future monitoring networks. In the study described herein, two suites of tools were used to evaluate the worth of new data for specific predictions, which in turn can support efficient use of resources needed to construct a monitoring network. The approach evaluates the uncertainty of a model prediction and, by using linear propagation of uncertainty, estimates how much uncertainty could be reduced if the model were calibrated with addition information (increased a priori knowledge of parameter values or new observations). The theoretical underpinnings of the two suites of tools addressing this technique are compared, and their application to a hypothetical model based on a local model inset into the Great Lakes Water Availability Pilot model are described. Results show that meaningful guidance for monitoring network design can be obtained by using the methods explored. The validity of this guidance depends substantially on the parameterization as well; hence, parameterization must be considered not only when designing the parameter-estimation paradigm but also-importantly-when designing the prediction-uncertainty paradigm.

  14. Monitoring of wild fish health at selected sites in the Great Lakes Basin: methods and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Mazik, Patricia M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Braham, Ryan; Hahn, Cassidy; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam

    2014-01-01

    During fall 2010 and spring 2011, a total of 119 brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), 136 white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), 73 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and 59 largemouth bass (M. salmoides) were collected from seven Great Lakes Basin Areas of Concern and one Reference Site. Comprehensive fish health assessments were conducted in order to document potential adverse affects from exposure to complex chemical mixtures. Fish were necropsied on site, blood samples obtained, pieces of liver, spleen, kidney, gill and any abnormalities placed in fixative for histopathology. Liver samples were saved for gene expression analysis and otoliths were removed for aging. A suite of fish health indicators was developed and implemented for site comparisons and to document seasonal effects and species differences in response to environmental conditions. Organism level (grossly visible lesions, condition factor), tissue level (microscopic pathology, organosomatic indices, micronuclei, and other nuclear abnormalities), plasma factors (reproductive steroid hormones, vitellogenin), and molecular (gene expression) indicators were included. This report describes the methods and preliminary results.

  15. A historical perspective on the "fish tumors or other deformities" beneficial use impairment at Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, S.D.; Blazer, V.S.; Pinkney, A.E.; Grazio, J.L.; Obert, E.C.; Boughton, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement defines Areas of Concern as geographic areas that fail to meet the general or specific objectives of the agreement where such failure has caused or is likely to cause impairment of beneficial use of the area's ability to support aquatic life. One of the beneficial use impairments, fish tumors or other deformities, is defined by the International Joint Commission to occur when the incidence rate of fish tumors and other deformities exceeds rates at unimpacted or control sites, or when survey data confirm the presence of neoplastic or preneoplastic liver tumors in bullhead or suckers. Brown bullhead, a benthic species with a limited home range, have frequently been used as indicator species in U.S. Areas of Concern. While there is strong field evidence for an association between PAH exposure and hepatic neoplasia in brown bullhead, laboratory investigations would strengthen the association. There is less evidence linking specific classes of chemicals in the environment to orocutaneous neoplasia in brown bullhead. Studies on orocutaneous neoplasia of brown bullhead should focus on assessing the presence or absence of viruses and on epidermal exposure to specific chemicals and chemical mixtures. Lastly, the effects of covariates such as length, age, and gender on the prevalence of liver and skin neoplasms should be investigated. This paper reviews the state of science on the fish tumors or other deformities beneficial use impairment. Subsequent papers address specific issues related to this impairment and provide recommendations for standardized criteria.

  16. Characterization of a novel hepadnavirus in the white sucker (Catostomus commersonii) from the Great Lakes Region of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Blazer, Vicki S.

    2015-01-01

    The white sucker Catostomus commersonii is a freshwater teleost often utilized as a resident sentinel. Here, we sequenced the full genome of a hepatitis B-like virus that infects white suckers from the Great Lakes Region of the USA. Dideoxysequencing confirmed the white sucker hepatitis B virus (WSHBV) has a circular genome (3542 bp) with the prototypical codon organization of hepadnaviruses. Electron microscopy demonstrated that complete virions of approximately 40 nm were present in the plasma of infected fish. Compared to avi- and orthohepadnaviruses, sequence conservation of the core, polymerase and surface proteins was low and ranged from 16-27% at the amino acid level. An X protein homologue common to the orthohepadnaviruses was not present. The WSHBV genome included an atypical, presumptively non-coding region absent in previously described hepadnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed WSHBV as distinct from previously documented hepadnaviruses. The level of divergence in protein sequences between WSHBV other hepadnaviruses, and the identification of an HBV-like sequence in an African cichlid provide evidence that a novel genus of the family Hepadnaviridae may need to be established that includes these hepatitis B-like viruses in fishes. Viral transcription was observed in 9.5% (16 of 169) of white suckers evaluated. The prevalence of hepatic tumors in these fish was 4.9%, of which only 2.4% were positive for both virus and hepatic tumors. These results are not sufficient to draw inferences regarding the association of WSHBV and carcinogenesis in white sucker.

