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Sample records for sport performance research

  1. Twenty-five years of sport performance research in the Journal of Sports Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Alan; Atkinson, Greg; Hughes, Mike

    2008-02-15

    In this historical review covering the past 25 years, we reflect on the content of manuscripts relevant to the Sport Performance section of the Journal of Sports Sciences. Due to the wide diversity of sport performance research, the remit of the Sport Performance section has been broad and includes mathematical and statistical evaluation of competitive sports performances, match- and notation-analysis, talent identification, training and selection or team organization. In addition, due to the academic interests of its section editors, they adopted a quality-assurance role for the Sport Performance section, invariably communicated through key editorials that subsequently shaped the editorial policy of the Journal. Key high-impact manuscripts are discussed, providing readers with some insight into what might lead an article to become a citation "classic". Finally, landmark articles in the areas of "science and football" and "notation analysis" are highlighted, providing further insight into how such articles have contributed to the development of sport performance research in general and the Journal of Sports Sciences in particular.

  2. Caffeine and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2008-12-01

    Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.

  3. Aleatorism and Sporting Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosiewicz Jerzy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.

  4. SPORTS JOURNALISM AND MEDIA RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velizar Sredanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Communicology theoreticians, sociologists, and sports experts strive to explain significance of sport, power and influence of media (TV in particular and sports journalism through analysis of media and viewers. Phenomena observed on number of football (soccer and Olympic games through a prism of media research of the Television of Montenegro.

  5. Examination of the Relationship between Organizational Stress and Employee Performance: A Research on Staff Working on Provincial Directorate of Youth and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksel, Ali Gurel; Caz, Cagdas; Yazici, Omer Faruk; Ikizler, Huseyin Can

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the relation between the level of organizational stress at the staff of the Youth Services and Sports Provincial Directorate and their performance. The study group of research, Istanbul province in the Uskudar district officials operating in the Youth Services and Sports Provincial Directorate constitute a…

  6. Researching Sport Education Appreciatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…

  7. Examining multidimensional sport-confidence in athletes and non-athlete sport performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Moe; Otten, Mark; Magyar, T Michelle; Vealey, Robin S; Ward, Rose Marie

    2017-03-01

    Sport-confidence is considered a critical success factor for sport performers at all levels. Researchers have suggested that sport-confidence is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional construct, and the sport-confidence model identified three types of sport-confidence (i.e., physical skills and training, cognitive efficiency, and resilience) that are important for success in sport. However, such multidimensionality of sport-confidence and its measurement have not been fully examined. On a large sample of sport performers with varied skill levels and characteristics, the purpose of the present study was to examine the three-factor model of sport-confidence. We tested the measurement invariance of the Sport-Confidence Inventory across 512 athletes and 1170 non-athlete sport performers. Results from the multiple group model analysis showed that the three-factor model of sport-confidence fit better for the athlete sample than for the non-athlete sample. The results implicate that the three-factor model of sport-confidence model is suitable to athletes, though sport-confidence may appear more unidimensional for non-athletes. The use of the Sport-Confidence Inventory for non-athlete sport performers demands further consideration; however, the findings implicate that it could be a useful tool to assess sport-confidence of sport performers at any levels.

  8. Managing Excellence in Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, John W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Conceptualizes excellence in sports performance and suggests that there is a failure to distinguish between community recreation and performance sports as well as lack of knowledge about talent identification. Proposes a structure for management and investment in education and training in the field. (SK)

  9. Nutrition and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherhood, J R

    1984-01-01

    During the past 20 years there have been great developments in the scientific understanding of the role of nutrition in health and physical performance. Epidemiological and physiological studies have provided evidence that certain forms of dietary behaviour may be linked with an increased risk of developing disorders such as high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and some cancers. This has resulted in dietary recommendations that are intended to reduce the incidence of these disorders in the community. The science of nutrition in relation to sports performance has progressed from empirical studies investigating the effects of dietary manipulations, such as restriction and supplementation, to the direct investigation of the physiological basis of the specific nutritional demands of hard physical exercise. This review is based on the premise that it is "what comes out' rather than "what goes in', which provides the clues to ideal nutrition for athletic performance. Various aspects of the physical demands of athletic exercise are viewed as stresses that induce specific biochemical, and hence nutritional, strains in the athlete. Training is the predominant demand in the athletic lifestyle. This is characterised by acute bouts of high power output. During one hour of hard training an athlete may expend 30% of his or her total 24-hour energy output. These high power outputs have important implications for energy substrate and water requirements. Carbohydrate, specifically muscle glycogen, is an obligatory fuel for the high power outputs demanded by athletic sports. Muscle glycogen is a limiting factor in hard exercise because it is held in limited amounts, utilised rapidly by intense exercise, and fatigue occurs when it is depleted to low levels in the active muscles. Liver glycogen may also be exhausted by hard exercise and low blood glucose contributes to fatigue. High sweat rates are demanded during severe exercise and large water deficits commensurate with

  10. GENETIC ASPECTS OF SPORTS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Ebru KOKU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As participation in both amateur and professional sports increases, so does the importance of sports performance and the factors influencing it. Determinants of success in sports can be classified as training, genetic, epigenetic, dietary, motivational, equipment and other environmental factors. The effect of genetics on sports performance and skill has been examined for many years. Autosomal genes, mitochondrial DNA and various genes located in the Y chromosome have all been associated with sports performance. It is not possible to link physical performance to a single genetic polymorphism. Genes that have been most extensively studied in their relation to performance include ACE, ACTN3, ADRA2A, ADRB2, PPARA, PPARGC1A, AMPD1, HIF1A, NOS3, BDKRB2, VEGFR2 and VEGFA. For the time being, genetic screening tests may be useful in determining the weaknesses and strengths of a sportsperson, but not in predicting athletic success.

  11. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR FIELD SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book covers the various sport science assessment procedures for sports such as soccer, rugby, field hockey and lacrosse. It provides detailed and clear information about laboratory and field-based methods that can be used to assess and improve both individual and team performance. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a contemporary reference tool for selection of appropriate testing procedures for sports across a range of scientific disciplines. FEATURES The text begins with a chapter on the rationales for performance assessments, the use of technology and the necessity for procedures to conform to scientific rigor, explaining the importance of test criteria. This chapter ends by emphasizing the importance of the feedback process and vital considerations for the practitioner when interpreting the data, selecting which information is most important and how to deliver this back to the athlete or coach in order to deliver a positive performance outcome. The next two chapters focus on psychological assessments with respect to skill acquisition, retention and execution providing a variety of qualitative and quantitative options, underpinned with scientific theory and contextualized in order to improve the understanding of the application of these methods to improve anticipation and decision-making to enhance game intelligence.Chapter 4 provides coverage of match analysis techniques in order to make assessments of technical, tactical and physical performances. Readers learn about a series of methodologies ranging from simplistic pen and paper options through to sophisticated technological systems with some exemplar data also provided. Chapters 5 through 7 cover the physiological based assessments, including aerobic, anaerobic and anthropometric procedures. Each chapter delivers a theoretical opening section before progressing to various assessment options and the authors make great efforts to relate to sport-specific settings. The final

  12. An applied research model for the sport sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2008-01-01

    Sport science can be thought of as a scientific process used to guide the practice of sport with the ultimate aim of improving sporting performance. However, despite this goal, the general consensus is that the translation of sport-science research to practice is poor. Furthermore, researchers have been criticised for failing to study problems relevant to practitioners and for disseminating findings that are difficult to implement within a practical setting. This paper proposes that the situation may be improved by the adoption of a model that guides the direction of research required to build our evidence base about how to improve performance. Central to the Applied Research Model for the Sport Sciences (ARMSS) described in this report is the idea that only research leading to practices that can and will be adopted can improve sporting performance. The eight stages of the proposed model are (i) defining the problem; (ii) descriptive research; (iii) predictors of performance; (iv) experimental testing of predictors; (v) determinants of key performance predictors; (vi) efficacy studies; (vii) examination of barriers to uptake; and (viii) implementation studies in a real sporting setting. It is suggested that, from the very inception, researchers need to consider how their research findings might ultimately be adapted to the intended population, in the actual sporting setting, delivered by persons with diverse training and skills, and using the available resources. It is further argued in the model that a greater understanding of the literature and more mechanistic studies are essential to inform subsequent research conducted in real sporting settings. The proposed ARMSS model therefore calls for a fundamental change in the way in which many sport scientists think about the research process. While there is no guarantee that application of this proposed research model will improve actual sports performance, anecdotal evidence suggests that sport-science research is

  13. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements

  14. A review of research in sports physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakeman, P M; Winter, E M; Doust, J

    1994-02-01

    The physiology of sport encompasses a wide and diverse range of scientific interests. The intention, and major challenge of the review, is to collate the most pertinent of these interests into a coherent strategy for future research in sports physiology. The unifying concept of this review is the potential contribution of future research in sports physiology to the development of the elite competitor. The review promotes this theme through an indepth appraisal of current knowledge and identification of key areas of research that would most profitably advance the understanding and application of sports physiology. Central to this theme are the physiological limitations to exercise performance of the elite competitor and the adaptation of these physiological systems to further training, possibly leading to overtraining. Indeed, the potential to adapt to, or recover from, the ever increasing demands of training and competition is considered in sections on the development of strength and power, the child athlete and the limitations to performance in multiple sprint activities such as hockey and football. Throughout the review it is recognized that sports physiology is increasingly reliant upon advances in analytical techniques and quantitative measurement. Physiological measurement, the validity and accuracy of present and future procedures, and the correct interpretation of these data are therefore considered in detail in the final section of the review.

  15. Evaluating judge performance in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A

    2004-01-01

    Many sports, such as, gymnastics, diving, ski jumping, and figure skating, use judges' scores to determine the winner of a competition. These judges use some type of rating scale when judging performances (e.g., figure skating: 0.0 - 6.0). Sport governing bodies have the responsibility of setting and enforcing quality control parameters for judge performance. Given the judging scandals in figure skating at the 1998 and 2002 Olympics, judge performance in sport is receiving greater scrutiny. The purpose of this article is to illustrate how results from Rasch analyses can be used to provide in-depth feedback to judges about their scoring patterns. Nine judges' scores for 20 pairs of figure skaters who competed at the 2002 Winter Olympics were analyzed using a four-faceted (skater pair ability, skating aspect difficulty, program difficulty, and judge severity) Rasch rating scale model that was not common to all judges. Fit statistics, the logical ordering of skating aspects, skating programs, and separation indices all indicated a good fit of the data to the model. The type of feedback that can be given to judges about their scoring pattern was illustrated for one judge (USA) whose performance was flagged as being unpredictable. Feedback included a detailed description of how the rating scale was used; for example, 10% of all marks given by the American judge were unexpected by the model (Z > |2|). Three figures illustrated differences between the judge's observed and expected marks arranged according to the pairs' skating order and final placement in the competition. Scores which may represent "nationalistic bias" or a skating order influence were flagged by looking at these figures. If sport governing bodies wish to improve the performance of their judges, they need to employ methods that monitor the internal consistency of each judge as a many-facet Rasch analysis does.

  16. Sports-science roundtable: does sports-science research influence practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David; Burnett, Angus; Farrow, Damian; Gabbett, Tim; Newton, Robert

    2006-06-01

    As sports scientists, we claim to make a significant contribution to the body of knowledge that influences athletic practice and performance. Is this the reality? At the inaugural congress of the Australian Association for Exercise and Sports Science, a panel of well-credentialed academic experts with experience in the applied environment debated the question, Does sports-science research influence practice? The first task was to define "sports-science research," and it was generally agreed that it is concerned with providing evidence that improves sports performance. When practices are equally effective, sports scientists also have a role in identifying practices that are safer, more time efficient, and more enjoyable. There were varying views on the need for sports-science research to be immediately relevant to coaches or athletes. Most agreed on the importance of communicating the results of sports-science research, not only to the academic community but also to coaches and athletes, and the need to encourage both short- and long-term research. The panelists then listed examples of sports-science research that they believe have influenced practice, as well as strategies to ensure that sports-science research better influences practice.

  17. High-performance sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Cathy

    2013-02-01

    High performance sports medicine involves the medical care of athletes, who are extraordinary individuals and who are exposed to intensive physical and psychological stresses during training and competition. The physician has a broad remit and acts as a 'medical guardian' to optimise health while minimising risks. This review describes this interesting field of medicine, its unique challenges and priorities for the physician in delivering best healthcare.

  18. Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellmann, Michael; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bosquet, Laurent; Brink, Michel; Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob; Erlacher, Daniel; Halson, Shona L; Hecksteden, Anne; Heidari, Jahan; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Meeusen, Romain; Mujika, Iñigo; Robazza, Claudio; Skorski, Sabrina; Venter, Ranel; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, some important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.

  19. Paralympic sport: an emerging area for research and consultancy in sports biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-09-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.

  20. Relationship between sport knowledge, sport performance and academic ability: empirical evidence from GCSE Physical Education. General Certificate of Secondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, T

    1999-04-01

    The literature concerning links between sport knowledge, sport performance and academic ability is reviewed and related to empirical evidence obtained from a GCSE examination in Physical Education, together with GCSE Mathematics and GCSE English grades. For most sports examined, there was a small but significant positive correlation between sport performance and GCSE Mathematics and English grades, confirming the findings of most previous research. Using a multilevel multivariate model, average sport performance, academic ability and sex were important explanatory variables for sport knowledge, yet only academic ability was an important explanatory variable for the concept of physical education knowledge. Ability in game sports, rather than athletics, were related to sport knowledge. Males scored higher for sport knowledge than females, after taking into account sport performance and academic ability. The effects of sport performance and academic ability on sport knowledge were stable across schools, but there was some evidence that the effect of sex varied across schools. These findings support theories of a role for sport knowledge in sport performance; that such a role should be greater in game sports; that academic ability is important for gaining such knowledge; and they highlight differences in sport knowledge between the sexes.

  1. A profile of sports science research (1983-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen John; Kendall, Lawrence R

    2007-08-01

    A majority of sports science research is undertaken in universities and dedicated research centres, such as institutes of sport. Reviews of literature analysing and categorising research have been carried out, but categories identified have been limited to research design and data gathering techniques. Hence there is a need to include categories such as discipline, subjects and targeted sport. A study was conducted using document analysis method to gather data that described and categorised performance-based sports science research projects in Australian universities and institutes of sport. An instrument was designed that could be used by researchers to analyse and profile research in the area of sports science. The instrument contained six categories: targeted sport, primary study area, participant type, research setting, methodology and data gathering techniques. Research documents analysed consisted of 725 original unpublished research reports/theses. Results showed that over two-thirds of research projects were targeted to specific sports and, of this group, nearly half involved four sports: cycling, rowing, athletics and swimming. Overall, physiology was the most researched scientific discipline. The most frequently used research method was experimental design, and the most frequently used data gathering technique was physiological (performance) measures. Two-thirds of research was conducted in laboratory settings, and nearly half of the research was conducted with elite or sub-elite athletes as participants/subjects. The findings of this study provide an overall synopsis of performance-based sports science research conducted in Australia over the last 20 years, and should be of considerable importance in the ongoing development of sports science research policy in Australia.

  2. Oxytocin and the biopsychology of performance in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.

  3. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert-Jan Pepping

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.

  4. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498

  5. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  6. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  7. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  8. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200

  9. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.

  10. Towards a Grand Unified Theory of sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Paul S

    2017-12-01

    Sports performance is generally considered to be governed by a range of interacting physiological, biomechanical, and psychological variables, amongst others. Despite sports performance being multi-factorial, however, the majority of performance-oriented sports science research has predominantly been monodisciplinary in nature, presumably due, at least in part, to the lack of a unifying theoretical framework required to integrate the various subdisciplines of sports science. In this target article, I propose a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) of sports performance-and, by elaboration, sports science-based around the constraints framework introduced originally by Newell (1986). A central tenet of this GUT is that, at both the intra- and inter-individual levels of analysis, patterns of coordination and control, which directly determine the performance outcome, emerge from the confluence of interacting organismic, environmental, and task constraints via the formation and self-organisation of coordinative structures. It is suggested that this GUT could be used to: foster interdisciplinary research collaborations; break down the silos that have developed in sports science and restore greater disciplinary balance to the field; promote a more holistic understanding of sports performance across all levels of analysis; increase explanatory power of applied research work; provide stronger rationale for data collection and variable selection; and direct the development of integrated performance monitoring technologies. This GUT could also provide a scientifically rigorous basis for integrating the subdisciplines of sports science in applied sports science support programmes adopted by high-performance agencies and national governing bodies for various individual and team sports. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological Validity in Understanding Sport Performance: Some Problems of Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Keith

    1988-01-01

    The article attempts to identify and define some of the most important criteria underpinning ecologically valid research in sport psychology. Vision and sport performance is used as an exemplary area for examination of issues. It is concluded that more debate must be stimulated concerning this important methodological principle. (Author/CB)

  12. Marketing research for organizers of sports events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing research, which provide the data and the information for the decision making process, are essential for organizers of sport events, especially to the organizers of the most significant ones. The mentioned marketing research involves: research of the local market, visitors satisfaction research, evaluation of sponsorship effectiveness, research of the sport events economic influence on the local community or host cities, event host attitudes examination-local population and so on. The marketing research process, for the sport event organizers of needs, involves several steps, such as: goal definition, choice of the research method, research instruments determination, interviewer education, information gathering, data processing, data report, conclusions.

  13. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Who's on First? Gender Differences in Performance on the "SAT"® Test on Critical Reading Items with Sports and Science Content. Research Report. ETS RR-16-26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubbuck, Kay; Curley, W. Edward; King, Teresa C.

    2016-01-01

    This study gathered quantitative and qualitative evidence concerning gender differences in performance by using critical reading material on the "SAT"® test with sports and science content. The fundamental research questions guiding the study were: If sports and science are to be included in a skills test, what kinds of material are…

  15. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1. The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2. How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3. How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4. General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5. An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  16. ISSN exercise & sport nutrition review: research & recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper is a five year update of the sports nutrition review article published as the lead paper to launch the JISSN in 2004 and presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training and athletic performance through nutrition. More specifically, this paper provides an overview of: 1.) The definitional category of ergogenic aids and dietary supplements; 2.) How dietary supplements are legally regulated; 3.) How to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 4.) General nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 5.) An overview of our current understanding of the ergogenic value of nutrition and dietary supplementation in regards to weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement. Our hope is that ISSN members and individuals interested in sports nutrition find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients. PMID:20181066

  17. A conceptual framework of organizational stressors in sport performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D; Hanton, S; Mellalieu, S D; Neil, R

    2012-08-01

    In the study reported here, 12 sport performers (six elite and six non-elite) were interviewed with regard to organizational-related issues they had experienced in preparation for competition. Grounded theory procedures facilitated the development of a conceptual framework of organizational stressors consisting of five general dimensions: factors intrinsic to the sport, roles in the sport organization, sport relationships and interpersonal demands, athletic career and performance development issues, and organizational structure and climate of the sport. The data indicate that the stressors were encountered proportionately more by elite performers (#EPOS=315) than non-elite performers (#NPOS=228) with some demands being in common and some unique to each group. The results are discussed in relation to previous research and regarding their implications for professional practice. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Contemporary Research in Sports Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume comprises scientific contributions in the context of the 5th annual conference of the European Association of Sports Economics (ESEA), which took place in September 2013 in Esbjerg, Denmark. It contains five articles on UEFA’s financial fair play regulation in European football, written...... by internationally renowned sports economists like Stefan Szymanski, Joel Maxcy and Sean Hamil. Moreover, a further three chapters deal with football topics like the dismissal of coaches or competitive balance. Furthermore, the economics of sports events – the Olympics as well as local events – are analyzed by well......-known scholars like Wladimir Andreff and Plácido Rodríguez. Next to team sports, new developments of the economics of individual sports like cycling, ski-jumping and motor-racing are explored....

  19. Research Productivity of Sports Medicine Fellowship Faculty

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Frank, Rachel M.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research productivity is considered an important factor in academic advancement in sports medicine. No study to date has evaluated academic productivity and correlates of academic rank for sports medicine fellowship faculty. Purpose: To describe the academic productivity of American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) fellowship program faculty and to determine the association between academic productivity, fellowship characteristics, and academic rank. Study Design: D...

  20. Wearable Performance Devices in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan T; Kling, Scott R; Salata, Michael J; Cupp, Sean A; Sheehan, Joseph; Voos, James E

    2016-01-01

    Wearable performance devices and sensors are becoming more readily available to the general population and athletic teams. Advances in technology have allowed individual endurance athletes, sports teams, and physicians to monitor functional movements, workloads, and biometric markers to maximize performance and minimize injury. Movement sensors include pedometers, accelerometers/gyroscopes, and global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Physiologic sensors include heart rate monitors, sleep monitors, temperature sensors, and integrated sensors. The purpose of this review is to familiarize health care professionals and team physicians with the various available types of wearable sensors, discuss their current utilization, and present future applications in sports medicine. Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database. Included studies searched development, outcomes, and validation of wearable performance devices such as GPS, accelerometers, and physiologic monitors in sports. Clinical review. Level 4. Wearable sensors provide a method of monitoring real-time physiologic and movement parameters during training and competitive sports. These parameters can be used to detect position-specific patterns in movement, design more efficient sports-specific training programs for performance optimization, and screen for potential causes of injury. More recent advances in movement sensors have improved accuracy in detecting high-acceleration movements during competitive sports. Wearable devices are valuable instruments for the improvement of sports performance. Evidence for use of these devices in professional sports is still limited. Future developments are needed to establish training protocols using data from wearable devices. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. The impact of technology on sporting performance in Olympic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, Steve J

    2009-11-01

    To assess the effect of technology on sport, the performance statistics for four disciplines were analysed: the 100-m sprint, pole vault, javelin, and cycling. The concept of a performance improvement index was developed to allow comparison between athletes and between sports with a higher index indicating a greater improvement in the sport. The following performance improvement indices were found: 100-m sprint, 24% over 108 years; pole vault, 86% over 94 years; javelin, 95% over 76 years; 4-km individual pursuit, 35% over 32 years; one-hour cycling record, 221% over 111 years. Around 4% of the index for the sprint was attributed to tighter, aerodynamic clothing, suggesting that general athletic improvement in sprint-type events has been around 20%. Technological developments in simple equipment such as the pole vault or javelin were seen to affect the index by around 30%, while the index associated with aerodynamic improvements in the one-hour record was around 100%. It is concluded that the performance improvement index could be extended to amateur as well as elite sport where distance or time is used as a measure of performance.

  2. Marketing research for organizers of sports events

    OpenAIRE

    Gašović Milan

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research, which provide the data and the information for the decision making process, are essential for organizers of sport events, especially to the organizers of the most significant ones. The mentioned marketing research involves: research of the local market, visitors satisfaction research, evaluation of sponsorship effectiveness, research of the sport events economic influence on the local community or host cities, event host attitudes examination-local population and so on. Th...

  3. Workplace Learning of High Performance Sports Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, Steven B.; Mallett, Clifford J.; Tinning, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Australian coaching workplace (to be referred to as the State Institute of Sport; SIS) under consideration in this study employs significant numbers of full-time performance sport coaches and can be accurately characterized as a genuine workplace. Through a consideration of the interaction between what the workplace (SIS) affords the…

  4. Anxiety, ego depletion, and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Bertrams, Alex

    2012-10-01

    In the present article, we analyzed the role of self-control strength and state anxiety in sports performance. We tested the hypothesis that self-control strength and state anxiety interact in predicting sports performance on the basis of two studies, each using a different sports task (Study 1: performance in a basketball free throw task, N = 64; Study 2: performance in a dart task, N = 79). The patterns of results were as expected in both studies: Participants with depleted self-control strength performed worse in the specific tasks as their anxiety increased, whereas there was no significant relation for participants with fully available self-control strength. Furthermore, different degrees of available self-control strength did not predict performance in participants who were low in state anxiety, but did in participants who were high in state anxiety. Thus increasing self-control strength could reduce the negative anxiety effects in sports and improve athletes' performance under pressure.

  5. Trends and topics in sports research in the Social Science Citation Index from 1993 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Li-Shiue

    2013-02-01

    This descriptive study evaluated behavioral and social science research on sport for 1993 through 2008, examined the characteristics of sport research, and identified mainstream issues appearing during these 16 years. Based on the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) database from 1993 to 2008, 7,655 articles referring to sport or sports were available. The publication analyses showed that 13 core journals published the most articles in the behavioral sciences of sport. By analyzing all titles, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus, the results showed that physical education, athlete performance, and sports participation were the mainstream issues of sport research in the 16-year study period. The words adolescent, youth, and children frequently appeared, indicating that the emphasis of sport research focused on these participant groups. This bibliometric study reviewed global sports research in SSCI, and described certain patterns or trends in prior research on sport.

  6. THE MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PERFORMANCE SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports are a widespread phenomenon, capable of raising human energies and mobilize financial and material resources that can be difficult compared with those in other areas of social life. Management of sports organizations is influenced and determined by the compliance and requirements arising from the documents issued by international organizations with authority in the field. Organizational development is considered essentially as a strategy to increase organizational effectiveness by determining changes that consider both human resources and organizations. On the whole society, it is accelerated by an industry evolving sport with distinctive features. Its development is conditional on macroeconomics and technology. The complexity of the activities of sports organizations performance, the main laboratory performance national and international sports, requiring a more thorough investigation to enable knowledge of the complex mechanisms of their management and simultaneously identify some optimization solutions throughout the economic-financial and human resources.

  7. Research Productivity of Sports Medicine Fellowship Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Saltzman, Bryan M; Chalmers, Peter N; Frank, Rachel M; Cole, Brian J; Bach, Bernard R

    2016-12-01

    Research productivity is considered an important factor in academic advancement in sports medicine. No study to date has evaluated academic productivity and correlates of academic rank for sports medicine fellowship faculty. To describe the academic productivity of American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) fellowship program faculty and to determine the association between academic productivity, fellowship characteristics, and academic rank. Descriptive epidemiology study. Characteristics of orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs were obtained from the AOSSM and program websites. Metrics of academic productivity (Hirsch index [ h index], I-10 index, publications, citations, and number of publications in several journals) were obtained from Scopus. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine whether academic productivity differs with fellowship attributes and academic rank. A total of 90 AOSSM sports medicine fellowship programs with 610 associated faculty members were identified. Faculty were predominantly male (94%), at academic medical centers (74%), members of AOSSM (71%), and sports medicine-fellowship trained (84%). Faculty had a median of 18 (range, 0-684) publications overall, including a median of 3 (range, 0-161) publications since 2012. All measures of academic productivity were significantly higher among faculty employed at academic medical centers compared with those not employed at academic centers ( P Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy per faculty member ( P sports medicine fellowship faculty. Research productivity was higher among faculty employed at academic centers in the Northeast and Midwest regions and at programs with a larger number of fellows.

  8. Research Productivity of Sports Medicine Fellowship Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Chalmers, Peter N.; Frank, Rachel M.; Cole, Brian J.; Bach, Bernard R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research productivity is considered an important factor in academic advancement in sports medicine. No study to date has evaluated academic productivity and correlates of academic rank for sports medicine fellowship faculty. Purpose: To describe the academic productivity of American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) fellowship program faculty and to determine the association between academic productivity, fellowship characteristics, and academic rank. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Characteristics of orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs were obtained from the AOSSM and program websites. Metrics of academic productivity (Hirsch index [h index], I-10 index, publications, citations, and number of publications in several journals) were obtained from Scopus. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine whether academic productivity differs with fellowship attributes and academic rank. Results: A total of 90 AOSSM sports medicine fellowship programs with 610 associated faculty members were identified. Faculty were predominantly male (94%), at academic medical centers (74%), members of AOSSM (71%), and sports medicine–fellowship trained (84%). Faculty had a median of 18 (range, 0-684) publications overall, including a median of 3 (range, 0-161) publications since 2012. All measures of academic productivity were significantly higher among faculty employed at academic medical centers compared with those not employed at academic centers (P Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy per faculty member (P sports medicine fellowship faculty. Research productivity was higher among faculty employed at academic centers in the Northeast and Midwest regions and at programs with a larger number of fellows. PMID:28210650

  9. Genetic influences in sport and physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthucheary, Zudin; Skipworth, James R A; Rawal, Jai; Loosemore, Mike; Van Someren, Ken; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2011-10-01

    vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. VDR genotype is associated with differences in strength in premenopausal women. VDR expression decreases with age and VDR genotype is associated with fat-free mass and strength in elderly men and women. Muscle fibre type determination is complex. Whilst initial composition is likely to be strongly influenced by genetic factors, training has significant effects on fibre shifts. Polymorphisms of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) gene and R577x polymorphism of the ACTN3 gene are both associated with specific fibre compositions. Alterations in cardiac size have been associated with both increased performance and excess cardiovascular mortality. PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates genes involved in fatty acid uptake and oxidation, lipid metabolism and inflammation. Psychology plays an important role in training, competition, tolerance of pain and motivation. However, the role of genetic variation in determining psychological state and responses remains poorly understood; only recently have specific genes been implicated in motivational behaviour and maintenance of exercise. Thyroid hormone receptors exist within the brain and influence both neurogenesis and behaviour. With the current state of knowledge, the field of genetic influences on sports performance remains in its infancy, despite over a decade of research.

  10. ISSN Exercise & Sport Nutrition Review: Research & Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendel Ron

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sport nutrition is a constantly evolving field with literally thousands of research papers published annually. For this reason, keeping up to date with the literature is often difficult. This paper presents a well-referenced overview of the current state of the science related to how to optimize training through nutrition. More specifically, this article discusses: 1. how to evaluate the scientific merit of nutritional supplements; 2. general nutritional strategies to optimize performance and enhance recovery; and, 3. our current understanding of the available science behind weight gain, weight loss, and performance enhancement supplements. Our hope is that ISSN members find this review useful in their daily practice and consultation with their clients.

  11. Nutrition for sports performance: issues and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2012-02-01

    Diet can significantly influence athletic performance, but recent research developments have substantially changed our understanding of sport and exercise nutrition. Athletes adopt various nutritional strategies in training and competition in the pursuit of success. The aim of training is to promote changes in the structure and function of muscle and other tissues by selective modulation of protein synthesis and breakdown in response to the training stimulus. This process is affected by the availability of essential amino acids in the post-exercise period. Athletes have been encouraged to eat diets high in carbohydrate, but low-carbohydrate diets up-regulate the capacity of muscle for fat oxidation, potentially sparing the limited carbohydrate stores. Such diets, however, do not enhance endurance performance. It is not yet known whether the increased capacity for fat oxidation that results from training in a carbohydrate-deficient state can promote loss of body fat. Preventing excessive fluid deficits will maintain exercise capacity, and ensuring adequate hydration status can also reduce subjective perception of effort. This latter effect may be important in encouraging exercise participation and promoting adherence to exercise programmes. Dietary supplement use is popular in sport, and a few supplements may improve performance in specific exercise tasks. Athletes must be cautious, however, not to contravene the doping regulations. There is an increasing recognition of the role of the brain in determining exercise performance: various nutritional strategies have been proposed, but with limited success. Nutrition strategies developed for use by athletes can also be used to achieve functional benefits in other populations.

  12. The Ethics of Sports Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert J; Reider, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the background and foundations of ethics in research. Some important documents and codes are mentioned, such as The Belmont Report and the International Conference of Harmonisation. Some influential historical events involving research ethics are recounted. The article provides a detailed discussion of the Declaration of Helsinki, which is considered the international standard for guidelines in medical research ethics. The most salient features of the Declaration are described and related to orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. Some of the most controversial aspects of the Declaration are discussed, which helps examine contentious areas of research in sports medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wearable Performance Devices in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ryan T.; Kling, Scott R.; Salata, Michael J.; Cupp, Sean A.; Sheehan, Joseph; Voos, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Wearable performance devices and sensors are becoming more readily available to the general population and athletic teams. Advances in technology have allowed individual endurance athletes, sports teams, and physicians to monitor functional movements, workloads, and biometric markers to maximize performance and minimize injury. Movement sensors include pedometers, accelerometers/gyroscopes, and global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Physiologic sensors include heart rate monitor...

  14. Sports genetics moving forward: lessons learned from medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, C Mikael; Wheeler, Matthew T; Waggott, Daryl; Caleshu, Colleen; Ashley, Euan A

    2016-03-01

    Sports genetics can take advantage of lessons learned from human disease genetics. By righting past mistakes and increasing scientific rigor, we can magnify the breadth and depth of knowledge in the field. We present an outline of challenges facing sports genetics in the light of experiences from medical research. Sports performance is complex, resulting from a combination of a wide variety of different traits and attributes. Improving sports genetics will foremost require analyses based on detailed phenotyping. To find widely valid, reproducible common variants associated with athletic phenotypes, study sample sizes must be dramatically increased. One paradox is that in order to confirm relevance, replications in specific populations must be undertaken. Family studies of athletes may facilitate the discovery of rare variants with large effects on athletic phenotypes. The complexity of the human genome, combined with the complexity of athletic phenotypes, will require additional metadata and biological validation to identify a comprehensive set of genes involved. Analysis of personal genetic and multiomic profiles contribute to our conceptualization of precision medicine; the same will be the case in precision sports science. In the refinement of sports genetics it is essential to evaluate similarities and differences between sexes and among ethnicities. Sports genetics to date have been hampered by small sample sizes and biased methodology, which can lead to erroneous associations and overestimation of effect sizes. Consequently, currently available genetic tests based on these inherently limited data cannot predict athletic performance with any accuracy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. The Relationship between University Libraries' Collection for Sports and Their Students' Sports Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Soichiro; Tsuji, Keita

    2011-01-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of university libraries, we investigated the relationship between university students' sports performances and their libraries collections of sports. By examining approximately 20 university libraries' collections and their sports ranks, as indicated by Waseda Sports 2008, we demonstrated their positive…

  16. A Research of the Impact of the Network Sports Information on College Students’ Sports Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Haixin Yao; Yinbo Wu; Xinyu Wu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the impact of the network sports information on college students’ sports cognition. The college students’ network access behaviors, content preferences, sports values and behaviors, the factors affecting the contemporary college students’ sports cognition can be deduced. Our research could be divided into four parts. Firstly, caring for the major sports events at home and abroad and enhance their confidence. The majority of the contemporary college student...

  17. Enhancing team-sport athlete performance: is altitude training relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.

  18. Performance Analysis in Elite Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Bertus Gatze

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this dissertation concerns the development of techniques for analyzing and comparing performances of elite sportsmen. When performances are delivered under varying circumstances, or are influenced by other factors than the athletes' abilities, a fair comparison, for instance

  19. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  20. Oral health and elite sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Oral health and elite sport performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian; Ashley, Paul; Fine, Peter; Haddad, Fares; Loosemore, Mike; de Medici, Akbar; Donos, Nikos; Newton, Tim; van Someren, Ken; Moazzez, Rebecca; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn; Khan, Karim; Shimmin, Mark; Brewer, John; Meehan, Lyndon; Mills, Steve; Porter, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies. PMID:25263651

  2. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Navorsing in Sport, Liggaamlike Opvoedkunde en Ontspanning / The South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation is published by the Southern African Alliance for Sport Science, Physical Education and Recreation. Contributions from the fields of Sport ...

  3. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed research in sport science: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to examine: (1) the nature of scientific thought in sport science (elite sport); (2) methodological aspects of sport science; (3) the relationship between philosophical-theoretical postulates and elite sport practice. The comparative method, as well as descriptive and theoretical analysis method was ...

  4. Technology in Paralympic sport: performance enhancement or essential for performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Brendan

    2010-02-01

    People with disabilities often depend on assistive devices to enable activities of daily living as well as to compete in sport. Technological developments in sport can be controversial. To review, identify and describe current technological developments in assistive devices used in the summer Paralympic Games; and to prepare for the London 2012 Games, the future challenges and the role of technology are debated. A systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature and personal observations of technological developments at the Athens (2004) and Beijing (2008) Paralympic Games was conducted. Standard assistive devices can inhibit the Paralympians' abilities to perform the strenuous activities of their sports. Although many Paralympic sports only require technology similar to their Olympic counterparts, several unique technological modifications have been made in prosthetic and wheelchair devices. Technology is essential for the Paralympic athlete, and the potential technological advantage for a Paralympian, when competing against an Olympian, is unclear. Technology must match the individual requirements of the athlete with the sport in order for Paralympians to safely maximise their performance. Within the 'performance enhancement or essential for performance?' debate, any potential increase in mechanical performance from an assistive device must be considered holistically with the compensatory consequences the disability creates. To avoid potential technology controversies at the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games, the role of technology in sport must be clarified.

  5. Enhancing performance and reducing stress in sports technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana; Greenberg, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed to help athletes and individuals interested in high sports performance in their journey towards the perfection of human sports abilities and achievements. It has two main goals: accelerating the acquisition of motor skills and preparing and vigilantly reducing the recovery time after training and competition. The Diamond Sports Protocol (DSP) presents state-of-the-art techniques for current sport and health technologies, particularly neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Sports Wave), oxygen infusion (Oxy Sports), infrared (Sports Infrared Dome) and lactic acid cleaning (Turbo Sports). The book suggest DSP as an essential part of every future athlete's training, competition and health maintenance. The book is for everyone interested in superior sports performance, fast and effective rehabilitation from training and competition and sports injury prevention.

  6. Tests for the Assessment of Sport-Specific Performance in Olympic Combat Sports: A Systematic Review With Practical Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Capranica, Laura; Franchini, Emerson; Prieske, Olaf; Hbacha, Hamdi; Granacher, Urs

    2018-01-01

    The regular monitoring of physical fitness and sport-specific performance is important in elite sports to increase the likelihood of success in competition. This study aimed to systematically review and to critically appraise the methodological quality, validation data, and feasibility of the sport-specific performance assessment in Olympic combat sports like amateur boxing, fencing, judo, karate, taekwondo, and wrestling. A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Google-Scholar, and Science-Direct up to October 2017. Studies in combat sports were included that reported validation data (e.g., reliability, validity, sensitivity) of sport-specific tests. Overall, 39 studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The majority of studies (74%) contained sample sizes sport-specific tests (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-1.00). Content validity was addressed in all included studies, criterion validity (only the concurrent aspect of it) in approximately half of the studies with correlation coefficients ranging from r = -0.41 to 0.90. Construct validity was reported in 31% of the included studies and predictive validity in only one. Test sensitivity was addressed in 13% of the included studies. The majority of studies (64%) ignored and/or provided incomplete information on test feasibility and methodological limitations of the sport-specific test. In 28% of the included studies, insufficient information or a complete lack of information was provided in the respective field of the test application. Several methodological gaps exist in studies that used sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports. Additional research should adopt more rigorous validation procedures in the application and description of sport-specific performance tests in Olympic combat sports.

  7. Analysis of Wind Data for Sports Performance Design: A Case Study for Sailing Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pezzoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions affect outdoor sports performance. This is particularly true in some sports, especially in the sport of sailing, where environmental parameters are extremely influential as they interact directly with strategic analysis of the race area and then with strategic analysis of the performance itself. For these reasons, this research presents an innovative methodology for the strategic analysis of the race course that is based on the integrated assessment of meteorological data measured on the ground, meteorological data measured at sea during the training activities and the results of the CALMET model in hindcasting over a limited scale. The results obtained by the above analysis are then integrated into a graphical representation that provides to coaches and athletes the main strategic directions of the race course in a simple and easy-to-use way. The authors believe that the innovative methodology that has been adopted in the present research may represent a new approach to the integrated analysis of meteorological data on coastal environments. On the other hand, the results of this analysis, if presented with an appropriate technique of meta‑communication adapted to the sport sectors, can be used effectively for the improvement of athletes’ performances.

  8. The Sports Participation: From Research to Sports Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Núria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are the following: 1. To provide an overview of the fundamental aspects to be taken into account when carrying out and interpreting sports participation surveys; 2. To put forward an explanation of sports behavior; and 3. To suggest how these results may be used in intervention programs. Having gone over the literature in this field, I shall go on to address the following points: the definition of sports; trend analysis or the illusion of transparency; analysis of inequalities; identifying difference and individualization; and examining typologies to better understand each social group. I shall conclude with suggestions for sports policies.

  9. The Dark Side of Top Level Sport: An Autobiographic Study of Depressive Experiences in Elite Sport Performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Hannah J H; Howells, Karen L; Fletcher, David

    2016-01-01

    The general and sport psychology research converge to point to a complex relationship between depressive experiences and human performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the depressive experiences of top level athletes and the relationship of such experiences with sport performance. Twelve autobiographies of elite athletes representing eight sports were analyzed. The autobiographical analysis was informed by narrative tradition, using three types of narrative analysis: categorical content, categorical form, and holistic content. The analysis revealed a temporal aspect to the depressive experiences that the athletes reported. Initially, sport represented a form of escape from the depressive symptoms which had been exacerbated by both external stressors (e.g., experiencing bereavement) and internal stressors (e.g., low self-esteem). However, in time, the athletes typically reached a stage when the demands of their sport shifted from being facilitative to being debilitative in nature with an intensification of their depressive symptoms. This was accompanied by deliberations about continuing their engagement in sport and an acceptance that they could no longer escape from their symptoms, with or without sport. The findings extend the extant literature by suggesting a reciprocal relationship between depressive experiences and sport performance, and they support the general psychology literature relating to the negative impact of depression on performance. The applied implications of these findings are discussed emphasizing the importance of early identification of depressive symptoms and the adoption of a proactive approach in the prevention and management of symptoms.

