McIntosh, Andrew Stuart; Andersen, Thor Einar; Bahr, Roald; Greenwald, Richard; Kleiven, Svein; Turner, Michael; Varese, Massimo; McCrory, Paul
The paper reports on a symposium on sports helmets and presents a synthesis of information and opinion from a range of presenters and disciplines. A review of the literature shows that helmets play an important role in head injury prevention and control. Helmets have been shown to be very efficacious and effective in a range of sports and in preventing specific head injury risks, especially moderate to severe head injury. The symposium emphasised the importance of helmet standards and the need for further development. There are calls for helmets that address the needs of competitive (elite) athletes separate to helmets for recreational athletes. Deficiencies in the evidence base for head injury risks and helmet efficacy and effectiveness were identified in some sports. Issues in designing helmets that are suitable to prevent severe head injuries and concussion were discussed and explained from biomechanical and engineering perspectives. The need to evaluate helmet performance in oblique impacts and incorporate this into standards was covered in a number of presentations. There are emerging opportunities with in-helmet technology to improve impact performance or to measure impact exposure. In-helmet technology as it matures may provide critical information on the severity of the impact, the location of the injured athlete, for example, snowboarder, and assist in the retrieval and immediate, as well as the long-term medical management of the athlete. It was identified that athletes, families and sports organisations can benefit from access to information on helmet performance. The importance of selecting the appropriate-sized helmet and ensuring that the helmet and visor were adjusted and restrained optimally was emphasised. The translation pathway from the science to new and better helmets is the development of appropriate helmet standards and the requirement for only helmets to be used that are certified to those standards.
Full Text Available This investigation explored the viability of using open cell polyurethane auxetic foams to augment the conformable layer in a sports helmet and improve its linear impact acceleration attenuation. Foam types were compared by examining the impact severity on an instrumented anthropomorphic headform within a helmet consisting of three layers: a rigid shell, a stiff closed cell foam, and an open cell foam as a conformable layer. Auxetic and conventional foams were interchanged to act as the helmet’s conformable component. Attenuation of linear acceleration was examined by dropping the combined helmet and headform on the front and the side. The helmet with auxetic foam reduced peak linear accelerations (p < 0.05 relative to its conventional counterpart at the highest impact energy in both orientations. Gadd Severity Index reduced by 11% for frontal impacts (38.9 J and 44% for side impacts (24.3 J. The conformable layer within a helmet can influence the overall impact attenuating properties. The helmet fitted with auxetic foam can attenuate impact severity more than when fitted with conventional foam, and warrants further investigation for its potential to reduce the risk of traumatic brain injuries in sport specific impacts.
Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Hotter, B; Ledochowski, L; Burtscher, M
The aim of this study was to examine attitudes of winter sport participants toward a ski helmet mandatory. In total, 959 persons who had to estimate statements regarding ski helmet and helmet mandatory with the aid of a five level Likert scale were interviewed. About 85 % of interviewed persons totally agreed that a ski helmet reduces head injury risk although only 64 % are wearing a ski helmet. Significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that all winter sport participants should wear ski helmets on slopes as well as that all children on slopes should wear a ski helmet. Also, significant more helmet wearers and females compared to non-wearers and males totally agreed that a ski helmet mandatory for all people has to be recommended as well as that a ski helmet mandatory for children under 16 years has to be recommended. However, the acceptance for a helmet mandatory for all people as well as for children was significantly lower compared to recommendations for helmet use irrespective of helmet use or gender. Therefore, we conclude that preventive helmet campaigns possibly attain a higher acceptance leading to a higher helmet use compared to a helmet mandatory. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bonfield, Christopher M; Shin, Samuel S; Kanter, Adam S
Research on the mechanism of concussion in recent years has been focused on the mechanism of injury as well as strategies to minimize or reverse injury. Sports-related head injury research has led to the development of head protective gear that has evolved over the years. Headgears have been designed to protect athletes from skull fractures, subdural hemorrhages and concussions. Over the years, through experience of athletes and continued scientific research, improvements in helmet design have been made. Although these advances have decreased the number of catastrophic injuries throughout sports, the effects on concussions are promising, but largely unproven. In this review, we will discuss development of helmets and studies analyzing their level of protection for both concussion and head injury. This will help us understand what future developments are still needed to minimize the risk of concussion among athletes in various forms of sports.
Rossi, Anthony M; Claiborne, Tina L; Thompson, Gregory B; Todaro, Stacey
The pocketing effect of helmet padding helps to dissipate forces experienced by the head, but if the player's helmet remains stationary in an opponent's shoulder pads, the compressive force on the cervical spine may increase. To (1) measure the coefficient of static friction between different football helmet finishes and football jersey fabrics and (2) calculate the potential amount of force on a player's helmet due to the amount of friction present. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Helmets with different finishes and different football jersey fabrics. The coefficient of friction was determined for 2 helmet samples (glossy and matte), 3 football jerseys (collegiate, high school, and youth), and 3 types of jersey numbers (silkscreened, sublimated, and stitched on) using the TAPPI T 815 standard method. These measurements determined which helmet-to-helmet, helmet-to-jersey number, and helmet-to-jersey material combination resulted in the least amount of static friction. The glossy helmet versus glossy helmet combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other 2 helmet combinations (P = .013). The glossy helmet versus collegiate jersey combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey material combinations (P < .01). The glossy helmet versus silkscreened numbers combination produced a greater amount of static friction than the other helmet-to-jersey number combinations (P < .01). The force of static friction experienced during collisions can be clinically relevant. Conditions with higher coefficients of static friction result in greater forces. In this study, the highest coefficient of friction (glossy helmet versus silkscreened number) could increase the forces on the player's helmet by 3553.88 N when compared with other helmet-to-jersey combinations. Our results indicate that the makeup of helmet and uniform materials may affect sport safety.
Fenerty, Lynne; Heatley, Jennifer; Young, Julian; Thibault-Halman, Ginette; Kureshi, Nelofar; Bruce, Beth S; Walling, Simon; Clarke, David B
Nova Scotia is the first jurisdiction in the world to mandate ski and snowboard helmet use for all ages at ski hills in the province. This study represents a longitudinal examination of the effects of social marketing, educational campaigns and the introduction of helmet legislation on all-age snow sport helmet use in Nova Scotia. A baseline observational study was conducted to establish the threshold of ski and snowboarding helmet use. Based on focus groups and interviews, a social marketing campaign was designed and implemented to address factors influencing helmet use. A prelegislation observational study assessed the effects of social marketing and educational promotion on helmet use. After all-age snow sport helmet legislation was enacted and enforced, a postlegislation observational study was conducted to determine helmet use prevalence. Baseline data revealed that 74% of skiers and snowboarders were using helmets, of which 80% were females and 70% were males. Helmet use was high in children (96%), but decreased with increasing age. Following educational and social marketing campaigns, overall helmet use increased to 90%. After helmet legislation was enacted, 100% compliance was observed at ski hills in Nova Scotia. Results from this study demonstrate that a multifaceted approach, including education, legislation and enforcement, was effective in achieving full helmet compliance among all ages of skiers and snowboarders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Jung, Carla S; Zweckberger, Klaus; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W
During the last winter season, some fatal sport injuries with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) prompted major discussions about protective helmet use. Although ski helmets reportedly lead to a 60% decrease of risk to incur TBI, little is known about the distribution of helmet users and which factors are crucial for the decision to wear a helmet. Especially, it is unknown whether knowledge or experience concerning TBI in winter sports influences the use of helmets, as well as the attitude and opinion of people. Since treatment of TBI is a major field in neurosurgery, 55 neurosurgical departments (NS) in Germany, Switzerland and Austria were addressed and asked to answer anonymous questionnaires. A "non-trauma-educated" control cohort (NTP) was interviewed in ski resorts in Austria as well as sports equipment stores in Germany. Questionnaires were returned by 465 NS and 546 NTP. Half of NS and NTP wore helmets in winter sports. Although some interviewees showed cognitive dissonant behaviour, experience in TBI after ski or snowboard accidents significantly affected the decision to wear helmets. After the fatal ski accidents, and increased media coverage 15.4% NS and 13.2% NTP bought their helmet. Furthermore, incidence of helmet use in children was correlated with the actual use and disposition of their parents to make the use of helmet compulsory. This study indicates that brain-trauma education affects ones attitude and opinion concerning protective helmet use in winter sports. However, without neglecting educational measures, emotional arguments should be added in the promotion of helmets to make them a popular integral part of winter sport outfits.
Bailly, Nicolas; Laporte, Jean-Dominique; Afquir, Sanae; Masson, Catherine; Donnadieu, Thierry; Delay, Jean-Baptiste; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean
Sport helmet effectiveness in preventing traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been repeatedly questioned. This study assesses the effect of helmet use on risk of TBI and other types of head injury (OTHI) in alpine sports. From 2012 to 2014, data on the injured population were collected by physicians in on-mountain clinics in 30 French ski resorts, and interviews were conducted on the slope to sample a noninjured control population. Two sets of cases (1425 participants with TBI and 1386 with OTHI) were compared with 2 sets of controls (2145 participants without injury and 40,288 with an injury to a body part other than the head). The effect of helmet use on the risk of TBI and OTHI was evaluated with a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, sport, skill level, crash type, and crash location. Using participants without injury as control, we found that helmet wearers were less likely to sustain any head injury (odds ratio [OR] TBI = 0.65; OR OTHI = 0.42). When considering participants with an injury to another body part as control, the risk of OTHI was lower among helmet wearers (OR OTHI : 0.61). However, no significant effect was found for the risk of TBI. Participants with low skill levels, those aged 50 years, snowboarders, and those involved in collision and in snowpark accidents were at higher risk of head injury. This study confirms the effectiveness of helmets in protecting users from head injuries but questions their effects on TBI, especially concussion. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bandte, Angela; Fritzsche, Friederike-Sophie; Emami, Pedram; Kammler, Getrud; Püschel, Klaus; Krajewski, Kara
Soccer, bicycling, and horseback riding are sports most commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Germany. The latter 2 sports activities are commonly practiced with helmets, and data on helmet use and usefulness vary widely. On Ethics Committee approval, a retrospective analysis was performed for patients age 5-17 between January 2009 and August 2014 based on a diagnosis of TBI, using the electronic patient file for 2 university hospital locations. Descriptive data analysis and multivariate and univariate logistic regression were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs). A total of 380 children were identified, including 162 females (42.6%) and 218 males (57.4%), with a mean age of 11.9 ± 3.8 years. Activities included bicycling (n = 64), horseback riding (n = 19), and soccer (n = 16). Helmet use was documented in 26 patients (14 cyclists, 12 riders), and nonuse was documented in 20 (all cyclists). Compared with not wearing a helmet, wearing a helmet was associated with a trend toward lower odds of loss of consciousness (OR, 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-2.52). A cohort of 251 patients with non-sports-related TBI (NSTBI) served as a control group for further analyses. Compared with the NSTBI group, the odds of amnesia were 2.9 times greater (95% CI, 1.1-21.6) in the patients with a riding-related TBI and 4.8 times greater (95% CI, 0.3-239) in those with a cycling-related TBI, and the odds of epidural hematoma were 2.2 times greater (95% CI, 0.4-12.3) in those with a cycling-related TBI and 4.9 times greater (95% CI, 0.5-50.4) greater in those with a soccer-related TBI. We gained important epidemiologic data on pediatric TBI in our region. Despite the descriptive nature of the data, a trend toward reduced odds of loss of consciousness was seen in the helmet wearers. Nevertheless, serious injury can occur despite helmet use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In 1985, the U.S. Cycling Federation ruled that all racing bikers must wear helmets that meet American National Safety Institute Standards. Existing helmets were hot and heavy. Jim Gentes, president of Giro Sport Design, Inc. turned to Raymond Hicks an aerodynamicist at Ames Research Center for a design for a cool, lightweight helmet. Hicks created an aerodynamic helmet shape using technology from a NACA airfoil section. Air vents make the air flow laminar and reduce drag. Since 1986, Giro helmets have evolved and expanded. One was worn by the 1989 Tour de France winner.
Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Baugh, Christine M.; Nowinski, Christopher J.; McKee, Ann C.; Stern, Robert A.; Cantu, Robert C.
Every year, millions of athletes in the United States experience concussions. With athletes at all levels of play getting bigger, faster, and stronger, it has been suggested that newer technologies may provide an opportunity to reduce the risk and severity of these all too frequent injuries. Although helmets have been shown to decrease the rate of catastrophic head injuries, and mouth guards have decreased the risk of dental and oral injuries, the protective effect of helmets and mouth guards...
Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A; Carter, Patrick M; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B
Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal motorcycle helmet use law in April 2012. Data on police-reported crashes occurring during 2012-14 and from a stratified roadside observational survey undertaken in Southeast Michigan during May-September 2014 were used to estimate statewide helmet use rates. Observed helmet use was more common among operators of sports motorcycles, on freeways, and in the morning, and least common among operators of cruisers, on minor arterials, and in the afternoon. The rate of helmet use across the state was estimated at 75%, adjusted for roadway type, motorcycle class, and time of day. Similarly, the helmet use rate found from examination of crash records was 73%. In the observation survey, 47% of operators wore jackets, 94% wore long pants, 54% wore boots, and 80% wore gloves. Protective clothing of jackets and gloves was most often worn by sport motorcycle operators and long pants and boots most often by riders of touring motorcycles. Findings highlight the much lower rate of helmet use in Michigan compared with states that have a universal helmet use law, although the rate is higher than observed in many states with partial helmet laws. Targeted interventions aimed at specific groups of motorcyclists and situations where helmet use rates are particularly low should be considered to increase helmet use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The National Highway Traffic Safety : Administration encourages each : State to have and enforce a law : requiring all motorcycle operators : and passengers to wear a helmet : meeting FMVSS 218. Motorcycle : helmets provide the best protection : from...
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) encourages States to enact legislation that requires all motorcycle riders to wear helmets. Motorcycle helmets provide the best protection from head injury for motorcyclists involved in traff...
Wearing a crash helmet is an important contribution to road safety. If a helmet is worn, the risk of being killed in a motorcycle crash decreases by about 42%. In the Netherlands, compulsory crash helmet wearing for motorcyclists was introduced in 1972, and the obligation for moped riders followed
Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G
Current American football helmet design has a rigid exterior with a padded interior. Softening the hard external layer of the helmet may reduce the impact potential of the helmet, providing extra head protection and reducing its use as an offensive device. The objective of this study is to measure the impact reduction potential provided by external foam. We obtained a football helmet with built-in accelerometer-based sensors, placed it on a boxing mannequin and struck it with a weighted swinging pendulum helmet to mimic the forces sustained during a helmet-to-helmet strike. We then applied layers of 1.3 cm thick polyolefin foam to the exterior surface of the helmets and repeated the process. All impact severity measures were significantly reduced with the application of the external foam. These results support the hypothesis that adding a soft exterior layer reduces the force of impact which may be applicable to the football field. Redesigning football helmets could reduce the injury potential of the sport.
Noordzij, P.C. & Paar, H.G.
Research has been done into the requirements for crash helmets for moped drivers not only in relation to their comfort but also to their protection. It is stated that any helmet is better than no helmet.
Kurt, Mehmet; Laksari, Kaveh; Kuo, Calvin; Grant, Gerald A; Camarillo, David B
Bicycling is the leading cause of sports-related traumatic brain injury. Most of the current bike helmets are made of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam and ultimately designed to prevent blunt trauma, e.g., skull fracture. However, these helmets have limited effectiveness in preventing brain injuries. With the availability of high-rate micro-electrical-mechanical systems sensors and high energy density batteries, a new class of helmets, i.e., expandable helmets, can sense an impending collision and expand to protect the head. By allowing softer liner medium and larger helmet sizes, this novel approach in helmet design provides the opportunity to achieve much lower acceleration levels during collision and may reduce the risk of brain injury. In this study, we first develop theoretical frameworks to investigate impact dynamics of current EPS helmets and airbag helmets-as a form of expandable helmet design. We compared our theoretical models with anthropomorphic test dummy drop test experiments. Peak accelerations obtained from these experiments with airbag helmets achieve up to an 8-fold reduction in the risk of concussion compared to standard EPS helmets. Furthermore, we construct an optimization framework for airbag helmets to minimize concussion and severe head injury risks at different impact velocities, while avoiding excessive deformation and bottoming-out. An optimized airbag helmet with 0.12 m thickness at 72 ± 8 kPa reduces the head injury criterion (HIC) value to 190 ± 25 at 6.2 m/s head impact velocity compared to a HIC of 1300 with a standard EPS helmet. Based on a correlation with previously reported HIC values in the literature, this airbag helmet design substantially reduces the risks of severe head injury up to 9 m/s.
Álvarez Huerta, Silvia
La reutilización del dispositivo Helmet, en la UCIP del HUCA, hace plantearnos registrar como afecta a los pacientes. La posibilidad de reinfección en pacientes críticos hace plantearnos este estudio en el cual haremos cultivos a los pacientes donde podremos comprobar si la desinfección del dispositivo es correcta, los patógenos causantes de infección,y a su vez un registro de cada helmet.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...
Phillips, Ross Owen; Fyhri, Aslak; Sagberg, Fridulv
This study investigated risk compensation by cyclists in response to bicycle helmet wearing by observing changes in cycling behavior, reported experience of risk, and a possible objective measure of experienced risk. The suitability of heart rate variability (HRV) as an objective measure of experienced risk was assessed beforehand by recording HRV measures in nine participants watching a thriller film. We observed a significant decrease in HRV in line with expected increases in psychological challenge presented by the film. HRV was then used along with cycling pace and self-reported risk in a field experiment in which 35 cyclist volunteers cycled 0.4 km downhill, once with and once without a helmet. Routine helmet users reported higher experienced risk and cycled slower when they did not wear their helmet in the experiment than when they did wear their helmet, although there was no corresponding change in HRV. For cyclists not accustomed to helmets, there were no changes in speed, perceived risk, or any other measures when cycling with versus without a helmet. The findings are consistent with the notion that those who use helmets routinely perceive reduced risk when wearing a helmet, and compensate by cycling faster. They thus give some support to those urging caution in the use of helmet laws. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.
Merrell, A Jake; Christensen, William F; Seeley, Matthew K; Bowden, Anton E; Fullwood, David T
American football has both the highest rate of concussion incidences as well as the highest number of concussions of all contact sports due to both the number of athletes and nature of the sport. Recent research has linked concussions with long term health complications such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy and early onset Alzheimer's. Understanding the mechanical characteristics of concussive impacts is critical to help protect athletes from these debilitating diseases and is now possible using helmet-based sensor systems. To date, real time on-field measurement of head impacts has been almost exclusively measured by devices that rely on accelerometers or gyroscopes attached to the player's helmet, or embedded in a mouth guard. These systems monitor motion of the head or helmet, but do not directly measure impact energy. This paper evaluates the accuracy of a novel, multifunctional foam-based sensor that replaces a portion of the helmet foam to measure impact. All modified helmets were tested using a National Operating Committee Standards for Athletic Equipment-style drop tower with a total of 24 drop tests (4 locations with 6 impact energies). The impacts were evaluated using a headform, instrumented with a tri-axial accelerometer, mounted to a Hybrid III neck assembly. The resultant accelerations were evaluated for both the peak acceleration and the severity indices. These data were then compared to the voltage response from multiple Nano Composite Foam sensors located throughout the helmet. The foam sensor system proved to be accurate in measuring both the HIC and Gadd severity index, as well as peak acceleration while also providing additional details that were previously difficult to obtain, such as impact energy.
Lund, A K; Williams, A F; Womack, K N
Helmets worn by motorcyclists decrease head injuries and the likelihood of being killed in a crash by about 30 percent. From 1968 to 1977, Texas had a comprehensive motorcycle helmet use law, which was estimated to have saved 650 lives. But the law was amended in 1977 to apply only to motorcycle operators and passengers under age 18. In September 1989, a new law was passed that required helmets for all motorcycle operators and passengers. Observations of helmet use were conducted before and a...
Karton, Clara; Rousseau, Philippe; Vassilyadi, Michael; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine
Like many sports involving high speeds and body contact, head injuries are a concern for short track speed skating athletes and coaches. While the mandatory use of helmets has managed to nearly eliminate catastrophic head injuries such as skull fractures and cerebral haemorrhages, they may not be as effective at reducing the risk of a concussion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of speed skating helmets with respect to managing peak linear and peak rotational acceleration, and to compare their performance against other types of helmets commonly worn within the speed skating sport. Commercially available speed skating, bicycle and ice hockey helmets were evaluated using a three-impact condition test protocol at an impact velocity of 4 m/s. Two speed skating helmet models yielded mean peak linear accelerations at a low-estimated probability range for sustaining a concussion for all three impact conditions. Conversely, the resulting mean peak rotational acceleration values were all found close to the high end of a probability range for sustaining a concussion. A similar tendency was observed for the bicycle and ice hockey helmets under the same impact conditions. Speed skating helmets may not be as effective at managing rotational acceleration and therefore may not successfully protect the user against risks associated with concussion injuries.
Injury outcome among helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle riders and passengers at a tertiary care hospital in north-western Tanzania. Phillipo L. Chalya, Isidori H. Ngayomela, Joseph B. Mabula, Nkinda Mbelenge, Ramesh M. Dass, Alphonce B. Chandika, Japhet M. Gilyoma, Sospatro E. Ngallaba, Anthony Kapesa ...
Greenhill, Dustin A; Navo, Paul; Zhao, Huaqing; Torg, Joseph; Comstock, R Dawn; Boden, Barry P
There is limited information on the relationship between football helmet fit and concussion severity. Poor helmet fit may predispose football players to a more severe concussion. Descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. Data from concussion injury reports were obtained from the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System over a 9-year period. Symptoms, duration, and helmet parameters (fit, interior padding) were analyzed for all first-time concussions. Data from 4580 concussions were analyzed. Patients who suffered concussions with a helmet that did not fit properly (3.22%), as determined by an athletic trainer, had higher rates of drowsiness (RR, 1.46; P = 0.005), hyperexcitability (RR, 2.38; P = 0.047), and sensitivity to noise (RR, 1.88; P football helmet is a risk factor for a concussion with more symptoms and of longer duration. Concussions of longer duration are also more common in players with an air bladder-lined helmet. Current high school football rules should mandate supervision and maintenance of helmet fit throughout the season, prior to impact. Team physicians, athletic trainers, coaches, and high school officials should ensure proper oversight of helmet fit in high school athletes to decrease concussion severity and duration. © 2016 The Author(s).
Popa, Ioana; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Orsi, Chiara; Morandi, Anna; Montomoli, Cristina
Cycling is becoming one of the most popular forms of recreation and transport the world over, but cyclists still have a high level of vulnerability. A bicycle helmet is an important safety device available to cyclists, but little is known regarding possible determinants of helmet use among adults. This study aims at providing information on helmet usage patterns in Italy and identifying the factors associated with bicycle helmet use. Data on 2072 bicycle riders from an Italian friends of cycling association aged 18 years or older who had ridden a bicycle in the last month were collected using an ad-hoc questionnaire via the web. The sample was equally distributed among subjects who always, most of the time, sometimes, rarely, or never use a helmet. To evaluate the association among socio-demographic and bicycle use characteristics and helmet use, a multinomial logistic regression model was performed. The results show a higher propensity to use a helmet among males, riders coming from Central and Southern Italy, people who cycles more than 60kilometres in a week, cyclists who have already had a crash, people who do not cycle daily or almost daily, riders of sport bikes. Moreover, the propensity to use a helmet increases with age. The survey provided a first step in approaching the lack of data on cycling behaviour and the wearing of a helmet in Italy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H; Hayda, Roman A; Adams, Charles A; Cosgrove, G Rees; Born, Christopher T
Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern and place economic stresses on the health care system. Helmets have been shown to reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Universal motorcycle helmet laws in other states have shown to be effective at increasing helmet use. The current Rhode Island motorcycle helmet law does not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Given the number of deaths and injuries that could be prevented, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be considered for review.
Full Text Available This paper presents the development process of a bicycle helmet through individual research, creation, presentation and analysis of the results of the most important product development stages. The quality of the development and manufacturing process of the protective equipment for extreme sports is an imperative for a successful product and its flawless function. The design of the bicycle helmet is made following the rules of the design in order to create a well-founded and functional product. After creating design sketches, a virtual prototype was developed in "SolidWorks" using the required ergonomic dimensions. 3D printed model of the human head with adapted ergonomic dimensions and the designed bicycle helmet was developed in order to verify the applied ergonomic measures. The virtual model will be used as an input in the finite element analysis of the helmet impact test based on the EN1078 standard and the aerodynamic simulations executed in "SolidWorks Simulation and Flow Simulation", for verification of the impact and aerodynamic properties. Virtual testing of aerodynamic features and the ability of the bicycle helmet to allow ventilation of the user's head indicate that the helmet performs its function in the desired way. Also, the virtual prototype will be used for the production process simulation in "SolidWorks Plastics" in order to analyze the production of the bicycle helmet. The polycarbonate helmet outer shell is subject to a number of simulations for the sake of analyzing the production process in order to obtain the desired characteristics of the polycarbonate outer shell and to avoid the disadvantages that occur in the manufacturing process. The main goal of this paper is to develop a safety bicycle helmet with improved ergonomic, validation of impact, aerodynamic characteristics and production process in order to produce a high quality product for mass use.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The current NASA spacesuit community is focusing on utilizing a 13" hemispherical helmet for the next generation of extravehicular activity spacesuits. This helmet...
Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6355--15-9642 LWH & ACH Helmet Hardware Study November 30, 2015 Ronald l. Holtz PeteR...19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT LWH & ACH Helmet Hardware Study...screws and nuts used with the Light Weight Helmet (LWH) and Advanced Combat Helmet ( ACH ). The testing included basic dimensional measurements, Rockwell
Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.; Haar, F.B. ter
Today’s combat helmet is becoming more than only a means to protect the warriors head. It is increasingly also used as a platform for sensors and has to integrate with other protection devices. As such, the combat helmet is becoming an integrated system with higher demands on combat helmet fit and
Burtscher, Martin; Ruedl, Gerhard; Nachbauer, Werner
Helmet-compulsory laws for young skiers, accompanied by educational campaigns, have recently been implemented in several countries. However, data regarding compliance to these interventions during adolescence are scarce. In 2011, a questionnaire survey was performed among 10- to 16-year-old students in 62 Austrian secondary schools. A total of 2655 questionnaires were completed by 1376 males and 1279 females. Helmet use was reported in 99% of 10- to 15-year-old skiers (for whom helmets are mandatory) and in 91% of 16-year-old skiers (for whom helmets are not mandatory). Compliance with helmet laws, which were accompanied by educational campaigns, was very high among adolescent skiers. Nevertheless, helmet use decreased slightly during adolescence, and this decrease was particularly pronounced when helmet use was no longer mandatory. Sophisticated multifaceted interventions may have the potential to increase the use of ski helmets among individuals who refuse to wear helmets.
Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Erhardt, Taryn; Trent, Roger B; Zhu, Motao
To compare the risk of fatal injury across helmet types among collision-involved motorcyclists. We used data from a cohort of motorcyclists involved in police-reported traffic collisions. Eighty-four law enforcement agencies in California collected detailed information on helmet and rider characteristics during collision investigations in June 2012 through July 2013. Multiply-adjusted risk ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. The adjusted fatal injury risk ratio for novelty helmets was 1.95 (95% CI 1.11-3.40, p 0.019), comparing novelty helmets with full-face helmets. The risk ratios for modular, open-face, and half-helmets, compared with full-face helmets, were not significant. A more complete understanding of the inadequacy of novelty helmets can be used in educational and law enforcement countermeasures to improve helmet use among motorcycling populations in California and other US states. Law enforcement approaches to mitigating novelty helmet use would seem attractive given that novelty helmets can be visually identified by law enforcement officers with sufficient training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas
Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.
.... This image source was desired for experiments with helmet mounted display configurations in which an off-helmet image source is coupled to the on-helmet optical system through a coherent fiber optic bundle...
Adam E. M. Eltorai; Chad Simon; Ariel Choi; Katie Hsia; Christopher T. Born; Alan H. Daniels
Abstract Background Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Discussion Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing po...
Eltorai, Adam E M; Daniels, Alan H; Grauer, Jonathan N; Browner, Bruce D; Born, Christopher T
Motorcycle-related head injuries and fatalities are a serious public health concern that can be reduced with helmet use. Caring for crash victims places additional economic stress on the healthcare system. The current Connecticut motorcycle helmet law does not require all motorcyclists to wear helmets. Universal motorcycle helmet laws increase helmet use. Efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be considered for review, given the number of deaths and injuries that could be prevented.
Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this study describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, the study shows that metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. In fact, only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the widespread misconception that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed, and the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding is placed with the archaeological profession.
Based on archaeological finds and old Norse literature, this article describes the Scandinavian helmet tradition from the Bronze Age to the Viking Age, as well as the Viking culture, with special emphasis on weaponry, burial customs, and head protection. Contrary to what is commonly believed, metal helmets must have been used very infrequently by the Vikings. Only one Viking helmet has been retrieved in Scandinavia. Possible reasons for the wide-spread misunderstanding that the Vikings wore helmets are discussed. The archaeological profession must partly bear the responsibility for not correcting this misunderstanding.
Rowson, Bethany; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M
Optimizing the protective capabilities of helmets is one of several methods of reducing brain injury risk in sports. This paper presents the experimental and analytical development of a hockey helmet evaluation methodology. The Summation of Tests for the Analysis of Risk (STAR) formula combines head impact exposure with brain injury probability over the broad range of 227 head impacts that a hockey player is likely to experience during one season. These impact exposure data are mapped to laboratory testing parameters using a series of 12 impact conditions comprised of three energy levels and four head impact locations, which include centric and non-centric directions of force. Injury risk is determined using a multivariate injury risk function that incorporates both linear and rotational head acceleration measurements. All testing parameters are presented along with exemplar helmet test data. The Hockey STAR methodology provides a scientific framework for manufacturers to optimize hockey helmet design for injury risk reduction, as well as providing consumers with a meaningful metric to assess the relative performance of hockey helmets.
F717  have been used to evaluate helmets including motorcycle, football, and hockey helmets to ensure a basic level of protection. These standards... Physically , this means that the smaller the magnitude of fω, the less coupled the response at the surface of the head is to the force being applied
Suriyawongpaisa, Paibul; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Rangpueng, Aratta; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Techakamolsuk, Pimpa
The dispersion of motorcycle related injuries and deaths might be a result of disparity in motorcycle helmet use. This study uses national roadside survey data, injury sentinel surveillance data and other national data sets in 2010 of Thailand, a country with high mortality related to motorcycle injuries, to explore the disparity in helmet use, explanatory factors of the disparity. It also assessed potential agreement and correlation between helmet use rate reported by the roadside survey and the injury sentinel surveillance. This report revealed helmet use rate of 43.7%(95% CI:43.6,43.9) nationwide with the highest rate (81.8%; 95% CI: 44.0,46.4) in Bangkok. Helmet use rate in drivers (53.3%; 95% CI: 53.2,53.8) was 2.5 times higher than that in passengers (19.3%; 95% CI:18.9,19.7). In relative terms (highest-to-lowest ratio,HLR), geographical disparity in helmet use was found to be higher in passengers (HLR = 28.5). Law enforcement activities as indicated by the conviction rate of motorcyclists were significantly associated with the helmet use rate (spline regression coefficient = 3.90, 95% CI: 0.48,7.33). Together with the finding of HLR for conviction rate of 87.24, it is suggested that more equitable improvement in helmet use could be achieved by more equitable distribution of the police force. Finally, we found poor correlation (r = 0.01; p value = 0.76) and no agreement (difference = 34.29%; 95% CI:13.48%, 55.09%) between roadside survey and injury sentinel surveillance in estimating helmet use rate. These findings should be considered a warning for employing injury surveillance to monitor policy implementation of helmet use.
Louisiana has enacted and repealed motorcycle helmet laws many times. Louisiana first adopted an all-rider motorcycle helmet law in 1968, amended it in 1976 to require helmet use only by riders under the age of 18, and reenacted a universal helmet la...
... [Docket No. NHTSA-2012-0112] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets AGENCY: National... Vehicle Safety Standard for motorcycle helmets. Specifically, the final rule amended the helmet labeling... compliance test procedures of FMVSS No. 218, Motorcycle helmets, in order to make it more difficult to...
MacAlister, Anna Margaret
The research presented herein is a combination of work done in two distinct subcategories of sport related head injury research. The body of work is aimed at increasing the understanding of head impact biomechanics across a broad spectrum of impact scenarios as well as the ability of helmets to affect head impact biomechanics over time. The first study utilizes in situ testing of controlled impacts of an instrumented head form to more fully characterize head accelerations resulting from impac...
Collins, Christy L; McKenzie, Lara B; Ferketich, Amy K; Andridge, Rebecca; Xiang, Huiyun; Comstock, R Dawn
Football helmets used by high school athletes in the United States should meet the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment performance standards. Despite differences in interior padding and exterior shells, all football helmets should provide comparable protection against concussions. Yet, debate continues on whether differences in the rates or severity of concussions exist based on helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, or model. To investigate whether high school football concussion characteristics varied by helmet age/recondition status, manufacturer, and model. Descriptive epidemiological study. High school football concussion and helmet data were collected from academic years 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 as part of the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. The certified athletic trainers of participating schools submitted athlete-exposure (AE) and injury information weekly. Participating schools reported 2900 football concussions during 3,528,790 AEs for an overall rate of 8.2 concussions per 10,000 AEs. Concussion rates significantly increased from 2008-2009 through 2012-2013 overall (P = .006) as well as in competition (P = .027) and practice (P = .023). Characteristics of concussed football players (ie, mean number of symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play) were similar among players wearing new helmets when compared with reconditioned helmets. Fewer players wearing an old/not reconditioned helmet had concussion symptoms resolve within 1 day compared with players wearing a new helmet. Despite differences in the manufacturers and models of helmets worn by all high school football players compared with players who sustained a concussion, the mean number of concussion symptoms, specific concussion symptoms, symptom resolution time, and time until return to play were similar for concussions sustained by football players wearing the most common helmet
Landman, Adam B; Phipps, Michael S; Jawin, Kimberly; Bolton, Lauri; Van Gelder, Carin M; Kamin, Richard; Teel, Bill; Vaca, Federico E
Assess the association of helmet use with motorcycle crash mortality and identify characteristics of riders who do not wear helmets in Connecticut crashes. Police crash data for Connecticut motorcycle crashes 2001-2007 were analyzed. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regressions were performed including age, gender, seating position, road type, season, time of day, and recklessness. Of the 9,214 crashes with helmet use data available, helmets were worn in 4072 (44.2%). Non-helmeted riders, age > or =18, riding interstate or state roads, in the evening or at night, and who were riding recklessly were associated with higher odds of fatality. Predictors of nonhelmet use included males, passengers, age helmets reduce fatal crashes in Connecticut. A set of factors help predict nonhelmeted riders to whom safety training could be targeted.
Much of the literature on child cycling accidents appears to blame the child as a victim, as though children's activities of playing and travelling were somehow wrong and that children are at fault when an adult drives a car over them. This adult-centred approach then leads to the idea that children should protect themselves with helmets, and that they are to blame if they are injured. However, adults who continue to hold the fantasy that helmets might be of value should know that the British Standard for cycle helmets protects only in a vertical fall of 1 m -- certainly not motor vehicle crashes. Thicker motor cycle helmets would give better protection but, of course, are heavier (and therefore unsaleable). Yet even with compulsory wearing helmets, more motor cyclists still die of head injuries than pedal cyclists. In the Newcastle study, five times as many child pedestrians died of road accidents as child cyclists. Convinced helmeteers should recommend all children playing or travelling in the streets to wear helmets (presumably heavy motor-cycle helmets). Slightly more sceptical proponents might prefer half of them -- in a randomized controlled trial. Car driving appears to have as serious health consequences as tobacco, alcohol and drugs, and to be as addictive (McCarthy 1992). Helmets are similar to filters in cigarettes -- they give the illusion of safety to both consumer and producer of the product, but the illusion is fatal. Yet, for their cardiovascular and mental health, children should have the freedom to cycle in safety around where they live. A profound change in the habits of adults is needed, rather than suits of armour for children.