  17. Computer program to simulate the salt balance between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Bolke, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents a computer simulation program that was used by Waddell and Bolke (1973) to predict the salt balance between the north and south parts of Great Salt Lake, Utah, for either existing or modified culvert openings (fig. 1). The development of the program, its accuracy and limitations, are described in the above report, which was prepared as part of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Geological and Mineral Survey. Users of this program should consider it an addendum to the report by Waddell and Bolke (1973).Although this program has been tested by its contributor, no warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the contributor or the Government, as to the functioning of the program and related program material, nor shall the fact of distribution constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the contributor or the Government, in connection therewith.The FORTRAN IV program listing (table 1) defines the constants and variables necessary for understanding the mechanics and the output from the program.

  18. Multilevel Empirical Bayes Modeling for Improved Estimation of Toxicant Formulations to Suppress Parasitic Sea Lamprey in the Upper Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, L.A.; Gutreuter, S.; Boogaard, M.A.; Carlin, B.P.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of extreme quantal-response statistics, such as the concentration required to kill 99.9% of test subjects (LC99.9), remains a challenge in the presence of multiple covariates and complex study designs. Accurate and precise estimates of the LC99.9 for mixtures of toxicants are critical to ongoing control of a parasitic invasive species, the sea lamprey, in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The toxicity of those chemicals is affected by local and temporal variations in water chemistry, which must be incorporated into the modeling. We develop multilevel empirical Bayes models for data from multiple laboratory studies. Our approach yields more accurate and precise estimation of the LC99.9 compared to alternative models considered. This study demonstrates that properly incorporating hierarchical structure in laboratory data yields better estimates of LC99.9 stream treatment values that are critical to larvae control in the field. In addition, out-of-sample prediction of the results of in situ tests reveals the presence of a latent seasonal effect not manifest in the laboratory studies, suggesting avenues for future study and illustrating the importance of dual consideration of both experimental and observational data. ?? 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Investigation of regional geohydrology south of Great Slave Lake, Canada, utilizing natural sulphur and hydrogen isotope variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, K.U.; Horwood, W.C.; Krouse, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    The well-defined topographic, geological, and orographic setting in the area south of Great Slave Lake, in Canada's North-West Territory (N.W.T.), is favourable for a meaningful investigation of the local and regional groundwater flow sysems in the area of the Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits at Pine Point. Chemical and isotope (delta 34 S, deltaD) investigations have provided supporting evidence for conceptual models of groundwater flow. The range of the deltaD values encountered (-111 to -205 per mille SMOW) indicates that the hydrodynamic systems convey meteoric waters. Differences in deltaD values of water samples were used to elucidate the hydrological relationship between groundwater and a major river in a karst area. The ore bodies at Pine Point are engulfed in a reducing hydrosphere. Sulphur species, derived from gypsum layers by regional groundwater flow, are instrumental in maintaining the reducing conditions. There is evidence that the reduction of sulphate to sulphide is caused by bacteria. Microbiological sulphate reduction, rather than isotopic exchange processes, is also responsible for shifts of measured delta 34 S values in dissolved sulphates. After correction for those shifts, four different sources for dissolved sulphate were identified. In addition to supporting the conceptual model of regional groundwater flow in this area, the isotopic data also help to delineate hydrological features on a more local scale. (author)

  20. Spatial Variability of Near-surface Soil Moisture for Bioenergy Crops at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, R. L.; Diker, K.; Bhardwaj, A. K.; Hamilton, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    We used time-lapse electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to monitor spatial and temporal soil moisture variability below ten different potential bioenergy cropping systems at the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center’s sustainability research site in Michigan, U.S.A. These crops range from high-diversity, low-input grasses and poplars to low-diversity, high-input corn-soybean-canola rotations. We equipped the 28x40m vegetation plots with permanent 2D resistivity arrays, each consisting of 40 graphite electrodes at 30cm spacing. Other permanent equipment in each plot includes multi-depth temperature and time domain reflectometry (TDR) based moisture sensors, and two tension soil water samplers. The material at the site consists of coarse sandy glacial tills in which a soil with an approximately 50cm thick A-Bt horizon has developed. ERI data were collected using a dipole-dipole configuration every four weeks since early May 2009. After removal of bad points, the data were inverted and translated into 2D images of water content using lab-derived petrophysical relationships, including corrections for soil temperature and salinity. The results show significant seasonal variation within and between vegetation plots. We compare our results to high-temporal resolution point-based measurements of soil moisture from TDR probes and present statistical analysis of the variability of soil moisture within and between plots.