  10. The Dark Side of Top Level Sport: An Autobiographic Study of Depressive Experiences in Elite Sport Performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Hannah J. H.; Howells, Karen L.; Fletcher, David

    2016-01-01

    The general and sport psychology research converge to point to a complex relationship between depressive experiences and human performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the depressive experiences of top level athletes and the relationship of such experiences with sport performance. Twelve autobiographies of elite athletes representing eight sports were analyzed. The autobiographical analysis was informed by narrative tradition, using three types of narrative analysis: categorical content, categorical form, and holistic content. The analysis revealed a temporal aspect to the depressive experiences that the athletes reported. Initially, sport represented a form of escape from the depressive symptoms which had been exacerbated by both external stressors (e.g., experiencing bereavement) and internal stressors (e.g., low self-esteem). However, in time, the athletes typically reached a stage when the demands of their sport shifted from being facilitative to being debilitative in nature with an intensification of their depressive symptoms. This was accompanied by deliberations about continuing their engagement in sport and an acceptance that they could no longer escape from their symptoms, with or without sport. The findings extend the extant literature by suggesting a reciprocal relationship between depressive experiences and sport performance, and they support the general psychology literature relating to the negative impact of depression on performance. The applied implications of these findings are discussed emphasizing the importance of early identification of depressive symptoms and the adoption of a proactive approach in the prevention and management of symptoms. PMID:27375544

  11. Sport Physiology Research and Governing Gender in Sport--A Power-Knowledge Relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    This article sets out to show how physiological knowledge about sex/gender relates to power issues within sport. The sport physiology research at the Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences (Swedish acronym: GIH) during the twentieth century is analysed in relation to the political rationality concerning gender at GIH and within the Swedish…

  12. Psychological Preparation for Peak Performance in Sports Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuruogu, Ben; Jonathan, Ugwuanyi I.; Ikechukwu, Ugwu Jude

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to make an overview of various techniques, sport psychologist adopt in psychological preparation of athletes for peak performance. To attain peak performance in sports competitions, coaches and athletes should not base their prospect on physical training on sport skills alone rather should integrate both the mental and physical…

  13. Anticipation - the underlying science of sport. Report on research in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Mihai

    2015-05-01

    Professional sport practitioners intuitively acknowledge anticipation. Sports researchers sometimes discuss it. Still, there is little data-based evidence to characterize the role anticipation plays in human performance. Even less documented is the distinction between reaction and anticipation. This text presents the real-time quantification environment developed as an AnticipationScope™. Based on a very large data harvest from this experimental set-up, hypotheses regarding the role of anticipation in sport are advanced. The conclusion is that while preparation and reaction play an important role in sports performance, in the final analysis anticipation distinguishes the professional from other sport practitioners. Work in progress is presented with the aim of engaging the community of researchers in the design of alternative methods for quantifying anticipation and for processing the data. Generalization from sport to human performance is one of the intended outcomes of this research.

  14. Sports Nutrition Food Industry Chain Development Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Through the study of Henan sports nutrition food industry chain optimization, the study analyses development advantage and competitive advantage of Henan in sports nutrition food industry chain and existing problems and challenges in Henan sports nutrition food industry chain and at the same time introduces the theory of supply chain management to the development of sports nutrition food industry chain, clearly optimizes countermeasures of sports nutrition food industry chain. Pointing out sp...

  15. Global positioning system analysis of running performance in female field sports: A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hodun, Megan; Clarke, Richard; De Ste Croix, Mark B; Hughes, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The use of global positioning systems (GPS) in analyzing field sport performance is a recent development, particularly in soccer, rugby and field hockey. Research with GPS in female field sports has centred on match performance, fatigue, and training intensity. Of particular concern for GPS analysis is the need for standardized methods to determine the occurrence of high-intensity running and sprinting. GPS analysis for female field sport athletes can assist in development of training plans a...

  16. EEG applications for sport and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Trevor; Steffert, Tony; Ros, Tomas; Leach, Joseph; Gruzelier, John

    2008-08-01

    One approach to understanding processes that underlie skilled performing has been to study electrical brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG). A notorious problem with EEG is that genuine cerebral data is often contaminated by artifacts of non-cerebral origin. Unfortunately, such artifacts tend to be exacerbated when the subject is in motion, meaning that obtaining reliable data during exercise is inherently problematic. These problems may explain the limited number of studies using EEG as a methodological tool in the sports sciences. This paper discusses how empirical studies have generally tackled the problem of movement artifact by adopting alternative paradigms which avoid recording during actual physical exertion. Moreover, the specific challenges that motion presents to obtaining reliable EEG data are discussed along with practical and computational techniques to confront these challenges. Finally, as EEG recording in sports is often underpinned by a desire to optimise performance, a brief review of EEG-biofeedback and peak performance studies is also presented. A knowledge of practical aspects of EEG recording along with the advent of new technology and increasingly sophisticated processing models offer a promising approach to minimising, if perhaps not entirely circumventing, the problem of obtaining reliable EEG data during motion.

  17. Japanese University Athletes’ Dilemma: Study, Sport Performance, or Both

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiko Yamamoto

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes’ dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year and 3rd year students). A total of 216 responses were collected. All participants of this study belonged to university sport clubs and they majored in sport an...

  18. Research Update: Enhancing the Youth Sports Experience through Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Todd

    1995-01-01

    Reviews research on the relationship between youth sports coaches and players, noting that the youth sports coach can be the most important figure in socializing children in the area of sports. The paper discusses how to deal with the stresses in coaching and examines the need for coach effectiveness training. (SM)

  19. Assessing competence in sport psychology : An action research account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutter, R. I (Vana); Pijpers, J. R (Rob); Oudejans, Raôul R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Competent practice in sport psychology is of utmost importance for the professional status of the field, and hence proper assessment of competence for sport psychology practice is needed. We describe three cycles of action research to improve the assessment of competence in a sport psychology

  20. Innovative sport technology through cross-disciplinary research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of innovative sport technology brought about by cross-disciplinary research in sport, engineering, medical and material sciences. Sport technology has subsequently contributed greatly to the enhancement of epidemiology, prevention and management ...

  1. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  2. Game Indicators Determining Sports Performance in the NBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajec, Kazimierz; Maszczyk, Adam; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to identify basketball game performance indicators which best determine sports level in the National Basketball Association (NBA) league. The research material consisted of all NBA game statistics at the turn of eight seasons (2003-11) and included 52 performance variables. Through detailed analysis the variables with high influence on game effectiveness were selected for final procedures. It has been proven that a limited number of factors, mostly offensive, determines sports performance in the NBA. The most critical indicators are: Win%, Offensive EFF, 3rd Quarter PPG, Win% CG, Avg Fauls and Avg Steals. In practical applications these results connected with top teams and elite players may help coaches to design better training programs.

  3. Can Stretching Prior to Exercise and Sports Improve Performance and Prevent Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracko, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines data from research on stretching as it relates to enhanced performance and injury prevention so that fitness, exercise, and sports performance professionals can make informed decisions about stretching programs for clients. The paper notes that stretching is a misunderstood component of fitness and sports training. Few studies show…

  4. Transfer of strength and power training to sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Warren B

    2006-06-01

    The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

  5. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Erica R; Ziegenfuss, Tim; Kalman, Doug; Kreider, Richard; Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; Taylor, Lem; Willoughby, Darryn; Stout, Jeff; Graves, B Sue; Wildman, Robert; Ivy, John L; Spano, Marie; Smith, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-27

    Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1.) Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg) and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (>/= 9 mg/kg). 2.) Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared to coffee. 3.) It has been shown that caffeine can enhance vigilance during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise, as well as periods of sustained sleep deprivation. 4.) Caffeine is ergogenic for sustained maximal endurance exercise, and has been shown to be highly effective for time-trial performance. 5.) Caffeine supplementation is beneficial for high-intensity exercise, including team sports such as soccer and rugby, both of which are categorized by intermittent activity within a period of prolonged duration. 6.) The literature is equivocal when considering the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance, and additional research in this area is warranted. 7.) The scientific literature does not support caffeine-induced diuresis during exercise, or any harmful change in fluid balance that would negatively affect performance.

  6. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildman Robert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1. Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (≥ 9 mg/kg. 2. Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared to coffee. 3. It has been shown that caffeine can enhance vigilance during bouts of extended exhaustive exercise, as well as periods of sustained sleep deprivation. 4. Caffeine is ergogenic for sustained maximal endurance exercise, and has been shown to be highly effective for time-trial performance. 5. Caffeine supplementation is beneficial for high-intensity exercise, including team sports such as soccer and rugby, both of which are categorized by intermittent activity within a period of prolonged duration. 6. The literature is equivocal when considering the effects of caffeine supplementation on strength-power performance, and additional research in this area is warranted. 7. The scientific literature does not support caffeine-induced diuresis during exercise, or any harmful change in fluid balance that would negatively affect performance.

  7. Bringing the body into sport management research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, Annelies; van Amsterdam, N.

    There is a growing body of work that draws attention to the role of bodies and of embodiment in organizations and in management. Sport management scholars seem to have largely ignored the body of sport managers as well as their embodiment, however. This is puzzling since sport management implies

  8. Applying sport psychology to improve clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Helen R; Rumbold, James L; Sandars, John

    2017-12-01

    Preparedness for practice has become an international theme within Medical Education: for healthcare systems to maintain their highest clinical standards, junior doctors must "hit the ground running" on beginning work. Despite demonstrating logical, structured assessment and management plans during their undergraduate examinations, many newly qualified doctors report difficulty in translating this theoretical knowledge into the real clinical environment. "Preparedness" must constitute more than the knowledge and skills acquired during medical school. Complexities of the clinical environment overwhelm some junior doctors, who acknowledge that they lack strategies to manage their anxieties, under-confidence and low self-efficacy. If uncontrolled, such negative emotions and behaviors may impede the delivery of time-critical treatment for acutely unwell patients and compound junior doctors' self-doubt, thus impacting future patient encounters. Medical Education often seeks inspiration from other industries for potential solutions to challenges. To address "preparedness for practice," this AMEE Guide highlights sport psychology: elite sportspeople train both physically and psychologically for their discipline. The latter promotes management of negative emotions, distractions and under-confidence, thus optimizing performance despite immense pressures of career-defining moments. Similar techniques might allow junior doctors to optimize patient care, especially within stressful situations. This AMEE Guide introduces the novel conceptual model, PERFORM, which targets the challenges faced by junior doctors on graduation. The model applies pre-performance routines from sport psychology with the self-regulatory processes of metacognition to the clinical context. This model could potentially equip junior doctors, and other healthcare professionals facing similar challenges, with strategies to optimize clinical care under the most difficult circumstances.

  9. Determinants of team-sport performance: implications for altitude training by team-sport athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical an...

  10. Anxiety, depression and perceived sporting performance among professional cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, M; Bhogal, G

    2017-05-10

    Mental health in sport is a hard-hitting topic that is frequently the subject of news coverage and increasingly a theme for avid research. Some suggest that cricketers, participating in a game unique in its statistical analysis of individual performance, prolonged periods of play away from home and extended solitary game time to reflect on errors, may be especially prone to developing depression. This hypothesis is supported by a higher rate of suicide among male Test cricketers when compared with the UK male general population. 1 METHODS: This study ascertained rates of anxiety and depression by screening professional cricket players using the Generalised Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-7) and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). It also investigate whether professional cricket players perceive stress and anxiety to be beneficial to their sporting performance. 21 male professional cricketers were included in this anonymous questionnaire based study. Six players had a positive depression screen, five scoring mild and one scoring moderate. Additionally, six players had a positive anxiety screen, four scoring mild and two ?players within the moderate range. Fifteen players thought pre-match stress and anxiety was beneficial to their sporting performance. Of these, nine thought slight, five thought fair and one thought considerable levels were optimal. Undiagnosed anxiety and depression may exist in professional cricket teams and as such better screening is required. The majority of players feel some level of stress and tension are beneficial for their performance, with a slight amount being the most common perceived optimum.

  11. Oxytocin and the Biopsychology of Performance in Team Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is

  12. The future of health/fitness/sports performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, Carl; Cortis, Cristina; Fusco, Andrea; Bok, Daniel; Boullosa, Daniel A.; Capranica, Laura; de Koning, Jos J.; Haugen, Thomas; Olivera-Silva, Iranse; Periara, Julien; Porcari, John P.; Pyne, David Bruce; Sandbakk, Oyvind

    2017-01-01

    Exercise relative to health/fitness and sports performance has displayed an evolutionary role over time. Large scale, overriding, factors are present which are likely to help us understand the likely future evolutionary path of health/fitness and sports performance. These factors include: 1) the

  13. Playing the game: sports as a force for promoting improved academic performance for urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeulenaere, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Using qualitative research methods involving observations and interviews with four students, their families and friends, this paper examines six ways that student involvement in sports promoted student success: structuring schedules, creating incentives, building confidence, developing positive adult and peer role models, and its role in getting students to develop future aspirations. It then turns to consider how students use their involvement with sports to negotiate the challenges they faced in adopting a successful student identity. Participation in school sports became a powerful justification for successful school performance for the participating students in this study. Finally, this paper ends with several policy implications for considering sports programming in urban schools.

  14. THE MANAGERIAL CONCEPTS OF THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE AND THEIR INTEGRATION IN THE SPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Nová

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper explores the possibilities of interconnection between the concepts of quality management systems and the concepts of the performance in sports organizations so to achieve the greater effectiveness and efficiency in terms of their operations. Therefore the paper provides an overview of the quality management systems and principles which are applicable in sports organizations and special attention is also paid to the analysis of the Balanced Scorecard principles in the sport context. Via the chosen methodology the author analyses the potential of this performance measurement tool for the integration into quality management system in sports organizations. Methods: In the paper the author used different methods of scientific research namely systematic observation, desk research, descriptive and causal method as well as the inductive and deductive method. The methods of analysis and synthesis of the existing perspectives were exploited in order to analyse and describe the interrelatedness between the different concepts. Results: The profound analysis and synthesis of the existing theoretical and practical tools applied in the quality of sport and performance of sport has proved the rightfulness of the assumptions that these two concepts can be based on their logic integrated in the managerial practice in one framework. Discussion: Implementing the integrated concept of the quality management and performance management in the sport organizations can be very efficient, considering the characteristics of the quality management systems and performance measurement. This approach can improve the realisation and results of the core processes in sport organizations and enhance their accountability towards the stakeholders´ requirements and expectations. References: Hoye R at al. (2012. Sport Management - principles and applications. Third edition. Routledge NY. Kaplan RE, Norton DP (1992. Harvard Business Review, 71-9. Nová J (2013

  15. Performers' responses to stressors encountered in sport organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David; Hanton, Sheldon; Wagstaff, Christopher R D

    2012-01-01

    We investigated athletes' responses to organisational stressors. Ten sport performers (five males and five females) were interviewed with regard to the organisational-related demands they had encountered and their responses to these stressors. The main emotional responses that were revealed were anger, anxiety, disappointment, distress, happiness, hope, relief, reproach and resentment. The main attitudinal responses were beliefs, motivation and satisfaction. The main behavioural responses were categorised as verbal and physical. The data indicate that performers generally respond to organisational stressors with a wide range of emotions, attitudes and behaviours. The findings are discussed in relation to the extant literature and in terms of their implications for applied practice and future research. Consultants should employ reactive strategies alongside proactive approaches to ensure that performers are psychologically prepared to manage and cope with any demands that are not eliminated. Future research should focus on performers' cognitive appraisals of the organisational stressors they encounter.

  16. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are...

  17. Analysis of combat sports players’ injuries according to playing style for sports physiotherapy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study describes the characteristics of injuries in strike and non-strike combat sports, and the results are intended for use in the area of sports physiotherapy research. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted on 159 athletes involved in a variety of combat sports. The participants included elite college players of the following sports: judo (47), ssireum (19), wrestling (13), kendo (30), boxing (16), and taekwondo (34). Of the participants, 133 were male and 26 were female. In the case of ssireum and boxing, all of the athletes were male. [Results] In the case of the combat sports, the types of injury and injured regions differed according to playing style. Dislocation and injuries to the neck, shoulders, and elbows were more frequent in the non-strike sports, while injuries to the wrists and hands were more frequent in the strike sports. There was a high incidence of sprains, strains, bruises, and injuries to the lower limbs in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the characteristics of injuries in combat sports differ according to playing style, and our study will therefore provide physical therapists and researchers with information that can be used to prevent injury. PMID:26357420

  18. How Should We Measure Psychological Resilience in Sport Performers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David

    2013-01-01

    Psychological resilience is important in sport because athletes must constantly withstand a wide range of pressures to attain and sustain high performance. To advance psychologists' understanding of this area, there exists an urgent need to develop a sport-specific measure of resilience. The purpose of this article is to review psychometric…

  19. Making the case for mobile cognition: EEG and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne L; Fairweather, Malcolm M; Donaldson, David I

    2015-05-01

    In the high stakes world of International sport even the smallest change in performance can make the difference between success and failure, leading sports professionals to become increasingly interested in the potential benefits of neuroimaging. Here we describe evidence from EEG studies that either identify neural signals associated with expertise in sport, or employ neurofeedback to improve performance. Evidence for the validity of neurofeedback as a technique for enhancing sports performance remains limited. By contrast, progress in characterizing the neural correlates of sporting behavior is clear: frequency domain studies link expert performance to changes in alpha rhythms, whilst time-domain studies link expertise in response evaluation and motor output with modulations of P300 effects and readiness potentials. Despite early promise, however, findings have had relatively little impact for sports professionals, at least in part because there has been a mismatch between lab tasks and real sporting activity. After selectively reviewing existing findings and outlining limitations, we highlight developments in mobile EEG technology that offer new opportunities for sports neuroscience. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation is published by North-West University. Contributions from the fields of Sport Science, Physical Education, Recreation/Leisure Studies, Exercise Science and Dance Studies will be considered for publication. The articles submitted will be ...

  1. Analysis of sport coaching research published in South Africa (2006 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... review was conducted using the African Journals Online and Sabinet online databases to identify sport coaching studies published from 2006 to 2016, with 42 papers meeting the inclusion criteria. ... Keywords: Sport, review, coach education, research, profession ...

  2. Functional Performance Measures Used For Return-to-Sport Criteria in Youth Following Lower Extremity Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Christie; Jensen, Jody; Johnson, Samantha

    2018-02-06

    As sport participation increases globally, so will the injury-related risks. The process used to determine return-to-sport, following injury, is vital to future sport participation and injury prevention. Early specialization along with poor management of sport participation causes an increase in injury risk and potential long-term health consequences for youth athletes. Previous injury is a common intrinsic risk factor for new injuries. Identifying functional performance deficits, defined by return-to-sport criteria, minimizes these risk factors and provides athletes guidelines to return safely to sport. The purpose of this clinical commentary and literature review is to provide a summary of current concepts and clinical practices and identify functional performance measures as clinical assessment tools for return-to-play criteria in the youth population. A literature review was completed using numerous databases where 154 relevant articles were reviewed and 22 articles were included in this commentary. Of the 22 articles using functional performance measures for return-to-sport criteria, six were specific to youth, 12 had mixed populations of adults and youth, and four were normative samples for specific youth populations. The gaps in the literature pertaining to functional performance measures in the youth population are addressed and future research needs for return-to-sport criteria is identified.

  3. Expert performance in sport and the dynamics of talent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Elissa; Davids, Keith; Renshaw, Ian; Portus, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Research on expertise, talent identification and development has tended to be mono-disciplinary, typically adopting genocentric or environmentalist positions, with an overriding focus on operational issues. In this paper, the validity of dualist positions on sport expertise is evaluated. It is argued that, to advance understanding of expertise and talent development, a shift towards a multidisciplinary and integrative science focus is necessary, along with the development of a comprehensive multidisciplinary theoretical rationale. Here we elucidate dynamical systems theory as a multidisciplinary theoretical rationale for capturing how multiple interacting constraints can shape the development of expert performers. This approach suggests that talent development programmes should eschew the notion of common optimal performance models, emphasize the individual nature of pathways to expertise, and identify the range of interacting constraints that impinge on performance potential of individual athletes, rather than evaluating current performance on physical tests referenced to group norms.

  4. International society of sports nutrition position stand: caffeine and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Erica R; Ziegenfuss, Tim; Kalman, Doug; Kreider, Richard; Campbell, Bill; Wilborn, Colin; Taylor, Lem; Willoughby, Darryn; Stout, Jeff; Graves, B Sue; Wildman, Robert; Ivy, John L; Spano, Marie; Smith, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Position Statement: The position of The Society regarding caffeine supplementation and sport performance is summarized by the following seven points: 1.) Caffeine is effective for enhancing sport performance in trained athletes when consumed in low-to-moderate dosages (~3-6 mg/kg) and overall does not result in further enhancement in performance when consumed in higher dosages (≥ 9 mg/kg). 2.) Caffeine exerts a greater ergogenic effect when consumed in an anhydrous state as compared ...

  5. Application of motion capture technology for sport performance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pueo, Basilio; Jimenez-Olmedo, Jose Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In sport performance, motion capture aims at tracking and recording athletes’ human motion in real time to analyze physical condition, athletic performance, technical expertise and injury mechanism, prevention and rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the latest developments of motion capture systems for the analysis of sport performance. To that end, selected keywords were searched on studies published in the last four years in the electronic databases ISI Web of ...

  6. Choking vs. clutch performance: a study of sport performance under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Choking research in sport has suggested that an athlete's tendency to choke, versus give a better than usual (i.e., "clutch") performance depends on his or her personality, as well as on situational influences, such as a reliance on explicit (versus implicit) knowledge when pressured. The current study integrated these hypotheses and tested a structural equation model (SEM) to predict sport performance under pressure. Two hundred and one participants attempted two sets of 15 basketball free throws, and were videotaped during their second set of shots as a manipulation of pressure. Results of the model suggest that "reinvesting" attention in the task leads to greater anxiety (cognitive and somatic), which then predicts a higher level of self-focus; self-focus, then, did not lead to improved performance under pressure, whereas feelings of self-reported "perceived control" did help performance. Implications for measurement of these constructs, and their relationships with performance, are discussed.

  7. All in the mind? Pain, placebo effect, and ergogenic effect of caffeine in sports performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Beedie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Christopher J BeedieDepartment of Sports Science, Tourism and Leisure, Canterbury Christ Church, University, Canterbury, UKAbstract: The ergogenic effects of caffeine on performance are well documented. These effects are more evident in endurance and short-duration, sustained-effort events than in interactive or stop-go sports. Experimentally-induced placebo effects of caffeine on sports performance have also been observed in a number of recent studies. In the present paper it is argued that, given the nature of the sports in which caffeine effects are observed, the well documented hypoalgesic effects of caffeine, and the fact that pain is highly placebo-responsive, a reduction in perceived pain might be the common factor in both the biologic and placebo ergogenic effects of caffeine on sports performance. This idea is supported by evidence from medicine that suggests placebo effects are often associated with mechanisms similar or identical to those of the substance the subject believes they have ingested. Research findings from both biomedicine and sports medicine that attest to the interaction of biologic and psychologic factors in caffeine and pain responses are briefly reviewed. In conclusion, it is recommended that researchers investigate the pain hypothesis. Furthermore, researchers should consider psychosocial factors that might modulate the pain response as variables of interest in future caffeine and performance research.Keywords: caffeine hypoalgesia, nocebo effects, research methods

  8. Does sports performance influence revenues and economic results in Spanish football?

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas, Angel; Fernández-Jardón, Carlos; Crolley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    English football began taking steps towards becoming a business earlier than Spanish football did, and academic studies on the football industry to date also focus primarily on football in the UK. The evidence for the relationship between sports performance and revenues appear clear in English football. There is even research about the effects of a club’s wealth on its sports performance, or the effects of a club’s sporting situations on its finances. In this paper, we ana-lyse the relationsh...

  9. The gender gap in sport performance: equity influences equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Halson, Shona; Myburgh, Kathryn H; Ogasawara, Etsuko; Millard-Stafford, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Sport is recognized as playing a relevant societal role to promote education, health, intercultural dialogue, and the individual development, regardless of an individual's gender, race, age, ability, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. Yet, it was not until the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London that every country's delegation included a female competitor. The gender gap in sport, although closing, remains, due to biological differences affecting performance, but it is also influenced by reduced opportunity and sociopolitical factors that influence full female participation across a range of sports around the world. Until the cultural environment is equitable, scientific discussion related to physiological differences using methods that examine progression in male and female world-record performances is limited. This commentary is intended to provide a forum to discuss issues underlying gender differences in sport performance from a global perspective and acknowledge the influence of cultural and sociopolitical factors that continue to ultimately affect female performance.

  10. Ethics of genetic testing and research in sport: a position statement from the Australian Institute of Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Fricker, Peter A; Brown, Matthew A; Hughes, David

    2017-01-01

    As Australia's peak high-performance sport agency, the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) has developed this position statement to address the implications of recent advances in the field of genetics and the ramifications for the health and well-being of athletes. Genetic testing has proven of value in the practice of clinical medicine. There are, however, currently no scientific grounds for the use of genetic testing for athletic performance improvement, sport selection or talent identification. Athletes and coaches should be discouraged from using direct-to-consumer genetic testing because of its lack of validation and replicability and the lack of involvement of a medical practitioner in the process. The transfer of genetic material or genetic modification of cells for performance enhancement is gene doping and should not be used on athletes. There are, however, valid roles for genetic research and the AIS supports genetic research which aims to enhance understanding of athlete susceptibility to injury or illness. Genetic research is only to be conducted after careful consideration of a range of ethical concerns which include the provision of adequate informed consent. The AIS is committed to providing leadership in delivering an ethical framework that protects the well-being of athletes and the integrity of sport, in the rapidly changing world of genomic science. PMID:27899345

  11. Agility performance in athletes of different sport specializations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Zemková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on agility skills in different populations using pre-planned, change of direction speed tests have previously been reported. However, there are no available data on the agility times of athletes specializing in different sports obtained from Reactive agility tests. Objective: The study compares agility time in groups of athletes of different sports where agility is one of the limiting factors of performance. Methods: Altogether 282 athletes of 14 sport specializations performed the Agility test. Their task was to touch, as fast as possible, with either the left or the right foot, one of four mats located outside each of the four corners of a 0.8 m square. The mats had to be touched in accordance with the location of a stimulus in one of the corners of a screen. The test consisted of 60 visual stimuli with random generation of their location on the screen and a time of generation of 500 to 2,500 ms. The result was a sum of the 32 best agility times. Results: The Agility test has been found to be sensitive in distinguishing groups of athletes of different sport specializations. Table tennis players, badminton players, fencers, tae-kwon-do competitors and karate competitors showed the best agility times (< 350 ms, followed by ice-hockey, tennis, soccer, volleyball, basketball, and hockeyball players (350-400 ms, then aikidoists (400-450 ms, and finally judoists and wrestlers (450-500 ms. Conclusions: The best agility times are in athletes of racquet sports, followed by competitors of combat sports with reactions to visual stimuli, then players of ball sports, and finally competitors of combat sports with reactions to tactile stimuli. Since this is the first study testing agility skills using the Reactive agility test in athletes of different sport specializations, data obtained can be used for comparison of athletes within particular sports.

  12. Competing Under Pressure : State Anxiety, Sports Performance and Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lundqvist, Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Elevated levels of anxiety are a common response to stressful competitive sports situations, are known to moderate athletic performance and are referred to as an unpleasant emotional state associated with perceptions of situational threat. The empirical studies in this dissertation considered primarily psychometric, methodological and conceptual issues of relevance for the study of anxiety and sports performance. In Study I, athletes were followed across a full competitive season to explore p...

  13. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Prof Hanlie Moss Editor Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation Research Focus Area North-West University, Potchefstroom South Africa Phone: +27 (0)18 299-1821. Email: sajrsper@nwu.ac.za ...

  14. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation - Vol 40, No 1 (2018). Journal Home > Archives > Vol 40, No 1 (2018). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. The Research on the Impact of Green Beans Sports Drinks on Relieving Fatigue in Sports Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Ying, Liu

    2015-01-01

    For researching the function of relieving fatigue of green beans sports drinks, this paper selected 60 mice as subjects. They were randomly divided into four groups (low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group and physiological saline group). Each time they were respectively feed 10g 20g/L, 40g/L, 80 g/L green beans sports drinks and 15ml/(kg.d) physiological saline. The experiment lasted for a month. We recorded weight of mice, swimming time and blood urea nitrogen indicators. The results show that green beans sports drinks can significantly prolong swimming time of mice (p beans sports drinks have a certain function of relieving physical fatigue.

  16. Japanese University Athletes’ Dilemma: Study, Sport Performance, or Both

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Yamamoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes’ dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year and 3rd year students. A total of 216 responses were collected. All participants of this study belonged to university sport clubs and they majored in sport and health science at a private university in Japan. The data were both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The results of questionnaires found university athletes in this study showed two dilemmas. They were busy with their sport club activities and felt pressure to seriously participate in their club activities because they came to their university with a sport recommendation. In order to support university athletes, this study discusses three suggestions such as ensuring enough financial support for university athletes, promoting peer learning to university athletes, and collaborative work between university lecturers and sport club team coaches.

  17. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE ...

  18. Sports, Global Politics, and Social Value Change: A Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rensmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their important role in forging, constructing and self-ascribing social identities and shaping popular culture, sports have long been a marginalized subject of social science inquiry, cultural studies, and research on international politics. Only in recent years this has begun to change. The article seeks to advance the still nascent but emerging cross-disciplinary field of research on sports and global politics in two ways: first, by addressing largely unexplored issues of sports, politics, and social conflicts, putting the spotlight on sociopolitical arenas beyond commercialized sports mega events, which have attracted most scholarly attention in contemporary research; and second, by generating hypotheses on the indirect political effects of sports cultures, in particular on the relationship between local social identities—reinforced through sports—and cosmopolitan value change. These interlinked spatial and substantive claims ground a new critical research framework and agenda: it examines sports as profoundly embedded in socioeconomic, cultural and political forms of rule and domination but also seeks to disclose sports’ emancipatory and subversive potential in advancing globalization from below.

  19. Abandoning the performance narrative: Two women's stories of transition from professional sport

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, K; Carless, D

    2009-01-01

    Despite its potential to illuminate psychological processes within socio-cultural contexts, examples of narrative research are rare in sport psychology. In this study, we employed an analysis of narrative to explore two women's stories of living in, and withdrawing from, professional tournament golf gathered through life history interviews conducted over 6 years. Our findings suggest that immersion in elite sport culture shaped these women's identities around performance values of single-mind...

  20. Complex integrated method of improvement of sports ballroom dance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Omelyanenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to elaborate complex integrated method of psychological influence upon sport ballroom dancers for their quick response to assumed mistakes by executing other steps in training mode in place of given compositions. Material: 20 senior sport ballroom dancers: 10 - experimental group, 10 - control group. At the I stage dancers for participation in the experimental group with regard to their hypnosis ability for facilitation teaching dynamic meditation were selected. Sportsmen with the 2 nd -3 rd stage of hypnosis were enrolled to the experimental group. At the II stage the experimental group was trained in the method of dynamic meditation. For this, the static meditation was performed first, after this the test persons opened their eyes and without leaving the achieved result with help of the static state of meditation, practiced in dynamic meditation. At the III stage training in sports ballroom dances with introduction new steps changing the composition program sequence to composition was held. The coach evaluated response of the test persons in the state of the dynamic meditation. Results: at the II stage of the research on training in dynamic meditation the dancers of the experimental group needed 3-7 repetitions. At the III stage of the research 8 test persons had trained to response adequately to changes in the compositions within 10-15 repetitions. In the control group if a partner changed steps during performance of the composition it led to stop of the dancing couple. For 8 test persons in the experimental group steps replacement didn’t affect adversely the quality of the dance. The senior group of dancers studied new steps with great difficulty, their motion stereotype was formed badly, they preferred to dance compositions trained earlier. The seniors having insufficient technical background (2 persons showed low abilities, they had bad memory, they spent 3 months for mastering new compositions. Conclusions: The methods

  1. Agility in Team Sports: Testing, Training and Factors Affecting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P

    2016-03-01

    Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective

  2. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Swenson, Charles; Durao, Otavio; Loures, Luis; Heelis, Rod; Bishop, Rebecca; Le, Guan; Abdu, Mangalathayil; Krause, Linda; Denardin, Clezio; hide

    2017-01-01

    SPORT is a science mission using a 6U CubeSat and integrated ground network that will (1) advance understanding and (2) enable improved predictions of scintillation occurrence that impact GPS signals and radio communications. This is the science of Space Weather. SPORT is an international partnership with NASA, U.S. institutions, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), and the Technical Aeronautics Institute under the Brazilian Air Force Command Department (DCTA/ITA).

  3. The Research on Application of Information Technology in sports Stadiums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Han; Lu, Ma; Gan, Luying

    With the Olympic glory in the national fitness program planning and the smooth development of China, the public's concern for the sport continues to grow, while their physical health is also increasingly fervent desired, the country launched a modern technological construction of sports facilities. Information technology applications in the sports venues in the increasingly wide range of modern venues and facilities, including not only the intelligent application of office automation systems, intelligent systems and sports facilities, communication systems for event management, ticket access control system, contest information systems, television systems, Command and Control System, but also in action including the use of computer technology, image analysis, computer-aided training athletes, sports training system and related data entry systems, decision support systems.Using documentary data method, this paper focuses on the research on application of information technology in Sports Stadiums, and try to explore its future trends.With a view to promote the growth of China's national economyand,so as to improve the students'quality and promote the cause of Chinese sports.

  4. Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes. Copyright © 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of inter-limb asymmetries on physical and sports performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Turner, Anthony; Read, Paul

    2018-05-01

    The prevalence of inter-limb asymmetries has been reported in numerous studies across a wide range of sports and physical qualities; however, few have analysed their effects on physical and sports performance. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken using the Medline and SPORT Discus databases, with all articles required to meet a specified criteria based on a quality review. Eighteen articles met the inclusion criteria, relating participant asymmetry scores to physical and sports performance measures. The findings of this systematic review indicate that inter-limb differences in strength may be detrimental to jumping, kicking and cycling performance. When inter-limb asymmetries are quantified during jumping based exercises, they have been primarily used to examine their association with change of direction speed with mixed findings. Inter-limb asymmetries have also been quantified in anthropometry, sprinting, dynamic balance and sport-specific actions, again with inconsistent findings. However, all results have been reported using associative analysis with physical or sport performance metrics with no randomised controlled trials included. Further research is warranted to understand the mechanisms that underpin inter-limb differences and the magnitude of performance changes that can be accounted for by these asymmetries.

  6. Brain oscillations in sport: toward EEG biomakers of performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eCheron

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Brain dynamics is at the basis of top performance accomplishment in sports. The search for neural biomarkers of performance remains a challenge in movement science and sport psychology. The noninvasive nature of high-density electroencephalography (EEG recording has made it a most promising avenue for providing quantitative feedback to practitioners and coaches. Here, we review the current relevance of the main types of EEG oscillations in order to trace a perspective for future practical applications of EEG and event-related potentials (ERP in sport. In this context, the hypotheses of unified brain rhythms and continuity between wake and sleep states should provide a functional template for EEG biomarkers in sport. The oscillations in the thalamo-cortical and hippocampal circuitry including the physiology of the place cells and the grid cells provide a frame of reference for the analysis of delta, theta, beta, alpha (incl.mu and gamma oscillations recorded in the space field of human performance. Based on recent neuronal models facilitating the distinction between the different dynamic regimes (selective gating and binding in these different oscillations we suggest an integrated approach articulating together the classical biomechanical factors (3D movements and EMG and the high-density EEG and ERP signals to allow finer mathematical analysis to optimize sport performance, such as microstates, coherency/directionality analysis and neural generators.

  7. Opinions of sports clinical practice chiropractors, with sports specialty training and those without, about chiropractic research priorities in sports health care: a centering resonance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alexander D; Szabo, Kaitlyn; McDowell, Kirstie; Granger, Sydney

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A Canadian sports chiropractic research agenda has yet to be defined. The Delphi method can be utilized to achieve this purpose; however, the sample of experts who participate can influence the results. To better inform sample selection for future research agenda development, we set out to determine if differences in opinions about research priorities exist between chiropractors who have their sports specialty designation and those who do not. Methods: Fifteen sports clinical practice chiropractors who have their sports fellowship designation and fifteen without, were interviewed with a set of standardized questions about sports chiropractic research priorities. A centering resonance analysis and cluster analysis were conducted on the interview responses. Results: The two practitioner groups differed in their opinions about the type of research that they would like to see conducted, the research that would impact their clinical practice the most, and where they believed research was lacking. However, both groups were similar in their opinions about research collaborations. Conclusion: Sports clinical practice chiropractors, with their sports specialty designation and those without, differed in their opinions about sports chiropractic research priorities; however, they had similar opinions about research collaborations. These results suggest that it may be important to sample from both practitioner groups in future studies aimed at developing research agendas for chiropractic research in sport. PMID:28065995

  8. All in the mind? Pain, placebo effect, and ergogenic effect of caffeine in sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedie, Christopher J

    2010-07-01

    The ergogenic effects of caffeine on performance are well documented. These effects are more evident in endurance and short-duration, sustained-effort events than in interactive or stop-go sports. Experimentally-induced placebo effects of caffeine on sports performance have also been observed in a number of recent studies. In the present paper it is argued that, given the nature of the sports in which caffeine effects are observed, the well documented hypoalgesic effects of caffeine, and the fact that pain is highly placebo-responsive, a reduction in perceived pain might be the common factor in both the biologic and placebo ergogenic effects of caffeine on sports performance. This idea is supported by evidence from medicine that suggests placebo effects are often associated with mechanisms similar or identical to those of the substance the subject believes they have ingested. Research findings from both biomedicine and sports medicine that attest to the interaction of biologic and psychologic factors in caffeine and pain responses are briefly reviewed. In conclusion, it is recommended that researchers investigate the pain hypothesis. Furthermore, researchers should consider psychosocial factors that might modulate the pain response as variables of interest in future caffeine and performance research.

  9. The Research on the Impact of Green Beans Sports Drinks on Relieving Fatigue in Sports Training

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Li; Ying, Liu

    2015-01-01

    For researching the function of relieving fatigue of green beans sports drinks, this paper selected 60 mice as subjects. They were randomly divided into four groups (low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group and physiological saline group). Each time they were respectively feed 10g 20g/L, 40g/L, 80 g/L green beans sports drinks and 15ml/(kg.d) physiological saline. The experiment lasted for a month. We recorded weight of mice, swimming time and blood urea nitrogen indicators. The res...

  10. Guidelines to classify subject groups in sport-science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Cheung, Stephen S; de Geus, Bas; Rietjens, Gerard; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to outline the various preexperimental maximal cycle-test protocols, terminology, and performance indicators currently used to classify subject groups in sport-science research and to construct a classification system for cycling-related research. A database of 130 subject-group descriptions contains information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology of the subject groups, biometrical and physiological data, cycling experience, and parameters. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, 1-way ANOVA, post hoc Bonferroni (P complexity, the authors introduced the neutral term performance levels 1 to 5, representing untrained, recreationally trained, trained, well-trained, and professional subject groups, respectively. The most cited parameter in literature to define subject groups is relative VO(2max), and therefore no overlap between different performance levels may occur for this principal parameter. Another significant cycling parameter is the absolute PPO. The description of additional physiological information and current and past cycling data is advised. This review clearly shows the need to standardize the procedure for classifying subject groups. Recommendations are formulated concerning preexperimental testing, terminology, and performance indicators.

  11. Psychologic stress related to injury and impact on sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M

    2008-05-01

    Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.

  12. Effect of alcohol on performance in sport climbing

    OpenAIRE

    Šafránek, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    Name of thesis: The effect of alcohol on performance in sport climbing Abstract: The goals: The aim of this thesis is to assess the influence of alcohol on performance in sport climbing. Methods: There were six climbers (4 men a 2 women) with average age 24,8±4,5 in this study. Before the test, the first group of climbers had to drink fruit juice mixed with 0,6 ml of 100% alcohol per 1 kg of their body weight, or the fruit juice itself. 60 minutes after ingestion of alcoholic or nonalcoholic ...

  13. Effect of pre-task music on sports or exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, Bruno P

    2017-01-01

    Pre-task music is a very common strategy among sports competitors. However, as opposed to in-task music, the scientific evidence to support its ergogenic effects on either sports or exercise performance is limited. This brief review critically addresses the existing literature investigating the effects of pre-task music on sports and exercise performance, focusing on the methods and results of experimental studies, and offers basic and practical recommendations. In July 2015, a comprehensive literature search was performed in Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar using the following key words in combination: "pre-task music," "pre-test music," "pre-exercise music," "exercise performance," "sports performance." The literature search was further expanded by both hand searching review articles on the topic and by searching the reference lists from the articles retrieved for any relevant references. Overall, a total of 15 studies in 14 articles were included. Pre-task music research has been unsystematic, methodologically limited and infrequent. Using this review as a starting point to overcome previous methodological limitations when designing future experiments may contribute to the development of pre-task music research, which is still in its infancy. Currently, there is no sufficient evidence to support the overall ergogenic effects of pre-task music on sports or exercise performance. Nonetheless, pre-task music has showed a likely ergogenic effect on shorter and predominantly anaerobic tasks such as grip strength, Wingate test, and short-duration sports or sports-like tasks, in contrast to longer and predominantly aerobic tasks.

  14. Performance blocks in sport : recommendations for treatment and implications for sport psychology practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Jennifer; Maynard, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Sport psychologists are increasingly confronted with performance difficulties where athletes mysteriously lose the ability to execute automatic movements. Traditionally referred to as the yips or lost move syndrome, the generic term performance blocks has recently been put forward to encompass these types of problems that manifest in locked, stuck, and frozen movements, loss of fine and/or gross motor control, and debilitating anxiety. Two recent investigations examined the effectiveness of e...