Olsen, Cody S; Thomas, Andrea M; Singleton, Michael; Gaichas, Anna M; Smith, Tracy J; Smith, Gary A; Peng, Justin; Bauer, Michael J; Qu, Ming; Yeager, Denise; Kerns, Timothy; Burch, Cynthia; Cook, Lawrence J
Despite evidence that motorcycle helmets reduce morbidity and mortality, helmet laws and rates of helmet use vary by state in the U.S. We pooled data from eleven states: five with universal laws requiring all motorcyclists to wear a helmet, and six with partial laws requiring only a subset of motorcyclists to wear a helmet. Data were combined in the Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System's General Use Model and included motorcycle crash records probabilistically linked to emergency department and inpatient discharges for years 2005-2008. Medical outcomes were compared between partial and universal helmet law settings. We estimated adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for head, facial, traumatic brain, and moderate to severe head/facial injuries associated with helmet use within each helmet law setting using generalized log-binomial regression. Reported helmet use was higher in universal law states (88 % vs. 42 %). Median charges, adjusted for inflation and differences in state-incomes, were higher in partial law states (emergency department $1987 vs. $1443; inpatient $31,506 vs. $25,949). Injuries to the head and face, including traumatic brain injuries, were more common in partial law states. Effectiveness estimates of helmet use were higher in partial law states (adjusted-RR (CI) of head injury: 2.1 (1.9-2.2) partial law single vehicle; 1.4 (1.2, 1.6) universal law single vehicle; 1.8 (1.6-2.0) partial law multi-vehicle; 1.2 (1.1-1.4) universal law multi-vehicle). Medical charges and rates of head, facial, and brain injuries among motorcyclists were lower in universal law states. Helmets were effective in reducing injury in both helmet law settings; lower effectiveness estimates were observed in universal law states.
Buckley, Lisa; Bingham, C. Raymond; Flannagan, Carol A.; Carter, Patrick M.; Almani, Farideh; Cicchino, Jessica B.
Motorcycle crashes result in a significant health burden, including many fatal injuries and serious non-fatal head injuries. Helmets are highly effective in preventing such trauma, and jurisdictions that require helmet use of all motorcyclists have higher rates of helmet use and lower rates of head injuries among motorcyclists. The current study examines helmet use and characteristics of helmeted operators and their riding conditions in Michigan, following a weakening of the state's universal...
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) has found that motorcycle helmets are 37% effective in preventing death and 65% effective in preventing brain injuries in a crash. Unfortunately, in 1995 Congress lifted federal sanctions against states without helmet laws and since then there have been a number of primary motorcycle helmet laws repealed or weakened. More lives could be saved and serious injuries avoided if there was increased helmet use throughout the United States. This study analyzed helmet use and injury patterns among motorcycle riders in the United States involved in fatal crashes from 1995 through 2003 and compared the results between states with and without a primary helmet law. Age, sex, injury severity and helmet use are some of the variables obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). In the 20 states and the District of Columbia, which currently have a primary helmet law, 84.0% of fatally injured riders were wearing a helmet. In the 27 states with a secondary helmet law, 36.2% of fatalities used a helmet, and in the remaining three states with no law at all, helmet use dropped to 17.6%. In the two states (Arkansas and Texas) that changed from a primary helmet law to a secondary helmet law in 1997, helmet use decreased from 78.2% in 1996 to 31.7% in 2000. If all states were to enact a primary motorcycle helmet law, helmet use would dramatically increase while decreasing the number of motorcyclist head injuries and fatalities. The results of this study will hopefully persuade law makers to enact primary helmet laws in all states throughout the nation. Helmet manufacturers can use this data to design more comfortable helmets while also improving upon the protective qualities of these safety devices.
Giesemann, Jens; Greiner, Martin; Lipa, Peter
The generators of binary multiplicative cascade models with a non-overlapping branching structure are given by the Haar wavelets. We construct specific generalizations of these models for which any given wavelet represents the generators of the local cascade branchings. Such “wavelet cascades”, for which we calculate spatial correlation functions, have spatially overlapping branches and are therefore useful for modeling recombination effects in hierarchical branching processes.
...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...
Harrison, Catherine R; Robinette, Kathleen M
... anthropometric variability of the population. The method was tested on a prototype helmet concept using a stratified sample of males and females drawn to represent the Joint Strike Fighter population...
Adam E. M. Eltorai
Full Text Available Abstract Background Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Discussion Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. Conclusions The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.
Eltorai, Adam E M; Simon, Chad; Choi, Ariel; Hsia, Katie; Born, Christopher T; Daniels, Alan H
Motorcycle helmets reduce both motorcycle-related fatalities and head injuries. Motorcycle crashes are a major public health concern which place economic stress on the U.S. healthcare system. Although statewide universal motorcycle helmet laws effectively increase helmet use, most state helmet laws do not require every motorcycle rider to wear a helmet. Herein, we propose and outline the solution of implementing federal motorcycle helmet law, while addressing potential counterarguments. The decision to ride a motorcycle without a helmet has consequences that affect more than just the motorcyclist. In an effort to prevent unnecessary healthcare costs, injuries, and deaths, public health efforts to increase helmet use through education and legislation should be strongly considered. Helmet use on motorcycles fits squarely within the purview of the federal government public health and economic considerations.
Schnegg, Michaël; Massonnet, Geneviève; Gueissaz, Line
In traffic accidents involving motorcycles, paint traces can be transferred from the rider's helmet or smeared onto its surface. These traces are usually in the form of chips or smears and are frequently collected for comparison purposes. This research investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of the coatings found on motorcycles helmets. An evaluation of the similarities between helmet and automotive coating systems was also performed.Twenty-seven helmet coatings from 15 different brands and 22 models were considered. One sample per helmet was collected and observed using optical microscopy. FTIR spectroscopy was then used and seven replicate measurements per layer were carried out to study the variability of each coating system (intravariability). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were also performed on the infrared spectra of the clearcoats and basecoats of the data set. The most common systems were composed of two or three layers, consistently involving a clearcoat and basecoat. The coating systems of helmets with composite shells systematically contained a minimum of three layers. FTIR spectroscopy results showed that acrylic urethane and alkyd urethane were the most frequent binders used for clearcoats and basecoats. A high proportion of the coatings were differentiated (more than 95%) based on microscopic examinations. The chemical and physical characteristics of the coatings allowed the differentiation of all but one pair of helmets of the same brand, model and color. Chemometrics (PCA and HCA) corroborated classification based on visual comparisons of the spectra and allowed the study of the whole data set at once (i.e., all spectra of the same layer). Thus, the intravariability of each helmet and its proximity to the others (intervariability) could be more readily assessed. It was also possible to determine the most discriminative chemical variables based on the study of the PCA loadings. Chemometrics
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Kraus, J F; Peek, C; Williams, A
To evaluate helmet use in California before and after the introduction of an unrestricted helmet use law on January 1, 1992, observations of motorcycles and their riders were made at 60 locations in seven California counties, twice before and four times after the law was introduced. Helmet use increased from about 50% in 1991 to more than 99% throughout 1992. Compliance was achieved despite variations in helmet use by motorcycle design and road type. Seven percent of riders used nonstandard helmets after the law. With adequate enforcement, unrestricted helmet use laws can achieve almost 100% compliance and reduce the number of people riding motorcycles. PMID:7832270
Evans, Bruce; Gervais, Jack T.; Heard, Kennon; Valley, Morgan; Lowenstein, Steven R.
Objective Ski helmets reduce the risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but usage rates are low. Ski patrollers could serve as role models for helmet use, but little is known about their practices and beliefs. Design A written survey was distributed to ski patrollers attending continuing education conferences. Questions addressed helmet use rates; prior TBI experiences; perceptions of helmet risks and benefits; and willingness to serve as safety role models for the public. To assess predictors of helmet use, odds ratios were calculated, after adjusting for skiing experience. Subjects Ninety-three ski patrollers participated. Main Outcome Self-reported helmet use of 100% while patrolling. Results Helmet use was 23% (95% CI 15–32%). Common reasons for non-use included impaired hearing (35%) and discomfort (29%). Most patrollers believed helmets prevent injuries (90%; 95% CI 84–96%) and that they are safety role models (92%; 95% CI 86–98%). However, many believed helmets encourage recklessness (39%; 95% CI 29–49%) and increase injury risks (16%; 95% CI 7–25%). Three factors predicted 100% helmet use: perceived protection from exposure (OR = 9.68; 95% CI 3.14–29.82) or cold (OR = 5.68; 95% CI 1.27–25.42); and belief that role modeling is an advantage of helmets (OR = 4.06; 95% CI 1.29–12.83). Patrollers who believed helmets encourage recklessness were 8 times less likely to wear helmets (OR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03–0.58). Conclusions Ski patrollers know helmets reduce serious injury and believe they are role models for the public, but most do not wear helmets regularly. To increase helmet use, manufacturers should address hearing- and comfort-related factors. Education programs should address the belief that helmets encourage recklessness and stress role modeling as a professional responsibility. PMID:19225971
Li, Gong-Li; Li, Li-Ping; Cai, Qi-En
In China, despite national motorcycle helmet legislation and the known safety benefits of helmets, helmet use remains low. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of motorcycle helmet use and attitudes towards helmet use among drivers and passengers in two cities in Southern China to provide baseline data and scientific evidence for the formulation of an intervention aimed at strengthening road safety law enforcement. Observational sites were randomly selected from three road types (national roads, main streets, and subordinate streets). Observations were conducted during six specified time periods and uniform checklists were used to record helmet use. Motorcycle riders were randomly selected from service stations, elementary schools, and supermarket car parks to participate in a face-to-face interview to ascertain attitudes. Overall, the rate of correct helmet use among drivers was higher in Chaozhou (34.6%) than in Shantou (30.2%; P helmet use was higher among drivers in main streets, during daytime hours, and during weekdays (P helmet knowledge of motorcycle drivers was high with most reporting that helmets prevent or reduce head injury (Shantou: 78.2%; Chaozhou 70.6%). Although level of awareness of the benefits of helmets was high, observed helmet usage was low. These results suggest that there is a need to implement new interventions to increase helmet use.
Rush, G Alston; Prabhu, R; Rush, Gus A; Williams, Lakiesha N; Horstemeyer, M F
A modified National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) test method for American football helmet drop impact test standards is presented that would provide better assessment of a helmet's on-field impact performance by including a faceguard on the helmet. In this study, a merger of faceguard and helmet test standards is proposed. The need for a more robust systematic approach to football helmet testing procedures is emphasized by comparing representative results of the Head Injury Criterion (HIC), Severity Index (SI), and peak acceleration values for different helmets at different helmet locations under modified NOCSAE standard drop tower tests. Essentially, these comparative drop test results revealed that the faceguard adds a stiffening kinematic constraint to the shell that lessens total energy absorption. The current NOCSAE standard test methods can be improved to represent on-field helmet hits by attaching the faceguards to helmets and by including two new helmet impact locations (Front Top and Front Top Boss). The reported football helmet test method gives a more accurate representation of a helmet's performance and its ability to mitigate on-field impacts while promoting safer football helmets.
This book is intended for software developers, system architects and analysts, big data project managers, and data scientists who wish to deploy big data solutions using the Cascading framework. You must have a basic understanding of the big data paradigm and should be familiar with Java development techniques.
CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam liner. ... mechanical behaviour of motorcycle helmet. ... the latter authors use a SI (Structural Intensity) approach to study power flow distribution.
Dardis, Rachel; Lefkowitz, Camille
The study examines societal losses from 1976 federal legislation on state motorcycle helmet laws. Comprehensive state helmet laws would have had cost-benefit ratios ranging from 0.05 to 0.18. The fact that 31 states did not have comprehensive helmet laws in 1981 raises questions concerning whether society should intervene on behalf of consumers.…
create cycle tracks for pedal bicycle users. ▫ ensure that bicycles and motorcycles are only sold with helmets as affordable packages. ▫ make riding motorcycles without wearing a helmet an offence punishable by confiscation of the owner's cycle or imprisonment. Wearing a helmet when riding a pushbike is to be encouraged ...
Ederer, David J; Bui, Truong Van; Parker, Erin M; Roehler, Douglas R; Sidik, Mirjam; Florian, Michael J; Kim, Pagna; Sim, Sophal; Ballesteros, Michael F
This paper analyses helmet use before and after implementing Helmets for Kids, a school-based helmet distribution and road safety programme in Cambodia. Nine intervention schools (with a total of 6721 students) and four control schools (with a total of 3031 students) were selected using purposive sampling to target schools where students were at high risk of road traffic injury. Eligible schools included those where at least 50% of students commute to school on bicycles or motorcycles, were located on a national road (high traffic density), had few or no street signs nearby, were located in an area with a history of crash injuries and were in a province where other Cambodia Helmet Vaccine Initiative activities occur. Programme's effectiveness at each school was measured through preintervention and postintervention roadside helmet observations of students as they arrived or left school. Research assistants conducted observations 1-2 weeks preintervention, 1-2 weeks postintervention, 10-12 weeks postintervention and at the end of the school year (3-4 months postintervention). In intervention schools, observed student helmet use increased from an average of 0.46% at 1-2 weeks preintervention to an average of 87.9% at 1-2 weeks postintervention, 83.5% at 10-12 weeks postintervention and 86.5% at 3-4 months postintervention, coinciding with the end of the school year. Increased helmet use was observed in children commuting on bicycle or motorcycle, which showed similar patterns of helmet use. Helmet use remained between 0.35% and 0.70% in control schools throughout the study period. School-based helmet use programmes that combine helmet provision and road safety education might increase helmet use among children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Philip, Andrew F; Fangman, William; Liao, Junlin; Lilienthal, Michele; Choi, Kent
The number of registered motorcycles in the United States has been steadily increasing, as have the number of motorcycle injuries and fatalities. The Midwest has the lowest incidence of helmet use in the country. Iowa in particular has no helmet law. We conducted a retrospective study of the motorcycle crash victims treated at our level 1 trauma center between 2002 and 2008. Data from 713 motorcycle trauma victims were analyzed for correlations between helmet use and multiple outcome measures. The helmeted cases were similar to the unhelmeted cases in demographic and most crash characteristics. Unhelmeted patients suffered more severe injuries as measured by the Injury Severity Score (P Helmeted cases suffered fewer injuries (P Helmets reduced the risk of injury to the head by at least two thirds (P Helmeted patients were less likely to require mechanical ventilation or intensive care or to have infections. They were discharged an average of 3 days earlier (P helmeted patient. Helmets protect patients from head and neck injuries, which results in less severe injuries and a more benign hospital course. Helmet use results in significant inpatient cost savings plus additional care and social cost savings by reducing the need for further institutional care. We recommend legal and social measures to induce and encourage helmet use.
Hothem, Zachary; Simon, Robert; Barnes, Wesley; Mohammad, Azmath; Sevak, Shruti; Ziegler, Kathryn; Iacco, Anthony; Janczyk, Randy
In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal helmet law. Our study assessed the clinical impact of this repeal. Our trauma database was queried retrospectively for 2 motorcycle riding seasons before and 3 seasons after repeal. On-scene death data was obtained from the Medical Examiner. Helmet use in hospitalized patients decreased after the helmet law repeal. Non-helmeted patients had a significant increased rate of head injury. Non-helmeted patients were more likely to die during hospitalization. While, helmet use and drugs/alcohol status significantly affected the risk for head injury, only drug/alcohol had a significant effect on overall mortality. Following helmet law repeal, helmet use has decreased. Helmet status and drug/alcohol use was found to significantly increase risk of head injury. Although overall mortality was only affected by drug/alcohol use, non-helmeted patients did have a higher inpatient mortality. These findings deserve furthermore study and may provide a basis for reinstating the universal helmet law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ho, Emai Lynn; Haydel, Micelle J
On August 15, 1999, Louisiana's mandatory motorcycle helmet law was repealed. Our primary objective was to determine if the repeal resulted in an increase in motorcyclist morbidity and mortality. We retrospectively evaluated the frequency of helmet use and morbidity and mortality before and after the repeal of the law. Fatality statistics for Louisiana were obtained through the National Highway Safety Traffic Association between 1994 and 2002. Injury statistics were totaled for motorcyclists admitted to Medical Center of Louisiana New Orleans during the same period of time. Statewide, helmet use decreased 21.2% (p helmet law, while locally, helmet use decreased 34.7% (p Motorcycle helmet use decreased significantly and motorcyclist fatality rates increased significantly after repeal of the Louisiana mandatory helmet law.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...
O'Keeffe, Terence; Dearwater, Steve R; Gentilello, Larry M; Cohen, Todd M; Wilkinson, James D; McKenney, Mark M
During the last 10 years, the number of motorcycle riders in the United States has risen sharply. The corresponding increase in fatalities observed during this time may be because of the increase in riders, or because the number of states that mandate universal helmet use has decreased. We examined the effect of the repeal of Florida's helmet law in July 2000 to test the hypothesis that the increase in fatalities observed after repeal resulted from an increase in the number of motorcycle riders. We identified all motorcycle fatalities (N = 197) in Miami-Dade county for a 3.5-year period before repeal (prelaw), and a similar period after repeal (postlaw), using police crash reports and medical examiner records. We compared the number of fatalities, frequency of helmet use in fatal crashes, and number of registered motorcycles in the two time periods. There was a decrease in helmet use from 80% to 33%, and an increase in motorcycle fatalities after repeal: 72 to 125. However, repeal was also associated with a rise in annual motorcycle registrations from 17,270 to 39,043. Fatality rates adjusted for numbers of registered motorcycles did not change significantly; 11.6 deaths per 10,000 motorcycles prelaw, and 12.5 deaths postlaw. There was a significant rise in motorcycle fatalities after Florida's helmet law repeal, which appears to be associated with an increase in the number of motorcycle riders. Injury prevention efforts focusing on factors other than helmet use should be developed in light of continuing repeal of universal motorcycle helmet laws across the nation.
In 2010, the 4,502 motorcyclists (operators and passengers) killed in motorcycle crashes made up 14% of all road traffic deaths, yet motorcycles accounted for Helmet use consistently has been shown to reduce motorcycle crash-related injuries and deaths, and the most effective strategy to increase helmet use is enactment of universal helmet laws. Universal helmet laws require all motorcyclists to wear helmets whenever they ride. To examine the association between states' motorcycle helmet laws and helmet use or nonuse among fatally injured motorcyclists, CDC analyzed 2008-2010 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), a census of fatal traffic crashes in the United States. Additionally, economic cost data from NHTSA were obtained to compare the costs saved as a result of helmet use, by type of state motorcycle helmet law. The findings indicated that, on average, 12% of fatally injured motorcyclists were not wearing helmets in states with universal helmet laws, compared with 64% in partial helmet law states (laws that only required specific groups, usually young riders, to wear helmets) and 79% in states without a helmet law. Additionally, in 2010, economic costs saved from helmet use by society in states with a universal helmet law were, on average, $725 per registered motorcycle, nearly four times greater than in states without such a law ($198).
the crash sequence. In 1959, the APH -5 flight helmet was made widely available to U.S. Army aviators, and within 4 years a significant reduction in...from the SPH-4 (table 4). This is an important finding, since most civilian flight nurses and medics are not provided 8-10 flight helmets...protection from head injury than previously published research based on an older flight helmet (the APH -5). The 1961 report, Army Aviation Accident
Black, Amanda M; Patton, Declan A; Eliason, Paul H; Emery, Carolyn A
There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment. Valid evidence can assist with addressing the resistance caused by prevailing beliefs and could be essential in influencing rule changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jacques, L B
The relationship between bicycle helmet use and demographic measures has been studied extensively. To date, however, there have been very few studies of helmet use by amateur cyclists in organized, noncompetitive, long distance events. Seven hundred eleven riders were observed during three organized events offering route distances ranging from 16 to 161 kilometres. Helmet use ranged from 59% in the shorter distance groups to one hundred percent in the longest distance group. This information can assist organizers of bicycling events by permitting estimation of helmet use rates for planned routes of varying distance.
Contrarily to the information provided until 31 May 2013, some “Euro Protection” safety helmets do not respect any of the requirements for electrical insulation. This alert concerns the safety helmets identified under the following SCEM numbers: 50.43.30.050.4 white 50.43.30.060.2 yellow 50.43.30.070.0 blue This amounts up to several hundreds of helmets on the CERN site. People who need to wear an electrically insulated safety helmet for their activities, must from now on acquire a duly insulated item to be found on the CERN store under the following SCEM numbers: 220.127.116.11.6: Petzl Vertex ST Helmet (without vent) 18.104.22.1680.1: IDRA Helmet with a visor for electrical work As for the people who do not need to wear an electrically insulated helmet for their activities, they can continue working with the aforementioned helmets. For your information, please take note of the maximum use limit of each helmet: “Euro Protection” Safety Helme...
Mohamed Ali Maher; Dr. Osama Mounir Dawood; Dr. Nabil El Houseiny Awad; Mahmoud Mohamed Younes
In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m...
Molina-García, Javier; Queralt, Ana
This paper analyzes changes in the frequency of cycling to school and helmet wearing after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law, and attempts to identify factors associated with the acceptance of helmet use. A mixed-method study was designed with a 7-month follow-up period (April 2014 to November 2014). The initial sample included 262 students (aged 12 to 16 years) from Valencia, Spain. The data were collected by questionnaire and 2 focus-group interviews were conducted. No significant changes in cycling-to- school behavior were found during the study period. Cycle helmet use improved, especially among boys, those who used their own bike, and among adolescents who lived within 2 km of school (P sharing program. The implementation of the helmet-use law did not have a negative impact on the frequency of cycling to school. Our findings provide an empirical basis for designing educational interventions and programs to increase helmet use among adolescents.
Ranney, Megan L; Mello, Michael J; Baird, Janette B; Chai, Peter R; Clark, Melissa A
Helmets significantly decrease morbidity and mortality from motorcycle crashes, but many areas of the world lack universal helmet laws. To educate motorcyclists in areas without helmet laws, more knowledge of motorcyclists' helmet beliefs is needed. A web-based survey was therefore designed to assess motorcyclists' attitudes, norms and behaviors towards helmets in a U.S. state with a limited helmet law. Of 445 survey respondents, 68.4% of respondents reported always wearing a helmet. The not-always-helmeted riders were more likely than the always-helmeted to be male; to bave less education; and to have a history of previous motorcycle crashes and injuries. Although both groups had taken rider training classes, fewer of the not-always-helmeted had learned how to ride in a class. The strongest correlates of being not-always-helmeted (vs. always-helmeted) were attitudes that helmets were not protective and impaired sight/hearing; and the normative belief that they would only wear helmets if forced by law. Because attitudes are often more easily changed than normative beliefs, education may increase helmet use. However, less than half of riders in this state with a mandatory education program learned how to ride from a rider education course, and 44% of non-helmeted said they would only wear a helmet if forced by law. Legislation may therefore be a more efficient and effective strategy than education to increase helmet use. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McIntosh, Andrew S; Lai, Adrian
To assess the factors that contribute to head and neck dynamics in motorcycle crash simulation tests. A series of laboratory tests was undertaken using an oblique impact rig. The impact rig included a drop assembly with a Hybrid III head and neck. The head struck the top surface of a horizontally moving striker plate. Head linear and angular acceleration, striker plate force, and upper neck loads were measured. The following test parameters were varied: drop height to a maximum of 1.5 m, horizontal speed to a maximum of 35 km/h, impact orientation/location, and restraint adjustment. Two helmet models were used for the majority of tests. Visor impacts were conducted as were comparisons across 4 helmet models. Descriptive statistics were derived and multiple regression was applied to examine the role of each parameter. The data were compared to unhelmeted tests. The tests confirmed that motorcycle helmets compared to no helmet provide a high level of protection to the head and neck through management of both linear and angular head acceleration and neck loads. In the most severe lateral impacts (drop height 1.5 m and horizontal speed 35 km/h): the mean head injury criterion (HIC₁₅) and mean maximum headform acceleration were respectively 648, 150 g for 4 helmet models; the mean +αy was +9.5 krad/s² and +αx was +5.1 krad/s²; the upper neck resultant force, -Mx and -My, respectively, were 4947 N, -80 Nm, and 55 Nm. Drop height was a significant predictor of peak linear headform acceleration, HIC₁₅, and striker force. Horizontal speed and impact orientation were significant predictors of peak angular acceleration, in addition to drop height. Peak head and neck loads observed in visor impacts were similar to those observed in impacts directly to the shell. Peak head and neck loads observed in frontal impacts with tightly and loosely adjusted restraints were similar, but the helmet with the loosely adjusted restraint was ejected during the impact. Further
Carter, Patrick M; Buckley, Lisa; Flannagan, Carol A C; Cicchino, Jessica B; Hemmila, Mark; Bowman, Patrick J; Almani, Farideh; Bingham, C Raymond
To evaluate the impact of the partial repeal of Michigan's universal motorcycle helmet law on helmet use, fatalities, and head injuries. We compared helmet use rates and motorcycle crash fatality risk for the 12 months before and after the April 13, 2012, repeal with a statewide police-reported crash data set. We linked police-reported crashes to injured riders in a statewide trauma registry. We compared head injury before and after the repeal. Regression examined the effect of helmet use on fatality and head injury risk. Helmet use decreased in crash (93.2% vs 70.8%; P helmet nonuse (AOR = 1.84), alcohol intoxication (AOR = 11.31), intersection crashes (AOR = 1.62), and crashes at higher speed limits (AOR = 1.04) increased fatality risk. Helmet nonuse (AOR = 2.31) and alcohol intoxication (AOR = 2.81) increased odds of head injury. Michigan's helmet law repeal resulted in a 24% to 27% helmet use decline among riders in crashes and a 14% increase in head injury.
Bachani, A M; Hung, Y W; Mogere, S; Akunga, D; Nyamari, J; Hyder, A A
In light of the increasing prevalence of motorcycles on Kenyan roads, there is a need to address the safety of individuals using this mode of transport. Helmet use has been proven to be effective in preventing head injuries and fatalities in the event of a crash. This study aims to understand the prevalence of helmet use as well as knowledge, attitudes, and practices in two districts in Kenya over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Observational studies on helmet use at randomly selected locations throughout each district were done every quarter to estimate the prevalence of helmet use. Roadside knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were done two times a year in each district. Helmet use among motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thika and Naivasha was assessed through systematic observations at randomly selected locations in the two districts between August 2010 and December 2014. Roadside KAP surveys were administered in both sites to motorcyclists in areas where they stopped, including motorcycle bays, petrol stations and rest areas near the helmet observation sites. Secondary analysis of trauma registries was also used. Negative binomial regressions were used to assess trends of helmet wearing among motorcyclists over time, and logistic regressions were used to analyze associated risk factors as well as association with health outcomes among those admitted to the four hospitals. A total of 256,851 motorcycles were observed in the two target districts during the study period. Overall, prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle drivers in Thika and Naivasha across all periods was 35.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.87%-35.38%) and 37.42% (95% CI: 37.15%-37.69%) respectively. Prevalence of helmet wearing remained similar after the passage of a traffic amendment bill. These results were not statistically significant in either Thika or in Naivasha. Data from the KAP survey showed that respondents recognized the life-saving effect of wearing a helmet, but
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...
... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...
Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.
Abstract. Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The finite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The finite element model of the helmet consists of shell and foam.
Lee, Jwo-Leun; Chen, Tzu-Chun; Huang, Hung-Chang; Chen, Ray-Jade
Motorcycles are the most popular vehicles in Taiwan, where more than 14.8 million motorcycles (1 motorcycle per 1.6 people) are in service. Despite the mandatory helmet law passed in 1997, less than 80% of motorcyclists in Taiwan wear helmets. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of using motorcycle helmets on fatality rates. A clinical data set including 2,868 trauma patients was analyzed; the cross-sectional registration database was administered by a university medical center in Central Taiwan. A path analysis framework and multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate the marginal effect of helmet use on mortality. Using a helmet did not directly reduce the mortality rate but rather indirectly reduced the mortality rate through intervening variables such as the severity of head injuries, number of craniotomies, and complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet can reduce the fatality rate by 1.3%, the rate of severe head injury by 34.5%, the craniotomy rate by 7.8%, and the rate of complications during therapeutic processes by 1.5%. These rates comprise 33.3% of the mortality rate for people who do not wear helmets, 67.3% of the severe head injury rate, 60.0% of the craniotomy rate, and 12.2% of the rate of complications during therapeutic processes. Wearing a helmet and trauma system designation are crucial factors that reduce the fatality rate.
... Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle Helmets; Final... 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0050] RIN 2127-AK15 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Motorcycle... requirements for motorcycle helmets to reduce traumatic brain injury and other types of head injury. Some of...
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. 571.218 Section 571.218 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.218 Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets. S1. Scope. This standard...
Jones, R. L.; Okane, J. H.
One-piece transparent helmet shell made of polycarbonate is equipped with a helmet protection pad, a visor assembly, a communications skull cap, and an emergency oxygen supply. This design offers improvements over previous designs in weight, visual field, comfort and protection.
Head injuries are a leading cause of death and morbidity among motorcycle users. The use of crash helmet is the most successful approach to preventing injury among motorcycle users. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin ...
Reid, J; Wang, E L
This article describes the design and development of a system that is capable of quantifying the thermal comfort of bicycle helmets. The motivation for the development of the system stems from the desire both to increase helmet use and to provide the designer with a quantitative method of evaluating the thermal comfort of a helmet. The system consists of a heated mannequin head form, a heated reference sphere, a small wind tunnel, and a data acquisition system. Both the head form and the reference sphere were instrumented with thermocouples. The system is capable of simulating riding speeds ranging from 4.5-15.5 m/s. A cooling effectiveness, C1, that is independent of both ambient conditions and wind velocity is defined as a measure of how well the helmet ventilates as compared to the reference sphere. The system was validated by testing six commercially available bicycle helmets manufactured between approximately 1992 and 1998.
Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.
Karuppanagounder, Krishnamurthy; Vijayan, Arjun V
The objectives of this study include assessing the motorcycle helmet use pattern in Calicut, India, and analyzing the factors influencing helmet use including motorcyclists' perceptions. Field observational studies at 15 locations were conducted to determine the helmet use rate among motorcyclists and pillion passengers. A structured questionnaire interview survey was conducted with 709 motorcyclists to evaluate the users' perceptions and opinions regarding the use of motorcycle helmets. There was a considerable difference in the level of motorcycle helmet use observed between the locations within and outside the city limits, where different levels of helmet law enforcement were exercised. The helmet use was observed at a maximum of 89% within the city and a minimum of 23% in some locations outside the city. The decreasing percentage of helmet use while moving toward the locations outside the city was confirmed statistically through t tests (t = 1.771, df = 13, P helmets are comfortable and 42% expressed that helmets affect hearing ability. It is important to note that 57% of users are of the opinion that there is no need to use a helmet if you drive slowly and carefully. The price of the helmet was not a deterrent for helmet use. In addition, it was observed that only 45% of helmets used by the motorist were standard helmets with an Indian Standards Institute (ISI) mark. The widely varying helmet use pattern observed in the study area may be attributed due to the users' behaviors; that is, using a helmet only when the helmet law is strictly enforced rather than using a helmet as a protective device. Further, some of the problems and beliefs associated with helmet use prevent motorcyclists from using a helmet. Hence, the road safety of motorcyclists can be improved only through addressing the identified measures comprehensively.
Brooks, Erin; Naud, Shelly; Shapiro, Steven
The trend in state motorcycle helmet laws has been a reduction from universal coverage requiring all riders to wear helmets, to partial coverage requiring only younger riders to wear helmets. In the current study we evaluate whether partial helmet laws reduce motorcycle fatalities and increase helmet compliance among young riders. We compared a decade of motorcycle fatalities from the only 3 states with no helmet laws (New Hampshire, Iowa, Illinois) to 3 states with helmet laws (Connecticut, Indiana, Wisconsin). We excluded highway speeds, blood alcohol laws, and minimum legal drinking age as being significant variables. Overall, there was no significant difference in the average fatality rate per 10,000 motorcycle registrations for helmet law states versus no helmet law states (P = 0.45). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the helmet wearing rate of helmet law versus no helmet law states (P = 0.79). Partial helmet laws neither significantly reduce fatality rates nor increase helmet compliance rates among young riders. A partial helmet law is roughly equivalent to none at all; only universal helmet laws have been shown to effectively protect young motorcyclists.
Peachey, Andrew A.; Sutton, Debra L.; Cathorall, Michelle L.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of skateboarders who owned and who wore a helmet and which constructs from the Health Belief Model predicted helmet ownership and helmet use among undergraduate skateboarders. Methods: From March 2013 through March 2014, 83 skateboarders completed a helmet attitude and use…
Doran, D.G.; Schiffgens, J.O.
Concepts and an overview of radiation displacement damage modeling and annealing kinetics are presented. Short-term annealing methodology is described and results of annealing simulations performed on damage cascades generated using the Marlowe and Cascade programs are included. Observations concerning the inconsistencies and inadequacies of current methods are presented along with simulation of high energy cascades and simulation of longer-term annealing
Servadei, F; Begliomini, C; Gardini, E; Giustini, M; Taggi, F; Kraus, J
To evaluate the impact of a revised Italian motorcycle-moped-scooter helmet law on crash brain injuries. A pre-post law evaluation of helmet use and traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurrence from 1999 to 2001. Romagna region, northeastern Italy, with a 2000 resident population of 983 534 persons. Motorcycle-moped rider survey for helmet use compliance and all residents in the region admitted to the Division of Neurosurgery of the Maurizio Bufalini Hospital in Cesena, Italy for TBI. Helmet use compliance and change in TBI admissions and type(s) of brain lesions. Helmet use increased from an average of less than 20% to over 96%. A comparison of TBI incidence in the Romagna region shows that there was no significant variation before and after introduction of the revised helmet law, except for TBI admissions for motorcycle-moped crashes where a 66% decrease was observed. In the same area TBI admissions by age group showed that motorcycle mopeds riders aged 14-60 years sustained significantly fewer TBIs. The rate of TBI admissions to neurosurgery decreased by over 31% and epidural hematomas almost completely disappeared in crash injured moped riders. The revised Italian mandatory helmet law, with police enforcement, is an effective measure for TBI prevention at all ages.
Clark, J Michio; Post, Andrew; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D
In ice hockey, concussions can occur as a result of many different types of impact events, however hockey helmets are certified using a single injury scenario, involving drop tests to a rigid surface. The purpose of this study is to measure the protective capacity of ice hockey helmets for different impact events in ice hockey. A helmeted and unhelmeted Hybrid III headform were impacted simulating falls, elbow, shoulder and puck impacts in ice hockey. Linear and rotational acceleration and maximum principal strain (MPS) were measured. A comparison of helmeted and unhelmeted impacts found significant differences existed in most conditions (p 0.05). Impacts to the ice hockey helmet tested resulted in acceleration levels below reported ranges of concussion and TBI for falls up to 5 m/s, elbow collisions, and low velocity puck impacts but not for shoulder collisions or high velocity puck impacts and falls. The helmet tested reduced MPS below reported ranges of concussion and TBI for falls up to 5 m/s but not for the other impact events across all velocities and locations. This suggests that the ice hockey helmet tested is unable to reduce engineering parameters below reported ranges of concussion and TBI for impact conditions which do not represent a drop against a rigid surface.
Brühwiler, Paul A
Twenty-six bicycle helmets and their associated visors were characterized for radiant heat transfer using a thermal manikin headform in a climate chamber to assess their ability to protect the wearer from heating by the sun. A single configuration for applied radiant flow of 9.3 W was used to assess the roles of the forward and upper vents and the visor. The helmets shielded 50-75% of the radiant heating without a visor and 65-85% with one. Twenty-three visors were shown to result in a relevant reduction of radiant heating of the face (>0.5 W), with 15 reaching approximately 1 W. Heating of the visor and/or helmet and subsequent heating of the air flowing into the helmet was nevertheless found to be a relevant effect in many cases, suggesting that simple measures like reflective upper surfaces could noticeably improve the radiant heat rejection without changing the helmet structure. The forward vents in the helmets that allow the transmission of radiant heat are often important for forced convection, so that minimizing radiant heating geneally reduces the maximization of forced convective heat loss for current helmets.
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen staan centraal in deze toekomstverkenning over sport die werd uitgevoerd door het RIVM en het SCP, op verzoek van het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS). In de Sport Toekomstverken...
Mohamed Ali Maher
Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.
