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Sample records for sporophytic defects including

  1. Peculiarities of biomorphology of the Matteuccia struthiopteris (L. Tod. sporophyte

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    Irina I. Gureyeva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Both data on biomorphology and anatomy of the sporophyte of homosporous fern Matteuccia struthiopteris (L. Tod. are discussed. Sporophyte of M. struthiopteris is polycyclic perennial plant with monopodially rising orthotropic rosette rhizome bearing large fronds and lateral plagiotropic rhizomes (stolons bearing cataphylls. Fronds are arranged as rosette, cataphylls are arranged spirally. Vascular system of both orthotropic and plagiotropic rhizomes is characterized. The drawings of the anatomical and morphological details of the sporophyte structure are given.

  2. Sporophytic control of pollen tube growth and guidance in maize

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    Lausser, Andreas; Kliwer, Irina; Srilunchang, Kanok-orn; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tube germination, growth, and guidance (progamic phase) culminating in sperm discharge is a multi-stage process including complex interactions between the male gametophyte as well as sporophytic tissues and the female gametophyte (embryo sac), respectively. Inter- and intra-specific crossing barriers in maize and Tripsacum have been studied and a precise description of progamic pollen tube development in maize is reported here. It was found that pollen germination and initial tube growth are rather unspecific, but an early, first crossing barrier was detected before arrival at the transmitting tract. Pollination of maize silks with Tripsacum pollen and incompatible pollination of Ga1s/Ga1s-maize silks with ga1-maize pollen revealed another two incompatibility barriers, namely transmitting tract mistargeting and insufficient growth support. Attraction and growth support by the transmitting tract seem to play key roles for progamic pollen tube growth. After leaving transmitting tracts, pollen tubes have to navigate across the ovule in the ovular cavity. Pollination of an embryo sac-less maize RNAi-line allowed the role of the female gametophyte for pollen tube guidance to be determined in maize. It was found that female gametophyte controlled guidance is restricted to a small region around the micropyle, approximately 50–100 μm in diameter. This area is comparable to the area of influence of previously described ZmEA1-based short-range female gametophyte signalling. In conclusion, the progamic phase is almost completely under sporophytic control in maize. PMID:19926683

  3. Comparative glycan profiling of Ceratopteris richardii 'C-Fern' gametophytes and sporophytes links cell-wall composition to functional specialization.

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    Eeckhout, Sharon; Leroux, Olivier; Willats, William G T; Popper, Zoë A; Viane, Ronald L L

    2014-10-01

    Innovations in vegetative and reproductive characters were key factors in the evolutionary history of land plants and most of these transformations, including dramatic changes in life cycle structure and strategy, necessarily involved cell-wall modifications. To provide more insight into the role of cell walls in effecting changes in plant structure and function, and in particular their role in the generation of vascularization, an antibody-based approach was implemented to compare the presence and distribution of cell-wall glycan epitopes between (free-living) gametophytes and sporophytes of Ceratopteris richardii 'C-Fern', a widely used model system for ferns. Microarrays of sequential diamino-cyclohexane-tetraacetic acid (CDTA) and NaOH extractions of gametophytes, spores and different organs of 'C-Fern' sporophytes were probed with glycan-directed monoclonal antibodies. The same probes were employed to investigate the tissue- and cell-specific distribution of glycan epitopes. While monoclonal antibodies against pectic homogalacturonan, mannan and xyloglucan widely labelled gametophytic and sporophytic tissues, xylans were only detected in secondary cell walls of the sporophyte. The LM5 pectic galactan epitope was restricted to sporophytic phloem tissue. Rhizoids and root hairs showed similarities in arabinogalactan protein (AGP) and xyloglucan epitope distribution patterns. The differences and similarities in glycan cell-wall composition between 'C-Fern' gametophytes and sporophytes indicate that the molecular design of cell walls reflects functional specialization rather than genetic origin. Glycan epitopes that were not detected in gametophytes were associated with cell walls of specialized tissues in the sporophyte. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Comparative Analysis of MicroRNAs between Sporophyte and Gametophyte of Porphyra yezoensis

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    He, Linwen; Huang, Aiyou; Shen, Songdong; Niu, Jianfeng; Wang, Guangce

    2012-01-01

    Porphyra yezoensis Ueda is an intertidal marine red algae that has received increasing attention as a model organism owing to its important role in biological research and the agronomic industry. The two generations of Porphyra yezoensis, the sporophyte and the gametophyte, have the same genome but show great differences in many aspects, including structural features, habitat, and gene expression. To identify miRNAs and their probable roles in P. yezoensis development, we constructed and sequenced libraries of small RNA from P. yezoensis sporophytes and gametophytes. The sequencing data were analyzed, and 14 miRNAs were identified, with only one common to these two samples. Our results show that P. yezoensis has a complex small RNA processing system containing novel miRNAs that have no identifiable homolog in other organisms. These miRNAs might have important regulatory roles in development of the different generations of P. yezoensis. PMID:23055822

  5. Comparative Analysis of MicroRNAs between Sporophyte and Gametophyte of Porphyra yezoensis

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    Linwen He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra yezoensis Ueda is an intertidal marine red algae that has received increasing attention as a model organism owing to its important role in biological research and the agronomic industry. The two generations of Porphyra yezoensis, the sporophyte and the gametophyte, have the same genome but show great differences in many aspects, including structural features, habitat, and gene expression. To identify miRNAs and their probable roles in P. yezoensis development, we constructed and sequenced libraries of small RNA from P. yezoensis sporophytes and gametophytes. The sequencing data were analyzed, and 14 miRNAs were identified, with only one common to these two samples. Our results show that P. yezoensis has a complex small RNA processing system containing novel miRNAs that have no identifiable homolog in other organisms. These miRNAs might have important regulatory roles in development of the different generations of P. yezoensis.

  6. Functional analysis of sporophytic transcripts repressed by the female gametophyte in the ovule of Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Alma Armenta-Medina

    Full Text Available To investigate the genetic and molecular regulation that the female gametophyte could exert over neighboring sporophytic regions of the ovule, we performed a quantitative comparison of global expression in wild-type and nozzle/sporocyteless (spl ovules of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis, using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. This comparison resulted in 1517 genes showing at least 3-fold increased expression in ovules lacking a female gametophyte, including those encoding 89 transcription factors, 50 kinases, 25 proteins containing a RNA-recognition motif (RRM, and 20 WD40 repeat proteins. We confirmed that eleven of these genes are either preferentially expressed or exclusive of spl ovules lacking a female gametophyte as compared to wild-type, and showed that six are also upregulated in determinant infertile1 (dif1, a meiotic mutant affected in a REC8-like cohesin that is also devoided of female gametophytes. The sporophytic misexpression of IOREMPTE, a WD40/transducin repeat gene that is preferentially expressed in the L1 layer of spl ovules, caused the arrest of female gametogenesis after differentiation of a functional megaspore. Our results show that in Arabidopsis, the sporophytic-gametophytic cross talk includes a negative regulation of the female gametophyte over specific genes that are detrimental for its growth and development, demonstrating its potential to exert a repressive control over neighboring regions in the ovule.

  7. Functional analysis of sporophytic transcripts repressed by the female gametophyte in the ovule of Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Armenta-Medina, Alma; Huanca-Mamani, Wilson; Sanchez-León, Nidia; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genetic and molecular regulation that the female gametophyte could exert over neighboring sporophytic regions of the ovule, we performed a quantitative comparison of global expression in wild-type and nozzle/sporocyteless (spl) ovules of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS). This comparison resulted in 1517 genes showing at least 3-fold increased expression in ovules lacking a female gametophyte, including those encoding 89 transcription factors, 50 kinases, 25 proteins containing a RNA-recognition motif (RRM), and 20 WD40 repeat proteins. We confirmed that eleven of these genes are either preferentially expressed or exclusive of spl ovules lacking a female gametophyte as compared to wild-type, and showed that six are also upregulated in determinant infertile1 (dif1), a meiotic mutant affected in a REC8-like cohesin that is also devoided of female gametophytes. The sporophytic misexpression of IOREMPTE, a WD40/transducin repeat gene that is preferentially expressed in the L1 layer of spl ovules, caused the arrest of female gametogenesis after differentiation of a functional megaspore. Our results show that in Arabidopsis, the sporophytic-gametophytic cross talk includes a negative regulation of the female gametophyte over specific genes that are detrimental for its growth and development, demonstrating its potential to exert a repressive control over neighboring regions in the ovule.