  1. Geology, selected geophysics, and hydrogeology of the White River and parts of the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow systems, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Peter D.; Dixon, Gary L.; Watrus , James M.; Burns, Andrews G.; Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.; Pari, Keith T.; Ekren, E. Bartlett; Patrick , William G.; Comer, John B.; Inkenbrandt, Paul C.; Krahulec, K.A.; Pinnell, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    The east-central Great Basin near the Utah-Nevada border contains two great groundwater flow systems. The first, the White River regional groundwater flow system, consists of a string of hydraulically connected hydrographic basins in Nevada spanning about 270 miles from north to south. The northernmost basin is Long Valley and the southernmost basin is the Black Mountain area, a valley bordering the Colorado River. The general regional groundwater flow direction is north to south. The second flow system, the Great Salt Lake Desert regional groundwater flow system, consists of hydrographic basins that straddle

  2. Grass carp in the Great Lakes region: establishment potential, expert perceptions, and re-evaluation of experimental evidence of ecological impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Howeth, Jennifer G.; Maher, Sean P.; Deines, Andrew M.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Whitledge, Gregory W.; Burbank, Sarah B.; Chadderton, William L.; Mahon, Andrew R.; Tyson, Jeffrey T.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Keller, Reuben P.; Drake, John M.; Lodge, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Intentional introductions of nonindigenous fishes are increasing globally. While benefits of these introductions are easily quantified, assessments to understand the negative impacts to ecosystems are often difficult, incomplete, or absent. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was originally introduced to the United States as a biocontrol agent, and recent observations of wild, diploid individuals in the Great Lakes basin have spurred interest in re-evaluating its ecological risk. Here, we evaluate the ecological impact of grass carp using expert opinion and a suite of the most up-to-date analytical tools and data (ploidy assessment, eDNA surveillance, species distribution models (SDMs), and meta-analysis). The perceived ecological impact of grass carp by fisheries experts was variable, ranging from unknown to very high. Wild-caught triploid and diploid individuals occurred in multiple Great Lakes waterways, and eDNA surveillance suggests that grass carp are abundant in a major tributary of Lake Michigan. SDMs predicted suitable grass carp climate occurs in all Great Lakes. Meta-analysis showed that grass carp introductions impact both water quality and biota. Novel findings based on updated ecological impact assessment tools indicate that iterative risk assessment of introduced fishes may be warranted.

  3. Post-glacial recolonization of the Great Lakes region by the common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) inferred from mtDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placyk, John S; Burghardt, Gordon M; Small, Randall L; King, Richard B; Casper, Gary S; Robinson, Jace W

    2007-05-01

    Pleistocene events played an important role in the differentiation of North American vertebrate populations. Michigan, in particular, and the Great Lakes region, in general, were greatly influenced by the last glaciation. While several hypotheses regarding the recolonization of this region have been advanced, none have been strongly supported. We generated 148 complete ND2 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from common gartersnake (Thamnophis sirtalis) populations throughout the Great Lakes region to evaluate phylogeographic patterns and population structure and to determine whether the distribution of haplotypic variants is related to the post-Pleistocene retreat of the Wisconsinan glacier. The common gartersnake was utilized, as it is believed to have been one of the primary vertebrate invaders of the Great Lakes region following the most recent period of glacial retreat and because it has been a model species for a variety of evolutionary, ecological, behavioral, and physiological studies. Several genetically distinct evolutionary lineages were supported by both genealogical and molecular population genetic analyses, although to different degrees. The geographic distribution of the majority of these lineages is interpreted as reflecting post-glacial recolonization dynamics during the late Pleistocene. These findings generally support previous hypotheses of range expansion in this region.

  4. Cause-effect linkages between chemicals and populations of mink (Mustela vison) and otter (Lutra canadensis) in the Great Lakes basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, C.D. (Ecological Services for Planning Ltd., Guelph, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    Following outbreaks of reproductive failure in commercial ranching operations, laboratory experiments showed that mink are extremely sensitive to organochlorine chemicals, particularly PCBs and dioxins. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that, since wild mink are exposed to these compounds through consumption of Great Lakes fish, they might exhibit reproductive dysfunction and population declines. The otter, another piscivorous animal, should show the same effects. The available information is reviewed according to five epidemiological criteria. Harvest data are presented as a surrogate for the population status of mink and otters in certain locations around the Great Lakes. Data from Ohio show that the mink harvest between 1982 and 1987 from contaminated counties bordering Lake Erie was consistently lower than those from counties removed from Lake Erie, suggesting an effect of chemicals on the status of mink populations. Preliminary studies from Ontario also suggest that mink harvest is lower in potentially high PCB exposure areas compared with lower exposure areas. Evidence is also presented on the harvest data for otters taken from four New York State counties adjacent to Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. The harvest data from these four counties show that between 1960 and early 1970 otter harvest remained stable but has since increased. Increased harvest is consistent with improved water quality in Lake Ontario during the past 15 yr. Data relating to strength of association between chemicals and populations of mink and otter are weak and need to be further analyzed. The specificity of the effects of the chemicals on mink reproduction and mortality is well established from toxicological experiments, but there is poor resolution of the information on effects using field data. 104 references.