  15. Talent development of high performance coaches in team sports in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Ian; Campbell, Mark J; Macintyre, Tadhg Eoghan

    2017-04-01

    Coaches are central to the development of the expert performer and similarly to continued lifelong participation in sport. Coaches are uniquely positioned to deliver specific technical and tactical instruction and mentoring programmes that support the psychological and social development of athletes in a challenging, goal-oriented and motivational environment. The current study aimed to qualitatively investigate current coach learning sources and coaches' educational backgrounds in team sports in Ireland. Coaches from five team sports in Ireland were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Subsequently male coaches (n = 19) from five team sports who completed the questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria were invited to attend a follow-up semi-structured interview. Inclusion criteria for coaches were that they possess at least 10 years' experience coaching their sport and were coaching more than 4 hours per week. Formal coach education does not meet the needs of high performance coaches who rely more on self-directed learning and coaching experience as their main sources of CPD. Although prior playing experience at a high level is both valuable and desirable, there are concerns about fast-tracking of ex-players into high performance coaching roles. Preferred sources of education and the best learning environment for coaches of team sports in Ireland are more informal than formal. Further research is needed to examine how this learning is applied in a practical manner by examining coaching behaviours and the impact it has on the athlete development process.

  16. Elite athletes' attitudes towards the use of placebo-induced performance enhancement in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérdi, Márk; Köteles, Ferenc; Hevesi, Krisztina; Bárdos, György; Szabo, Attila

    2015-01-01

    While an increasing number of research is devoted to the understanding of placebo effects in sports, athletes' experiences with and attitudes towards the use of placebo for performance enhancement remain poorly understood. In this study, 79 elite athletes from different sports were surveyed on five issues related to placebo use in sports. Results showed that 47% of the athletes have experienced placebo effects in the past. A majority of the athletes (82%) thought that placebos could affect their sports performances. A wider use of placebos in sport settings was endorsed more by those who have experienced placebo effects in the past than those who did not (P = .005). Regardless of past experience with placebo, more than half of the athletes (53%) would accept an unknown but legitimate substance from the coach, and 67% of them would not mind a placebo-linked deception if that was effective. These findings confirm that most elite athletes believe in the power of placebos in enhancing sports performance, and those having a positive past experience exhibit slightly more favourable attitudes in contrast to those without such experiences.

  17. Longitudinal modeling in sports: young swimmers' performance and biomechanics profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Jorge E; Marques, Mário C; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2014-10-01

    New theories about dynamical systems highlight the multi-factorial interplay between determinant factors to achieve higher sports performances, including in swimming. Longitudinal research does provide useful information on the sportsmen's changes and how training help him to excel. These questions may be addressed in one single procedure such as latent growth modeling. The aim of the study was to model a latent growth curve of young swimmers' performance and biomechanics over a season. Fourteen boys (12.33 ± 0.65 years-old) and 16 girls (11.15 ± 0.55 years-old) were evaluated. Performance, stroke frequency, speed fluctuation, arm's propelling efficiency, active drag, active drag coefficient and power to overcome drag were collected in four different moments of the season. Latent growth curve modeling was computed to understand the longitudinal variation of performance (endogenous variables) over the season according to the biomechanics (exogenous variables). Latent growth curve modeling showed a high inter- and intra-subject variability in the performance growth. Gender had a significant effect at the baseline and during the performance growth. In each evaluation moment, different variables had a meaningful effect on performance (M1: Da, β = -0.62; M2: Da, β = -0.53; M3: η(p), β = 0.59; M4: SF, β = -0.57; all P < .001). The models' goodness-of-fit was 1.40 ⩽ χ(2)/df ⩽ 3.74 (good-reasonable). Latent modeling is a comprehensive way to gather insight about young swimmers' performance over time. Different variables were the main responsible for the performance improvement. A gender gap, intra- and inter-subject variability was verified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Special Issue: Research in economics and sport management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Galvez-Ruiz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The sport currently represents one of the most deeply rooted social phenomena, which also have a high capacity for mobilization. It has a social significance and also an important economic dimension that is difficult to quantify accurately, but is considered an engine of development, which implye indirectly to a large number of different activities that include other industries, taking in this regard an important crosscutting. In this context, Intangible Capital Journal launches this monograph in which research from diverse perspectives of the economy of sport is included, thus highlighting the importance and impact it has on different sectors are integrated. Therefore, the objective of this issue is to advance in the study of sports economics by joining forces and bringing new products through research.

  19. The Accountability of Performance in Media Sports: Slow-Motion Replay, the "Phantom Punch", and the Mediated Body

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research to date has primarily investigated the formation and the ideological construction of the body in sport. In contrast, the pivotal question here is how media technologies address the body in modern sports in order to make performance comparable and verifiable, i.e. accountable. In the first

  20. Analysis of Academic Performance among Sports and Non-Sports Secondary School Students of CBSC, ICSC and State Board

    OpenAIRE

    Arun.M.N; Dr. Govindaraj.M

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analysis the academic performance of sports and non sports students of secondary school students. Education is the light that shows the mankind the right direction. The purpose of education is to modify the behavior and to make the child literate. Education is not just related to the academic performance but also to various other arenas, which includes over all development of a child, Extra Curricular Activities, Sports, Physical Education and Mental Education...

  1. Eating disorders, physical fitness and sport performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2013-12-16

    Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on sport performance.

  2. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of eating disorders on

  3. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of

  4. What Performance Characteristics Determine Elite Versus Nonelite Athletes in the Same Sport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Lehecka, B.J.; Naylor, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Context: There are significant data comparing elite and nonelite athletes in anaerobic field and court sports as well as endurance sports. This review delineates specific performance characteristics in the elite athlete and may help guide rehabilitation. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from April 1982 to April 2012 was undertaken for articles written in English. Additional references were accrued from reference lists of research articles. Results: In the anaerobic athlete, maximal power production was consistently correlated to elite performance. Elite performance in the endurance athlete is more ambiguous, however, and appears to be related to the dependent variable investigated in each individual study. Conclusion: In anaerobic field and court sport athletes, maximal power output is most predictive of elite performance. In the endurance athlete, however, it is not as clear. Elite endurance athletes consistently test higher than nonelite athletes in running economy, anaerobic threshold, and VO2max. PMID:24427430

  5. High performance sport and sustainability: a contradiction of terms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, D.; Barker-Ruchtia, N.; Wals, A.E.J.; Tinning, R.

    2014-01-01

    Success in high performance sport has always been highly valued. Today, lucrative contracts, sponsorship deals and opportunities for celebrity status are balanced against substantial time spent training and high chances of failure. With pressure mounting on athletes to make the most of their

  6. Sporting Equipment and Students\\' Academic Performance in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of sporting equipment on students academic performance in the concept of projectile in Nigerian senior secondary school Physics in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. A total of 183 senior secondary two (SS2) Physics students were involved in the study. The design ...

  7. Enhancing Performance & Preventing Injuries in Team Sport Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Does, Hendrike

    2016-01-01

    Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,

  8. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  9. Profiling elite/high performance sport athletes with impairments at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, universities have increasingly become hubs for high performance sports, as student-athletes enter the latter phase of the long-term athlete development process (LTAD). Within the South African context, several universities have and continue to play a significant role in the training and preparation of numerous ...

  10. Relationship between mode of sport training and general cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Chih-Hung Chang

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings indicate that the mode of sport training, which results in either high cardiovascular or high motor fitness, bears no relationship to measures of general cognition in elite athletes. The present findings suggest that coaches and athletic trainers should be encouraged to monitor athletes' stress levels during training in order to maximize the beneficial effects of such training on general cognitive performance.

  11. Thriving on Pressure: A Factor Mixture Analysis of Sport Performers' Responses to Competitive Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel J; Arnold, Rachel; Standage, Martyn; Fletcher, David

    2017-12-01

    Although considerable research exists on performers' responses to sporting encounters, little is known about thriving in sport contexts. The current study examined if distinct response patterns existed between sport performers who thrived in competitive encounters compared with those who did not. Participants were 535 sport performers (134 women; M age  = 23.60 years, SD age  = 8.08; M competing  = 11.84 years, SD competing  = 7.11). Results of factor mixture analysis supported a four-profile solution comprising a thriving group (n = 146), a low-functioning group (n = 38), and two groups characterized by scores marginally above (n = 131) and below (n = 209) the sample mean. Profile membership was found to be predicted by personal enablers (viz., personal resilient qualities, psychological skills use) and process variables (viz., basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration, challenge appraisal). This examination of thriving in sport performers offers significant implications for research and practice.

  12. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Melvin H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sports success is dependent primarily on genetic endowment in athletes with morphologic, psychologic, physiologic and metabolic traits specific to performance characteristics vital to their sport. Such genetically-endowed athletes must also receive optimal training to increase physical power, enhance mental strength, and provide a mechanical advantage. However, athletes often attempt to go beyond training and use substances and techniques, often referred to as ergogenics, in attempts to gain a competitive advantage. Pharmacological agents, such as anabolic steroids and amphetamines, have been used in the past, but such practices by athletes have led to the establishment of anti-doping legislation and effective testing protocols to help deter their use. Thus, many athletes have turned to various dietary strategies, including the use of various dietary supplements (sports supplements, which they presume to be effective, safe and legal.

  13. Performing under pressure: Exploring the psychological state underlying clutch performance in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Christian; Crust, Lee; Jackman, Patricia; Vella, Stewart A; Allen, Mark S; Keegan, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Clutch performance is improved performance under pressure. However, little research has examined the psychological state experienced by athletes in these situations. Therefore, this study qualitatively examined the subjective experience underlying clutch performance across a range of sports (e.g., team, individual) and standards (Olympic to recreational athletes). Sixteen athletes (M age  = 27.08 years; SD = 6.48) took part in in-depth, semi-structured interviews primarily after an exceptional performance (M = 4.38 days later; SD = 3.14). Data were analysed inductively and thematically. Clutch states involved 12 characteristics, including heightened and deliberate concentration, intense effort, and heightened awareness, which distinguished the experience of clutch from other optimal psychological states such as flow. Other characteristics, such as perceptions of control, were also reported and supported previous experimental research on clutch. These findings present in-depth qualitative insights into the psychological state underlying clutch performance, and are discussed in relation to the existing literature on optimal psychological states in sport.

  14. Factors associated with using research evidence in national sport organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nicholas L; Pankow, Kurtis; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany J; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore factors associated with the use of research evidence in Canadian National Sport Organisations (NSOs). Data were collected via individual semi-structured interviews with 21 representatives from Canadian NSOs. A qualitative description approach was used. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to an inductive-to-deductive thematic analysis. A research implementation framework (Rycroft-Malone, 2004) was used to organise inductively derived themes into the higher-order categories of evidence (use of evidence, disconnection between research and practice), context (lack of capacity, organisational structure), and facilitation (personal connections with researchers and sport scientists, formal meetings with stakeholders). Overall, NSO representatives did not have a clear understanding of evidence and lacked capacity to access and translate research. However, some context factors, along with internal and external facilitators, were in place and could be used to enhance research implementation.

  15. Preamble | Burnett | South African Journal for Research in Sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 39, No 1:2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. DGWS Research Reports: Women in Sports. Vol. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Dorothy V., Ed.

    This volume presents the results of literature reviews and research from physical education and related fields on women in sports. The purpose of the report is to present scientific evidence on which to base decisions relating to physical activity and athletic programs for girls and women. One of its main sections deals with the psychological…

  17. Sources of sport confidence, imagery type and performance among competitive athletes: the mediating role of sports confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A R; Perry, J; Nicholls, A R; Larkin, D; Davies, J

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sport confidence upon (1) sources of sport confidence-performance relationship and (2) imagery-performance relationship. Participants were 157 competitive athletes who completed state measures of confidence level/sources, imagery type and performance within one hour after competition. Among the current sample, confirmatory factor analysis revealed appropriate support for the nine-factor SSCQ and the five-factor SIQ. Mediational analysis revealed that sport confidence had a mediating influence upon the achievement source of confidence-performance relationship. In addition, both cognitive and motivational imagery types were found to be important sources of confidence, as sport confidence mediated imagery type- performance relationship. Findings indicated that athletes who construed confidence from their own achievements and report multiple images on a more frequent basis are likely to benefit from enhanced levels of state sport confidence and subsequent performance.

  18. The genetics of sports injuries and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Margiotti, Katia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2013-08-11

    in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. we searched PubMed using the terms "sports injuries", "athletic performance" and "genetics" over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these.

  19. Longitudinal Study of Preadolescent Sport Self-Concept and Performance: Reciprocal Effects and Causal Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Gerlach, Erin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Brettschneider, Wolf-Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    Do preadolescent sport self-concepts influence subsequent sport performance? Longitudinal data (Grades 3, 4, and 6) for young boys and girls (N = 1,135; mean age = 9.67) were used to test reciprocal effects model (REM) predictions that sport self-concept is both a cause and a consequence of sport accomplishments. Controlling prior sport…

  20. PHYSICAL AND SPORT ACTIVATION: IT’S INFLUENCE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    José Alfredo Balderrama-Ruedas; Pedro José Díaz-Domínguez; Rosa Isela Gómez-Castillo

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive research is under the quantitative approach, the method analysis statistic is used, to show up the results obtained by the students from the Escuela Normal Rural Ricardo Flores Magón (ENRRFM), whose performed work out and sports among the four years in the bachelor´s degree in education, so on the entry test to the teaching service and analyze the relationship between work out and the sports with academic performance. The results found were the following: from the 96 students...

  1. Consensus statement: Oral health and elite sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Fine, P; Haddad, F; Loosemore, M; de Medici, A; Donos, N; Newton, T; van Someren, K; Moazzez, R; Jaques, R; Hunter, G; Khan, K; Shimmin, M; Brewer, J; Meehan, L; Mills, S; Porter, S

    2014-11-01

    While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF SPORTS ACTIVITY OF PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN DURBĂCEA-BOLOVAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The abstract has to include enough information for readers to be able to appreciate the nature and meaning of the subject, the adequate character of the research method as well as the results and conclusions of the paper. The abstract is not an introduction, it synthesizes the essential results of the research and does not list only the matters discussed in the paper. The abstract shall be written with times new roman, font size 10, italic. It shall include 200-250 words, single spacing.

  3. PHYSICAL AND SPORT ACTIVATION: IT’S INFLUENCE ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Balderrama-Ruedas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This descriptive research is under the quantitative approach, the method analysis statistic is used, to show up the results obtained by the students from the Escuela Normal Rural Ricardo Flores Magón (ENRRFM, whose performed work out and sports among the four years in the bachelor´s degree in education, so on the entry test to the teaching service and analyze the relationship between work out and the sports with academic performance. The results found were the following: from the 96 students analyzed, an average of 21.87% performed work out and sport; this group got a higher average in the final results in comparison to the ones who did not and they got a qualified higher average in the entry test to the professional teaching service, however the difference did not show to mean significant according to the statistic used to analyze the data.

  4. Exercise and Sport Performance with Low Doses of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5–13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (

  5. Cannabis: Exercise performance and sport. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael C

    2017-09-01

    To review the evidence relating to the effect of cannabis on exercise performance. A systematic review of published literature METHODS: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. A search was conducted using PUB med, Medline and Embase searching for cannabis, marijuana, cannabinoids and THC, in sport and exercise; the contents of sports medicine journals for the last 10 years; as well as cross references from journals and a personal collection of reprints. Only English language literature was reviewed and only articles that specified the details of a formal exercise program or protocol. Individuals in rehabilitation or health screening programs involving exercise were included as the study may have identified adverse reactions in the marijuana group. Review articles, opinion pieces, policy statements by sporting bodies and regulatory agencies were excluded. Only 15 published studies have investigated the effects of THC in association with exercise protocols. Of these studies, none showed any improvement in aerobic performance. Exercise induced asthma was shown to be inhibited. In terms of detrimental effects, two studies found that marijuana precipitated angina at a lower work-load (100% of subjects) and strength is probably reduced. Some subjects could not complete an exercise protocol because adverse reactions caused by cannabis. An important finding relevant to drug testing was that aerobic exercise was shown to cause only very small rises (exercise or strength. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dairy products, meat and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2003-01-01

    Creatine supplementation improves repetitive, short-term performance. It has not been shown that exclusion of meat from the diet would impair repetitive short-term performance. In contrast, reduction of protein intake and a concomitant increase of carbohydrate intake during a period of 3-5 days improves anaerobic (2-7 minutes) performance. The protein intake in a mixed or lacto-vegetarian diet is adequate even for elite athletes, providing that energy requirements are met. Many dietary supplements have been suggested to increase muscle mass and/or to decrease fat mass. Although the effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition in athletes are not clear, some positive findings in untrained, obese individuals call for more studies. Strenuous training may impair immune function and increase the susceptibility to infections. Exclusion of meat from the diet does not seem to have adverse effects on immune function. Glutamine supplementation (>3-6 g/day) may improve immune function, but more studies are needed. Similarly, more studies on the possible effects of whey protein and probiotic supplementation on immune function and performance in physically highly active individuals are warranted. Vitamin and mineral balance are not usually a problem among athletes. Notable exceptions may be calcium and iron in some females. Increased calcium intake in athletes with hormonal and menstrual disturbances could theoretically help in maintaining bone status; however, no data are available. A diet with meat may help in maintaining adequate iron stores.

  7. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Soave, Fabio; Calugi, Simona; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles ...

  8. The Ergonomics of Wheelchair Configuration for Optimal Performance in the Wheelchair Court Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has

  9. Performance and Return to Sport After Sports Hernia Surgery in NFL Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Robert A; Evans, David C; Echo, Anthony; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Varner, Kevin E; Harris, Joshua D

    2017-04-01

    Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of athletic pubalgia (AP), also known as sports hernia, once underrecognized and undertreated in professional football, are becoming more common. Surgery as the final treatment for sports hernia when nonsurgical treatment fails remains controversial. Given the money involved and popularity of the National Football League (NFL), it is important to understand surgical outcomes in this patient population. After AP surgery, players would: (1) return to sport (RTS) at a greater than 90% rate, (2) play fewer games for fewer years than matched controls, (3) have no difference in performance compared with before AP surgery, and (4) have no difference in performance versus matched controls. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Internet-based injury reports identified players who underwent AP surgery from January 1996 to August 2015. Demographic and performance data were collected for each player. A 1:1 matched control group and an index year analog were identified. Control and case performance scores were calculated using a standardized scoring system. Groups were compared using paired Student t tests. Fifty-six NFL players (57 AP surgeries) were analyzed (mean age, 28.2 ± 3.1 years; mean years in NFL at surgery, 5.4 ± 3.2). Fifty-three players were able to RTS. Controls were in the NFL longer ( P .05) difference in pre- versus post-AP surgery performance scores and no significant ( P > .05) difference in postoperative performance scores versus controls post-index. There was a high RTS rate after AP surgery without a significant difference in postoperative performance, though career length and games per season after AP surgery were significantly less than that of matched controls.

  10. Sleep, Recovery, and Performance in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Raman K

    2017-08-01

    Poor sleep can lead to decreases in performance and recovery for athletes. Sleep disorders and symptoms are commonly seen in athletes, and may be unrecognized. It is important to educate athletes on adequate duration, quality, and timing of sleep. Interventions may include changes to practice times or careful planning for travel to games in different time zones. It is important to screen and treat sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and insomnia that are seen in some athletes. In patients who suffer concussion, it is important to address sleep issues, as poor sleep can prolong or exacerbate other concussion symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional Movement Screening and Paddle-Sport Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hatchett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the relationship between an endurance paddle-sport athlete’s total functional movement screening (FMS score and individual race performance. Fifty elite level endurance canoeists and kayakers completed the seven-stage FMS protocol prior to the 2016 United States Canoe and Kayak Association National Championship race. Time taken to finish the race was then associated to overall FMS score and respective sub-scores. Total FMS score and various sub-scores were significantly related to race performance. Female and male athletes differed in which sub-scores were shown to be significantly correlated to finishing time. Outcomes from this study indicate that limitations in functional movement are related to endurance paddle-sport race performance.

  12. The sports psychiatrist and performance-enhancing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creado, Shane; Reardon, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side-effects of doping, and treatment of affected athletes. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side-effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions.

  13. Studies Using Single-Subject Designs in Sport Psychology: 30 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. L.; Thompson, K.; Regehr, K.

    2004-01-01

    A prominent feature of behavior-analytic research has been the use of single-subject designs. We examined sport psychology journals and behavioral journals published during the past 30 years, and located 40 studies using single-subject designs to assess interventions for enhancing the performance of athletes and coaches. In this paper, we…

  14. Psychometric Issues in Organizational Stressor Research: A Review and Implications for Sport Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    Organizational stressors can potentially elicit a number of undesirable consequences for sport performers. It is, therefore, imperative that psychologists better understand the demands that athletes encounter via their exploration and assessment. However, although researchers have identified a wide range of organizational stressors in competitive…

  15. Hypothetical model of factors determining performance and sports achievement in team sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trninić Marko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is formation of a comprehensive hypothetical dynamic interactional process model structured by assumed constructs, i.e. processes or mechanisms that obtain real features and influences on athlete's performance and athletic achievement. Thus there are formed and assumed reciprocal relations between high training and competition - based stress as the input variable, cognitive appraisal and interpretation as the mediator, and mood state as the moderator based on the development of the dynamic systems theory. Also, proposed model uses basic assumptions of the Action-Theory approach and it is in accordance with the contemporary socialcognitive view of team functioning in sports. Within the process model, the output variables are measures of efficacy evident through athlete's individual and team performance and athletic achievement. The situation, the team and athlete attributes, the performance and the athletic achievement are joined variables, and the individual and the collective efficacy are the consequence of their reciprocal interaction. Therefore, there are complex and reciprocal interactive processes in real sports and explorative situations amongst the attributes of athlete and team and the behaviour and situation that determine performance and athletic achievement. This is probably the result of an integrated network of reciprocal multi-causal activity of a set of stated assumed constructs from different theories. Thus the hypothetical model is an effort to describe elaborate correlations and/or interdependencies between internal and external determinants which presumably affect athlete's performance and athletic achievement.

  16. Para Sport Athletic Identity from Competition to Retirement: A Brief Review and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Michelle; Martin, Jeffrey

    2018-05-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to review the literature on para sport athletic identity and provide avenues for future research direction. First, the authors briefly describe the existing quantitative and qualitative research on para sport athletic identity and, thereby, illustrate the complexities para sport athletes experience regarding the way they describe their participation in competitive sport. Next, the authors describe how para sport athletes with acquired permanent disabilities and congenital disabilities face similar, yet unique, identity-related challenges. Finally, the authors argue that future researchers should consider examining para sport athletes' identity through narrative identity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Research Status on Equalization of Public Sports Service for Nationwide Fitness in Hebei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ruixue; Su, lina

    Public physical service equalization is a general term of all kinds of sports activity and service which are provided for satisfying the public demand of public sports. It has become social focus that how to meet the people's needs in all aspects based on "people-oriented" and make public sports service equal access to everyone. This article proposed several ways to ensure all citizens' equal right to share national fitness public sports service though research of equal access to public sports fitness in Hebei province, like changing and strengthening the public service function of sports departments, establishing the basic contents and service standards of public sports fitness, coordination of urban and rural and regional public sports fitness service development, strengthening the construction of sports organizations and perfecting specific operation mechanism. It needs processes to realize the target of public sports service equalization gradually.

  18. Generic temporal features of performance rankings in sports and games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Morales

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many complex phenomena, from trait selection in biological systems to hierarchy formation in social and economic entities, show signs of competition and heterogeneous performance in the temporal evolution of their components, which may eventually lead to stratified structures such as the worldwide wealth distribution. However, it is still unclear whether the road to hierarchical complexity is determined by the particularities of each phenomena, or if there are generic mechanisms of stratification common to many systems. Human sports and games, with their (varied but simple rules of competition and measures of performance, serve as an ideal test-bed to look for universal features of hierarchy formation. With this goal in mind, we analyse here the behaviour of performance rankings over time of players and teams for several sports and games, and find statistical regularities in the dynamics of ranks. Specifically the rank diversity, a measure of the number of elements occupying a given rank over a length of time, has the same functional form in sports and games as in languages, another system where competition is determined by the use or disuse of grammatical structures. We use a Gaussian random walk model to reproduce the rank diversity of the studied sports and games. We also discuss the relation between rank diversity and the cumulative rank distribution. Our results support the notion that hierarchical phenomena may be driven by the same underlying mechanisms of rank formation, regardless of the nature of their components. Moreover, such regularities can in principle be used to predict lifetimes of rank occupancy, thus increasing our ability to forecast stratification in the presence of competition.

  19. Motion Capture Technique Applied Research in Sports Technique Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The motion capture technology system definition is described in the paper, and its components are researched, the key parameters are obtained from motion technique, the quantitative analysis are made on technical movements, the method of motion capture technology is proposed in sport technical diagnosis. That motion capture step includes calibration system, to attached landmarks to the tester; to capture trajectory, and to analyze the collected data.

  20. Get SMARTS] (Sports Medicine Research Team System): A Computerized Outpatient Data Collection System for Epidemiologic Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brodine, S

    1997-01-01

    .... This report describes features of the Sports Medicine Research Team System (SMARTS) and reviews results of a SMARTS supported prospective study of male Marine Corps recruits undergoing basic training...

  1. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  2. Achieving optimum sports performance during Ramadan: some practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Zerguini, Yacine; Chalabi, Hakim; Dvorak, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Muslim athletes should fast from sunrise to sunset each day throughout the 30 days of Ramadan. Most athletes will continue to train throughout Ramadan, and they may also be required to compete at this time, but they will also engage in the religious, cultural, and social activities that Ramadan represents. The available evidence indicates that high-level athletes can maintain performance during Ramadan if physical training, food and fluid intake, and sleep are appropriate and well controlled. Individualized monitoring of athletes may help to prevent fatigue and overtraining and to reduce the risk of consequent illness and injury. The timing and intensity of training may require adjustment to optimize the training response, and training close to or after sunset may have advantages, but this will vary between individual and team sports and between environments that are predominantly Muslim and those that are predominantly non-Muslim. Training late in the day allows nutrition interventions after training to promote adaptations to the training stimulus, to promote recovery, and might help to reduce muscle damage. Sleep deficits have a number of adverse effects on well-being and performance, and athletes should ensure adequate sleep throughout Ramadan. In non-Muslim majority environments, especially in team sports, coaches and athletes should be sensitive to the needs of their team-mates who may be fasting. Event organizers should take account of the needs of Muslim athletes when scheduling the dates and timings of sports competitions.

  3. Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to

  4. Review of the status of learning in research on sport education: future research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Research concerning Sport Education's educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students' personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model's impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students' learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students' learning, as well as teachers' and students' perceptions about student learning has shown students' improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students' learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches' preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students' learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students' learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that

  5. Current opinion in clinical sport psychology: from athletic performance to psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Zella E; Bonagura, Kehana

    2017-08-01

    Clinical sport psychology (CSP) is a contemporary, empirically informed model that employs a scope, style, and mode of practice built upon cutting-edge findings from both clinical and sport sciences, and that follows the sound methodological traditions of clinical psychology [1 •• ]. Conceptualizing athletic performance and well-being through the context of empirical research in both athletic and nonathletic domains of functioning, CSP practice can involve the enhancement of athletic performance, and also the personal development and psychological well-being of performers. CSP intervention options expand (if desired) to include those currently considered to be outside of the purview of traditional sport psychology and within the domains of clinical/counseling psychology. Importantly, CSP does not imply that its practitioners must choose a population. CSPers can, if appropriate, assess and intervene with psychological disorders, performance dysfunction, and performance improvement, and/or can make appropriate referrals. Despite whether one personally addresses the variety of interpersonal, non-diagnosable, and clinical issues potentially presented, they must support a comprehensive, client-specific approach and engage in interventions based on sound evidence. Expanding practice boundaries, and with it one's roles and responsibilities, also results in expanded job opportunities. This scope highlights the clinical sport psychologist as the human behavior expert in the athletic milieu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Araújo, Isabel Mesquita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process

  7. [Psychological implications of sport and aging--a neglected research field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweer, Martin K W

    2008-06-01

    Since the 1990s, sport and aging is increasingly in the focus of psychological research. Besides motivational aspects the main attention lies on the positive influence of sporting activity on physical and psychological health. Thus, ageing and sports is mostly considered under functional aspects. The aim to compensate deficits through sports in the elderly reflects the socially widespread pictures of age (frailness) and sport (capability, youthfulness). In this article the deficit model with the associated clichés is questioned on the background of the latest research. The author argues for a more differentiated and constructive view on sport and aging and to take into consideration the specific needs of older people.

  8. Fluid Balance in Team Sport Athletes and the Effect of Hypohydration on Cognitive, Technical, and Physical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B

    2017-10-01

    Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.

  9. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian

    2017-01-01

    evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing......Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...

  10. Longitudinal study of preadolescent sport self-concept and performance: reciprocal effects and causal ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W; Gerlach, Erin; Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Brettschneider, Wolf-Dietrich

    2007-01-01

    Do preadolescent sport self-concepts influence subsequent sport performance? Longitudinal data (Grades 3, 4, and 6) for young boys and girls (N= 1,135; mean age = 9.67) were used to test reciprocal effects model (REM) predictions that sport self-concept is both a cause and a consequence of sport accomplishments. Controlling prior sport performance (performance-based measures and teacher assessments), prior sport self-concept had positive effects on subsequent sport performance in both Grade 4 and Grade 6 and for both boys and girls. Coupled with previous REM studies of adolescents in the academic domain, this first test for preadolescents in the sport domain supports the generalizability of REM predictions over gender, self-concept domain, preadolescent ages, and the transition from primary to secondary school.

  11. Postmatch recovery of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sports: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeven, Steven H; Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2018-01-01

    Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Systematic review. PubMed and Web of Science. This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate quality. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) original research evaluated players' physical recovery postmatch; (2) team/intermittent sports; and (3) at least two postmeasurements were compared with baseline values. Twenty-eight studies were eligible. Mean methodological quality was 11.2±1.11. Most used performance tests and biochemical markers were the countermovement jump test, sprint tests and creatine kinase (CK), cortisol (C) and testosterone (T), respectively. The current evidence demonstrates that underlying mechanisms of muscle recovery are still in progress while performance recovery is already reached. CK recovery time courses are up to ≥72 hours. Soccer and rugby players need more time to recover for sprint performance, CK and C in comparison to other team ball sports. There are more high-quality studies needed regarding recovery in various team sports and recovery strategies on an individual level should be evaluated. Ongoing insufficient recovery can be prevented by the use of the presented recovery time courses as specific practical recovery guidelines.

  12. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.O. Box 524, AUCKLAND PARK 2006. Sport Anthropology, Sport Sociology, Physical Education E-mail: corab@uj.ac.za. Prof. W. HOLLANDER Department of Sport and Movement Studies, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, AUCKLAND PARK 2 0 0 6. Sport Management Movement Education, Curriculum Studies

  13. Industrial Research Performance Management

    CERN Document Server

    Samsonowa, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Managers are increasingly concerned with the typical methods available for organizational performance measurement and control. Research into performance measurement, within the field of innovation management, has been variously approached through frameworks for performance measurement in general (for example, the Balanced Scorecard by Norton and Kaplan), R&D performance management, and surveys on in-use Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). It is striking, however, that almost no research has focused explicitly on the performance measurement of research activities, or indeed tried to develop a sy

  14. Thought and Research on Chinese Sports from the Perspective of Confucian Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchang Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article conducts a research on Chinese sports under Confucian philosophy from the perspective of social value that ancient sports sought, development limitation for ancient physical morality and legal system, and development direction of Chinese sports. It also makes an analysis of the promotion and restraint of traditional Confusion culture on Chinese sports, and seeks many valuable factors such as the integration of social and class nature deeply contained in Chinese sports, improvement of physical supervision mechanism and legal system, as well as personal humanistic quality. This article will provide available ideology resources for sustainable development of modern sports, aiming at settling the current problems therein.

  15. [Dance, art and top performance sport with specific injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietveld, Boni; van de Wiel, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Professional theatre dance has high and specific physical demands, comparable to top sport. Dance injuries are often caused by faulty technique due to compensation for physical limitations. Knowledge of these limitations and professional teaching can prevent many problems. Dance injuries mostly involve the lower limbs, especially the ankles and knees. Dance injuries require that the medical professional has knowledge of dance technique and respects the passion of the dancer. The advice to stop dancing has hardly ever to be given. Scientific, prospective dance medical research is recommended.

  16. Neoliberalism, Performativity and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of New Zealand's Performance Based Research Fund (PBRF). The first section sketches the development and implementation of the PBRF. The second section evaluates the scheme, concentrating on three themes: the relationship between privatization, competition and research performance; the standardization of research; and motivations for research. The paper acknowledges the thorough work completed by the Tertiary Education Advisory Commission and other policy groups in laying the foundation for the adoption of performance-based research funding in New Zealand. It is argued, however, that when viewed in its larger context, the PBRF constitutes a continuation of neoliberal trends already well established in New Zealand's tertiary education system.

  17. The future of genetic research in exercise science and sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Ronald J; Yu, Bing

    2009-01-01

    Genetic research is used to identify the relative contributions made by inherent abilities (nature) versus environmental effects (nurture) in human performance. The same approach allows a better understanding of how injuries or illnesses can result from sport or physical activity. Having identified the genes involved in athletic performance, there are the intriguing possibilities of using this information for talent search, developing individualized training programs and prevention of sports-related injuries. There are many interacting genes involved in athletic performance. This class of genes is often described as 'complex' and the mode of inheritance is called 'multifactorial'. Discovery of these genes is difficult using the conventional case control (association) studies. Recent genomic-based developments allowing high throughput SNP analysis are very promising. Potentially more exciting is the availability in the near future of cheaper and faster whole-genome sequencing technologies. Genetic research in exercise science has produced a lot of data including the ability to draw a human exercise gene map. However, progress at the genetic level has been slow because gene-based association studies are not powerful enough to detect multiple small but cumulative gene effects. In future, the more efficient genomic-based research approaches will accelerate the finding of 'sports genes'. Data generated will be enormous, making it essential to have a direct link between the laboratory researcher and bioinformatics expertise. Genetics research has moved to the genomics era, i.e. the simultaneous testing of multiple genes is now possible. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. 77 FR 47864 - Proposed Information Collection; Application and Performance Reporting for Wildlife and Sport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ...-FF09W11000] Proposed Information Collection; Application and Performance Reporting for Wildlife and Sport... Sport Fish Restoration Program (WSFR) administers the following financial assistance programs in whole...). (Generic Training). 15.605 Sport Fish Restoration, 16 U.S.C. 777 et seq., 50 CFR 80 including subprograms M...

  19. Moving into and out of High-Performance Sport: The Cultural Learning of an Artistic Gymnast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie; Schubring, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-performance sport has been described as a formative environment through which athletes learn sporting skills but also develop athletic selves. Within this process, career movements related to selection for and de-selection from representative teams constitute critical moments. Further, retirement from sport can be problematic as…

  20. Determination of Customer Satisfaction by Staff Demographic Properties: A Research in Recreation Sports Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkutata, Abdulmenaf

    2017-01-01

    Sport managements supply consumers with services in a number of sport branches. In the same breath sport managements (facilities) should provide customer satisfaction due to the intuition of "client centered and service providing corporations." In this regard, the purpose of the researcher is to analyze whether the pleasure of clients…

  1. Reflections on a Quarter-Century of Research in Sports Medicine Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese-Bjornstal, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    The three purposes of this paper are to provide reflections on (a) defining a new field of sports medicine psychology, (b) our research examining the genesis and testing of the integrated model of psychological response to the sport injury and rehabilitation process (Wiese-Bjornstal and Smith, 1993), and, (c) future directions for evaluating the model and advancing the field of sports medicine psychology. Illustrations visually summarize components of sports medicine psychology and show the i...

  2. Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Hambrick, David Z; Oswald, Frederick L

    2014-08-01

    More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing-but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated. We found that deliberate practice explained 26% of the variance in performance for games, 21% for music, 18% for sports, 4% for education, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Conceptual and Methodological Considerations in Sport Anxiety Research: From the Inverted-U Hypothesis to Catastrophe Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, Vikki

    1992-01-01

    Sport psychology researchers study the relationship between anxiety and athletic performance. The paper reviews conceptual and methodological issues in the research, examining the inverted-U hypothesis, multidimensional anxiety theory, and catastrophe theory. Research suggests moving beyond the inverted-U and investigating more complete theories…

  4. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women and sport leadership: perceptions of Malawi women educated in sport business leadership · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. AE Goslin, DA Kluka, 93-108 ...

  5. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shephard Roy J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

  6. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-02-25

    The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

  7. Citation metrics of excellence in sports biomechanics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2017-11-13

    This study extended research on key citation metrics of winners of two career scholar awards in sports biomechanics. Google Scholar (GS) was searched using Harzing's Publish or Perish software for the 13 most recent winners of the ISBS Geoffrey Dyson Award and the ASB Jim Hay Memorial Award. Returned records were corrected for author, and publications excluded for all but peer-reviewed journal articles, proceedings articles, chapters and books in English. These recent award winners had published about 150 publications that had been cited typically 4,082 and 6,648 times over a 26- and 28-year period before receiving these career awards for sports biomechanics research. Estimated median citations at time of their awards were 2,927 and 4,907 for the Dyson and Hay awards, respectively. Award winners had mean Hirsh indexes of 32-45 and mean h i of 19-28. Their mean g indexes (59-84) and their numerous citation classics (C > 100) indicated that they had many influential publications. The citation metrics of these scholars were outstanding and consistent with recent studies of top scholars in biomechanics and kinesiology/exercise science. Careful searching, cleaning and interpretation of several scholar-level citation metrics may provide useful confirmatory evidence for evaluations of awards committees.

  8. Assessing the Sociology of Sport:On Globalisation, Communication and Sport Research in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung Woo

    2015-01-01

    On the 50th anniversary of the ISSA and IRSS, an increasingly influential Korean scholar in the sociology of sport, Jung Woo Lee, considers the development of and challenges for the sociology of sport in Korea. While the sociology of sport was first introduced to South Korea in the late 1960s, growing academic interest was fuelled by the Asian Games and Olympic Games in Seoul in the 1980s. Key volumes, such as Lim’s introduction to the field and an influential edited volume on sport and socia...

  9. The Performance Enhancement Group Program: Integrating Sport Psychology and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Vincent J.; Hogan, Jeffery B.; Varnum, Lisa K.

    1995-01-01

    In an effort to improve the psychological health of the athlete who has sustained an injury, the Performance Enhancement Group program for injured athletes was created. This paper will offer a model for the Performance Enhancement Group program as a way to: 1) support the athlete, both mentally and physically; 2) deal with the demands of rehabilitation; and 3) facilitate the adjustments the athlete has to make while being out of the competitive arena. The program consists of responsibilities for professionals in sport psychology (ie, assessment/orientation, support, education, individual counseling, and evaluation) and athletic training (ie, organization/administration, recruitment and screening, support, application of techniques, and program compliance). The paper will emphasize that the success of the program is dependent on collaboration between professionals at all levels. PMID:16558357

  10. Definition and constituents of maltreatment in sport: establishing a conceptual framework for research practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, A E

    2009-12-01

    There has recently been an increased emergence of research on the maltreatment of athletes in sport. It is suggested that research may play a particularly salient role with respect to athlete protection initiatives. However, as it stands, current research in this area is limited by a lack of consistency in definitions. The purpose of the paper, therefore, is to propose a conceptual framework of maltreatment in sport to be used among research practitioners. More specifically, a conceptual model of the different categories, constructs and constituents of maltreatment in sport is proposed. Sport-specific examples of the various maltreatments are outlined. Current literature is reviewed, and recommendations are made for future research.

  11. Iron deficiency in sports - definition, influence on performance and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clénin, German; Cordes, Mareike; Huber, Andreas; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Noack, Patrick; Scales, John; Kriemler, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency is frequent among athletes. All types of iron deficiency may affect physical performance and should be treated. The main mechanisms by which sport leads to iron deficiency are increased iron demand, elevated iron loss and blockage of iron absorption due to hepcidin bursts. As a baseline set of blood tests, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean cellular volume, mean cellular haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels help monitor iron deficiency. In healthy male and female athletes >15 years, ferritin values sports, a ferritin value of 50 mcg/l should be attained in athletes prior to altitude training, as iron demands in these situations are increased. Treatment of iron deficiency consists of nutritional counselling, oral iron supplementation or, in specific cases, by intravenous injection. Athletes with repeatedly low ferritin values benefit from intermittent oral substitution. It is important to follow up the athletes on an individual basis, repeating the baseline blood tests listed above twice a year. A long-term daily oral iron intake or i.v. supplementation in the presence of normal or even high ferritin values does not make sense and may be harmful.

  12. The impact performance of headguards for combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact energy attenuation performance of a range of headguards for combat sports. Seven headguards worn during combat sport training or competition, including two Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur (AIBA)-approved boxing models, were tested using drop tests. An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) rigid headform was used with a 5.6 kg drop assembly mass. Tests were conducted against a flat rigid anvil both with and without a boxing glove section. The centre forehead and lateral headguard areas were tested. Peak headform acceleration was measured. Tests from a selection of drop heights and repeated tests on the same headguard were conducted. Headguard performance varied by test condition. For the 0.4 m rigid anvil tests, the best model headguard was the thickest producing an average peak headform acceleration over 5 tests of 48 g compared with 456 g for the worst model. The mean peak acceleration for the 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 frontal and lateral rigid anvil impact tests was between 32% and 40% lower for the Top Ten boxing model compared with the Adidas boxing model. The headguard performance deterioration observed with repeat impact against the flat anvil was reduced for impacts against the glove section. The overall reduction in acceleration for the combination of glove and headguard in comparison to the headguard condition was in the range of 72-93% for 0.6 and 0.8 m drop tests. The impact tests show the benefits of performance testing in identifying differences between headguard models. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  14. Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Loffing

    Full Text Available In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing, for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the

  15. Effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Kavouras, Stavros A; Koutsari, Christina; Georgakakis, Charalambos; Skenderi, Katerina; Beer, Michael; Sidossis, Labros S

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance. Ten subjects completed 4 trials. Each trial consisted of a glycogen depletion protocol, followed by a 15-min refueling, after which subjects performed an 1-h performance test while consuming one of the experimental drinks (HGlu, glucose; HMal, maltose; MalMix, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrin; Plac, placebo). Drinks provided 0.65 g/kg body weight carbohydrates during refueling and 0.2 g/kg every 15 min during the performance test. Although no significant differences were found in performance (HGlu: 67.2 +/- 2.0; HMal: 68.6 +/- 1.7; MalMix: 66.7 +/- 2.0; Plac: 69.4 +/- 3.0 min, P> 0.05), subjects completed the MalMix trial 3.9%; faster than the Plac. Carbohydrate drinks caused comparable plasma glucose values that were significantly higher during refueling and at the end of exercise, compared to Plac. The data suggest that although carbohydrate drinks help to maintain plasma glucose at a higher level, no differences in performance could be detected after glycogen-depleting exercise.