  8. ASSIMILATORY PIGMENTS CONTENT IN FERN GAMETOPHYTES AND SPOROPHYTES

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    Monica Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pteridophytes distinguishes from other land plants is that they have independent gametophyte and sporophyte generations. Half fern’s lives are spent in the gametophyte stage, or haplophase, and the other half in the sporophyte stage. Fern gametophytes have no vascular system, like bryophytes, and live on substrate surfaces as small individual plants, but their sporophytes have a vascular system enabling more vertical growth than gametophytes, resulting in a large herbaceous plant form. Many species are able to change the composition of their photosynthetic apparatus to optimize photosynthesis for the light environment in which they are growing. Measurements performed at fern gametophytes (Polypodium vulgare, Asplenium trichomanes and Cystopteris fragilis obtained in vitro and in fern sporophytes (ten species from the natural site showed that the content of chlorophylls is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that of higher plants. Chlorophyll content was much higher in sporophytes, which is in agreement with their higher photosynthetic rates. The highest amount of chlorophyll values was determined to species of Asplenium, and the lower value was in Lycopodium clavatum.

  9. Ultimate costs of sporophyte production in the clonal moss Hylocomium splendens

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    Rydgren, Knut; Økland, Rune H.

    2002-01-01

    A richly sporophyte-producing population of the dioecious perennial clonal moss Hylocomium splendens was followed for five years in order to investigate the longterm costs of sporophyte production. Female mature segments were divided into two subpopulations: sporophyte producing and reference without sporophytes. Ultimate (long-term) population growth rates of l 5 1.091 and 1.258, respectively, were found for the two subpopulations by building separate deterministic transition ...

  10. Allelic genealogies in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants

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    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Vekemans, Xavier; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1998-01-01

    Expectations for the time scale and structure of allelic genealogies in finite populations are formed under three models of sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance interactions among the alleles that determine the self-incompatibility phenotype: In the SSIcod model...

  11. Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glitzky, Annegret

    2010-07-01

    We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)

  12. Allelic genealogies in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Christiansen, F B

    1998-01-01

    Expectations for the time scale and structure of allelic genealogies in finite populations are formed under three models of sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance interactions among the alleles that determine the self-incompatibility phenotype: In the SSIcod model...... action, and the most recessive extant allele is likely to be the most recent common ancestor. Despite these asymmetries, the expected shape of the allele genealogies does not deviate markedly from the shape of a neutral gene genealogy. The application of the results to sequence surveys of alleles...

  13. The cuticle on the gametophyte calyptra matures before the sporophyte cuticle in the moss Funaria hygrometrica (Funariaceae).

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    Budke, Jessica M; Goffinet, Bernard; Jones, Cynthia S

    2012-01-01

    In vascular plants, leaf primordia prevent desiccation of the shoot apical meristem. Lacking leaves, the undifferentiated moss sporophyte apex is covered by the calyptra, a cap of maternal gametophyte tissue that is hypothesized to function in desiccation protection. Herein, we compare cuticle development on the calyptra and sporophyte to assess the calyptra's potential to protect the sporophyte from desiccation. As the first comprehensive study of moss sporophyte cuticle development, this research broadens our perspectives on cuticle development and evolution across embryophytes. Calyptrae and sporophytes at nine developmental stages were collected from a laboratory-grown population of the moss Funaria hygrometrica. Tissues were embedded, sectioned, then examined using transmission electron microscopy. Epidermal cells were measured for thickness of the cuticle layers, cell wall thickness, and lumen size. The calyptra cuticle develops precociously and reaches maturity before the sporophyte cuticle. Calyptrae are covered by a four-layered cuticle at all stages, whereas sporophyte cuticle maturation is delayed until sporangium formation. The development and thickening of the sporophyte cuticle occurs in an acropetal wave. A multilayered calyptra cuticle at the earliest developmental stages is consistent with its ability to protect the immature sporophyte from desiccation. Young sporophytes lack a complex cuticle and thus may require protection, whereas in older sporophytes a mature cuticle develops. The moss calyptra is not a vestigial structure, but rather the calyptra's role in preventing desiccation offers a functional explanation for calyptra retention during the 450 Myr of moss evolution.

  14. The origin of the sporophyte shoot in land plants: a bryological perspective

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    Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G.; Renzaglia, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Land plants (embryophytes) are monophyletic and encompass four major clades: liverworts, mosses, hornworts and polysporangiophytes. The liverworts are resolved as the earliest divergent lineage and the mosses as sister to a crown clade formed by the hornworts and polysporangiophytes (lycophytes, monilophytes and seed plants). Alternative topologies resolving the hornworts as sister to mosses plus polysporangiophytes are less well supported. Sporophyte development in liverworts depends only on embryonic formative cell divisions. A transient basal meristem contributes part of the sporophyte in mosses. The sporophyte body in hornworts and polysporangiophytes develops predominantly by post-embryonic meristematic activity. Scope This paper explores the origin of the sporophyte shoot in terms of changes in embryo organization. Pressure towards amplification of the sporangium-associated photosynthetic apparatus was a major driver of sporophyte evolution. Starting from a putative ancestral condition in which a transient basal meristem produced a sporangium-supporting seta, we postulate that in the hornwort–polysporangiophyte lineage the basal meristem acquired indeterminate meristematic activity and ectopically expressed the sporangium morphogenetic programme. The resulting sporophyte body plan remained substantially unaltered in hornworts, whereas in polysporangiophytes the persistent meristem shifted from a mid-embryo to a superficial position and was converted into an ancestral shoot apical meristem with the evolution of sequential vegetative and reproductive growth. Conclusions The sporophyte shoot is interpreted as a sterilized sporangial axis interpolated between the embryo and the fertile sporangium. With reference to the putatively ancestral condition found in mosses, the sporophyte body plans in hornworts and polysporangiophytes are viewed as the product of opposite heterochronic events, i.e. an anticipation and a delay, respectively, in the

  15. Growth and reproductive patterns of Undaria pinnatifida sporophytes in a cultivation farm in Busan, Korea.

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    Choi, Han Gil; Kim, Young Sik; Lee, Soon Jeong; Nam, Ki Wan

    2007-04-01

    Monthly growth and reproduction of Undaria pinnatifida sporophytes were examined over a period of 5 months in a cultivation farm in Korea. A total of 11 characters of Undaria were measured to determine a reliable morphological character representing its growth and reproduction. Plant weight of Undaria sporophytes increased steadily over the experimental period, but it increased in four different ways. Undaria pinnatifida increased body weight by growth in length and width (October-early December), and by growth in width with the thickening of blade and stipe when sporophytes began to be fertile (December-January). In the middle of January, growth in length and width had almost stopped with the maturation of Undaria sporophytes. Finally, the weight of Undaria increased again by growth in width at the end of February. Present results indicate that Undaria sporophytes increase body weight by growth in length and width at different times, and the relationship between reproduction and vegetative growth is exclusive. Plant weight was positively correlated and fitted well with stipe width and blade width. The blade of Undaria was very thin (ca. 254 mum) and breakable by wave action, but its stipe was strong and relatively thick (ca. 8.7 mm). Furthermore, the fertility of U. pinnatifida was fitted better with stipe width than blade width. Thus, we suggest that the stipe width is the most feasible character with which to estimate the growth and reproduction of U. pinnatifida sporophytes in the cultivation farm.