Singleton, Michael D
Although numerous observational studies have demonstrated a protective effect of motorcycle helmets against head injury, the degree of protection against specific head injury types remains unclear. Experimental biomechanics studies involving cadavers, animals, and computer models have established that head injuries have varying etiologies. This retrospective cross-sectional study compared helmet protection against skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion in a consecutive series of motorcycle operators involved in recent traffic crashes in Kentucky. Police collision reports linked to hospital inpatient and emergency department (ED) claims were analyzed for the period 2008 to 2012. Motorcycle operators with known helmet use who were not killed at the crash scene were included in the study. Helmet use was ascertained from the police report. Skull fracture, cerebral contusion, intracranial hemorrhage, and cerebral concussion were identified from International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes on the claims records. The relative risks of each type of head injury for helmeted versus unprotected operators were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Helmets offer substantial protection against skull fracture (relative risk [RR] = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23, 0.34), cerebral contusion (RR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.16, 0.53), and intracranial hemorrhage (RR = 0.47, 95% CI, 0.35, 0.63). The findings pertaining to uncomplicated concussion (RR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.64, 1.01) were inconclusive. A modest protective effect (20% risk reduction) was suggested by the relative risk estimate, but the 95% confidence interval included the null value. Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against
Davis, Christopher B; Brownson, Mark R; Levy, Brent J; Valley, Morgan A; Evans, Bruce; Lowenstein, Steven R
The purpose of this study was to measure support for a mandated helmet policy among resort employees along with the impact of such a policy on job satisfaction, and additionally, to measure the prevalence of barriers to helmet use among this population. In all, 728 Vail Resort employees were surveyed regarding their opinions on the helmet policy and on general helmet use. The majority of the 728 employees surveyed (66.5%; 95% CI: 63% to 70%) agreed with the helmet policy. Only 18% (95% CI: 16% to 21%) reported a negative effect on job satisfaction. Older employees (>25 years old) were more likely to disagree with the policy (odds ratio [OR] 3.1; 95% CI: 2.2 to 4.3) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 4.8; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.6). Skiers were much more likely than snowboarders to report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 5.2 to 18.1). Among resort employees, ski patrollers were more likely to disagree with the mandate (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 6.8 to 13.9) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 8.3 to 21.). Forty-three percent of participants (95% CI: 39% to 46%) agreed with the statement that wearing a helmet encourages reckless behavior whereas 51.0% (95% CI: 47% to 54%) believed that wearing a helmet limits sensory perception. A mandatory helmet use policy was supported by most resort employees. However, ski patrollers and older, more experienced employees were more likely to report a negative effect on job satisfaction. Barriers to helmet use continue to persist in the ski industry and represent a target for further educational efforts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Grenier, Tara; Deckelbaum, Dan L; Boulva, Kerianne; Drudi, Laura; Feyz, Mitra; Rodrigue, Nathalie; Tze, Nancy; Fata, Paola; Khwaja, Kosar; Chughtai, Talat; Razek, Tarek
The purpose of this study was to describe bicycle helmet use among Montreal cyclists as a step towards injury prevention programming. Using a cross-sectional study design, cyclists were observed during 60-minute periods at 22 locations on the island of Montreal. There were 1-3 observation periods per location. Observations took place between August 16 and October 31, 2011. Standard statistical methods were used, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated. A total of 4,789 cyclists were observed. The helmet-wearing proportion of all cyclists observed was 46% (95% CI 44-47). Women had a higher helmet-wearing proportion than men (50%, 95% CI 47-52 vs. 44%, 95% CI 42-45, respectively). Youth had the highest helmet-wearing proportion (73%, 95% CI 64-81), while young adults had the lowest (34%, 95% CI 30-37). Visible minorities were observed wearing a helmet 29% (95% CI 25-34) of the time compared to Caucasians, 47% (95% CI 46-49). BIXI (bike sharing program) riders were observed wearing a helmet 12% (95% CI 10-15) of the time compared to riders with their own bike, 51% (95% CI 49-52). Although above the national average, bicycle helmet use in Montreal is still considerably low given that the majority of cyclists do not wear a helmet. Injury Prevention Programs could target the entire cyclist population, but special attention may be warranted in specific groups such as young men, visible minorities, BIXI riders, and those riding in tourist areas. Additionally, a collaborative enterprise with the bicycle sharing system BIXI Montreal™ could prove to be fruitful in addressing the availability of bike helmets for BIXI riders.
Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.
Phillips, Jessica Laureano; Overton, Tiffany L; Campbell-Furtick, Mackenzie; Simon, Kaley; Duane, Therese M; Gandhi, Rajesh G; Shafi, Shahid
Several US states repealed universal motorcycle helmet laws in the 1990s and 2000s. The purpose of this study was to examine national trends in helmet use among adult trauma patients with motorcycle-related injuries. We hypothesized that motorcycle helmet use declined over time. We retrospectively analyzed the National Trauma Data Bank's National Sample Program for 2003-2010. We also obtained data on US motorcycle fatalities reported in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau to calculate motorcycle-related fatality rates over time. A total of 255,914 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 148,524 (58%) were helmeted. During the study period, helmet use increased from 56% in 2003 to 60% in 2010 (p motorcycle-related fatality rates also increased in states with and without universal helmet laws. Nationally, rates of helmet use have increased. However, fatalities due to motorcycle crashes have also increased during the same period.
O'Mahony-Menton, Colleen; Willmore, Jacqueline; Russell, Katherine
In Ottawa, between 2005 and 2009 there was an annual average of 47.2 head injuries due to ice skating in children and youth (1-19 years of age) requiring a visit to the emergency department, with the highest rates among those aged 5-14 years. Between 2002 and 2007, only 6% of children were wearing a helmet during ice skating when the head injury occurred. During indoor public skating sessions, 93% of children (effect of indoor ice skating helmet policy coupled with education and promotional activities on helmet use, participation and attitudes towards helmet use. An ice skating helmet policy for children (media launch, social marketing and staff training are described. The helmet policy was associated with increased helmet use for young children and for older children, youth and adults not included in the policy, without decreasing attendance to public skating sessions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Hassan, Ahmed; Jokar, Tahereh Orouji; Rhee, Peter; Ibraheem, Kareem; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Anderson, Kathryn Tinsley; Gries, Lynn; Roward, Zachary Thomas; Joseph, Bellal
The aim of our study was to assess the impact of helmet legislations on the incidence and the mortality rate of motorcycle collision (MCC)-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young adult trauma patients. A 1-year (2011) retrospective analysis was performed of all patients under 21 years old with trauma-related hospitalization using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (representing 20% of all in-patient admissions). Patients with MCC were identified using E-codes. States were classified into three groups based on helmet legislations: universal age helmet legislation, legislation, and legislation. Outcome measures were the rates of TBI and mortality. Linear regression analysis was used to assess outcomes among the states. A total of 1,165,150 patients with trauma-related hospitalizations across 29 states were reviewed of which, 587 patients with MCC were included. Ten states had universal age legislation; 13 states had age legislation, and 6 states had age legislation. There was a lower incidence in the rate of TBI (P = 0.03) in states with universal helmet legislations compared with states with age-restricted helmet legislation. Universal helmet legislations lowered the rate of MCC-related TBI injures by a factor of 2.15 (β coefficient: 2.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.91-10.18; P = 0.04). States with age-restricted helmet legislations have a higher rate of traumatic brain injury and mortality compared with states with universal helmet legislations. Establishing universal helmet legislations across the states may provide a potential preventive strategy against traumatic brain injury.
Chapman, Alistair J; Titus, Rachel; Ferenchick, Hannah; Davis, Alan; Rodriguez, Carlos
Michigan repealed a 35-year mandatory helmet law on April 13, 2012. We examined the early clinical impacts at a level 1 trauma center in West Michigan. Retrospective cohort study comparing outcomes among motorcycle crash victims in a 7-month period before and after the helmet law repeal. One hundred ninety-two patients were included. After the repeal, nonhelmeted motorcyclists rose from 7% to 29% (P helmet law. Motorcyclists not wearing helmets increased significantly in a short period of time. Nonhelmeted motorcyclists more frequently died on the scene, spent more time in the intensive care unit, required longer ventilator support, and had higher medical costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.
Jung, Carla S; Zweckberger, Klaus; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W
Wearing protective helmets decreases the risk of incurring traumatic brain injury (TBI) in bicycle accidents. In 2007, the German Neurosurgical Society advocated compulsory use of bicycle helmets. Although neurosurgeons are the specialists who primarily treat patients with TBI in Europe, the distribution of helmet users among neurosurgeons (NS), as well as factors that influence the decision to wear helmets and whether professional knowledge or experience in TBI influences the use or attitude concerning bicycle helmets, remains unclear. A total of 55 neurosurgical departments in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland were contacted and asked to answer anonymous questionnaires concerning helmet use and TBI experience. To compare the neurosurgical attitude with that of a "non-neurosurgical, non-TBI-educated" control group, people of the general public (PUB) were interviewed. A total of 465 NS and 546 PUB returned questionnaires, with 49.7% of the NS and 44.5% of PUB indicated that they wear helmets while bicycling. Trauma experience did effect the personal decision of whether to wear bicycle helmets. Support of compulsory use was influenced by TBI experience. Furthermore, the incidence of helmet use in children was correlated to actual helmet use and disposition of their parents to make helmet use compulsory. NS and PUB behaved in similar ways. Only half wear protective helmets, while the others show cognitive dissonant behavior. With respect to compulsory helmet use, NS are also split in half. Experience with TBI and trauma education has effects. However, education alone does not suffice in promoting the use of bicycle helmets.
Adams, Nicholas S; Newbury, Patrick A; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Davis, Alan T; Mann, Robert J; Polley, John W; Girotto, John A
Motorcycle helmet legislation has been a contentious topic for over a half-century. Benefits of helmet use in motorcycle trauma patients are well documented. In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in favor of a partial helmet law. The authors describe the early clinical effects on facial injuries throughout Michigan. Retrospective data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program trauma database were evaluated. Included were 4643 motorcycle trauma patients presenting to 29 Level I and II trauma centers throughout Michigan 3 years before and after the law repeal (2009 to 2014). Demographics, external cause of injury codes, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes, and injury details were gathered. The proportion of unhelmeted trauma patients increased from 20 percent to 44 percent. Compared with helmeted trauma patients, unhelmeted patients were nearly twice as likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.90), including fractures (relative risk, 2.02) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.94). Unhelmeted patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and higher Injury Severity Scores. Patients presenting after helmet law repeal were more likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.46), including fractures (relative risk, 1.28) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.56). No significant differences were observed for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score (p > 0.05). This study highlights the significant negative impact of relaxed motorcycle helmet laws leading to an increase in craniomaxillofacial injuries. The authors urge state and national legislators to reestablish universal motorcycle helmet laws.
Aug 26, 2016 ... Finite element models of the head and helmet were used to study contact forces during frontal impact of the head with a rigid surface. The ﬁnite element model of the head consists of skin, skull, cerebro-spinal ﬂuid (CSF), brain, tentorium and falx. The ﬁnite element model of the helmet consists of shell and ...
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Ponboon, Sattrawut; Boontob, Nuttapong; Aniwattakulchai, Pakorn; Samranjit, Supattra
Although helmet use has been compulsory for motorcycle drivers and passengers in Thailand since the enactment of the Helmet Act in 1994, recent surveys show that the prevalence of helmet usage remains low, particularly among passengers. This paper has sought to explore motorcyclists' awareness of helmet law enforcement in Thailand and examine whether it affects their helmet use behaviour. A total of 2,429 drivers and 1,328 passengers in urban cities nationwide were interviewed in 2009, and the data were analysed using a multivariate ordered logit regression technique. About 60% of the drivers and only 28% of the passengers reported that they always wore a motorcycle helmet. Apart from basic demographics (i.e. age and gender) and riding frequency, our analysis reveals that the awareness of helmet law enforcement was among the contributing factors influencing the use of motorcycle helmets in Thailand. Regardless of riding position, the prevalence of helmet use tended to be greater among those frequently observing the police's checkpoints for helmet wearing and those perceiving the high risk of being caught for non-helmet use. However, the use of helmets appeared to be lower among drivers who perceived the checkpoints to take place at the same times and locations, which were likely predicted. For motorcycle passengers, it was found that the low prevalence of helmet use was potentially attributable to the absence of knowledge on the compulsory helmet law for passengers and the perception that the law was not enforced by the police. Thus, if motorcycle helmet use in Thailand is to be increased, considerable efforts need to be given to increasing the perceived risk of apprehension for non-helmet use (e.g. more police presence and random scheduling of enforcement activities), improving the awareness of the existing helmet law for passengers, and ensuring that helmet wearing by passengers is more strictly enforced.
Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong
The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport.
Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović
Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...
Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.
If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…
Marquez, Enrique, Salvador; Hare, Jonathon; Niranjan, Mahesan
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for efficient training of deep neural networks in a bottom-up fashion using a layered structure. Our algorithm, which we refer to as Deep Cascade Learning, is motivated by the Cascade Correlation approach of Fahlman who introduced it in the context of perceptrons. We demonstrate our algorithm on networks of convolutional layers, though its applicability is more general. Such training of deep networks in a cascade, directly circumvents the well-know...
Peng, Yinan; Vaidya, Namita; Finnie, Ramona; Reynolds, Jeffrey; Dumitru, Cristian; Njie, Gibril; Elder, Randy; Ivers, Rebecca; Sakashita, Chika; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Compton, Richard P
Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle deaths and injuries in the U.S. Motorcycle helmet use can lead to an estimated 42% reduction in risk for fatal injuries and a 69% reduction in risk for head injuries. However, helmet use in the U.S. has been declining and was at 60% in 2013. The current review examines the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet laws in increasing helmet use and reducing motorcycle-related deaths and injuries. Databases relevant to health or transportation were searched from database inception to August 2012. Reference lists of reviews, reports, and gray literature were also searched. Analysis of the data was completed in 2014. A total of 60 U.S. studies qualified for inclusion in the review. Implementing universal helmet laws increased helmet use (median, 47 percentage points); reduced total deaths (median, -32%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, -29%); and reduced total injuries (median, -32%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, -24%). Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use (median, -39 percentage points); increased total deaths (median, 42%) and deaths per registered motorcycle (median, 24%); and increased total injuries (median, 41%) and injuries per registered motorcycle (median, 8%). Universal helmet laws are effective in increasing motorcycle helmet use and reducing deaths and injuries. These laws are effective for motorcyclists of all ages, including younger operators and passengers who would have already been covered by partial helmet laws. Repealing universal helmet laws decreased helmet use and increased deaths and injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kuriyama, Andrew M; Nakatsuka, Austin S; Yamamoto, Loren G
There is greater attention to head-related injuries and concussions in American football. The helmet's structural safety and the way that football players use their helmets are important in preventing head injuries. Current strategies include penalizing players for high-risk behavior such as leading with their helmet or hitting an opposing player above the shoulder. Passive strategies include helmet modification to better protect the head of the players or to change the playing style of the players. Hawai'i high school varsity football players were surveyed to determine how they use their helmets and how a new helmet design would affect their style of play. One hundred seventy-seven surveys were completed; 79% said that they used their helmet to hit an opposing player during a tackle and 46% said they made this contact intentionally. When asked about modifying helmets with a soft material on the outside, 48% said they thought putting a soft cover over a regular helmet would protect their head better. However, many participants said that putting a soft cover over their regular helmet was a bad idea for various reasons. Most young football players use their helmets to block or tackle despite being taught they would be penalized or potentially injured if they did so. By gaining a better understanding of why and how players use their helmets and how they would respond to new helmet designs, steps can be taken to reduce head injuries for all levels of play.
Paulo Vinícius Soares
Full Text Available Sports Dentistry (SD acts in the prevention, maintenance and treatment of oral and facial injuries, as well as the collection and dissemination of information on dental trauma, beyond stimulus to research. Establishes as a duty for the dentist detect problems related to the athlete’s stomatognathic system. This essay is based on the provided data from the literature related to SD, including definition, practice areas and research fields. To discuss the data, six areas were categorized: shares in sports dentistry; oral health of athlete; sports-related dental implications; dental-facial trauma; face shields; and mouthguards. The analyzed data show that the SD is still an underexplored field of action by dentists, but it is expanding, despite not being recognized specialty by the Federal Council of Dentistry, but the Brazilian Academy of Sports Dentistry has been created with a mission to show the real importance of Dentistry in sport. The dentist should be part of the group of professionals associated with the athlete to perform periodic checks in order to ensure oral health which may contribute to athletes´performance. When impact occurs, however, it would be possible reduce the severity of the impact related to injuries, by using helmets, masks, goggles, face shields and mouthguard. Additionally, it is imperative that dentists, sports coaching, athletes, and professional who work with athletes be aware of the benefits of incorporating SD as an important academic and professional subject.
The global war on terror has plunged US and coalition forces into a battle space requiring the continuous adaptation of tactics and technologies to cope with an elusive enemy. As a result, technologies that enhance the intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) mission making the warfighter more effective are experiencing increased interest. In this paper we show how a new generation of smart cameras built around foveated sensing makes possible a powerful ISR technique termed Cascaded ATR. Foveated sensing is an innovative optical concept in which a single aperture captures two distinct fields of view. In Cascaded ATR, foveated sensing is used to provide a coarse resolution, persistent surveillance, wide field of view (WFOV) detector to accomplish detection level perception. At the same time, within the foveated sensor, these detection locations are passed as a cue to a steerable, high fidelity, narrow field of view (NFOV) detector to perform recognition level perception. Two new ISR mission scenarios, utilizing Cascaded ATR, are proposed.
Pervin, Aaron; Passmore, Jonathon; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Nguyen, Thi Hong Tu; Nguyen, Phuong Nam
To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and chi2 was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90-99% among adults, from 15-53% among children 7 but helmet. Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a highly innovative system for enhancing speech in helmet. First, we propose to apply a circular array with 8 microphones that are inside the helmet. In...
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT LS-DYNA CUSHIONING HEAD( ANATOMY ) COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION HELMETS PROTOTYPES...DC : Headquarters, Department of the Army, 2008. 11. Moss, W.C. Impact Response of US Army and National Footbal League Helmet Pad Systems
Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Smalinskas, K.; Averback, R.S.; Robertson, I.M.; Hseih, H.; Benedek, R.
The spontaneous collapse of energetic displacement cascades in metals into vacancy dislocation loops has been investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Simulations of 5 keV recoil events in Cu and Ni provide the following scenario of cascade collapse: atoms are ejected from the central region of the cascade by replacement collision sequences; the central region subsequently melts; vacancies are driven to the center of the cascade during resolidification where they may collapse into loops. Whether or not collapse occurs depends critically on the melting temperature of the metal and the energy density and total energy in the cascade. Results of TEM are presented in support of this mechanism. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Moss, W C; King, M J
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL] was tasked to compare the impact response of NFL helmet pad systems and U.S. Army pad systems compatible with an Advanced Combat Helmet [ACH] at impact velocities up to 20 ft/s. This was a one-year study funded by the U.S. Army and JIEDDO. The Army/JIEDDO point of contact is COL R. Todd Dombroski, DO, JIEDDO Surgeon. LLNL was chosen by committee to perform the research based on prior published computational studies of the mechanical response of helmets and skulls to blast. Our collaborators include the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory [USAARL] (a DoD laboratory responsible for impact testing helmets), Team Wendy and Oregon Aero (current and former ACH pad manufacturers), Riddell and Xenith (NFL pad manufacturers), and d3o (general purpose sports pad manufacturer). The manufacturer-supplied pad systems that were studied are shown in the figure below. The first two are the Army systems, which are bilayer foam pads with both hard and soft foam and a water-resistant airtight wrapper (Team Wendy) or a water-resistant airtight coating (Oregon Aero). The next two are NFL pad systems. The Xenith system consists of a thin foam pad and a hollow air-filled cylinder that elastically buckles under load. The Riddell system is a bilayer foam pad that is encased in an inflatable airbag with relief channels to neighboring pads in the helmet. The inflatable airbag is for comfort and provides no enhancement to impact mitigation. The d3o system consists of a rate-sensitive homogeneous dense foam. LLNL performed experiments to characterize the material properties of the individual foam materials and the response of the complete pad systems, to obtain parameters needed for the simulations. LLNL also performed X-ray CT scans of an ACH helmet shell that were used to construct a geometrically accurate computational model of the helmet. Two complementary sets of simulations were performed. The first set of simulations reproduced the
Houston, David J; Richardson, Lilliard E
We assessed the implications for motorcyclist safety of recent repeals of universal helmet laws in 6 US states. We examined cross-sectional time-series data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia for the period 1975 through 2004. On average, when compared to state experience with no helmet mandate, universal helmet laws were associated with an 11.1% reduction in motorcyclist fatality rates, whereas rates in states with partial coverage statutes were not statistically different from those with no helmet law. Furthermore, in the states in which recent repeals of universal coverage have been instituted, the motorcyclist fatality rate increased by an average of 12.2% over what would have been expected had universal coverage been maintained. Since 1997, an additional 615 motorcyclist fatalities have occurred in these states as a result of these changes in motorcycle helmet laws. Motorcyclist safety has been compromised in the states that have repealed universal coverage and is likely to be compromised in other states that abandon these statutes.
Striker, Rebecca H; Chapman, Alistair J; Titus, Rachel A; Davis, Alan T; Rodriguez, Carlos H
Michigan repealed a 35-year mandatory helmet law in April 2012. We examined the impact of this legislation on a level 1 trauma center. A retrospective cohort study comparing the 7-month period before and the 3 motorcycle seasons after the helmet law repeal. A total of 345 patients were included in the study. Nonhelmeted riders increased from 7% to 28% after the repeal. Nonhelmeted crash scene fatalities were higher after the repeal (14% vs 68%). The nonhelmeted cohort had significantly higher in-patient mortality (10% vs 3%), injury severity score (19 vs 14.5) and abbreviated injury scale head (2.2 vs 1.3). Non-helmeted riders also had increased alcohol use, intensive care unit length of stay and need for mechanical ventilation. The median hospital cost for the non-helmeted cohort was higher (P helmet law repeal continues to evolve. Three years after this legislative change, we are now observing increased injury severity score, higher in-patient mortality, and worse neurologic injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing......Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
Khan, Imran; Khan, Abdullah; Aziz, Fatima; Islam, Muhammad; Shafqat, Saad
Wearing a helmet is the single most effective measure for preventing head injuries in motorcycle users. The authors undertook this study to estimate compliance and determine reasons for noncompliance with helmet use among motorcyclists in their community. This was a cross-sectional survey of motorcyclists in three large randomly selected public-access parking spaces across Karachi, Pakistan's largest city. Questions covered personal demographics, frequency of helmet use, reasons for use or nonuse, and knowledge of local helmet laws. Analysis was based on frequencies and group comparisons using chi-square test or independent sample t-test. Of the 300 (100% male) subjects, 169 (56%) reported using helmets regularly. Users listed injury prevention (78%) as the major reason for compliance, while nonusers listed physical discomfort (44%) and limited vision (25%) as the leading reasons for noncompliance. In univariate analysis, helmet users were significantly better educated than nonusers and were more likely to believe that helmets are protective (p = 0.002) and that passengers should also wear helmets (p helmet laws) did not differ between users and nonusers. Helmets are underused by motorcyclists in the authors' community. This study underscores the need for improved helmet design, public understanding, intense public education, and rigorous law enforcement in raising compliance with helmet use and minimizing the risk of preventable trauma.
Wiznia, Daniel H; Averbukh, Leon; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Goel, Alex; Leslie, Michael P
The lack of a mandatory motorcycle helmet law leads to increased injury severity and increased health care costs. This study presents a financial model to estimate how the lack of a mandatory helmet law impacts the cost of health care in the state of Connecticut. The average cost to treat a helmeted rider and a nonhelmeted rider was $3,112 and $5,746 respectively (cost adjusted for year 2014). The total hospital treatment cost in the state of Connecticut from 2003 through 2012 was $73,106,197, with $51,508,804 attributed to nonhelmeted riders and $21,597,393 attributed to helmeted riders. The total Medicaid cost to the state of Connecticut for treating nonhelmeted patients was $18,277,317. This model demonstrates that the lack of a mandatory helmet law increases overall health care costs to the state of Connecticut, and provides a framework by which hospital costs can be reduced to contribute to the economic stability of health care economics in the state.
Tenkate, T S; Collins, M J
To investigate the angles of entry of ultraviolet (UV) radiation into welding helmets, a UV detector was placed in the eye socket of a head form that was then fitted with a range of welding helmets. The head form was exposed to a collimated beam of UV radiation from various orientations, and the amount of infiltration was measured. Radiation was found to be reflected from the filter plate and into the detector (eye) after entering through (1) an opening between the edge of the shield and the side of the face, and (2) an opening between the top edge of the shield and the top of the head. These results have significance for UV exposure when welding is performed in highly reflective and enclosed situations, and for the design of welding helmets.
Full Text Available One of the primary causes of discomfort to both irregular and elite cyclists is heat entrapment by a helmet resulting in overheating and excessive sweating of the head. To accurately assess the cooling effectiveness of bicycle helmets, a heated plastic thermal headform has been developed. The construction consists of a 3D-printed headform of low thermal conductivity with an internal layer of high thermal mass that is heated to a constant uniform temperature by an electrical heating element. Testing is conducted in a wind tunnel where the heater power remains constant and the resulting surface temperature distribution is directly measured by 36 K-type thermocouples embedded within the surface of the head in conjunction with a thermal imaging camera. Using this new test system, four bicycle helmets were studied in order to measure their cooling abilities and to identify ‘hot spots’ where cooling performance is poor.
Full Text Available Microorganisms associated with commercial motorcycle helmets were investigated in the commercial city of Lagos, Nigeria. 300 motorcycle helmets were randomly collected from different commercial motor cyclists in two densely populated areas of Lagos: Yaba College of Technology (YABATECH and Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH main gates respectively. Two sterile swabs moistened with sterile water were rotated over the inner surface of each helmet and cultured on MacConkey Agar and Nutrient Agar for bacterial growth and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for fungi growth. The plates for bacteria growth were incubated aerobically at 37 ºC for 48 h, while plates for fungi at 28 ºC for 2 weeks. Biochemical tests were used to identify bacteria; while, cultural characteristics were used for fungi identification. The microorganisms consistently common to the samples investigated in the two locations were similar and included (with respective frequency of occurrence for both location: Staphylococcus aureus (80%; 7%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (75%; 12%, Staphylococcus epidermis (60%; 8%, Enterobacter aerogenes (52%; 27%, Escherichia coli (40%; 13%, Bacillus spp (37%; 10%, Aspergillus spp (82%; 7%, Candida spp (55%; 22%, Rhizopus spp (40%; 27%, and Penicilium spp (35%; 12%. The motorcycle helmets collected at YABATECH had higher microbial colonization than LUTH irrespective of the isolates. This trend was similar for bacterial and fungi. Results showed that helmets could serve as vehicles for transmission of pathogens. Good hygiene practice (GHP and regular cleaning of motor cycle helmets with sterilants is strongly advocated in order to reduce the incidence of microbial transmission and its associated infection.
Bergenstal, John; Davis, Stephen M; Sikora, Rosanna; Paulson, Debra; Whiteman, Charles
The primary objective was evaluation of the injury pattern of children 14 years old or less involved in bicycle accidents and comparison of the differences between those wearing a helmet and not wearing a helmet. This was a retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients involved in bicycle crashes from 2008 through 2010 who were treated within the West Virginia Trauma System. A case was selected for further analysis if "bicycle" and "blunt cause of injury" were present in the Mechanism of Injury field and if age was 14 years old or less. Descriptive statistics were calculated on all variables. Differences between the helmeted and un-helmeted cohorts were tested using the Wilcoxon test or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. In all cases an alpha of 0.05 was selected as the threshold for statistical significance. The helmeted group had a concussion rate of 19.4% while concussions were noted in 37.4% of the un-helmeted group (p = 0.0509). Additionally, there was a significant difference in the rate of skull fractures seen. Skull fractures occurred in 3.2% of the helmeted and 17.4% of the un-helmeted (p = 0.0408) riders. The rate of intra-cranial hemorrhage was 0% in helmeted riders and 17.4% in un-helmeted riders (p = 0.0079). Finally, perhaps the largest indicator of the effectiveness of helmets in the pediatric bicycle population is the mortality rate. While not statistically different, 100% (n = 2) of the deaths occurred in the un-helmeted group. This study of the West Virginia pediatric population demonstrates findings similar to prior studies looking at the effectiveness of helmets in preventing injuries during a bicycle crash. Bicycle helmets were shown to significantly reduce the rates of both skull fractures and intracranial hemorrhage. Based on this, the expanded use of helmets within the pediatric population should continue to be encouraged both from an educational and legislative standpoint.
Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching
The objective of this study was to examine whether the implementation of the helmet law had reduced the likelihood of head injury and the associated medical cost in Taiwan. Data were taken from the 1996 and 1998 population-based data. In total, 888,179 and 921,058 effective samples were used in the study from the two years. Two different types of regression model were adopted to evaluate the impact of the motorcycle helmet use law on incidences of head injury and associated medical cost and h...
Nolte, Kurt B; Healy, Colleen; Rees, Clifford M; Sklar, David
Motorcycle helmet laws are perceived to infringe upon individual rights even though they reduce mortality and health care costs. We describe proposed helmet legislation that protects individual rights and provides incentives for helmet use through a differential motorcycle registration fee that requires higher fees for those who wish to ride without a helmet.
OVERPRESSURE WOUNDS AND INJURIES IMPACT STATIC TESTS PADS(CUSHIONS) TEST AND EVALUATION TRAUMA...HELMET PADS HEAD(ANATOMY) TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY HELMETS SHOCK TUBES ACH(ADVANCED COMBAT HELMET) U.S...Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.  W. C. Moss and M. J. King, "Impact response of US Army and National Football League helmet pad
Wang, Jian-Bo; Reetz, Manfred T.
Racemic or enantiomerically pure alcohols can be converted with high yield into enantiopure chiral amines in a one-pot redox-neutral cascade process by the clever combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase and an appropriate amine dehydrogenase.
San Martin, Jesus; Rodriguez-Perez, Daniel
Presented in this work are some results relative to sequences found in the logistic equation bifurcation diagram, which is the unimodal quadratic map prototype. All of the different saddle-node bifurcation cascades, associated with every last appearance p-periodic orbit (p=3,4,5,...), can also be generated from the very Feigenbaum cascade. In this way it is evidenced the relationship between both cascades. The orbits of every saddle-node bifurcation cascade, mentioned above, are located in different chaotic bands, and this determines a sequence of orbits converging to every band-merging Misiurewicz point. In turn, these accumulation points form a sequence whose accumulation point is the Myrberg-Feigenbaum point. It is also proven that the first appearance orbits in the n-chaotic band converge to the same point as the last appearance orbits of the (n + 1)-chaotic band. The symbolic sequences of band-merging Misiurewicz points are computed for any window.
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald
The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists' advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering.
Homer, Jenny; French, Michael
The passage of universal helmet legislation requiring motorcycle riders of all ages to wear helmets is a timely and controversial issue with far-reaching public health implications, especially as the number of motorcycle fatalities continues to rise. In 2008, only 20 states had a universal helmet policy, an effective safety measure for reducing motorcycle fatalities and serious injuries. We used state-specific longitudinal data for the continental United States from 1990 through 2005 to determine which industry, political, economic, and demographic factors had a significant influence on the enactment of universal helmet policies. Our findings suggest that political climate and ideology are important predictors of helmet policies.
Mosleh, Yasmine; Cajka, Martin; Depreitere, Bart; Vander Sloten, Jos; Ivens, Jan
Oblique impact is the most common accident situation that occupants in traffic accidents or athletes in professional sports experience. During oblique impact, the human head is subjected to a combination of linear and rotational accelerations. Rotational movement is known to be responsible for traumatic brain injuries. In this article, composite foam with a column/matrix composite configuration is proposed for head protection applications to replace single-layer uniform foam, to better attenuate rotational movement of the head during oblique impacts. The ability of composite foam in the mitigation of rotational head movement is studied by performing finite element (FE) simulations of oblique impact on flat and helmet shape specimens. The performance of composite foam with respect to parameters such as compliance of the matrix foam and the number, size and cross-sectional shape of the foam columns is explored in detail, and subsequently an optimized structure is proposed. The simulation results show that using composite foam instead of single-layer foam, the rotational acceleration and velocity of the headform can be significantly reduced. The parametric study indicates that using a more compliant matrix foam and by increasing the number of columns in the composite foam configuration, the rotation can be further mitigated. This was confirmed by experimental results. The simulation results were also analyzed based on global head injury criteria such as head injury criterion, rotational injury criterion, brain injury criterion and generalized acceleration model for brain injury threshold which further confirmed the superior performance of composite foam versus single-layer homogeneous expanded polystyrene foam. The findings of simulations give invaluable information for design of protective helmets or, for instance, headliners for the automotive industry.
Saberian, Mohammad Javad; Vasconcelos, Nuno
The problem of automatic and optimal design of embedded object detector cascades is considered. Two main challenges are identified: optimization of the cascade configuration and optimization of individual cascade stages, so as to achieve the best tradeoff between classification accuracy and speed, under a detection rate constraint. Two novel boosting algorithms are proposed to address these problems. The first, RCBoost, formulates boosting as a constrained optimization problem which is solved with a barrier penalty method. The constraint is the target detection rate, which is met at all iterations of the boosting process. This enables the design of embedded cascades of known configuration without extensive cross validation or heuristics. The second, ECBoost, searches over cascade configurations to achieve the optimal tradeoff between classification risk and speed. The two algorithms are combined into an overall boosting procedure, RCECBoost, which optimizes both the cascade configuration and its stages under a detection rate constraint, in a fully automated manner. Extensive experiments in face, car, pedestrian, and panda detection show that the resulting detectors achieve an accuracy versus speed tradeoff superior to those of previous methods.
Wheeler, Robert F.
Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)
Haqverdi, Mahdi Quchaniyan; Seyedabrishami, Seyedehsan; Groeger, John A
Sixty percent of motorcyclist fatalities in traffic accidents of Iran are due to head injuries, but helmet use is low, despite it being a legal requirement. This study used face-to-face interviews to investigate the factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle riders in Mashhad city, the second largest city in Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data reduction and identification of consistent features of the data. Ordered and multinomial logit analyses were used to quantify the influences on helmet use and non-use. The data show that 47% of the sample used a helmet, but a substantial proportion of these did not wear their helmet properly. In addition, 5% of motorcyclists believed that helmets reduced their safety. Norms, attitudes toward helmet use, risky traffic behavior and awareness of traffic rules were found to be the key determinants of helmet use, but perceptions of enforcement lacked influence. Duration of daily motorcycle trips, riding experience and type of job also affected helmet use. Results indicate that motorcyclist training, safety courses for offending motorcyclists and social programs to improve social norms and attitudes regarding helmet use are warranted, as are more effective law enforcement techniques, in order to increase proper use of helmets in Iranian motorcyclists. In addition, special safety courses should be considered for motorcyclists who have committed traffic violations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Croce, Martin A; Zarzaur, Ben L; Magnotti, Louis J; Fabian, Timothy C
To analyze a large national database, the National Trauma Data Bank, regarding the contribution of motorcycle helmet use to outcome and the efficacy of state helmet laws. Motorcycle helmet laws remain controversial, and advocacy groups continue their lobbying efforts to rescind or weaken existing laws. One argument is that helmets contribute to severe injuries and are not associated with survival. The National Trauma Data Bank identified motorcycle crash patients from 2002 to 2007. Data collected included demographics, markers of injury severity, resource utilization, and outcome. Over 2.3 million patients were entered into the National Trauma Data Bank. A total of 76,944 were in motorcycle collisions and had helmet use documented. Mean age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score were 36 years, 13.7, and 13.5, respectively. Of the patients 76% wore helmets, and had lower Glasgow coma scale, injury severity score, head abbreviated injury scale, resource utilization, and mortality than unhelmeted patients. There were more uninsured patients who did not wear helmets. Logistic regression analysis indicated that helmet use has a strong protective effect on in-hospital mortality. Helmet use could save approximately $32.5 million by reducing ICU stay. Unhelmeted motorcycle crash patients suffer more severe brain injuries, consume more resources, and have the worst payor mix. Society bears a large financial burden for these uninsured unhelmeted patients. There is a survival advantage for helmeted patients. All states should have universal motorcycle helmet laws that are aggressively enforced.
Martin-Smith, James D
Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.