  16. Biomarkers in Sports and Exercise: Tracking Health, Performance, and Recovery in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala, Maren S.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Queen, Robin M.; Pryor, John Luke; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lee, EC, Fragala, MS, Kavouras, SA, Queen, RM, Pryor, JL, and Casa, DJ. Biomarkers in sports and exercise: tracking health, performance, and recovery in athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2920–2937, 2017—Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs. Our approach was to review the current literature and recommend a collection of validated biomarkers in key categories of health, performance, and recovery that could be used for this purpose. We determined that a comprehensive performance set of biomarkers should include key markers of (a) nutrition and metabolic health, (b) hydration status, (c) muscle status, (d) endurance performance, (e) injury status and risk, and (f) inflammation. Our review will help coaches, clinical sport professionals, researchers, and athletes better understand how to comprehensively monitor physiologic changes, as they design training cycles that elicit maximal improvements in performance while minimizing overtraining and injury risk. PMID:28737585

  17. Effect of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on Sport Performance, a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Morgan, Sergio; Molina Mora, José Arturo

    2017-09-01

    Aim is to determine if the training with heart rate variability biofeedback allows to improve performance in athletes of different disciplines. Methods such as database search on Web of Science, SpringerLink, EBSCO Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, Pubmed/Medline, and PROQUEST Academic Research Library, as well as manual reference registration. The eligibility criteria were: (a) published scientific articles; (b) experimental studies, quasi-experimental, or case reports; (c) use of HRV BFB as main treatment; (d) sport performance as dependent variable; (e) studies published until October 2016; (f) studies published in English, Spanish, French or Portuguese. The guidelines of the PRISMA statement were followed. Out of the 451 records found, seven items were included. All studies had a small sample size (range from 1 to 30 participants). In 85.71% of the studies (n = 6) the athletes enhanced psychophysiological variables that allowed them to improve their sport performance thanks to training with heart rate variability biofeedback. Despite the limited amount of experimental studies in the field to date, the findings suggest that heart rate variability biofeedback is an effective, safe, and easy-to-learn and apply method for both athletes and coaches in order to improve sport performance.

  18. A Research on Mathematical Thinking Skills: Mathematical Thinking Skills of Athletes in Individual and Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Halil; Inan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Sinan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the mathematical thinking skills of licensed athletes engaged in individual and team sports. The research is designed as a survey model. The sample of the research is composed of 59 female and 170 male licensed athletes (n = 229) and (aged 14 to 52) licensed who do the sports of shooting, billiards, archery,…

  19. Mediating Peer Teaching for Learning Games: An Action Research Intervention Across Three Consecutive Sport Education Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A; O'Donovan, Toni

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding. Data collection consisted of videotape and audiotape records of all 47 lessons, a reflective field diary kept by the first author in the role of teacher-researcher, and a total of 24 semistructured focus-group interviews. Trustworthiness criteria for assuring the quality of qualitative research included extensive data triangulation, stakeholders' crosschecking, and collaborative interpretational analysis. Through the application of systematic preparation strategies, student-coaches were able to successfully conduct team instruction that resulted in students' tactical development and improved performance. Aspects such as the study of predominant configurations of players' gameplay and similar tactical principles across games within the same category prevented a setback in the complexity of the learning content addressed at the beginning of each season. Players also showed an increasing ability to adapt gameplay to game conditions. While sport education has the capacity to develop competent players, different levels of teacher guidance and learners' instructional responsibility are necessary when teaching tactics.

  20. All in the mind? Pain, placebo effect, and ergogenic effect of caffeine in sports performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beedie, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Christopher J BeedieDepartment of Sports Science, Tourism and Leisure, Canterbury Christ Church, University, Canterbury, UKAbstract: The ergogenic effects of caffeine on performance are well documented. These effects are more evident in endurance and short-duration, sustained-effort events than in interactive or stop-go sports. Experimentally-induced placebo effects of caffeine on sports performance have also been observed in a number of recent studies. In the present paper it is argued that,...

  1. Prediction of intrinsic motivation and sports performance using 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.

  2. Effects of a motivational climate inntervention for coaches on young athletes' sport performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald E; Smoll, Frank L; Cumming, Sean P

    2007-02-01

    The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes'cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that the athletes in the intervention condition perceived their coaches as being more mastery-involving on the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports when compared to athletes in an untreated control condition. Relative to athletes who played for untrained coaches, those who played for the trained coaches exhibited decreases on all subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 and on total anxiety score from preseason to late season. Control group athletes reported increases in anxiety over the season. The intervention had equally positive effects on boys and girls teams.

  3. Developing a strategic research framework for sport and exercise medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, Louis J; van Zyl, Gert J; Nel, Marietjie M

    2014-07-01

    Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) is a young, fast growing discipline. The need to broaden its evidence base has been established. The aim of the study was to compile a research-based strategic framework for the development of a sustainable research programme in SEM at a South African university. A literature review, internal document analysis, semistructured interviews with role players within the university and a Delphi process utilising a panel of international and national experts in research and SEM, were applied. Results were analysed and categorised regarding foundational aspects and operational components to create a sustainable research programme in SEM. The foundational level of the framework consists of points of departure, premises and resources. Points of departure regarding SEM, the university, management, research and sustainability were identified. The premises for the research programme are relevance, currency, flexibility, implementability and a scientific base. Internal, institutional and external resources required by the programme were identified. The operational level was developed according to the W.K. Kellogg programme logic model. It consists of academic and management inputs; a central hub of activities which drives the programme; desired financial, human and academic outputs, and long-term qualitative and quantitative outcomes. The third level represents a sustainable research programme which is constantly monitored and reviewed. The strategic framework provides guidelines for the development and sustainable management of an SEM research programme. It will make a substantial contribution to the research, further development, and ultimately the status of SEM in South Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, Lawrence L

    2014-11-01

    Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5-13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (caffeine doses (1) do not alter the peripheral whole-body responses to exercise; (2) improve vigilance, alertness, and mood and cognitive processes during and after exercise; and (3) are associated with few, if any, side effects. Therefore, the ergogenic effect of low caffeine doses appears to result from alterations in the central nervous system. However, several aspects of consuming low doses of caffeine remain unresolved and suffer from a paucity of research, including the potential effects on high-intensity sprint and burst activities. The responses to low doses of caffeine are also variable and athletes need to determine whether the ingestion of ~200 mg of caffeine before and/or during training and competitions is ergogenic on an individual basis.

  5. Trunk Stability, Trunk Strength and Sport Performance Level in Judo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbado

    Full Text Available Although trunk muscle function has been suggested to be a determinant of judo performance, its contribution to high-level performance in this sport has been poorly studied. Therefore, several tests were used to assess the differences in trunk muscle function between 11 international and 14 national level judo practitioners (judokas. Trunk strength and endurance were assessed using isokinetic tests and core stability was assessed using two protocols: 1 sudden loading, to assess trunk responses to unexpected external perturbations; 2 stable and unstable sitting, to assess the participants' ability to control trunk balance. No differences between groups were found for trunk flexor isokinetic strength, trunk responses against lateral and posterior loading and trunk control while sitting. However, international level judokas showed significantly higher trunk extensor isokinetic strength (p <0.05 and lower trunk angular displacement after anterior trunk loading (p <0.05 than national level judokas. Few and low (r < 0.512 significant correlations were found between strength, endurance and stability parameters, which suggests that trunk strength and endurance are not limiting factors for trunk stability in competitive judokas. These results support the importance of trunk extensor strength and trunk stability against forward perturbations in elite judo performance.

  6. Development and Initial Validation of the Performance Perfectionism Scale for Sport (PPS-S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew P.; Appleton, Paul R.; Mallinson, Sarah H.

    2016-01-01

    Valid and reliable instruments are required to appropriately study perfectionism. With this in mind, three studies are presented that describe the development and initial validation of a new instrument designed to measure multidimensional performance perfectionism for use in sport (Performance Perfectionism Scale--Sport [PPS-S]). The instrument is…

  7. The impact of patellar tendinopathy on sports and work performance in active athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Astrid J; Koolhaas, Wendy; Zwerver, Johannes; Diercks, Ron L.; Nieuwenhuis, Kari; Van Der Worp, Henk; Brouwer, Sandra; Van Den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Greater insight into sports and work performance of athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT) will help establish the severity of this common overuse injury. Primary aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PT on sports and work performance. Seventy seven active athletes with PT (50 males;

  8. Systematic review on sports performance in beach volleyball from match analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Igor Araripe Medeiros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n6p698   The present article aimed to perform a systematic review of the available literature in relation to the analysis of sports performance in beach volleyball from match analysis. Web of Science, SportDiscus®, PubMed, Scopus and Academic Search Complete databases were used to identify peer-reviewed published articles. The authors conducted a content analysis according to goals, variables of analysis and methods used in studies. In general, three research lines were determined: analysis of the functional dependence of the game actions and their relation with success, performance according to gender, and the effect of changing the rules on the game performance. In relation to methodology, an evolution from descriptive studies to studies of comparative nature can be seen and, more recently, there has been a focus on predictive nature. This new trend breaks with the research based on simple cause and effect relations, and focuses on the analysis of the game events, namely related to tactical-technical performance indicators, in a non-linear and interactive way, considering the game as a complex and dynamic system. The limitations of the studies analyzed show the need for further studies to investigate the identification of game patterns for the different game levels; integration of situational variables in the study of the performance of teams (such as match status and the quality of opposition.

  9. Self-efficacy at children doing sport

    OpenAIRE

    Mlynářová, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy was found as a strong predictor of sport performance in many researches. In this paper we focus on self-efficacy in children doing sport and we observe the relationship between self-efficacy, competitive anxiety and sport performance in children. In theoretical part we define self-efficacy, its sources and types of self-efficacy measurements in sport and physical activity. We summarize knowledge from previous researches and we also give some information about sport in children, ...

  10. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating sport celebrity endorsement and sport event sponsorship as promotional cues · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N Van Heerden, A Kuiper, HM Saar, 147-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajrs.v30i2.25996 ...

  11. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport tourist expectations of a world championship sporting event · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ... Perceived competence and physical activity involvement among youths: an examination of Harter's Competence Motivation Theory in Botswana · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  12. Going Pro: Point of View Cameras in Adventure Sports Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The role of the adventure sports coach was first identified by Collins and Collins (2012) who suggested that the sports coaching process is significantly different in an adventurous context. Whilst there is a growing body of literature surrounding coaching pedagogy (Hay, Dickens, Crudginton, & Engstrom, 2012), investigation of coaching…

  13. Sport Education as a Curriculum Approach to Student Learning of Invasion Games: Effects on Game Performance and Game Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Cláudio; Valério, Carla; Mesquita, Isabel

    2018-03-01

    The teaching and learning of games and sport-based activities has historically been the dominant form of the physical education curricula. With an interest in providing to students meaningful and culturally situated sporting experiences, Sport Education is probably the most implemented and researched pedagogical model worldwide. However, although there is considerable evidence that the model as a curriculum approach can benefit the development of social goals and healthy sport behaviors, not a single study as to date examined students' game-play development beyond participation in single and isolated teaching units. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine students' development of Game Performance and Game Involvement during participation in three consecutive Sport Education seasons of invasion games. The participants were an experienced physical education teacher and one seventh-grade class totaling 26 students (10 girls and 16 boys). Using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (Oslin et al., 1998), pre-test to post-tests measures of students' Game Performance and Game Involvement were collected during their participation in basketball (20 lessons), handball (16 lessons), and football (18 lessons) units. Inter-group differences and pre-test to post-test improvements within each season were analyzed through 2 (time) x group (sport) repeated measures ANOVA tests. There were found significant pre-test to post-test improvements in Game Performance and Game Involvement in the second (handball) and third (football) seasons, but not in the first season (basketball). Students' Game Performance and Involvement scores of handball and football were significantly higher than their scores while playing basketball. The opportunity for an extended engagement in game-play activities and prolonged membership of students in the same teams throughout three consecutive seasons of Sport Education were key to the outcomes found. The specific configurations of the game

  14. Sport Education as a Curriculum Approach to Student Learning of Invasion Games: Effects on Game Performance and Game Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Farias, Carla Valério, Isabel Mesquita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The teaching and learning of games and sport-based activities has historically been the dominant form of the physical education curricula. With an interest in providing to students meaningful and culturally situated sporting experiences, Sport Education is probably the most implemented and researched pedagogical model worldwide. However, although there is considerable evidence that the model as a curriculum approach can benefit the development of social goals and healthy sport behaviors, not a single study as to date examined students’ game-play development beyond participation in single and isolated teaching units. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine students’ development of Game Performance and Game Involvement during participation in three consecutive Sport Education seasons of invasion games. The participants were an experienced physical education teacher and one seventh-grade class totaling 26 students (10 girls and 16 boys. Using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (Oslin et al., 1998, pre-test to post-tests measures of students’ Game Performance and Game Involvement were collected during their participation in basketball (20 lessons, handball (16 lessons, and football (18 lessons units. Inter-group differences and pre-test to post-test improvements within each season were analyzed through 2 (time x group (sport repeated measures ANOVA tests. There were found significant pre-test to post-test improvements in Game Performance and Game Involvement in the second (handball and third (football seasons, but not in the first season (basketball. Students’ Game Performance and Involvement scores of handball and football were significantly higher than their scores while playing basketball. The opportunity for an extended engagement in game-play activities and prolonged membership of students in the same teams throughout three consecutive seasons of Sport Education were key to the outcomes found. The specific

  15. Sport and exercise medicine research activity in the Arab world: a 15-year bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Mohamad Y; Fares, Jawad; Baydoun, Hasan; Fares, Youssef

    2017-01-01

    The role of sports in decreasing the prevalence of many diseases has led to a growing interest in the field of sport and exercise medicine. But sport and exercise medicine still remains new to the Arab world, waiting to be explored. The aim of this study is to describe and characterise sport and exercise medicine research activity in the Arab world between 2002 and 2016. The PubMed database was used to search for publications related to sport and exercise medicine. Publications were classified according to the country of origin and filtered to include publications between 2002 and 2016. Research output was analysed with respect to gross domestic product (GDP) and population of each country. A total of 1148 papers related to sport and exercise medicine were found to be published in the Arab countries between 2002 and 2016. Sport-and-exercise-medicine-related publications constituted 0.86% of the total biomedical research papers published in the Arab world and 0.49% of the world's sport and exercise medicine literature. The number of sport-and-exercise-medicine-related publications per country ranged from zero to 352, with Qatar occupying the top spot. Tunisia ranked first with respect to publications per average GDP, while Qatar ranked first with respect to publications per average population. Comoros, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen were found to have no publications related to sport and exercise medicine. Sport and exercise medicine is a novel field in the Arab world. Recognising the barriers facing sport and exercise medicine research and exploring them meticulously remains an essential part of the plan to improve the Arab world's output and contribution in this field.

  16. Accumulation and Application of Knowledge Through Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick

    The Sports Institute for Research Through Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) is an interdisciplinary, public professional, study/action group, which brings together theoreticians and practitioners to investigate topics of vital interest to sport or athletic organizations functioning at the community, provincial/state, national, or international…

  17. The use of artificial intelligence in the analysis of sports performance: a review of applications in human gait analysis and future directions for sports biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, A C; Bartlett, R M

    1995-06-01

    Computers have played an important supporting role in the development of experimental and theoretical sports biomechanics. The role of the computer now extends from data capture and data processing through to mathematical and statistical modelling and simulation and optimization. This paper seeks to demonstrate that elevation of the role of the computer to involvement in the decision-making process, through the use of artificial intelligence techniques, would be a potentially rewarding future direction for the discipline. In the absence of significant previous work in this area, this paper reviews experiences in a parallel field of medical informatics, namely gait analysis. Research into the application of expert systems and neural networks to gait analysis is reviewed, observations made and comparisons drawn with the biomechanical analysis of sports performance. Brief explanations of the artificial intelligence techniques discussed in the paper are provided. The paper concludes that the creation of an expert system for a specific well-defined sports technique would represent a significant advance in the development of sports biomechanics.

  18. High-performance LED luminaire for sports hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Xuan-Hao; Yang, Jin-Tsung; Chien, Wei-Ting; Chang, Jung-Hsuan; Lo, Yi-Chien; Lin, Che-Chu; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present a luminaire design with anti-glare and energy-saving effects for sports hall. Compared with traditional lamps using in a badminton court, the average illuminance on the ground of the proposed LED luminaire is enhanced about 300%. Besides, the uniformity is obviously enhanced and improved. The switch-on speed of lighting in sports hall is greatly reduced from 5-10 minutes to 1 second. The simulation analysis and the corresponding experiment results are demonstrated.

  19. Sport Psychology. Theories and Applications for Performance, Health and Humanity.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This congress proceedings volume includes all abstracts submitted to the 14th European Congress of Sport Psychology of the European Federation of Sport Psychology FEPSAC that have been accepted by the scientific evaluation committee. Content: six keynote lectures, Panteleimon ("Paddy") Ekkekakis: Escape from Cognitivism: Exercise as Hedonic Experience; Sergio Lara-Bercial and Cliff Mallett: Serial Winning Coaches – Vision, People and Environment; Kari Fasting: Sexual Harassment and Abuse in S...

  20. Possible Hormone Predictors Of Physical Performance In Adolescent Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alanna C; Heazlewood, Ian T; Kitic, Cecilia M; Lys, Isabelle; Johnson, Liam

    2017-05-30

    The research aim of this study was to determine possible hormone predictors of physical performance in adolescent team sport athletes. Saliva samples were collected immediately prior to performance testing sessions from 114 state squad athletes (77 male, 37 female) participating in either Australian football, basketball, hockey, or netball. Participants completed tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacity, agility, power and speed. Samples were collected over 22 months at quarterly, six-monthly and/or yearly intervals depending on the testing schedule of the athlete. Saliva was analysed for testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) levels. A strong negative correlation existed between multistage fitness test performance and T:E ratio (r=-0.76, p=0.01) in females not taking oral contraceptives and a strong positive correlation existed between repeat agility total time and estradiol levels (r=-0.71, p=0.001) in females taking oral contraceptives. In males, strong negative correlations were evident for individual changes in planned agility time and estradiol levels (r=0.87, p=0.02), and CMJ height and T:C (r=-0.88, p=0.01). In females taking oral contraceptives a strong positive correlation was noted between individual change in yo-yo intermittent recovery test performance and T:E (r=0.74, p=0.01) and a strong negative correlation was noted between 20m speed and T:P (r=0.73, p=0.01). In females not taking oral contraceptives a strong negative correlation was found between individual change in CMJ height and T:P (r=-0.72, p=0.02). The findings show that in adolescent team sport athletes the P:E, T:E and the T:P ratios are important predictors of performance in tests of physical capacity. The findings also indicate estradiol and progesterone have a predictive function in the physical performance of adolescent male team sport athletes.

  1. Position statement—altitude training for improving team-sport players’ performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-01-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

  2. Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-12-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.

  3. DRUGS IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Mottram

    2005-12-01

    undergraduates and researchers in sports science. ASSESSMENT This book is almost a compulsory reading for anyone interested in drug in sport, performance in sport, drug treatment in sport injuries, actions of drugs, nutritional supplements in sport, doping control and rules, social/political viewpoint of drug usage, sports medicine and for those wishing to run comprehensive research in this and relevant areas. The fact that the contributors are leading international researchers in this field makes this book more welcome.

  4. The ergonomics of wheelchair configuration for optimal performance in the wheelchair court sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barry S; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing mobility performance in wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby and tennis) is dependent on a combination of factors associated with the user, the wheelchair and the interfacing between the two. Substantial research has been attributed to the wheelchair athlete yet very little has focused on the role of the wheelchair and the wheelchair-user combination. This article aims to review relevant scientific literature that has investigated the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance from an ergonomics perspective. Optimizing performance from an ergonomics perspective requires a multidisciplinary approach. This has resulted in laboratory-based investigations incorporating a combination of physiological and biomechanical analyses to assess the efficiency, health/safety and comfort of various wheelchair configurations. To a lesser extent, field-based testing has also been incorporated to determine the effects of wheelchair configuration on aspects of mobility performance specific to the wheelchair court sports. The available literature has demonstrated that areas of seat positioning, rear wheel camber, wheel size and hand-rim configurations can all influence the ergonomics of wheelchair performance. Certain configurations have been found to elevate the physiological demand of wheelchair propulsion, others have been associated with an increased risk of injury and some have demonstrated favourable performance on court. A consideration of all these factors is required to identify optimal wheelchair configurations. Unfortunately, a wide variety of different methodologies have immerged between studies, many of which are accompanied by limitations, thus making the identification of optimal configurations problematic. When investigating an area of wheelchair configuration, many studies have failed to adequately standardize other areas, which has prevented reliable cause and effect relationships being established. In addition, a large

  5. Researching local sports initiatives for young migrants from a political perspective: methodological and practical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi García-Arjona

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of incorporation of young migrants have been studied using a range of new approaches. Among them, sports and physical activity have been claimed as a space for social and cultural integration. To date, most research has been based mainly on ethnographic and grassroots perspectives to better understand the experiences of sports practices of migrants and their families. However, fewer contributions have focused on the political discourse on sports as a field of integration. This article explores methodological challenges arosen when choosing sports policies as a field of study. The main methodological challenges considered include the contested conceptualizations of the target population in sports initiatives and the development of comparative selection criteria for different levels of institutional participants. An indepth analysis of these methodological issues can help to reflect on the ideological constructs of sports as a field of integration and highlight the contribution of the political sociological perspective to existing migration studies.

  6. Effects of sports climbing on muscle performance and balance for patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolk, Christoph; Dalgas, Ulrik; Osada, Nani

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The potential benefits of sports climbing for many diseases have not been investigated. The aim of this case series was to examine whether sports climbing is feasible and whether it can influence isometric muscle performance and balance in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Met...

  7. Technology-Enhanced Learning in Sports Education Using Clickers: Satisfaction, Performance and Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Vaso; Ioannou, Andri

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses ICT in Education by describing an empirical investigation of technology-enhanced sports education. The study examines the use of clickers by 162 Judo athletes during seminars on the rules and regulations of the sport. Results are based on quantitative data collected on athletes' performances and attitudes and qualitative data…

  8. Body Segment Contributions to Sport Skill Performance: Two Contrasting Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Doris I.

    1980-01-01

    Two methods for approaching the problems of body segment contributions to motor performance are joint immobilization with restraint and resultant muscle torque pattern. Although the second approach is preferred, researchers face major challenges when using it. (CJ)

  9. Does the use of dietary supplements enhance athletes’ sport performances? A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Meo, Concetta; Laurenti, Patrizia; de Waure, Chiara; Terracciano, Elisa; Di Nardo, Francesco; Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consumption of dietary supplements has increased in recent years.Despite their widespread use, there is confusion about effects on sport performances.The aim of this study was to investigate association between use of supplements and enhance of athletes’ sports performance.Methods: A review and a meta-analysis of studies conducted on Dietary Supplements and Sports between 2003 and 2013 were performed. Enhancement on sport performances was considered as outcome. The following a...

  10. The Research Doesn't Always Apply: Practical Solutions to Evidence-Based Training-Load Monitoring in Elite Team Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Darren J

    2017-04-01

    Research describing load-monitoring techniques for team sport is plentiful. Much of this research is conducted retrospectively and typically involves recreational or semielite teams. Load-monitoring research conducted on professional team sports is largely observational. Challenges exist for the practitioner in implementing peer-reviewed research into the applied setting. These challenges include match scheduling, player adherence, manager/coach buy-in, sport traditions, and staff availability. External-load monitoring often attracts questions surrounding technology reliability and validity, while internal-load monitoring makes some assumptions about player adherence, as well as having some uncertainty around the impact these measures have on player performance This commentary outlines examples of load-monitoring research, discusses the issues associated with the application of this research in an elite team-sport setting, and suggests practical adjustments to the existing research where necessary.

  11. Effects of Mindfulness Practice on Performance-Relevant Parameters and Performance Outcomes in Sports: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühlmayer, Lucia; Birrer, Daniel; Röthlin, Philipp; Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars

    2017-11-01

    Mindfulness as a present-oriented form of mental training affects cognitive processes and is increasingly considered meaningful for sport psychological training approaches. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of mindfulness practice on physiological and psychological performance surrogates or on performance outcomes in sports. The aim of the present meta-analytical review was to examine the effects of mindfulness practice or mindfulness-based interventions on physiological and psychological performance surrogates and on performance outcomes in sports in athletes over 15 years of age. A structured literature search was conducted in six electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus). The following search terms were used with Boolean conjunction: (mindful* OR meditat* OR yoga) AND (sport* OR train* OR exercis* OR intervent* OR perform* OR capacity OR skill*) AND (health* OR adult* OR athlete*). Randomized and non-randomized controlled studies that compared mindfulness practice techniques as an intervention with an inactive control or a control that followed another psychological training program in healthy sportive participants were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality [Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro)] scales were independently assessed by two researchers. A third independent researcher was consulted to achieve final consensus in case of disagreement between both researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated as weighted Hedges' g and served as the main outcomes in comparing mindfulness practice versus control. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects inverse-variance model. Nine trials of fair study quality (mean PEDro score 5.4, standard deviation 1.1) with 290 healthy sportive participants (athletics, cyclists, dart throwers, hammer throwers, hockey players, hurdlers, judo fighters, rugby players, middle-distance runners, long

  12. Return to Sport-Specific Performance After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Nicholas G; Chan, Denise S

    2017-10-01

    Physicians counseling athletes on the prognosis of sport-specific performance outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) depend on the published literature. However, critical appraisal of the validity and biases in these studies is required to understand how ACLR affects an athlete's ability to return to sport, the athlete's sport-specific performance, and his or her ability to achieve preinjury levels of performance. This review identifies the published prognostic studies evaluating sport-specific performance outcomes after ACLR. A risk of bias assessment and summaries of return to sport and career longevity results are provided for each included study. Systematic review. Electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and PUBMED) were searched via a defined search strategy with no limits, to identify relevant studies for inclusion in the review. A priori defined eligibility criteria included studies measuring sport-specific performance within an athlete's sport, before and after primary ACLR. Reference lists of eligible studies were hand-searched for additional relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by use of a standardized spreadsheet. Each included study was assessed by use of 6 bias domains of the Quality in Prognosis Studies tool to critically appraise study participation, study attrition, prognostic factors, outcome measurement, confounders, and statistical analysis and reporting. Two authors independently performed each stage of the review and reached consensus through discussion. Fifteen pertinent prognostic studies evaluated sport-specific performance outcomes and/or return to play after ACLR for athletes participating in competitive soccer, football, ice hockey, basketball, Alpine ski, X-Games ski and snowboarding, and baseball. Twelve of these studies were considered to have a high level of bias. This review demonstrated that most high-performance

  13. Piecing the puzzle together: case studies of international research in health-promoting sports clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sami; Donaldson, Alex; Geidne, Susanna; Seghers, Jan; Scheerder, Jeroen; Meganck, Jeroen; Lane, Aoife; Kelly, Bridget; Casey, Meghan; Eime, Rochelle; Villberg, Jari; Kannas, Lasse

    2016-03-01

    This paper seeks to review the current international health-promoting sports club (HPSC) research, drawing together findings based on case studies from various countries to illustrate the status of HPSCs. In addition, future challenges for HPSC research and implementation are considered. The review includes six case studies from five countries. In summary, there are two major research themes in this area, namely 'research into HPSC activity' and 'research into HPSC networks'. The first theme investigates the extent to which sports clubs and/or national sports organisations invest in health promotion (HP) - both in policy and practice. The latter theme is driven by an intention to widen the scope of HPSCs to reach novel internal actors, like parents, siblings, etc., and/or external non-sporting bodies, like communities, schools, etc. The future challenges for HPSC research require a better understanding of the motives, barriers and capacities of sports clubs and coaches. Sports organisations, clubs and coaches generally support the intent of the HPSC concept, but even with the best evidence- or theory-based HP programmes/guidelines/standards, nothing will happen in practice if the nature and capacities of sports clubs are not better acknowledged. Therefore, a call for embracing implementation science is finally made to enhance implementation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Untypical Undergraduate Research: Player Motion Analysis in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerke, Dinah

    There is significant concern about the degree of attrition in STEM disciplines from the start of K-12 through to the end of higher education, and the analysis of the `leaky pipeline' from the various institutions has identified a critical decline - which may be as high as 60 percent - between the fraction of students who identify as having an interest in a science or engineering major at the start of college/university, and the fraction of students who ultimately graduate with a STEM degree. It has been shown that this decline is even more dramatic for women and underrepresented minorities (Blickenstaff 2005, Metcalf 2010). One intervention which has been proven to be effective for retention of potential STEM students is early research experience, particularly if it facilitates the students' integration into a STEM learning community (Graham et al. 2013, Toven-Lindsey et al. 2015). In other words, to retain students in STEM majors, we would like to encourage them to `think of themselves as scientists', and simultaneously promote supportive peer networks. The University of Denver (DU) already has a strong undergraduate research program. However, while the current program provides valuable training for many students, it likely comes too late to be effective for student retention in STEM, because it primarily serves older students who have already finished the basic coursework in their discipline; within physics, we know that the introductory physics courses already serve as gatekeeper courses that cause many gifted but `non-typical' students to lose interest in pursuing a STEM major (Tobias 1990). To address this issue, my lab is developing a small research spinoff program in which we apply spatiotemporal motion analysis to the motion trajectories of players in sports, using video recordings of DU Pioneer hockey games. This project aims to fulfill a dual purpose: The research is framed in a way that we think is attractive and accessible for beginning students who

  15. Genes, environment and sport performance: why the nature-nurture dualism is no longer relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Keith; Baker, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The historical debate on the relative influences of genes (i.e. nature) and environment (i.e. nurture) on human behaviour has been characterised by extreme positions leading to reductionist and polemic conclusions. Our analysis of research on sport and exercise behaviours shows that currently there is little support for either biologically or environmentally deterministic perspectives on elite athletic performance. In sports medicine, recent molecular biological advances in genomic studies have been over-interpreted, leading to a questionable 'single-gene-as-magic-bullet' philosophy adopted by some practitioners. Similarly, although extensive involvement in training and practice is needed at elite levels, it has become apparent that the acquisition of expertise is not merely about amassing a requisite number of practice hours. Although an interactionist perspective has been mooted over the years, a powerful explanatory framework has been lacking. In this article, we propose how the complementary nature of degenerate neurobiological systems might provide the theoretical basis for explaining the interactive influence of genetic and environmental constraints on elite athletic performance. We argue that, due to inherent human degeneracy, there are many different trajectories to achieving elite athletic performance. While the greatest training responses may be theoretically associated with the most favourable genotypes being exposed to highly specialised training environments, this is a rare and complex outcome. The concept of degeneracy provides us with a basis for understanding why each of the major interacting constraints might act in a compensatory manner on the acquisition of elite athletic performance.

  16. Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Varies by Sport in Healthy Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Brooks, M Alison; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2015-10-01

    Cross-sectional. To describe performance and asymmetry on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) by sex and sport, and to determine if differences exist within a collegiate athlete population. Performance on the SEBT may differ between sexes and levels of competition, though the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. Investigation of performance and asymmetry differences between sports is limited. Sex- and sport-specific reference values likely need to be determined to best assess SEBT performance. Performance on the SEBT was retrospectively reviewed in 393 healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from 8 sports. Means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all variables. Normalized reach distance (percent limb length) and asymmetry between limbs were compared for the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions and for the composite (COMP) score using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of sex by sport, and a 1-way ANOVA to separately compare sports within each sex. Average normalized reach distance ranged from 62% to 69%, 84% to 97%, and 99% to 113% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively, and from 82% to 92% in the COMP score. Normalized asymmetry ranged from 3% to 4%, 5% to 8%, and 5% to 6% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively. A significant sex-by-sport interaction (P = .039) was observed in the ANT direction, with a sex effect for soccer players (Psport.

  17. A measure for the batting performance of cricket players : research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The same procedure will be used to find a formula for batting performance and a classification table for Test players. Keywords: Batting performance, Consistency, Cricket, Present form of a batsman, Rating of batsmen. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation Vol.26(1) 2004: 55-64 ...

  18. Effect of caffeine on sport-specific endurance performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganio, Matthew S; Klau, Jennifer F; Casa, Douglas J; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    Endurance athletes often ingest caffeine because of its reported ergogenic properties. Although there are a vast number of studies quantifying caffeine's effects, many research studies measure endurance performance using a time-to-exhaustion test (subjects exercise at a fixed intensity to volitional exhaustion). Time-to-exhaustion as a performance measure is not ideal because of the high degree of measurement variability between and within subjects. Also, we are unaware of any endurance sports in which individuals win by going a longer distance or for a longer amount of time than their competitors. Measuring performance with a time-trial test (set distance or time with best effort) has high reproducibility and is more applicable to sport. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to critically and objectively evaluate studies that have examined the effect of caffeine on time-trial endurance (>5 minutes) performance. A literature search revealed 21 studies with a total of 33 identifiable caffeine treatments that measured endurance performance with a time-trial component. Each study was objectively analyzed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The mean PEDro rating was 9.3 out of 10, indicating a high quality of research in this topic area. The mean improvement in performance with caffeine ingestion was 3.2 +/- 4.3%; however, this improvement was highly variable between studies (-0.3 to 17.3%). The high degree of variability may be dependent on a number of factors including ingestion timing, ingestion mode/vehicle, and subject habituation. Further research should seek to identify individual factors that mediate the large range of improvements observed with caffeine ingestion. In conclusion, caffeine ingestion can be an effective ergogenic aid for endurance athletes when taken before and/or during exercise in moderate quantities (3-6 mg.kg body mass). Abstaining from caffeine at least 7 days before use will give the greatest chance of optimizing the

  19. Achievement motivation, competitiveness and sports performance in a team of sportsmen soccer players between 14 and 24 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo García-Naveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify to what extent competitiveness trait is related to sport performance in soccer, and to what extent the age and sport category can influence these variables, a descriptive cross-sectional study has been developed. The variables age, sport category, sport performance, achievement motivation (Me, motivation to avoid the failure (Mef and competitiveness trait have been assessed in 151 men soccer players (between 14 and 24 y.o. of a Spanish sport club. The results indicated that the sport performance ascends with age. Consequently, a direct relationship between the sport category and the performance has been observed. Me, Mef and competitiveness trait have been associated with the performance and has varied based on the sport category. No correlation between Me, Mef, competitiveness and age of the sportsmen has been found

  20. Genomics of elite sporting performance: what little we know and necessary advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsiladis, Yannis; Wang, Guan; Wolfarth, Bernd; Scott, Robert; Fuku, Noriyuki; Mikami, Eri; He, Zihong; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Eynon, Nir; Lucia, Alejandro

    2013-06-01

    Numerous reports of genetic associations with performance-related phenotypes have been published over the past three decades but there has been limited progress in discovering and characterising the genetic contribution to elite/world-class performance, mainly owing to few coordinated research efforts involving major funding initiatives/consortia and the use primarily of the candidate gene analysis approach. It is timely that exercise genomics research has moved into a new era utilising well-phenotyped, large cohorts and genome-wide technologies--approaches that have begun to elucidate the genetic basis of other complex traits/diseases. This review summarises the most recent and significant findings from sports genetics and explores future trends and possibilities.

  1. Sports clubs as settings for health promotion: fundamentals and an overview to research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sami

    2014-11-01

    This paper explores the efficacy and value of sports clubs as a setting for health promotion. Sports clubs for children and adolescents are the primary focus of the paper, and the aims are two-fold. Firstly, the paper aims to review the basis for and elements of the health promoting sports club (HPSC) concept. Secondly, the aim is to overview the international evolution of the HPSC concept and its usefulness in the research. The settings-based health promotion approach forms the basis for the HPSC concept and it is introduced first. Thereafter, both obligating and prospecting factors, to justify the importance for sports clubs to address health promotion, are expressed. Major prospecting factors relate to the facts that sports club activities reach a lot of children and adolescents, and that its educational nature is informal due to voluntary participation. The paper also presents multilevel structure of sports clubs, as well as the determinants affecting the settings-based work. The research concerning health promotion in sports-related settings is evolving worldwide, and Nordic countries are in the front line of this new-wave of settings-based health promotion. Indeed, it has been claimed that, for the settings approach to assimilate to current societal challenges, there is a need to widen the reach of the approach to non-traditional, non-institutional settings, like sports clubs. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Le, Guan; Swenson, Charles; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Bishop, Rebecca L.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.; Heelis, Roderick; Loures, Luis; Krause, Linda; Fonseca, Eloi

    2016-07-01

    Structure in the charged particle number density in the equatorial ionosphere can have a profound impact on the fidelity of HF, VHF and UHF radio signals that are used for ground-to-ground and space-to-ground communication and navigation. The degree to which such systems can be compromised depends in large part on the spatial distribution of the structured regions in the ionosphere and the background plasma density in which they are embedded. In order to address these challenges it is necessary to accurately distinguish the background ionospheric conditions that favor the generation of irregularities from those that do not. Additionally we must relate the evolution of those conditions to the subsequent evolution of the irregular plasma regions themselves. The background ionospheric conditions are conveniently described by latitudinal profiles of the plasma density at nearly constant altitude, which describe the effects of ExB drifts and neutral winds, while the appearance and growth of plasma structure requires committed observations from the ground from at least one fixed longitude. This talk will present an international collaborative CubeSat mission called SPORT that stands for the Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task. This mission will advance our understanding of the nature and evolution of ionospheric structures around sunset to improve predictions of disturbances that affect radio propagation and telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator. This approach promises Explorer class science at a CubeSat price.

  3. Biofeedback Training for Peak Performance in Sport - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Demerdzieva, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    The use of peripheral biofeedback and neurofeedback is growing rapidly in sport psychology. The aim is to lower competition stress, anxiety, and muscle tension.We present a case report concerned to biofeedback training in an athlete in preparation to Olympic Game competition. It is the first case in our region to prepare athlete with biofeedback modalities. Obtained results are very encouraging.

  4. Effects of Sport-Specific Training Intensity on Sleep Patterns and Psychomotor Performance in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.

  5. American College of Sports Medicine Joint Position Statement. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D Travis; Erdman, Kelly Anne; Burke, Louise M

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert.

  6. Effects of Acute Consumption of a Sport Drink on Athletic Performance in Student Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Ghasemnian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained young male athletes students were selected by systematic randomly sampling and after consuming Sport Drinks (experimental group or placebo (control group exercised on a treadmill at the intensity of 81/8% heart rate max %70 VO2 max(until exhaustion. Subjects received 6 ml.kg-1 body weight of Sport Drink or placebo, 40 minutes before starting of exercise bout, and they received 2 ml.kg-1 body weight of Sport Drink or placebo every 15 minutes during each exercise. To evaluate the results, independent T-test was used. Results: Results showed no significant difference between Sport Drink and placebo trials in the total work time to exhaustion, heart rate or RPE (p>0.05. However plasma glucose concentrations were significantly higher in sport drink group compared with the placebo group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the ingredient in the this sport drink did not provide any advantages to running endurance performance.

  7. Effects of Acute Consumption of a Sport Drink on Athletic Performance in Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    AA Ghasemnian; A Ghaeini; s Chobineh; b Ghorbanian

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aim: Athletes believe that energy drinks can be used to enhance their performance during training and competition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of acute ingestion of a sport drink on endurance performance in student athletes. Methods: Ten healthy and trained young male athletes students were selected by systematic randomly sampling and after consuming Sport Drinks (experimental group) or placebo (control group) exercised on a treadmi...

  8. CONCEPTUALIZATION OF IDEAS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY IN SPORTS: PROBLEMS OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Vladimirovna Vardanyan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the research of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. On the basis of analysis of ideas about psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form the necessity of overcoming the fragmentation and lack of system is substantiated. The authors state that one and the same sports situation can constructively or destructively affect the psychological safety of direct or indirect participants of sports events. In this context, it is important to create the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports. Great attention is paid to systematization of the content of the concept “psychological safety in sports”. The created models of words and expressions that convey ideas about this phenomenon are of particular value. In the structure of the concept the dominant meanings, expressed in the nucleus, and additional meanings, related to the periphery of the concept are distinguished.Purpose: to explore the ideas of psychological safety in sports and their representation in printed or verbal form; to determine ways of overcoming the conceptual psycholinguistic problems in the process of experimental research of psychological safety in sports; to create the model of words and expressions which are used to verbalize the concept “psychological safety in sports”.Methodology: theoretical analysis of psychological and linguistic literature, creation of the psycholinguistic basis of experimental research, modeling of the conceptual ideas of psychological safety in sports.Results: psycholinguistic basis of experimental research of psychological safety in sports, the model of content and structure of the corresponding concept.Practical implications: Pedagogical Psychology, Sports Psychology, Philology, Psycholinguistics.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-11

  9. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish between rugby union players of different participation levels · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ... The effect of an adventure experiential learning programme on demensions of selfperseption of youth · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  10. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meditations in the shadow of the global sports-media complex · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Steve Cornelius, 81-100. IOC-state-corporate nexus: corporate diplomacy and the olympic coup d'état · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  11. Sports Digitalization : An Overview and A Research Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Xiao; Chian Tan, Felix Ter; Lim, Eric T.K.; Henningsson, Stefan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Chee Wee; Clemenson, Torkil; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2018-01-01

    Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its

  12. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport participation in immigrantsꞌ acculturation: a case of Korean immigrants · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Won Jae Seo, Bo-Young Moon, Nam-Su Kim, Seunghwan Lee, Seong-Hee Park, Seungjin Han, 149-163 ...