  5. Mercury Sources and Cycling in the Great Lakes: Dramatic Changes Resulting from Altered Atmospheric Loads and the Near-Shore Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; DeWild, J. F.; Maglio, M. M.; Tate, M. T.; Ogorek, J. M.; Hurley, J. P.; Lepak, R.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of the aquatic food webs across the Great Lakes remains a significant environmental issue. However, our ability to prescribe corrective actions has been significantly hampered by a scarcity of data, particularly for methylmercury (MeHg) the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of mercury in freshwater ecosystems. As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative initiated in 2010, a joint effort was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to improve our understanding of total Hg and MeHg concentrations and distributions in the Great Lakes. Since 2010, sampling surveys have been conducted at about 15-20 stations twice annually (April and August) at 15-20 stations per lake to collect data from both cold and warm water conditions. All sampling was conducted using trace-metal free protocols using a sampling rosette equipped with 12 Teflon-lined Niskin. Water samples were collected at predetermined depths: mid-epilimnion, mid-thermocline, deep chlorophyll layer, mid-hypolimnion, and about 2 meters above the bottom. Seston samples were collected from the top 20 meters using plankton nets, while bottom sediments and benthos samples were acquired using a ponar sampler. Water, biota, and sediment samples were all analyzed for Hg and MeHg concentration at the USGS Mercury Research Laboratory in Middleton, Wisconsin. Several important trends are apparent from the water column samples. First, most stations reveal a strong top-to-bottom declining trend total Hg concentration, underscoring the importance of atmospheric deposition to the Great Lakes. Methylmercury profiles, show maximal concentrations at the thermocline or deep chlorophyll layer, suggesting in situ water-column MeHg production. Calculations suggest this in-lake MeHg source is similar in magnitude to tributary loading of MeHg, which heretofore was thought to be the dominant MeHg source. Aqueous total Hg results also suggest that

  6. Seasonal Phenology and Life-History of Dendroctonus simplex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Great Lakes Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Fraser R; Aukema, Brian H

    2016-08-01

    The eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is distributed throughout the North American boreal forest sympatric with its primary host, the eastern larch or tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Outbreaks of eastern larch beetles are typically small and associated with stressed tamaracks. Since 2000, however, an outbreak has killed >90,000 ha of tamarack in Minnesota and surrounding Great Lakes region. Identifying the causes of this epidemic is challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the insect's biology. We present field data from 2011 to 2014 on degree days associated with spring emergence, dispersal, host colonization, and re-emergence from colonized hosts by mature adult beetles, as well as degree days associated with larval development, and prewinter emergence by adult progeny at study sites in northern Minnesota. After initial host colonization in early spring we found that a second brood was established in early summer by re-emerging parents. In 2012, a third brood was established. Across study years, first broods developed to adults by late summer, with many beetles relocating to the base of the host tree to overwinter. Second broods often reached adulthood and initiated prewinter emergence. The third brood of 2012 overwintered as adults, pupae, and late-instars, resuming development the following spring. Each spring, emergence of adult beetles from all broods established the previous year was highly synchronous. Knowledge of the biology of eastern larch beetles along the southern margin of their range aids in understanding how population dynamics may change with a changing climate. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Trends in the levels of halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes atmosphere over the period 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Salamova, Amina; Venier, Marta; Hites, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    Air (vapor and particle phase) samples were collected every 12days at five sites near the North American Great Lakes from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2013 as a part of the Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network (IADN). The concentrations of 35 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and eight other halogenated flame retardants were measured in each of the ~1,300 samples. The levels of almost all of these flame retardants, except for pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), hexabromobenzene (HBB), and Dechlorane Plus (DP), were significantly higher in Chicago, Cleveland, and Sturgeon Point. The concentrations of PBEB and HBB were relatively high at Eagle Harbor and Sturgeon Point, respectively, and the concentrations of DP were relatively high at Cleveland and Sturgeon Point, the two sites closest to this compound's production site. The data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression model to determine significant temporal trends in these atmospheric concentrations. The concentrations of PBDEs were decreasing at the urban sites, Chicago and Cleveland, but were generally unchanging at the remote sites, Sleeping Bear Dunes and Eagle Harbor. The concentrations of PBEB were decreasing at almost all sites except for Eagle Harbor, where the highest PBEB levels were observed. HBB concentrations were decreasing at all sites except for Sturgeon Point, where HBB levels were the highest. DP concentrations were increasing with doubling times of 3-9years at all sites except those closest to its source (Cleveland and Sturgeon Point). The levels of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (TBE) were unchanging at the urban sites, Chicago and Cleveland, but decreasing at the suburban and remote sites, Sturgeon Point and Eagle Harbor. The atmospheric concentrations of 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP) were increasing at almost every site with doubling times of 3-6years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical Characterization of Lipophilic Constituents in the Skin of Migratory Adult Sea Lamprey from the Great Lakes Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amila A Dissanayake