  16. Epigenetic repression of male gametophyte-specific genes in the Arabidopsis sporophyte

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    Hoffmann, Robert D; Palmgren, Michael Broberg

    2013-01-01

    footprint profiles of pollen-specific genes in the sporophyte displayed closed chromatin proximal to the start codon. We describe a model of two-staged gene regulation in which a lack of nucleosome-free regions in promoters and histone modifications in open reading frames repress pollen-specific genes...

  17. Characterization of the sporophyte-preferential gene promoter from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis using transient gene expression.

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    Uji, Toshiki; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Saga, Naotsune

    2013-04-01

    The life cycle of plants entails an alternation of generations, the diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte stages. There is little information about the characteristics of gene expression during each phase of marine macroalgae. Promoter analysis is a useful method for understanding transcriptional regulation; however, there is no report of promoter analyses in marine macroalgae. In this study, with the aim of elucidating the differences in the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms between the gametophyte and sporophyte stages in the marine red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we isolated the promoter from the sporophyte preferentially expressed gene PyKPA1, which encodes a sodium pump, and analyzed its promoter using a transient gene expression system with a synthetic β-glucuronidase (PyGUS) reporter. The deletion of -1432 to -768 relative to the transcription start site resulted in decreased GUS activity in sporophytes. In contrast, deletion from -767 to -527 increased GUS activity in gametophytes. Gain-of-function analyses showed that the -1432 to -760 region enhanced the GUS activity of a heterologous promoter in sporophytes, whereas the -767 to -510 region repressed it in gametophytes. Further mutation and gain-of-function analyses of the -767 to -510 region revealed that a 20-bp GC-rich sequence (-633 to -614) is responsible for the gametophyte-specific repressed expression. These results showed that the sporophyte-specific positive regulatory region and gametophyte-specific negative regulatory sequence play a crucial role in the preferential expression of PyKPA1 in P. yezoensis sporophytes.

  18. Sporophyte Formation and Life Cycle Completion in Moss Requires Heterotrimeric G-Proteins.

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    Hackenberg, Dieter; Perroud, Pierre-François; Quatrano, Ralph; Pandey, Sona

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we report the functional characterization of heterotrimeric G-proteins from a nonvascular plant, the moss Physcomitrella patens. In plants, G-proteins have been characterized from only a few angiosperms to date, where their involvement has been shown during regulation of multiple signaling and developmental pathways affecting overall plant fitness. In addition to its unparalleled evolutionary position in the plant lineages, the P. patens genome also codes for a unique assortment of G-protein components, which includes two copies of Gβ and Gγ genes, but no canonical Gα Instead, a single gene encoding an extra-large Gα (XLG) protein exists in the P. patens genome. Here, we demonstrate that in P. patens the canonical Gα is biochemically and functionally replaced by an XLG protein, which works in the same genetic pathway as one of the Gβ proteins to control its development. Furthermore, the specific G-protein subunits in P. patens are essential for its life cycle completion. Deletion of the genomic locus of PpXLG or PpGβ2 results in smaller, slower growing gametophores. Normal reproductive structures develop on these gametophores, but they are unable to form any sporophyte, the only diploid stage in the moss life cycle. Finally, the mutant phenotypes of ΔPpXLG and ΔPpGβ2 can be complemented by the homologous genes from Arabidopsis, AtXLG2 and AtAGB1, respectively, suggesting an overall conservation of their function throughout the plant evolution. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Antifungal Activity of the Crude Extracts and Extracted Phenols from Gametophytes and Sporophytes of Two Species of Adiantum

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    Piyali Guha (Ghosh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The water extracts and extracted phenols from gametophytes and different parts of sporophytes of the two ferns, Adiantum capillus-veneris L. and Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f., used as folkloric medicines in India, China, Tibet, America, Philippines and Italy, were investigated for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. Both crude extracts and extracted phenols of gametophytes and different parts of sporophytes of both fern species were found to be bioactive against the fungal strains. Antifungal activity was found to be higher in gametophytes than different parts of sporophytes. Among the different parts of sporophyte, immature pinnule possesses highest fungistatic property. Adiantum capillus-veneris was found a better antifungal agent than Adiantum lunulatum.

  20. Differential expression of rubisco in sporophytes and gametophytes of some marine macroalgae.

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    Chao Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubisco (ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, a key enzyme of photosynthetic CO(2 fixation, is one of the most abundant proteins in both higher plants and algae. In this study, the differential expression of Rubisco in sporophytes and gametophytes of four seaweed species--Porphyra yezoensis, P. haitanensis, Bangia fuscopurpurea (Rhodophyte and Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae--was studied in terms of the levels of transcription, translation and enzyme activity. Results indicated that both the Rubisco content and the initial carboxylase activity were notably higher in algal gametophytes than in the sporophytes, which suggested that the Rubisco content and the initial carboxylase activity were related to the ploidy of the generations of the four algal species.

  1. Preliminary analysis of population genetic diversity of cultivated Laminaria japonica sporophyte via AFLP technique

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    Yi, Heng; Sui, Zhenghong; Bao, Zhenmin

    2010-03-01

    The amplified fragment length polymorphic DNA (AFLP) technique was adopted to estimate the population genetic polymorphism among 30 sporophytes of Laminaria japonica collected from a cultivating farm in Rongcheng, China. Three methods were used for genomic DNA extraction from Laminaria japonica sporophyte and only the products obtained using the improved genomic DNA extraction kit method proved qualified for AFLP analysis. The parameters of the method were optimized. Samples of forty milligrams and the cell lysis time of 120 min were suggested to replace the parameters recommended by the manufacturer. Thirty individuals of Laminaria japonica from the same cultivating site were investigated using one pair of selective primers. A total of 21 loci were obtained and 17 of them were polymorphic. The mean percent age of polymorphic loci of this population was 80.95%. The Nei’s gene diversity (H) within this population was 0.3028 and the average Shannon’s Information index (I) was 0.4498. A genetic distance matrix among different individuals was constructed as well. Through this study, an applicable AFLP genetic analysis working system for Laminaria japonica sporophyte was established. The results of this research also revealed a high level of genetic diversity within the studied population.

  2. Identification and bioinformatics analysis of microRNAs from the sporophyte and gametophyte of Pyropia haitanensis

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    Huang, Aiyou; Wang, Guangce

    2016-05-01

    Pyropia haitanensis (T. J. Chang et B. F. Zheng) N. Kikuchi et M. Miyata ( Porphyra haitanensis) is an economically important genus that is cultured widely in China. P. haitanensis is cultured on a larger scale than Pyropia yezoensis, making up an important part of the total production of cultivated Pyropia in China. However, the majority of molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological processes of P. haitanensis remain unknown. P. haitanensis could utilize inorganic carbon and the sporophytes of P. haitanensis might possess a PCK-type C4-like carbon-fixation pathway. To identify microRNAs and their probable roles in sporophyte and gametophyte development, we constructed and sequenced small RNA libraries from sporophytes and gametophytes of P. haitanensis. Five microRNAs were identified that shared no sequence homology with known microRNAs. Our results indicated that P. haitanensis might posses a complex sRNA processing system in which the novel microRNAs act as important regulators of the development of different generations of P. haitanensis.

  3. Mutations in TKT Are the Cause of a Syndrome Including Short Stature, Developmental Delay, and Congenital Heart Defects.