Carter, Patrick M.; Buckley, Lisa; Flannagan, Carol A. C.; Cicchino, Jessica B.; Hemmila, Mark; Bowman, Patrick J.; Almani, Farideh; Bingham, C. Raymond
Objectives To evaluate the impact of the partial repeal of Michigan’s universal motorcycle helmet law on helmet use, fatalities, and head injuries. Methods We compared helmet use rates and motorcycle crash fatality risk for the 12 months before and after the April 13, 2012, repeal with a statewide police-reported crash data set. We linked police-reported crashes to injured riders in a statewide trauma registry. We compared head injury before and after the repeal. Regression examined the effect of helmet use on fatality and head injury risk. Results Helmet use decreased in crash (93.2% vs 70.8%; P helmet nonuse (AOR = 1.84), alcohol intoxication (AOR = 11.31), intersection crashes (AOR = 1.62), and crashes at higher speed limits (AOR = 1.04) increased fatality risk. Helmet nonuse (AOR = 2.31) and alcohol intoxication (AOR = 2.81) increased odds of head injury. Conclusions Michigan’s helmet law repeal resulted in a 24% to 27% helmet use decline among riders in crashes and a 14% increase in head injury. PMID:27854530
Zanotto, Moreno; Winters, Meghan L
Public bike share users have low prevalence of helmet use, and few public bike share systems make helmets available. In summer 2016, a public bike share system launched in Vancouver, BC. Each bicycle is equipped with a free helmet, in response to BC's all-ages compulsory helmet law. This study assessed the prevalence of helmet use among adult cyclists on personal and public bicycles in Vancouver. A survey of adult cyclists (age estimated at ≥16 years) at five screen line sites and at 15 public bike share docking stations was conducted. Observations were made on fair weather days in 2016. Observers recorded the gender of the rider, bicycle type, helmet use, and helmet type. In 2016, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of helmet use by personal and trip characteristics. Observers conducted 87.5 hours of observation and recorded 11,101 cyclists. They observed 10,704 (96.4%) cyclists on personal bicycles and 397 (3.6%) public bicycle users. Overall, the prevalence of helmet use was 78.1% (n=8,670/11,101), higher for personal bicycle riders (78.6%, n=8,416/10,704) than bike share users (64.0%, n=254/397). Helmet use was associated with gender, bicycle facility type, and day and time of travel. In a city with all-ages helmet legislation, helmet use is high but differs across infrastructure types and cyclist characteristics. Bike share systems could increase helmet use by providing complementary helmets coupled with supportive measures. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jan 7, 2013 ... This study documents the population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park. Data were collected in 2011 during the dry and wet seasons. Direct observation including focal observation and scan sampling methods were.
Rash, Clarence E.; Kalich, Melvyn E.; van de Pol, Corina
To meet the goal of 24-hour, all-weather operation, U.S. Army aviation uses a number of imaging sensor systems on its aircraft. Imagery provided by these systems is presented on helmet-mounted displays (HMDs). Fielded systems include the Integrated Helmet Display Sighting System (IHADSS) used on the AH-64 Apache. Proposed future HMD systems such as the Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System (HIDSS) and the Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS) scanning laser system are possible choices for the Army's RAH-66 Comanche helicopter. Ever present in current and future HMD systems is the incompatibility problem between the design-limited physical eye relief of the HMD and the need to provide for the integration of laser and nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) protection, as well as the need to address the changing optical and vision requirements of the aging aviator. This paper defines the compatibility issue, reviews past efforts to solve this problem (e.g., contact lenses, NBC masks, optical inserts, etc.), and identifies emerging techniques (e.g., refractive surgery, adaptive optics, etc.) that require investigation.
Bull, Ashley; Cavanaugh, Lauren
A recent debate has raised controversy over the implementation of helmets in the game of women's lacrosse. Women have been participating in this game of finesse and skill without the need for safety equipment, yet in the past decade goggles have been mandated to compensate for the technological advancements in equipment that has increased the…
This study documents the population status, feeding ecology and activity pattern of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) in Abijata-Shalla Lakes National Park. Data were collected in 2011 during the dry and wet seasons. Direct observation including focal observation and scan sampling methods were used to collect ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the frictional properties between the exterior surface of a motorcycle helmet and 'typical' roadway surfaces. These values were compared to abrasive papers currently recommended by government helmet safety standards and widely used by researchers in the field of oblique motorcycle helmet impacts. A guided freefall test fixture was utilized to obtain nominal impact velocities of 5, 7 and 9 m/s. The impacting surfaces were mounted to an angled anvil to simulate off-centered oblique collision. Head accelerations and impact forces were measured for each test. Analysis of the normal and tangential forces imparted to the contact surface indicated that the frictional properties of abrasive papers differ from asphalt and cement in magnitude, duration and onset. Reduction in head acceleration, both linear and angular, were observed when asphalt and cement were used as the impacting surface. Roofing shingle was determined to be a more suitable material to simulate 'typical' roadway surfaces however, this may not be ideal for use in a controlled laboratory setting. In a laboratory setting, the author recommends cement as a best-fit material to simulate roadway surface for use in oblique motorcycle helmet impacts since this material displayed characteristics that closely resemble asphalt and is currently used as a roadway construction material.
Abstract. Juba has a poor road network and few public transport options, with an increasing number of people riding motorised or non-motorised cycles This study seeks to characterise the cyclists (including helmet wearing) and to use the findings to make recommendations to the concerned authorities. The study found that ...
An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate and keet survival rates in a wild (WL) and a semi-confined (SC) group. We undertook the study in Eastern ...
Jan 7, 2013 ... birds were affected primarily by the loss of foraging and nesting habitat and by human disturbance. Different conservation measures ... wisely manage human helmeted guinea fowl interac- tions. There are six guinea .... flapping, bill cleaning, bill scratching, and body shaking and tail shaking, and v. Resting: ...
Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Flanagan, Patrick; Gibbs, Peter
Modern helmet-mounted night vision devices, such as the Thales TopOwl helmet, project imagery from intensifiers mounted on the sides of the helmet onto the helmet faceplate. This produces a situation of hyperstereopsis in which binocular disparities are magnified. This has the potential to distort the perception of slope in depth (an important cue to landing), because the slope cue provided by binocular disparity conflicts with veridical cues to slope, such as texture gradients and motion parallax. In the experiments, eight observers viewed sparse and dense textured surfaces tilted in depth under three viewing conditions: normal stereo hyper-stereo (4 times magnification), and hypostereo (1/4 magnification). The surfaces were either stationary, or rotated slowly around a central vertical axis. Stimuli were projected at 6 metres to minimise conflict between accommodation and convergence, and stereo viewing was provided by a Z-screen and passive polarised glasses. Observers matched perceived visual slope using a small tilt table set by hand. We found that slope estimates were distorted by hyperstereopsis, but to a much lesser degree than predicted by disparity magnification. The distortion was almost completely eliminated when motion parallax was present.
Schlenker, Cody W.
We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
Bledsoe, Gregory H; Li, Guohua
This study aimed to assess the impact of the 1997 Arkansas helmet law repeal on motorcycle registrations, crash and fatality risks, and alcohol involvement in motorcycle crashes. Annual motorcycle registration data for the years 1990 through 2001 were obtained from the Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration. These motorcycle registration data were complemented by the motorcycle crash data from the Arkansas State Police Highway Safety Office and motorcycle fatality data for the state of Arkansas from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. The impact of the repeal on crash rates, helmet usage, and alcohol involvement was assessed through comparisons of data from before (1993 to 1996) and after (1998 to 2001) the repeal. After the repeal, an increase in motorcycle registrations correlated with a marked rise in the total number of crashes and fatalities; however, fatalities per crash remained virtually the same. The proportion of motorcycle fatalities that were not wearing a helmet increased from 47.0% (47/100) before the repeal to 78.2% (104/133) after the repeal (P = 0.001). The overall percentage of fatal motorcycle crashes involving alcohol use remained unchanged after the repeal (37.6% [29/77] to 38.5% [40/104], P = 0.91), but the percentage of fatal crashes involving drinking nonhelmeted drivers increased from 14.2% (11/77) to 33.6% (35/104) (P = 0.003). Inebriated motorcyclists killed in crashes were overwhelmingly non-helmeted (87.5%, 35/40) after the repeal, up from 37.9% (11/29) before the repeal (P helmet law in Arkansas has had a significant adverse effect on road safety.
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
Nelson, W.R.; Jenkins, T.M.; Ranft, J.
A method for calculating high energy hadron cascades induced by multi-GeV electron and photon beams is described. Using the EGS4 computer program, high energy photons in the EM shower are allowed to interact hadronically according to the vector meson dominance (VMD) model, facilitated by a Monte Carlo version of the dual multistring fragmentation model which is used in the hadron cascade code FLUKA. The results of this calculation compare very favorably with experimental data on hadron production in photon-proton collisions and on the hadron production by electron beams on targets (i.e., yields in secondary particle beam lines). Electron beam induced hadron star density contours are also presented and are compared with those produced by proton beams. This FLUKA-EGS4 coupling technique could find use in the design of secondary beams, in the determination high energy hadron source terms for shielding purposes, and in the estimation of induced radioactivity in targets, collimators and beam dumps
Hyder, A A; Waters, H; Phillips, T; Rehwinkel, J
This paper reviews economic evaluations of motorcycle helmet interventions in preventing injuries. A comprehensive literature review focusing on the effectiveness of motorcycle helmet use, and on mandatory helmet laws and their enforcement was done. When helmet laws were lifted between 1976-80, 48 states within the U.S.A. experienced a cost of $342,047 per excess fatality of annual net savings. Helmet laws in the USA had a benefit-cost ratio of 1.33 to 5.07. Taiwan witnessed a 14% decline in motorcycle fatalities and a 22% reduction of head injury fatalities with the introduction of a helmet law. In Thailand, where 70-90% of all crashes involve motorcycle, after enforcement of a helmet law, helmet-use increased five-fold, the number of injured motorcyclists decreased by 33.5%, head injuries decreased by 41.4%, and deaths decreased by 20.8%. There is considerable evidence that mandatory helmet laws with enforcement alleviate the burden of traffic injuries greatly. For low and middle-income countries with high rates of motorcycle injuries, enforced, mandatory motorcycle helmet laws are potentially one of the most cost-effective interventions available.
Rossheim, Matthew E; Wilson, Fernando; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Rodriguez, Mayra; Walters, Scott; Thombs, Dennis L
Helmet use reduces mortality risk for motorcyclists, regardless of drug and alcohol use. However, the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet utilization is not well known. This study examines the relationship between drug use and motorcycle helmet use among fatally injured motorcycle riders. Using data from the 2005-2009 Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we examined the association between drug use and motorcycle helmet use in a multivariable logistic regression analysis of 9861 fatally injured motorcycle riders in the United States. For fatally injured motorcycle riders, use of alcohol, marijuana, or other drugs was associated with increased odds of not wearing a motorcycle helmet, controlling for the effects of state motorcycle helmet laws and other confounding variables. Predicted probabilities indicate that helmet use substantially decreases among fatally injured riders mixing alcohol with marijuana and other drugs. Furthermore, the likelihood of helmet use between marijuana-only users and other drug users is virtually the same across all blood alcohol content (BAC) levels. This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug use norms among motorcycle riders.
MATSUMOTO, Hiroaki; YOSHIDA, Yasuhisa
A healthy 23-year-old man suffered helmet-to-helmet collisions with an opponent during American football game twice within 3 days. He then experienced continuous vomiting and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed transient stenosis of the right superior cerebellar artery. Although minor head injury is not usually accompanied by complications, posttraumatic ischemic stroke has been reported on rare occasions. We report a case of cerebellar infarction after repeated sports-related minor head injuries in a young adult and discuss the etiology. PMID:25746313
Laker, Scott R
Sports-related concussions (SRC) are common in all ages and occur in all sports. The diagnosis based on clinical suspicion after more serious injury is ruled out. Symptoms of concussion are due to a temporary and reversible neurometabolic cascade resulting in blood flow changes, neuronal excitotoxicity, ionic shifts, and mitochondrial changes. Symptoms are nonspecific, and commonly include headache, cognitive complaints, photophobia, and phonophobia. Loss of consciousness is rare in SRC and has limited influence on recovery and prognosis. Imaging has a limited role in the management of concussion and should be used to evaluate for more serious intracranial pathology. Treatment is based on symptoms and an understanding of the typical, rapid (7-10 days) recovery. No athlete should return to play until their symptoms have resolved and they have completed a supervised, step-wise return to play protocol. The article covers the most recent literature on the diagnosis and management of SRC, including evidence-based recommendations and expert-based consensus opinion. The article will also discuss issues regarding medical retirement, legislation, and future concepts in concussion diagnosis and management.
Colello, Raymond J; Colello, Ian A; Abdelhameid, Duaa; Cresswell, Kellen G; Merchant, Randall; Beckett, Ethan
In an effort to reduce concussions in football, a helmet safety-rating system was developed in 2011 that rated helmets based on their ability to reduce g-forces experienced by the head across a range of impact forces measured on the playing field. Although this was considered a major step in making the game safer, the National Football League (NFL) continues to allow players the right to choose what helmet to wear during play. This prompted us to ask: What helmets do NFL players wear and does this helmet policy make the game safer? Accordingly, we identified the helmets worn by nearly 1000 players on Week 13 of the 2015-2016 season and Week 1 of the 2016-2017 season. Using stop-motion footage, we found that players wore a wide range of helmets with varying safety ratings influenced in part by the player's position and age. Moreover, players wearing lower safety-rated helmets were more likely to receive a concussion than those wearing higher safety-rated helmets. Interestingly, many players suffering a concussion in 2015 did not switch to a higher safety-rated helmet in 2016. Using a helmet-to-helmet impactor, we found that the g-forces experienced in the highest safety-rated helmets were roughly 30% less than that for the lowest safety-rated helmets. These results suggest that the current NFL helmet policy puts players at increased risk of receiving a concussion as many players are wearing low safety-rated helmets, which transmits more energy to the brain than higher safety-rated helmets, following collision. Thus, to reduce concussions, the NFL should mandate that players only wear helmets that receive the highest safety rating.
Byrnes, Matthew; Gerberich, Susan
Although there has been a marked improvement in the safety profiles of cars and in car crash outcomes, there has been a marked worsening in outcomes of motorcycle collisions. Motorcycles account for only 2% of vehicle registrations in the United States, but motorcycle collisions account for 10% of traffic deaths. Further, motorcycle riders are 34 times more likely to die in a traffic collision than automobile drivers. Motorcycle helmet use has been suggested to be an effective way to reduce death and disability after traffic collisions, and enactment of universal helmet laws has been suggested as a means to enforce helmet use. This article presents findings from an analysis of National Highway Traffic Safety Administration data and studies in the medical literature on the impact of motorcycle helmet use and helmet legislation on the risk of death or injury in motorcycle accidents. The authors found voluminous support for motorcycle helmet use as a way to prevent severe traumatic brain injury and traffic fatalities.
Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M
Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists.
... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.
Wiznia, Daniel H; Kim, Chang-Yeon; Dai, Feng; Goel, Alex; Leslie, Michael P
The State of Connecticut has a partial motorcycle helmet law, which has been linked to one of the lowest helmet compliance rates in the Northeast. We examine the clinical and financial impact of low motorcycle helmet use in the State of Connecticut. A retrospective cohort study comparing the outcomes between helmeted and nonhelmeted motorcycle crash victims over a 12.5-year period, from July 2, 2002, to December 31, 2013. All patients who were admitted to the hospital after a motorcycle crash were included in the study. Patients were stratified into helmeted and nonhelmeted cohorts. Group differences were compared using t-test or Wilcoxon rank test for continuous variables and chi-square test for dichotomous outcomes. Regression models were created to evaluate predictors of helmet use, alcohol and drugs as confounding variables, and factors that influenced hospital costs. The registry included 986 eligible patients. Of this group, 335 (34%) were helmeted and 651 (66%) were nonhelmeted. Overall, nonhelmeted patients had a worse clinical presentation, with lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS; P helmeted patients incurred $14,970 (P =.18). ISS, GCS, and ICU length of stay were significantly correlated with increased hospital costs (P helmet was a significant predictor of mortality (P =.04) after adjusting for alcohol/drug use and age. Helmet use is associated with lower injury severity and increased survival after a motorcycle crash. These outcomes remained consistent even after controlling for age and alcohol and drug use. The medical and financial impact of Connecticut's partial helmet law should be carefully evaluated to petition for increased education and enforcement of helmet use.
Crompton, Joseph G; Bone, Curt; Oyetunji, Tolulope; Pollack, Keshia M; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi; Villegas, Cassandra; Stevens, Kent; Cornwell, Edward E; Efron, David T; Haut, Elliott R; Haider, Adil H
There has been a repeal of the universal helmet law in several states despite definitive evidence that helmets reduce mortality, traumatic brain injury, and hospital expenditures. Opponents of the universal helmet law have successfully claimed that helmets should not be required because of greater torque on the neck, which is thought to increase the likelihood of a cervical spine injury. There is currently insufficient evidence to counter claims that helmets do not increase the risk of cervical spine injury after a motorcycle collision. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of motorcycle helmets on the likelihood of developing a cervical spine injury after a motorcycle collision. We reviewed cases in the National Trauma Databank (NTDB) v7.0 involving motorcycle collisions. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the independent effect of helmets on cervical spine injury. Cases were adjusted for age, race, sex, insurance status, anatomic (Injury Severity Score) and physiologic injury severity (systolic blood pressure 3). Between 2002 and 2006, 62,840 cases of motorcycle collision were entered into the NTDB; 40,588 had complete data and were included in the adjusted analysis. Helmeted riders had a lower adjusted odds (0.80 [CI 0.72 to 0.90]) and a lower proportion of cervical spine injury (3.5% vs 4.4%, p Helmeted motorcyclists are less likely to suffer a cervical spine injury after a motorcycle collision. This finding challenges a long-standing objection to mandatory helmet use that claims helmets are associated with cervical spine injury. Re-enactment of the universal helmet law should be considered in states where it has been repealed. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blanco, Magdalena; Cabrera, José María; Cid, Alejandro; Carozzi, Felipe
Simultaneity bias complicates the estimation of the causal effect of motorcycle helmet usage on fatalities. We overcome this obstacle by exploiting an exogenous variation in the enforcement of the motorcycle helmet usage law between two municipalities in Uruguay. We show evidence of a dramatic increase in helmet usage in one municipality after the law was enforced. In just one month, usage increased from less than 10% to more than 90%. Our difference in difference estimates sho...
Full Text Available Statistics prove that more Indians die in Road traffic related accidents than in wars. Prior to World War II, the death toll across the world used to be very high. It was at this juncture that a Military Neurosurgeon named Hugh Cairns introduced the compulsory wearing of crash helmets and brought about a reduction in mortality by more than 50%. Within a decade of introduction of crash helmets in Britain, the entire world followed suit. The results of his efforts are here for all of us to see. This innovative military neurosurgeon is credited as the one who introduced the concept of mobile neurosurgical units during world war and also the first proponent of usage of penicillin in war. His concepts in war surgery are still followed by militaries across the world. This article comes as a tribute to this great Neurosurgeon who helped in saving millions of lives.
Hamouda, A.M.S.; Sohaimi, R.M.; Zaidi, A.M.A.; Abdullah, S.
Abstract: As weaponry technology has advanced, the ballistic threat to humans has increased significantly. As well as the military, civilians who are exposed to these threats as part of their everyday work require adequate protective equipment. This increasing demand for body armour and ballistic helmets is driving the protective equipment industry to create lightweight, reliable protection adapted for specific applications and marketable to a wide range of consumers. This chapter focuses on ...
Medina, A; Alvarez Fernández, P; Rey Galán, C; Álvarez Mendiola, P; Álvarez Blanco, S; Vivanco Allende, A
To evaluate comfort and noise intensity using the COMFORT scale in infants who receive respiratory support with a helmet interface. An observational descriptive study was conducted on all infants (1 to 12 months of age) admitted to a PICU from November 1st 2013 to March 31st 2014 and who received non-invasive ventilation with a helmet interface. Tolerance to the interface was assessed by use of the COMFORT scale. The intensity of the noise to which the infants were exposed was measured with a TES1350A HIBOK 412 sound-level meter. Three measurements were made every day. Twenty seven patients with bronchiolitis (median age: 54 days; range: 10 to 256) were included. Median COMFORT score in the first day was 21 points (14 - 28). An increase in patient comfort was found with a gradual decrease in the scores, with a maximum reduction of 22% from the first hours (score of 22) to the fifth day (score of 18). The minimum sound intensity registered was 42dB, and the maximum was 78dB. Background noise intensity was associated with noise intensity in the helmet. No differences were observed in COMFORT score and noise intensity between ventilator devices. Helmet interface was well tolerated by infants. COMFORT score results are an indicator that infants were comfortable or very comfortable. The measured noise intensity was in the safe range permitted by World Health Organization. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Zuckerman, Scott L; Morgan, Clinton D; Burks, Stephen; Forbes, Jonathan A; Chambless, Lola B; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K
Sports-related concussions and traumatic brain injury (TBI) represent a growing public health concern. We reviewed the literature regarding equestrian-related brain injury, ranging from concussion to severe TBI. A literature review was performed to address the epidemiology of sports-related concussion and TBI in equestrian-related sports. MEDLINE and PUBMED databases were searched to identify all studies pertaining to brain injury in equestrian-related sports. We included two broad types of brain injury using a distinction established in the literature: 1) TBI with functional impairment, including concussion, or mild TBI, with negative imaging findings; and 2) TBI with structural impairment, with positive imaging and at least one of the following pathologies identified: subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, cerebral contusions, and skull fractures. Our literature search yielded 199 results. We found 26 studies describing functional TBI and 25 mentioning structural TBI, and 8 including both. Of all modern sporting activities, equestrian sports were found to cause some of the highest rates of total bodily injury, severe brain injury, and mortality. Concussions comprise 9.7%-15% of all equestrian-related injuries brought to hospitals for evaluation. Structural TBI was rare, and documentation of these injuries was poor. Although demographic risk factors like age and sex are minimally discussed in the literature, two studies identified a protective effect of increasing rider experience on all forms of bodily injury. However, it remains unclear whether increasing rider experience protects specifically against head injury. Finally, rates of helmet use in horseback riding remain dismally low-ranging from 9%-25%, depending on the activity. These low rates have persisted over time, despite evidence in this literature that helmets lead to an absolute risk reduction for head injury of 40%-50% in equestrian sports
Sadeghian, Homa; Nguyen, Brian; Huynh, Nhan; Rouch, Joshua; Lee, Steven L; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
Up to 75% of skateboarders and snowboarders admitted to the hospital sustain head injuries. It is unclear why not all children and teenagers wear helmets while snowboarding and skateboarding given the protection they afford. To report on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, skateboarding and snowboarding in injured children and to explore factors that influence helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization in this sample. A cross-sectional study of skateboard- and snowboard-associated injuries from 2003 to 2012 among individuals younger than age 18 years using National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from approximately 100 hospitals. Helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization. Of 1742 patients in the study, 852 (48.9%) and 890 (51.1%) were skateboarders and snowboarders, respectively. Overall, 907 (52.1%) did not use helmets, and 704 (40.4%) sustained head injuries. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, location of boarding, and engaging in skateboarding influenced helmet use. Sex, race/ethnicity, helmet use, and skateboarding predicted head injury. Age, sex, skateboarding, and head injury predicted hospital admission. Statistically significant differences exist in helmet use, head injury, and hospitalization rates between skateboarders and snowboarders. Our findings suggest that injury prevention and outreach programs are needed to increase helmet use and reduce the risk of head injury and hospitalization in skateboarders and other at-risk groups. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between race/ethnicity and helmet use among skateboarders and snowboarders.
Ackaah, Williams; Afukaar, Francis K
To estimate the prevalence of helmet use among riders and pillion riders of motorcycles in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana. Cross-sectional observations of helmet use were made at locations where traffic generally slowed down. Statistical analysis was carried out for variables by calculating chi-square (χ(2)) tests to assess statistical significance. A total of 3115 riders and 1058 pillion riders (passengers) were observed at 10 different sites. The overall helmet use for riders was 34.2 percent and that for pillion riders was 1.9 percent. Riders' helmet use rate was highest among the elderly (49.6%), followed by adults (34.3%) and lowest for young people (21.9%) and the observed percentage differences were significant (χ(2)((2))= 67.1; p helmet use was observed between riders riding within the central business district (CBD; 36.5%) and those outside the CBD (32.1%). Riders with at least one pillion rider (27.4%) were less likely to wear a helmet compared to riders riding alone without passengers (37.3%; χ(2)((1))= 29.347; p Helmet use by motorcyclists in Ghana is generally low. There is a need for public awareness campaigns on the safety benefits of helmets to increase its prevalence in Ghana. The education on helmet use must be accompanied by sustained enforcement of the road traffic law by the traffic police to ensure compliance and change in attitudes.
Full Text Available The limiting performance of ballistically loaded helmets designed to reduce head injuries is studied analytically. The projectile does not penetrate the helmet. This analysis evaluates the absolute minimum of the peak displacement of the helmet shell relative to the head, provided that criteria measuring the severity of head injuries lie within prescribed limits. Rather than optimize a specific design configuration, e.g. a viscoelastic foam liner, characteristics of a time-dependent force representing the helmet liner are calculated. The formulation reduces the limiting performance analysis to an optimal control problem.
Ruedl, G; Pocecco, E; Wolf, M; Schöpf, S; Burtscher, M; Kopp, M
With the recent worldwide increase in ski helmet use, new market trends are developing, including audio helmets for listening to music while skiing or snowboarding. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether listening to music with an audio ski helmet impairs reaction time to peripheral stimuli. A within-subjects design study using the Compensatory-Tracking-Test was performed on 65 subjects (36 males and 29 females) who had a mean age of 23.3 ± 3.9 years. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, we found significant differences in reaction times between the 4 test conditions (p=0.039). The lowest mean reaction time (± SE) was measured for helmet use while listening to music (507.9 ± 13.2 ms), which was not different from helmet use alone (514.6 ± 12.5 ms) (p=0.528). However, compared to helmet use while listening to music, reaction time was significantly longer for helmet and ski goggles used together (535.8 ± 14.2 ms, p=0.005), with a similar trend for helmet and ski goggles used together while listening to music (526.9 ± 13.8 ms) (p=0.094). In conclusion, listening to music with an audio ski helmet did not increase mean reaction time to peripheral stimuli in a laboratory setting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Clark, J Michio; Hoshizaki, T Blaine; Gilchrist, Michael D
The purpose of this study was to assess the protective capacity of an ice hockey goaltender helmet for three concussive impact events. A helmeted and unhelmeted headform was used to test three common impact events in ice hockey (fall, puck impacts and shoulder collisions). Peak linear acceleration, rotational acceleration and rotational velocity as well as maximum principal strain and von Mises stress were measured for each impact condition. The results demonstrated the tested ice hockey goaltender helmet was well designed to manage fall and puck impacts but does not consistently protect against shoulder collisions and an opportunity may exist to improve helmet designs to better protect goaltenders from shoulder collisions.
Rahman, Anis; Rahman, Aunik K.
High speed acquisition of reflected terahertz energy constitutes a kinetics spectrum that is an effective tool for layered materials' deformation characterization under ballistic impact. Here we describe utilizing the kinetics spectrum for quantifying a deformation event due to impact in material used for Soldier's helmet. The same technique may be utilized for real-time assessment of trauma by measuring the helmet wore by athletes. The deformation of a laminated material (e.g., a helmet) is dependent on the nature of impact and projectile; thus can uniquely characterize the impact condition leading to a diagnostic procedure based on the energy received by an athlete during an impact. We outline the calibration process for a given material under ballistic impact and then utilize the calibration for extracting physical parameters from the measured kinetics spectrum. Measured kinetics spectra are used to outline the method and rationale for extending the concept to a diagnosis tool. In particular, captured kinetics spectra from multilayered plates subjected to ballistic hit under experimental conditions by high speed digital acquisition system. An algorithm was devised to extract deformation and deformation velocity from which the energy received on the skull was estimated via laws of nonrelativistic motion. This energy is assumed to be related to actual injury conditions, thus forming a basis for determining whether the hit would cause concussion, trauma, or stigma. Such quantification may be used for diagnosing a Soldier's trauma condition in the field or that of an athlete's.
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…
Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.
In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)
This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers.
Andersen, Tem Frank
This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...
... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...
Anna E Forbes
Full Text Available Cycle use across London and the UK has increased considerably over the last 10 years. With this there has been an increased interest in cycle safety and injury prevention. Head injuries are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in cyclists. This study aimed to ascertain the frequency of different head injury types in cyclists and whether wearing a bicycle helmet affords protection against specific types of head injury.A retrospective observational study of all cyclists older than 16 years admitted to a London Major Trauma Centre between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2015 was completed. A cohort of patients who had serious head injury was identified (n = 129. Of these, data on helmet use was available for 97. Comparison was made between type of injury frequency in helmeted and non-helmeted cyclists within this group of patients who suffered serious head injury.Helmet use was shown to be protective against intracranial injury in general (OR 0.2, CI 0.07-0.55, p = 0.002. A protective effect against subdural haematoma was demonstrated (OR 0.14, CI 0.03-0.72, p = 0.02. Wearing a helmet was also protective against skull fractures (OR 0.12, CI 0.04-0.39, p<0.0001 but not any other specific extracranial injuries. This suggests that bicycle helmets are protective against those injuries caused by direct impact to the head. Further research is required to clarify their role against injuries caused by shearing forces.In a largely urban environment, the use of cycle helmets appears to be protective for certain types of serious intra and extracranial head injuries. This may help to inform future helmet design.
Pardi, Lisa A; King, Brian P; Salemi, Gina; Salvator, Ann E
Research supports the use of a correctly fitted bicycle helmet to reduce the risk of bicycle-related head injury. Although parents believe bicycle helmets work, a large percentage of children do not wear helmets while riding. The purpose of this study was to track pediatric bicycle-related injuries presenting to a pediatric trauma center 1 year before and 5 years after 2001 bicycle helmet legislation aimed to protect children 0 to 16 years. Prospective data collection of pedal cycle injury e-code 826.1 from hospital discharge data set from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2005. Bicycle-related injuries among children 0 to 16 years were grouped by injury type (head, extremity, and other), age, and gender. For years reviewed (2000-2005), bicycle-related injuries were highest in the period May through August. Bicycle-related injury rates per 100,000 for this population were 1,452 a year before legislation. The injury rate decreased 27% (1,054/100,000) one year later. Overall, bicycle-related injury per 100,000 continues to be down by 24%. Data show that extremity injury is greater than head and other injury categories in both male (24% greater) and female (27% greater) children 0 to 16 years one year before legislation. Data show extremity injury rates per 100,000 is greater than head and other injury categories in both male (24% greater) and female (38% greater) categories 5 years later. Bicycle-related injury rates per 100,000 in boys were greater than girls for all years reported. Male extremity injury was 45% higher for 10- to 16-year-old boys than for 5- to 9-year-old boys a year before legislation and continued to rise to 58% in 2005. Male head injury rates per 100,000 were higher in 5- to 9-year-old boys (598/100,000) than in 10- to 16- year-old boys (354/100,000) one year before legislation. In 2005, the bicycle-related head injury rates per 100,000 dropped to 485 for 5- to 9-year-old vs 223 for the 10- to 16-year-old boys. Female extremity injury rate
Abbas, Alaa K; Hefny, Ashraf F; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M
The high risk of injury and death of motorcycle riders is a major global health problem. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of helmet wearing on motorcycle riders' death rates on a global level. Data for motorcycle riders were collected from 70 countries. These data included motorcycle-related death rates per 100,000 population, helmet non-usage percentage, Gross National Income per capita (GNI), number of registered motorized 2-3 wheelers, the effectiveness of law enforcement in each country, and whether there was standards for helmets use or not. Correlations between studied variables were done using Pearson correlation. Multiple linear regression models were used to define factors affecting motorcycle-related death rates. The correlation between motorcycle-related death rate and helmet non-usage, was almost significant (p=0.056, r=0.28). Helmet non-usage percentage was significantly correlated with GNI (plaw (phelmet non-usage percentage (p=0.003), motorcycle per person ratio (p=0.01) and the presence of helmet standards (p=0.05) were positively associated with motorcycle-related death rates. A simple linear regression model between helmet usage and road traffic death rate has shown that for each 10% increase in helmet usage, one life per 1,000,000 inhabitants can be saved per year. Helmet non-usage percentage was the most significant factor affecting motorcyclists' death rate. Wearing a motorcycle helmet reduces the risk of death from a motorcycle crash. Enforcement of motorcycle helmet laws should be effectively supported by motorcycle safety programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Swaroop, Mamta; Marie Siddiqui, Selma; Sagar, Sushma; Crandall, Marie L
In India, motorized two-wheeler (MTW) road traffic accidents injure or kill 72,000 women annually. Before the Motor Vehicle Act of 1988, which required mandatory helmet use for MTW riders, a study found 0.6% of all MTW pillions (backseat passengers) were helmeted. Citing religious protests to the legislation, Delhi's high court exempted the city's 12 million women from the law. We hypothesize that currently male pillions use helmets more frequently than females, and that overall pillion helmet usage has increased over the last 20 y. Continuous video was recorded in half-hour blocks at four locations in Delhi on separate days, totaling 8 hours of high- and low-volume traffic. Videos were reviewed with at least two reviewers extracting the number of MTW pillions, as well as their gender, approximate age, and helmet usage. Of 4010 pillions identified, 63.8% were male, 32.4% female, and 3.3% children. Among males, there were significantly more helmeted pillions (88.4%, P < 0.001); among females, there were significantly more unhelmeted pillions (99.4%, P < 0.001). Among unhelmeted pillions, significantly more were female (81.4%) than male (P < 0.001). Current overall pillion helmet use is significantly higher than historical rate (P < 0.001). The significantly higher male pillion helmet usage compared with females indicates Delhi's helmet law is associated with increased compliance among those who fall under its jurisdiction. This augments the growing body of evidence that mandatory helmet laws are efficacious, thus repealing the exemption of women is an important step in increasing female pillion helmet usage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emery, Carolyn A; Black, Amanda M; Kolstad, Ash; Martinez, German; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Engebretsen, Lars; Johnston, Karen; Kissick, James; Maddocks, David; Tator, Charles; Aubry, Mark; Dvořák, Jiří; Nagahiro, Shinji; Schneider, Kathryn
To examine the effectiveness of concussion prevention strategies in reducing concussion risk in sport. Systematic review according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) guidelines. Eleven electronic databases searched and hand-search of references from selected studies. The following were the study inclusion criteria: (1) contained original human research data; (2) investigated an outcome of concussion or head impact; (3) evaluated a concussion prevention intervention; (4) included sport participants; (5) analytical study designand (6) peer-reviewed. The following were the exclusion criteria: (1) review articles, case series or case studies and (2) not in English. The studies selected (n=48) provided evidence related to protective gear (helmets, headgear, mouthguards) (n=25), policy and rule changes (n=13) and other interventions (training, education, facilities) (n=10). Meta-analyses demonstrate a combined effect of a 70% reduction (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=0.3 (95% CI: 0.22 to 0.41)) in concussion risk in youth ice hockey leagues where policy disallows body checking, and the point estimate (IRR=0.8 (95% CI: 0.6 to 1.1)) suggests a protective effect of mouthguards in contact and collision sport (basketball, ice hockey, rugby). Highlights include a protective effect of helmets in skiing/snowboarding and the effectiveness of policy eliminating body checking in youth ice hockey. Future research should examine mouthguards in contact sport, football helmet padding, helmet fit in collision sport, policy limiting contact practice in youth football, rule enforcement to reduce head contact in ice hockey and soccer, ice surface size and board/glass flexibility in ice hockey and training strategies targeting intrinsic risk factors (eg, visual training). PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016039162. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is
Ross, Lisa Thomson; Ross, Thomas P.; Farber, Sarah; Davidson, Caroline; Trevino, Meredith; Hawkins, Ashley
Objectives: To assess undergraduate helmet use attitudes and behaviors in accordance with the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We predicted helmet wearers and nonwearers would differ on our subscales. Methods: Participants (N = 414, 69% female, 84% white) completed a survey. Results: Principal component analysis and reliability analysis guided…
Kauky, Cosmas George; Kishimba, Rogath Saika; Urio, Loveness John; Abade, Ahmed Mohammed; Mghamba, Janneth Maridadi
Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of helmet use among motorcyclists as one of the preventive measures for road traffic injuries. Methods A cross sectional observational survey was conducted in the 3 Districts (Kinondoni, Ilala and Temeke) that make Dar es Salaam. Tanzania. A standardized line-listing form and checklist were used to record the drivers and passengers use of helmet as observed by study investigators. Data for helmet use was collected on one weekday and one weekend day. Time for observation was during the rush hour in the morning, noon and evening. Then data were entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 analysis Results A total of 7,678 motorcycle drivers and 4,328 passengers observed in this study. Drivers were almost male (98.8%) and 73.2% of all passengers were males. The prevalence use of helmet use among motorcyclist's riders was 82.1% and among passengers was 22.5%. Proportion of helmet use in drivers and passengers observed were relatively similar during weekday and weekend day and time of observation. Conclusion This study showed the relative high helmet use among motorcyclist riders though very low in passengers. This study recommends increased community awareness on helmet use among passengers and enforcement and revival of road safety laws of passengers and motorcyclists on helmet use. PMID:26309470
Pervin, Aaron; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Nam, Nguyen Phuong
Abstract Objective To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. Methods The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and χ² was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). Findings The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90–99% among adults, from 15–53% among children ≤ 7 years of age, and from 38–53% among children > 7 but ≤ 14. Of the parents surveyed, 67% said the fear of neck injury was the most important reason their children did not wear a helmet. Conclusion Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions. PMID:19551255
This report gives the description and results of three sled tests with each four dummy heads, to record the behaviour of the head and neck of the dummy and the helmet in case of a simulated accident. The simulated accident resulted in a motions of the head, neck and helmet owing to the effects of
Fukuda, Osamu; Hirashima, Yutaka; Origasa, Hideki; Endo, Shunro
The rate of head injury is 1.86-6 times higher for snowboarding than for skiing. Detailed data about the usefulness of a helmet or knit cap for protecting against serious head injuries have not been reported. The present study evaluated the use of a helmet or knit cap for preventing head injuries. Questionnaire data were collected from 1,190 consecutive patients in a hospital during the 1999/2000-2002/2003 winter seasons at Uonuma ski resort, Niigata, Japan. Patients were divided into the helmet, knit cap, and no cap groups. Upper technical level was highest and jumping as the cause of injury was most frequent in the helmet group. After adjustment for other confounders, there was a significant negative association between the occurrence of serious head injury during snowboarding and female sex (adjusted odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.421-0.718, p jumping (adjusted odds ratio 2.25, 95% confidence interval 1.48-3.43, p = 0.0001). Among snowboarding maneuvers, only jumping showed a significant negative association between wearing of a helmet or knit cap and the occurrence of serious head injury (p = 0.036). Snowboarders who wear helmets might attempt dangerous maneuvers causing injuries. Wearing of a helmet or knit cap protected against serious head injuries on jumping. Every snowboarder should wear a helmet or knit cap on jumping to prevent head injury.