    Full Text Available The sea lamprey (Petromzons marinus is an invasive ectoparasite of large-bodied fishes that adversely affects the fishing industry and ecology of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lipid content in the whole sea lamprey and muscles, liver and kidney of metamorphosing larval stages has been reported. Similarly, the fatty acid profile of the rope tissues of sexually-mature male sea lampreys has also been reported. The average body weight of a sub-adult migratory sea lamprey is 250 g, which includes 14.4% skin (36 g. Our preliminary extraction data of an adult sea lamprey skin revealed that it contained approximately 8.5% of lipophilic compounds. Lamprey skin is home to a naturally aversive compound (an alarm cue that is being developed into a repellent for use in pest management. As part of an ongoing investigation to identify the chemical structure of the sea lamprey alarm cue, we extracted the skin with water and methanol, respectively. The methanolic extract (1.55% contained exclusively lipophilic compounds and did not include the alarm cue. We chemically characterized all compounds present in the methanolic extract as cholesterol esters (CE, tri- and di-glycerides (TG and DG, cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFA and minor amounts of plasticizers. The free fatty acids fraction was composed of saturated (41.8%, monounsaturated (40.7% and polyunsaturated (17.4% fatty acids, respectively. The plasticizers characterized were phthalate and benzoate and found to be 0.95 mg and 2.54 mg, respectively, per adult sea lamprey skin. This is the first report of the chemical characterization of all the lipophilic constituents in the skin of sub-adult migratory sea lamprey. The CEs isolated and characterized from sea lamprey skin are also for the first time.

  9. Contaminated sediments from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Chemical characterization and carcinogenic effects in medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Harshbarger, John C.; Peterman, Paul H.; Lebo, Jon A.

    1991-01-01

    Sediments from four inshore industrial sites and a reference site in the Great Lakes were extracted with organic solvents to produce a crude extract, which was separated on alumina into two fractions: predominantly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and predominantly nitrogencontaining polycyclic aromatic compounds. Crude extracts were redissolved in acetone and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acetone-redissolved crude extracts from the four industrialized sites contained 5.6–313.3 μg total polycyclic aromatic compounds/g sediment and 3.0–36.4 μg other compounds/g sediment. In addition to the typical EPA priority pollutants, a substantial amount (228.7 μg/g sediment) of alkyl-polycyclic-aromatic compounds was detected in sediments from one of the industrialized sites. Extracts from the reference site contained 1.55 μg total polycyclic aromatic compounds/ g sediment. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to multiple pulse doses of acetone-redissolved extracts and fractions. Medaka were also exposed to a known carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate, to verify that chemicals produced tumors in the test fish. Acetone-redissolved extracts and fractions from contaminated sediments were toxic to medaka. Fin erosion and non-neoplastic liver abnormalities were more prevalent in medaka after exposure to acetoneredissolved extracts and fractions from contaminated sediments. Neoplasms previously associated with chemical exposure in wild fishes were induced in medaka exposed to acetone-redissolved extracts and fractions from two of the contaminated sites, but not from the reference site or controls. These findings further support the hypothesis that chemical contaminants in sediments are involved in epizootics of neoplasms in wild fishes at contaminated sites.

  10. Ubiquitous influence of wildfire emissions and secondary organic aerosol on summertime atmospheric aerosol in the forested Great Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, Matthew J.; May, Nathaniel W.; Wen, Miao; Bottenus, Courtney L. H.; Gardner, Daniel J.; VanReken, Timothy M.; Bertman, Steven B.; Hopke, Philip K.; Ault, Andrew P.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2018-03-01

    Long-range aerosol transport affects locations hundreds of kilometers from the point of emission, leading to distant particle sources influencing rural environments that have few major local sources. Source apportionment was conducted using real-time aerosol chemistry measurements made in July 2014 at the forested University of Michigan Biological Station near Pellston, Michigan, a site representative of the remote forested Great Lakes region. Size-resolved chemical composition of individual 0.5-2.0 µm particles was measured using an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS), and non-refractory aerosol mass less than 1 µm (PM1) was measured with a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The field site was influenced by air masses transporting Canadian wildfire emissions and urban pollution from Milwaukee and Chicago. During wildfire-influenced periods, 0.5-2.0 µm particles were primarily aged biomass burning particles (88 % by number). These particles were heavily coated with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed during transport, with organics (average O/C ratio of 0.8) contributing 89 % of the PM1 mass. During urban-influenced periods, organic carbon, elemental carbon-organic carbon, and aged biomass burning particles were identified, with inorganic secondary species (ammonium, sulfate, and nitrate) contributing 41 % of the PM1 mass, indicative of atmospheric processing. With current models underpredicting organic carbon in this region and biomass burning being the largest combustion contributor to SOA by mass, these results highlight the importance for regional chemical transport models to accurately predict the impact of long-range transported particles on air quality in the upper Midwest, United States, particularly considering increasing intensity and frequency of Canadian wildfires.