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    Boyle, Lia; Wamelink, Mirjam M C; Salomons, Gajja S; Roos, Birthe; Pop, Ana; Dauber, Andrew; Hwa, Vivian; Andrew, Melissa; Douglas, Jessica; Feingold, Murray; Kramer, Nancy; Saitta, Sulagna; Retterer, Kyle; Cho, Megan T; Begtrup, Amber; Monaghan, Kristin G; Wynn, Julia; Chung, Wendy K

    2016-06-02

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is increasingly being utilized to diagnose individuals with undiagnosed disorders. Developmental delay and short stature are common clinical indications for WES. We performed WES in three families, using proband-parent trios and two additional affected siblings. We identified a syndrome due to an autosomal-recessively inherited deficiency of transketolase, encoded by TKT, on chromosome 3p21. Our series includes three families with a total of five affected individuals, ranging in age from 4 to 25 years. Two families of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry were homozygous for an 18 base pair in-frame insertion in TKT. The third family was compound heterozygous for nonsense and missense variants in TKT. All affected individuals had short stature and were developmentally delayed. Congenital heart defects were noted in four of the five affected individuals, and there was a history of chronic diarrhea and cataracts in the older individuals with the homozygous 18 base pair insertion. Enzymatic testing confirmed significantly reduced transketolase activity. Elevated urinary excretion of erythritol, arabitol, ribitol, and pent(ul)ose-5-phosphates was detected, as well as elevated amounts of erythritol, arabitol, and ribitol in the plasma of affected individuals. Transketolase deficiency reduces NADPH synthesis and nucleic acid synthesis and cell division and could explain the problems with growth. NADPH is also critical for maintaining cerebral glutathione, which might contribute to the neurodevelopmental delays. Transketolase deficiency is one of a growing list of inborn errors of metabolism in the non-oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High efficiency induction of callus and regeneration of sporophytes of Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyta)

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    Wang, Xi-Hua; Qin, Song; Li, Xin-Ping; Jiang, Peng; Zeng, Cheng-Kui; Qin, Mei

    1998-03-01

    Four media (PESI solid, MS liquid, MS solid and ASP-C-I solid medium) were used to induce callus from excised tissues of the kelp Laminaria japonica. Only PESI solid medium and MS solid medium produced calli. Modified MS solid medium supplemented with mannitol (3%,W/V), yeast extract (0.1%, W/V), VB2 (0.5 mg/ml), VB12 (0.5 mg/ml), kinetin (0.108 μg/ml) and NAA (1.860μg/ml) showed much better effect on callus induction than non-modified MS solid medium. After 24 days of induction 75.5% of tissues in PESI solid medium showed callus formation. For modified MS solid medium, after three months of induction 67.3% of tissues dedifferentiated into calli. No callus could be found after five months of induction in either MS liquid or ASP-C-I solid medium. When calli were squashed and cultured in N-P enriched autoclaved seawater, MS liquid medium and ASP12-NTA liquid medium (both modified with kelp extract), differentiation of cells and regeneration of sporophytes were only observed in ASP12-NTA medium supplemented with kelp extract. Gametophyte-like filaments formed first, then eggs were released. It was suggested that sporophyte formation could be a process of parthenogenesis. Sterilization techniques in tissue culture of L. japonica were also tested in this study.

  5. Mycorrhizal association in gametophytes and sporophytes of the fern Pteris vittata (Pteridaceae with Glomus intraradices

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    Alicia E Martinez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ferns, which are usually colonizing different environments and their roots frequently present mycorrhization, have two adult stages in their life cycle, the sporophytic and the gametophytic phase. This paper describes the experimental mycorrhizal association between Pteris vittata leptosporangiate fern and a strain of Glomus intraradices during the life cycle of the fern, from spore germination to the development of a mature sporophyte. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization pattern of in vitro cultures of G. intraradices along the fern life cycle with those found in nature. For this, mature spores were obtained from fertile P. vittata fronds growing in walls of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Roots were stained and observed under the light microscope for arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Approximately, 75 fern spores were cultured in each pot filled with a sterile substrate and G. intraradices (BAFC N° 51.331 as inoculum on the surface. After germination took place, samples were taken every 15 days until the fern cycle was completed. In order to determine colonization dynamics each sample was observed under optical and confocal microscope after staining. Gametophyte was classified as Adiantum type. Male and female gametangia were limited to the lower face, mycorrhizal colonization started when they were differentiated and took place through the rhizoids. Spores and vesicles were not found in this cycle stage. Paris-type mycorrhizal colonization was established in the midrib and in the embrionary foot. It was colonized by external mycelium. When the first root was developed soil inoculum colonized de novo this structure and Arum-type colonization was observed. This study proves that the type of colonization is determined by the structure of the host, not by the fungus. Both the gametophyte and embryo foot have determined growth and Paris-type colonization, while, sporophyte roots have undetermined growth and Arum

  6. Growth of gametophytes and sporophytes of Grateloupia subpectinata (Rhodophyta) in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adharini, Ratih Ida; Kim, Hyung Geun

    2016-09-01

    Comparison of growing thalli in alternating haploid and diploid phases of Grateloupia subpectinata (Rhodophyta) was studied. Fertile thalli from gametophyte and tetrasporophyte of G. subpectinata were collected from Yangyang, on the eastern coast of Korea. The size of the released tetraspores and carpospores was measured; the spores were then incubated at the temperature of 20°C, irradiance of 40 μmol photon m-2s-1 and photoperiod of 12L and 12D. Carpospores were also cultivated in the same conditions as the tetraspores culture. The crusts were subsequently transferred to a tank culture after six months. The specific growth rate (SGR) was measured by observing 50 crusts and 30 thalli. The released carpospores had a larger diameter (9.98 μm) than the tetraspores (9.38 μm). The crusts from the carpospores also show a higher specific growth rate (14.04% d-1) than tetraspores (13.39% d-1). After being transferred and cultured in a tank, the upright thalli grew slowly in May-June (13-15°C) and rapidly in July-September (17-22°C). The length of growing thalli of sporophyte from carpospores also revealed a higher specific growth rate (2.83% d-1) than gametophytic thalli (2.38% d-1). The specific growth rate of crusts and thalli developed from carpospores was higher than that of the crusts developed from tetraspores. This result suggests that the cultivation of sporophytes may be more profitable than gametophytes because harvesting can be done more efficiently.

  7. Salicylic acid and heat acclimation pretreatment protects Laminaria japonica sporophyte (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, You

    2010-07-01

    Possible mediatory roles of heat acclimation and salicylic acid in protecting the sporophyte of marine macroalga Laminaria japonica (Phaeophyceae) from heat stress were studied. Heat stress resulted in oxidative injury in the kelp blades. Under heat stress significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malonaldehyde (MDA), a membrane lipid peroxidation product, and a drastic decrease in chlorophyll a content were recorded. Activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system was drastically affected by heat stress. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly increased while peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were greatly inhibited and, simultaneously, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was activated while polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was inhibited. Both heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous application of salicylic acid alleviated oxidative damage in kelp blades. Blades receiving heat acclimation pretreatment and exogenous salicylic acid prior to heat stress exhibited a reduced increase in H2O2 and MDA content, and a lower reduction in chlorophyll a content. Pretreatment with heat acclimation and salicylic acid elevated activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GPX and PPO. Considering these results collectively, we speculate that the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes is a possible cause of the heat-stress-induced oxidative stress in L. japonica, and enhanced thermotolerance may be associated, at least in part, with the elevated activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system.