Wijk, R.M. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G. van; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; IJzerman, M.J.
In The Netherlands helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly). However, evidence on the effectiveness of this treatment is lacking. The HEADS study (Helmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls) aims to
Meehan, William P; Lee, Lois K; Fischer, Christopher M; Mannix, Rebekah C
To assess the association between bicycle helmet legislation and bicycle-related deaths sustained by children involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. We conducted a cross-sectional study of all bicyclists aged 0-16 years included in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System who died between January 1999 and December 2010. We compared fatality rates in age-specific state populations between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. We used a clustered Poisson multivariate regression model to adjust for factors previously associated with rates of motor vehicle fatalities: elderly driver licensure laws, legal blood alcohol limit (bicycle-related fatalities sustained by children aged 0.08% between states with helmet laws and those without helmet laws. The mean unadjusted fatality rate was lower in states with helmet laws (2.0/1,000,000 vs 2.5/1,000,000; P = .03). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, lower fatality rates persisted in states with mandatory helmet laws (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-0.98). Bicycle helmet safety laws are associated with a lower incidence of fatalities in child cyclists involved in bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets...
Pierce, Samuel R; Palombaro, Kerstin M; Black, Jill D
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death in bicycle crashes. The factors associated with bicycle helmet use in young children with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers to helmet use in young children in an urban elementary school. Qualitative content analysis with semistructured interviews, observational field notes, and artifacts. Urban elementary school. Seventeen students whose age ranged from 5 to 7 years and whose ethnic background was identified as African American (14) or Caucasian (3). Children participated in a brain safety fair that included presentations and activities. Semistructured, pre- and postexperience interviews were completed. Observations of the students participating in the activities and reflective art projects from the students were collected. The analysis found the following barriers to helmet use: (a) lack of access to a helmet, (b) poor fit of helmets due to hairstyles, and (c) lack of knowledge regarding helmet use. The present study suggests that the issue of helmet design and comfort for younger children with variable hairstyles needs to be addressed in order to increase helmet use in this population.
Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...... by the media, with harmful effects on democracy....
Through a content analysis of 8,800 news items and six months of front pages in three Brazilian newspapers, all dealing with corruption and political transgression, this article documents the remarkable skew of media attention to corruption scandals. The bias is examined as an information...... phenomenon, arising from systemic and commercial factors of Brazil’s news media: An information cascade of news on corruption formed, destabilizing the governing coalition and legitimizing the impeachment process of Dilma Rousseff. As this process gained momentum, questions of accountability were disregarded...
Christensen, Mette Krogh
Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...
Kumphong, J.; Satiennam, T.; Satiennam, W.; Trinh, Tu Anh
A helmet can reduce head accident severity. The aim of this research study was to study the intention for helmet use of students who ride motorcycles in Vietnam, by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Questionnaires developed by several traffic psychology modules, including the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Traffic Locus of Control (T-LOC), and Health Belief Model (HBM), were distributed to students at Ton Thang University and University of Architecture, Ho Chi Minh City. SEM was used to explain helmet use behaviour. The results indicate that TPB, T-LOC and HBM could explain the variance in helmet use behaviour. However, TPB can explain behaviour (helmet use intention) better than T-LOC and HBM. The outcome of this study is useful for the agencies responsible to improve motorcycle safety.
Jones, Marian Moser; Bayer, Ronald
The history of motorcycle helmet legislation in the United States reflects the extent to which concerns about individual liberties have shaped the public health debate. Despite overwhelming epidemiological evidence that motorcycle helmet laws reduce fatalities and serious injuries, only 20 states currently require all riders to wear helmets. During the past 3 decades, federal government efforts to push states toward enactment of universal helmet laws have faltered, and motorcyclists’ advocacy groups have been successful at repealing state helmet laws. This history raises questions about the possibilities for articulating an ethics of public health that would call upon government to protect citizens from their own choices that result in needless morbidity and suffering. PMID:17194856
Chiu, W T; Kuo, C Y; Hung, C C; Chen, M
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effect of the motorcycle helmet law implemented in Taiwan on June 1, 1997. METHODS: Collecting data on 8795 cases of motorcycle-related head injuries from 56 major Taiwanese hospitals, we compared the situation 1 year before and after implementation of the helmet law. RESULTS: After implementation of the law, the number of motorcycle-related head injuries decreased by 33%, from 5260 to 3535. Decreases in length of hospital stay and in severity of injury and better outcome were also seen. The likelihood ratio chi 2 test showed that severity decreased after the law's implementation (P helmets were found to be safer than half-shell helmets. CONCLUSION: The helmet law effectively decreased the mortality and morbidity from motorcycle-related head injuries. PMID:10800433
Testerman, George M; Prior, Daniel C; Wells, Tamie D; Sumner, William C; Johnston, Jeffrey T; Rollins, Sarah E; Meyer, Jeremy M
Motorcycle helmet laws vary by state, with Kentucky requiring helmets only for younger riders. We hypothesized that motorcyclists injured in Kentucky and seen at a Tennessee trauma center would be more likely to be unhelmeted, have more severe head injuries, and sustain more fatal injuries than those injured in Tennessee or Virginia. A Trauma Registry review of 729 injured motorcyclists from January 2005 through June 2015 examined state location of crash, demographics, helmet use, and clinical outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis evaluated predictors for head injury severity and death. Unhelmeted motorcycle rider status predicted more severe head injuries (relative risk 15.3, P motorcycle helmet laws for all ages in states where they are in effect and for upgrading helmet laws that apply only to some riders.
Roehler, Douglas R; Naumann, Rebecca B; Mutatina, Boniface; Nakitto, Mable; Mwanje, Barbara; Brondum, Lotte; Blanchard, Claire; Baldwin, Grant T; Dellinger, Ann M
Motorcycles are an important form of transportation in Uganda, and are involved in more road traffic injuries than any other vehicle. The majority of motorcycles in Uganda are used as motorcycle taxis, better known locally as boda bodas. Research shows that a motorcycle helmet is effective at reducing a rider's risk of death and head injury. As part of the Uganda Helmet Vaccine Initiative (UHVI), researchers collected baseline and formative evaluation data on boda boda operators' helmet attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to inform UHVI activities. Researchers collected data on motorcycle helmet-related attitudes and beliefs through focus group discussions and structured roadside interviews, and researchers conducted roadside observations to collect data on helmet-wearing behaviors. Of the 12,189 motorcycle operators and passengers observed during roadside observations, 30.8% of drivers and approach to future campaign activities.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not
Viano, David C; Pellman, Elliot J; Withnall, Chris; Shewchenko, Nick
The performance of five newer helmets was compared with the baseline VSR-4 helmet in 10 reconstructed cases of National Football League (NFL) collisions causing concussion. The laboratory reconstructions were conducted to determine changes in concussion risk with newer football helmets. In 60 laboratory tests, translational and rotational head accelerations were measured in the striking and struck players represented by Hybrid III dummies. Six-axis upper neck loads and moments were measured in five cases with the struck player and five with the striking player. Biomechanical responses and concussion risks were evaluated for each collision to determine changes with newer helmet designs. Thirty-two out of 50 reconstructed cases showed greater than 10% reduction in severity index with newer helmets compared with the VSR-4; four cases increased. The average reduction in concussion risk with newer helmets was 10.8% (range, 6.9-16.7%) based on severity index. The reduction was 9.7% (range, 6.5-13.9%) based on translational acceleration and 18.9% (range, 10.6-23.4%) with rotational acceleration. Neck responses in the struck player showed a general reduction in moment and force with newer helmets. With newer football helmets, there was a trend toward 10 to 20% lower risks of concussion in reconstructed National Football League game collisions. However, a few designs and cases showed increased responses. The evaluation of football helmets to the proposed National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment concussion standard should lead to more uniform reductions in concussion risk with future football helmets.
On July 1 2000, the State of Florida exempted adult motorcyclist and moped riders from wearing helmets provided they have medical insurance of $10 000. Monthly time series of motorcycle occupant deaths are examined from 1/1994 to 12/2001. The interrupted time series analysis estimates a 48.6% increase in motorcycle occupant deaths the year after the law change. The impact estimate reduces to 38.2% and 21.3% when trends in travel miles and motorcycle registrations are controlled. Our findings suggest that the law’s age exemption should be revoked. PMID:15054002
Francis, Gregory; Rash, Clarence E.
Helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) are designed as a tool to increase performance. To achieve this, there must be an accurate transfer of information from the HMD to the user. Ideally, an HMD would be designed to accommodate the abilities and limitations of users' cognitive processes. It is not enough for the information (whether visual, auditory, or tactual) to be displayed; the information must be perceived, attended, remembered, and organized in a way that guides appropriate decision-making, judgment, and action. Following a general overview, specific subtopics of cognition, including perception, attention, memory, knowledge, decision-making, and problem solving are explored within the context of HMDs.
Fong, Michelle C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Dwyer, Jessica L; Taylor, Yvonne K; Mobasser, Arian; Strong, Theresa M; Werner, Susanne; Ouansavanh, Siamphone; Mounmingkham, Amphone; Kasuavang, Mai; Sittiphone, Dalika; Phoumesy, Khamhak; Sysaythong, Keo; Khantysavath, Khauphan; Bounnaphone, Somchit; Vilaysom, Amphone; Touvachao, Sengchanh; Mounmeuangxam, Siviengxam; Souralay, Somchittana; Lianosay, Baoher; Lia, Thongher; Spector, Jonathan M
Motorcycles make up 81 % of the total vehicle population and 74 % of road traffic deaths in Lao PDR. Helmets reduce the risk and severity of injuries resulting from motorcycle accidents by 72 %. Although Lao law mandates motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers, the prevalence of helmet use in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR is unknown. This project aimed to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among riders (i.e., drivers and passengers) in Luang Prabang. An observational survey in Luang Prabang was conducted in February 2015 to measure the prevalence of motorcycle helmet use among drivers and passengers. Additionally, non-helmet wearing riders were surveyed to identify the reasons for helmet non-use. Of 1632 motorcycle riders observed, only 16.2 % wore helmets. Approximately 29 % of adults wore helmets while less than 1 % of all children wore helmets. When surveyed about attitudes towards helmet use, the majority of adult drivers indicated that they did not like how adult helmets feel or made them look. Additionally, almost half of motorcyclists who did not own child helmets reported that their child was too young to wear a helmet. Our finding that children wear helmets at significantly lower rates compared to adults is consistent with findings from neighboring countries in Southeast Asia. Results of this study have implications for public health campaigns targeting helmet use, especially among children.
Mertz, Kristen J; Weiss, Harold B
To evaluate the 2003 repeal of Pennsylvania's motorcycle helmet law, we assessed changes in helmet use and compared motorcycle-related head injuries with non-head injuries from 2001-2002 to 2004-2005. Helmet use among riders in crashes decreased from 82% to 58%. Head injury deaths increased 66%; nonhead injury deaths increased 25%. Motorcycle-related head injury hospitalizations increased 78% compared with 28% for nonhead injury hospitalizations. Helmet law repeals jeopardize motorcycle riders. Until repeals are reversed, states need voluntary strategies to increase helmet use.
Ryan, Allan J.
Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)
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Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Tran, Nhan T; Sann, Socheata; Ballesteros, Michael F; Gnim, Chandara; Ou, Amra; Sem, Panhavuth; Nie, Xiaoyu; Hyder, Adnan A
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of disability and fatality globally. Motorcycle-related injuries, mainly head injuries, and related deaths and disabilities are a significant contributor to the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Helmets have been proven to be an effective way to reduce the risk of head injury. As motorcycle use continually increases in Cambodia, head injuries and related deaths and disabilities are expected to rise. This article aims to assess the current status of helmet use in Cambodia, as well as the knowledge, attitudes, and practices among motorcyclists, in order to assist with better planning and implementation of injury prevention strategies. Two separate methodologies were employed for this study. Helmet observations were conducted in Phnom Penh, Kandal, Kampong Speu, Siem Reap, and Kampong Cham to assess the current status of helmet use during the day and at night. Roadside knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) interviews were also conducted in Phnom Penh, Kandal, and Kampong Speu to determine the prevailing beliefs around helmet use in Cambodia. Based on observations, the proportion of helmet wearing across all study sites was 25 percent at night and 43 percent during the day among all motorcyclists. The observed proportion was up to 10 times higher among drivers compared to passengers. The top 3 reasons for always wearing a helmet were lifesaving potential, legal duty, and police fines. Almost 60 percent of respondents said that their use or nonuse of a helmet depended on where they were driving. Helmet quality, price, style, and color were important factors influencing the decision to purchase a helmet. A paradox appears to exist in Cambodia; though awareness of the benefits of wearing a helmet is high, actual helmet use remains low in the country. Daytime usage is higher than nighttime, and these proportions are significantly higher among drivers compared to passengers. There is a
Duong, T. A.; Stubberud, A. R.; Daud, T.
A detailed mathematical analysis is presented for a new learning algorithm termed cascade error projection (CEP) and a general learning frame work. This frame work can be used to obtain the cascade correlation learning algorithm by choosing a particular set of parameters.
Uibel, Stefanie; Müller, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A
Bicycle traumata are very common and especially neurologic complications lead to disability and death in all stages of the life. This review assembles the most recent findings concerning research in the field of bicycle traumata combined with the factor of bicycle helmet use. The area of bicycle trauma research is by nature multidisciplinary and relevant not only for physicians but also for experts with educational, engineering, judicial, rehabilitative or public health functions. Due to this plurality of global publications and special subjects, short time reviews help to detect recent research directions and provide also information from neighbour disciplines for researchers. It can be stated that to date, that although a huge amount of research has been conducted in this area more studies are needed to evaluate and improve special conditions and needs in different regions, ages, nationalities and to create successful prevention programs of severe head and face injuries while cycling.Focus was explicit the bicycle helmet use, wherefore sledding, ski and snowboard studies were excluded and only one study concerning electric bicycles remained due to similar motion structures within this review. The considered studies were all published between January 2010 and August 2011 and were identified via the online databases Medline PubMed and ISI Web of Science.
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Vurgaftman, I; Meyer, J R; Canedy, C L; Kim, C S; Bewley, W W; Merritt, C D; Abell, J; Weih, R; Kamp, M; Kim, M; Höfling, S
We review the current status of interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting in the midwave infrared (IR). The ICL may be considered the hybrid of a conventional diode laser that generates photons via electron–hole recombination, and an intersubband-based quantum cascade laser (QCL) that stacks multiple stages for enhanced current efficiency. Following a brief historical overview, we discuss theoretical aspects of the active region and core designs, growth by molecular beam epitaxy, and the processing of broad-area, narrow-ridge, and distributed feedback (DFB) devices. We then review the experimental performance of pulsed broad area ICLs, as well as the continuous-wave (cw) characteristics of narrow ridges having good beam quality and DFBs producing output in a single spectral mode. Because the threshold drive powers are far lower than those of QCLs throughout the λ = 3–6 µm spectral band, ICLs are increasingly viewed as the laser of choice for mid-IR laser spectroscopy applications that do not require high output power but need to be hand-portable and/or battery operated. Demonstrated ICL performance characteristics to date include threshold current densities as low as 106 A cm −2 at room temperature (RT), cw threshold drive powers as low as 29 mW at RT, maximum cw operating temperatures as high as 118 °C, maximum cw output powers exceeding 400 mW at RT, maximum cw wallplug efficiencies as high as 18% at RT, maximum cw single-mode output powers as high as 55 mW at RT, and single-mode output at λ = 5.2 µm with a cw drive power of only 138 mW at RT. (topical review)
Vurgaftman, I.; Weih, R.; Kamp, M.; Meyer, J. R.; Canedy, C. L.; Kim, C. S.; Kim, M.; Bewley, W. W.; Merritt, C. D.; Abell, J.; Höfling, S.
We review the current status of interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting in the midwave infrared (IR). The ICL may be considered the hybrid of a conventional diode laser that generates photons via electron-hole recombination, and an intersubband-based quantum cascade laser (QCL) that stacks multiple stages for enhanced current efficiency. Following a brief historical overview, we discuss theoretical aspects of the active region and core designs, growth by molecular beam epitaxy, and the processing of broad-area, narrow-ridge, and distributed feedback (DFB) devices. We then review the experimental performance of pulsed broad area ICLs, as well as the continuous-wave (cw) characteristics of narrow ridges having good beam quality and DFBs producing output in a single spectral mode. Because the threshold drive powers are far lower than those of QCLs throughout the λ = 3-6 µm spectral band, ICLs are increasingly viewed as the laser of choice for mid-IR laser spectroscopy applications that do not require high output power but need to be hand-portable and/or battery operated. Demonstrated ICL performance characteristics to date include threshold current densities as low as 106 A cm-2 at room temperature (RT), cw threshold drive powers as low as 29 mW at RT, maximum cw operating temperatures as high as 118 °C, maximum cw output powers exceeding 400 mW at RT, maximum cw wallplug efficiencies as high as 18% at RT, maximum cw single-mode output powers as high as 55 mW at RT, and single-mode output at λ = 5.2 µm with a cw drive power of only 138 mW at RT.
Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Maerlender, Arthur C; McAllister, Thomas W; Crisco, Joseph J; Duma, Stefan M; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Rowson, Steven; Flashman, Laura A; Chu, Jeffrey J; Greenwald, Richard M
Concussive head injuries have received much attention in the medical and public arenas, as concerns have been raised about the potential short- and long-term consequences of injuries sustained in sports and other activities. While many student athletes have required evaluation after concussion, the exact definition of concussion has varied among disciplines and over time. The authors used data gathered as part of a multiinstitutional longitudinal study of the biomechanics of head impacts in helmeted collegiate athletes to characterize what signs, symptoms, and clinical histories were used to designate players as having sustained concussions. Players on 3 college football teams and 4 ice hockey teams (male and female) wore helmets instrumented with Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) technology during practices and games over 2-4 seasons of play. Preseason clinical screening batteries assessed baseline cognition and reported symptoms. If a concussion was diagnosed by the team medical staff, basic descriptive information was collected at presentation, and concussed players were reevaluated serially. The specific symptoms or findings associated with the diagnosis of acute concussion, relation to specific impact events, timing of symptom onset and diagnosis, and recorded biomechanical parameters were analyzed. Data were collected from 450 athletes with 486,594 recorded head impacts. Forty-eight separate concussions were diagnosed in 44 individual players. Mental clouding, headache, and dizziness were the most common presenting symptoms. Thirty-one diagnosed cases were associated with an identified impact event; in 17 cases no specific impact event was identified. Onset of symptoms was immediate in 24 players, delayed in 11, and unspecified in 13. In 8 cases the diagnosis was made immediately after a head impact, but in most cases the diagnosis was delayed (median 17 hours). One diagnosed concussion involved a 30-second loss of consciousness; all other players retained
Williams, Chelsea; Weston, Raquel; Feinglass, Joe; Crandall, Marie
Bicycling is one of the most popular forms of play and exercise for children in the US. However, over 200,000 children per year are injured in bicycle crashes, and an estimated 22,000 pediatric bicycle-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur annually. Bicycle helmets are known to decrease the risk of head injury, but efficacy and magnitude of the effect of helmet legislation have not been fully elucidated. This was a retrospective, observational study of children aged legislation. A total of 3080 pediatric bicycle-related crashes were identified. Children wearing helmets were less likely to sustain a TBI, odds ratio [OR] = 0.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.84, P legislation in helmet legislation areas or over time in non-helmet legislation areas. Helmet use was protective against TBI, but socioeconomic and racial disparities exist in usage. Local legislation did not appear to impact helmet usage or admissions for bicycle-related TBIs in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ružić, Lana; Tudor, Anton; Radman, Ivan; Kasović, Mario; Cigrovski, Vjekoslav
The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2) were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Rice, Thomas M; Troszak, Lara; Ouellet, James V; Erhardt, Taryn; Smith, Gordon S; Tsai, Bor-Wen
Most studies find strong evidence that motorcycle helmets protect against injury, but a small number of controversial studies have reported a positive association between helmet use and neck injury. The most commonly cited paper is that of Goldstein (1986). Goldstein obtained and reanalyzed data from the Hurt Study, a prospective, on-scene investigation of 900 motorcycle collisions in the city of Los Angeles. The Goldstein results have been adopted by the anti-helmet community to justify resistance to compulsory motorcycle helmet use on the grounds that helmets may cause neck injuries due to their mass. In the current study, we replicated Goldstein's models to understand how he obtained his unexpected results, and we then applied modern statistical methods to estimate the association of motorcycle helmet use with head injury, fatal injury, and neck injury among collision-involved motorcyclists. We found Goldstein's analysis to be critically flawed due to improper data imputation, modeling of extremely sparse data, and misinterpretation of model coefficients. Our new analysis showed that motorcycle helmets were associated with markedly lower risk of head injury (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.31-0.52) and fatal injury (RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.26-0.74) and with moderately lower but statistically significant risk of neck injury (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.99), after controlling for multiple potential confounders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bartsch, Adam; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Prakash, Vikas
Concussion is the signature American football injury of the 21st century. Modern varsity helmets, as compared with vintage leather helmets, or "leatherheads," are widely believed to universally improve protection by reducing head impact doses and head injury risk for the 3 million young football players in the US. The object of this study was to compare the head impact doses and injury risks with 11 widely used 21st century varsity helmets and 2 early 20th century leatherheads and to hypothesize what the results might mean for children wearing similar varsity helmets. In an injury biomechanics laboratory, the authors conducted front, oblique front, lateral, oblique rear, and rear head impact tests at 5.0 m/second using helmeted headforms, inducing near- and subconcussive head impact doses on par with approximately the 95th percentile of on-field collision severity. They also calculated impact dose injury risk parameters common to laboratory and on-field traumatic neuromechanics: linear acceleration, angular acceleration, angular velocity, Gadd Severity Index, diffuse axonal injury, acute subdural hematoma, and brain contusion. In many instances the head impact doses and head injury risks while wearing vintage leatherheads were comparable to or better than those while wearing several widely used 21st century varsity helmets. The authors do not advocate reverting to leather headgear, but they do strongly recommend, especially for young players, instituting helmet safety designs and testing standards, which encourage the minimization of linear and angular impact doses and injury risks in near- and subconcussive head impacts.
Friedman, Steven Marc; Adamson, Matthew; Cleiman, Paula; Arenovich, Tamara; Oleksak, Karolina; Mohabir, Ishmael Michael; Ta, Robert; Reiter, Kimberley
Helmet use among bike-share users is low. We sought to characterize helmet-use patterns, barriers to helmet use, and cycling safety practices among bike-share users in Toronto. A standardized survey of public bike-share program (PBSP) users at semi-random distribution of PBSP stations was undertaken. By maintaining a ratio of one helmet-wearer (HW): two non-helmet-wearers (NHW) per survey period, we controlled for location, day, time, and weather. Surveys were completed on 545 (180 HW, 365 NHW) unique users at 48/80 PBSP locations, from November 2012 to August 2013. More females wore helmets (F: 41.1%, M: 30.9%, p=0.0423). NHWs were slightly younger than HWs (NHW mean age 34.4 years vs HW 37.3, p=0.0018). The groups did not differ by employment status, education, or income. Helmet ownership was lower among NHWs (NHW: 62.4% vs HW: 99.4%, pbike ownership (NHW: 65.8%, vs HW: 78.3%, p=0.0026). NHWs were less likely to always wear a helmet on personal bikes (NHW: 22.2% vs HW: 66.7%, pbikes. As Toronto cyclists who do not wear helmets on PBSP generally do not wear helmets on their personal bikes, interventions to increase helmet use should target both personal and bike-share users. Legislating helmet use and provision of rental helmets could improve helmet use among bike-share users, but our results suggest some risk of reduced cycling with legislation.
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Ruedl, G; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Zorowka, P; Weichbold, V; Stephan, K; Koci, V; Seebacher, J
Helmet use on ski slopes has steadily increased worldwide over the past years. A common reason reported for helmet non-use, however, is impaired hearing. Therefore, an intra-subject design study was conducted to compare hearing thresholds and sound source localization of 21 adults with normal hearing in an anechoic chamber when wearing a ski helmet and ski goggles or wearing a ski cap and ski goggles to the condition head bare. Hearing thresholds while wearing a ski helmet (6.8 ± 1.6 dB HL) and ski cap (5.5 ± 1.6 dB HL) were significantly different (p = 0.030, d = 0.44). Compared to head bare (2.5 ± 1.2 dB HL), a significant difference was found for the ski helmet only (p = 0.040, d = 1.57). Regarding sound source localization, correct scores in the condition head bare (90%) showed a highly significant difference compared with those of condition cap (65%) and helmet (58%), respectively (p 2.5). Compared to the ski cap, wearing the helmet significantly reduced correct scores (p = 0.020, d = 0.59) irrespective of the tested sound pressure levels. In conclusion, wearing a ski helmet impairs hearing to a small though significantly greater extent compared with a cap, the degree, however, being less than what is termed as a hearing impairment. Compared to the condition head bare, wearing a ski cap or a ski helmet significantly reduced one's ability of sound source localization. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Sang Chul Kim
Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.
Trevisanuto, D; Camiletti, L; Doglioni, N; Cavallin, F; Udilano, A; Zanardo, V
in adults, noninvasive ventilation via a helmet is associated with significantly greater noise than nasal and facial masks. We hypothesized that noise exposure could be increased with neonatal helmet continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in comparison with conventional nasal CPAP (nCPAP). Our primary objective was to compare the noise intensity produced by a neonatal helmet CPAP and a conventional nCPAP system. Furthermore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the gas flow rate and the presence of the humidifier and the filter on noise levels during neonatal helmet CPAP treatment. in this bench study, noise intensity was measured in the following settings: helmet CPAP, nCPAP, incubator and the neonatal intensive care unit. In helmet CPAP, noise measurements were performed at different gas flow rates (8, 10 and 12 l/min), while in nCPAP, the flow rate was 8 l/min. For both CPAP systems, the level of pressure was maintained constant at 5 cmH(2) O. during neonatal helmet CPAP, the median (interquartile range) noise levels were significantly higher than those during nCPAP: 70.0 dB (69.9-70.4) vs. 62.7 dB (62.5-63.0); PCPAP, the noise intensities changed with increasing flow rate and with the presence of a humidifier or a filter. noise intensities generated by the neonatal helmet CPAP were significantly higher than those registered while using a conventional nCPAP system. In the helmet, the noise intensity depends on the gas flow rate, and the presence of a humidifier and a filter in the system. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Ružić, Lana; Tudor, Anton
To examine differences in on-the-snow ski behavior between helmet wearers and nonwearers. The data were collected using a survey. Several tourist agencies helped in administrating the survey to the skiers during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. The survey consisted of multiple-choice questions. The subjects were asked to choose answers most suitable for their skiing style and preferred skiing technique, volume of off-piste skiing, readiness to use time measuring systems on the slopes, and group-skiing preferences, such as leading the group, beside the group, away from the group, etc. The Risk Index was then calculated for each subject. The answers of 710 skiers (mean age 35.5, range 16-81 years) were analyzed. The predictive power for risk-taking behavior was tested for gender, age, educational level, level of skiing, years of skiing, and helmet usage. Younger age, male gender, higher skiing level, and helmet usage were used as independent predictors for the overall Risk Index (Power [1-β err prob] = 0.942). Significantly higher risk was assessed for the male helmet wearers while the results were not significant for the female helmet wearers. The male occasional helmet wearers were found to be the most prone to risky behavior. In female nonhelmet wearers, there was a significant decrease in risk-taking behavior with age but this was not true for female helmet wearers. For males under 35 years of age, helmet use is one of the factors influencing risk-taking on the slopes. This is demonstrated for occasional helmet wearers in particular. Copyright © 2011 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sang Chul; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Joo Yeong
Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.42 (0.24-0.73)), however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI): 0.83 (0.34-2.03). In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.
van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten
This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to
van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving
This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to
Thomson, Beth J.
Acceptance of adult roles by children increases "adult injuries," notably broken bones from sports. Suggests camp administrators be familiar with clientele, particular sports, and the kinds of injuries that generally result in each. Discusses children's age, types of sports, and other factors that come into play when anticipating and treating…
Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M
Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.
Předmětem diplomové práce je návrh novostavby sportovního zařízení na úrovni dokumentace pro provedení stavby. Návrh klade důraz na dispoziční řešení včetně zajištění konstrukce pro statické stránce, architektonické, požární bezpečnosti, úspory energie a bezpečnosti při užívání objektu. Práce obsahuje textovou i grafickou část. Grafická část práce je zpracována v programu ArchiCad. The subject of the diploma thesis is to design a new building of sports facilities at the documentation for b...
Bloomquist, Lorraine E.
This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek
Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does
Full Text Available Analyzing questions related to business communications, especially communications in sport, is possible if the analysis of the size and the subject of the communication concept has been done before, in order to enter into a specific stratum of sport communications. This stratum contains the subjects of communications which could be realized in sport or somehow are connected with sport.
Sherrod, David R.
The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges.
Ghonge, Sushrut; Vural, Dervis Can
Many physical, biological, and social phenomena can be described by cascades taking place on a network. Often, the activity can be empirically observed, but not the underlying network of interactions. In this paper we offer three topological methods to infer the structure of any directed network given a set of cascade arrival times. Our formulas hold for a very general class of models where the activation probability of a node is a generic function of its degree and the number of its active neighbors. We report high success rates for synthetic and real networks, for several different cascade models.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...
van Baar, Gustaaf J C; Ruslin, Muhammad; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Sándor, George K; Forouzanfar, Tymour; Wolff, Jan
In the Netherlands, cyclists continue to outnumber other road users in injuries and deaths. The wearing of bicycle helmets is not mandatory in the Netherlands even though research has shown that wearing bicycle helmets can reduce head and brain injuries by up to 88%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using 3D technology to evaluate bicycle-related head injuries and helmet protection. Three patients who had been involved in a bicycle accident while wearing a helmet were subjected to multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) imaging after trauma. The helmets were separately scanned using the same MDCT scanner with tube voltages ranging from 80kVp to 140kVp and tube currents ranging from 10mAs to 300mAs in order to determine the best image acquisition parameters for helmets. The acquired helmet images were converted into virtual 3D surface hence Standard Tessellation Language (STL) models and merged with MDCT-derived STL models of the patients' skulls. Finally, all skull fractures and corresponding helmet damage were visualized and related. Imaging bicycle helmets on an MDCT scanner proved to be feasible using a tube voltage of 120kVp and a tube current of 120mAs. Merging the resulting STL models of the patients' skull and helmet allowed the overall damage sustained by both skull and helmet to be related. Our proposed 3D method of assessing bicycle helmet damage and corresponding head injuries could offer valuable information for the development and design of safer bicycle helmets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bitsakis, Nicholas; Cassidy, James
A cascade orificial resistive device for throttling fluid flow which minimizes acoustic noise and internal vibrations is described herein. The device has a hollow body defining a fluid passageway, a plurality of perforated plates mounted within the passageway, a fixed end ring adjacent one end of the perforated plates, and a threadable end ring adjacent an opposite end of the perforated plates to place the plates in compression. Each of the perforated plates is a single piece molded plate having an integral outer ring and an integrally formed center keying mechanism as well as a plurality of orifices. The keying mechanism formed on each plate is designed so that adjacent ones of the plates have their orifices misaligned. In this manner, a pressure drop across each plate is created and the fluid flow through the device is throttled. The device of the present invention has utility in a number of onboard marine vessel systems wherein reduced acoustic noise and internal vibrations are particularly desirable.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Auman, Kimberly M.; Kufera, Joseph A.; Ballesteros, Michael F.; Smialek, John E.; Dischinger, Patricia C.
Objectives. This study sought to determine the impact of Maryland’s all-rider motorcycle helmet law (enacted on October 1, 1992) on preventing deaths and traumatic brain injuries among motorcyclists. Methods. Statewide motorcyclist fatalities occurring during seasonally comparable 33-month periods immediately preceding and following enactment of the law were compared. Results. The motorcyclist fatality rate dropped from 10.3 per 10 000 registered motorcycles prelaw to 4.5 postlaw despite almost identical numbers of registered motorcycles. Motorcyclists wearing helmets had a lower risk of traumatic brain injury than those not wearing helmets (odds ratio = 0.31, 95% confidence interval = 0.14, 0.68). Conclusions. Maryland’s controversial motorcycle helmet law appears to be an effective public health policy and may be responsible for saving many lives. PMID:12144996
In 1975, Congress relieved the Secretary of Transportation of the power to impose sanctions upon states for not having a law requiring the use of helmets by motorcyclists. Shortly afterward, the states having such laws began repealing or modifying th...
.... A series of tests was conducted by AFRL/HEPA on a horizontal impulse accelerator using human subjects to investigate the effects of helmet inertial properties on human response to short duration...
Lee, Jonathan M
This study uses state-level panel data from a 33-year period to test the hypotheses of offsetting and enhancing behavior with regards to motorcycle helmet legislation. Results presented in this article find no evidence of offsetting behavior and are consistent with the presence of enhancing behavior. State motorcycle helmet laws are estimated to reduce motorcycle crashes by 18.4% to 31.9%. In the absence of any behavioral adaptations among motorcyclists mandatory helmet laws are not expected to have any significant impact on motorcycle crash rates. The estimated motorcycle crash reductions do not appear to be driven by omitted variable bias or nonclassical measurement error in reported crashes. Overall, the results strongly suggest that mandatory helmet laws yield significant changes in motorcycle mobility in the form of reduced risk taking and/or decreased utilization. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Swartz, Erik E; Mihalik, Jason P; Beltz, Nora M; Day, Molly A; Decoster, Laura C
In cases of possible cervical spine injury, medical professionals must be prepared to achieve rapid airway access while concurrently restricting cervical spine motion. Face mask removal (FMR), rather than helmet removal (HR), is recommended to achieve this. However, no studies have been reported that compare FMR directly with HR. The purpose of this study was to compare motion, time, and perceived difficulty in two commonly used American football helmets between FMR and HR techniques, and when helmet air bladders were deflated before HR compared with inflated scenarios. The study incorporated a repeated measures design and was performed in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants included 22 certified athletic trainers (15 men and seven women; mean age, 33.9±10.5 years; mean experience, 11.4±10.0 years; mean height, 172±9.4 cm; mean mass, 76.7±14.9 kg). All participants were free from upper extremity or central nervous system pathology for 6 months and provided informed consent. Dependent variables included head excursion in degrees (computed by subtracting the minimum position from the maximum position) in each of the three planes (sagittal, frontal, transverse), time to complete the required task, and ratings of perceived exertion. To address our study purposes, we used two-by-two repeated-measures analysis of variance (removal technique×helmet type, helmet type×deflation status) for each dependent variable. Independent variables consisted of removal technique (FMR and HR), helmet type (Riddell Revolution IQ [RIQ] and VSR4), and helmet deflation status (deflated [D], inflated, [I]). After familiarization, participants conducted two successful trials for each of six conditions in random order (RIQ-FMR, VSR4-FMR, RIQ-HR-D, VSR4-HR-D, RIQ-HR-I, and VSR4-HR-I). Face masks, helmets, and shoulder pads were removed from a live model wearing a properly fitted helmet and shoulder pads. The participant and an investigator stabilized the model's head. A six
Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are
Kahana, D.E.; Kahana, S.H.