  13. THE PROCESS OF CHANGE - PREDICTION OF SPORT ACHIEVEMENTS HISTORICAL TENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izenedin Mehmeti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the different standpoints and different approaches in regard to the sport performance preparation and achievement prediction. Sports researchers are concerned more directly with learning about scientific sports prediction. Their involvement in the sport sciences focuses on understanding how sports organized and how changes in that organization might influence sports experiences for both athletes and coaches. The goal of these scholars is often to improve sport experiences and performance prediction for current participants and make sport participation more attractive and accessible for those who do not currently play sports, prospective athletes. They also may want to help athletes improve their performance, help coaches work effectively with athletes and win more games. Sports researchers intention is also to assist and help sport organizations grow and operate more efficiently and profitably, and improve sport achievement prediction.

  14. Misuse of "Power" and Other Mechanical Terms in Sport and Exercise Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Edward M; Abt, Grant; Brookes, F B Carl; Challis, John H; Fowler, Neil E; Knudson, Duane V; Knuttgen, Howard G; Kraemer, William J; Lane, Andrew M; van Mechelen, Willem; Morton, R Hugh; Newton, Robert U; Williams, Clyde; Yeadon, M R

    2016-01-01

    Despite the Système International d'Unitès (SI) that was published in 1960, there continues to be widespread misuse of the terms and nomenclature of mechanics in descriptions of exercise performance. Misuse applies principally to failure to distinguish between mass and weight, velocity and speed, and especially the terms "work" and "power." These terms are incorrectly applied across the spectrum from high-intensity short-duration to long-duration endurance exercise. This review identifies these misapplications and proposes solutions. Solutions include adoption of the term "intensity" in descriptions and categorizations of challenge imposed on an individual as they perform exercise, followed by correct use of SI terms and units appropriate to the specific kind of exercise performed. Such adoption must occur by authors and reviewers of sport and exercise research reports to satisfy the principles and practices of science and for the field to advance.

  15. The role of ecological dynamics in analysing performance in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Button, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Performance analysis is a subdiscipline of sports sciences and one-approach, notational analysis, has been used to objectively audit and describe behaviours of performers during different subphases of play, providing additional information for practitioners to improve future sports performance. Recent criticisms of these methods have suggested the need for a sound theoretical rationale to explain performance behaviours, not just describe them. The aim of this article was to show how ecological dynamics provides a valid theoretical explanation of performance in team sports by explaining the formation of successful and unsuccessful patterns of play, based on symmetry-breaking processes emerging from functional interactions between players and the performance environment. We offer the view that ecological dynamics is an upgrade to more operational methods of performance analysis that merely document statistics of competitive performance. In support of our arguments, we refer to exemplar data on competitive performance in team sports that have revealed functional interpersonal interactions between attackers and defenders, based on variations in the spatial positioning of performers relative to each other in critical performance areas, such as the scoring zones. Implications of this perspective are also considered for practice task design and sport development programmes.

  16. Putting Muscle Into Sports Analytics: Strength, Conditioning, and Ice Hockey Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Kevin M; Howley, Thomas; Bardreau, Cole

    2017-12-01

    Kniffin, KM, Howley, T, and Bardreau, C. Putting muscle into sports analytics: strength, conditioning, and ice hockey performance. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3253-3259, 2017-Sports analytics is best known as the field of research that focuses on discovering slight but significant improvements within competitions; however, broader sets of athlete- and team-level data from outside competitions (e.g., strength and conditioning metrics) have been typically left out from such analyses. Given that strength and conditioning programs are perhaps the most common avenue through which people expect extra-competition progress to translate into within-competition performance, it is clear that strength and conditioning metrics warrant closer analytic attention. To illustrate this approach, we present a study of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 Men's Ice Hockey players that integrates both (a) strength and conditioning metrics and (b) in-game performance measurements. Bivariate analyses show a significant positive correlation between bench press performance and points scored (r = 0.15), although multivariate analyses point to positive relationships between strength and conditioning measures and playing time as the more important finding. Although within-competition data are increasingly accessible for analytics research, the basic approach that we develop highlights the importance of considering extra-competition variables such as strength and conditioning metrics for understanding both coaching decisions regarding playing time and within-competition performance. We also discuss ways in which the integrated approach that we present offers potential applications for strength and conditioning professionals as well as players, coaches, and team managers.

  17. The effect of the English Thoroughbred on the sport performance of horses in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Jiskrová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the importance of the English Thoroughbred in sport horse breeding in the Czech Republic. Basic data were taken from the survey of sport horses in the Czech Republic in the years 2005–2008 which contains sport competition results of horses. The sport performance is expressed by the PPB value. We used the GLM method for statistical elaboration. Using the method of multiple comparisons by Tukey-B we defined the differences between the breeds, gender, age, sport seasons and the number of starts in competitions. Statistically highly significant effect was discovered of all the studied effects on the jumping sports performance of the horses. Basing on statistical evaluations we found out that the highest PPB value (3.356 was reached by group 5 (sport horses without a significant share of the English Thoroughbred. Group 5 was also the most numerous one. The best values according to the gender were reached by stallions (4168 and the most numerous group included mares (4766. We also discovered that the highest values were reached by the horses that compete at the age of 12 years (3.5414 and the highest average values were achieved in the 2008 season (3.999. The highest PPB value was achieved by horses with a high number of starts.

  18. Biomarkers in Sports and Exercise: Tracking Health, Performance, and Recovery in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Kavouras, Stavros A; Queen, Robin M; Pryor, John Luke; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-10-01

    Biomarker discovery and validation is a critical aim of the medical and scientific community. Research into exercise and diet-related biomarkers aims to improve health, performance, and recovery in military personnel, athletes, and lay persons. Exercise physiology research has identified individual biomarkers for assessing health, performance, and recovery during exercise training. However, there are few recommendations for biomarker panels for tracking changes in individuals participating in physical activity and exercise training programs. Our approach was to review the current literature and recommend a collection of validated biomarkers in key categories of health, performance, and recovery that could be used for this purpose. We determined that a comprehensive performance set of biomarkers should include key markers of (a) nutrition and metabolic health, (b) hydration status, (c) muscle status, (d) endurance performance, (e) injury status and risk, and (f) inflammation. Our review will help coaches, clinical sport professionals, researchers, and athletes better understand how to comprehensively monitor physiologic changes, as they design training cycles that elicit maximal improvements in performance while minimizing overtraining and injury risk.

  19. [Use of beta receptor blockers in performance sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, P

    1990-04-15

    The application of beta-blocking agents in endurance sports leads to deterioration of physical capacity because of negative influence of hemodynamics and metabolism. In sports with modest dynamic but high psychological strain it leads to an increase of physical capacity and decrease of stress caused by competition. The present paper summarizes changes in ski jumping, flying, motor car racing, parachute jumping, bob running and shooting. Significant decreases of heart rate, modest decreases in blood pressure as well as a reduction of occasionally appearing extrasystoles are found. Levels of glucose and lactate as well as cholesterol and triglycerides remain unchanged during beta-blockade, as do free fatty acids and free glycerol with placebo under beta-adrenolyse. Whereas ski and parachute jumpers display psychologic stress, bob runners and sport shooters were positively influenced. As a possible reason for an increased physical capacity after sympathicolysis, changes of cardiovascular parameters as well as central influences are conceivable. The application of beta-blocking agents should be regarded as "doping" because of the increases of physical capacity and should be avoided in healthy sportsmen.

  20. A Meta-Study of Qualitative Research Examining Sport and Recreation Experiences of Indigenous Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Tara-Leigh F; Deal, Colin J; Blye, Clara-Jane; Dimler, Ariel J; Halpenny, Elizabeth A; Sivak, Allison; Holt, Nicholas L

    2018-02-01

    Participation in sport and recreation may contribute to various holistic benefits among Indigenous youth in Canada. However, there is a need for a consolidated evidence base to support the development of sport and recreation opportunities that could facilitate such holistic benefits. The purpose of this research was to produce a meta-study of qualitative research examining sport and recreation experiences of Indigenous youth in Canada. Following record identification and screening, 20 articles were retained for analysis and synthesis. Strengths and weaknesses of included studies were identified through the meta-method and meta-theory analysis. The meta-data analysis revealed five themes that represent the sport and recreation experiences of Indigenous youth. Working collaboratively with community members, our final meta-synthesis situated these five themes within the integrated Indigenous ecological model. This review consolidates the qualitative evidence base, and provides direction for future research and practice.

  1. Overview of sports vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  2. The youth sports club as a health-promoting setting: An integrative review of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennerstedt, Mikael; Eriksson, Charli

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this review is to compile and identify key issues in international research about youth sports clubs as health-promoting settings, and then discuss the results of the review in terms of a framework for the youth sports club as a health-promoting setting. Methods: The framework guiding this review of research is the health-promoting settings approach introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The method used is the integrated review. Inclusion criteria were, first, that the studies concerned sports clubs for young people, not professional clubs; second, that it be a question of voluntary participation in some sort of ongoing organized athletics outside of the regular school curricula; third, that the studies consider issues about youth sports clubs in terms of health-promoting settings as described by WHO. The final sample for the review consists of 44 publications. Results: The review shows that youth sports clubs have plentiful opportunities to be or become health-promoting settings; however this is not something that happens automatically. To do so, the club needs to include an emphasis on certain important elements in its strategies and daily practices. The youth sports club needs to be a supportive and healthy environment with activities designed for and adapted to the specific age-group or stage of development of the youth. Conclusions: To become a health-promoting setting, a youth sports club needs to take a comprehensive approach to its activities, aims, and purposes. PMID:23349167

  3. Sports injuries in high school athletes: a review of injury-risk and injury-prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Tim

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the available research regarding the risk factors and prevention of injuries in high school athletes (ages 14 to 18 years). Relevant manuscripts were identified by searching six electronic databases with a combination of key words and medical subject headings (high school, adolescent, athletic injury, sports injury, risk factors, prevention, and prospective). Original research that reported prospective data on high school athletes (ages 14 to 18), reported injury and exposure data, and used data collected throughout the entire sport season or school year. Twenty-nine studies that identified injury risk factors or injury prevention strategies were reviewed and summarized. Data extracted from the studies included a) sport(s) or injuries studied, b) year of publication, c) lead author, d) description of the subjects, e) sample-size calculation, f) variables studied (baseline demographic or performance variables), g) whether multivariate analyses were used, h) data reported (injury rates, risk ratios, and 95% CI), and i) results. Studies that introduced an intervention were characterized by the same data as well as the type of intervention employed and randomization procedures used. The quality of each injury-risk and injury-prevention study was assessed, and the results were summarized. The risk factors for injury in several specific sports such as soccer, American football, and basketball have been documented. Other sports are less well represented in the current literature. The risk factors for injuries to the ankle, head, and knee have been identified, to a limited degree. Upper-extremity injury risk factors are less well known. There is a need for high-quality prospective studies to further identify injury risk factors and injury-prevention strategies for high school athletes.

  4. Sports Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozalova Marina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.

  5. Predicting athletic performance with self-confidence and somatic and cognitive anxiety as a function of motor and physiological requirements in six sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J

    1987-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the ability of certain psychological attributes to predict performance in six National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate sports. Eighty-four athletes from the varsity sports teams of cross country running, alpine and nordic skiing, tennis, basketball, and track and field at the University of Colorado completed a questionnaire adapted from Martens (1977; Martens et al., 1983) that measured their trait levels of self-confidence (Bandura, 1977), somatic anxiety, and cognitive anxiety (Martens, 1977; Martens et al., 1983). In addition, at three to six competitions during the season, the members of the cross country running and tennis teams filled out a state measure (Martens et al., 1983) of the three attributes from one to two hours prior to the competition. Following each competition, subjective and objective ratings of performance were obtained, and, for all sports, coaches' ratings of performance and an overall seasonal team ranking were determined as seasonal performance measures. The sports were dichotomized along motor and physiological dimensions. Results indicate that all three psychological attributes were significant predictors of performance in both fine motor, anaerobic sports and gross motor, aerobic sports. Further, clear differences in these relationships emerged as a function of the dichotomization. In addition, unexpected sex differences emerged. The findings are discussed relative to prior research and their implications for future research.

  6. Psychological stress in sports coaches: a review of concepts, research, and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David; Scott, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Sports coaches operate within a complex, ever-changing environment that imposes many pressures on them. Here, we address the psychological impact of these demands via a critical review of the literature pertaining to stress in sport coaches. The narrative is divided into three main sections: (1) conceptual and definitional issues, (2) theoretical and empirical issues, and (3) implications for applied practice. The review focuses on the environmental stressors that coaches encounter, their appraisals of and responses to these demands, and the impact this has on their personal well-being and job performance. The influence of various personal and situational characteristics is also discussed. A key message to emerge from this review is that the potential health and performance costs of psychological stress to sports coaches are significant. The rapid rate of change in contemporary sport and the dynamic nature of stress mean that stress in coaches is an ongoing problem that needs to be monitored and addressed.

  7. PERFORMANCE LEVEL AFFECTS THE DIETARY SUPPLEMENT INTAKE OF BOTH INDIVIDUAL AND TEAM SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifigenia Giannopoulou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplement (DS intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62 between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775 and team sports (n = 2008. To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44% compared to team sport athletes (35% (p < 0.001. Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations.

  8. A Research of The Exercise and Sports of The Eldery People (2) : Revolving around relations with extra-curricular sports club activities of school age

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Chiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Kusama, Masurao

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the consciousness on health, exercise and sports in order to understand the actual condition, revolving around relations with extra-curricular sports club activities of school age. The objects of this research (182 sheets) are the eldery people from 40s to 70s. The results of this research are as follows: 1. The number of people of experience of extra-curricular sports club is 84(46.2%), and non-experience is 98(53.8%). 2. The people of experience jo...

  9. The Injury/Illness Performance Project (IIPP: A Novel Epidemiological Approach for Recording the Consequences of Sports Injuries and Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Palmer-Green

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Describing the frequency, severity, and causes of sports injuries and illnesses reliably is important for quantifying the risk to athletes and providing direction for prevention initiatives. Methods. Time-loss and/or medical-attention definitions have long been used in sports injury/illness epidemiology research, but the limitations to these definitions mean that some events are incorrectly classified or omitted completely, where athletes continue to train and compete at high levels but experience restrictions in their performance. Introducing a graded definition of performance-restriction may provide a solution to this issue. Results. Results from the Great Britain injury/illness performance project (IIPP are presented using a performance-restriction adaptation of the accepted surveillance consensus methodologies. The IIPP involved 322 Olympic athletes (males: 172; female: 150 from 10 Great Britain Olympic sports between September 2009 and August 2012. Of all injuries (n=565, 216 were classified as causing time-loss, 346 as causing performance-restriction, and 3 were unclassified. For athlete illnesses (n=378, the majority (P<0.01 resulted in time-loss (270 compared with performance-restriction (101 (7 unclassified. Conclusions. Successful implementation of prevention strategies relies on the correct characterisation of injury/illness risk factors. Including a performance-restriction classification could provide a deeper understanding of injuries/illnesses and better informed prevention initiatives.

  10. A dynamic network model of expertise and exceptional performance in sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartigh, Ruud; van Geert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study of expertise and exceptional performance covers a range from “beginner” to world-class performance. While developing sport expertise a variety of interacting internal and external performance factors are involved, which may differ between athletes (Phillips et al., 2010). The

  11. The Role of Ankle Proprioception for Balance Control in relation to Sports Performance and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jia; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport.

  12. Performance enhancing drugs in sports and the role of doctors: are there guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Kaveri

    2013-01-01

    There is little data in India on the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports. But personal and incidental information shows that their use is far more extensive than is believed. This use occurs beyond the arena of high-level competitive sports. Even if the guidelines of the national and world anti-doping agencies were to become effective, they would not impact the larger environment where such drug use appears to be extensive. Which ethical guidelines advise the sports medical practitioner in prescribing medicines and training regimes for the athlete? Of particular concern is the role of paediatricians since training for sports or physical fitness is increasingly a youth phenomenon. The following is a discussion note, prompted by personal and anecdotal experience.

  13. The Role of Ankle Proprioception for Balance Control in relation to Sports Performance and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport. PMID:26583139

  14. The Role of Ankle Proprioception for Balance Control in relation to Sports Performance and Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Balance control improvement is one of the most important goals in sports and exercise. Better balance is strongly positively associated with enhanced athletic performance and negatively associated with lower limb sports injuries. Proprioception plays an essential role in balance control, and ankle proprioception is arguably the most important. This paper reviews ankle proprioception and explores synergies with balance control, specifically in a sporting context. Central processing of ankle proprioceptive information, along with other sensory information, enables integration for balance control. When assessing ankle proprioception, the most generalizable findings arise from methods that are ecologically valid, allow proprioceptive signals to be integrated with general vision in the central nervous system, and reflect the signal-in-noise nature of central processing. Ankle proprioceptive intervention concepts driven by such a central processing theory are further proposed and discussed for the improvement of balance control in sport.

  15. Predicting performance and performance satisfaction: mindfulness and beliefs about the ability to deal with social barriers in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecharz, Jan; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Scholz, Urte; Schwarzer, Ralf; Siekanska, Malgorzata; Cieslak, Roman

    2014-05-01

    This research investigates the role of beliefs about the ability to deal with specific social barriers and its relationships to mindfulness, football performance, and satisfaction with one's own and team performance. Study 1 aimed at eliciting these social barriers. Study 2 tested (i) whether self-efficacy referring to social barriers would predict performance over and above task-related self-efficacy and collective efficacy and (ii) the mediating role of self-efficacy to overcome social barriers in the relationship between mindfulness and performance. Participants were football (soccer) players aged 16-21 years (Study 1: N=30; Study 2: N=101, longitudinal sample: n=88). Study 1 resulted in eliciting 82 social barriers referring to team, peer leadership, and coaches. Study 2 showed that task-related self-efficacy and collective efficacy explained performance satisfaction at seven-month follow-up, whereas self-efficacy referring to social barriers explained shooting performance at seven-month follow-up. Indirect associations between mindfulness and performance were found with three types of self-efficacy referring to social barriers, operating as parallel mediators. Results provide evidence for the role of beliefs about the ability to cope with social barriers and show a complex interplay between different types of self-efficacy and collective efficacy in predicting team sport performance.

  16. Can biofeedback training of psychophysiological responses enhance athletes' sport performance? A practitioner's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusenjak, Nika; Grad, Anton; Tusak, Matej; Leskovsek, Matevz; Schwarzlin, Romina

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, biofeedback has become increasingly popular for its proven success in peak performance training - the psychophysiological preparation of athletes for high-stakes sport competitions, such as the Olympic games. The aim of this research was to test whether an 8-week period of exposure to biofeedback training could improve the psychophysiological control over competitive anxiety and enhance athletic performance in participating subjects. Participants of this study were highly competent athletes, each training in different sport disciplines. The experimental group consisted of 18 athletes (4 women, 14 men), whereas the Control group had 21 athletes (4 women, 17 men). All athletes were between 16 and 34 years old. The biofeedback device, Nexus 10, was used to detect and measure the psychophysiological responses of athletes. Athletes from both groups (control and experimental) were subjected to stress tests at the beginning of the study and once again at its conclusion. In between, the experimental group received training in biofeedback techniques. We then calculated the overall percentage of athletes in the experimental group compared with those in the control group who were able to control respiration, skin conductance, heart rate, blood flow amplitude, heart rate variability, and heart respiration coherence. One year following completion of the initial study, we questioned athletes from the experimental group, to determine whether they continued to use these skills and if they could detect any subsequent enhancement in their athletic performance. We demonstrated that a greater number of participants in the experimental group were able to successfully control their psychophysiological parameters, in comparison to their peers in the control group. Significant results (p biofeedback - psycho-regulation skills. Furthermore, these participants uniformly reported believing that these skills had enhanced their athletic performance and general well-being.

  17. "Intervention" in Physical Education and Sport: Trends and Developments in a Decade of Francophone Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musard, Mathilde; Poggi, Marie-Paule

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this literature review were to characterize the communications presented during six Association for Research on "Intervention" in Sport (ARIS) French-speaking congresses from 2000 to 2010 and to compare the research trends between French and English research traditions. The definition of pedagogy is close to the…

  18. Research on using GPS receiver in sports workout

    OpenAIRE

    Peleckis, Romas

    2006-01-01

    GPS technologies are more and more useful in sports today. Trainers can view athletic workout. There are many types of equipment that show how fast does sportsman move. So it’s very important to know if their parameters are enough accurate. That’s why these data must be analyzed. The main object about viewing athlete’s results is to get distance and moving speed. These two parameters can be shown from GPS data. To get distance from GPS parameters we need to use mathematical methods and carry ...

  19. Performance in sports - with specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance...... with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase...... expression of muscle Na(+) , K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect...

  20. Dialogues about teaching sports in Physical Education: an action research in continuing education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Jaime González

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to verify the consequences of an experience of collaborative learning and in conceptions in the teaching of sports with interaction between adversaries, the physical education teachers. Through action research, we developed a collaborative-study with a group of teachers about teaching sports invasion, for two years and a half. The results show that there are possibilities for change in the work of teachers who participate in experiences of action research, but projects of this type have a number of difficulties and challenges that need to be considered in their development to build effective conditions of exchange.

  1. A coaches' perspective on the contribution of anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination in racquet sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kamasha; Pion, Johan; Mostaert, Mireille; Norjali Wazir, Mohd Rozilee Wazir; Kramer, Tamara; Faber, Irene Renate; Vansteenkiste, Pieter; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2018-02-21

    Differences and similarities between table tennis and other racquet sports exist, but are not well documented in the literature, in spite of the relevance for talent identification. In this study we aimed at identifying the key characteristics of table tennis in comparison with tennis and badminton based upon a survey in coaches. A total of 177 licensed coaches from all across the world and with diverse professional backgrounds completed a survey on anthropometric measures, physical performance, and motor coordination skills. On a scale from 1 to 10, coaches indicated to what extent a talent characteristic was important for their sport. MANOVA identified key differences as well as similarities between all three racquet sports and a subsequent discriminant analysis allocated coaches correctly for table tennis, tennis, and badminton 81.01%, 55.6%, and 71.4% respectively. Our results show that table tennis and other racquet sport coaches are well aware of differences between the racquet sports and also the importance and value of testing and assortment of skill components. These findings can assist coaches in future talent orientation and transfer in racquet sports.

  2. State of the Science-Ultraendurance Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D

    2016-09-01

    Participation in ultraendurance sports has been increasing in recent years. This participation growth has been associated with an increase in research focused on such events. While the total amount of research related to these sports remains relatively small compared with other sports, the research growth is encouraging. New sources for research funding for ultraendurance sports should advance the science. In addition to continued opportunities with observational studies, promising areas of investigation remain for experimental studies and research that uses ultraendurance-sport environments as models for studies relevant to wider populations. Insight into the breadth of research opportunities in ultraendurance sports can be gained by reviewing the abstracts published online in the International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance from the annual Medicine & Science in Ultra-Endurance Sports Conference that took place this year in Chamonix, France.

  3. No longer lost in translation: the art and science of sports injury prevention implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2011-12-01

    It is now understood that sports injury interventions will not have significant public health impact if they are not widely accepted and adopted by target sports participants. Although there has been increasing recognition of the need for intervention studies conducted within the real-world context of sports delivery, very few studies have been conducted in this important area. A major reason for this is that there are significant challenges in conducting implementation research; the more traditional sports medicine approaches may not be fully appropriate and new ways of thinking about how to design, conduct and report such research is needed. Moreover, real-world implementation of sports injury interventions and evaluation of their effectiveness needs to start to take into account the broad ecological context in which they are introduced, as well as considering the best way to translate this knowledge to reach the audiences who most need to benefit from such research. This overview paper provides perspectives and guidance on the design, conduct and evaluation of sports injury intervention implementation studies, including better understanding of the complexity of the ecological settings for intervention delivery. Some conceptual approaches that could be adopted in future implementation studies are discussed; particular emphasis is given to intervention mapping as a tool to assist intervention development, diffusion of innovations theory to guide the planning of intervention strategies and the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework for programme evaluation and programme design. Finally, a broad agenda for this emerging important field of sports medicine research is outlined.

  4. The evolution of sports medicine in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Benedict

    2013-10-01

    Sports medicine is a relatively new subspecialty in Singapore. This commentary chronicles its evolution in Singapore from 1969, through various milestones, to the present day. The first sports medicine clinic in Singapore was established in 1971 at Farrer Park. Notable institutions that followed include the Sports Medicine and Research Centre (1973), Soldier Performance Centre, Changi Sports Medicine Centre (2003), Singapore Sports Medicine Centre (2006), and other multidisciplinary centres of restructured hospitals. Formal groundwork to establish sports medicine as a subspecialty began in 2005, with its first trainee commencing traineeship at the Changi Sports Medicine Centre in 2007, and culminated in the subspecialty register at the beginning of 2011. Also captured in this discussion are the broader scopes of sports medicine, including military sports medicine, the sports sciences, exercise medicine, and event medical coverage.

  5. Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sport: A Different Form of Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, John R.; LaFountain, Marc J.

    1987-01-01

    Addresses an often overlooked area of drug abuse: performance-enhancing drugs in sport, used for different reasons than for recreation. Examines the seriousness and prevalence of performance-enhancing drugs and presents the results of a series of interviews with steroid users to determine their attitudes. Discusses the implications of the…

  6. Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center: Transitioning Satellite Data to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center located at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting testbed activities aimed at transitioning satellite products to National Weather Service operational end users for the last 10 years. SPoRT is a NASA/NOAA funded project that has set the bar for transition of products to operational end users through a paradigm of understanding forecast challenges and forecaster needs, displaying products in end users decision support systems, actively assessing the operational impact of these products, and improving products based on forecaster feedback. Aiming for quality partnerships rather than a large quantity of data users, SPoRT has become a community leader in training operational forecasters on the use of up-and-coming satellite data through the use of legacy instruments and proxy data. Traditionally, SPoRT has supplied satellite imagery and products from NASA instruments such as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). However, recently, SPoRT has been funded by the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Grounds to accelerate the transition of selected imagery and products to help improve forecaster awareness of upcoming operational data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This presentation provides background on the SPoRT Center, the SPoRT paradigm, and some example products that SPoRT is excited to work with forecasters to evaluate.

  7. The Development of Cross-Cultural Relations with a Canadian Aboriginal Community through Sport Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…

  8. Strategies for bridging the research-practice ‘gap’ in sport and exercise psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegan, Richard James; Cotteril, Stewart; Woolway, Toby; Appaneal, Renee; Hutter, R.I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the continuing research-practice gap that exists within sport and exercise psychology. It explores the reasons why this gap exists, and, crucially, considers solutions to reduce the magnitude and impact of the gap between researchers and practitioners within the field. In this

  9. Crisis in Amateur Sports Organizations Viewed by Change Agent Research (CAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilmette, Ann Marie; Moriarty, Dick

    The Sports Institute for Research Through Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) provides a service whereby organizations through an audit and feedback system prognosticate and identify problems in order to avoid situations discordant with their organizational goals and objectives. This document reports the organizational crisis that faced the Windsor…

  10. SPORT FACILITIES - SPORT ACTIVITIES HARDWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mašić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.

  11. Generic anthropometric and performance characteristics among elite adolescent boys in nine different sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan; Segers, Veerle; Fransen, Job; Debuyck, Gijs; Deprez, Dieter; Haerens, Leen; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Flemish Sports Compass (FSC), a non-sport-specific generic testing battery. It was hypothesised that a set of 22 tests would have sufficient discriminant power to allocate athletes to their own sport based on a unique combination of test scores. First, discriminant analyses were applied to the 22 tests of anthropometry, physical fitness and motor coordination in 141 boys under age 18 (16.1 ± 0.8 years) and post age at peak height velocity (maturity offset = 2.674 ± 0.926) from Flemish Top Sport Academies for badminton, basketball, gymnastics, handball, judo, soccer, table tennis, triathlon and volleyball. Second, nine sequential discriminant analyses were used to assess the ability of a set of relevant performance characteristics classifying participants and non-participants for the respective sports. Discriminant analyses resulted in a 96.4% correct classification of all participants for the nine different sports. When focusing on relevant performance characteristics, 80.1% to 97.2% of the total test sample was classified correctly within their respective disciplines. The discriminating characteristics were briefly the following: flexibility in gymnastics, explosive lower-limb strength in badminton and volleyball, speed and agility in badminton, judo, soccer and volleyball, upper-body strength in badminton, basketball and gymnastics, cardiorespiratory endurance in triathletes, dribbling skills in handball, basketball and soccer and overhead-throwing skills in badminton and volleyball. The generic talent characteristics of the FSC enable the distinction of adolescent boys according to their particular sport. Implications for talent programmes are discussed.

  12. Re-Examining High-Fat Diets for Sports Performance: Did We Call the 'Nail in the Coffin' Too Soon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2015-11-01

    During the period 1985-2005, studies examined the proposal that adaptation to a low-carbohydrate (60 % energy) diet (LCHF) to increase muscle fat utilization during exercise could enhance performance in trained individuals by reducing reliance on muscle glycogen. As little as 5 days of training with LCHF retools the muscle to enhance fat-burning capacity with robust changes that persist despite acute strategies to restore carbohydrate availability (e.g., glycogen supercompensation, carbohydrate intake during exercise). Furthermore, a 2- to 3-week exposure to minimal carbohydrate (sports. Recent re-emergence of interest in LCHF diets, coupled with anecdotes of improved performance by sportspeople who follow them, has created a need to re-examine the potential benefits of this eating style. Unfortunately, the absence of new data prevents a different conclusion from being made. Notwithstanding the outcomes of future research, there is a need for better recognition of current sports nutrition guidelines that promote an individualized and periodized approach to fuel availability during training, allowing the athlete to prepare for competition performance with metabolic flexibility and optimal utilization of all muscle substrates. Nevertheless, there may be a few scenarios where LCHF diets are of benefit, or at least are not detrimental, for sports performance.

  13. Performance-enhancing substances in sports: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momaya, Amit; Fawal, Marc; Estes, Reed

    2015-04-01

    Performance-enhancing substances (PESs) have unfortunately become ubiquitous in numerous sports, often tarnishing the spirit of competition. Reported rates of PES use among athletes are variable and range from 5 to 31%. More importantly, some of these substances pose a serious threat to the health and well-being of athletes. Common PESs include anabolic-androgenic steroids, human growth hormone, creatine, erythropoietin and blood doping, amphetamines and stimulants, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate. With recent advances in technology, gene doping is also becoming more conceivable. Sports medicine physicians are often unfamiliar with these substances and thus do not routinely broach the topic of PESs with their patients. However, to effect positive change in the sports community, physicians must educate themselves about the physiology, performance benefits, adverse effects, and testing methods. In turn, physicians can then educate athletes at all levels and prevent the use of potentially dangerous PESs.

  14. Sport Biomechanist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…

  15. SPORT NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE OF COACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vasiljević; Danilo Bojanić; Jovica Petković; Aldijana Muratović

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004).The aim...

  16. Footedness is associated with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich S Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Left-handers may have strategic advantages over right-handers in interactive sports and innate superior abilities that are beneficial for sports. Previous studies relied on differing criteria for handedness classification and mostly did not investigate mixed preferences and footedness. Footedness appears to be less influenced by external and societal factors than handedness. Utilizing latent class analysis and structural equation modeling, we investigated in a series of studies (total N > 15300 associations of handedness and footedness with self-reported sporting performance and motor abilities in the general population. Using a discovery and a replication sample (ns = 7658 and 5062, Study 1 revealed replicable beneficial effects of mixed-footedness and left-footedness in team sports, martial arts and fencing, dancing, skiing, and swimming. Study 2 (n = 2592 showed that footedness for unskilled bipedal movement tasks, but not for skilled unipedal tasks, was beneficial for sporting performance. Mixed- and left-footedness had effects on motor abilities that were consistent with published results on better brain interhemispheric communication, but also akin to testosterone-induced effects regarding flexibility, strength, and endurance. Laterality effects were only small. Possible neural and hormonal bases of observed effects need to be examined in future studies.

  17. Abstracts of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Reis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this book of abstracts / proceedings were submitted to the Scientific Commission of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development, held on 11 and 12 November 2016, at the University of Évora, Évora, Portugal, under the topic of Exercise and Health, Sports and Human Development. The content of the abstracts is solely and exclusively of its authors responsibility. The editors and the Scientific Committee of the International Congress of Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences & Human Development do not assume any responsibility for the opinions and statements expressed by the authors. Partial reproduction of the texts and their use without commercial purposes is allowed, provided the source / reference is duly mentioned.

  18. Trends Supporting the In-Field Use of Wearable Inertial Sensors for Sport Performance Evaluation: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Camomilla

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017 were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers, technique analysis (163, activity classification (19, and physical demands assessment (61. Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59% performing their sport in-field during training (62% and competition (7%. Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%, water sports (16%, team sports (25%, and other outdoor activities (27%. Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.

  19. Trends Supporting the In-Field Use of Wearable Inertial Sensors for Sport Performance Evaluation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camomilla, Valentina; Bergamini, Elena; Fantozzi, Silvia; Vannozzi, Giuseppe

    2018-03-15

    Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers), technique analysis (163), activity classification (19), and physical demands assessment (61). Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59%) performing their sport in-field during training (62%) and competition (7%). Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%), water sports (16%), team sports (25%), and other outdoor activities (27%). Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.

  20. Trends in research productivity of residents applying for orthopedic sports medicine fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFroda, Steven F; Shah, Kalpit N; Safdar, Omar; Mulcahey, Mary K

    2018-02-01

    Though there are no research requirements to match into an orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship, many applicants are productive in research endeavors during residency. We hypothesize that the number of publications by Orthopaedic sports medicine applicants are increasing. A list of current and recent sports medicine fellows was compiled from publicly accessible information on sports medicine fellowship websites. Articles published while the fellow was a resident were identified via publicly available search engines. The following information was collected: year of fellowship and years of residency, fellowship program, geographic location of fellowship program, total number of publications (noting specifically first and last author publications), number of publications in high impact orthopaedic journals (AJSM, JBJS Am, JSES, or Arthroscopy). Overall, 189 fellowship-matched surgeons from 2010 - 2017 were identified. There were 746 publications (average of 3.95 per fellow), with 218 (29.2%) in high impact orthopaedic journals. Surgeons who completed their fellowship during the 2016-17 academic year, published on average 5.42 publications per fellow. Fellowship applicants in the Northeast region had the highest number of total publications (359 publications, 48.1% of all publications; 6.41 publications per fellow). Applicants were listed most often as middle authors (462 publications, 61.9%). There has been an overall increase in the number of publications among sports medicine fellowship applicants in the last several academic years. Fellowship programs in the northeast United States tended to match applicants with a higher number of publications.

  1. [Progress of researches on prevention and treatment of sports fatigue with moxibustion therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Qian; Zhang, Hong-Ru; Gu, Yi-Huang

    2014-04-01

    Sports fatigue belongs to the category of functional deficiency-syndrome according to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. The moxibustion therapy has a long history and possesses a definite therapeutic effect in the prevention and treatment of sports fatigue. In the present paper, the authors reviewed development of researches on the effects of moxibustion intervention in the prevention and treatment of sports fatigue in recent 5 years. Results of researches showed that moxibustion intervention can 1) eliminate free radicals and reduce oxidative damage; 2) increase energy (glycogen) supply to delay the production of fatigue; 3) raise serum testosterone level (relieve exercise-induced neuroendocrine disorder) and reduce post-sports fatigue; 4) raise the anaerobic exercise ability, reduce the accumulation of metabolic products in the body and strengthen the endurance capacity of the skeletal muscle; and 5) improve ischemic cardiac function, and suppress cardiomyocyte apopotosis, etc. However, we should further strengthen our investigations on the moxibustion therapy in the ancient classical literature and sum up academic thoughts of different academic schools in the successive dynasties, put emphasis on the large sample randomized controlled clinical trails, establish united treatment standards, etc., and provide much evidence for effectively treating sports fatigue in the future.

  2. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly.

  3. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert; Naclerio, Fernando; Allgrove, Judith; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2012-07-20

    Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly).

  4. Development of a method for research in sports policy in Brazil: an approach to method of mixed research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marinho Mezzadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.

  5. The Comparison of Mental Rotation Performance in Team and Individual Sports of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Pasand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a practical and causal-comparative study, the present study was aimed at comparing the mental rotation performance in team and individual sports among students. The statistical population included all of the female and male athletes (N=1500 from different districts of Shiraz, Iran who participated in the sport clubs. The participants of this study included 240 students between 12-14 years old (120 girls and 120 boys who were selected randomly from four sport fields (Volleyball, Basketball, Karate, and Gymnastics. Finally, 30 athletes were selected from each field. The Mentrat Program, a kind of software for the Mental Rotation Test was used as an evaluation tool. Analyses of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures were conducted to analysis of data. The results indicated that the impact of the rotational angle was significant in both team and individual groups (p0.05. It was also observed that there was a significant difference between the mental rotation scores of the males in the individual groups contrary to the ones in the team groups (p<0.05. As a whole, it seems that as the rotational angle increases, the ability of the mental rotation in the individual fields of sport (males will be higher compared to the team groups. Keywords: Mental Rotation, Rotational Angle, Team and Individual Sports, Students

  6. A Multi-Disciplinary Examination of Psycho-Physiological Performance Among Youth and Junior Ball Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Márton Pucsok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The primary purpose of our review was to systematically review the evolution of psycho-physiological performance analysis. Our secondary aim was to investigate the role of specific, multi-disciplinary performance indicators to identify future talents in the sport of soccer, handball and basketball. Methods A review protocol was set up in order to avoid individual bias and ensure an efficient searching prodedure. This enabled a search strategy to define which literature was to be included or excluded from our research. Certain inclusion criteria were identified, before performing a search using three electronic databases (Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar and reference lists for English-language articles, published from the year 1980 till 2017. Results The comprehensive search yielded 82 documents to be relevant to our purpose of the study, according to our inclusion criteria criteria, 58 were fully-reviewed and referred to in our study. As we previously expected, the review of related literature resulted investigations involving mostly soccer and basketball players, studies conducted on handball players are significantly fewer. The majority of those studies examined physical performance characteristics via various field test. Conclusions We concluded that further analysis is necessary to identify relevant psycho-physiological performance indicators, in order to properly enhance sports performance in the younger athlete population and in general too. Vienna Test System protocols may offer a great potential to provide valuable information for athletes and their coaches to enhance athletic performance. Future research should focus on specifically identify Vienna Test System test protocols that may be linked to each particular sport.

  7. Sports Participation and Academic Performance: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that high school sports participation increases motivation and teaches teamwork and self-discipline. While several studies have shown that students who participate in athletic activities perform better in school than those who do not, it is not clear whether this association is a result of positive academic spillovers, or due to…

  8. Motor Skill Performance and Sports Participation in Deaf Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…

  9. Students' Game Performance Improvements during a Hybrid Sport Education-Step-Game-Approach Volleyball Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter; Pereira, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a hybrid combination of sport education and the step-game-approach (SGA) on students' gameplay performance in volleyball, taking into account their sex and skill-level. Seventeen seventh-grade students (seven girls, 10 boys, average age 11.8) participated in a 25-lesson volleyball season, in which the…

  10. Postmatch recovery of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sports : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven, Steven H; Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2018-01-01

    Background: Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. Objective: To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Study design:

  11. The "Anatomy" of a Performance-Enhancing Drug Test in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, T. C.

    2012-01-01

    The components of a performance-enhancing drug (PED) test in sports include sample selection, collection, establishing sample integrity, sample pretreatment, analyte detection, data evaluation, reporting results, and action taken based on the result. Undergraduate curricula generally focus on the detection and evaluation steps of an analytical…

  12. Sport-related anxiety: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford JL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, sport, performance, injury, sport medicine professional, sport psychology, mental health

  13. Performance-Based Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Professional Athletes Differ Between Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Harry T; Chun, Danielle S; Schneider, Andrew D; Erickson, Brandon J; Freshman, Ryan D; Kester, Benjamin; Verma, Nikhil N; Hsu, Wellington K

    2017-08-01

    Excellent outcomes have been reported for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in professional athletes in a number of different sports. However, no study has directly compared these outcomes between sports. To determine if differences in performance-based outcomes exist after ACLR between professional athletes of each sport. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) athletes undergoing primary ACLR for an acute rupture were identified through an established protocol of injury reports and public archives. Sport-specific performance statistics were collected before and after surgery for each athlete. Return to play (RTP) was defined as a successful return to the active roster for at least 1 regular-season game after ACLR. Of 344 professional athletes who met the inclusion criteria, a total of 298 (86.6%) returned to play. NHL players had a significantly higher rate of RTP (95.8% vs 83.4%, respectively; P = .04) and a shorter recovery time (258 ± 110 days vs 367 ± 268 days, respectively; P athletes in all the other sports. NFL athletes experienced significantly shorter careers postoperatively than players in all the other sports (2.1 vs 3.2 years, respectively; P athletes played fewer games ( P ≤ .02) 1 season postoperatively, while those in the NFL had the lowest rate of active players 2 and 3 seasons postoperatively (60%; P = .002). NBA and NFL players showed decreased performance at season 1 after ACLR ( P ≤ .001). NFL players continued to have lower performance at seasons 2 and 3 ( P = .002), while NBA players recovered to baseline performance. The data indicate that NFL athletes fare the worst after ACLR with the lowest survival rate, shortest postoperative career length, and sustained decreases in performance. NHL athletes fare the best with the highest rates of RTP, highest survival rates, longest postoperative

  14. Self-Concept in Adolescents—Relationship between Sport Participation, Motor Performance and Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Klein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between sport participation, personality development, self-concept and self-esteem has been discussed repeatedly. In this research, a standardized written survey together with tests on motor performance were carried out with 1399 students (707 male; 692 female in school years 7 (12.9 ± 0.6 years and 10 (15.8 ± 0.6 years to measure the extent of a relationship between physical self-concept (self-developed short scale and sporting activity, measured motor performance (German motor performance test DMT (Deutscher Motorik-Test 6–18 and report mark in physical education. Relationships were also analyzed between physical self-concept and general personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experiences, compatibility, and conscientiousness, measured with NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI. The assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism differs by sex (F(1, 962 = 35.21; p < 0.001, whereby girls assess themselves more critically. Weak significant relationships are displayed between motor performance and the assessment of own physical attractiveness (r(395 = 0.31; p < 0.01. Motor performance is given a higher predictive value with regard to a subject’s own self-concept, (physical attractiveness β = 0.37; t(249 = 5.24; p < 0.001; athleticism β = 0.40; t(248 = 6.81; p < 0.001 than the mark achieved in physical education (physical attractiveness β = −0.01; n.s.; athleticism β = −0.30; t(248 = 5.10; p < 0.001. Relationships were found overall between personality traits and physical self-concept. The influence of the ‘neuroticism’ trait is particularly strong (physical attractiveness β = −0.44; t(947 = −13.58; p < 0.001; athleticism β = −0.27; t(948 = −7.84; p < 0.001. The more pronounced this trait, the lower the assessment of own physical attractiveness and own athleticism.