  8. Sporophyte morphology and gametophyte development of the fern Blechnum sprucei (Pteridophyta: Blechnaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel y Galán, Jose María; Passarelli, Lilian M; Prada, Carmen; Rolleri, Cristina H

    2008-12-01

    The fern Blechnum sprucei grows in Mesoamerica (Costa Rica) and South America, from Colombia to Bolivia, SE and centre of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. It is a distinctive, somewhat vulnerable, mostly orophilous species. Fresh and dry herbarium material was used for this study. Herbarium material for anatomical studies comes from CTES, BA, LP, MA, SI and UC (Holmgren et al. 1990). Selected representative specimens are additionally cited after taxonomic treatment of the species. Dry material was restored with aqueous 4:1 butil cellosolve. Pinnae were cleared with aqueous 6% NaOH, then coloured with aqueous 1% TBO (Gurr 1966). Hand made transverse sections of young and adult stipes, and costae were done in fresh and restored herbarium material. Venation and epidermal patterns were analyzed in basal, apical and medium pinnae, but only the latter were illustrated. The size and density of stomata were measured in medium pinnae from all studied samples, values shown are the average of 25 measures per sample; sizes are expressed as minimum, media and maximum length x width, in microm, and density as minimum, media and maximum number of stomata/ mm2. Spores were studied with SEM, mounted on metal stubs with double sided tape, covered with gold under vacuum and photographed with a Jeol /EO JSM 6360 (15 KV) SEM. Spores were also studied with light microscope, mounted in DePeX (DePeX mounting medium, Gurr, BDH Laboratory Supplies, Poole BH15 1TD, UK) and measured using an ocular micrometer. Measurements are based on a minimum sample of 100 spores taken from different specimens. Sizes are expressed as the longest equatorial diameter/ polar diameter, in microm. Gametophytes were studied from material collected in the subtropical forest of Tucumán Province, Argentina. Spore samples for cultures were taken from single sporophytes kept dry at room temperature since the date plants were collected. Gametophytes were grown under fluorescent light. Multispore cultures were

  9. The physiological resilience of fern sporophytes and gametophytes: advances in water relations offer new insights into an old lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila ePittermann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferns are some of the oldest vascular plants in existence and they are the second most diverse lineage of tracheophytes next to angiosperms. Recent efforts to understand fern success have fo-cused on the physiological capacity and stress tolerance of both the sporophyte and the gameto-phyte generations. In this review, we examine these insights through the lens of plant water rela-tions, focusing primarily on the form and function of xylem tissue in the sporophyte, as well as the tolerance to and recovery from drought and desiccation stress in both stages of the fern life cycle. The absence of secondary xylem in ferns is compensated by selection for efficient primary xylem composed of large, closely arranged tracheids with permeable pit membranes. Protection from drought-induced hydraulic failure appears to arise from a combination of pit membrane traits and the arrangement of vascular bundles. Features such as tracheid-based xylem and vari-ously sized megaphylls are shared between ferns and more derived lineages, and offer an oppor-tunity to compare convergent and divergent hydraulic strategies critical to the success of xylem-bearing plants. Fern gametophytes show a high degree of desiccation tolerance but new evidence shows that morphological attributes in the gametophytes may facilitate water retention, though little work has addressed the ecological significance of this variation. We conclude with an emergent hypothesis that selection acted on the physiology of both the sporophyte and gameto-phyte generations in a synchronous manner that is consistent with selection for drought tolerance in the epiphytic niche, and the increasingly diverse habitats of the mid to late Cenozoic.

  10. The physiological resilience of fern sporophytes and gametophytes: advances in water relations offer new insights into an old lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittermann, Jarmila; Brodersen, Craig; Watkins, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Ferns are some of the oldest vascular plants in existence and they are the second most diverse lineage of tracheophytes next to angiosperms. Recent efforts to understand fern success have focused on the physiological capacity and stress tolerance of both the sporophyte and the gametophyte generations. In this review, we examine these insights through the lens of plant water relations, focusing primarily on the form and function of xylem tissue in the sporophyte, as well as the tolerance to and recovery from drought and desiccation stress in both stages of the fern life cycle. The absence of secondary xylem in ferns is compensated by selection for efficient primary xylem composed of large, closely arranged tracheids with permeable pit membranes. Protection from drought-induced hydraulic failure appears to arise from a combination of pit membrane traits and the arrangement of vascular bundles. Features such as tracheid-based xylem and variously sized megaphylls are shared between ferns and more derived lineages, and offer an opportunity to compare convergent and divergent hydraulic strategies critical to the success of xylem-bearing plants. Fern gametophytes show a high degree of desiccation tolerance but new evidence shows that morphological attributes in the gametophytes may facilitate water retention, though little work has addressed the ecological significance of this variation. We conclude with an emergent hypothesis that selection acted on the physiology of both the sporophyte and gametophyte generations in a synchronous manner that is consistent with selection for drought tolerance in the epiphytic niche, and the increasingly diverse habitats of the mid to late Cenozoic. PMID:23935601

  11. Sporophyte morphology and gametophyte development of the fern Blechnum sprucei (Pteridophyta: Blechnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose María Gabriel y Galán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fern Blechnum sprucei grows in Mesoamerica (Costa Rica and South America, from Colombia to Bolivia, SE and centre of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina. It is a distinctive, somewhat vulnerable, mostly orophilous species. Fresh and dry herbarium material was used for this study. Herbarium material for anatomical studies comes from CTES, BA, LP, MA, SI and UC (Holmgren et al.1990. Selected representative specimens are additionally cited after taxonomic treatment of the species. Dry material was restored with aqueous 4:1 butil cellosolve. Pinnae were cleared with aqueous 6% NaOH, then coloured with aqueous 1 % TBO (Gurr 1966. Hand made transverse sections of young and adult stipes, and costae were done in fresh and restored herbarium material. Venation and epidermal patterns were analyzed in basal, apical and medium pinnae, but only the latter were illustrated. The size and density of stomata were measured in medium pinnae from all studied samples, values shown are the average of 25 measures per sample; sizes are expressed as minimum, media and maximum length x width, in µm, and density as minimum, media and maximum number of stomata / mm². Spores were studied with SEM, mounted on metal stubs with double sided tape, covered with gold under vacuum and photographed with a Jeol /EO JSM 6360 (15 KV SEM. Spores were also studied with light microscope, mounted in DePex (DePex mounting medium, Gurr, BDH Laboratory Supplies, Poole BH15 1TD, UK and measured using an ocular micrometer. Measurements are based on a minimum sample of 100 spores taken from different specimens. Sizes are expressed as the longest equatorial diameter/ polar diameter, in µm. Gametophytes were studied from material collected in the subtropical forest of Tucumán Province, Argentina. Spore samples for cultures were taken from single sporophytes kept dry at room temperature since the date plants were collected. Gametophytes were grown under fluorescent light. Multispore cultures

  12. Loss of Drosophila A-type lamin C initially causes tendon abnormality including disintegration of cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina in muscular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Ryo; Nonaka, Yu-Ki; Horigome, Tuneyoshi; Sugiyama, Shin; Furukawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Lamins are the major components of nuclear envelope architecture, being required for both the structural and informational roles of the nuclei. Mutations of lamins cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, including muscular dystrophy. We report here that the loss of the A-type lamin gene, lamin C in Drosophila resulted in pupal metamorphic lethality caused by tendon defects, matching the characteristics of human A-type lamin revealed by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). In tendon cells lacking lamin C activity, overall cell morphology was affected and organization of the spectraplakin family cytoskeletal protein Shortstop which is prominently expressed in tendon cells gradually disintegrated, notably around the nucleus and in a manner correlating well with the degradation of musculature. Furthermore, lamin C null mutants were efficiently rescued by restoring lamin C expression to shortstop-expressing cells, which include tendon cells but exclude skeletal muscle cells. Thus the critical function of A-type lamin C proteins in Drosophila musculature is to maintain proper function and morphology of tendon cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-thermodynamic approach to including bombardment-induced post-cascade redistribution of point defects in dynamic Monte Carlo code

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatova, V A; Katardjiev, I V

    2003-01-01

    The redistribution of the elements as a result of atomic relocations produced by the ions and the recoils due to the ballistic and transport processes is investigated by making use of a dynamic Monte Carlo code. Phenomena, such as radiation-enhanced diffusion (RED) and bombardment-induced segregation (BIS) triggered by the ion bombardment may also contribute to the migration of atoms within the target. In order to include both RED and BIS in the code, we suggest an approach which is considered as an extension of the binary collision approximation, i.e. it takes place 'simultaneously' with the cascade and acts as a correction to the particle redistribution for low energies. Both RED and BIS models are based on the common approach to treat the transport processes as a result of a random migration of point defects (vacancies and interstitials) according to a probability given by a pre-defined Gaussian. The models are tested and the influence of the diffusion and segregation is illustrated in the cases of 12 keV ...