A two-phase cascade code, LUCIFER II, developed for the treatment of ultra high energy-ion-ion collisions is applied to the production of strangeness at SPS energies √(s)=17-20. This simulation is able to simultaneously describe both hard processes such as Drell-Yan and slower, soft processes such as the production of light mesons by separating the dynamics into two steps, a fast cascade involving only the nucleons in the original colliding relativistic ions followed, after an appropriate delay, by a normal multiscattering of the resulting excited baryons and mesons produced virtually in the first step. No energy loss can take place in the short time interval over which the first cascade takes place. The chief result is a reconciliation of the important Drell-Yan measurements with the apparent success of standard cascades to describe the nucleon stopping and meson production in heavy-ion experiments at the CERN SPS. (orig.)
Kahana, D.E. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Physics Dept.; Kahana, S.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Physics Dept.
A two phase cascade, LUCIFER II, developed for the treatment of ultra high energy Ion-Ion collisions is applied to the production of strangeness at SPS energies. This simulation is able to simultaneously describe both hard processes such as Drell-Yan and slower, soft processes such as the production of light mesons by separating the dynamics into two steps, a fast cascade involving only the nucleons in the original colliding relativistic ions followed, after an appropriate delay, by a normal multiscattering of the resulting excited baryons and mesons produced virtually in the first step. No energy loss can take place in the short time interval over which the first cascade takes place. The chief result is a reconciliation of the important Drell-Yan measurements with the apparent success of standard cascades to describe the nucleon stopping and meson production in heavy ion experiments at the CERN SPS.
Kahana, D.E.; Kahana, S.H.
A two phase cascade, LUCIFER II, developed for the treatment of ultra high energy Ion-Ion collisions is applied to the production of strangeness at SPS energies. This simulation is able to simultaneously describe both hard processes such as Drell-Yan and slower, soft processes such as the production of light mesons by separating the dynamics into two steps, a fast cascade involving only the nucleons in the original colliding relativistic ions followed, after an appropriate delay, by a normal multiscattering of the resulting excited baryons and mesons produced virtually in the first step. No energy loss can take place in the short time interval over which the first cascade takes place. The chief result is a reconciliation of the important Drell-Yan measurements with the apparent success of standard cascades to describe the nucleon stopping and meson production in heavy ion experiments at the CERN SPS
Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed
Wilk, G.; Wlodarczyk, Z.
Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions
Greiner, Martin; Giesemann, Jens
The following sections are included: * Introduction * Some Basics about Wavelets * Multiresolution analysis * Dilation equations * Wavelet transformation * Multiplicative Haar-Wavelet Cascade * Binary random multiplicative branching processes * n-point correlation densities * Haar-wavelet transformed correlation densities * Daubechies-wavelet transformed correlation densities * Multiplicative Daubechies-Wavelet Cascade * Random multiplicative branching processes on a D4-wavelet tree * n-point correlation densities * Wavelet transformed correlation densities * Scaling behavior of moments * Conclusion * REFERENCES
Weiss, Harold; Agimi, Yll; Steiner, Claudia
Twenty-seven states have youth-specific helmet laws even though such laws have been shown to decrease helmet use and increase youth mortality compared with all-age (universal) laws. Our goal was to quantify the impact of age-specific helmet laws on youth under age 20 hospitalized with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our cross-sectional ecological group analysis compared TBI proportions among US states with different helmet laws. We examined the following null hypothesis: If age-specific helmet laws are as effective as universal laws, there will be no difference in the proportion of hospitalized young motorcycle riders with TBI in the respective states. The data are derived from the 2005 to 2007 State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. We examined data for 17 states with universal laws, 6 states with laws for ages laws for children younger than 18 (9287 motorcycle injury discharges). In states with a law, serious TBI among youth was 38% higher than in universal-law states. Motorcycle riders aged 12 to 17 in 18 helmet-law states had a higher proportion of serious/severe TBI and higher average Abbreviated Injury Scores for head-region injuries than riders from universal-law states. States with youth-specific laws had an increased risk of TBI that required hospitalization, serious and severe TBI, TBI-related disability, and in-hospital death among the youth they are supposed to protect. The only method known to keep motorcycle-helmet use high among youth is to adopt or maintain universal helmet laws.
McCarthy, Peter W; Hume, Phillip J; Heusch, Andrew I; Lark, Sally D
While there have been investigations into the reduced neck injury rate of wearing protective helmets, there is little information on its effects on normal kinaesthetic neck function. This study aims to quantify the kinaesthetic and movement effects of the American football helmet. Fifteen British Collegiate American football players (mean age 22.2, SD 1.9; BMI kg.m(2) 26.3, SD 3.7) were age and size matched to 11 non-American football playing university students (mean age 22.5, SD 3.6; BMI 24.3, SD 3.3 kg.m(2)). Both groups had their active cervical range of motion and head repositioning accuracy measured during neck flexion/extension using a modified cervical range of motion device and a similarly modified football helmet. Wearing helmets significantly reduced active cervical range of motion in extension in both groups (P = 0.007 and P = 0.001 Controls and American Footballers respectively). While both groups had similar repositioning when not wearing a helmet (flexion P = 0.99; extension P = 0.52), when wearing helmets, American football players appeared to be more accurate in relation to cervical kinaesthetic repositioning (ANOVA: P = 0.077: flexion effect size =0.84; extension effect size =0.38). Wearing American football helmets significantly reduces the active cervical range of motion in extension, along with a change in the neutral head position. American footballers have a greater accuracy in repositioning their head from flexion (potentially enhanced proprioception) when wearing a helmet. This finding might allow development of a simple objective test to help discern presence of minor concussive or cervical musculoskeletal injury on or off the field.
Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fatal accidents are more in two wheeler drivers compared to four wheeler drivers. Head injury is of serious concern when recovery and prognosis of the patients are warranted, helmets are being used for safety purposes by moped, scooters and motorcycle drivers. Although, helmets are designed with cushioning effect to prevent head injuries but there are evidences of increase risk of neck injuries and reduced peripheral vision and hearing in helmet users. A complete full coverage helmets provide about less than 3 percent restrictions in horizontal peripheral visual field compared to rider without helmet. The standard company patented ergonomically designed helmets which does not affect the peripheral vision neither auditory reaction time. Objective: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the peripheral field of vision and auditory and visual reaction time in a hypertensive, diabetic and healthy male and female in order to have a better insight of protective characteristics of helmet in health and disease. Method: This pilot study carried out on age matched male of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetic and female subject of one healthy, one hypertensive and one diabetics. The field of vision was assessed by Lister’s perimeter whereas auditory and visual reaction time was recorded with response analyser. Result : Gender difference was not noted in peripheral field of vision but mild difference was found in auditory reaction time for high frequency and visual reaction time for both red and green colour in healthy control. But lateral and downward peripheral visual field was found reduced whereas auditory and visual reaction time was found increased in both hypertensive and diabetic subject in both sexes. Conclusion: Peripheral vision, auditory reaction time and visual reaction time in hypertensive and diabetics may lead to vulnerable accident. Helmet use has proven to reduce extent of injury in motorcyclist and
gender difference, the female subjects were on average unable to sustain as forceful a brace during pre- impact as the males, which may account for...AFRL-RH-WP-SR-2016-0002 EFFECTS OF VARIABLE HELMET WEIGHT ON HUMAN RESPONSE TO –Gx IMPACT John R. Buhrman, Grant C. Roush, Erica M...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Feb 2003 – Feb 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effects of Variable Helmet Weight on Human Response to –Gx Impact 5a
Passmore, Jonathon W; Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc
Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law's introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed.
Dinh, Michael M; Kastelein, Christopher; Hopkins, Roy; Royle, Timothy J; Bein, Kendall J; Chalkley, Dane R; Ivers, Rebecca
The objectives of the present study were to describe the injury profiles of cyclists presenting to an ED and determine the risk of significant head injury associated with bicycle helmet use. This was a retrospective single trauma centre study of all adult cyclists presenting to an inner city ED and undergoing a trauma team review between January 2012 and June 2014. The outcome of interest was significant head injury defined as any head injury with an Abbreviated Injury Scale score of two or more. Variables analysed included demographic characteristics, helmet use at time of incident, location, time and the presence of intoxication. The most common body regions were upper limb injuries (57%), followed by head injuries (43%), facial injuries (30%) and lower limb injuries (24%). A lower proportion of people wearing helmets had significant head injury (17% vs 31%, P = 0.018) or facial injury (26% vs 48%, P = 0.0017) compared with non-helmet users. After adjustment for important covariates, helmet use was associated with a 70% decrease in the odds of significant head injury (odds ratio 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.15, 0.76, P = 0.008). Head injuries were common after inner city cycling incidents. The use of helmets was associated with a reduction in significant head injury. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Parkin, P C; Spence, L J; Hu, X; Kranz, K E; Shortt, L G; Wesson, D E
Bicycle-related head injuries are an important cause of death and disability, despite the availability of helmets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based bicycle helmet promotion program in increasing helmet use by children while controlling for secular trends. Two high-income and two low-income schools in an urban Canadian community were selected to receive a bicycle helmet promotion intervention, with the remaining 18 schools serving as controls. Approximately 1800 observations of bicycling children were made at randomly selected observational sites 2 to 5 months after the intervention to assess changes in behavior. Helmet use at all observation sites tripled from 3.4% (1990, preintervention) to 16% (1991, postintervention). In the high-income intervention area, observed helmet use rose dramatically from 4% to 36% in contrast to the more modest increase in the high-income control area from 4% to 15%. In the low-income intervention area, there was a modest increase from 1% to 7%, but it did not differ from the increase in the low-income control area from 3% to 13%. The program was highly successful in children of high-income families but not in children of low-income families. Developing strategies for low-income families remains a priority.
Blake, Gary; Velikonja, Diana; Pepper, Veronica; Jilderda, Irene; Georgiou, Georgia
To evaluate the effectiveness of the Bikes, Blades and Boards (BB&B) programme. It was hypothesized that children who participated in the BB&B programme would demonstrate greater knowledge of how to wear their helmets safely than a control group who did not participate in the programme and retain their skills when assessed 1 year later. Single blind cluster randomized design. Twelve classes of grade 2 students (n = 162) participated; six classes were assigned to an experimental or control group. A blinded research assistant, taking 3-5 minutes per child, completed the Helmet Checklist with each group on two occasions and scores of the experimental group (post-BB&B programme) were compared to the control group. The experimental group was reassessed using the Helmet Checklist, 1 year later. The BB&B programme consisted of a presentation, bicycle helmet checklist, demonstration and individual practice and feedback. Children in the experimental group showed a better knowledge of how to wear their helmets safely compared to the control group (F = 51.84, CI = 9.11-9.71) and retained this knowledge 1 year after participating in the BB&B programme. The BB&B programme is effective in teaching grade 2 children how to wear their helmets correctly, which is knowledge they retain for at least 1 year.
Full Text Available The thermal comfort of motorcycle helmet during hot weather is important as it can affect the physiological and psychological condition of the rider. This paper examines the use of phase change material (PCM to cool a motorcycle helmet and presents the experimental investigations on the influences of the simulated solar radiation, wind speed, and heat generation rate on the cooling system. The result shows that the PCM-cooled helmet is able to prolong the thermal comfort period compared to a normal helmet. The findings also indicate that the heat generation from the head is the predominant factor that will affect the PCM melting time. Simulated solar radiation and ram-air due to vehicle motion under adiabatic condition can have very little influences on the PCM melting time. The results suggested that the helmet usage time would be influenced by the amount of heat generated from the head. Some major design considerations based on these findings have been included. Although this investigation focuses on the cooling of a motorcyclist helmet, the findings would also be useful for the development of PCM-cooling systems in other applications.
Chabroux, Vincent; Barelle, Caroline; Favier, Daniel
The present work is focused on the aerodynamic study of different parameters, including both the posture of a cyclist's upper limbs and the saddle position, in time trial (TT) stages. The aerodynamic influence of a TT helmet large visor is also quantified as a function of the helmet inclination. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel on nine professional cyclists provided drag force and frontal area measurements to determine the drag force coefficient. Data statistical analysis clearly shows that the hands positioning on shifters and the elbows joined together are significantly reducing the cyclist drag force. Concerning the saddle position, the drag force is shown to be significantly increased (about 3%) when the saddle is raised. The usual helmet inclination appears to be the inclination value minimizing the drag force. Moreover, the addition of a large visor on the helmet is shown to provide a drag coefficient reduction as a function of the helmet inclination. Present results indicate that variations in the TT cyclist posture, the saddle position and the helmet visor can produce a significant gain in time (up to 2.2%) during stages.
Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong
The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686
Yang, Rui Q. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Santos, Michael B. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Johnson, Matthew B. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)
In this project, we are performing basic and applied research to systematically investigate our newly proposed interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) cells . These cells follow from the great success of infrared IC lasers [2-3] that pioneered the use of quantum-engineered IC structures. This quantum-engineered approach will enable PV cells to efficiently convert infrared radiation from the sun or other heat source, to electricity. Such cells will have important applications for more efficient use of solar energy, waste-heat recovery, and power beaming in combination with mid-infrared lasers. The objectives of our investigations are to: achieve extensive understanding of the fundamental aspects of the proposed PV structures, develop the necessary knowledge for making such IC PV cells, and demonstrate prototype working PV cells. This research will focus on IC PV structures and their segments for utilizing infrared radiation with wavelengths from 2 to 5 μm, a range well suited for emission by heat sources (1,000-2,000 K) that are widely available from combustion systems. The long-term goal of this project is to push PV technology to longer wavelengths, allowing for relatively low-temperature thermal sources. Our investigations address material quality, electrical and optical properties, and their interplay for the different regions of an IC PV structure. The tasks involve: design, modeling and optimization of IC PV structures, molecular beam epitaxial growth of PV structures and relevant segments, material characterization, prototype device fabrication and testing. At the end of this program, we expect to generate new cutting-edge knowledge in the design and understanding of quantum-engineered semiconductor structures, and demonstrate the concepts for IC PV devices with high conversion efficiencies.
Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.
Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.
from the top, while the Targa 0086showed an increase in both measurements due to its motorcycle helmet -like design. None of the helmets met the RCM...AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2012-0022 ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE HELMET AND BOOT OPTIONS FOR THE JOINT FIREFIGHTER INTEGRATED RESPONSE ENSEMBLE...should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.
Ruedl, Gerhard; Pocecco, Elena; Raas, Christoph; Blauth, Michael; Brucker, Peter U; Burtscher, Martin; Kopp, Martin
During recreational sledging (tobogganing), the head represents the most frequent injured body region with approximately one-third of all sledging injuries among children and adolescents. Whether children are wearing a helmet or not might be influenced on parental encouragement and role modeling of helmet use. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of adult helmet use on child/adolescent helmet use in recreational sledging. More than 500 adults sitting together with another adult or child/adolescent on a two-seater sledge were interviewed during two winter seasons at the bottom of six sledging tracks on demographics, mean frequency of sledging per season, self-estimated skill level, risk-taking behavior, and the use of a helmet. Total helmet use of all observed persons was 41.0 %. Helmet use among interviewed adults significantly increased with increasing age up to 45 years, frequency of sledging, and skill level, respectively. Helmet use of interviewed adults was 46.5 % if a child/adolescent was sitting on the same sledge and 29.8 % (odds ratios (OR): 2.1, 95 % confidence intervals (CI): 1.4-2.9, p educational campaigns on helmet use are urgently needed for tobogganists.
Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Rajan, Sonali; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Basch, Charles E
The use of bicycle helmets to prevent or reduce serious head injuries is well established. However, it is unclear how to effectively promote helmet use, particularly in the context of bicycle-sharing programs. The need to determine rates of helmet use specifically among users of bicycle-sharing programs and understand if certain characteristics, such as time of day, affect helmet use, is imperative if effective promotion and/or legislative efforts addressing helmet use are to be developed. We estimated the prevalence of helmet use among a sample of Citi Bike program users in New York City. A total of 1,054 cyclists were observed over 44 h and across the 22 busiest Citi Bike locations. Overall, 85.3% (95% CI 82.2, 88.4%) of the cyclists observed did not wear a helmet. Rates of helmet non-use were also consistent whether cyclists were entering or leaving the docking station, among cyclists using the Citi Bikes earlier versus later in the day, and among cyclists using the Citi Bikes on weekends versus weekdays. Improved understanding about factors that facilitate and hinder helmet use is needed to help reduce head injury risk among users of bicycle sharing programs.
Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E
home. CONCLUSIONS Age, hypotension on ED admission, severity of head and extracranial injuries, and sports mechanism of injury are important prognostic variables in adult sports-related TBI. Increasing TBI awareness and helmet use-particularly in equestrian and roller sports-are critical elements for decreasing sports-related TBI events in adults.
Interesting results have been reported on the time structure of the electromagnetic components of air showers which have been obtained by using recent fast electronic circuit technology. However, these analyses and explanations seem not very persuasive. One of the reasons is that there is not satisfactory theoretical calculation yet to explain the delay of electromagnetic components in cascade processes which are the object of direct observation. Therefore, Monte Carlo calculation was attempted for examining the relationship between the altitude at which high energy γ-ray is generated up in the air and the time structure of cascade showers at the level of observation. The investigation of a dominant factor over the delay of electromagnetic components indicated that the delay due to the multiple scattering of electrons was essential. The author used the analytical solution found by himself of C. N. Yang's equation for the study on the delay due to multiple scattering. The results were as follows: The average delay time and the spread of distribution of electromagnetic cascades were approximately in linear relationship with the mass of a material having passed in a thin uniform medium; the rise time of arrival time distribution for electromagnetic cascade showers was very steep under the condition that they were generated up in the air and observed on the ground; the subpeaks delayed by tens of ns in arrival time may sometimes appear due to the perturbation in electromagnetic cascade processes. (Wakatsuki, Y.)
Donaldson, W F; Lauerman, W C; Heil, B; Blanc, R; Swenson, T
Video fluoroscopy was used to evaluate the motion in an unstable spine during helmet and shoulder pad removal. To observe the amount of motion that occurs during the removal of helmet and shoulder pads in an injured spine. Removal of shoulder pads and helmet from a football player with suspected cervical spine injury can be particularly hazardous. How much flexion occurs at the unstable level during removal of equipment is unknown. Six fresh cadavers were used in the study. In three, an unstable C1-C2 segment was created by transoral osteotomy of the base of C2. In the remaining three, instability was created at C5-C6 by a posterior release. Under fluoroscopic recording, the helmets were removed by first removing the chin strap, face mask, and ear pieces. With the neck stabilized, the helmet was carefully removed. The shoulder pads were carefully removed, with the head stabilized. Angulation, distraction, and space available for the cord were measured at C1-C2. Translation, angulation, distraction, and change in disc height were measured in the specimens with unstable C5-C6. In cadavers with C1-C2 instability, the mean change in angulation was 5.47 degrees, and space available for the cord was 3.91 mm. Shoulder pads were removed while the head was stabilized. The mean change in angulation at C1-C2 was less during removal of shoulder pads than during helmet removal at 2.9 degrees. Space available for the cord was 2.64 mm. Distraction was also greater during helmet removal (2.98 mm) than during shoulder pad removal (1.76 mm). In the unstable spine, the change in displacement in translation was greater during shoulder pad removal (3.87 mm), than during helmet removal (0.41 mm). Disc height change was similar. Distraction of the spinous processes was greater during helmet removal (3.68 mm) than during shoulder pad removal (1.37 mm). Angulation was similar in both maneuvers. Helmet and shoulder pad removal in the unstable cervical spine is a complex maneuver. In the
Monroe, Kathy W; Thrash, Chris; Sorrentino, Annalise; King, William D
Participation in sports is a popular activity for children across the country. Prevention of sports-related injuries can be improved if details of injuries are documented and studied. A retrospective medical record review of injuries that occurred as a direct result of sports participation (both organized and non-organized play) from November 2006 to November 2007. Because the vast majority of injuries were a result of participation in football or basketball, these injuries were focused upon. The injuries specifically examined were closed head injury (CHI), lacerations and fractures. There were 350 football and 196 basketball injuries (total 546). Comparing injuries between the two groups fractures were found to be more prevalent in football compared to basketball (z = 2.14; p = 0.03; 95%CI (0.01, 0.16)). Lacerations were found to be less prevalent among helmeted patients than those without helmets. (z = 2.39; p = 0.02; 95%CI (-0.17,-0.03)). CHI was more prevalent among organized play compared to non-organized (z = 3.9; psports participants.
Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...
Karl, Florian M; Smith, Jennifer; Piedt, Shannon; Turcotte, Kate; Pike, Ian
Bicycle injuries are of concern in Canada. Since helmet use was mandated in 1996 in the province of British Columbia, Canada, use has increased and head injuries have decreased. Despite the law, many cyclists do not wear a helmet. Health action process approach (HAPA) model explains intention and behaviour with self-efficacy, risk perception, outcome expectancies and planning constructs. The present study examines the impact of a social marketing campaign on HAPA constructs in the context of bicycle helmet use. A questionnaire was administered to identify factors determining helmet use. Intention to obey the law, and perceived risk of being caught if not obeying the law were included as additional constructs. Path analysis was used to extract the strongest influences on intention and behaviour. The social marketing campaign was evaluated through t-test comparisons after propensity score matching and generalised linear modelling (GLM) were applied to adjust for the same covariates. 400 cyclists aged 25-54 years completed the questionnaire. Self-efficacy and Intention were most predictive of intention to wear a helmet, which, moderated by planning, strongly predicted behaviour. Perceived risk and outcome expectancies had no significant impact on intention. GLM showed that exposure to the campaign was significantly associated with higher values in self-efficacy, intention and bicycle helmet use. Self-efficacy and planning are important points of action for promoting helmet use. Social marketing campaigns that remind people of appropriate preventive action have an impact on behaviour. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
When detailed product information is not available to consumers inferences are made using product cues to reduce uncertainty and to form perceptions of products. Advertisers can make use of sport sponsorship and sport celebrity endorsement as extrinsic cues to influence consumers\\' pre-purchase attitudes. These cues ...
Sport is themost effective and common social institute of modern societies. The mostimportant element of societies is individual. Societies in which individualshealthy, well educated, social and cultured could be thought as modern basicaim of sport is to support the development of human in terms of physical mentaland social. And also sport is very effective phenomenon to create a modernsociety. In addition personel benefits and missions sport has very importantsocial effects. In this age, it ...
This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld
Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers
Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.
Nixon, Howard L., II
Sport is examined in relation to a number of basic aspects of social organization. Each of the seven sections includes a brief clarification of the key sociological concepts used for analysis, a consideration of various applications of those concepts to sport, and a review and discussion of what is known about specific aspects of sport in relation…
The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...... irreconcilable functions, high adaptability and the fact that they often make use of urban residual areas....
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...
... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Sports and Your Eyes Gear up! If you play sports, you know they can be a lot of ... the right safety gear. Think about your favorite sport. Do you wear anything to protect your eyes, ...
International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.
Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter
In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…
More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more
Usha, M; Ravindran, V; Soumithran, C S; Ravindran Nair, K S
Motorcyclists comprise the majority of road-traffic victims in low and middle income countries,and consequently, the majority of the road-traffic victims globally. Simple measures can be taken to make safer on the roads, which include enforcement of safety measures like seat belt and helmets. The compulsory Helmet law was enforced in Kerala on 18/06/07. Resistance to legislation on motorcycle helmets still coexists world wide with debate on the effectiveness of helmets. In an attempt to analyze the protective effect of helmets on facial injuries a comparative study was conducted in Government Dental College, Calicut, which is a major trauma centre in northern Kerala. Data for the present study was obtained from the patients who have reported to the Emergency Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Government Dental College, Calicut, for a period of 6 months immediately after the implementation of strict helmet rule in Kerala. For the study all patients with a history of nonfatal motor cycle accident sustaining facial injuries were included. The results were compared with the study conducted in the same institution in the pre law period. The study demonstrates the protective effect of motorcycle helmets in decreasing the morbidity of maxillofacial trauma.There was a marked decrease in incidence of motorcycle-related injuries, remarkable increase in helmet usage and better outcome in helmeted individuals in the post law period. Road traffic injury control is a public health problem. Health and medical professionals have an ethical responsibility to educate and arrange for the safety of individuals. Helmets are effective in preventing or reducing the severity of motorcycle-related injuries and in a developing country like India, enforced mandatory motor cycle helmet law is potentially one of the most cost effective interventions available.
Dua, Anahita; Wei, Shuyan; Safarik, Justin; Furlough, Courtney; Desai, Sapan S
While statistics exist regarding the overall rate of fatalities in motorcyclists with and without helmets, a combined inpatient and value of statistical life (VSL) analysis has not previously been reported. Statistical data of motorcycle collisions were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control, National Highway Transportation Safety Board, and Governors Highway Safety Association. The VSL estimate was obtained from the 2002 Department of Transportation calculation. Statistics on helmeted versus nonhelmeted motorcyclists, death at the scene, and inpatient death were obtained using the 2010 National Trauma Data Bank. Inpatient costs were obtained from the 2010 National Inpatient Sample. Population estimates were generated using weighted samples, and all costs are reported using 2010 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index. A total of 3,951 fatal motorcycle collisions were reported in 2010, of which 77% of patients died at the scene, 10% in the emergency department, and 13% as inpatients. Thirty-seven percent of all riders did not wear a helmet but accounted for 69% of all deaths. Of those motorcyclists who survived to the hospital, the odds ratio of surviving with a helmet was 1.51 compared with those without a helmet (p helmeted motorcyclists (p helmeted riders ($203,248 vs. $175,006) but led to more than 50% greater VSL generated (absolute benefit, $602,519 per helmeted survivor). A cost analysis of inpatient care and indirect costs of motorcycle riders who do not wear helmets leads to nearly $2.2 billion in losses per year, with almost 1.9 times as many deaths compared with helmeted motorcyclists. The per capita cost per fatality is more than $800,000. Institution of a mandatory helmet law could lead to an annual cost savings of almost $2.2 billion. Economic analysis, level III.
Mattei, Tobias A; Bond, Brandon J; Goulart, Carlos R; Sloffer, Chris A; Morris, Martin J; Lin, Julian J
Bicycle accidents are a very important cause of clinically important traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children. One factor that has been shown to mitigate the severity of lesions associated with TBI in such scenarios is the proper use of a helmet. The object of this study was to test and evaluate the protection afforded by a children's bicycle helmet to human cadaver skulls with a child's anthropometry in both "impact" and "crushing" situations. The authors tested human skulls with and without bicycle helmets in drop tests in a monorail-guided free-fall impact apparatus from heights of 6 to 48 in onto a flat steel anvil. Unhelmeted skulls were dropped at 6 in, with progressive height increases until failure (fracture). The maximum resultant acceleration rates experienced by helmeted and unhelmeted skulls on impact were recorded by an accelerometer attached to the skulls. In addition, compressive forces were applied to both helmeted and unhelmeted skulls in progressive amounts. The tolerance in each circumstance was recorded and compared between the two groups. Helmets conferred up to an 87% reduction in so-called mean maximum resultant acceleration over unhelmeted skulls. In compression testing, helmeted skulls were unable to be crushed in the compression fixture up to 470 pound-force (approximately 230 kgf), whereas both skull and helmet alone failed in testing. Children's bicycle helmets provide measurable protection in terms of attenuating the acceleration experienced by a skull on the introduction of an impact force. Moreover, such helmets have the durability to mitigate the effects of a more rare but catastrophic direct compressive force. Therefore, the use of bicycle helmets is an important preventive tool to reduce the incidence of severe associated TBI in children as well as to minimize the morbidity of its neurological consequences.
P. A. Sheeju
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Motor vehicle crashes are a major cause of fatality all over the world. By 2020, motor vehicle injury is projected to become the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease in the world. Motor cyclists are about 25 times more likely than car occupants to die in Road Traffic Accidents. Data on the incidence and types of crashes is required to guide safety policy. Knowledge of how injuries are caused and of what type they are of valuable instrument for identifying interventions and monitoring the effectiveness of intervention. The present study was done to find out the factors that contribute for motor cycle crashes and to study the injury pattern seen in helmeted and non-helmeted victims. MATERIAL AND METHODS Victims of two wheeler accidents brought for autopsy in a Govt. Medical College were studied from October 2010 to August 2011. Two wheelers include motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Bicycles were excluded from the study. Accidents include all types; against all types of vehicles running on the road, collision with any object, surface or any animal or fall from vehicle. The details of the accident were collected in a printed proforma from relative/witnesses and from police officials. The injuries were entered in the specific columns of proforma. Data was analysed with MS Excel. RESULTS Death due to head injury is more in non-helmeted (52.5% compared to helmeted drivers (43.8 % whereas injury to chest and abdomen and limbs are more in helmeted. Combination of injuries (Head+Chest+Abdomen predominated in helmeted drivers (18.8% compared to 5% in non-helmeted drivers. Spinal injuries were more in helmeted than in non-helmeted. CONCLUSION The pattern of head injury was analysed in detail in helmeted and non-helmeted drivers. This will help in detailing of pattern of head injury in both groups.
Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.
The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...
Norberta Elisa Fernandes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.
Krevor, David; Edwards, Timothy; Larkin, Eric; Skubon, John; Speirs, Robert; Sowden, Tom
The HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) visor is a sophisticated article. It is both the optical combiner for the display and personal protective equipment for the pilot. The visor must have dimensional and optical tolerances commensurate with precision optics; and mechanical properties sufficient for a ballistic shield. Optimized processes and tooling are necessary in order to manufacture a functional visor. This paper describes the manufacturing development of the visor for the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HMD. The analytical and experimental basis for the tool and manufacturing process development are described; as well as the metrological and testing methods to verify the visor design and function. The requirements for the F-35 JSF visor are a generation beyond those for the HMD visor which currently flies on the F-15, F-16 and F/A-18. The need for greater precision is manifest in the requirements for the tooling and molding process for the visor. The visor is injection-molded optical polycarbonate, selected for its combination of optical, mechanical and environmental properties. Proper design and manufacture of the tool - the mold - is essential. Design of the manufacturing tooling is an iterative process between visor design, mold design, mechanical modeling and polymer-flow modeling. Iterative design and manufacture enable the mold designer to define a polymer shrinkage factor more precise than derived from modeling or recommended by the resin supplier.
Pasquarelli, A; Rossi, R; De Melis, M; Marzetti, L; Trebeschi, A; Müller, H-P; Erné, S N
We here describe the MEG system recently installed at the University of Ulm; it is specifically designed for clinical application and routine use, to allow investigation of a large number of patients per day. To reach this goal, the system design meets the requirements of reliability, high field sensitivity, minimal set-up time before each measurement and an easy-to-handle user interface. The sensor system consists of a 163 vector-magnetometers array oriented and located in a suitable way to cover the whole head of the patient. Four additional triplets are available as references to arrange software gradiometers. The helmet shaped sensor system is positioned to accommodate the patient in a supine position. Simultaneously to the MEG, there are 64 EEG channels. Other relevant patient information can be recorded up to a total number of 660 acquisition channels. Noise level of a single magnetometer is about 5 fT/square root of Hz. Maximum sampling rate is 4200 Hz.
van Wijk Renske M
Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, helmet therapy is a commonly used treatment in infants with skull deformation (deformational plagiocephaly or deformational brachycephaly. However, evidence of the effectiveness of this treatment remains lacking. The HEADS study (HElmet therapy Assessment in Deformed Skulls aims to determine the effects and costs of helmet therapy compared to no helmet therapy in infants with moderate to severe skull deformation. Methods/design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial (RCT nested in a cohort study. The cohort study included infants with a positional preference and/or skull deformation at two to four months (first assessment. At 5 months of age, all children were assessed again and infants meeting the criteria for helmet therapy were asked to participate in the RCT. Participants were randomly allocated to either helmet therapy or no helmet therapy. Parents of eligible infants that do not agree with enrolment in the RCT were invited to stay enrolled for follow up in a non-randomisedrandomised controlled trial (nRCT; they were then free to make the decision to start helmet therapy or not. Follow-up assessments took place at 8, 12 and 24 months of age. The main outcome will be head shape at 24 months that is measured using plagiocephalometry. Secondary outcomes will be satisfaction of parents and professionals with the appearance of the child, parental concerns about the future, anxiety level and satisfaction with the treatment, motor development and quality of life of the infant. Finally, compliance and costs will also be determined. Discussion HEADS will be the first study presenting data from an RCT on the effectiveness of helmet therapy. Outcomes will be important for affected children and their parents, health care professionals and future treatment policies. Our findings are likely to influence the reimbursement policies of health insurance companies. Besides these health outcomes, we will be able to
Marinkovic, K; Cox, B; Reid, K; Halgren, E
Current MEG instruments derive the whole-head coverage by utilizing a helmet-shaped opening at the bottom of the dewar. These helmets, however, are quite a bit larger than most people's heads so subjects commonly lean against the back wall of the helmet in order to maintain a steady position. In such cases the anterior brain sources may be too distant to be picked up by the sensors reliably. Potential "invisibility" of the frontal and anterior temporal sources may be particularly troublesome for the studies of cognition and language, as they are subserved significantly by these areas. We examined the sensitivity of the distributed anatomically-constrained MEG (aMEG) approach to the head position ("front" vs. "back") secured within a helmet with custom-tailored bite-bars during a lexical decision task. The anterior head position indeed resulted in much greater sensitivity to language-related activity in frontal and anterior temporal locations. These results emphasize the need to adjust the head position in the helmet in order to maximize the "visibility" of the sources in the anterior brain regions in cognitive and language tasks.
Parkin, P C; Degroot, J; Macpherson, A; Fuselli, P; Macarthur, C
The objective of this study was to survey Canadian parents on their attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation and to compare responses from parents living in provinces with and without legislation. A national survey of 1002 parents of children aged under 18 years was conducted. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses from the surveyed parents in the different jurisdictions. Responses from parents living in provinces with legislation (n = 640) and without legislation (n = 362) were as follows: concern for injury (63% vs. 68%, nonsignificant [NS]); believe helmets are effective (98% vs. 98%, NS); child always wears a helmet (74% vs. 69%, NS); support legislation for children (95% vs. 83%, p legislation for all ages (85% vs. 75%, p legislation decreases the amount of time their child bicycles (5% vs. 8%, NS). Parents are highly supportive of bicycle helmet legislation in Canada. They believe that bicycle helmets are effective and that legislation does not decrease the amount of time a child spends bicycling. There was also a high level of support for legislation across all ages, and for police enforcement.
Hagel, Brent; Pless, I Barry; Goulet, Claude; Platt, Robert; Robitaille, Yvonne
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of helmet use on non-head-neck injury severity and crash circumstances in skiers and snowboarders. We used a matched case-control study over the November 2001 to April 2002 winter season. 3295 of 4667 injured skiers and snowboarders reporting to the ski patrol at 19 areas in Quebec with non-head, non-neck injuries agreed to participate. Cases included those evacuated by ambulance, admitted to hospital, with restriction of normal daily activities (NDAs) >6 days, with non-helmet equipment damage, fast self-reported speed, participating on a more difficult run than usual, and jumping-related injury. Controls were injured participants without severe injuries or high-energy crash circumstances and were matched to cases on ski area, activity, day, age, and sex. Conditional logistic regression was used to relate each outcome to helmet use. There was no evidence that helmet use increased the risk of severe injury or high-energy crash circumstances. The results suggest that helmet use in skiing and snowboarding is not associated with riskier activities that lead to non-head-neck injuries.