  11. [FeFe]-Hydrogenase Abundance and Diversity along a Vertical Redox Gradient in Great Salt Lake, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Boyd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes for the biotechnological production of H2 or other reduced products has been limited by their sensitivity to oxygen (O2. Here, we apply a PCR-directed approach to determine the distribution, abundance, and diversity of hydA gene fragments along co-varying salinity and O2 gradients in a vertical water column of Great Salt Lake (GSL, UT. The distribution of hydA was constrained to water column transects that had high salt and relatively low O2 concentrations. Recovered HydA deduced amino acid sequences were enriched in hydrophilic amino acids relative to HydA from less saline environments. In addition, they harbored interesting variations in the amino acid environment of the complex H-cluster metalloenzyme active site and putative gas transfer channels that may be important for both H2 transfer and O2 susceptibility. A phylogenetic framework was created to infer the accessory cluster composition and quaternary structure of recovered HydA protein sequences based on phylogenetic relationships and the gene contexts of known complete HydA sequences. Numerous recovered HydA are predicted to harbor multiple N- and C-terminal accessory iron-sulfur cluster binding domains and are likely to exist as multisubunit complexes. This study indicates an important role for [FeFe]-hydrogenases in the functioning of the GSL ecosystem and provides new target genes and variants for use in identifying O2 tolerant enzymes for biotechnological applications.

  12. Spatial patterns and temporal trends in mercury concentrations, precipitation depths, and mercury wet deposition in the North American Great Lakes region, 2002–2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risch, Martin R.; Gay, David A.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Keeler, Gerard J.; Backus, Sean M.; Blanchard, Pierrette; Barres, James A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Annual and weekly mercury (Hg) concentrations, precipitation depths, and Hg wet deposition in the Great Lakes region were analyzed by using data from 5 monitoring networks in the USA and Canada for a 2002–2008 study period. High-resolution maps of calculated annual data, 7-year mean data, and net interannual change for the study period were prepared to assess spatial patterns. Areas with 7-year mean annual Hg concentrations higher than the 12 ng per liter water-quality criterion were mapped in 4 states. Temporal trends in measured weekly data were determined statistically. Monitoring sites with significant 7-year trends in weekly Hg wet deposition were spatially separated and were not sites with trends in weekly Hg concentration. During 2002–2008, Hg wet deposition was found to be unchanged in the Great Lakes region and its subregions. Any small decreases in Hg concentration apparently were offset by increases in precipitation. - Highlights: ► Data from 5 Hg and precipitation networks in the USA and Canada were combined for the first time. ► High-resolution maps and statistical trends tests were used for spatial and temporal data analysis. ► Some 7-year mean annual Hg concentrations exceeded a 12 ng per liter water-quality criterion. ► Small, localized decreases in Hg concentration were offset by increases in precipitation. ► Hg wet deposition was unchanged in the Great Lakes region and its subregions during 2002–2008. - Analysis of monitoring data from 5 networks in the USA and Canada determined that mercury wet deposition was unchanged in the North American Great Lakes region during 2002–2008.

  13. Gene expression of benthic amphipods (genus: Diporeia in relation to a circular ssDNA virus across two Laurentian Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalia S.I. Bistolas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Circular rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA viruses are common constituents of invertebrate viral consortia. Despite their ubiquity and sequence diversity, the effects of CRESS-DNA viruses on invertebrate biology and ecology remain largely unknown. This study assessed the relationship between the transcriptional profile of benthic amphipods of genus Diporeia and the presence of the CRESS-DNA virus, LM29173, in the Laurentian Great Lakes to provide potential insight into the influence of these viruses on invertebrate gene expression. Twelve transcriptomes derived from Diporeia were compared, representing organisms from two amphipod haplotype clades (Great Lakes Michigan and Superior, defined by COI barcode sequencing with varying viral loads (up to 3 × 106 genome copies organism−1. Read recruitment to de novo assembled transcripts revealed 2,208 significantly over or underexpressed contigs in transcriptomes with above average LM29173 load. Of these contigs, 31.5% were assigned a putative function. The greatest proportion of annotated, differentially expressed transcripts were associated with functions including: (1 replication, recombination, and repair, (2 cell structure/biogenesis, and (3 post-translational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones. Contigs putatively associated with innate immunity displayed no consistent pattern of expression, though several transcripts were significantly overexpressed in amphipods with high viral load. Quantitation (RT-qPCR of target transcripts, non-muscular myosin heavy chain, β-actin, and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, corroborated transcriptome analysis and indicated that Lake Michigan and Lake Superior amphipods with high LM29173 load exhibit lake-specific trends in gene expression. While this investigation provides the first comparative survey of the transcriptional profile of invertebrates of variable CRESS-DNA viral load, additional inquiry is required to define the scope of host

  14. Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus export regimes in agricultural streams of the Upper Mississippi and Great Lakes Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, S. M.; Robertson, D.; Tank, J.