  14. Arabidopsis cpFtsY mutants exhibit pleiotropic defects including an inability to increase iron deficiency-inducible root Fe(III) chelate reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrett, Timothy P; Connolly, Erin L; Rogers, Elizabeth E

    2006-08-01

    All plants, except for the grasses, must reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) in order to acquire iron. In Arabidopsis, the enzyme responsible for this reductase activity in the roots is encoded by FRO2. Two Arabidopsis mutants, frd4-1 and frd4-2, were isolated in a screen for plants that do not induce Fe(III) chelate reductase activity in their roots in response to iron deficiency. frd4 mutant plants are chlorotic and grow more slowly than wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, frd4 chloroplasts are smaller in size and possess dramatically fewer thylakoid membranes and grana stacks when compared with wild-type chloroplasts. frd4 mutant plants express both FRO2 and IRT1 mRNA normally in their roots under iron deficiency, arguing against any defects in systemic iron-deficiency signaling. Further, transgenic frd4 plants accumulate FRO2-dHA fusion protein under iron-deficient conditions, suggesting that the frd4 mutation acts post-translationally in reducing Fe(III) chelate reductase activity. FRO2-dHA appears to localize to the plasma membrane of root epidermal cells in both Col-0 and frd4-1 transgenic plants when grown under iron-deficient conditions. Map-based cloning revealed that the frd4 mutations reside in cpFtsY, which encodes a component of one of the pathways responsible for the insertion of proteins into the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast. The presence of cpFtsY mRNA and protein in the roots of wild-type plants suggests additional roles for this protein, in addition to its known function in targeting proteins to the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts.

  15. Defect of the Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanning Nina; Pelton, Ron W; Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, John David

    2017-08-01

    Eyelid defects disrupt the complex natural form and function of the eyelids and present a surgical challenge. Detailed knowledge of eyelid anatomy is essential in evaluating a defect and composing a reconstructive plan. Numerous reconstructive techniques have been described, including primary closure, grafting, and a variety of local flaps. This article describes an updated reconstructive ladder for eyelid defects that can be used in various permutations to solve most eyelid defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  17. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  18. Defects in hardwood timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J...

  19. Coagulation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Doreen E; Broadman, Lynn M

    2006-09-01

    The present understanding of the coagulation process emphasizes the final common pathway and the proteolytic systems that result in the degradation of formed clots and the prevention of unwanted clot formations, as well as a variety of defense systems that include tissue repair, autoimmune processes, arteriosclerosis, tumor growth, the spread of metastases, and defense systems against micro-organisms. This article discusses diagnosis and management of some of the most common bleeding disorders. The goals are to provide a simple guide on how best to manage patients afflicted with congenital or acquired clotting abnormalities during the perioperative period, present a brief overview of the methods of testing and monitoring the coagulation defects, and discuss the appropriate pharmacologic or blood component therapies for each disease.

  20. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  1. Embedded defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriola, M.; Vachaspati, T.; Bucher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the Z string and a one-parameter family of strings called the W(α) string. It is argued that although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member becomes physically distinct when multistring configurations are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The Z string is shown to be unstable for all values of the Higgs boson mass when θ W =π/4. W strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron

  2. Detecting Site-Specific Physicochemical Selective Pressures: Applications to the Class I HLA of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex and the SRK of the Plant Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainudiin, Raazesh; Wong, Wendy Shuk Wan; Yogeeswaran, Krithika

    2005-01-01

    plants (Brassicaceae), whose structure is unknown. Through likelihood ratio tests we demonstrate that at some sites, the positively selected MHC and SRK proteins are under physicochemical selective pressures to alter polarity, volume, polarity and/or volume, and charge to various extents. An empirical......:transversion biases. Here, we apply this method to two positively selected receptors involved in ligand-recognition: the class I alleles of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of known structure and the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) of the sporophytic self-incompatibility system (SSI) in cruciferous...

  3. BWR SFAT, gross-defect verification of spent BWR fuel. Final report on Task FIN A563 on the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards including BWR SFAT User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, M.; Paakkunainen, M.; Tiitta, A.; Sarparanta, K.

    1994-04-01

    A measurement instrument called Spent Fuel Attribute Tester, SFAT, has been designed, fabricated and taken into use by the IAEA in gross defect verification of spent BWR fuel assemblies. The equipment consists of an underwater measurement head connected with cables to a control unit on the bridge of the fuel handling machine as well as to a PMCA for measurement of the gamma spectra. The BWR SFAT is optimized for the AFR interim storage, TVO KPA-STORE, of the TVO Power Company in Olkiluoto, Finland. It has a shape and it is moved like a fuel assembly using the fuel handling machine. No fuel movements are needed. Spent fuel specific radiation from the fission product 137 Cs at the gamma-ray energy of 662 keV is detected above the assemblies in the storage rack using a NaI(Tl) detector. In the design and in licensing the requirements of the IAEA, operator and the safety authority have been taken into account. The BWR SFAT allows modifications for other LWR fuel types with minor changes. The work has been carried out under the task FIN A 563 of the Finnish Support Programme to IAEA Safeguards. (orig.) (9 refs., 22 figs.)

  4. Characterization of the structure and chemistry of defects in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, B.C.; Ruehle, M.; Seidman, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    Research programs, presented at the materials research symposium, on defects in materials are presented. Major areas include: point defects, defect aggregates, and ordering; defects in non-metals and semiconductors; atomic resolution imaging of defects; and gain boundaries, interfaces, and layered materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  5. Extrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide

    OpenAIRE

    Erhart, Paul; Åberg, Daniel; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    We investigate thermodynamic and electronic properties of group IV (C, Si, Ge, Sn) and group VI (O, S, Se, Te) impurities as well as P and H in aluminum antimonide (AlSb) using first-principles calculations. To this end, we compute the formation energies of a broad range of possible defect configurations including defect complexes with the most important intrinsic defects. We also obtain relative scattering cross strengths for these defects to determine their impact on charge carrier mobility...

  6. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  7. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Defect forces, defect couples and path integrals in fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1979-07-01

    In this work, it is shown that the path integrals can be introduced without any reference to the material behavior. The method is based on the definition in a continuous medium of a set of vectors and couples having the dimension of a force or a moment. More precisely, definitions are given of volume defect forces, surface defect forces, volume defect couples, and surface defect couples. This is done with the help of the stress working variation of a particule moving through the solid. The most important result is: the resultant of all the defect forces included in a volume V is the J integral on the surface surrounding V and the moment resultant is the L integral. So these integrals are defined without any assumption on the material constitutive equation. Another result is the material form of the virtual work principle - defect forces are acting like conventional forces in the conventional principles of virtual work. This lead to the introduction of the energy momentum tensor and of the associated couple stress. Application of this method is made to fracture mechanics in studying the defect forces distribution around a crack [fr

  9. Variability in per capita oogonia and sporophyte production from giant kelp gametophytes (Macrocystis pyrifera, Phaeophyceae Variabilidad de la producción per cápita de oogonios y esporofitos de huiro (Macrocystis pyrifera, Phaeophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERÓNICA MUÑOZ

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative growth and fertility of kelp gametophytes are thought to be antagonistic, such that most successful kelp recruitment is assumed to result from fertilization of single oogonia released from unicellular female gametophytes. We used laboratory culture experiments to study the effect of temperature and nutrient addition on the per capita production of oogonia and sporophytes from Macrocystis pyrifera female gametophytes. Our results indicate that individual multicellular female gametophytes can give rise to more than one oogonium and that per capita oogonia production significantly increases with the enhancement of culture conditions (i.e., decreased temperature and increased nutrient concentration. Furthermore, the production of multiple oogonia per female often led to the production of multiple sporophytes per female. We discuss the importance of these results relative to variability in M. pyrifera life histories (e.g., annual vs. perennial and their likely ecological and evolutionary consequencesEl crecimiento vegetativo y la fertilidad de gametofitos de huiros son antagónicos, de modo tal, que un reclutamiento exitoso se obtiene tras la fertilización de un único oogonio liberado por un gametofito femenino unicelular. Se utilizaron técnicas de cultivo de laboratorio para estudiar el efecto que ejerce la temperatura y la adición de nutrientes sobre la producción per cápita de oogonios y esporofitos de Macrocystis pyrifera. Nuestros resultados indican que gametofitos femeninos multicelulares pueden producir más de un oogonio y la producción per cápita incrementa significativamente al modificarse las condiciones de cultivo (por ejemplo disminución de la temperatura e incremento de las concentraciones de nutrientes. La producción de oogonios múltiples por gametofito femenino llevó la mayoría de los casos a una producción múltiple de esporofitos por hembra. Discutimos la importancia de estos resultados en relación a la