  15. State-sponsored research on creatine supplements and blood doping in elite Soviet sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinski, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    The former Soviet Union began participating in international sport after World War II and soon achieved a dominant position in the Olympic Games and other competitions. The success of Soviet athletic programs led to charges of unfair practices but, because of secrecy surrounding Soviet research in exercise biochemistry, it has been difficult to substantiate these charges. This article presents previously restricted information regarding the development and use of creatine supplements and blood doping in the USSR. Early work by Olexander Palladin established the role of creatine in muscle function. In the 1970s, Soviet scientists showed that oral creatine supplements improved athletic performance in short, intense activities such as sprints. Subsequent studies in the West substantiated these investigations and have led to the widespread acceptance and use of creatine supplements to enhance muscle function and athletic performance. In addition, however, the Soviet government supported the development of blood doping, which is banned by the International Olympic Committee. Blood doping was pervasive in the USSR in the 1970s and 1980s, and was used by many Soviet athletes in the 1976 and 1980 Olympic Games. Open publication and discussion may help to prevent the abuses that can come from secret scientific research.

  16. Academy of nutrition and dietetics: revised 2014 standards of practice and standards of professional performance for registered dietitian nutritionists (competent, proficient, and expert) in sports nutrition and dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmuller, Patricia L; Kruskall, Laura J; Karpinski, Christine A; Manore, Melinda M; Macedonio, Michele A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2014-04-01

    Sports nutrition and dietetics addresses relationships of nutrition with physical activity, including weight management, exercise, and physical performance. Nutrition plays a key role in the prevention and treatment of obesity and chronic disease and for maintenance of health, and the ability to engage in physical activity, sports, and other aspects of physical performance. Thus, the Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutrition Dietetic Practice Group, with guidance from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Quality Management Committee, has developed the Revised 2014 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance as a resource for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics to assess their current skill levels and to identify areas for further professional development in this emerging practice area. The revised document reflects advances in sports nutrition and dietetics practice since the original standards were published in 2009 and replaces those standards. The Standards of Practice represents the four steps in the Nutrition Care Process as applied to the care of patients/clients. The Standards of Professional Performance covers six standards of professional performance: quality in practice, competence and accountability, provision of services, application of research, communication and application of knowledge, and utilization and management of resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standards can be applied to practice. The indicators describe three skill levels (competent, proficient, and expert) for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists working in sports nutrition and dietetics. The Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance are complementary resources for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists in sports nutrition and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc

  17. The power of auditory-motor synchronization in sports: Enhancing running performance by coupling cadence with the right beats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bood, R.J.; Nijssen, M; van der Kamp, J.; Roerdink, M.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic stimuli, like music and metronomes, are often used in sports. Adjusting movement tempo to acoustic stimuli (i.e., auditory-motor synchronization) may be beneficial for sports performance. However, music also possesses motivational qualities that may further enhance performance. Our

  18. A scale-based approach to interdisciplinary research and expertise in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Gijón, Jorge; Buekers, Martinus; Morice, Antoine; Rao, Guillaume; Mascret, Nicolas; Laurin, Jérome; Montagne, Gilles

    2017-02-01

    After more than 20 years since the introduction of ecological and dynamical approaches in sports research, their promising opportunity for interdisciplinary research has not been fulfilled yet. The complexity of the research process and the theoretical and empirical difficulties associated with an integrated ecological-dynamical approach have been the major factors hindering the generalisation of interdisciplinary projects in sports sciences. To facilitate this generalisation, we integrate the major concepts from the ecological and dynamical approaches to study behaviour as a multi-scale process. Our integration gravitates around the distinction between functional (ecological) and execution (organic) scales, and their reciprocal intra- and inter-scale constraints. We propose an (epistemological) scale-based definition of constraints that accounts for the concept of synergies as emergent coordinative structures. To illustrate how we can operationalise the notion of multi-scale synergies we use an interdisciplinary model of locomotor pointing. To conclude, we show the value of this approach for interdisciplinary research in sport sciences, as we discuss two examples of task-specific dimensionality reduction techniques in the context of an ongoing project that aims to unveil the determinants of expertise in basketball free throw shooting. These techniques provide relevant empirical evidence to help bootstrap the challenging modelling efforts required in sport sciences.

  19. A Review of Research on Sport Education: 2004 to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Peter A.; de Ojeda, Diego Martinez; Luquin, Antonio Calderon

    2011-01-01

    Background: In 2005, Wallhead and O'Sullivan presented a review of research on the Sport Education model. In that review, the authors identified certain strengths of the model (particularly persistent team membership) in facilitating student engagement within student-centered learning tasks. Other areas (such as student leadership skills) were…

  20. Effects of Cognitive Interventions on Sports Anxiety and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shane M.; Woolfolk, Robert L.

    Oxendine (1970) hypothesized that the arousal-performance relationship varies across tasks, such that gross motor activities will require high arousal for optimal performance while fine motor activities will be facilitated by low arousal, but adversely affected by high arousal. Although the effects of preparatory arousal on strength performance…

  1. [Forms of pathological gambling: empirical research on consumers behaviour of sport betting and lottery participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöntzke, Babett; Albrecht, Ulrike; Thalemann, Carolin; Grüsser, Sabine Miriam

    2004-08-01

    Gambling is one of the favourite leisure activities. 70-90 % of the grown-up population have gambled at least once in their life. Over the last few years, however, the variety of opportunities to gamble has changed. Decreasing numbers of casino visitors can be seen against an ever-increasing number of people using slot machines, and taking part in national lotteries and sport betting. Comprehensive empirical research regarding consumer behaviour and addiction potential involved in sport betting has been non-existent and only a few studies have dealt with lottery. In the present study, 108 subjects were questioned in Austrian betting offices. 33.3 % of the sample fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for pathological sport betting. Of the sport betting subjects who additionally play lottery, 22.92 % were diagnosed as being pathological lottery gamblers. Based on the criteria of substance addiction, the data demonstrate that sport betting and lottery have addiction potential and can therefore be seen as non-substance-related addiction.

  2. Sports Medicine and Athletic Training in the 21st Century: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskiewicz, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…

  3. EFFECT OF SPORTS PARTICIPATION ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS AT SECONDARY LEVEL IN GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS OF QUETTA, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Farah Deeba*, Nadia Ali , Khalid Khan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of school environment in to of students in secondary schools today in particular cannot be overemphasized. Participation in sport reduces the time off the classroom and shifts the student's attention from the study. They added that it was not probable for students to attain superiority and gratification in sports as well as in schooling. Researchers showed that extracurricular (sport and physical) activity participation was positively related to Grade Point Average, educational...

  4. Predicting subjective vitality and performance in sports: the role of passion and achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiung-Huang

    2010-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.

  5. Premenstrual syndrome and perception of impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Gaion

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify the association between Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and perceived impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes. A total of 112 athletes were enrolled, with ages varying from 18 to 31years old, and who participated in the Brazilian Clubs Cup in 2007. The instruments used were: a self-reported sheet based on criteria from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (2000 for the diagnosis of PMS and a sport performance impact perception sheet, organized in a Likert scale with values ranging from 0 (“notaffected” to 3 (“extremely affected”. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson’s chi-square and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of PMS was 47.32% and the perceived impact on sport performance for those with PMS was RP 1.71 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.38. The symptoms associated with sport performanceimpact were depression, irritability, breast tenderness, difficulty concentrating, back pain and tiredness. The intensity with which the athletes with PMS feel their performance affected during the premenstrual phase was significant in the “lowly affected “(RP 2.195%CI 1.26 to 3.55 and “extremely affected” (RP 3.5 95%CI 2.23 to 5.62 categories. Athletes with 6 to 9 symptoms presented higher risk (RP 3.20 95%CI 1.53 to 6.71 than athletes with 4 to 5 symptoms (RP 2.82 95%CI 1.32 to 6.05 or with 2 to 3 symptoms (RP 2.57 95%CI 1.25 to 5.30. In conclusion, the presence of PMS, the number and thekind of symptoms all exhibited associations with the sport performance impact perceived by Brazilian indoor soccer athletes.

  6. Evaluating the Effect of Entrepreneurial Orientation on SME’s Performance: A Study of Sports Industry Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Zain Ul Abidin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sports industry has played a vital role in the economy of Pakistan. The recent high failure rate of small and medium businesses in the sports sector has necessitated the need to identify strategies that will help to improve their performance. The primary objective of this study is to establish the level of entrepreneurial orientation of small and medium enterprises in the sports sector of Pakistan. Simple random sampling method was used to gather 153 usable questionnaires from small and medium businesses in Sialkot, Pakistan. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the validity of the measuring instrument. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were calculated to assess the reliability of the measuring instrument. Multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the hypothesized relationships. The results of this study have shown that the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation (i.e., pro-activeness, innovativeness, and competitive aggressiveness have a significant positive influence on the success of the business, whereas the dimensions (i.e., autonomy and risk-taking have no influence. The study has implications for both researchers and small and medium business owners.

  7. Neural Correlates of Choking Under Pressure: Athletes High in Sports Anxiety Monitor Errors More When Performance Is Being Evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hiroaki; Maruo, Yuya; Meyer, Alexandria; Hajcak, Greg

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between performance-related anxiety and the neural response to errors. Using the sport anxiety scale, we selected university athletes high in sports anxiety and low in sports anxiety. The two groups performed a spatial Stroop task while their performance was being evaluated by an experimenter and also during a control (i.e., no evaluation) condition. The error-related negativity was significantly larger during the evaluation than control condition among athletes who reported high performance-related anxiety. These results suggest that performance evaluation may make errors particularly aversive or salient for individuals who fail to perform well under pressure.

  8. Sports-related research trends at South African universities | Burnett ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universities are globally and locally recognised for their research production being innovative, essential for producing a scientific body of knowledge and in answer to national, as well as local discourses. In the latter case, it is research within an applied and participatory action paradigm that has a significant ...

  9. Talent Development: A Guide for Practice and Research Within Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Russell J. J.; Collins, Dave; Daubney, Jim

    2005-01-01

    The transformation of talented youngsters into senior world-beaters is a topic of interest for practitioners and researchers alike. Unfortunately there is a dearth of research to guide the optimization of this process. Accordingly, this paper offers an overview of key themes apparent in the literature that have relevance to the effective…

  10. Research design of decision support system for team sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Zukuwwan Zainol; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a suitable research procedure that can be referred to while conducting a Decision Support System (DSS) study, especially when the development activity of system artifacts becomes one of the research objectives. The design of the research procedure was based on the completion of a football DSS development that can help in determining the position of a player and the best team formation to be used during a game. After studying the relevant literature, we found that it is necessary to combine the conventional rainfall System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) approach with Case Study approach to help in structuring the research task and phases, which can contribute to the fulfillment of the research aim and objectives.

  11. Cardiovascular toxicities of performance-enhancing substances in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Ritesh; Stout, C William; Link, Mark S; Homoud, Munther K; Weinstock, Jonathan; Estes, N A Mark

    2005-10-01

    Athletes commonly use drugs and dietary supplements to improve athletic performance or to assist with weight loss. Some of these substances are obtainable by prescription or by illegal means; others are marketed as supplements, vitamins, or minerals. Nutritional supplements are protected from Food and Drug Administration regulation by the 1994 US Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, and manufacturers are not required to demonstrate proof of efficacy or safety. Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration lacks a regulatory body to evaluate such products for purity. Existing scientific data, which consist of case reports and clinical observations, describe serious cardiovascular adverse effects from use of performance-enhancing substances, including sudden death. Although mounting evidence led to the recent ban of ephedra (ma huang), other performance-enhancing substances continue to be used frequently at all levels, from elementary school children to professional athletes. Thus, although the potential for cardiovascular injury is great, few appropriately designed studies have been conducted to assess the benefits and risks of using performance-enhancing substances. We performed an exhaustive OVID MEDLINE search to Identify all existing scientific data, review articles, case reports, and clinical observations that address this subject. In this review, we examine the current evidence regarding cardiovascular risk for persons using anabolic-androgenic steroids including 2 synthetic substances, tetrahydrogestrinone and androstenedione (andro), stimulants such as ephedra, and nonsteroidal agents such as recombinant human erythropoietin, human growth hormone, creatine, and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate.

  12. Developing a peak performance profile measurement for sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to construct a measuring instrument to assess sportspersons' psychological strengths and weaknesses. With this in mind, various developmental procedures were applied in the construction and development of an instrument over a period of more than seven years. The research was ...

  13. Sporting Equipment and Students' Academic Performance in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    7 group. Test On Projectile (TOP), comprised of 25-multiple choice items in the concepts of projectile and motion was used to gather data for the study. The TOP was developed by the researchers and served as pretest and posttest but rearranged in different order. The instrument was validated by two. Physics teachers and ...

  14. Team Performance and Sport Attendance of South African Super ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In professional rugby, competitions such as the Super Rugby and Currie Cup benefit from the lucrative money-generating opportunities offered. This study focuses on team performance and spectator attendance of the Super Rugby and Currie Cup competitions. Results indicated some interesting relationships between ...

  15. Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports: How Chemists Catch Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, T. C.; Hatton, Caroline K.

    2011-01-01

    The "cat-and-mouse game" between those who enable athletes to use performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and those who try to detect such use provides a wealth of interesting examples for the undergraduate chemistry and biochemistry classroom. In this article, we focus on several commonly used PEDs, including amphetamine, anabolic steroids,…

  16. Sport and exercise psychology research and Olympic success: an analytical and correlational investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current inquiry was to identify the national origin of scholars who lead the work in the area of Sport and Exercise Psychology, and to examine whether their research output is connected to the Olympic success of their national athletes. Consequently, the two specialised journals with the highest impact factors in this field were examined for the origin of publications throughout 11 years for authors' national affiliations. Subsequently, the link between national research output and Olympic medals was examined. The results revealed that over 50% of the publications originate from Canada, the U.K. and the U.S.A. National research output in Sport and Exercise Psychology was correlated with the number of Olympic medals; the proportion of shared variance was 42% and 57%, respectively, in the two journals. Nevertheless, it is posited that the observed link is primarily due to other factors that ought to be examined in future research.

  17. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP and return to activity criteria (RTAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Logerstedt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  18. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  19. Performance in sports--With specific emphasis on the effect of intensified training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, J

    2015-12-01

    Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s-4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+), K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Performance-enhancing sports supplements: role in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Lindsay-Rae B; Sandoval, Paul A; Mayles, W Jonathan; Wischmeyer, Paul E

    2009-10-01

    Many performance-enhancing supplements and/or drugs are increasing in popularity among professional and amateur athletes alike. Although the uncontrolled use of these agents can pose health risks in the general population, their clearly demonstrated benefits could prove helpful to the critically ill population in whom preservation and restoration of lean body mass and neuromuscular function are crucial. Post-intensive care unit weakness not only impairs post-intensive care unit quality of life but also correlates with intensive care unit mortality. This review covers a number of the agents known to enhance athletic performance, and their possible role in preservation of muscle function and prevention/treatment of post-intensive care unit weakness in critically ill patients. These agents include testosterone analogues, growth hormone, branched chain amino acid, glutamine, arginine, creatine, and beta-hydryoxy-beta-methylbutyrate. Three of the safest and most effective agents in enhancing athletic performance in this group are creatine, branched-chain amino acid, and beta-hydryoxy-beta-methylbutyrate. However, these agents have received very little study in the recovering critically ill patient suffering from post-intensive care unit weakness. More placebo-controlled studies are needed in this area to determine efficacy and optimal dosing. It is very possible that, under the supervision of a physician, many of these agents may prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of post-intensive care unit weakness.

  1. Conditioning Methodologies for DanceSport: Lessons from Gymnastics, Figure Skating, and Concert Dance Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outevsky, David; Martin, Blake Cw

    2015-12-01

    Dancesport, the competitive branch of ballroom dancing, places high physiological and psychological demands on its practitioners, but pedagogical resources in these areas for this dance form are limited. Dancesport competitors could benefit from strategies used in other aesthetic sports. In this review, we identify conditioning methodologies from gymnastics, figure skating, and contemporary, modern, and ballet dance forms that could have relevance and suitability for dancesport training, and propose several strategies for inclusion in the current dancesport curriculum. We reviewed articles derived from Google Scholar, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Taylor & Francis Online, and Web of Science search engines and databases, with publication dates from 1979 to 2013. The keywords included MeSH terms: dancing, gymnastics, physiology, energy metabolism, physical endurance, and range of motion. Out of 47 papers examined, 41 papers met the inclusion criteria (validity of scientific methods, topic relevance, transferability to dancesport, publication date). Quality and validity of the data were assessed by examining the methodologies in each study and comparing studies on similar populations as well as across time using the PRISMA 2009 checklist and flowchart. The relevant research suggests that macro-cycle periodization planning, aerobic and anaerobic conditioning, range of motion and muscular endurance training, and performance psychology methods have potential for adaptation for dancesport training. Dancesport coaches may help their students fulfill their ambitions as competitive athletes and dance artists by adapting the relevant performance enhancement strategies from gymnastics, figure skating, and concert dance forms presented in this paper.

  2. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT): an International Science Mission Using a Cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Swenson, Charles; Durao, Otavio; Loures, Luis; Heelis, Rod; Bishop, Rebecca; Le, Guan; Abdu, Mangalathayil; Krause, Linda; Fry, Craig; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) is a 6U CubeSat mission to address the compelling but difficult problem of understanding the preconditions leading to equatorial plasma bubbles. The scientific literature describes the preconditions in both the plasma drifts and the density profiles related to bubble formations that occur several hours later in the evening. Most of the scientific discovery has resulted from observations at a single site, within a single longitude sector, from Jicamarca, Peru. SPORT will provide a systematic study of the state of the pre-bubble conditions at all longitudes sectors to enhance understanding between geography and magnetic geometry. SPORT is an international partnership between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), and the Technical Aeronautics Institute under the Brazilian Air Force Command Department (DCTA/ITA), and encouraged by U.S. Southern Command. This talk will present an overview of the SPORT mission, observation strategy, and science objectives to improve predictions of ionospheric disturbances that affect radio propagation of telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator.

  3. New directions in the psychology of optimal performance in sport: flow and clutch states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Christian; Crust, Lee; Vella, Stewart A

    2017-08-01

    Csikszentmihalyi's conceptualisation of flow is the primary framework for understanding the psychology of optimal experience and performance in sport. However, emerging evidence suggests a more dynamic, multi-state perspective. This review focuses primarily on recent studies highlighting a second, overlapping 'clutch' state which - in addition to flow - underlies optimal performance in sport. We also examine how the nature of goals ('open' or 'fixed') athletes pursue influence the experience of flow and clutch respectively. This new, integrated model of psychological states underlying optimal performance raises questions around conceptualisation and methodology employed in the field to date. These implications are outlined, and recommendations are provided for more critical and accurate measurement of both flow and clutch as overlapping, yet distinct, states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; Di Marco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of the sports dietitian. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins and to contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  5. Element nodes of sports equipment double back flip factions and double back flip hunched performed gymnast in floor exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Potop

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the node elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. To compare the two types of nodes for double somersault. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts (age 12 - 14 years. All finalists in the competition floor exercise - reserve team Romania. The method of video - computer research and method of postural orientation movements. Results : identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. In the preparatory phase of motor actions - launcher body posture for reaching is repulsive to flip. In the phase of basic motor action - animation body postures (double back somersault tuck and bent (bent double back flip. Exercises are performed on the ascending and descending parts of the flight path of the demonstration of individual maximum lift height common center of mass. In the final phase of motor actions - final body posture - steady landing. Conclusions : indicators of key elements of sports equipment acrobatic exercises contain new scientific facts kinematic and dynamic structures of motor actions. They are necessary for the development of modern training programs acrobatic exercises in step specialized base preparation.

  6. Validation of an accelerometer for measuring sport performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimitake; Smith, Sarah L; Sands, William A

    2009-01-01

    Weightlifting technique is a well-studied subject with regard to standard biomechanical analysis that includes barbell velocity as well as barbell trajectory, but kinematic data such as barbell acceleration have not often been reported. Real-time or near-real-time feedback can be more helpful to coaches and athletes than delayed feedback. The purpose of this study was to validate measures obtained by a commercially available accelerometer in comparison with kinematic data derived from video. The hypothesis was that there would be a high positive relationship between accelerometer data and acceleration measures derived from video records of a barbell high-pull movement. Accelerometer values and kinematic data from high-speed video were obtained from 7 volunteers performing 2 trials each of a barbell high-pull. The results showed that the accelerometer measures were highly correlated with derived acceleration data from video (r = 0.94-0.99). On the basis of these results, the device was considered to be validated; thus, the unit may be a useful tool to measure acceleration during real-time training sessions rather than only reserved for collecting data in a laboratory setting. This device can be a valuable tool to provide instant feedback to coaches and athletes to assess individual barbell acceleration performance.

  7. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  8. Sport, Health, Fitness and Dance. AAHPER Research Consortium Symposium Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles B., Ed.

    This collection of symposium papers provides current synthesis of research in the field of physical education and health. In this volume the physiological aspects of physical activities are discussed. The effects of chronic heavy physical training in swimming are examined, comparing age groups and males and females. Stress factors are also…

  9. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Talent identification and development in youth rugby players: a research review · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. EJ Spamer. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajrs.v31i2.46332 ...

  10. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mental imagery in rowers during pre-competition periods : research article · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Clive J. Basson, 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajrs.v26i1.25872 ...

  11. IMPORTANCE OF THEORETICAL AND SCIENTIFIC PREPARATION IN COMBAT SPORTS TRAINING

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Iacobini

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical training is an important factor in terms of sports development of scientific research, specific to combat sports for achieving specific performance objectives set. Theoretical knowledge is theoretical science which the trainer teaches the lesson of training for understanding and integrating sporting content in sporting life. Thought the theoretical preparation, the athlete acknowledges the educational value of sports training. Theoretical preparation includes a rich content issues...

  12. Performance Measurement of Research Activitities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Peyton, Margit Malmmose

    Performance measurements have made their entry into the world of universities. Every research activity is registered in a database and the output measures form the foundation for managerial decisions. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the registration practices among researchers...... the registrations as a way to be promoted and to legitimise and account for their work; on the other hand, the economic incentives behind ranking lists and bibliographic research indicators threaten the individual researcher's freedom. The findings also show how managers have difficulties in translating back...

  13. A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON THE UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCES OF GRADUATES OF SPORT SCIENCES FACULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzez Şaşmaz Ataçocuğu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment has been recognized as an important indicator of economies of the countries. Unemployment which expresses the status of complete unavailability of “labor” as the main factor of production, is a multidimensional problem, which can be encountered in all countries from less developed countries to developed countries. It is emerging in all sectors with various proportions and features. The research question of this paper was created by issues in the context of unemployment of graduates of the faculties of sports sciences which are raising labor supply to sports sector which is growing with every passing day. In the study, it was intended to analyze the unemployment experiences of faculty of sports sciences graduates (former words, the “PES” and to put the variables about the causes and consequences of this experience forward. In this context, the study sample was selected from people who were graduated from 4 separate departments of relevant faculties and have experienced unemployment. The sample consists of 20 participants for a total, 7 Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department, 5 Sports Management Department, 4 Coaching Education Department, 4 Recreation Department graduates. In the study, “Semi-structured in-depth interview” which is a specific research technique peculiar to “Qualitative Method” was applied. Interviews were recorded on a voice recorder, transferred to the “Word” text. Related findings (text subjected to content analysis, were classified under 5 themes that reflect the primary problematics relevant to the subject: 1. Unemployment Duration and Job Search Practices of Graduates, 2. The Perception of Employment in Anatolian Cities, 3. Pedagogic Formation Certificate as a Business Opportunity, 4. Effective Elements in Finding a Job, 5. The Perception of the Profession. From the results of the research, in general, the following tips were obtained: It appeared that those who have graduated from

  14. Eventual sport performance level: What about the role of type of sport, perception of critical life events, and practice quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toering, Tynke

    2017-01-01

    The target article describes an interesting study, which provides some challenging findings regarding athletes' pathway to excellence. The suggested links between critical life events, need for success, personal characteristics, and eventual performance level make sense from a psychodynamic perspective. This commentary will discuss some critical points related to the application of the findings in talent identification and -development programs. These are (1) the possible effect of the selection of participants on the results (including the impact of dependence on others for team sport athletes and the opportunity for multiple medal attainment), (2) a lack of detail in the description of how the athletes approached the critical life events (the perception of an event may contribute more to development than the event itself), and (3) a lack of detail in the description of the practice process throughout development. Some interesting differences were found in the motivation for and approach to practice, but little detail was given about what the athletes exactly were doing at the time. The concept of self-regulated learning may be useful in explaining how super-elite athletes action their goals through quality practice. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Caffeine and other sympathomimetic stimulants: modes of action and effects on sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Stimulants, illegal and legal, continue to be used in competitive sport. The evidence for the ergogenic properties of the most potent stimulants, amphetamines, cocaine and ephedrine, is mostly insubstantial. Low doses of amphetamines may aid performance where effects of fatigue adversely affect higher psychomotor activity. Pseudoephedrine, at high doses, has been suggested to improve high intensity and endurance exercise but phenylpropanolamine has not been proven to be ergogenic. Only caffeine has substantial experimental backing for being ergogenic in exercise. The mode of action of these stimulants centres on their ability to cause persistence of catecholamine neurotransmitters, with the exception of caffeine which is an adenosine receptor antagonist. By these actions, the stimulants are able to influence the activity of neuronal control pathways in the central (and peripheral) nervous system. Rodent models suggest that amphetamines and cocaine interact with different pathways to that affected by caffeine. Caffeine has a variety of pharmacological effects but its affinity for adenosine receptors is comparable with the levels expected to exist in the body after moderate caffeine intake, thus making adenosine receptor blockade the favoured mode of ergogenic action. However, alternative modes of action to account for the ergogenic properties of caffeine have been supported in the literature. Biochemical mechanisms that are consistent with more recent research findings, involving proteins such as DARPP-32 (dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein), are helping to rationalize the molecular details of stimulant action in the central nervous system.

  16. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for predicting sports performance and talent identification: Consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Williams, Alun; McNamee, Mike; Bouchard, Claude; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Ahmetov, Ildus; Ashley, Euan; Byrne, Nuala; Camporesi, Silvia; Collins, Malcolm; Dijkstra, Paul; Eynon, Nir; Fuku, Noriyuki; Garton, Fleur C; Hoppe, Nils; Holm, Søren; Kaye, Jane; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Maase, Kamiel; Moran, Colin; North, Kathryn N; Pigozzi, Fabio; Wang, Guan

    2015-01-01

    The general consensus among sport and exercise genetics researchers is that genetic tests have no role to play in talent identification or the individualised prescription of training to maximise performance. Despite the lack of evidence, recent years have witnessed the rise of an emerging market of direct-to-consumer marketing (DTC) tests that claim to be able to identify children's athletic talents. Targeted consumers include mainly coaches and parents. There is concern among the scientific community that the current level of knowledge is being misrepresented for commercial purposes. There remains a lack of universally accepted guidelines and legislation for DTC testing in relation to all forms of genetic testing and not just for talent identification. There is concern over the lack of clarity of information over which specific genes or variants are being tested and the almost universal lack of appropriate genetic counselling for the interpretation of the genetic data to consumers. Furthermore independent studies have identified issues relating to quality control by DTC laboratories with different results being reported from samples from the same individual. Consequently, in the current state of knowledge, no child or young athlete should be exposed to DTC genetic testing to define or alter training or for talent identification aimed at selecting gifted children or adolescents. Large scale collaborative projects, may help to develop a stronger scientific foundation on these issues in the future. PMID:26582191

  17. Dietas vegetarianas e desempenho esportivo Vegetarian diets and sports performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Guimarães Ferreira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available As evidências atuais apontam benefícios da dieta vegetariana para a saúde humana. Contudo, a partir da adoção de práticas vegetarianas mais restritivas, confirmam-se os riscos à saúde. As dietas vegetarianas são caracterizadas pelo elevado consumo de carboidratos, fibras, magnésio, potássio, folato e antioxidantes, podendo apresentar deficiências em aminoácidos e ácidos graxos essenciais, cálcio, zinco, ferro e cobalamina. Pesquisas experimentais em humanos indicam que vegetarianos e não-vegetarianos apresentam capacidade aeróbica semelhante. Em relação ao desempenho em atividades de força e potência muscular, as pesquisas são escassas, mas as existentes não apontam diferenças significativas. Situações de risco cardiovascular têm sido confirmadas, devido ao provável quadro de hiperhomocisteinemia, em decorrência da baixa ingestão de cobalamina. As dietas vegetarianas são isentas de creatina, o que resulta em estoques musculares mais baixos nessa população. Possivelmente ocorrem alterações hormonais e metabólicas em resposta às dietas vegetarianas, como baixos níveis de testosterona e androstenediona. A função imune parece não ser prejudicada. Dessa forma, a prática de dietas vegetarianas apresenta-se compatível com a prática esportiva cotidiana, desde que bem planejada para evitar deficiências nutricionais.Current evidences show benefits of a vegetarian diet for human health. However, when a stricter vegetarian diet is adopted, health risks are confirmed. Vegetarian diets are characterized by a high intake of carbohydrates, fibers, magnesium, potassium, folate and antioxidants and may result in a low intake of amino acids, essential fatty acids, calcium, zinc, iron and cobalamin. Experimental human researches indicate that both vegetarians and non-vegetarians present similar aerobic capacity. Regarding muscular strength and power, researches are scarce but the existent ones do not report significant

  18. The potential role of myostatin and neurotransmission genes in elite sport performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonzi, L; Franchini, N; Vaghi, M; Chiesa, S; Marzano, F Nonnis

    2015-09-01

    Elite athletes are those who represent their sport at such major competition as the Olympic Games or World contests. The most outstanding athletes appear to emerge as a result of endogenous biologic characteristics interacting with exogenous influences of the environment, often described as a 'Nature and Nurture' struggle. In this work, we assessed the contribution given by 4 genes involved in muscles development (MSTN) and behavioural insights (5HTT, DAT and MAOA) to athletic performances. As for neurotransmission, 5HTT, DAT and MAOA genes have been considered as directly involved in the management of aggressiveness and anxiety. Genotypes and allelic frequencies of 5HTTLPR, MAOA-u VNTR, DAT VNTR and MSTN K153R were determined in 50 elite athletes and compared with 100 control athletes. In this work we found a significant correlation between the dopamine transporter genotype 9/9 and allele 9 and elite sport performances. On the contrary, no association was found between muscle development regulation or serotonin pathway and elite performances. Our data, for the first time, suggest a strong role of dopamine neurotransmitter in determining sport success, highlighting the role of emotional control and psycological management to reach high-level performances.

  19. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration performance in team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamori, Naoki; Nosaka, Kazunori; Newton, Robert U

    2013-03-01

    Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a standing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration performance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background performed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) analysis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = -0.52) and propulsive impulse (r = -0.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant correlations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results suggest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longitudinal training studies.

  20. Gender inequality and research performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2016-01-01

    inherent to the academic system or instead individualistic matters, such as personal motivation, performance and merit. In order to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of this particular issue, this cross-sectional bibliometric study investigates the link between gender and research performance......Academic debates addressing the persistent gender gap in science reveal considerable contestation of the relevance and extent of the problem. Particular attention has been given to the question of whether women’s high attrition rates should be ascribed to the structural and cultural barriers...... performance gap in favour of male researchers. The result has implications for research organizations and managers, as it raises concerns about the validity of individual-meritocratic explanations of the skewed gender distributions in academia....

  1. Comparative analysis of central hemodynamics and physical performance in football players of various sports qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Malakhova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the influence of sports qualification of football players on parameters of heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical performance. Methods and results. At the beginning of the preparatory period examination of 73 football players of various sports qualifications was carried out. It was established that relative value of physical performance and index of the functional state (IFS are at a high enough level for all football players. That once again confirms the orientation of the training process on the development of power-speed qualities with the appearance of a high-level general, speed and special endurance. Conclusion. Economization of physiological functions of qualified football players manifested by bradycardia, prevalence of hypokinetic type of circulation (TC and is lack in group of qualification of MS and CMS athletes with hyperkinetic TC.

  2. Development and validation of the organizational stressor indicator for sport performers (OSI-SP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David; Daniels, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    The series of related studies reported here describe the development and validation of the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP). In study 1, an expert and usability panel examined the content validity and applicability of an initial item pool. The resultant 96 items were analyzed with exploratory factor analyses in Study 2, with the factorial structure comprising 5 factors (viz., goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, selection) and 33 items. Using confirmatory factor analyses, Studies 3 and 4 found support for the 5-factor structure. Study 4 also provided evidence for the OSI-SP's concurrent validity and invariance across different groups. The OSI-SP is proposed as a valid and reliable measure of the organizational stressors encountered by sport performers.

  3. The influence of muscle physiology and advanced technology on sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neptune, Richard R; McGowan, Craig P; Fiandt, John M

    2009-01-01

    Muscle mechanical output such as force and power are governed by highly nonlinear intrinsic muscle properties associated with different muscle fiber types and are influenced by training and age. Many of the interactions between these properties pose trade-offs such that an individual's anthropometrics and muscle morphology may allow an athlete to excel in one sport but not in others. Advanced modeling and simulation techniques are powerful tools to gain insight into performance limits, optimal equipment designs, and mechanisms that may lead to injury. Recent technological innovations have produced faster running tracks, bicycles, speed skates, and swimming pools. This review discusses the influence of intrinsic muscle properties in sports and how advanced technology can be used to extend the limits of human performance.

  4. Genetic Testing for Sports Performance, Responses to Training and Injury Risk: Practical and Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alun G; Wackerhage, Henning; Day, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses practical and ethical considerations regarding genetic tests to predict performance and/or risk of exercise-related injury or illness. Various people might wish to conduct sport-related genetic tests for a variety of reasons. For example, an individual might seek personal genetic information to help guide their own sport participation. A sports coach might wish to test young athletes to aid team selection or individualize training. A physician might want to predict the risk of injury or illness in athletes and advise regarding selection or preventative measures. An insurance company might seek to estimate the risk of career-threatening injury for athletes based partly on genetic information. Whilst this information is, in part, encoded in our DNA sequence, the available tests allow generally only a poor prediction of the aforementioned variables. In other words, the current genetic tests and analysis methods are not powerful enough to inform important decisions in sport to a substantial degree. It is particularly disappointing that more than half of the commercially available genetic tests related to exercise and sport do not appear to identify publicly the genetic variants they assess, making scrutiny by academic scholars and consumers (or their representatives) impossible. There are also challenging ethical issues to consider. For example, the imposition of genetic tests on individuals (especially young people) by third parties is potentially susceptible to abuse. Scientists and practitioners should understand the limitations of the tests currently available, the ethical concerns and the importance of counselling before and after testing so that they are only used in a responsible manner. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200–2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform con...

  6. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988

  7. La importancia del análisis notacional como tópico emergente en Ciencias del deporte. [The importance of performance analysis as an emergent research topic in sport sciences].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez-uano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con O’Donoghue (2010; 2015 el análisis notacional ha evolucionado a considerarse análisis del rendimiento (uso combinado de información: técnica-táctica y física para la mejora de los procesos de entrenamiento, siendo definida como la investigación del rendimiento en competición y entrenamiento en deportes en diferentes contextos (alto rendimiento, formación, entrenadores, árbitros, etc.. De modo que se basa en modelos de análisis de la competición y el entrenamiento, no en situaciones aisladas de laboratorio, buscando la investigación aplicada (mejora de los procesos de entrenamiento y el control de la actividad competitiva. Asimismo, es destacable que en el análisis notacional (performance analysis los aspectos biológicos (FC, VO2max son complementos para conocer el análisis notacional y no son las fuentes principales de los estudios ni las investigaciones (O’Donoghue, 2010; 2015.

  8. TAI CHI CHUAN: STATE OF THE ART IN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH: VOL 52 (MEDICINE & SPORT SCIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    Youlian Hong

    2008-01-01

    DESCRIPTION This collection on the latest and practical research data about the characteristics and beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on various physiological and pathological matters is published as the 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE To address the effects of Tai Chi Chuan in the fields of biomechanics and physiology, sensory motor control and fall prevention, psychology and social aspects, as well as various clinical applications. FEATURES The book is organised...

  9. Sports pairs: insights on athletic talent; research reviews: twins with leukemia; parents and twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2007-06-01

    Twin research exploring genetic and environmental influences on athletic interests and talents is reviewed. Illustrative examples of twin athletes representing a variety of sports activities are presented. This is followed by an overview of twin studies offering critical insights into the onset and progress of leukemia. In the last section, timely events involving twins and parents of twins will be described--each case provides a new look at an old question.

  10. Premenstrual syndrome and perception of impact on sport performance from brazilian indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Aparecida Gaion

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p73   This study’s objective was to verify the association between Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS and perceived impact on sport performance from Brazilian indoor soccer athletes. A total of 112 athletes were enrolled, with ages varying from 18 to 31years old, and who participated in the Brazilian Clubs Cup in 2007. The instruments used were: a self-reported sheet based on criteria from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (2000 for the diagnosis of PMS and a sport performance impact perception sheet, organized in a Likert scale with values ranging from 0 (“not affected” to 3 (“extremely affected”. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, Pearson’s chi-square and Poisson regression with robust variance. The prevalence of PMS was 47.32% and the perceived impact on sport performance for those with PMSwas RP 1.71 (95%CI 1.23 to 2.38. The symptoms associated with sport performance impact were depression, irritability, breast tenderness, difficulty concentrating, back pain and tiredness. The intensity with which the athletes with PMS feel their performance affected during the premenstrual phase was significant in the “lowly affected “(RP 2.1 95%CI 1.26 to 3.55 and “extremely affected” (RP 3.5 95%CI 2.23 to 5.62 categories. Athletes with 6 to 9 symptoms presented higher risk (RP 3.20 95%CI 1.53 to 6.71 than athletes with 4 to 5 symptoms (RP 2.82 95%CI 1.32 to 6.05 or with 2 to 3 symptoms (RP 2.57 95%CI 1.25 to 5.30. In conclusion, the presence of PMS, the number and the kind of symptoms all exhibited associations with the sport performance impact perceived by Brazilian indoor soccer athletes.

  11. The excesive intake of macronutrients: does it influence the sports performances of young cyclists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Benito, J L; Sánchez Soriano, E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether 34 young Spanish males belonging to a cyclist team, follows the optimal macronutrients intake based on the recommended dietary guidelines. The deficits in nutrition jeopardise the sportive performances, but what about the diets with excessive intake of macronutrients? Furthermore, is there an association between their sports achievements and the psychological profile? Surely, but the problem is to determine which psychological variables are involved. Nutritional evaluation based on Nutrients intake questionnaire of 7 consecutive days. Cyclists consume an excessive quantity of proteins and lipids in their diets. The average consumption of proteins is 16,36% of their caloric intake (the recommended quantity is less than 10%). The average consumption of fats is 38,71% (the recommended is less than 30%). The same tendency is found in the homologous Spanish young people of the enKID study, where the percentage of energy from fat and saturated fat is much higher than the recommended one. The cyclists consume insufficient quantities of carbohydrates (average is 44, 94% of their caloric intake, the recommended is more than 60%), therefore the reload of their glycogen stores may not be complete on each competition stage. No association has been found between the excessive intake of referred macronutrients and the achieved sports performances. This work contributes to the knowledge of the diets of very active young cyclists. Excessive intake of proteins and fats do not jeopardise their sportive performances. The commonly studied psychological variables in sport, are not determinant of sports achievements of young cyclists; additional work is needed to determine the psychological profile playing a determinant role in success of young cyclists.