Chidini, Giovanna; Piastra, Marco; Marchesi, Tiziana; De Luca, Daniele; Napolitano, Luisa; Salvo, Ida; Wolfler, Andrea; Pelosi, Paolo; Damasco, Mirco; Conti, Giorgio; Calderini, Edoardo
Noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is usually applied with a nasal or facial mask to treat mild acute respiratory failure (ARF) in infants. A pediatric helmet has now been introduced in clinical practice to deliver CPAP. This study compared treatment failure rates during CPAP delivered by helmet or facial mask in infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF. In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, 30 infants with respiratory syncytial virus-induced ARF were randomized to receive CPAP by helmet (n = 17) or facial mask (n = 13). The primary endpoint was treatment failure rate (defined as due to intolerance or need for intubation). Secondary outcomes were CPAP application time, number of patients requiring sedation, and complications with each interface. Compared with the facial mask, CPAP by helmet had a lower treatment failure rate due to intolerance (3/17 [17%] vs 7/13 [54%], P = .009), and fewer infants required sedation (6/17 [35%] vs 13/13 [100%], P = .023); the intubation rates were similar. In successfully treated patients, CPAP resulted in better gas exchange and breathing pattern with both interfaces. No major complications due to the interfaces occurred, but CPAP by mask had higher rates of cutaneous sores and leaks. These findings confirm that CPAP delivered by helmet is better tolerated than CPAP delivered by facial mask and requires less sedation. In addition, it is safe to use and free from adverse events, even in a prolonged clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Zybert, Patricia; Afzaal, Sarah; Spillane, Michael; Basch, Charles E
Urban public bicycle sharing programs are on the rise in the United States. Launched in 2013, NYC's public bicycle share program, Citi Bike™ is the fastest growing program of its kind in the nation, with nearly 100,000 members and more than 330 docking stations across Manhattan and Brooklyn. The purpose of this study was to assess helmet use behavior among Citi Bike™ riders at 25 of the busiest docking stations. The 25 Citi Bike™ Stations varied greatly in terms of usage: total number of cyclists (N = 96-342), commute versus recreation (22.9-79.5% commute time riders), weekday versus weekend (6.0-49.0% weekend riders). Helmet use ranged between 2.9 and 29.2% across sites (median = 7.5 %). A total of 4,919 cyclists were observed, of whom 545 (11.1%) were wearing helmets. Incoming cyclists were more likely to wear helmets than outgoing cyclists (11.0 vs 5.9%, p = .000). NYC's bike share program endorses helmet use, but relies on education to encourage it. Our data confirm that, to date, this strategy has not been successful.
A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...
Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin
Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović
Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...
Multiplicity distributions for hadrons and for jets are studied in QCD parton cascades. The colour dipole formalism is used and earlier results in the double log approximation are generalized to include terms which are suppressed by colour factors or factors of ln s. The result is a set of coupled differential equations, together with appropriate boundary conditions
Archut, A.; Vogtle, F.; De Cola, L.
Cascade molecules bearing up to 32 azobenzene groups in the periphery have been prepared from poly(propylene imine) dendrimers and N-hydroxysuccinimide esters. The dendritic azobenzene species show similar isomerization properties as the corresponding azobenzene monomers. The all-E azobenzene...
Hendley, R. J.; Jurascheck, N.
Discusses changes in training requirements of commerce and industry in the United Kingdom and describes a project, CASCADE, that was developed to investigate and implement the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques into computer-based training (CBT). An overview of pilot projects in higher education settings is provided. (eight…
Dain, Stephen J
Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.
the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...... who do not.Furthermore, it investigates the role of the coach-created sporting environment in the acculturation process within those participating in sport. The results revealed significant differences regarding the level of acculturative stress with migrant participants engaging in sports scoring...... multiculturalism. Sport is considered to be a vehicle for bringing people together, and recently there has been an increasing policy interest in the use of sport as a venue for promoting social integration and intercultural dialogue. Regardless of its political significance, research on the integrative role...
José Luis Pérez Triviño
Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... has long been a heated topic and with gene technology waiting around the corner the relationship between sport and technology has become strained and is more and more often viewed as problematic rather than benign. In this chapter we follow up on this trend by exposing what we consider a tendency...
Full Text Available Cascade support vector machines have been introduced as extension of classic support vector machines that allow a fast training on large data sets. In this work, we combine cascade support vector machines with dimensionality reduction based preprocessing. The cascade principle allows fast learning based on the division of the training set into subsets and the union of cascade learning results based on support vectors in each cascade level. The combination with dimensionality reduction as preprocessing results in a significant speedup, often without loss of classifier accuracies, while considering the high-dimensional pendants of the low-dimensional support vectors in each new cascade level. We analyze and compare various instantiations of dimensionality reduction preprocessing and cascade SVMs with principal component analysis, locally linear embedding, and isometric mapping. The experimental analysis on various artificial and real-world benchmark problems includes various cascade specific parameters like intermediate training set sizes and dimensionalities.
Lange, Britt; Torp-Svendsen, J; Toft, Palle
Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased.......Neck pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots. With implementation of the joint helmet mounted cuing system (JHMCS), the strain on the pilot's neck has increased....
Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.
Full Text Available Background: Sport medicine is a relatively new scientific branch in Iran. In order to evaluate sport injuries in Iranian skiers we examined and followed all ski players who was injured while skiing in Shemshak slope during a skiing season (January to April 2000. Materials and Methods: During a period of 3 months, a total of 32050 persons skied in Shemshak slope and 76 case of injuries were identified; the injury rate was calculated as 2.3/1000 skiers. Among the injured organs knee (32% and head and neck region (20% were respectively the most common sites of injury. Sprain of the medial collateral ligament was the most frequent knee injury (28% of the cases. 26.7% of the injured cases were amateurs and 21% of them used hired ski instruments. Results: In this study such factors as lack of exercise before skiing, fatigue and time of skiing (beginning or end of the season were not found to be related to the injury rate. However, head and neck injuries in contrast to knee injuries were most frequent in the end of the season (P<0.01. Conclusion: This study confirms the necessity of greater care of knee joints during skiing and probable need of wearing helmet for head protection in the end of skiing season. More studies are necessary to clarify other details regarding sport injuries in skiers.
More than 500 displacement cascades in copper have been generated with the computer simulation code MARLOWE over an energy range pertinent to both fission and fusion neutron spectra. Three-dimensional graphical depictions of selected cascades, as well as quantitative analysis of cascade shapes and sizes and defect densities, illustrate cascade behavior as a function of energy. With increasing energy, the transition from production of single compact damage regions to widely spaced multiple damage regions is clearly demonstrated
Leonid A. Bobrov
Full Text Available The article discusses iron helmet (No. 36.25.115, which is stored in the Metropolitan Museum of art (New York City, United States. For the first time this helmet was published and analyzed by American scientists G. C. Stone and D.G. Alexander. The analysis showed that the Bowl was made by Turkish masters of the XVII century and backplate and the hoop is added to the helmet in 1781–1782 D.G. Alexander speculated that the helmet belonged to the Warrior of the Crimean Khanate. Dating the helmet does not raise objections. However, the attribution of a helmet requires some clarification. Analysis of the design of the helmet and decoration revealed that backplate, hoop and Aventail from iron rings added to Bowl in 1781–1782, were manufactured by Circassian craftsmen living in the Northern Caucasus or in Crimea. For the decoration of the helmet has been used typical Circassian ornaments: "sieve", cherkessian floral pattern, geometric shapes, triangular in shape, "gear", etc. During Assembly of the helmet were applied characteristic of Circassian gunsmiths technological solutions: using as a basis the bowl old-style helmet, tapered Finial with a ring for a decorative plume, hoop with four plates, ringed with aventail lip to protect the forehead, etc. In Circassia similar headgear worn were known as tang (from the Arabic. "Taj", i.e., the "Crown". In the XVII–XVIII centuries. they willingly purchased representatives of Crimean Tatar nobility. Similar in design and system design helmets Circassian production belonged to the highest aristocracy of the Crimean Khanate, are stored in Museum and private collections in Poland, Turkey and the United States. The inscription "Bekmurun" on the hoop from the Metropolitan helmet suggests that it was manufactured on request of Kabardian Bekmur princely heir (Bekmurziny, which moved from Circassia in Crimea, 1737. The popularity of tang type helmets among the aristocracy of North Caucasus and Crimea were due not
Tosi, Jeremías David; Ledesma, Ruben Daniel; Poó, Fernando Martín; Montes, Silvana Andrea; López, Soledad Susana
Traffic collisions involving motorcyclists are a growing problem in low and middle income countries. Helmet use is the foremost protective measure for this group of road users, however many riders do not wear them. The objective of the present study is to report the changes in helmet use during the period 2006-2014 in an Argentine city and discover associated factors for the year 2014. The sample includes more than 6,900 observations of motorcyclists carried out during the years 2006 (n=962), 2008 (n=977), 2012 (n=2,542), and 2014 (n=2,466). The data indicates a progressive increase in helmet use over time, but differences due to gender and type of rider remain. Factors associated to helmet use in motorcycle drivers during 2014 were: passenger helmet use, motorcycle type, license plate use and gender. Although the results are positive, it is necessary to be attentive to the negative consequences of the growing fleet of motorcycles.
Schlenker, M.; Antiochos, S. K.; MacNeice, P. J.
We investigate the effects of localized heating on the evolution of the plasma within helmet streamers. By implementing a sufficiently small heating scale height, the process of thermal non-equilibrium triggers the formation of coronal rain within the helmet streamer. We present the comparative formation rates of coronal rain in simulations of 3 different grid resolutions. The heating scale height itself is also varied to examine its affect on the rain that is observed. Lastly, we present the evolution of plasma along particular field lines. Our model shows that the thermal physics of the plasma and the dynamical motions of the magnetic field work together to affect the creation rate of coronal rain. This finding has wider implications and suggests that the presence of coronal rain within a helmet streamer can drive the process of magnetic reconnection above the cusp of the streamer. This work was supported in part by the NASA LWS and SR Programs.
Tsai, J.-S.; Rivard, Mark J.; Engler, Mark J.; Mignano, John E.; Wazer, David E.; Shucart, William A.
Though the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet is used routinely, there is disagreement in the Gamma Knife users community on the value of the 4 mm helmet relative output factor. A range of relative output factors is used, and this variation may impair observations of dose response and optimization of prescribed dose. To study this variation, measurements were performed using the following radiation detectors: silicon diode, diamond detector, radiographic film, radiochromic film, and TLD cubes. To facilitate positioning of the silicon diode and diamond detector, a three-dimensional translation micrometer was used to iteratively determine the position of maximum detector response. Positioning of the films and TLDs was accomplished by manufacturing custom holders for each technique. Results from all five measurement techniques indicate that the 4 mm helmet relative output factor is 0.868±0.014. Within the experimental uncertainties, this value is in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using diverse techniques
Pellman, Elliot J; Viano, David C; Tucker, Andrew M; Casson, Ira R
National Football League game video was analyzed for the typical locations of severe helmet impacts in professional football. By use of selected cases that were reconstructed in laboratory tests and reported previously, the magnitude and direction of force causing concussion was determined for these locations. Multiple video views were obtained for 182 severe helmet impacts that occurred between 1996 and 2001. From a top view, the helmet was divided into 45-degree quadrants with 0 degrees eyes forward. From a side view, it was divided into seven equal levels, four (+Q1 to +Q4) above the head center of gravity and three below (-Q1 to -Q3). The initial helmet contact was located in these regions. Thirty-one impacts were reconstructed with helmeted Hybrid III dummies involving 25 concussions. Measurement of head translational and rotational acceleration was used to determine the average and +/-1 standard deviation in responses, with impacts reflected to the right side. From video, the majority (71%) of impact is to the helmet shell primarily from a striking player's helmet, arm, or shoulder pad to the side (45-135 degrees) or from ground contact to the back (135-180 degrees). Most impacts were high on the helmet at +Q2 to +Q4. The remainder (29%) were primarily from helmet contact on the facemask at an oblique frontal angle (0-45 degrees) and -Q3 to +Q1 height. From reconstructions, concussion occurred with the lowest peak head acceleration in facemask impacts at 78 +/- 18 g versus an average 107 to 117 g for impacts on other quadrants (t = 2.90, P force was essentially horizontal for facemask impacts and downward at 12 to 27 degrees for impacts to the helmet side and back. Concussion in professional football involves four typical conditions, as follows: A, 0- to 45-degree quadrant, -Q3 to +Q3 level, peak force 49 +/- 18 degrees from front and horizontal; B, 45- to 90-degree quadrant, -Q2 to +Q3 level, peak force 73 +/- 12 degrees and horizontal; C, 90- to 135-degree
Murphy, R K J
Motorcycles represent less than 2% of the licensed vehicles but motorcyclists account for 12% of road deaths in Ireland. The British Road Safety Authority has introduced the Sharp programme, which hopes to save 50 lives in the U.K. each year alone by helping riders to choose the best-fitting and safest helmets. We evaluated the pattern of head injuries sustained by motorcyclists referred to the two neurosurgical centres Beaumont Hospital and Cork University Hospital in Ireland and ascertained if the new SHARP guidelines could be of benefit in reducing the burden of motorcycle related neurotrauma and disability in Ireland. Despite Ireland having mandatory helmet laws almost a quarter of our motorcyclists with traumatic brain injury were unhelmeted. A significant reduction in mortality and morbidity is predicted if all motorcyclists in Ireland were to wear helmets that satisfied the SHARP criteria.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...
Xu, Y Q; Erkintalo, M; Genty, G; Murdoch, S G
We report on a theoretical and experimental study of cascaded Bragg scattering in fiber optics. We show that the usual energy-momentum conservation of Bragg scattering can be considerably relaxed via cascade-induced phase-matching. Experimentally we demonstrate frequency translation over six- and 11-fold cascades, in excellent agreement with derived phase-matching conditions.
Full Text Available Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primarily an economical process of connecting production (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. It can be seen in the fact besides promoting sport it conducts certain (limited productive activity (exchange of sport equipment, exchange of sport requisites and material goods that create sport clubs through competitions.
Kyrychenko, Sergey Y; McCartt, Anne T
Effective July 1, 2000, Florida's universal helmet law was amended to exclude riders ages 21 and older with insurance coverage providing at least 10,000 US dollars in medical benefits for injuries sustained in a motorcycle crash. Observed helmet use in Florida was reported to have declined from nearly 100% in 1998, before the law change, to 53% after. This study examined the effects of the law change on the likelihood of death, given involvement in a motorcycle crash. Rates of motorcyclist deaths per crash involvement in Florida for 2001-2002 (after the law change) were compared with those for 1998-1999 (before the law change). Before/after death rate ratios (95% CIs) were examined, and logistic regression models estimated the effect of the helmet law change on the odds of death in a crash, while controlling for rider gender, age, and seating position, and number of vehicles. The motorcyclist death rate increased significantly after the law change, from 30.8 to 38.8 deaths per 1,000 crash involvements. Motorcyclist death rates increased for single- and multiple-vehicle crashes, for male and female operators, and for riders of all ages including those younger than 21. After controlling for gender and age, the likelihood of death given involvement in a motorcycle crash was 25% higher than expected after the law change. It is estimated that 117 motorcyclist deaths could have been avoided during 2001-2002 if Florida's universal helmet law had remained in place. This study provides evidence of the life-saving benefits of universal helmet laws. The results also suggest that age-specific helmet laws are not effective in protecting the youngest drivers. This is not surprising, as these laws are largely unenforceable.
Chiou, Shu-Ti; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Lai, Ching-Huei; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Kawachi, Ichiro
We sought to examine changes in the magnitude of social inequality in motorcycle helmet use in Taiwan between 2001 and 2009. Using data from the 2001 and 2009 Taiwan National Health Interview Surveys, we calculated absolute (the slope index of inequality, SII) and relative (relative index of inequality, RII) measures of inequality in helmet use by three indicators of socioeconomic position. The rate of motorcycle helmet use was 92% (14 801/16 100) in 2001 and decreased to 89% (15 748/17 948) in 2009. We noted a significant decrease in social inequality in helmet use in RII according to urbanisation level, a significant decrease in SII and RII according to income level, and a significant increase in SII according to education level. The reduction in RII according to urbanisation level was more prominent than that based on income level, from 1.73 (95% CI 1.63 to 1.84) in 2001 to 1.33 (95% CI 1.27 to 1.39) in 2009. The decline in helmet use was most prominent for motorcycle users who live in suburban areas, from 94% in 2001 to 88% in 2009. The significant reduction of social inequality in helmet use according to urbanisation level and income is not a public health success story. Rather, it is a warning sign of slackening law enforcement in Taiwan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: The study aimed to assess the frequency of head and face injuries in motorcyclists who had an accident and to find out the relationship between helmet use and frequency of these injuries. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with multi-stage sampling method provides data on the injured motorcyclists with road accidents. Data came from a registration form which has documented information of each injured person who had a road accident and hospitalized in the biggest hospital of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran (Al-Zahra. All the registration forms were surveyed for hospitalization period, treatment costs, severity of injury, and date of accident during 2010 (n = 1626. Later, among the list of injured motorcyclists during the last 3 months of the registration form, 125 cases were randomly selected and interviewed by phone regarding occurrence of the head and face injuries and whether wearing helmet during the accident. Confidence intervals (CI, Chi-square, and Phi and Cramer’s correlation coefficient were applied. The ethical approval was provided. RESULTS: Accident by motorcycle was 31.0% of all road accidents. The frequency of motorcycle accidents was higher in the autumn and among 21-25 year olds. The mean period of hospitalization was 4.3 days and the mean of hospital costs was about 9000000 Rials [about 8200 United States dollar (USD, in 2010]. Of motorcyclist, 35.0% reported they were helmeted when they had the accident. The frequency of head and face injuries was 51.0% among all the injured motorcyclists, 22.0% and 78.0% among the helmeted and non-helmeted motorcyclists, respectively (P = 0.009, r = -0.267. CONCLUSION: Motorcycle accidents comprise a large number of road accidents and cause substantial morbidity and financial impact for the community members. Head and face injuries are the most common trauma in motorcyclists, and the injury rate is higher among non-helmeted motorcyclists.
Gupta, Saksham; Klaric, Katherine; Sam, Nang; Din, Vuthy; Juschkewitz, Tina; Iv, Vycheth; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B
Rapid urbanization and motorization without corresponding increases in helmet usage have made traumatic brain injury due to road traffic accidents a major public health crisis in Cambodia. This analysis was conducted to quantify the impact of helmets on severity of injury, neurosurgical indication, and functional outcomes at discharge for motorcycle operators who required hospitalization for a traumatic brain injury following a road traffic accident in Cambodia. The medical records of 491 motorcycle operators who presented to a major tertiary care center in Cambodia with traumatic brain injury were retrospectively analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. The most common injuries at presentation were contusions (47.0%), epidural hematomas (30.1%), subdural hematomas (27.9%), subarachnoid hemorrhages (12.4%), skull fractures (21.4%), and facial fractures (18.5%). Moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness was present in 36.3% of patients. Not wearing a helmet was associated with an odds ratio of 2.20 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.22) for presenting with moderate to severe loss of consciousness compared to helmeted patients. Craniotomy or craniectomy was indicated for evacuation of hematoma in 20.0% of cases, and nonhelmeted patients had 3.21-fold higher odds of requiring neurosurgical intervention (95% CI, 1.25-8.27). Furthermore, lack of helmet usage was associated with 2.72-fold higher odds of discharge with functional deficits (95% CI, 1.14-6.49). In total, 30.1% of patients were discharged with severe functional deficits. Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world.
Chatterjee, Dipal; Frumberg, David B; Mulchandani, Neil B; Eldib, Ahmed M; Xavier, Fred; Barbash, Scott E; Saha, Subrata; Urban, William P
Traumatic brain injury, specifically concussion, is prevalent in contact sports. In the United States (US) each year, 170 million adults participate in physical recreational activities, and 38 million children and adolescents participate in organized sports. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that in this group ~1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occur annually. Recent class-action lawsuits in the US filed by professional athletes against their respective leagues allege negligence in protecting them from concussions, and this has contributed to the attention received in the popular media. In response, concussion-related publications have increased exponentially during the past several years. Recent studies have challenged earlier assumptions that the effects of concussion are transient. Stronger links between concussion and neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease-like conditions, depression, and heightened risk for suicide are being elucidated. In this article, we explore the current knowledge on concussion, including pathophysiology, management, and long-term effects. We conclude that more evidence-based results regarding guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and return to play (RTP) are needed and should be the focus of future investigations. Attributing the etiology of certain neurodegenerative conditions to a history of concussion has been suggested in the current literature, but additional quantitative data regarding the pathophysiology and causality are needed as well. Bioengineers can have an important role in measuring the dynamic forces encountered during head impacts and their effects on the brain. These results can be effective in designing better helmets as well as improved playing surfaces to reduce the impact of such injuries. At this time, we believe that groups of people with heightened risk for concussion should be followed closely during longer periods of time and compared to matched controls. Such long-term studies are urgently
Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships in 2010. As the use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound in sports medicine has evolved, it became clear that the curriculum needed to be updated. Furthermore, the name 'musculoskeletal ultrasound' was changed to 'sports ultrasound' (SPORTS US) to reflect the broad range of diagnostic and interventional applications of ultrasound in sports medicine. This document was created to outline the core competencies of SPORTS US and to provide sports medicine fellowship directors and others interested in SPORTS US education with a guide to create a SPORTS US curriculum. By completing this SPORTS US curriculum, sports medicine fellows and physicians can attain proficiency in the core competencies of SPORTS US required for the practice of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport psychology. Introduction. The Academy for Girls' Leadership and ..... context by means of age-appropriate stories and metaphors according to the Sport. Psychology principle of visualisation (cf.
Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.
With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…
Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…
Scanlon, Michael V.
The Army Research Laboratory has developed body-contacting acoustic sensors that detect diverse physiological sounds such as heartbeats and breaths, high quality speech, and activity. These sensors use an acoustic impedance-matching gel contained in a soft, compliant pad to enhance the body borne sounds, yet significantly repel airborne noises due to an acoustic impedance mismatch. The signals from such a sensor can be used as a microphone with embedded physiology, or a dedicated digital signal processor can process packetized data to separate physiological parameters from voice, and log parameter trends for performance surveillance. Acoustic sensors were placed inside soldier helmets to monitor voice, physiology, activity, and situational awareness clues such as bullet shockwaves from sniper activity and explosions. The sensors were also incorporated into firefighter breathing masks, neck and wrist straps, and other protective equipment. Heart rate, breath rate, blood pressure, voice and activity can be derived from these sensors (reports at www.arl.army.mil/acoustics). Having numerous sensors at various locations provides a means for array processing to reduce motion artifacts, calculate pulse transit time for passive blood pressure measurement, and the origin of blunt/penetrating traumas such as ballistic wounding. These types of sensors give us the ability to monitor soldiers and civilian emergency first-responders in demanding environments, and provide vital signs information to assess their health status and how that person is interacting with the environment and mission at hand. The Objective Force Warrior, Scorpion, Land Warrior, Warrior Medic, and other military and civilian programs can potentially benefit from these sensors.
Proschek, D; Rehart, S
Sport is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Due to the changing age spectrum with a greater number of elderly and substantially more active people, an increasing number of people with underlying orthopedic diseases are becoming interested in participating in sport. This article deals with the possibilities and effects of sporting activities for people with rheumatoid arthritis within the framework of a conservative therapy. A literature search was carried out using medical search engines, in particular PubMed, and also via the recommendations of specialist societies and patient help groups. The quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis consists of physical, mental and social components. Sport as a means of rehabilitation influences all of these components. Sport should be comprehended as a form of therapy and be adapted to the needs of the individual patient. The willingness to actively participate in sport should always be highly rated and encouraged. Sport is therefore an important pillar of therapy in a conservative total concept. The main aspects of sport therapeutic activities are functional, pedagogical and experience-oriented aspects. The clinical symptoms, extent of damage and physical impairment must, however, be evaluated and taken into consideration for the therapeutic concept. The amount of data on the complex topic of sport and rheumatoid arthritis is low and is mainly dealt with as retrospective reviews. A prospective randomized study basis is lacking. The aim must therefore be to confirm the currently available recommendations for various types of sport in controlled studies.
Williams, Vernon B
Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.
Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.
The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication
Edwards, Tim; Barnhart, Warren; Sawyer, Kevin; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)
A high performance color helmet mounted display (HMD) system for in-flight simulation and research has been developed for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Laboratory (RASCAL). The display system consists of a programmable display generator, a display electronics unit, a head tracker, and the helmet with display optics. The system provides a maximum of 1024 x 1280 resolution, a 4:1 contrast ratio, and a brightness of 1100fL utilizing currently available technologies. This paper describes the major features and components of the system. Also discussed are the measured performance of the system and the design techniques that allowed the development of a full color HMD.
Bue, Grant C.; Nguyen, Hiep X.; Keller, John R.
LED Helmet Extravehicular Activity Helmet Interchangeable Portable (LEHIP) lights for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) have been built and tested and are currently being used on the International Space Station. A design is presented of the passive thermal control system consisting of a chamber filled with aluminum foam and wax. A thermal math model of LEHIP was built and correlated by test to show that the thermal design maintains electronic components within hot and cold limits for a 7 hour spacewalk in the most extreme EVA average environments, and do not pose a hazard to the crew or to components of the EMU.
Franklyn, Melanie; Laing, Sheridan
Soldiers in military vehicles subjected to underbelly blasts can sustain traumatic head and neck injuries due to a head impact with the roof. The severity of head and neck trauma can be influenced by the amount of head clearance available to the occupant as well as factors such as wearing a military helmet or the presence of padding on the interior roof. The aim of the current study was to examine the interaction between a Hybrid III headform, the helmet system, and the interior roof of the vehicle under vertical loading. Using a head impact machine and a Hybrid III headform, tests were conducted on a rigid steel plate in a number of different configurations and velocities to assess helmet shell and padding performance, to evaluate different vehicle roof padding materials, and to determine the relative injury mitigating contributions of both the helmet and the roof padding. The resultant translational head acceleration was measured and the head injury criterion (HIC) was calculated for each impact. For impacts with a helmeted headform hitting the steel plate only, which represented a common scenario in an underbelly blast event, velocities of ≤6 m/s resulted in HIC values below the FMVSS 201U threshold of 1,000, and a velocity of 7 m/s resulted in HIC values well over the threshold. Roof padding was found to reduce the peak translational head acceleration and the HIC, with rigid IMPAXX foams performing better than semirigid ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) foam. However, the head injury potential was reduced considerably more by wearing a helmet than by the addition of roof padding. The results of this study provide initial quantitative findings that provide a better understanding of helmet-roof interactions in vertical impacts and the contributions of the military helmet and roof padding to mitigating head injury potential. Findings from this study will be used to inform further testing with the future aim of developing a new minimum head clearance standard for
Lipira, A.B.; Gordon, S.; Darvann, Tron Andre
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Orthotic helmets and active repositioning are the most common treatments for deformational plagiocephaly (DP). Existing evidence is not sufficient to objectively inform decisions between these options. A three-dimensional (3D), whole-head asymmetry analysis was used......). The greatest difference was localized to the occipital region. CONCLUSIONS: Whole-head 3D asymmetry analysis is capable of rigorously quantifying the relative efficacy of the 2 common treatments of DP. Orthotic helmets provide statistically superior improvement in head symmetry compared with active...
Mertz, Kristen J.; Weiss, Harold B.
To evaluate the 2003 repeal of Pennsylvania’s motorcycle helmet law, we assessed changes in helmet use and compared motorcycle-related head injuries with non-head injuries from 2001–2002 to 2004–2005. Helmet use among riders in crashes decreased from 82% to 58%. Head injury deaths increased 66%; nonhead injury deaths increased 25%. Motorcycle-related head injury hospitalizations increased 78% compared with 28% for nonhead injury hospitalizations. Helmet law repeals jeopardize motorcycle riders. Until repeals are reversed, states need voluntary strategies to increase helmet use. PMID:18556613
Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...
Jéssica Natuline Ianof
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.
Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P
Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.
DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN
Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.
Zhou, Yicong; Hua, Zhongyun; Pun, Chi-Man; Chen, C L Philip
Chaotic maps are widely used in different applications. Motivated by the cascade structure in electronic circuits, this paper introduces a general chaotic framework called the cascade chaotic system (CCS). Using two 1-D chaotic maps as seed maps, CCS is able to generate a huge number of new chaotic maps. Examples and evaluations show the CCS's robustness. Compared with corresponding seed maps, newly generated chaotic maps are more unpredictable and have better chaotic performance, more parameters, and complex chaotic properties. To investigate applications of CCS, we introduce a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and a data encryption system using a chaotic map generated by CCS. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the proposed PRNG has high quality of randomness and that the data encryption system is able to protect different types of data with a high-security level.
Full Text Available We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank's liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable.
Tedeschi, Gabriele; Mazloumian, Amin; Gallegati, Mauro; Helbing, Dirk
We study a credit network and, in particular, an interbank system with an agent-based model. To understand the relationship between business cycles and cascades of bankruptcies, we model a three-sector economy with goods, credit and interbank market. In the interbank market, the participating banks share the risk of bad debits, which may potentially spread a bank's liquidity problems through the network of banks. Our agent-based model sheds light on the correlation between bankruptcy cascades and the endogenous economic cycle of booms and recessions. It also demonstrates the serious trade-off between, on the one hand, reducing risks of individual banks by sharing them and, on the other hand, creating systemic risks through credit-related interlinkages of banks. As a result of our study, the dynamics underlying the meltdown of financial markets in 2008 becomes much better understandable.
Russo, Brendan J; Barrette, Timothy P; Morden, Jeffery; Savolainen, Peter T; Gates, Timothy J
Motorcycle riders account for a disproportionately high number of traffic injuries and fatalities compared to occupants of other vehicle types. Though research has demonstrated the benefits of helmet use in preventing serious and fatal injuries in the event of a crash, helmet use has remained relatively stable in the United States, where the most recent national estimates show a 64% use rate. Use rates have been markedly lower among those states that do not have a universal helmet law for all riders. In 2012, the state of Michigan repealed its longstanding mandatory helmet use law. In order to gain insights as to the effects of this legislative change, a study was conducted to examine short-term changes in helmet use and identify factors associated with use rates. A statewide direct observation survey was conducted 1 year after the transition from a universal helmet law to a partial helmet law. A random parameters logistic regression model was estimated to identify motorcyclist, roadway, and environmental characteristics associated with helmet use. This modeling framework accounts for both intravehicle correlation (between riders and passengers on the same motorcycle) as well as unobserved heterogeneity across riders due to important unobserved factors. Helmet use was shown to vary across demographic segments of the motorcyclist population. Use rates were higher among Caucasian riders, as well as among those age 60 and above. No significant difference was observed between male and female riders. Use was also found to vary geographically, temporally, and with respect to various environmental characteristics. Geographically, helmet use rates tended to be correlated with historical restraint use trends, which may be reflective of riding environment and general differences in the riding population. To this end, rates were also highly variable based upon the type of motorcycle and whether the motorcyclist was wearing high-visibility gear. The study results demonstrate
The presence of an impurity and thermal vibration influence on the atom-atom collision cascade development is analysed by the computer simulation method (the modificated dynamic model). It is discovered that the relatively low energetic cascades are localized with the temperature increase of an irradiated crystal. On the basis of the given effect the mechanism of splitting of the high energetic cascades into subcascades is proposed. It accounts for two factors: the primary knocked atom energy and the irradiated crystal temperature. Introduction of an impurity also localizes the cascades independently from the impurity atom mass. The cascades localization leads to intensification of the process of annealing in the cascades and reduction of the post-cascade vacancy cluster sizes. (author)
Injuries among children during sporting activities are common. This study is a one year study including children between five and fourteen years of age who sustained their injuries during sporting activities and were treated at Trondheim Regional and University Hospital. Sport accidents account for 27 per cent of all childhood accidents in this age group. Fifty-three per cent of the injured were boys, and 47 per cent were girls. The boys sustained more severe injuries than the girls. Soccer c...
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...
Lynghøj, Jesper Ebbesen; Holm, Emil Broo
Abstract More than ever, it is possible for individuals to create or get involved in some kind of public debate on digital platforms. Whether it involves politics or sport events, people have the opportunity to comment on these events via social media platforms. Our thesis focus on creating a concept, where both journalists and users of sports journalistic can participate online, and share the sports stories they are passionated about. We look at the possibilities of making a sportssite, w...
Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Coelho, Fernanda; Veitzman, Silvia; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson; Anghinah, Renato
ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...
Cervical Spine Alignment in Helmeted Skiers and Snowboarders With Suspected Head and Neck Injuries: Comparison of Lateral C-spine Radiographs Before and After Helmet Removal and Implications for Ski Patrol Transport.
Murray, Jared; Rust, David A
Current protocols for spine immobilization of the injured skier/snowboarder have not been scientifically validated. Observing changes in spine alignment during common rescue scenarios will help strengthen recommendations for rescue guidelines. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers (18 men, 10 women) age 47±17 (range 20-73) (mean ±SD with range) underwent a mock rescue in which candidate patrollers completing an Outdoor Emergency Care course performed spine immobilization and back boarding in 3 scenarios: 1) Ski helmet on, no c-collar; 2) helmet on, with c-collar; and 3) helmet removed, with c-collar. After each scenario, a lateral radiograph was taken of the cervical spine to observe for changes in alignment. Compared with the control group (helmet on, no collar), we observed 9 degrees of increased overall (occiput-C7) cervical extension in the helmet on, with collar group (P Ski helmet removal and c-collar application each leads to increased extension of the cervical spine. In the absence of other clinical factors, our recommendation is that helmets should be left in place and c-collars not routinely applied during ski patrol rescue. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pintar, Frank A; Philippens, Mat M G M; Zhang, JiangYue; Yoganandan, Narayan
The objective of the study was to obtain helmet-to-head contact forces from experiments, use a human head finite element model to determine regional responses, and compare outputs to skull fracture and brain injury thresholds. Tests were conducted using two types of helmets (A and B) fitted to a head-form. Seven load cells were used on the head-form back face to measure helmet-to-head contact forces. Projectiles were fired in frontal, left, right, and rear directions. Three tests were conducted with each helmet in each direction. Individual and summated force- and impulse-histories were obtained. Force-histories were inputted to the human head-helmet finite element model. Pulse durations were approximately 4 ms. One-third force and impulse were from the central load cell. 0.2% strain and 40 MPa stress limits were not exceeded for helmet-A. For helmet-B, strains exceeded in left, right, and rear; pressures exceeded in bilateral directions; volume of elements exceeding 0.2% strains correlated with the central load cell forces. For helmet-A, volumes exceeding brain pressure threshold were: 5-93%. All elements crossed the pressure limit for helmet-B. For both helmets, no brain elements exceeded peak principal strain limit. These findings advance our understanding of skull and brain biomechanics from helmet-head contact forces. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.
Kobierecki Michał Marcin
Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.
Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding
Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Lai, Ching-Huei; Chiang, Tung-Liang
This study was conducted to examine whether passage of the mandatory motorcycle helmet law in 1997 reduced the regional inequality in mortality from road traffic injuries (RTIs) across 22 cities/counties in Taiwan. We calculated the absolute (between-group variance, BGV) and relative (rate ratio between the city/county with the highest and lowest rate, RR) terms of inequality for the overall and motorcycle-related RTI mortality rates, the rate of helmet use and three other explanatory factors associated with RTI mortality at the city/county level from 1997 through 2008. The BGV of the overall and motorcycle-related RTI mortality rates across the 22 cities/counties showed persistently decreasing trends from 1997 to 2008; however, the RR of RTI mortality first increased and then levelled off from 2002. The decreasing trend in inequality was most prominent in males aged 0-24 years. The BGV and RR of the rate of motorcycle helmet use decreased after passage of the law but increased from 2002 onwards. In Taiwan, passage of the mandatory motorcycle helmet law reduced the regional inequality in RTI mortality; however, a resurgence in regional inequality in the helmet use rate years after passage of the helmet law was noted. It is therefore necessary to monitor the helmet use rate after passage of such a law to ensure the effect of a reduction in regional inequality in RTI mortality.
Full Text Available ... sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ... in sweat can usually be made up with sports drinks or food eaten after exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking ...
... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or ... for the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse ...
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Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Tyson, Abigail M; Duma, Stefan M; Rowson, Steven
Advances in low-cost wearable head impact sensor technology provide potential benefits regarding sports safety for both consumers and researchers. However, previous laboratory evaluations are not directly comparable and don't incorporate test conditions representative of unhelmeted impacts. This study addresses those limitations. The xPatch by X2 Biosystems and the SIM-G by Triax Technologies were placed on a NOCSAE headform with a Hybrid III neck which underwent impacts tests using a pendulum. Impact conditions included helmeted, padded impactor to bare head, and rigid impactor to bare head to represent long and short-duration impacts seen in helmeted and unhelmeted sports. The wearable sensors were evaluated on their kinematic accuracy by comparing results to reference sensors located at the headform center of gravity. Statistical tests for equivalence were performed on the slope of the linear regression between wearable sensors and reference. The xPatch gave equivalent measurements to the reference in select longer-duration impacts whereas the SIM-G had large variance leading to no equivalence. For the short-duration impacts, both wearable sensors underpredicted the reference. This error can be improved with increases in sampling rate from 1 to 1.5 kHz. Follow-up evaluations should be performed on the field to identify error in vivo. (197/200).