  10. On holographic defect entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, John [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY Stony Brook,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); O’Bannon, Andy [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Tsatis, Efstratios [8 Kotylaiou Street, Athens 11364 (Greece); Wrase, Timm [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  11. On holographic defect entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-05-01

    We study a number of (3 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3 + 1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1 + 1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  12. Perception of risk from automobile safety defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, P; MacGregor, D; Kraus, N N

    1987-10-01

    Descriptions of safety engineering defects of the kind that compel automobile manufacturers to initiate a recall campaign were evaluated by individuals on a set of risk characteristic scales that included overall vehicle riskiness, manufacturer's ability to anticipate the defect, importance for vehicle operation, severity of consequences and likelihood of compliance with a recall notice. A factor analysis of the risk characteristics indicated that judgments could be summarized in terms of two composite scales, one representing the uncontrollability of the damage the safety defect might cause and the other representing the foreseeability of the defect by the manufacturer. Motor vehicle defects were found to be highly diverse in terms of the perceived qualities of their risks. Location of individual defects within the factor space was closely associated with perceived riskiness, perceived likelihood of purchasing another car from the same manufacturer, perceived likelihood of compliance with a recall notice, and actual compliance rates.

  13. 16 CFR 1115.4 - Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... defect exists. At a minimum, defect includes the dictionary or commonly accepted meaning of the word... appliance presents a shock hazard because, through a manufacturing error, its casing can be electrically... for home garages is advertised as activating when carbon monoxide fumes reach a dangerous level but...

  14. Distribution of defects in wind turbine blades and reliability assessment of blades containing defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard Toft, Henrik; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    2009-01-01

    on the assumption that one error in the production process tends to trigger several defects. For both models additional information about number, type and size of the defects is included as stochastic variables. The probability of failure for a wind turbine blade will not only depend on variations in the material......In the present paper two stochastic models for the distribution of defects in wind turbine blades are proposed. The first model assumes that the individual defects are completely randomly distributed in the blade. The second model assumes that the defects occur in clusters of different size based...... properties and the load but also on potential defects in the blades. As a numerical example the probability of failure is calculated for the main spar both with and without defects in terms of delaminations. The delaminations increase the probability of failure compared to a perfect blade, but by applying...

  15. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... with cosmetic deformity of fore head (Figure 1), and he claimed that he could not get job because of ... 1: Pre-operative forontal view of patient. Figure 2: Intra operative photography of defect (A) reconstructed defect (B) ... with a cosmetic deformity of forehead on left side. (4nA and B). He was a candidate for.

  16. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  17. Germination and sporophytic development of Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman (Marsileaceae in the presence of hexavalent chromium Germinação e desenvolvimento esporofítico de Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman (Marsileaceae na presença de cromo hexavalente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Kieling-Rubio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman is a heterosporous fern, growing in aquatic environments and surrounding wetlands, which is assumed to be threatened by increasing water pollution and disappearance of its natural habitats. Among contaminants, hexavalent chromium - Cr(VI - is known to be present in effluents from some leather tanning factories. Megaspore germination tests were performed using Meyer's solution, at concentrations 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and 80 mg.L-1, from a standard solution of Titrisol® 1000 mg.L-1. The primary development of apomictic sporophytes was studied using solutions containing 0.025 to 4.8 mg.L-1 of Cr(VI. The experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 24 ± 1 ºC and for a 12-hour photoperiod under fluorescent lights, providing a nominal irradiance of 77 µmol.m-2/s. Significant differences in megaspore germination, with subsequent sporophytic development, were verified from 0.5 mg.L-1 Cr(VI concentration onwards. Growth of primary root and primary and secondary leaves was significantly reduced at 3.2 mg.L-1 Cr(VI concentration or higher. Considering the pollution from Cr(VI in some areas of R. diphyllum natural occurrence, these data indicate that low reproductive rates and disappearance of populations are likely to occur in these situations.Regnellidium diphyllum Lindman é uma filicínea heterosporada que se desenvolve em ambientes aquáticos e áreas úmidas circundantes, sendo considerada ameaçada pelo aumento da poluição e desaparecimento dos seus hábitats naturais. Entre os contaminantes, o cromo hexavalente - Cr(VI - é conhecido por estar presente nos efluentes de algumas indústrias de curtimento de couro. Testes de germinação foram realizados em meio líquido de Meyer, com concentrações de 0(controle; 0,1; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 15; 20; 30; 50; e 80 mg.L-1 de Cr(VI, a partir de uma solução padrão de Titrisol® a 1000 mg.L-1. O desenvolvimento primário dos esporófitos apom

  18. International conference on defects in insulating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Short summaries of conference papers are presented. Some of the conference topics included transport properties, defect levels, superionic conductors, radiation effects, John-Teller effect, electron-lattice interactions, and relaxed excited states. (SDF)

  19. International conference on defects in insulating crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Short summaries of conference papers are presented. Some of the conference topics included transport properties, defect levels, superionic conductors, radiation effects, John-Teller effect, electron-lattice interactions, and relaxed excited states

  20. Classification and Methods of Shrinkage Defect Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Larichev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to put forward a proposal to divide the internal shrinkage defects into the dimensional levels according to defects of certain size and shape.The paper presents the terminology used to describe the internal shrinkage defects in the casting and shows its flaws. These include the lack of well-defined threshold size values and shape of defects. It is shown that in describing defects their sizes and shape are defined qualitatively rather than quantitatively. And it is noted that division of defects into pores and shells is based on the morphological characters.The paper notes that a distinct difference between defects is necessary because of different methods of their elimination from the casting body.The paper presents an overview of control methods to determine the defects of the shrinkage nature in castings. These are methods of destructive and non-destructive testing, such as Xrays, tomography, and metallography. The paper also shows advantages and disadvantages of the considered methods of control. Based on the control method capacities it offers to divide the shrinkage defects into the three dimensional levels.To estimate the shape of defects the paper suggests a new option, that is a shape criterion. By the example of the typical defects of each dimensional level are defined the threshold values of the shape criterion.The paper discusses the basic techniques to estimate the porosity and offers a relationship between the defects of different dimensional levels and a porosity score and percent. It shows that the transition from a dimensional level to another one is in line with not only increasing pore size, but also with a significant deterioration of the mechanical properties of castings.The main conclusions are as follows:1. At present, there is no single unambiguous classification of casting shrinkage defects in the technical literature.2. As follows from the analysis of the classifications of shrinkage defects, their

  1. Buildability as a tool for optimisation of building defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Aagaard, Niels-Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Defects in buildings harm the reputation of the construction industry and the amount of defects is believed to represent a loss in economy. The purpose is to study whether the buildability concept could serve as an efficient tool for reduction of defects. The project includes a literature study...

  2. A detailed model for defect concentration and dopant activation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    We have also included Si and related defects when this element is implanted as an n-type dopant. All these defects are considered in several charge states allowed by their stability conditions. The model assumes thermodynamic equilibrium between the point defects at an anneal temperature. Then the GaAs wafer.