  12. Influence of sports flooring and shoes on impact forces and performance during jump tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisoux, Laurent; Gette, Paul; Urhausen, Axel; Bomfim, Joao; Theisen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We aim to determine the influence of sports floorings and sports shoes on impact mechanics and performance during standardised jump tasks. Twenty-one male volunteers performed ankle jumps (four consecutive maximal bounds with very dynamic ankle movements) and multi-jumps (two consecutive maximal counter-movement jumps) on force plates using minimalist and cushioned shoes under 5 sports flooring (SF) conditions. The shock absorption properties of the SF, defined as the proportion of peak impact force absorbed by the tested flooring when compared with a concrete hard surface, were: SF0 = 0% (no flooring), SF1 = 19%, SF2 = 26%, SF3 = 37% and SF4 = 45%. Shoe and flooring effects were compared using 2x5 repeated-measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni-corrected comparisons. A significant interaction between SF and shoe conditions was found for VILR only (p = 0.003). In minimalist shoes, SF influenced Vertical Instantaneous Loading Rate (VILR) during ankle jumps (p = 0.006) and multi-jumps (psports flooring. VILR is the variable that was the most affected.

  13. Ergogenic aids: a review of basic science, performance, side effects, and status in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokish, John M; Kocher, Mininder S; Hawkins, Richard J

    2004-09-01

    The use of drugs and supplements to enhance performance has become a part of mainstream athletics. Many team physicians and sports medicine practitioners are unfamiliar with the benefits and risks of these products and thus are unable to educate young athletes on this topic. In spite of numerous reports on the health risks of anabolic steroid use, 1 to 3 million Americans have used them. Human growth hormone has been tried by up to 5% of 10th graders, although no scientific study has shown that it is an effective performance-enhancing drug. Amphetamines and similar compounds may be the most widely abused drug in baseball; recently, they have come under increased scrutiny in sport. Erythropoietin is a highly effective aerobic enhancer that has been linked to multiple deaths in cyclists and other endurance athletes. The neutraceutical industry, led by supplements such as creatine, ephedra, and androstenedione, remains unregulated by the Food and Drug Administration and has serious issues with quality and side effects. An understanding of these products is essential for the sports medicine practitioner to provide sound, safe advice to the athlete.

  14. Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research (SIR/CAR) Windsor Minor Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Duthie, James

    This organizational analysis of Windsor minor hockey was conducted as a pilot study into the policy decision making process in a sports organization. The study was divided into three phases. In the first phase the organization was audited and provided with information about various feedback channels. In phase two observations, available…

  15. Sports Stars: Analyzing the Performance of Astronomers at Visualization-based Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, C. J.; Parrington, L.; Hegarty, S.; MacMahon, C.; Morgan, S.; Hassan, A. H.; Kilborn, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this data-rich era of astronomy, there is a growing reliance on automated techniques to discover new knowledge. The role of the astronomer may change from being a discoverer to being a confirmer. But what do astronomers actually look at when they distinguish between “sources” and “noise?” What are the differences between novice and expert astronomers when it comes to visual-based discovery? Can we identify elite talent or coach astronomers to maximize their potential for discovery? By looking to the field of sports performance analysis, we consider an established, domain-wide approach, where the expertise of the viewer (i.e., a member of the coaching team) plays a crucial role in identifying and determining the subtle features of gameplay that provide a winning advantage. As an initial case study, we investigate whether the SportsCode performance analysis software can be used to understand and document how an experienced Hi astronomer makes discoveries in spectral data cubes. We find that the process of timeline-based coding can be applied to spectral cube data by mapping spectral channels to frames within a movie. SportsCode provides a range of easy to use methods for annotation, including feature-based codes and labels, text annotations associated with codes, and image-based drawing. The outputs, including instance movies that are uniquely associated with coded events, provide the basis for a training program or team-based analysis that could be used in unison with discipline specific analysis software. In this coordinated approach to visualization and analysis, SportsCode can act as a visual notebook, recording the insight and decisions in partnership with established analysis methods. Alternatively, in situ annotation and coding of features would be a valuable addition to existing and future visualization and analysis packages.

  16. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge about factors that influence Human Performance is essential for the safety of nuclear power plant operation. Through a number of tasks, workshops and projects, experience is shared among OECD countries. At its December 1996 meeting, the CSNI endorsed the SESAR/CAF report on 'Nuclear Safety Research in OECD Countries: Capabilities and Facilities' and requested that the Principal Working Groups (PWGs) review existing co-operative programmes and develop specifications for programmes which address the identified needs. Following discussions between the chairmen of these PWGs and the NEA Secretariat, it was concluded that, for this technical area, the development of programme specifications must be preceded by the development of a strategic document that further elaborates the conclusions of the SESAR/CAF report and set out the general orientation of the research over the medium and long term. Accordingly, a group of senior experts met in August 1997 to discuss possible strategies in the area of Human Performance. The objectives of this meeting were: - To exchange information on existing plans and strategies by different Member countries; - To determine relevant issues and realistic medium/long-term targets and expectations for their resolution, and - To determine, in general sense, possible research programmes, their priority and their likelihood for success. This document is the result of this meeting. Its objective is to present to the CSNI proposals for future work on Human Performance research. The proposals are built upon the work performed to date by PWG1 and PWG5. Carrying out these proposals will continue to require close coordination on joint activities between these two PWGs. Reinforced systematic networking activities are needed particularly in management and organisational performance research to initiate and manage comparison and benchmarking activities. Synchronising the availability of funding is a specific problem in many cases. Since most

  17. The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes' psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Louise; Appleby, Ralph; Davis, Paul; Wetherell, Mark; Gustafsson, Henrik

    2018-01-23

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.

  18. Competitiveness and the Process of Co-adaptation in Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2016-01-01

    An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals toward different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.

  19. Competitiveness and the process of co-adaptation in team sport performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Passos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals towards different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.

  20. Performance and Return to Sport After Thumb Ulnar Collateral Ligament Surgery in National Football League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Kyle R; Jack, Robert A; Nauert, Richard; Liberman, Shari R; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Harris, Joshua D

    2018-02-01

    Acute ruptures of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb are common injuries in sports. Surgical repair of complete tears has yielded excellent results in elite athletes. National Football League (NFL) players who underwent thumb UCL surgery and matched controls were identified. Demographic and performance data were collected. Performance scores were calculated using a standardized scoring system. Return to sport (RTS) in the NFL was defined as playing in at least 1 NFL game after thumb UCL surgery. Comparisons between case and control groups and preoperative and postoperative time points were made using paired-samples Student t tests. Twenty-three players were identified (mean age: 28.8 ± 3.4 years and mean experience in the NFL: 5.9 ± 3.4 years). Twenty-two players (95.7%) were able to return to sport in the NFL at an average of 132.2 ± 126.1 days. The overall 1-year NFL career survival rate of players undergoing thumb UCL surgery was 87.0%. There was not a statistically significant decrease in games per season and career length for any position following surgery. No positions had a significant difference in postoperative performance when compared with preoperative performance, and there was no significant performance difference postoperatively when compared with matched controls. There is a high rate of RTS in the NFL following thumb UCL surgery. Players who underwent thumb UCL surgery played in a similar number of games per season and had similar career lengths in the NFL as controls. No position group had any significant postoperative performance score differences when compared with postindex matched controls.

  1. COMMUNICATION MANAGEMENT IN SPORT CLUBS- A RESEARCH OF COMMUNICATION ACTIVITIES OF SPORT CLUBS IN TURKISH PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL LEAGUES

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Katirci; Ferruh Uztug

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays football game is subjected to open market norm and rules like any commercial sector in all over the world. The sport clubs which aren’t have economic and executive orderly arrangement can’t transfer their assets to future in football world. In this context, sport clubs must execute methods which have achievement in contemporary business administration and corporate governance. The aim of this study is to investigate application methods of corporate communication approach as a cor...

  2. Research strategies for human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Lennart

    1998-01-01

    This document reflects basic proposals derived from the discussions and results by the expert group on human performance within the frame of an OECD study on nuclear safety research. Different topics have identified which are herein briefly presented: cognitive models and errors of commission, organizational practices, validation of existing techniques for human reliability analysis, control room design and man-machine interactions, use of simulators, improvement of methods for evaluation of operating experience, safety culture, operator aids, shutdown, decommissioning

  3. Sports hernia in National Hockey League players: does surgery affect performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoi, Andre; O'Neill, Craig; Damsgaard, Christopher; Fehring, Keith; Tom, James

    2013-01-01

    . Players who undergo sports hernia surgeries return to play and often perform similar to their presurgery level. Players with over 7 full seasons return but with significant decreases in their overall performance levels. Less veteran players were able to return to play without any statistical decrease in performance and are likely the best candidates for repair once incurring injury.

  4. Selective Maintenance of Motor Performance in Older Adults From Long-Lasting Sport Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascal, Juliana Bayeux; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2016-09-01

    Decline of motor performance in older individuals affects their quality of life. Understanding the contribution of sport-related training in advanced ages might help to attenuate motor performance decay as one gets older. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the extent to which long-lasting training in running or sport-specific skills during old age preserves motor performance in different motor tasks. Older runners and tennis players with at least 10 years of training were assessed as were age-matched and young exercisers. Performance was evaluated for 6 motor tasks requiring different functions of sensorimotor control expected to decline with aging. Analysis revealed that runners had increased aerobic fitness in comparison with the other older participants and that they presented similar performance to older exercisers in the motor tasks. Tennis players outperformed the other groups of older participants on coincident timing and simple reaction time and achieved similar performance to the young group on the timing task. These results suggest selective maintenance of task-specific processing through extensive practice of tennis-related motor skills in older adults.

  5. The effect of a carbohydrate-caffeine sports drink on simulated golf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Emma J; Hayes, Philip R; Allison, Sarah J

    2009-08-01

    A round of golf lasts approximately 4 h, during which time homeostasis could be challenged through either hypoglycemia or hypohydration. This might result in impaired motor skill or cognitive performance. Given the high cognitive demand of putting and the potential fatiguing effects from prolonged walking, the combination of a caffeine and carbohydrate drink could be beneficial in offsetting hypoglycemia and hypohydration. This study used a laboratory-simulated round of golf to examine the effect of an isotonic carbohydrate and caffeine sports drink on putting performance during a round of golf. After institutional ethics approval, 20 male golfers (mean +/- standard deviation: age 23 +/- 4 years, stature 176.4 +/- 5.6 cm, mass 72.8 +/- 17.4 kg, handicap 15 +/- 4, daily caffeine consumption 157.3 +/- 47.2 mg) consumed either an isotonic sports drink containing caffeine (6.4 g carbohydrate and 16 mg caffeine per 100 mL) or a no-energy, flavour-matched placebo drink in a double-blind, randomized, counter-balanced crossover design . Drinks were consumed preround (5 mL.kg-1 body mass (BM)) and at holes 6 and 12 (2.5 mL.kg-1 BM). Participants therefore consumed 1.6 mg.kg-1 BM of caffeine and 0.64 g.kg-1 BM of carbohydrate throughout the trial. Five and 2 m putting performance were assessed at each hole. Self-rated mood assessments were carried out every third hole. Putting performance over 5 m and 2 m and self-rated scores for alertness and relaxation showed a main effect for drink (p sports drink containing caffeine prior to and during a round of golf improved putting performance and increased feelings of alertness.

  6. Reactive Agility Performance in Handball; Development and Evaluation of a Sport-Specific Measurement Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasic, Miodrag; Krolo, Ante; Zenic, Natasa; Delextrat, Anne; Sekulic, Damir

    2015-09-01

    There is no current study that examined sport-specific tests of reactive-agility and change-of-direction-speed (CODS) to replicate real-sport environment in handball (team-handball). This investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of two novel tests designed to assess reactive-agility and CODS of handball players. Participants were female (25.14 ± 3.71 years of age; 1.77 ± 0.09 m and 74.1 ± 6.1 kg) and male handball players (26.9 ± 4.1 years of age; 1.90 ± 0.09 m and 93.90±4.6 kg). Variables included body height, body mass, body mass index, broad jump, 5-m sprint, CODS and reactive-agility tests. Results showed satisfactory reliability for reactive-agility-test and CODS-test (ICC of 0.85-0.93, and CV of 2.4-4.8%). The reactive-agility and CODS shared less than 20% of the common variance. The calculated index of perceptual and reactive capacity (P&RC; ratio between reactive-agility- and CODS-performance) is found to be valid measure in defining true-game reactive-agility performance in handball in both genders. Therefore, the handball athletes' P&RC should be used in the evaluation of real-game reactive-agility performance. Future studies should explore other sport-specific reactive-agility tests and factors associated to such performance in sports involving agile maneuvers. Key pointsReactive agility and change-of-direction-speed should be observed as independent qualities, even when tested over the same course and similar movement templateThe reactive-agility-performance of the handball athletes involved in defensive duties is closer to their non-reactive-agility-score than in their peers who are not involved in defensive dutiesThe handball specific "true-game" reactive-agility-performance should be evaluated as the ratio between reactive-agility and corresponding CODS performance.

  7. A biomechanical evaluation of resistance: fundamental concepts for training and sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Cronin, John; Newton, Robert U

    2010-04-01

    Newton's second law of motion describes the acceleration of an object as being directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force and inversely proportional to its mass (a = F/m). With respect to linear motion, mass is also a numerical representation of an object's inertia, or its resistance to change in its state of motion and directly proportional to the magnitude of an object's momentum at any given velocity. To change an object's momentum, thereby increasing or decreasing its velocity, a proportional impulse must be generated. All motion is governed by these relationships, independent of the exercise being performed or the movement type being used; however, the degree to which this governance affects the associated kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity is dependent on the resistance type. Researchers have suggested that to facilitate the greatest improvements to athletic performance, the resistance-training programme employed by an athlete must be adapted to meet the specific demands of their sport. Therefore, it is conceivable that one mechanical stimulus, or resistance type, may not be appropriate for all applications. Although an excellent means of increasing maximal strength and the rate of force development, free-weight or mass-based training may not be the most conducive means to elicit velocity-specific adaptations. Attempts have been made to combat the inherent flaws of free weights, via accommodating and variable resistance-training devices; however, such approaches are not without problems that are specific to their mechanics. More recently, pneumatic-resistance devices (variable) have been introduced as a mechanical stimulus whereby the body mass of the athlete represents the only inertia that must be overcome to initiate movement, thus potentially affording the opportunity to develop velocity-specific power. However, there is no empirical evidence to support such a contention. Future research should

  8. Validity and reliability of an inertial sensor for wheelchair court sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barry S; Rhodes, James M; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the validity and reliability of an inertial sensor for assessing speed specific to athletes competing in the wheelchair court sports (basketball, rugby, and tennis). A wireless inertial sensor was attached to the axle of a sports wheelchair. Over two separate sessions, the sensor was tested across a range of treadmill speeds reflective of the court sports (1.0 to 6.0 m/s). At each test speed, ten 10-second trials were recorded and were compared with the treadmill (criterion). A further session explored the dynamic validity and reliability of the sensor during a sprinting task on a wheelchair ergometer compared with high-speed video (criterion). During session one, the sensor marginally overestimated speed, whereas during session two these speeds were underestimated slightly. However, systematic bias and absolute random errors never exceeded 0.058 m/s and 0.086 m/s, respectively, across both sessions. The sensor was also shown to be a reliable device with coefficients of variation (% CV) never exceeding 0.9 at any speed. During maximal sprinting, the sensor also provided a valid representation of the peak speeds reached (1.6% CV). Slight random errors in timing led to larger random errors in the detection of deceleration values. The results of this investigation have demonstrated that an inertial sensor developed for sports wheelchair applications provided a valid and reliable assessment of the speeds typically experienced by wheelchair athletes. As such, this device will be a valuable monitoring tool for assessing aspects of linear wheelchair performance.

  9. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for predicting sports performance and talent identification: Consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Williams, Alun; McNamee, Mike; Bouchard, Claude; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Ahmetov, Ildus; Ashley, Euan; Byrne, Nuala; Camporesi, Silvia; Collins, Malcolm; Dijkstra, Paul; Eynon, Nir; Fuku, Noriyuki; Garton, Fleur C; Hoppe, Nils; Holm, Søren; Kaye, Jane; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Maase, Kamiel; Moran, Colin; North, Kathryn N; Pigozzi, Fabio; Wang, Guan

    2015-12-01

    The general consensus among sport and exercise genetics researchers is that genetic tests have no role to play in talent identification or the individualised prescription of training to maximise performance. Despite the lack of evidence, recent years have witnessed the rise of an emerging market of direct-to-consumer marketing (DTC) tests that claim to be able to identify children's athletic talents. Targeted consumers include mainly coaches and parents. There is concern among the scientific community that the current level of knowledge is being misrepresented for commercial purposes. There remains a lack of universally accepted guidelines and legislation for DTC testing in relation to all forms of genetic testing and not just for talent identification. There is concern over the lack of clarity of information over which specific genes or variants are being tested and the almost universal lack of appropriate genetic counselling for the interpretation of the genetic data to consumers. Furthermore independent studies have identified issues relating to quality control by DTC laboratories with different results being reported from samples from the same individual. Consequently, in the current state of knowledge, no child or young athlete should be exposed to DTC genetic testing to define or alter training or for talent identification aimed at selecting gifted children or adolescents. Large scale collaborative projects, may help to develop a stronger scientific foundation on these issues in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Measuring mental toughness in sport: a psychometric examination of the psychological performance inventory-a and its predecessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardi, Daniel F

    2012-01-01

    Touted as a multidimensional measure of mental toughness in sport, this study explored the psychometric properties of the Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI; Loehr, 1986 ) and its successor the Psychological Performance Inventory-A (PPI-A; Golby, Sheard, & Van Wersch, 2007 ). Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine the extent to which data collected with 333 Australian footballers aged between 15 and 18 years (M = 16.88, SD = .71) fitted the a priori measurement models of both inventories. The results did not support the psychometric properties of the PPI both in terms of model fit and internal consistency. Although model fit data for the PPI-A were encouraging, inadequate levels of internal consistency were evidenced. Convergent validity analyses involving measures of achievement goals and global mental toughness generally supported the validity of the PPI and PPI-A subscales. Taken together with previous research (e.g., Middleton et al., 2004 ), caution is urged when considering the use of the PPI as a measure of mental toughness in sport. Although the empirical data were generally supportive of the psychometric properties of the PPI-A, conceptual (e.g., lack of conceptual underpinnings) and methodological (i.e., revalidated a flawed inventory) concerns become important factors when considering the PPI-A as a measure of mental toughness.

  11. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Lockie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  12. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  13. Enhancing Collegiate Women’s Soccer Psychosocial and Performance Outcomes by Promoting Intrinsic Sources of Sport Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnicle, Scott P.; Burton, Damon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an applied mental skills training (MST) intervention utilizing mental skills to enhance intrinsic sources of enjoyment (ISOEs) as a means of promoting self-confidence, motivational style, and athletic performance, while also decreasing trait anxiety. The intervention project was designed to increase intrinsic SOE using a systematic and individualized mental training protocol, and then examine its relationships to mental skills and soccer performance. A Division 1 collegiate women’s soccer team was randomly assigned to treatment (n = 8) and control (n = 11) groups, equally distributed by academic year, position, and pre-season coach-evaluated starters and non-starts. Results revealed that the MST intervention significantly increased intrinsic enjoyment targeted psychological and competitive outcomes, both in practice and competition within the treatment group as compared to the control group. This study’s support for the impact mental skills training may have had on ISOEs, as well as other psychosocial outcomes and athletic performance can serve to highlight a mental skill often overlooked by consultants and coaches. Key points Sport enjoyment is a pivotal part of athletic performance, and should be more accepted and utilized in sport psychology interventions Applied sport psychology can positively impact athletes’ enjoyment, as well as athletic performance Applied sport psychology interventions can be effective in collegiate sports, and should be more utilized and appreciated. Intrinsic sport enjoyment is a vital component of an athlete’s success, both on and off the field. PMID:27928214

  14. Greater Effect of East versus West Travel on Jet Lag, Sleep, and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Knez, Wade; Crowcroft, Stephen; Mendham, Amy E; Miller, Joanna; Sargent, Charlie; Halson, Shona; Duffield, Rob

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the recovery timeline of sleep, subjective jet lag and fatigue, and team sport physical performance after east and west long-haul travel. Ten physically trained men underwent testing at 0900 h and 1700 h local time on four consecutive days 2 wk before outbound travel (BASE), and the first 4 d after 21 h of outbound (WEST) and return (EAST) air travel across eight time zones between Australia and Qatar. Data collection included performance (countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 [YYIR1] test) and perceptual (jet lag, motivation, perceived exertion, and physical feeling) measures. In addition, sleep was measured via wrist activity monitors and self-report diaries throughout the aforementioned data collection periods. Compared with the corresponding day at BASE, the reduction in YYIR1 distance after EAST was significantly different from the increase in WEST on day 1 after travel (P travel can impede team sport physical performance. Specifically, east travel has a greater detrimental effect on sleep, subjective jet lag, fatigue, and motivation. Consequently, maximal and intermittent sprint performance is also reduced after east travel, particularly within 72 h after arrival.

  15. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  16. NASA SPoRT Modeling and Data Assimilation Research and Transition Activities Using WRF, LIS and GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blankenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Berndt, Emily B.

    2014-01-01

    weather research and forecasting ===== The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has numerous modeling and data assimilation (DA) activities in which the WRF model is a key component. SPoRT generates realtime, research satellite products from the MODIS and VIIRS instruments, making the data available to NOAA/NWS partners running the WRF/EMS, including: (1) 2-km northwestern-hemispheric SST composite, (2) daily, MODIS green vegetation fraction (GVF) over CONUS, and (3) NASA Land Information System (LIS) runs of the Noah LSM over the southeastern CONUS. Each of these datasets have been utilized by specific SPoRT partners in local EMS model runs, with select offices evaluating the impacts using a set of automated scripts developed by SPoRT that manage data acquisition and run the NCAR Model Evaluation Tools verification package. SPoRT is engaged in DA research with the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) and Ensemble Kalman Filter in LIS for soil moisture DA. Ongoing DA projects using GSI include comparing the impacts of assimilating Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiances versus retrieved profiles, and an analysis of extra-tropical cyclones with intense non-convective winds. As part of its Early Adopter activities for the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, SPoRT is conducting bias correction and soil moisture DA within LIS to improve simulations using the NASA Unified-WRF (NU-WRF) for both the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity and upcoming SMAP mission data. SPoRT has also incorporated real-time global GVF data into LIS and WRF from the VIIRS product being developed by NOAA/NESDIS. This poster will highlight the research and transition activities SPoRT conducts using WRF, NU-WRF, EMS, LIS, and GSI.

  17. Current Research and Statistical Practices in Sport Science and a Need for Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake R. Bernards

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Current research ideologies in sport science allow for the possibility of investigators producing statistically significant results to help fit the outcome into a predetermined theory. Additionally, under the current Neyman-Pearson statistical structure, some argue that null hypothesis significant testing (NHST under the frequentist approach is flawed, regardless. For example, a p-value is unable to measure the probability that the studied hypothesis is true, unable to measure the size of an effect or the importance of a result, and unable to provide a good measure of evidence regarding a model or hypothesis. Many of these downfalls are key questions researchers strive to answer following an investigation. Therefore, a shift towards a magnitude-based inference model, and eventually a fully Bayesian framework, is thought to be a better fit from a statistical standpoint and may be an improved way to address biases within the literature. The goal of this article is to shed light on the current research and statistical shortcomings the field of sport science faces today, and offer potential solutions to help guide future research practices.

  18. TAI CHI CHUAN: STATE OF THE ART IN INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH: VOL 52 (MEDICINE & SPORT SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youlian Hong

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This collection on the latest and practical research data about the characteristics and beneficial effects of Tai Chi Chuan on various physiological and pathological matters is published as the 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal. PURPOSE To address the effects of Tai Chi Chuan in the fields of biomechanics and physiology, sensory motor control and fall prevention, psychology and social aspects, as well as various clinical applications. FEATURES The book is organised into four sections, each containing four to seven chapters: the first section focuses on biomechanical and physiological aspects of Tai Chi in seven chapters, the second section addresses the benefits of the sport in terms of sensory motor control and fall prevention in five chapters, the third section highlights the psychological and social aspects in four chapters, and in the last section the application of Tai Chi in clinical intervention such as in Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes is demonstrated in six chapters. AUDIENCE This is a thorough reference book for students, researchers, teachers and healthcare professionals in exercise science and medicine. In fact, anyone already practicing Tai Chi Chuan or considering it up would benefit from this book. ASSESSMENT This 52nd volume of Medicine and Sport Science Journal on Tai Chi Chuan is a valuable and essential source of information brought together by recognized researchers around the Globe. The book is for everybody who is interested in understanding the effects and application of this fascinating form of exercise which has been developed as a form of martial arts and used for health exercise for centuries in China.

  19. Speed profiles in wheelchair court sports; comparison of two methods for measuring wheelchair mobility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, R M A; Mason, B S; Berger, M A M; Goosey-Tolfrey, V L

    2017-12-08

    Wheelchair mobility performance is an important aspect in most wheelchair court sports, commonly measured with an indoor tracking system or wheelchair bound inertial sensors. Both methods provide key wheelchair mobility performance outcomes regarding speed. In this study, we compared speed profiles of both methods to gain insight into the level of agreement, for recommendations regarding future performance measurement. Data were obtained from 5 male highly trained wheelchair basketball players during match play. Players were equipped simultaneously with a tag on the footplate for the indoor tracking system (∼8 Hz) and inertial sensors on both wheels and frame (199.8 Hz). Being part of a larger study on 3 vs 3 player game formats, data were collected in several matches with varying field sizes, but activity profiles closely resembled regular match play. Both systems provide similar outcomes regarding distance covered and average speed. Due to differences in sampling frequency and sensor location (reference point) on the wheelchair (for speed calculation), minor differences were revealed at low speeds (sports in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effects of Playing Multiple High School Sports on National Basketball Association Players' Propensity for Injury and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg, Caitlin; Kadoor, Adarsh; Feeley, Brian T; Pandya, Nirav K

    2018-02-01

    Athletes who specialize in their sport at an early age may be at risk for burnout, overuse injury, and reduced attainment of elite status. Timing of sport specialization has not been studied in elite basketball athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who played multiple sports during adolescence would be less likely to experience injury and would have higher participation rates in terms of games played and career length compared with single-sport athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. First-round draft picks from 2008 to 2015 in the NBA were included in the study. From publically available records from the internet, the following data were collected for each athlete: participation in high school sports, major injuries sustained in the NBA, percentage of games played in the NBA, and whether the athlete was still active in the NBA. Athletes who participated in sports in addition to basketball during high school were defined as multisport athletes and were compared with athletes who participated only in basketball in high school. Two hundred thirty-seven athletes were included in the study, of which 36 (15%) were multisport athletes and 201 (85%) were single-sport athletes in high school. The multisport cohort played in a statistically significantly greater percentage of total games (78.4% vs 72.8%; P basketball athletes participated in multiple sports in high school, those who were multisport athletes participated in more games, experienced fewer major injuries, and had longer careers than those who participated in a single sport. Further research is needed to determine the reasons behind these differences.

  1. Illegal performance enhancing drugs and doping in sport: a picture-based brief implicit association test for measuring athletes’ attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Doping attitude is a key variable in predicting athletes’ intention to use forbidden performance enhancing drugs. Indirect reaction-time based attitude tests, such as the implicit association test, conceal the ultimate goal of measurement from the participant better than questionnaires. Indirect tests are especially useful when socially sensitive constructs such as attitudes towards doping need to be described. The present study serves the development and validation of a novel picture-based brief implicit association test (BIAT) for testing athletes’ attitudes towards doping in sport. It shall provide the basis for a transnationally compatible research instrument able to harmonize anti-doping research efforts. Method Following a known-group differences validation strategy, the doping attitudes of 43 athletes from bodybuilding (representative for a highly doping prone sport) and handball (as a contrast group) were compared using the picture-based doping-BIAT. The Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) was employed as a corresponding direct measure in order to additionally validate the results. Results As expected, in the group of bodybuilders, indirectly measured doping attitudes as tested with the picture-based doping-BIAT were significantly less negative (η2 = .11). The doping-BIAT and PEAS scores correlated significantly at r = .50 for bodybuilders, and not significantly at r = .36 for handball players. There was a low error rate (7%) and a satisfactory internal consistency (r tt  = .66) for the picture-based doping-BIAT. Conclusions The picture-based doping-BIAT constitutes a psychometrically tested method, ready to be adopted by the international research community. The test can be administered via the internet. All test material is available “open source”. The test might be implemented, for example, as a new effect-measure in the evaluation of prevention programs. PMID:24479865

  2. From Anti-Doping to Clean Sport: Critical Reflections on a Changing Research, Policy and Practice Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Backhouse, SH

    2015-01-01

    Doping in sport is not new; athletes have taken performance-enhancing substances since time immemorial. Despite advances in the detection-deterrence model, where individual athletes are targeted through standardized testing, and increased efforts to harmonize anti-doping policy and practice through revisions to the World Anti-Doping Code, doping continues to threaten sport by violating its underpinning values. Most recently, this threat has been fortified by serious allegations of systematic ...

  3. Forms of interdisciplinarity in four sport science research centres in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camy, Jean; Fargier, Patrick; Perrin, Claire; Belli, Alain

    2017-02-01

    Interdisciplinarity is often presented as a significant element of sport science. We present here the results of an investigation conducted in four European Sport Science Research Centres applying interdisciplinarity. Four main dimensions, that we have called "forms", have been investigated. The "scientific", "organisational", "academic" and "societal" forms cover a wide range of activities run by these Centres. We have compared their situations using indicators. Globally they present quite similar combinations of forms, with dominant roles in the construction of interdisciplinarity played by the organisational and societal forms. The scientific form is never quite supported by an epistemological setting and the academic form, mostly characterised by the position of the university, plays an influential role when it is hostile to that kind of research. Following Klein classification, all of them remain at a multidisciplinary stage, one of them exploring interdisciplinary tracks in some research projects. The development of a common culture and a curiosity regarding disciplines other than its own is a key factor for a sustainable situation, as is the capacity to secure long-term financial resources, often linked to a high academic recognition for the director(s).

  4. Gender- and sex-specific sports-related injury research in emergency medicine: a consensus on future research direction and focused application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E

    2014-12-01

    Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  5. The effect of two sports drinks and water on GI complaints and performance during an 18-km run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhoven, M A; Brouns, F; Kovacs, E M R

    2005-05-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complaints are frequently experienced during running. Sports drinks to prevent dehydration and hypoglycemia during exercise are generally used. The aim was to investigate the effect of 3 different drinks on GI complaints and performance during competitive running in a controlled field study. Ninety-eight well-trained subjects (90 M, 8 F, age 41 +/- 8 y) performed a competitive 18-km run three times within 8 days. The study was a controlled, standardized field experiment following a randomized, crossover design. Three different drinks were compared: water, a sports drink (CES), and a sports drink with added 150 mg/l caffeine (CAF). The incidence of GI complaints and the effect of the drinks on performance was studied. Each subject consumed 4 times 150 ml as follows: at the start, after 4.5 km, 9 km, and 13.5 km. Fluid intake was controlled. Incidence and intensity of GI complaints during the run were determined using a 10 points scale questionnaire. There were no significant differences in performance between the 3 drinks. Run time (18 km, mean +/- SD): WAT 1 : 18 : 03 +/- 08 : 30, CES 1 : 18 : 23 +/- 08 : 47, CAF 1 : 18 : 03 +/- 08 : 42. The use of carbohydrate-containing sports drinks led to higher incidences of all types of GI complaints compared to water. Significant differences (p sports drinks used during an 18-km run in cool environmental conditions do not support the performance better than mineral water. The use of sports drinks during an 18-km run leads to a higher incidence of both upper and lower GI complaints compared to water. Addition of caffeine to the sports drink has no effect on either running performance or GI complaints.

  6. The effects of ingestion of sugarcane juice and commercial sports drinks on cycling performance of athletes in comparison to plain water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpana, Kommi; Lal, Priti Rishi; Kusuma, Doddipalli Lakshmi; Khanna, Gulshan Lal

    2013-09-01

    Sugarcane juice (ScJ) is a natural drink popular in most tropical Asian regions. However, research on its effect in enhancing sports performance is limited. The present investigation was to study the effect of sugarcane juice on exercise metabolism and sport performance of athletes in comparison to a commercially available sports drinks. Fifteen male athletes (18-25 yrs) were asked to cycle until volitional exhaustion at 70% VO2 max on three different trials viz. plain water (PW), sports drink (SpD) and ScJ. In each trial 3ml/kg/BW of 6 % of carbohydrate (CHO) fluid was given at every 20 min interval of exercise and a blood sample was taken to measure the hematological parameters. During recovery 200 ml of 9% CHO fluid was given and blood sample was drawn at 5, 10, 15 min of recovery. Ingestion of sugarcane juice showed significant increase (Pdrink than SpD and PW in post exercise as it enhances muscle glycogen resynthesis.

  7. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT): A Multinational Science Mission using a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, J. F.; Habash Krause, L.; Swenson, C.; Heelis, R. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Le, G.; Abdu, M. A.; Durão, O.; Loures, L.; De Nardin, C. M.; Shibuya, L.; Casas, J.; Nash-STevenson, S.; Muralikrishana, P.; Costa, J. E. R.; Wrasse, C. M.; Fry, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) is a 6U CubeSat pathfinder mission to address the very compelling but difficult problem of understanding the preconditions leading to equatorial plasma bubbles. The scientific literature describes the preconditions in both the plasma drifts and the density profiles related to bubble formations that occur several hours later in the evening. Most of the scientific discovery has resulted from observations at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory from Peru, a single site, within a single longitude sector. SPORT will provide a systematic study of the state of the pre-bubble conditions at all longitudes sectors to allow us to understand the differences between geography and magnetic geometry. This talk will present an overview of the mission and the anticipated data products. Products include global maps of scintillation occurrence as a function of local time, and magnetic conjugacy occurrence observations. SPORT is a multinational partnership between NASA, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE), and the Technical Aeronautics Institute under the Brazilian Air Force Command Department (DCTA/ITA). It has been encouraged by U.S. Southern Command (SOUTHCOM) to foster increased cooperation and ties between academics, civilian space programs and the militaries. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is coordinating this investigation by overseeing the launch to orbit and the flight instruments, which are being built by the Aerospace Corporation, University of Texas Dallas, Utah State University, and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The Brazilian partners are contributing the spacecraft, observatory integration and test, ground observation networks, and mission operations and data management. The science data will be distributed from and archived at the INPE/EMBRACE regional space-weather forecasting center in Brazil, and mirrored at the NASA GSFC Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF).

  8. Challenges in Transitioning Research Data to Operations: The SPoRT Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedloved, Gary J.; Smith, Matt; McGrath, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. With the ever-broadening application of real-time high resolution satellite data from current EOS and planned NPP, JPSS, and GOES-R sensors to weather forecast problems, significant challenges arise in the acquisition, delivery, and integration of the new capabilities into the decision making process of the operational weather community. For polar orbiting sensors such as MODIS, AIRS, VIIRS, and CRiS, the use of direct broadcast ground stations is key to the real-time delivery of the data and derived products in a timely fashion. With the ABI on the geostationary GOES-R satellite, the data volume will likely increase by a factor of 5- 10 from current data streams. However, the high data volume and limited bandwidth of end user facilities presents a formidable obstacle to timely access to the data. This challenge can be addressed through the use of subsetting techniques, innovative web services, and the judicious selection of data formats. Many of these approaches have been implemented by SPoRT for the delivery of real-time products to NWS forecast offices and other weather entities. Once available in decision support systems like AWIPS II, these new data and products must be integrated into existing and new displays that allow for the integration of the data with existing operational products in these systems. SPoRT is leading the way in demonstrating this enhanced capability. This paper will highlight the ways SPoRT is overcoming many of the challenges presented by the enormous data volumes of

  9. The effects of positive and negative emotionality on the satisfaction of sport: a research on elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyer, Fikret

    2012-09-01

    This research was carried out to determine the aspect of the relationship between the levels of the sport satisfaction and the levels of positive and negative emotionality of people playing sports in the elite level and to find out whether there are significant differences between these variations in terms of age, gender, year of sports, the type of sport and the level of education. 467 sportsmen (consisting of 275 men and 192 women) with a mean age of 21.84 +/- 3.85 and with a mean sports year of 9.57 +/- 4.76 chosen from 14 different sports branches with the method of random sampling voluntarily participated in the research. The data were examined by means of computers and the table of frequency and percentage distribution was applied for personal information; Pearson correlation analysis for the relationship between dependent variations and Mann-Whitney U-test in paired-groups and Kruskal Wallis test in more than two-groups for the analysis of the differences between dependent and independent variations were implemented. The significance level of 0.05 was basically used in the analysis of the differences. According to the results of the research, it was found out that there was a positive significant relationship at the 0.01 level between the sport satisfaction levels of sportsmen and their positive emotionality levels. It was also found that there was a negative significant relationship at the 0.01 level between their sport satisfaction levels and their negative emotionality levels.

  10. "Live High-Train Low and High" Hypoxic Training Improves Team-Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P; Hauser, Anna; Steiner, Thomas; Rysman, Julien; Wehrlin, Jon P; Girard, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate physical performance and hematological changes in 32 elite male team-sport players after 14 d of "live high-train low" (LHTL) training in normobaric hypoxia (≥14 h·d at 2800-3000 m) combined with repeated-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5-s sprints with 25 s of passive recovery) either in normobaric hypoxia at 3000 m (LHTL + RSH, namely, LHTLH; n = 11) or in normoxia (LHTL + RSN, namely, LHTL; n = 12) compared with controlled "live low-train low" (LLTL; n = 9) training. Before (Pre), immediately after (Post-1), and 3 wk after (Post-2) the intervention, hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in duplicate [optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method], and vertical jump, repeated-sprint (8 × 20 m-20 s recovery), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (YYIR2) performances were tested. Both hypoxic groups similarly increased their Hbmass at Post-1 and Post-2 in reference to Pre (LHTLH: +4.0%, P team-sport players, with benefits lasting for at least 3 wk postintervention.

  11. The influence of caffeine ingestion on strength and power performance in female team-sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ajmol; O'Donnell, Jemma; Foskett, Andrew; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation on knee flexor and knee extensor strength before, during and after intermittent running exercise in female team-sport players taking oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Ten healthy females (24 ± 4 years; 59.7 ± 3.5 kg; undertaking 2-6 training sessions per week) taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives of the same hormonal composition took part in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-design trial. Sixty minutes following the ingestion of a capsule containing 6 mg∙kg -1 body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo), participants completed a 90-min intermittent treadmill-running protocol. Isometric strength performance and eccentric and concentric strength and power of the knee flexors and knee extensors (using isokinetic dynamometer), as well as countermovement jump (CMJ), was measured before, during and after the exercise protocol, as well as ~12 h post-exercise. Blood samples were taken before, during and post-exercise to measure glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA). Caffeine supplementation significantly increased eccentric strength of the knee flexors ( P  performance. FFA was elevated with caffeine supplementation over time ( P  caffeine intake. Caffeine supplementation increased eccentric strength and power in female team-sport players taking OCS both during an intermittent running protocol and the following morning.

  12. A Research of The Exercise and Sports of The Eldery People : The Experience having an influence upon a view and practice of Exercise and Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Chiaki; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Kusama, Masurao

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the consciousness for health, exercise and sports in order to understand the actual condition and to find out a way to develope the healty and vivid life in a future. The objects of this research (182 sheets) are the eldery people from 40s to 70s. The results of this research are as follows : 1. About the conciousness for health and physical fitness at present, they feel fatigue physically, mentally and also lack of exercise. 2. About the actual stat...

  13. Focused physician-performed echocardiography in sports medicine: a potential screening tool for detecting aortic root dilatation in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Eugene S; Kao, Daniel; Gillis, Edward F; Basilico, Frederick C; Corrado, Gianmichael D

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sports medicine physicians can obtain accurate measurements of the aortic root in young athletes. Twenty male collegiate athletes, aged 18 to 21 years, were prospectively enrolled. Focused echocardiography was performed by a board-certified sports medicine physician and a medical student, followed by comprehensive echocardiography within 2 weeks by a cardiac sonographer. A left parasternal long-axis view was acquired to measure the aortic root diameter at the sinuses of Valsalva. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess inter-rater reliability compared to a reference standard and intra-rater reliability of repeated measurements obtained by the sports medicine physician and medical student. The ICCs between the sports medicine physician and cardiac sonographer and between the medical student and cardiac sonographer were strong: 0.80 and 0.76, respectively. Across all 3 readers, the ICC was 0.89, indicating strong inter-rater reliability and concordance. The ICC for the 2 measurements taken by the sports medicine physician for each athlete was 0.75, indicating strong intra-rater reliability. The medical student had moderate intra-rater reliability, with an ICC of 0.59. Sports medicine physicians are able to obtain measurements of the aortic root by focused echocardiography that are consistent with those obtained by a cardiac sonographer. Focused physician-performed echocardiography may serve as a promising technique for detecting aortic root dilatation and may contribute in this manner to preparticipation cardiovascular screening for athletes.

  14. Sports Medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  15. Action Sport Cameras as an Instrument to Perform a 3D Underwater Motion Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardina, Gustavo R D; Cerveri, Pietro; Barros, Ricardo M L; Marins, João C B; Silvatti, Amanda P

    2016-01-01

    Action sport cameras (ASC) are currently adopted mainly for entertainment purposes but their uninterrupted technical improvements, in correspondence of cost decreases, are going to disclose them for three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis in sport gesture study and athletic performance evaluation quantitatively. Extending this technology to sport analysis however still requires a methodologic step-forward to making ASC a metric system, encompassing ad-hoc camera setup, image processing, feature tracking, calibration and 3D reconstruction. Despite traditional laboratory analysis, such requirements become an issue when coping with both indoor and outdoor motion acquisitions of athletes. In swimming analysis for example, the camera setup and the calibration protocol are particularly demanding since land and underwater cameras are mandatory. In particular, the underwater camera calibration can be an issue affecting the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of ASC for 3D underwater analysis by focusing on camera setup and data acquisition protocols. Two GoPro Hero3+ Black (frequency: 60Hz; image resolutions: 1280×720/1920×1080 pixels) were located underwater into a swimming pool, surveying a working volume of about 6m3. A two-step custom calibration procedure, consisting in the acquisition of one static triad and one moving wand, carrying nine and one spherical passive markers, respectively, was implemented. After assessing camera parameters, a rigid bar, carrying two markers at known distance, was acquired in several positions within the working volume. The average error upon the reconstructed inter-marker distances was less than 2.5mm (1280×720) and 1.5mm (1920×1080). The results of this study demonstrate that the calibration of underwater ASC is feasible enabling quantitative kinematic measurements with accuracy comparable to traditional motion capture systems.