Ueta, Kazuyoshi; Tomita, Toshiji; Uchiyama, Akinori; Ohta, Noriyuki; Iguchi, Naoya; Goto, Yukiko; Fujino, Yuji
To evaluate optimal humidifier water temperature when using a helmet for noninvasive ventilation. Twenty-eight healthy individuals underwent 8 cm H2O CPAP ventilation with FIO2 of 0.21 and 0.5. Each was sequentially tested in the following order: using the helmet without humidification at ambient temperature; with humidification with unheated chamber water; and with humidification with the chamber water at 31°C, 34°C, and 37°C. At each setting, after a 20 min stabilization period, measurements were taken. Comfort level at each setting was evaluated using a visual analog scale rated zero (least comfortable) to 10 (most comfortable). Temperature and relative and absolute humidity inside the helmet increased; however, the comfort scores significantly decreased as the humidification chamber water temperature increased. Regardless of the FIO2, statistically significantly highest comfort scores were obtained when humidification water, with and without active humidification, was at ambient temperature. Unacceptable absolute humidity was obtained only without humidification at room temperature when FIO2 was 0.5. With the clinical use of a helmet, for patient comfort and mucosal humidification during CPAP, the most desirable conditions are likely to be obtained by humidifying without heating, that is by leaving the water in the humidifier chamber at room temperature.
Smrcok, L.; Petrik, I.; Langer, V.; Filinchuk, Y.; Beran, Přemysl
Roč. 45, č. 10 (2010), s. 1025-1031 ISSN 0232-1300 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : archaeometry * Roman helmet * phase analysis Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.946, year: 2010
Bavon, Al; Standerfer, Christina
This study seeks to determine the effect of the Texas motorcycle helmet law on fatalities since the repeal of the universal helmet law in 1997. Texas monthly motorcycle accident data between 1994 and 2004 were obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and supplemented with motorcycle registration data from the Texas Department of Transportation. An ARIMA model was used to estimate the impact of the law. A sharp increase in fatality rates occurred immediately following the implementation of the law in September 1997. Deaths increased by 30%, fatality rates per motorcycle registrations increased by 15.2%, and fatality rates per vehicle miles traveled increased by 25% after repeal. Helmet use decreased from 77% in 1996 to 63% in 1997 and 36% in 1998 and thereafter. The parameter estimates of the ARIMA model (0,0,0) (0,1,1) show that the change in the law led to statistically significant increases of 2.3 fatalities and 1.18 fatality rate per 100 billion vehicle miles traveled. The repeal of the universal helmet law in Texas in 1997 has had a significant adverse effect on motorcyclist fatalities in Texas.
Beurden, van K.M.M. (Karin); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Stilma, M. (Margot); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)
The Saxion Research Centre for Design and Technology employs many students during research projects. This paper discusses a series of student design projects on safety helmets in the Safety@Work project. At construction sites workers are required to wear personal protective equipment during their
Gupta, Saksham; Iv, Vycheth; Sam, Nang; Vuthy, Din; Klaric, Katherine; Shrime, Mark G; Park, Kee B
Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, often necessitating neurosurgical intervention to evacuate intracranial bleeding. Since the early 2000s, Cambodia has been undergoing a rapid increase in motorcycle transit and in road traffic accidents, but the prevalence of helmet usage remains low. Epidural hematomas are severe traumatic brain injuries that can necessitate neurosurgical intervention. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents who presented to a major national tertiary care center in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, between November 2013 and March 2016. All patients were diagnosed with computed tomography of the head. In this cohort, 21.6% of patients in motorcycle accidents presented with epidural hematoma and 89.1% of patients were men, 47.6% were intoxicated, and were 87.8% were not wearing helmets at the moment of impact. Not wearing a helmet was associated with a 6.90-fold increase in odds of presenting with a moderate-to-severe Glasgow coma scale score and a 3.76-fold increase in odds of requiring craniotomy or craniectomy for evacuation of hematoma. Male sex was also associated with increased odds of higher clinical severity at presentation and indication for craniotomy or craniectomy, and alcohol intoxication at the time of accident was not associated with either. Helmet usage is protective in reducing the severity of presentation and need for neurosurgical intervention for patients with epidural hematoma secondary to motorcycle accidents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.140 Section 84.140 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirator...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. 84.202 Section 84.202 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge...
Beldman, T. (Teunis); Boer, de J. (Johannes); Lemmens, P. (Pim); Stilma, M. (Margot)
In reaction to the lack of intrinsic motivation of construction site workers, to wear their safety helmets at all times, a series of research projects studied causes and possible solutions. Goal is to gain an inspirational discussion to get the design onto the next level. This paper describes a
... of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice Protective Helmet Standards Workshop AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology... occur, should space allow. Participants planning to attend are responsible for their own travel...
Cournoyer, Janie; Post, Andrew; Rousseau, Philippe; Hoshizaki, Blaine
Football players can receive up to 1400 head impacts per season, averaging 6.3 impacts per practice and 14.3 impacts per game. A decrease in the capacity of a helmet to manage linear acceleration with multiple impacts could increase the risk of traumatic brain injury. To investigate the ability of football helmets to manage linear acceleration with multiple high-energy impacts. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. We collected linear-acceleration data for 100 impacts at 6 locations on 4 helmets of different models currently used in football. Impacts 11 to 20 were compared with impacts 91 to 100 for each of the 6 locations. Linear acceleration was greater after multiple impacts (91-100) than after the first few impacts (11-20) for the front, front-boss, rear, and top locations. However, these differences are not clinically relevant as they do not affect the risk for head injury. American football helmet performance deteriorated with multiple impacts, but this is unlikely to be a factor in head-injury causation during a game or over a season.
Lange, R. de; Cappon, H.J.; Beusenberg, C.M.; Shewchenko, N.; Newman, J.A.
A mathematical modeling study is conducted to investigate neck coupling in helmeted head impacts. The main objective of the study is to provide direction for the experimental reconstruction of American football player impacts. Head responses are compared in MADYMO simulations of various impact
Gisolfi, C. V.; And Others
To determine the effects of wearing a helmet on thermal balance and rating of perceived exertion while cycling in the heat, six male competitive cyclists aged 19 to 32 years rode a stationary bicycle in an environmentally controlled chamber for two hours. Results are presented. (Author/MT)
Beaumont, F; Taiar, R; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Grappe, F
The aerodynamic drag of three different time-trial cycling helmets was analyzed numerically for two different cyclist head positions. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were used to investigate the detailed airflow patterns around the cyclist for a constant velocity of 15 m/s without wind. The CFD simulations have focused on the aerodynamic drag effects in terms of wall shear stress maps and pressure coefficient distributions on the cyclist/helmet system. For a given head position, the helmet shape, by itself, obtained a weak effect on a cyclist's aerodynamic performance (aerodynamic performance; the maximum difference between both positions being about 6.4%. CFD results have also shown that both helmet shape and head position significantly influence drag forces, pressure and wall shear stress distributions on the whole cyclist's body due to the change in the near-wake behavior and in location of corresponding separation and attachment areas around the cyclist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Surface-supplied helmets and masks. 197.322 Section 197.322 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.322 Surface-supplied...
... DEVICES Dust, Fume, and Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1136 Facepieces, hoods, and helmets; eyepieces; minimum requirements... is not distorted by the eyepieces. (b) All eyepieces of gas masks combinations shall be designed and...
Shinar, D. Bogerd, C.P. Chliaoutakis, J. Cavallo, V. Crundall, D. Dias, J. Haworth, N. Holt, N. Houtenbos, M. Kuklane, K. Lajunen, T. Morandi, A. Oron-Gilad, T. Orsi, C. Papadakaki, M. Parkkari, K. Rus, D. Saplioglu, M. Tzamalouka, G. Valero-Mora, P. Walker, I. Wardlow, M. & Weber, T.
The HOPES workgroup of Traffic Psychology is concerned with the social, behavioral, and perceptual aspects that are associated with use and non-use of bicycle helmets, in their various forms and under various cycling conditions. The objectives of WG2 are to (1) share current knowledge among the
Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Andersson, Ragnar
Previous population-based research has shown that bicycle helmet laws can reduce head injury rates among cyclists. According to deterrence theory, such laws are mainly effective if there is a high likelihood of being apprehended. In this study, we investigated the effect of the Swedish helmet law for children under the age of 15, a population that cannot be fined. An interrupted time series design was used. Monthly inpatient data on injured cyclists from 1998-2012, stratified by age (0-14, 15+), sex, and injury diagnosis, was obtained from the National Patient Register. The main outcome measure was the proportion of head injury admissions per month. Intervention effect estimates were obtained using generalized autoregressive moving average (GARMA) models. Pre-legislation trend and seasonality was adjusted for, and differences-in-differences estimation was obtained using adults as a non-equivalent control group. There was a statistically significant intervention effect among male children, where the proportion of head injuries dropped by 7.8 percentage points. There was no evidence of an intervention effect on the proportion of head injuries among female children. According to hospital admission data, the bicycle helmet law appears to have had an effect only on male children. This study, while quasi-experimental and thus not strictly generalizable, can contribute to increased knowledge regarding the effects of bicycle helmet laws. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Singh, D.; Cronin, D. S.
Head injury resulting from blast exposure has been identified as a challenge that may be addressed, in part, through improved protective systems. Existing detailed head models validated for blast loading were applied to investigate the influence of helmet visor configuration, liner properties, and shell material stiffness. Response metrics including head acceleration and intracranial pressures (ICPs) generated in brain tissue during primary blast exposure were used to assess and compare helmet configurations. The addition of a visor was found to reduce peak head acceleration and positive ICPs. However, negative ICPs associated with a potential for injury were increased when a visor and a foam liner were present. In general, the foam liner material was found to be more significant in affecting the negative ICP response than positive ICP or acceleration. Shell stiffness was found to have relatively small effects on either metric. A strap suspension system, modeled as an air gap between the head and helmet, was more effective in reducing response metrics compared to a foam liner. In cases with a foam liner, lower-density foam offered a greater reduction of negative ICPs. The models demonstrated the "underwash" effect in cases where no foam liner was present; however, the reflected pressures generated between the helmet and head did not translate to significant ICPs in adjacent tissue, when compared to peak ICPs from initial blast wave interaction. This study demonstrated that the efficacy of head protection can be expressed in terms of load transmission pathways when assessed with a detailed computational model.
Hooten, Kristopher G; Murad, Gregory J A
Helmet use in two-wheeled vehicle accidents is widely reported to decrease the rates of death and traumatic brain injury. Previous reports suggest that there exists a trade off with helmet use consisting of an increased risk of cervical spine injuries. Recently, a review of a national trauma database demonstrated the opposite, with reduction in cervical spinal cord injuries in motorcycle crashes (MCC). In 2000, the State of Florida repealed its mandatory helmet law to make helmet use optional for individuals older than 21 with $10,000 of health insurance coverage. To better ascertain the risks of cervical spine injury with non-helmet use in all two-wheeled vehicles, we analyzed the University of Florida level one trauma center experience. We reviewed the Traumatic injury database over a five-year period (January 1, 2005, to July 1, 2010) for all patients involved in two-wheeled vehicle accidents. Patients were stratified according to vehicle type (motorcycle, scooter, and bicycle), helmet use, and the presence or absence of a cervical spine injury. Outcomes were compared for injury severity, cervical spine injury, cervical spinal cord injury, and presence of cervical spine injuries requiring surgery. Population means were compared using paired t-test. A total of 1331 patients were identified: 995 involved in motorcycle accidents, 87 involved in low-powered scooter accidents, and 249 involved in bicycle accidents. Helmet use was variable between each group. One hundred thirty-five total cervical spine injuries were identified. No evidence was found to suggest an increased risk of cervical spine injury or increased severity of cervical spine injury with helmet use. This fact, in combination with our previous findings, suggest that the law's age and insurance exemption should be revoked and a universal helmet law be reinstated in the state of Florida.
Milne, C J
Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medi...
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...
Knobloch, K; Rossner, D; Jagodzinski, M; Zeichen, J; Gössling, T; Martin-Schmitt, S; Richter, M; Krettek, C
Ball sport school injuries account for a significant morbidity among children and adolescents. During a school year 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Regarding the non-gender-specific distribution of the ball sport disciplines, basketball leads with 32 % (n = 431), followed by soccer (24 %, n = 316), volleyball (17 %, n = 232), handball (8.3 %, n = 110) and hockey (4.9 %, n = 65). Sprains (27 %) dominate in basketball, followed by ligament distorsions and ruptures (23 %) and fractures (21 %), with frequent finger injuries (61 %) without contact of an opponent, and injuries of the lower extremity (28 %). Soccer leads to contusions (29 %), in 52 % of the lower extremity frequently after collision with an opponent (22 %) or the ball (20 %). In volleyball upper extremity injuries (71 %) dominate with 53 % finger sprains in individual volleyball play. Ball school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity with frequent finger injuries. Proprioceptive deficits may play a role in those finger injuries in basketball, volleyball and handball. During hockey, severe dental and facial injuries were apparent. A prospective proprioceptive training program aiming on fingers and the ankle region may therefore be a preventive measure such as helmets with facial protection in hockey school sport.
Belna, Alison M.; And Others
Profiles the SPORT database, produced by Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, which provides extensive coverage of individual sports including practice, training and equipment, recreation, sports medicine, physical education, sport facilities, and international sport history. Olympic coverage in SPORT, sports sciences, online…
... Hemecourt P, Collins C, Comstock RD. Assessment and management of sport-related concussions in United States high schools. Am ... KE, Xu L, McGuire LC, Coronado VG. Nonfatal sports and recreation related traumatic brain injuries ... NT. Diagnosis and management of exercise-induced asthma. Physician Sportsmed. 1996;24( ...
Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel
Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.
The lesson plan for grades six through nine demonstrates an innovative way of analyzing student ideas and attitudes about sports activity. It includes readings, photographs, and teacher suggestions designed to generate ideas and reactions to personal and social aspects of sports. (Author/DB)
Micheli, Lyle J.
Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)
... and a sense of well-being. Almost any sport places some stress on your spine. That is why it's important to keep the muscles and ligaments that support your spine flexible ... many sports injuries. Getting these muscles to the point where ...
Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob
In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive"…
Since the end of the Second World War, the popularity of modern elite sport has grown immensely and so has the economical interests in sport. Athletes have become attractive advertising partners. Much money is at stake so it is understandable that companies are alarmed when their poster boys or g...
ACSM Information On… Concussion in Sports A concussion is an injury to the brain where force causes the brain to move within the skull. A person does ... deceleration force, and concussions occur in many different sports. While an athlete does not need to hit ...
Spaaij, R.; Farquharson, K.; Marjoribanks, T.
This article reviews recent research on the relationship between sport and social inequalities, focusing on gender, race, nation and social mobility. Through an engagement with these areas of research, we highlight how sport reflects and reinforces broader hierarchical structures; how it serves as a
Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...
Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.
Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.
The world of sports intrinsically involves fast and accurate motion that is not only challenging for competitors to master, but can be difficult for coaches and trainers to analyze, and for audiences to follow. The nature of most sports means that monitoring by the use of sensors or other devices...
Toma, J. Douglas
Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
Jan de Leeuw
Binnenkort gaat in Nederland een Academie voor Mindfulness in Sport (AMS) van start. Dat is een techniek die ingezet wordt voor bewustwording van eigen gevoelens en gedachten van het moment, zonder daar op te reageren. Een beroemdheid uit de wereld van de sport die zweert bij mindfulness is Phil
Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.
nal stereotype of a mathematician is a highly nonathletic, myopic individual with his head buried in books. Reality, of course, is other- wise. One finds many who are proficient in both mathematics and sports, but even so, rarely there's someone who combines the two. Mathematics in sports? Certainly. Tendulkar does not ...
Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A
Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.
Vitaliti, Giovanna; Vitaliti, Maria Concetta; Finocchiaro, Maria Carla; Di Stefano, Vita Antonella; Pavone, Piero; Matin, Nassim; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Lubrano, Riccardo; Falsaperla, Raffaele
The current study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of 2 noninvasive respiratory support methods, which included helmet CPAP and high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in children with respiratory distress admitted to a pediatric intermediate care unit. This study was a prospective observational study conducted on children with respiratory distress (age 1-24 months) who were admitted to our acute and emergency operative unit. All included subjects were randomly treated with helmet CPAP or HFNC in a 1:1 fashion until their clinical picture, oxygen saturation, and arterial blood gas (ABG) parameters resolved. The efficiencies of helmet CPAP and HFNC were evaluated by breathing frequency, S pO 2 , ABG pH, ABG P aCO 2 , ABG P aO 2 , and P aO 2 /F IO 2 , recorded once at baseline and then after 1 and 6 h of treatment. Both noninvasive respiratory support modalities were compared with a control group of subjects with respiratory distress under standard therapeutic pharmaceutical protocols. We found that both helmet CPAP and HFNC were efficient in improving the clinical conditions of subjects with mild-to-moderate respiratory distress, although clinical response to helmet CPAP was more efficient and rapid compared with HFNC. Children who received respiratory support had a better clinical course in terms of hospitalization, days of intravenous rehydration therapy, and days of drug administration compared with the control group ( P CPAP and HFNC in respiratory distress resolution in a pediatric intermediate care setting. It aims to identify the most efficient treatment to avoid pediatric ICU admissions and endotracheal intubation and reduce the administration of drugs and days of hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Mayordomo-Colunga, Juan; Rey, Corsino; Medina, Alberto; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Concha, Andrés
Nasal prongs are frequently used to deliver noninvasive CPAP in bronchiolitis, especially in the youngest children. A helmet interface is an alternative that might be comparable to nasal prongs. We sought to compare these interfaces. We performed a prospective, randomized, crossover, single-center study in an 8-bed multidisciplinary pediatric ICU in a university hospital. Infants age CPAP via a helmet or nasal prongs for 60 min. The subjects were then placed on the other CPAP system for another 60-min period (helmet then nasal prongs [H-NP] or nasal prongs then helmet [NP-H]). Measurements were taken at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Failure was defined as the need for further respiratory support. Sixteen subjects were included, with 9 in the H-NP group and 7 in the NP-H group. CPAP significantly reduced respiratory distress, showing no differences between the H-NP and NP-H groups in terms of improving the Modified Wood's Clinical Asthma Score from 4.8 ± 1 to 3 ± 0.9 and 2.7 ± 1.7 points at 60 min and 120 min in the H-NP group, respectively, and from 4.2 ± 0.9 to 2.8 ± 0.9 and to 2.9 ± 0.9 at 60 min and 120 min, respectively, in the NP-H group. Sedatives were used in only 3 subjects (2 in the NP-H group, P = .77). The failure rate was similar in both groups (3 of 9 subjects vs 3 of 7 subjects, P = .70). No significant differences were seen for heart rate, breathing frequency, F IO 2 , or transcutaneous oxygen saturation response. Our results suggest that CPAP delivered by nasal prongs and CPAP delivered by helmet are similar in terms of efficacy in young infants with acute bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2018 by Daedalus Enterprises.
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.
Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).
Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K
Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.
Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr
in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance......Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...
Wang, Jianwei; Sun, Enhui; Xu, Bo; Li, Peng; Ni, Chengzhang
Applying the mechanism of the preferential selection of the flow destination, we develop a new method to quantify the initial load on an edge, of which the flow is transported along the path with the shortest edge weight between two nodes. Considering the node weight, we propose a cascading model on the edge and investigate cascading dynamics induced by the removal of the edge with the largest load. We perform simulated attacks on four types of constructed networks and two actual networks and observe an interesting and counterintuitive phenomenon of the cascading spreading, i.e., gradually improving the capacity of nodes does not lead to the monotonous increase in the robustness of these networks against cascading failures. The non monotonous behavior of cascading dynamics is well explained by the analysis on a simple graph. We additionally study the effect of the parameter of the node weight on cascading dynamics and evaluate the network robustness by a new metric.
separated by an injection region composed of digitally graded Indium Arsenide (InAs)/ Aluminum Indium Antimonide (Al(In)Sb) multi-QWs. The active region...consists of coupled InAs, Gallium Indium Antimonide (GaInSb) and Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) QWs separated by Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb) barriers. Under... Antimonide AlInSb Aluminum Indium Antimonide cw constant wave DC direct current GaSb Gallium Antimonide IC Interband cascade InAs Indium Arsenide InSb
attention. This conceptual paper attempts to explain the emergent focus on the sharing economy and associated business and consumption models by applying cascade theory. Risks associated with this behavior will be especially examined with regard to the sustainability claim of collaborative consumption....... With academics, practitioners, and civil society alike having a shared history in being rather fast in accepting new concepts that will not only provide business opportunities but also a good conscience, this study proposes a critical study of the implications of collaborative consumption, before engaging...
Zannetti, L.; Pandolfi, M.
A numerical technique to generate cascades is presented. The basic prescribed parameters are: inlet angle, exit pressure, and distribution of blade thickness and lift along a blade. Other sets of parameters are also discussed. The technique is based on the lambda scheme. The problem of stability of the computation as a function of the prescribed set of parameters and the treatment of boundary conditions is discussed. A one dimensional analysis to indicate a possible way for assuring stability for any two dimensional calculation is provided.
Lisa Grow Sun
Full Text Available Sociological research conducted in the aftermath of natural disasters has uncovered a number of “disaster myths” – widely shared misconceptions about typical post-disaster human behavior. This paper discusses the possibility that perpetuation of disaster mythology reflects an “availability cascade,” defined in prior scholarship as a “self-reinforcing process of collective belief formation by which an expressed perception triggers a chain reaction that gives the perception increasing plausibility through its rising availability in public discourse.” (Kuran and Sunstein 1999. Framing the spread of disaster mythology as an availability cascade suggests that certain tools may be useful in halting the myths’ continued perpetuation. These tools include changing the legal and social incentives of so-called “availability entrepreneurs” – those principally responsible for beginning and perpetuating the cascade, as well as insulating decision-makers from political pressures generated by the availability cascade. This paper evaluates the potential effectiveness of these and other solutions for countering disaster mythology. Las investigaciones sociológicas realizadas tras los desastres naturales han hecho evidentes una serie de “mitos del desastre”, conceptos erróneos ampliamente compartidos sobre el comportamiento humano típico tras un desastre. Este artículo analiza la posibilidad de que la perpetuación de los mitos del desastre refleje una “cascada de disponibilidad”, definida en estudios anteriores como un “proceso de auto-refuerzo de la formación de una creencia colectiva, a través del que una percepción expresada produce una reacción en cadena que hace que la percepción sea cada vez más verosímil, a través de una mayor presencia en el discurso público” (Kuran y Sunstein 1999. Enmarcar la propagación de los mitos del desastre como una cascada de disponibilidad sugiere que ciertas herramientas pueden ser
A tabulation is given of data useful in estimating various aspects of ion-implantation cascades in the nuclear stopping regime, particularly with respect to nonlinearity of the cascade at high energy densities. The tabulation is restricted to self-ion implantation. Besides power-cross-section cascade dimensions, various material properties are included. Scaling of derived quantities with input data is noted, so one is not limited to the values assumed by the author
Zeng Shi; Jiang Dongjun; Ying Zhengen
A component has different concentrations in the incoming flows at a confluent point in all existing isotope separations cascades for multi-component isotope separation and mixing is inevitable, which results in deterioration of separation performance of the separation cascade. However, realization of no-mixing at a confluent point is impossible with a conventional cascade. A non-conventional isotope separation cascade, net cascade, is found to be able to realize no mixings for all components at confluent points, and its concept is further developed here. No-mixing is fulfilled by requiring symmetrical separation of two specified key components at every stage, and the procedure of realizing no-mixing is presented in detail. Some properties of net cascade are investigated preliminarily, and the results demonstrated the no-mixing property is indeed realized. Net cascade is the only separation cascade that so far possesses the no-mixing property. (authors)
Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen
As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.
Sport tourists have preconceived expectations of the type and quality of services to be offered at a particular event. The extent to which these expectations are met will determine sport tourism satisfaction. For the purpose of this study the definition of a sport tourist was taken as any individual that facilitates or organise a sport ...
This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…
Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...
What was gained during this process, as well as the associated challenges encountered, suggest possible areas for research as well as changes and adjustments which could be made in similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport ...
Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç
The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…
Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol
Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…
Calvert, A. T.
Compiled argon ages reveal inception, eruptive episodes, ages, and durations of Cascade stratovolcanoes and their ancestral predecessors. Geologic mapping and geochronology show that most Cascade volcanoes grew episodically on multiple scales with periods of elevated behavior lasting hundreds of years to ca. 100 kyr. Notable examples include the paleomag-constrained, few-hundred-year-long building of the entire 15-20 km3 Shastina edifice at Mt. Shasta, the 100 kyr-long episode that produced half of Mt. Rainier's output, and the 30 kyr-long episode responsible for all of South and Middle Sister. Despite significant differences in timing and rates of construction, total durations of active and ancestral volcanoes at discrete central-vent locations are similar. Glacier Peak, Mt. Rainier, Mt. Adams, Mt. Hood, and Mt. Mazama all have inception ages of 400-600 ka. Mt. St. Helens, Mt. Jefferson, Newberry Volcano, Mt. Shasta and Lassen Domefield have more recent inception ages of 200-300 ka. Only the Sisters cluster and Mt. Baker have established eruptive histories spanning less than 50 kyr. Ancestral volcanoes centered 5-20 km from active stratocones appear to have similar total durations (200-600 kyr), but are less well exposed and dated. The underlying mechanisms governing volcano lifecycles are cryptic, presumably involving tectonic and plumbing changes and perhaps circulation cycles in the mantle wedge, but are remarkably consistent along the arc.
Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer
Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.
This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.
Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.
Industrial workplaces pose concurrent hazards to the upper part of the head and the eyes. Under the circumstances, workers may use protective helmets in conjunction with protective goggles or spectacles. In order to assess the compatibility of this equipment, a method and a test stand for evaluating the behavior of safety helmets and protective goggles/spectacles upon the impact of a falling weight were designed. The results of tests concerning the displacement and deformation of helmets and spectacles/goggles, the forces acting on the helmets, as well as the forces exerted by the spectacles/goggles on the headform upon falling weight impact are presented. The results revealed the ways in which the tested equipment interacted with each other. The influence of equipment construction on the test results was analyzed and inferences concerning the safety of the studied protective devices were made. Some general construction guidelines were formulated for the compatibility of the equipment.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For in-helmet voice communication, the currently used Communication-Cap-based Audio (CCA) systems have a number of recognized logistical issues and inconveniences...
Yeung, A; Munjal, V; Virji-Babul, N
In this paper, we describe the development of a novel tool-the Sports Organization Concussion Risk Assessment Tool (SOCRAT)-to assist sport organizations in assessing the overall risk of concussion at a team level by identifying key risk factors. We first conducted a literature review to identify risk factors of concussion using ice hockey as a model. We then developed an algorithm by combining the severity and the probability of occurrence of concussions of the identified risk factors by adapting a risk assessment tool commonly used in engineering applications. The following risk factors for ice hockey were identified: age, history of previous concussions, previous body checking experience, allowance of body checking, type of helmet worn and the game or practice environment. These risk factors were incorporated into the algorithm, resulting in an individual risk priority number (RPN) for each risk factor and an overall RPN that provides an estimate of the risk in the given circumstances. The SOCRAT can be used to analyse how different risk factors contribute to the overall risk of concussion. The tool may be tailored to organizations to provide: (1) an RPN for each risk factor and (2) an overall RPN that takes into account all the risk factors. Further work is needed to validate the tool based on real data.
Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D
Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld
Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; More than 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 7,200 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. Among the most popular sports
Ramsay, Tim; Turgeon, Alexis F; Zarychanski, Ryan
Objective To investigate the association between helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries among young people and adults in Canada. Design Interrupted time series analysis using data from the National Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set. Setting Canadian provinces and territories; between 1994 and 2003, six of 10 provinces implemented helmet legislation. Participants All admissions (n=66 716) to acute care hospitals in Canada owing to cycling related injury between 1994 and 2008. Main outcome measure Rate of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries before and after the implementation of provincial helmet legislation. Results Between 1994 and 2008, 66 716 hospital admissions were for cycling related injuries in Canada. Between 1994 and 2003, the rate of head injuries among young people decreased by 54.0% (95% confidence interval 48.2% to 59.8%) in provinces with helmet legislation compared with 33.1% (23.3% to 42.9%) in provinces and territories without legislation. Among adults, the rate of head injuries decreased by 26.0% (16.0% to 36.3%) in provinces with legislation but remained constant in provinces and territories without legislation. After taking baseline trends into consideration, however, we were unable to detect an independent effect of legislation on the rate of hospital admissions for cycling related head injuries. Conclusions Reductions in the rates of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries were greater in provinces with helmet legislation, but injury rates were already decreasing before the implementation of legislation and the rate of decline was not appreciably altered on introduction of legislation. While helmets reduce the risk of head injuries and we encourage their use, in the Canadian context of existing safety campaigns, improvements to the cycling infrastructure, and the passive uptake of helmets, the incremental contribution of provincial helmet legislation to reduce
Cherry Robert A
Full Text Available Abstract Background In June of 2003 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania passed S. 259 which repealed the state's 35-year old motorcycle helmet safety law. Motorcycle helmets are now only required for riders who are under the age of 21 and for those who are 21 years or older who have had a motorcycle operator's license for less than two years, or who have not completed an approved motorcycle safety course. Discussion Prior to the repeal, and in the years that have followed, there has been intense debate and controversy regarding Pennsylvania's decision to repeal the law that required universal and mandatory use of motorcycle helmets for all riders. Proponents of the helmet repeal have argued in favor of individual rights and freedom, whereas advocates for mandatory helmet laws have voiced concerns over public health and safety based on available data. Summary This commentary will discuss the policy-making process that led to Pennsylvania's repeal of the motorcycle helmet safety law from an ethical, political, and economic perspective.
Cherry, Robert A
In June of 2003 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania passed S. 259 which repealed the state's 35-year old motorcycle helmet safety law. Motorcycle helmets are now only required for riders who are under the age of 21 and for those who are 21 years or older who have had a motorcycle operator's license for less than two years, or who have not completed an approved motorcycle safety course. Prior to the repeal, and in the years that have followed, there has been intense debate and controversy regarding Pennsylvania's decision to repeal the law that required universal and mandatory use of motorcycle helmets for all riders. Proponents of the helmet repeal have argued in favor of individual rights and freedom, whereas advocates for mandatory helmet laws have voiced concerns over public health and safety based on available data. This commentary will discuss the policy-making process that led to Pennsylvania's repeal of the motorcycle helmet safety law from an ethical, political, and economic perspective.
Parkin, Patricia C; Khambalia, Amina; Kmet, Leanne; Macarthur, Colin
To evaluate the influence of average family income in a geographic area on the effectiveness of helmet legislation on observed helmet use by children (5-14 years). The study was conducted in East York, a health district of Metropolitan Toronto, in collaboration with the East York Health Unit. In 1996, the total population was 107 822, 11 340 of which were children 5 to 14 years. Census data were used to group the 21 census tracts in East York into 7 geographically distinct areas. The boundaries of these areas are natural barriers to travel, such as expressways, ravines, railway tracks, and hydroelectric power lines. The areas were also ranked according to average family income (based on Statistics Canada data). For analytical purposes, areas were defined as low-, mid-, and high-income areas. Census data profiles of the areas have been previously described. For each consecutive year from 1990 to 1997 inclusive, direct observations of children riding bicycles in East York during the months of April through October were made. In 1995, observations were completed before the introduction of the law on October 1, 1995. Only children who were between 5 and 14 years of age and riding a 2-wheeled bicycle were included in the study. In total, 111 sites across all 7 areas were selected for observation. Observational sites included school yards of all elementary and middle schools (kindergarten to grade 8) and all parks in East York. In addition, 5 major intersections and 5 residential streets from each area were randomly selected. Observers were trained and used a standardized data collection form. A pilot study showed that the data collected by observers were reliable and valid. Observers remained at each site for 1 hour and collected data on helmet use and sex. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Hospital for Sick Children Research Ethics Board, the East York Board of Education, and the Metropolitan Separate School Board. The proportion of children who were
Erhardt, Taryn; Rice, Thomas; Troszak, Lara; Zhu, Motao
The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Data were collected during the investigation of motorcycle collisions of any injury severity by the California Highway Patrol (CHP) and 83 local law enforcement agencies in California between June 2012 and July 2013. We estimated head injury and neck injury risk ratios from data on 7051 collision-involved motorcyclists using log-binomial regression. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Kirk; Dau, Nathan; Feist, Florian; Deck, Caroline; Willinger, Rémy; Madey, Steven M; Bottlang, Michael
Angular acceleration of the head is a known cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but contemporary bicycle helmets lack dedicated mechanisms to mitigate angular acceleration. A novel Angular Impact Mitigation (AIM) system for bicycle helmets has been developed that employs an elastically suspended aluminum honeycomb liner to absorb linear acceleration in normal impacts as well as angular acceleration in oblique impacts. This study tested bicycle helmets with and without AIM technology to comparatively assess impact mitigation. Normal impact tests were performed to measure linear head acceleration. Oblique impact tests were performed to measure angular head acceleration and neck loading. Furthermore, acceleration histories of oblique impacts were analyzed in a computational head model to predict the resulting risk of TBI in the form of concussion and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). Compared to standard helmets, AIM helmets resulted in a 14% reduction in peak linear acceleration (pbicycle helmet, and may enhance prevention of bicycle-related TBI. Further research is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...
Kai, Tsunetoshi; Inoue, Yoshiya; Oya, Akio; Nagakura, Masaaki.
Object: To effectively accommodate centrifugal separators of the entire cascade within the available space in a plant by freely selecting perpendicular direction of connection of the centrifugal separator. Structure: Centrifugal separators are connected in zigzag fashion by using a single header for each stage so that in a rectangular shape the entire cascade is arranged. (Kamimura, M.)
‘Cascade Harvest’ is a new floricane fruiting raspberry cultivar (Rubus idaeus L.) jointly released by Washington State University (WSU), Oregon State University (OSU) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). ‘Cascade Harvest’ produces a high yield of large, firm fruit suited to machine harves...
Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang
Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.
Overbye, Marie Birch
Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...... a web-based questionnaire (N = 645; response rate 43%) and uses qualitative findings to elaborate on and explain quantitative results. Results showed that two-thirds of the athletes reported the national testing programme in their sport to be appropriate. A majority of the athletes who had an opinion...
Knight, Camilla J; Berrow, Steffan R; Harwood, Chris G
This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature on parenting in sport, with a particular emphasis on literature from the last 2-3 years. Following a brief introduction overviewing the topic area, we firstly focus on the influence of parental involvement on children. Specifically, we examine the range of factors that influence children's perceptions of parental involvement and the consequences of different behaviors. Next we discuss the factors influencing parental involvement, such as the challenges and stressors associated with parenting children in sport and the culture within different sports. Finally, our review focuses upon the strategies developed by parents to facilitate their involvement in their children's sport, as well as the few papers focused upon parent education and support. We conclude by examining the need for further research and examination of support strategies for parents. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.
This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.
McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M Alison
The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players' demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. A total of 2081 players (grades 9-12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%-11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%-11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%-12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20-2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. © 2014 The Author(s).
Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin
In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID
In 2013 the systematic degradation of Belarusian sports continued, which was most vivid in the mass and most popular kinds of sports – soccer, hockey, track and field athletics, and also in the traditional Olympic disciplines – cycling, boxing, weight-lifting. The national ice hockey team lost the qualification tournament and failed to get to the Olympic Games in Sochi. The football national team took the last place in the qualifying group tournament at the 2014 World Cup. At the World Forum ...
Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character) is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria). It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional) recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it c...
Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.
MONICA DELIA BÎCĂ
Full Text Available “Using applied science in sport management as creates opportunities for rationalization and systematization of sports activity, relying on the knowledge and application of the laws that control the dynamics and phenomena. Management is on the border between art and science. Arts management is manifested by "science" as opposed to use and harness the creative compromise that can produce increased efficiency and effectiveness.”
Wagner, Anne Margrethe
Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010......Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010...