    2012-12-01

    Transport of excess fertilizer runoff from agricultural lands to adjacent water bodies can fluctuate substantially among years. Studies of large basins (e.g., Mississippi R.) have shown that inter-annual variation in river nutrient export is strongly related to annual precipitation or discharge. However, other environmental factors affect this variation, which should also differ among constituents. We used 20 year records of annual nutrient yield (Y), water yield (Q), and mean flow-weighted annual concentration (C=Y/Q) to characterize total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) export regimes of small and intermediate sized catchments (n>200) in the Upper Mississippi and Great Lakes Basins. We examined two main criteria: slope of the C~Q relationship (slope), and strength of the C~Q relationship (r). We chose qualitative thresholds for these criteria (slope 1, concentrating; r weak Y~Q relationship; r >0.5 strong Y~Q relationship) which bound distinct quadrants (classes) in export regime space. For example, catchments with slope>1 and r>0.5 (export regime class: strongly concentrating) are prone to episodic transport of TN or TP which is tightly linked to Q. We found that all four export regime classes were represented by streams in the study region. For both TN and TP, most sites had positive, significant slope, including several high values (r =2-10) which indicate a tendency for episodic transport. slope ≤0 and non-significant slope were more common for TN than for TP. Future work will examine effects of landscape factors on Y, including those associated with increased water residence time in stream networks (e.g., surface water coverage, wetland coverage) as well as decreased water residence time (e.g., catchment slope, crop coverage, presence of tile drainage) which may dampen or amplify Y variability. Quantifying linkages between landscape characteristics and stream export regime could strengthen our ability to predict the dynamics of manure and

  15. Climatic gradients and human development pressure determine spatial patterns of forest fragmentation in the Great Lakes basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. S.; Hart, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of temperate forest area globally has been fragmented or deforested by human activities. Our objective was to gain insight into the combination of climatic, ecological, and social factors that control complex spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation at the regional scale. Our study area was the US portion of the land area of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (USGL basin) of the Upper Midwest, USA, covering ca. 300,000 km2 and home to 25 million people. While this region was historically forested, today there are regional gradients in forest cover as well as complex spatial patterns of agriculture, human settlements, and tree cover. This includes large expanses of fragmented forests in the wildland-urban interface or the forest transition zone. We used structural equation modeling to test models of social and climatic-ecological factors to explain spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation. This is a model-driven approach to statistical analysis that is used to test proposed causal "structures" of direct and indirect relationships among variables. It is an innovative approach that makes use of large spatial datasets to test understanding. We assembled numerous spatial data layers at 1 km2 resolution across the USGL basin. We found that 64% to 75% of variance in tree cover and forest connectivity was explained through a relatively simple model combining climatic gradients and human development pressure. Human development pressure was best represented as a measurement model that explained 45% of variance in road density and 87% of housing unit density, while significantly explaining patterns of forest fragmentation. Climate could be represented by a single variable, temperature: where temperature was higher, tree cover and forest connectivity was lower due to human land use. Temperatures did not help to explain patterns of human development as roads and housing, but did affect forest fragmentation through land use as cropland. This suggests

  16. The estimation of the surface energy balance of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes using satellite remote sensing and MERRA reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukomla, Sitthisak

    The Surface Energy Balance (SEB) of the Great Lakes (GL) is a key to understanding the effects of climate change on the GL. There is a high possibility of underestimating the SEB of the GL when using existing methodologies with inputs from near-shore and land-based meteorological data. This study provides the first technique to investigate the SEB over the GL from July 2001 to December 2014 using a combination of data from satellite remote sensing, reanalysis data sets, and direct measurements. The pixel-based Great Lake Surface Temperature (GLST) under all-sky conditions were well correlated with the in situ observations (R2 = 0.9102) with a cool bias of -1.10 °C and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.39 °C. Contrary to expectations, the long-term trends of GLST decreased slightly due to the impact of an anomalously cold winter in 2013-2014. The components of the surface radiation budget estimated from the proposed method showed a good statistical agreement. Monthly spatial variations of net shortwave radiation varied with cloud cover and surface albedo while net longwave radiation varied with the temperature difference between the water surface and the atmosphere. We evaluated the feasibility of three different techniques for the estimation of the turbulent heat fluxes over the GL: i) the Bowen Ratio Energy Balance method; ii) the bulk aerodynamic approach and; iii) turbulent fluxes from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective Analysis). Turbulent heat fluxes from those methods were compared with the direct eddy covariance measurements. The best statistical agreement amongst the three approaches was the bulk aerodynamic approach. Turbulent fluxes estimate from MERRA were not recommended due to the poor statistic agreement with the direct measurements. Using the bulk aerodynamic or direct eddy covariance measurements, the over-lake evaporation peaked during winter. From MERRA, the over-lake precipitation is uniformly spread throughout the year. The Great Lakes Net

  17. Holocene Paleoenvironment of the North-central Great Basin: Preliminary Results from Favre Lake, Northern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, S.; Wahl, D.; Wan, E.; Anderson, L.; Wanket, J.; Olson, H.; Lloyd-Davies, T.; Kusler, J.