  16. Action Sport Cameras as an Instrument to Perform a 3D Underwater Motion Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R D Bernardina

    Full Text Available Action sport cameras (ASC are currently adopted mainly for entertainment purposes but their uninterrupted technical improvements, in correspondence of cost decreases, are going to disclose them for three-dimensional (3D motion analysis in sport gesture study and athletic performance evaluation quantitatively. Extending this technology to sport analysis however still requires a methodologic step-forward to making ASC a metric system, encompassing ad-hoc camera setup, image processing, feature tracking, calibration and 3D reconstruction. Despite traditional laboratory analysis, such requirements become an issue when coping with both indoor and outdoor motion acquisitions of athletes. In swimming analysis for example, the camera setup and the calibration protocol are particularly demanding since land and underwater cameras are mandatory. In particular, the underwater camera calibration can be an issue affecting the reconstruction accuracy. In this paper, the aim is to evaluate the feasibility of ASC for 3D underwater analysis by focusing on camera setup and data acquisition protocols. Two GoPro Hero3+ Black (frequency: 60Hz; image resolutions: 1280×720/1920×1080 pixels were located underwater into a swimming pool, surveying a working volume of about 6m3. A two-step custom calibration procedure, consisting in the acquisition of one static triad and one moving wand, carrying nine and one spherical passive markers, respectively, was implemented. After assessing camera parameters, a rigid bar, carrying two markers at known distance, was acquired in several positions within the working volume. The average error upon the reconstructed inter-marker distances was less than 2.5mm (1280×720 and 1.5mm (1920×1080. The results of this study demonstrate that the calibration of underwater ASC is feasible enabling quantitative kinematic measurements with accuracy comparable to traditional motion capture systems.

  17. Sports Physicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...

  18. Sport-specific balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika

    2014-05-01

    This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.

  19. Sport and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek

    2016-01-01

    Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does

  20. eSport: Construct specifications and implications for sport management

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...

  1. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  2. The NASA Short-term Prediction and Research Transition (SPoRT) Center: A Research to Operations Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last three years, NASA/MSFC scientists have embarked on an effort to transition unique NASA EOS data/products and research technology to selected NWSEOs in the southeast U.S. This activity, called the Short-term Prediction and - Research Transition (SPoRT) program, supports the NASA Science Mission Directorate and its Earth-Sun System Mission to develop a scientific understanding of the Earth System and its response to natural or human-induced changes that will enable improved prediction capability for climate, weather, and natural hazards. The overarching question related to weather prediction is "How well can weather forecasting duration and reliability be improved by new space-based observations, data assimilation, and modeling?" The transition activity has included the real-time delivery of MODIS data and products to several NWS Forecast Offices. Local NWS FOs have used the MODIS data to complement the coarse resolution GOES data for a number of applications. Specialized products have also been developed and made available to local and remote offices for their weather applications. Data from &e Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network has been used in severe storm forecasts at several offices in the region. At the regional scale and forecast horizons from 0-1 day, the next generation of high-resolution mesoscale forecast and data assimilation models have been used to provide local offices with unique weather forecasts not otherwise available. The continued use of near red-time infusion of NASA science products into high-resolution mesoscale forecast and decision-making models can be expected to improve the model initialization as well as short-term forecasts. A current focus of SPoRT is to expand collaborations to include contributions from the assimilation of AMSR-E data in the ADASIARPS forecast system (OU), inclusion of MODIS SSTs and AIRS thermodynamic profiles in the WRF, and to extend the distribution of real-time MODIS and AMSR-E data and products

  3. Research on the Development Route of Internationalization Brand of Sports Nutrition Food

    OpenAIRE

    Haifang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it takes the interpretation of internationalization brand of sports nutrition food as the cutting point, by means of explaining the difficulties that Chinese sports nutrition food brand encountered at the present stage to explore the route of realizing the internationalization brand of sports nutrition food. With the rapid development of Chinese economic growth, the brand of Chinese sports nutrition food is also facing the fierce global market competition.

  4. The effectiveness of commercially available sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, J S; Hamilton, K L

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available sports drinks by answering the questions: (i) will consuming a sports drink be beneficial to performance? and (ii) do different sports drinks vary in their effectiveness? To answer these questions we have considered the composition of commercially available sports drinks, examined the rationale for using them, and critically reviewed the vast number of studies that have investigated the effectiveness of sports drinks on performance. The focus is on the drinks that contain low carbohydrate concentrations (10%, which are intended for carbohydrate loading. Our conclusions are 3-fold. First, because of variations in drink composition and research design, much of the sports drinks research from the past cannot be applied directly to the effectiveness of currently available sports drinks. Secondly, in studies where a practical protocol has been used along with a currently available sports beverage, there is evidence to suggest that consuming a sports drinks will improve performance compared with consuming a placebo beverage. Finally, there is little evidence that any one sports drink is superior to any of the other beverages on the market.

  5. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Rachel K.; Scarneo, Samantha E.; Adams, William M.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Belval, Luke N.; Stamm, Julie M.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-01-01

    Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more…

  6. Resistance training to improve power and sports performance in adolescent athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Simon K; Lubans, David R; Callister, Robin

    2012-11-01

    Resistance training in untrained adolescents can positively effect health-related fitness as well as improve muscular power and sports performance. The impact of resistance training on adolescent athletes is less clear. The purpose of this review is to determine the effectiveness of resistance training programs on muscular power and sports performance in adolescent athletes. Systematic review and meta-analysis of previously published studies investigating resistance training in adolescent athlete populations. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and SPORTDiscus databases was conducted on 21st March 2011 to identify studies evaluating resistance training programs on power and sports performance in adolescent athletes. Thirty-four studies were identified. All but two of the studies reported at least one statistically significant improvement in an alactic muscular power outcome. The most common indicators of alactic power were vertical jump (25 studies) and sprint running (13 studies) performance. Fourteen studies provided data to allow for pooling of results in a meta-analysis. A positive effect was detected for resistance training programs on vertical jump performance (mean difference 3.08 [95% CI 1.65, 4.51], Z=4.23 [Ptraining interventions can improve muscular power in adolescent athletes. A positive effect on sports performance attributable to participation in resistance training was reported by almost half the included studies, however limited objective evidence to support these claims was found. Improvements in motor performance skills, such as jumping, are widely stated as indicators of improvements in sporting performance. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Ecological Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction, Part 2: Functional Performance Tests Correlate With Return-to-Sport Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Timothy M; Waddington, Gordon; Scarvell, Jennie M; Ball, Nick; Creer, Rob; Woods, Kevin; Smith, Damian; Adams, Roger

    2017-02-01

    tests were pooled together, mean postoperative improvements of 24% were observed from preoperative to 24 weeks within the surgical cohort. For each performance test, preoperative level of function strongly correlated with performance levels on the same test at 24 weeks. The results of this study indicate that clinicians might seek to prioritize these tests and the rehabilitation themes they imply when seeking to maximize postoperative ACL activity outcomes. The observed strength between pre- and postoperative performance tests and return-to-sport outcomes within this study highlights the potential value of preoperative conditioning before undergoing ACL reconstruction. Future research should examine absolute predictive criterion thresholds for functional performance-based tests and reinjury risk reduction after ACL reconstruction.

  8. A comparison of muscle damage, soreness and performance following a simulated contact and non-contact team sport activity circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarveen K R; Guelfi, Kym J; Landers, Grant; Dawson, Brian; Bishop, David

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of a simulated team sport activity circuit (reflective of the activity demands of Australian football) either with or without body 'contact' on muscle soreness, damage, and performance when the circuit was repeated 48 h later. Eleven male, team-sport athletes completed a 'non-contact' (NCON) and a 'contact' (CON) version of the team sport activity circuit in a crossover design with at least 1 week between trials. The effect of CON and NCON on repeated 15m sprint and vertical jump performance was assessed by completing the same version of the circuit 48 h after the initial trial. The effect on perceived soreness and blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation was also determined. Subsequent performance was affected to a greater extent by CON, with both best and mean sprint times significantly slower 48h following CON (psoreness and pressure sensitivity were elevated following both NCON and CON (psoreness was greater with CON (p=0.012). Both CON and NCON resulted in elevated serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase, while c-reactive protein increased following CON but not NCON. In conclusion, Greater perceived soreness and decrements in performance of the simulated team sport activity circuit when repeated 48 h later were observed following CON. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Doping in sport

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of talented young athletes residing in Gauteng regarding prohibited performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and anti-doping rules and regulations. Methods. This was a survey study using a quantitative research approach. South African TuksSport academy ...

  10. Sport-related anxiety: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jessica L; Ildefonso, Kenneth; Jones, Megan L; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2017-01-01

    To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety.

  11. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Andrew Landreth, Stacey Beam, Taylor Jones, Layne Norton, Jason Michael Cholewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal, carbohydrate (CHO, protein (PRO, fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg. FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec. Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.

  12. The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.

  13. Effects of repetitive subconcussive head trauma on the neuropsychological test performance of high school athletes: A comparison of high, moderate, and low contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Siu, Andrea M; Yoshinaga, Kara; Choi, So Yung; Murata, Nathan M

    2018-02-02

    The aim of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test results of non-concussed high school athletes playing at three different levels of contact sports. Based on the concussion risk data of 12 different sports, a High Contact group (n=2819; wrestling/martial arts, cheerleading, track and field, football), a Moderate Contact group (n=2323; softball, basketball, soccer), and a Low Contact group (n=1580; baseball, volleyball, water polo, tennis, cross-country) were formed and compared in terms of their scores on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). The results revealed that the High Contact group obtained small but statistically poorer performances in ImPACT Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, Impulse Control, and Total Symptom scores compared to the Moderate and Low Contact groups. The High Contact group also had poorer Reaction Time scores compared to the Low Contact group. No differences between the Moderate and Low Contact groups were noted. The findings, along with prior similar results, tentatively raise concerns that participant in high contact sports, exposed to repetitive subconcussive head trauma, may be at greater risk for lowered neuropsychological functioning and increased symptoms, compared to other high school athletes. In view of the preliminary nature of this investigation, more research into the effects of frequent head impacts in high school sports is strongly recommended.

  14. Sport psychology: training the mind for competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; VonGuenthner, Shannon

    2005-06-01

    An optimal psychologic state for peak athletic performance is strongly documented in the sport psychology literature. A wealth of peer-reviewed studies also strongly supports the role that mental skills training (MST) plays in the development of this state. However, some disagreement exists in the sport psychology community over how best to deliver the MST tools and skills necessary for optimal sport performance. Mental training consultants and intervention researchers have recently suggested that periodization of mental training may be the next major leap forward in applied sport psychology program delivery. This new method of "training the mind" is presented and discussed.

  15. A Clustered Repeated-Sprint Running Protocol for Team-Sport Athletes Performed in Normobaric Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Morrison, Chris McLellan, Clare Minahan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444 in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH. Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45, set 2 (p = 0.26, or set 3 (p = 0.23 between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01. Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02. Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %, post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 % and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01. In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140 conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution.

  16. The sports performance application of vibration exercise for warm-up, flexibility and sprint speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a resurgence of vibration technology to enhance sport science especially for power and force development. However, vibration exercise has been trialled in other areas that are central to athlete performance such as warm-up, flexibility and sprint speed. Therefore, the aim of this review was to attempt to gain a better understanding of how acute and short-term vibration exercise may impact on warm-up, flexibility and sprint speed. The importance of warming up for sporting performance has been well documented and vibration exercise has the capability to be included or used as a standalone warm-up modality to increase intramuscular temperature at a faster rate compared to other conventional warm-up modalities. However, vibration exercise does not provide any additional neurogenic benefits compared to conventional dynamic and passive warm-up interventions. Vibration exercise appears to be a safe modality that does not produce any adverse affects causing injury or harm and could be used during interval and substitution breaks, as it would incur a low metabolic cost and be time-efficient compared to conventional warm-up modalities. Acute or short-term vibration exercise can enhance flexibility and range of motion without having a detrimental effect on muscle power, however it is less clear which mechanisms may be responsible for this enhancement. It appears that vibration exercise is not capable of improving sprint speed performance; this could be due to the complex and dynamic nature of sprinting where the purported increase in muscle power from vibration exercise is probably lost on repeated actions of high force generation. Vibration exercise is a safe modality that produces no adverse side effects for injury or harm. It has the time-efficient capability of providing coaches, trainers, and exercise specialists with an alternative modality that can be implemented for warm-up and flexibility either in isolation or in

  17. Gender inequality in sport in France : How to improve the situation of women in sport in France?

    OpenAIRE

    Schann, Anne-Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of my research was to explore the answers for fighting against gender inequality in sport in France and the operations for developing women’s sport in terms of female athletes, mediatisation, infrastructures ... Since millennia, women have always been considered as the weaker sex and less able to perform well in sport. Despite this, much equality can be observed in sport (wages, infrastructures, number of female elite athletes, number of female models, image of female athletes, re...

  18. Sport and Physical Activity in the Lives of Looked-After Children: A "Hidden Group" in Research, Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarmby, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Looked-after children are arguably one of the most disadvantaged groups in society and constitute a "hidden group" in relation to sport and physical activity research, policy and practice. Research on looked-after children has explored the views of caregivers, practitioners and policy-makers who have often been asked to speak for…

  19. [Characteristics of Nutrition in Competitive Sports, Ranging from Leisure Activities to High-Performance Athletics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, H

    2016-08-01

    Nutrition has a crucial influence on physical and mental performance ability and is an important measure along sidetraining in high-performance athletes. However, this form of nutritionis not applicable for every athlete and in every situation. The question of optimal nutrition requires involvement with the particular type of sports, an athlete's current training stage, and athletes' individual requirements and objectives. Implementation takes time and individual motivation on the part of athletes and the specialist staff who engage intensively with the nutritional needs of athletes. In addition to adequate energy provision, it is important to divide the energy sensibly among the energy sources carbohydrates, fats, and protein. Performance athletes' higher need for protein can usually be covered in their regular diet; supplements are needed only in exceptional cases. Studies have shown that small amounts of 15 - 25 g protein are sensible after weight training, in order to stimulate muscle protein synthesis. The need for carbohydrates increases dynamically with the intensity and duration of physical exertion. A sufficient supply is crucial for achieving maximum performance. Low carb diets are unsuitable for performance athletes. So called low-glycogen training, however, can lead to better adjustment/adaptation processes in selected training stages and can increase performance ability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Can genotype determine the sports phenotype? A paradigm shift in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amit; Mahajan, Preetam B

    2016-06-01

    In last two decades, there has been an evolution in sports medicine. Several researchers have worked on different domains of sports medicine, like strength, endurance, sports injury, and psychology. Besides this, several groups have explored the changes at cellular and molecular levels during exercise, which has led to the development of the new domain in sports science known as genetic medicine. Genetic medicine deals with the genotypic basis of sports phenotype. In this article, we try to provide an up-to-date review on genetic determinants of sports performance, which will be like a journey from the nostalgic past towards the traditional present and the romantic future of sports medicine. Endurance and power performance are two important domains of athletes. They vary in individuals, even among trained athletes. Researches indicate that the genetic makeup of sportsmen play a vital role in their performance. Several genetic factors are reported to be responsible for endurance, power, susceptibility to injury, and even psychology of the individual. Besides this, proper training, nutrition, and environment are also important in shaping their potential. The aim of this discussion is to understand the influence of the environment and the genetic makeup on the performance of the athletes. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that genotype determines the sports phenotype in an athlete. Choosing the right sports activity based on genetic endowment is the key for achieving excellence in sports.

  1. The Structure of Morpho-Functional Conditions Determining the Level of Sports Performance of Young Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the structure of morpho-functional models that determine the level of sports performance in three consecutive stages of training of young badminton players. In the course of the study, 3 groups of young badminton players were examined: 40 preadolescents aged 11–13, 32 adolescents aged 14–16, and 24 adolescents aged 17–19. The scope of the study involved basic anthropometric measurements, computer tests analysing motor coordination abilities, motor skills encompassing speed, muscular power and strength, and cardiorespiratory endurance. Results of the study indicate that the structure of morpho-functional models varies at different stages of sports training. Sets of variables determining sports performance create characteristic complexes of variables that do not constitute permanent models. The dominance of somatic features and coordination abilities in the early stages of badminton training changes for the benefit of speed and strength abilities.

  2. Eye-Tracking Technology and the Dynamics of Natural Gaze Behavior in Sports: A Systematic Review of 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredel, Ralf; Vater, Christian; Klostermann, André; Hossner, Ernst-Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Reviewing 60 studies on natural gaze behavior in sports, it becomes clear that, over the last 40 years, the use of eye-tracking devices has considerably increased. Specifically, this review reveals the large variance of methods applied, analyses performed, and measures derived within the field. The results of sub-sample analyses suggest that sports-related eye-tracking research strives, on the one hand, for ecologically valid test settings (i.e., viewing conditions and response modes), while on the other, for experimental control along with high measurement accuracy (i.e., controlled test conditions with high-frequency eye-trackers linked to algorithmic analyses). To meet both demands, some promising compromises of methodological solutions have been proposed-in particular, the integration of robust mobile eye-trackers in motion-capture systems. However, as the fundamental trade-off between laboratory and field research cannot be solved by technological means, researchers need to carefully weigh the arguments for one or the other approach by accounting for the respective consequences. Nevertheless, for future research on dynamic gaze behavior in sports, further development of the current mobile eye-tracking methodology seems highly advisable to allow for the acquisition and algorithmic analyses of larger amounts of gaze-data and further, to increase the explanatory power of the derived results.

  3. A Review of the Development of Sport Hypnosis as a Performance Enhancement Method for Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    William F Straub

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to trace the historical milestones in the emergence of sport hypnosis from its earliest beginnings to the present time. The authors reviewed some important definitional conceptualizations of hypnosis from the work of Braid, Bernheim, Freud, Hull and Erickson. Erickson laid the groundwork for the modern definitions of hypnosis and eventually of sport hypnosis. Clinical sport hypnosis was defined as: “helping athletes overcome a variety o...

  4. The relative impact of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence upon sport performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Hardy, Lew

    2003-06-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 48) investigated two relationships in competitive sport: (1) state cognitive anxiety with performance and (2) state self-confidence with performance. The cognitive anxiety mean effect size was r = -0.10 (P cognitive anxiety mean effect size. The moderator variables for the cognitive anxiety-performance relationship were sex and standard of competition. The mean effect size for men (r = -0.22) was significantly greater than the mean effect size for women (r = -0.03). The mean effect size for high-standard competition (r = -0.27) was significantly greater than that for comparatively low-standard competition (r = -0.06). The significant moderator variables for the self-confidence-performance relationship were sex, standard of competition and measurement. The mean effect size for men (r = 0.29) was significantly greater than that for women (r = 0.04) and the mean effect size for high-standard competition (r = 0.33) was significantly greater than that for low-standard competition (r = 0.16). The mean effect size derived from studies employing the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (r = 0.19) was significantly smaller than the mean effect size derived from studies using other measures of self-confidence (r = 0.38). Measurement issues are discussed and future research directions are offered in light of the results.

  5. Performance management for academic researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design and implement performance management systems that motivate employees to high performance has become pivotal for many public leaders. Many public organizations use command systems which are based on the threat of sanctions, but our knowledge on the effects of such systems...

  6. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico W Van Yperen

    Full Text Available During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of

  7. A meta-analysis of self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance across three achievement domains (work, sports, and education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yperen, Nico W; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance

  8. The Effect of Motor Performance on Sportive Performance of Children in Different Sports Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktug, Zait Burak; Iri, Ruckan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between motor performances of children aged 10-14 years and ball striking speeds made by specific technique and to determine motor performance differences between the branches. A total of 64 children (football = 22, volleyball = 19, tennis = 23) aged 10-14 years participated in the study. The…

  9. Update in the understanding of altitude-induced limitations to performance in team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude.

  10. Determinants of sport-specific postural control strategy and balance performance of amateur rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-11-01

    Postural control strategy and balance performance of rugby players are important yet under-examined issues. This study aimed to examine the differences in balance strategy and balance performance between amateur rugby players and non-players, and to explore training- and injury-related factors that may affect rugby players' balance outcomes. Cross-sectional and exploratory study. Forty-five amateur rugby players and 41 healthy active individuals participated in the study. Balance performance and balance strategies were assessed using the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Equitest computerized dynamic posturography machine. Rugby training history and injury history were solicited from the participants. The SOT strategy scores were 1.99-54.90% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (prugby group than in the control group (prugby training (in years) was independently associated with the SOT condition 6 strategy score, explaining 15.7% of its variance (p=0.006). There was no association between SOT condition 6 strategy/equilibrium scores and injury history among the rugby players (p>0.05). Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior balance strategy and balance performance compared to their non-training counterparts. Their suboptimal balance strategy was associated with insufficient training experience but not with history of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology of sports injuries referring to Kashan University of Medical Sciences Trauma Research Center from 2005 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyah Mansour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Among the injury types, sports ones constitute a considerable proportion of patients who refer to the medical centers. This research was conducted to examine the frequency of sportsrelated injuries referring to Kashan University of Medical Sciences Trauma Research Center from 2005 to 2011. Methods: This was a retrospective research in which existing data from the data bank of Kashan University of Medical Sciences Trauma Research Center were employed. The data were extracted from the main source by SPSS version 16.0. Variables such as age, education, occupation and gender were analyzed. Results: The highest proportion of injuries was observed in students (59.4% followed by workers (11.8%. Upper and lower extremities were most commonly injured. The most frequent injury was strain (35.4%, followed by sprain (27.7%. Conclusion: The results of this research showed that the majority of the sports trauma occurrs in students; therefore, they need more attention in regard to sports injuries. Preventive measures such as informing the coaches and teachers as well as increasing the students’ awareness about the injury risk can decrease the incidences of sports injuries. Key words: Athletic injuries; Epidemiology; Kashan

  12. Sports Nutrition: What the Future may Bring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Bill

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The field of sports nutrition is a dynamic one. Core competencies in exercise physiology, psychology, integrated metabolism and biochemistry are the initial parameters for a successful career in sports nutrition. In addition to the academic fundamentals, it is imperative that the sports nutritionist understand the sport in which our client participates. This sport specific understanding should manifest itself in fuel utilization, mechanics of movement, as well as psychological processes that motivate the participant to perform optimally. Sports nutrition as a field has grown substantially over the past 50 years, from glycogen loading to today's scientifically validated ergogenic aids. The last ten years has seen the largest advancement of sports nutrition, with the following areas driving much of the research: the effects of exercise on protein utilization, meal timing to maximize the anabolic response, the potential for ribose to benefit those engaged in high-energy repetitive sports, and creatine and its uses within athletics and medicine. The future of sports nutrition will dictate that we 1 collectively strive for a higher standard of care and education for counseling athletes and 2 integrate different disciplines. We are in an era of unprecedented growth and the new knowledge is constantly evolving. The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN will contribute to this exciting field in many ways, and we ask for your contribution by sharing your passion, stories, research, and life experiences with us.

  13. Differences in dynamic balance scores in one sport versus multiple sport high school athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Paul P; Butler, Robert J; Rauh, Mitchell J; Kiesel, Kyle; Plisky, Phillip J

    2012-04-01

    Researchers have previously reported on the importance of dynamic balance in assessing an individual's risk for injury during sport. However, to date there is no research on whether multiple sport participation affects dynamic balance ability. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if there was a difference in dynamic balance scores in high school athletes that competed in one sport only as compared athletes who competed in multiple sports, as tested by the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-LQ). Ninety-two high school athletes who participated in one sport were matched, by age, gender and sport played, to athletes who participated in the same sport as well as additional sports. All individuals were assessed using the YBT-LQ to examine differences in composite reach score and reach direction asymmetry between single sport and multiple sport athletes. The greatest reach distance of three trials in each reach direction for right and left lower-extremities was normalized by limb length and used for analysis. A two-way ANOVA (gender x number of sports played) was used to statistically analyze the variables in the study. No significant interactions or main effects related to number of sports played were observed for any YBT-LQ score (p>0.05). Male athletes exhibited significantly greater normalized reach values for the posteromedial, posterolateral, and composite reach while also exhibiting a larger anterior reach difference when compared to the females. Athletes who participated in multiple sports had similar performances on the YBT-LQ when compared to athletes who participated in a single sport. The findings of this study suggest that the number of sports played by a high school athlete does not need to be controlled for when evaluating dynamic balance with the YBT-LQ.

  14. Born to fight? Genetics and combat sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Franchini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the influence of genetics on sports performance has received increased attention from many researchers. In combat sports, some investigations have also been conducted. This article’s main objective was to review the representation of specific gene polymorphisms in combat sports athletes compared to controls. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Web of Science and SportDiscus. The terms used in this search involved combat sports (boxing, karate, judo, mixed martial arts, taekwondo and wrestling, genes, genetics and candidate genes. Articles published until November 2013 were included if combat sports athletes were considered as a single group (i.e., not mixed with athletes of other sports. Seven studies were found, with two presenting no difference between combat sports athletes and controls, two presenting higher frequencies of candidate genes related to a more endurance-related profile compared to controls, and three where a more power-related gene overrepresentation was found in comparison to controls. Taken together, the initial studies about the genetic characteristics of combat sports athletes are controversial, which is probably due to the mixed (aerobic and anaerobic characteristic and to the multifactorial performance determinants of these sports.

  15. How Can Sport Biomechanics Contribute to the Advance of World Record and Best Athletic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Modern history has evidence that sport biomechanics provide valuable contribution in the pursuit of "faster, higher, and stronger." In this article, the contribution of sport biomechanics to the Olympic Games has been divided into three different categories: improve the physical capacity of the athletes, develop innovative techniques in…

  16. Return to Sport and Performance After Microfracture in the Knees of National Basketball Association Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Walton, David M; Erickson, Brandon J; Verma, Nikhil N; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Bach, Bernard R; Cole, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Use of microfracture in the knees of National Basketball Association (NBA) players is controversial. (1) There would be a high rate of return to sport (RTS) in NBA players following microfracture, (2) players would RTS the season following surgery, (3) preoperative player performance would not be significantly different on RTS, and (4) there would be no significant difference in RTS rate or postoperative performance in players undergoing microfracture in comparison with an age-, position-, NBA experience-, and performance-matched control group. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. NBA players undergoing microfracture were evaluated. Age-, body mass index-, position-, NBA experience-, and performance-matched controls were selected from the NBA during the same years as those undergoing microfracture. An index year was selected (controls) to match the number of seasons of NBA experience in microfracture cases. RTS and performance were analyzed and compared between cases and controls. Student t tests were performed for analysis of within- and between-group variables. A total of 41 NBA players underwent microfracture and were compared with 41 demographic- and performance-matched controls. Rate of RTS after microfracture was 73% in the NBA and 83% in professional basketball (NBA, D-league, and International Basketball Federation [FIBA]). Time to RTS in NBA was 9.20 ± 4.88 months. Seventy-one percent (29/41) of players RTS the season following microfracture. Length of NBA career following microfracture (4.10 ± 3.91 years) was not significantly different from controls. After microfracture, case athletes played fewer games per season and with fewer points and steals per game (relative to premicrofracture; P NBA players undergoing microfracture returned to professional basketball. Career length was not significantly different between players undergoing microfracture and controls. However, following microfracture, players competed in fewer games per season with fewer points

  17. Return-to-Sport and Performance After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in National Basketball Association Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Erickson, Brandon J; Bach, Bernard R; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Cvetanovich, Gregory L; Forsythe, Brian; McCormick, Frank M; Gupta, Anil K; Cole, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in National Basketball Association (NBA) players. NBA players undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) have high rates of return to sport (RTS), with RTS the season following surgery, no difference in performance between pre- and postsurgery, and no difference in RTS rate or performance between cases (ACLR) and controls (no ACL tear). Case-control. NBA players undergoing ACLR were evaluated. Matched controls for age, body mass index (BMI), position, and NBA experience were selected during the same years as those undergoing ACLR. RTS and performance were compared between cases and controls. Paired-sample Student t tests, chi-square, and linear regression analyses were performed for comparison of within- and between-group variables. Fifty-eight NBA players underwent ACLR while in the NBA. Mean player age was 25.7 ± 3.5 years. Forty percent of ACL tears occurred in the fourth quarter. Fifty players (86%) RTS in the NBA, and 7 players (12%) RTS in the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) or D-league. Ninety-eight percent of players RTS in the NBA the season following ACLR (11.6 ± 4.1 months from injury). Two players (3.1%) required revision ACLR. Career length following ACLR was 4.3 ± 3.4 years. Performance upon RTS following surgery declined significantly (P NBA following ACLR. Nearly all players RTS the season following surgery. Performance significantly declined from preinjury level; however, this was not significantly different from controls. ACL re-tear rate was low. There is a high RTS rate in the NBA after ACLR, with no difference in performance upon RTS compared with controls.

  18. Sleep and Performance Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    members produced 54 publications (see References) 15. SUBJECT TERMS- sleep, sleep loss, human performance 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...of Fatty Acid Synthase, on Sleep and Metabolism in Mice. PLoS One, 7: e30651. Ramanathan, S., Panksepp, J., & Johnson, B. (2012). Is fibromyalgia

  19. Computational fluid dynamics for sport simulation

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    All over the world sport plays a prominent role in society: as a leisure activity for many, as an ingredient of culture, as a business and as a matter of national prestige in such major events as the World Cup in soccer or the Olympic Games. Hence, it is not surprising that science has entered the realm of sports, and, in particular, that computer simulation has become highly relevant in recent years. This is explored in this book by choosing five different sports as examples, demonstrating that computational science and engineering (CSE) can make essential contributions to research on sports topics on both the fundamental level and, eventually, by supporting athletes’ performance.

  20. Relating Performative and Ostensive Management Accounting Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The methodological debate relating to accounting research using actor-network theory (ANT) has primarily focused on how ANT generates performative studies that significantly differ from ostensive studies. These discussions have in many ways (and for good reasons) distanced performative....../value – This paper exemplifies these issues with reference to management accounting research and contributes by clarifying the methodological implications of moving performative research closer to ostensive research....... from ostensive research. Recently, however, several scholars have emphasized the interdependencies between ostensive and performative aspects when it comes to knowledge development, thereby underlining the need to coordinate ostensive and performative studies and bring them closer together. The purpose...

  1. [Research progress on antioxidation effect of traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides and sports for diabetes prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Ling-Li; Zou, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Researchers found that oxidative stress was closely related to the development of diabetes, and hyperglycemia was a main cause for oxidative stress. Many researchers have proved that oxidative stress, present in diabetes, can aggravate diabetes. Now, traditional Chinese medicines have certain treatment and relief effects for oxidative stress in diabetes, but there are no scientific and systematic conclusions on the efficacy of different Chinese medicines for diabetes and complications. Tomakea scientific and systematic review on the recent years' researches on antioxidation effects of traditional Chinese medication polysaccharides for diabetes, analyze the antioxidation effects of sports in treatment of diabetes, and provide the reference and basis for medications and sports in diabetic patients, as well as prevention and treatments of diabetes and complications from aspects of "internal nursing and external workouts". Databases of CNKI and PubMed were retrieved with key words of "diabetes, oxidative stress, antioxidant, traditional Chinese medication, polysaccharide, sports" in both Chinese and English from Jan 2000 to Apr 2016.Finally 118 papers were included in for analysis and review. Polysaccharides of traditional Chinese medications as well as sports have antioxidation effects for diabetes and its complications, and the combination of these two would produce huge significance for relieving oxidative stress in diabetes, as well as for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. We need further researches on the levels of oxidative stress markers, doses of Chinese medicines, and the time of taking medications. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Towards a More Equitable and Inclusive Learning Environment in Sport Education: Results of an Action Research-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Cláudio; Hastie, Peter Andrew; Mesquita, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine and intervene into student behaviours to promote a democratic, inclusive and participatory focus within Sport Education. To achieve an increased understanding of and changes within student behaviours, a collaborative participatory action research methodology was applied to provide voice to students as agents of…

  3. EVALUATION OF SPORTS MARKETING EFFICIENCY IN ARAB COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEBRIL MOHAMED R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag

  4. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  5. Effect of Organizational Justice Behaviors on Organizational Silence and Cynicism: A Research on Academics from Schools of Physical Education and Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogdu, Murat

    2018-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to examine the effect of organizational justice behaviors on organizational silence and cynicism based on the opinions of academics who serve in Schools of Physical Education and Sports, and Faculties of Sports Sciences. Research group consisted of academics from 22 different universities in Turkey. There are 320…

  6. Childhood Sports Participation and Adolescent Sport Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan H. Lazarus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers.Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks. Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences.Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders; 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards. Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear.Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.

  8. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Brendan H; Stewart, Andrew M; White, Kevin M; Rowell, Amber E; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G; Aughey, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.

  9. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Brendan H.; Stewart, Andrew M.; White, Kevin M.; Rowell, Amber E.; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription. PMID:29209229

  10. Warming-up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellock, F G; Prentice, W E

    1985-01-01

    Competitive and recreational athletes typically perform warm-up and stretching activities to prepare for more strenuous exercise. These preliminary activities are used to enhance physical performance and to prevent sports-related injuries. Warm-up techniques are primarily used to increase body temperature and are classified in 3 major categories: (a) passive warm-up - increases temperature by some external means; (b) general warm-up - increases temperature by nonspecific body movements; and (c) specific warm-up - increases temperature using similar body parts that will be used in the subsequent, more strenuous activity. The best of these appears to be specific warm-up because this method provides a rehearsal of the activity or event. The intensity and duration of warm-up must be individualised according to the athlete's physical capabilities and in consideration of environmental factors which may alter the temperature response. The majority of the benefits of warm-up are related to temperature-dependent physiological processes. An elevation in body temperature produces an increase in the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, a lowering of the activation energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions, an increase in muscle blood flow, a reduction in muscle viscosity, an increase in the sensitivity of nerve receptors, and an increase in the speed of nervous impulses. Warm-up also appears to reduce the incidence and likelihood of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries. Improving flexibility through stretching is another important preparatory activity that has been advocated to improve physical performance. Maintaining good flexibility also aids in the prevention of injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Flexibility is defined as the range of motion possible around a specific joint or a series of articulations and is usually classified as either static or dynamic. Static flexibility refers to the degree to which a joint can be passively moved to the

  11. Rethinking Sport Teaching in Physical Education: A Case Study of Research Based Innovation in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; Penney, Dawn; Swabey, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the significance of physical education teacher education (PETE) in the diffusion of "new" thinking about sport teaching in physical education. It explores issues arising from a case study investigation that sought to respond to the critical commentary about the form and substance of sport teaching in physical…

  12. Mediating Peer Teaching for Learning Games: An Action Research Intervention across Three Consecutive Sport Education Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.; O'Donovan, Toni

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Method: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion…

  13. Human rights in sport | Singh | South African Journal for Research in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    building value of sport. Yet certain sectors of the population criticise, oppose and even violate the application of certain fundamental values to sport, such as equality and human dignity through, inter alia the use of affirmative action to bring about ...

  14. Girls Playing Soccer: Resistance or Submission? A Case Study of Women's Soccer in the ACT. A Report to the National Sports Research Centre, Australian Sports Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, R. D.; And Others

    This study identifies Australian girls' sports participation and variables associated with participation and dropping out. It describes the sporting experiences, and the decisions associated with those experiences, of a group of girls opposing traditional pressures by participating in a "male" sport (soccer). A survey was conducted of…

  15. Sex Differences in World-Record Performance: The Influence of Sport Discipline and Competition Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Solli, Guro Strøm; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2018-01-01

    The current review summarizes scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world-record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. In addition, the way that physiological factors relate to sex dimorphism is discussed. While cultural factors played a major role in the rapid improvement of performance of women relative to men up until the 1990s, sex differences between the world's best athletes in most events have remained relatively stable at approximately 8-12%. The exceptions are events in which upper-body power is a major contributor, where this difference is more than 12%, and ultraendurance swimming, where the gap is now less than 5%. The physiological advantages in men include a larger body size with more skeletal-muscle mass, a lower percentage of body fat, and greater maximal delivery of anaerobic and aerobic energy. The greater strength and anaerobic capacity in men normally disappear when normalized for fat-free body mass, whereas the higher hemoglobin concentrations lead to 5-10% greater maximal oxygen uptake in men with such normalization. The higher percentage of muscle mass in the upper body of men results in a particularly large sex difference in power production during upper-body exercise. While the exercise efficiency of men and women is usually similar, women have a better capacity to metabolize fat and demonstrate better hydrodynamics and more even pacing, which may be advantageous, in particular during long-lasting swimming competitions.

  16. Physiological and performance responses to a preseason altitude-training camp in elite team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Liess, Carsten; Kemp, Justin

    2013-07-01

    Little research has been done on the physiological and performance effects of altitude training on team-sport athletes. Therefore, this study examined changes in 2000-m time-trial running performance (TT), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and intramuscular carnosine content of elite Australian Football (AF) players after a preseason altitude camp. Thirty elite AF players completed 19 days of living and training at either moderate altitude (~2130 m; ALT, n = 21) or sea level (CON, n = 9). TT performance and Hbmass were assessed preintervention (PRE) and postintervention (POST1) in both groups and at 4 wk after returning to sea level (POST2) in ALT only. Improvement in TT performance after altitude was likely 1.5% (± 4.8-90%CL) greater in ALT than in CON, with an individual responsiveness of 0.8%. Improvements in TT were maintained at POST2 in ALT. Hbmass after altitude was very likely increased in ALT compared with CON (2.8% ± 3.5%), with an individual responsiveness of 1.3%. Hbmass returned to baseline at POST2. Intramuscular carnosine did not change in either gastrocnemius or soleus from PRE to POST1. A preseason altitude camp improved TT performance and Hbmass in elite AF players to a magnitude similar to that demonstrated by elite endurance athletes undertaking altitude training. The individual responsiveness of both TT and Hbmass was approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. The maintenance of running performance for 4 wk, despite Hbmass returning to baseline, suggests that altitude training is a valuable preparation for AF players leading into the competitive season.

  17. Exercise, performance and temperature control: temperature regulation during exercise and implications for sports performance and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, S M; Vroman, N B

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulation is an important consideration not only for athletic performance but also for the safety of the athlete. This article presents a broad overview of the mechanisms by which body heat is dissipated in an individual exercising in a hot environment. Particularly emphasised are more recent views of body heat loss mechanisms and the influences of non-thermal inputs, such as effects due to changing blood volume or blood flow distribution. During exercise in a hot environment, metabolic heat produced by the exercising muscles is transported by the circulating blood to the surface of the body where it is released to the environment, either by radiation and convection or by evaporation of sweat. The primary drives for both the increased skin blood flow and increased body sweating are the thermal inputs which are sensed by receptors in the deep body core, with a lesser drive from skin receptors. These thermal signals are integrated in the hypothalamus and proper heat loss responses are effected. When exercise is prolonged, however, and body rehydration is not adequate, the total blood volume may be compromised. In addition, as the core temperature increases during exercise, larger proportions of the blood volume are distributed to the cutaneous vessels, thus effectively reducing cardiac return and central blood volume. During severe exercise, a reduction in cardiac filling may result in a fall in central venous pressure and stimulate baroreceptor vasoconstrictor reflexes. As discussed below, the outputs from these baroreceptors compete with and modify the thermal drives for both the control of the skin blood flow and control of the sweat glands. The effect of high ambient temperatures on exercise performance is most evident in prolonged submaximal exercise. Normally, maximal exercise performance is not altered by high temperatures unless the individual has an elevated deep body temperature before the start of the exercise task. However, submaximal exercise

  18. Does the use of dietary supplements enhance athletes’ sport performances? A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta De Meo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The consumption of dietary supplements has increased in recent years.Despite their widespread use, there is confusion about effects on sport performances.The aim of this study was to investigate association between use of supplements and enhance of athletes’ sports performance.Methods: A review and a meta-analysis of studies conducted on Dietary Supplements and Sports between 2003 and 2013 were performed. Enhancement on sport performances was considered as outcome. The following aspects related to enhancement were considered: ergogenic effect (EE, time to exhaustion (TTE, muscular endurance (ME, post-exercise recovery (PER and body mass (BM. With respect to meta-analysis, data on level of post Exercise Glucose (GpE [mg/dL] and level of post exercise Lactate (LpE [mmol/L] were considered as  indicators of TTE, PER and EE. Similarly, Change in Body Mass (CBM [kg] was used as indicator of BM.Results: The most investigated dietary supplements were: Creatine, Carbohydrates, Beta-alanine, Proteins. The qualitative analysis evaluating the effect of supplements on sports listed by the International Olympic Committee has achieved interesting results: supplements didn’t show statistically significant effects when compared to placebo in more than 48% of papers.For the quantitative analysis, 15 studies were considered. The meta-analysis showed that there was no significant effect of Beta-alanine, Creatine and Carbohydrates on LpE and GpE. Furthermore, a non-significant increase in BM was observed in athletes undergoing Creatine compared to placebo.Conclusion: Considering the increasing attention to this topic, it would be interesting to investigate the existing awareness about effectiveness and possible risks of supplements.

  19. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  20. Sports Institute for Research/Change Agent Research--SIR/CAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; Duthie, James

    1974-01-01

    The decline of the independent, scholar-scientist closeted in a library and/or laboratory resulting from increased social stress on universities for "more scholar per dollar" and "more relevance for the real world" predicts an inevitable shift to action research. The shift in system from relatively independent basic researchers…