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about Holocene climate variability in north-central Nevada. This study aims to assess changes in watershed vegetation, fire history, lake levels and limnological conditions in order to understand secular to millennial-scale changes in regional climate. Favre Lake (2,899 m a.s.l.; 12 m deep; 7.7 hectares) is a flow-through lake in the northern Ruby Mountains. The primary sources of influent, both of which appear to be intermittent, are Castle Lake (2,989 m a.s.l.) and Liberty Lake (3,077 m a.s.l.). The bedrock of the three lake basins is early Paleozoic marble and Mesozoic granite and metamorphic rocks. Bathymetric maps and temperature, pH, salinity, and conductivity profiles have been generated for Favre Lake. Surface samples and a series of cores were also collected using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The presence of the Mazama ash in the basal sediment (~4 m below the sediment/water interface) indicates the record extends to ~7,700 cal yr B.P. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and loss-on-ignition data indicate that the sediments in the lowest part of the core contain primary and reworked Mazama ash. About 2,000 years ago CaCO3 increased from 2 to 3% of the inorganic sediment. The upper 25 cm of the core are marked by an increase in MS which may indicate increased erosion due to grazing. Between about 7,700 and 6,000 cal yr B.P. the diatom flora is dominated by a diverse assemblage of benthic species. The remainder of the core is dominated by Fragilaria, suggesting that lake level rose and flooded the shelf that surrounds the depocenter of the lake. This is supported by changes in the abundance of the aquatic fern Isoetes. Pinus and Artemisia dominate the pollen record, followed by subordinate levels of Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, and Sarcobatus. The late early Holocene (7,700-6,000 cal yr B.P.) is dominated by Pinus which is present in reduced amounts during the middle Holocene (6,000-3,000 cal yr B.P.) and then returns to dominance in

  18. An Integrated Approach for Identifying Priority Contaminant in the Great Lakes Basin –Investigations in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River and Milwaukee Estuary Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Prioritization of chemicals was performed on two Areas of Concerns in the Great Lakes An integrated risk surveillance and monitoring approach was applied Bio-effect...

  19. Sound velocity, temperature, and salinity profiles from underway vessel profiler and CTD casts by Navigation Response Team 4 in the Great Lakes area from 19 June 2008 to 15 October 2008 (NODC Accession 0049268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical oceanographic data were collected by Navigation Response Team 4 in the Great Lakes area from 19 June 2008 to 15 October 2008. Data were collected from CTD...

  20. Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Erie and Lake Saint Clair has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and...

  1. 76 FR 8353 - Notice of Information for Additional NEPA Public Scoping Meetings for the Great Lakes and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ..., etc. USACE will conduct a comprehensive analysis of ANS controls and will analyze the effects an ANS... through the project website may be given a preference over those that register to make oral comments at... uses of the lakes and waterways; ANS effects on water users; effects of potential ANS controls on...

  2. 77 FR 38043 - Great Lakes Hydro America, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ..., LLC, 1024 Central Street, Millinocket, ME 04462, (207) 723-4341, Ext. 118. i. FERC Contact: John K. Novak, (202) 502-6076, john[email protected] . j. Deadline for filing comments, motions to intervene, and... propagation of wild lake trout has not been successful after several years of controlling the reservoir levels...

  3. Data use investigations for applications Explorer Mission A (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission): HCMM's role in studies of the urban heat island, Great Lakes thermal phenomena and radiometric calibration of satellite data. [Buffalo, Syracuse, and Rochester New York and Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, J. R. (Principal Investigator); Schimminger, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of data from NASA'a heat capacity mapping mission satellite for studies of the urban heat island, thermal phenomena in large lakes and radiometric calibration of satellite sensors was assessed. The data were found to be of significant value in all cases. Using HCMM data, the existence and microstructure of the heat island can be observed and associated with land cover within the urban complex. The formation and development of the thermal bar in the Great Lakes can be observed and quantitatively mapped using HCMM data. In addition, the thermal patterns observed can be associated with water quality variations observed both from other remote sensing platforms and in situ. The imaging radiometer on-board the HCMM satellite is shown to be calibratible to within about 1.1 C of actual surface temperatures. These findings, as well as the analytical procedures used in studying the HCMM data, are included.

  4. Bathymetry of Lake Superior

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Superior has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  5. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Ontario has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it mor