  3. Defect relaxation in disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandell, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Using an exponential distribution of activation barriers, annealing data for metastable effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a-Si:H, are quantitatively explained. This includes the stretched exponential time dependence of annealing and a Meyer-Neldel rule for the annealing time constant. An exponential distribution of annealing energies arises because defects are frozen in during growth at high temperature. Mechanisms that lead to an exponential distribution of annealing energies are weak bond-breaking and charge trapping

  4. Neonatal septum transversum diaphragmatic defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesselhoeft, C.W. Jr.; DeLuca, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Over 10 years, 8 infants required surgery for central diaphragmatic herniation. Contrast peritoneography and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid radionuclide scanning were the most definitive diagnostic aids. Associated anomalies included variations of the pentalogy of Cantrell. A midline gastroduodenal loop was found in two infants. Six infants are alive and well 6 months to 3 years postoperatively. An abdominal approach is preferred if there is an intestinal hernia, associated gastrointestinal anomalies, or if a bilateral defect is present

  5. Neonatal septum transversum diaphragmatic defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesselhoeft, C.W. Jr.; DeLuca, F.G.

    1984-04-01

    Over 10 years, 8 infants required surgery for central diaphragmatic herniation. Contrast peritoneography and technetium-99m-sulfur colloid radionuclide scanning were the most definitive diagnostic aids. Associated anomalies included variations of the pentalogy of Cantrell. A midline gastroduodenal loop was found in two infants. Six infants are alive and well 6 months to 3 years postoperatively. An abdominal approach is preferred if there is an intestinal hernia, associated gastrointestinal anomalies, or if a bilateral defect is present.

  6. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  7. Defect distribution and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard Toft, Henrik; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    2011-01-01

    on the assumption that one error in the production process tends to trigger several defects. For both models, additional information, such as number, type, and size of the defects, is included as stochastic variables. In a numerical example, the reliability is estimated for a generic wind turbine blade model both...... with and without defects in terms of delaminations. The reliability of the blade decreases when defects are included. However, the distribution of the defects influences how much the reliability is decreased. It is also shown how non-destructive inspection (NDI) after production can be used to update...... the reliability for the wind turbine blade using Bayesian statistics....

  8. Nanocarbon: Defect Architectures and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Amanda

    The allotropes of carbon make its solid phases amongst the most diverse of any element. It can occur naturally as graphite and diamond, which have very different properties that make them suitable for a wide range of technological and commercial purposes. Recent developments in synthetic carbon include Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) and nano-carbons, such as fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene. The main industrial application of bulk graphite is as an electrode material in steel production, but in purified nuclear graphite form, it is also used as a moderator in Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors across the United Kingdom. Both graphene and graphite are damaged over time when subjected to bombardment by electrons, neutrons or ions, and these have a wide range of effects on their physical and electrical properties, depending on the radiation flux and temperature. This research focuses on intrinsic defects in graphene and dimensional change in nuclear graphite. The method used here is computational chemistry, which complements physical experiments. Techniques used comprise of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD), which are discussed in chapter 2 and chapter 3, respectively. The succeeding chapters describe the results of simulations performed to model defects in graphene and graphite. Chapter 4 presents the results of ab initio DFT calculations performed to investigate vacancy complexes that are formed in AA stacked bilayer graphene. In AB stacking, carbon atoms surrounding the lattice vacancies can form interlayer structures with sp2 bonding that are lower in energy compared to in-plane reconstructions. From the investigation of AA stacking, sp2 interlayer bonding of adjacent multivacancy defects in registry creates a type of stable sp2 bonded wormhole between the layers. Also, a new class of mezzanine structure characterised by sp3 interlayer bonding, resembling a prismatic vacancy loop has also been identified. The mezzanine, which is a

  9. Single Ventricle Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects along with pulmonary atresia. (Children with tetralogy of Fallot who also have pulmonary atresia may have treatment similar to others with tetralogy of Fallot.) How does it affect the heart? An opening ...

  10. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E.; Crisp, R.W.; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E.; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We

  11. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  12. ILT based defect simulation of inspection images accurately predicts mask defect printability on wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deep, Prakash; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Pereira, Mark; Buck, Peter

    2016-05-01

    At advanced technology nodes mask complexity has been increased because of large-scale use of resolution enhancement technologies (RET) which includes Optical Proximity Correction (OPC), Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) and Source Mask Optimization (SMO). The number of defects detected during inspection of such mask increased drastically and differentiation of critical and non-critical defects are more challenging, complex and time consuming. Because of significant defectivity of EUVL masks and non-availability of actinic inspection, it is important and also challenging to predict the criticality of defects for printability on wafer. This is one of the significant barriers for the adoption of EUVL for semiconductor manufacturing. Techniques to decide criticality of defects from images captured using non actinic inspection images is desired till actinic inspection is not available. High resolution inspection of photomask images detects many defects which are used for process and mask qualification. Repairing all defects is not practical and probably not required, however it's imperative to know which defects are severe enough to impact wafer before repair. Additionally, wafer printability check is always desired after repairing a defect. AIMSTM review is the industry standard for this, however doing AIMSTM review for all defects is expensive and very time consuming. Fast, accurate and an economical mechanism is desired which can predict defect printability on wafer accurately and quickly from images captured using high resolution inspection machine. Predicting defect printability from such images is challenging due to the fact that the high resolution images do not correlate with actual mask contours. The challenge is increased due to use of different optical condition during inspection other than actual scanner condition, and defects found in such images do not have correlation with actual impact on wafer. Our automated defect simulation tool predicts

  13. The effects of defects on copper melting under hydrostatic and shock loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; An, Qi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Li - Bo [USTC

    2009-07-24

    With molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we investigate the effects of defects on Cu melting under hydrostatic and shock wave loading. We explore preexistent defects including vacancies, stacking faults and grain boundaries, as well as shock-induced defects. Depending on defect characteristics (energy and concentration), defects may have negligible or considerable effects on melting at MD scales However, it is expected that defects have more pronounced effects at heating rates lower than the MD rates.

  14. Evaluation of detectable defect size for inner defect of pressure vessel using laser speckle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeoung Suk; Seon, Sang Woo; Choi, Tae Ho; Kang, Chan Geun; Na, Man Gyun; Jung, Hyun Chul [Chsoun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Pressure vessels are used in various industrial fields. If a defect occurs on the inner or outer surface of a pressure vessel, it may cause a massive accident. A defect on the outer surface can be detected by visual inspection. However, a defect on the inner surface is generally impossible to detect with visual inspection. Nondestructive testing can be used to detect this type of defect. Laser speckle shearing interferometry is one nondestructive testing method that can optically detect a defect; its advantages include noncontact, full field, and real time inspection. This study evaluated the detectable size for an internal defect of a pressure vessel. The material of the pressure vessel was ASTM A53 Gr.B. The internal defect was detected when the pressure vessel was loaded by internal pressure controlled by a pneumatic system. The internal pressure was controlled from 0.2 MPa to 0.6 MPa in increments of 0.2 MPa. The results confirmed that an internal defect with a 25 % defect depth could be detected even at 0.2 MPa pressure variation.

  15. Multiscale simulations of defect dipole-enhanced electromechanical coupling at dilute defect concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Cohen, R. E.

    2017-08-01

    The role of defects in solids of mixed ionic-covalent bonds such as ferroelectric oxides is complex. Current understanding of defects on ferroelectric properties at the single-defect level remains mostly at the empirical level, and the detailed atomistic mechanisms for many defect-mediated polarization-switching processes have not been convincingly revealed quantum mechanically. We simulate the polarization-electric field (P-E) and strain-electric field (ɛ-E) hysteresis loops for BaTiO3 in the presence of generic defect dipoles with large-scale molecular dynamics and provide a detailed atomistic picture of the defect dipole-enhanced electromechanical coupling. We develop a general first-principles-based atomistic model, enabling a quantitative understanding of the relationship between macroscopic ferroelectric properties and dipolar impurities of different orientations, concentrations, and dipole moments. We find that the collective orientation of dipolar defects relative to the external field is the key microscopic structure feature that strongly affects materials hardening/softening and electromechanical coupling. We show that a small concentration (≈0.1 at. %) of defect dipoles dramatically improves electromechanical responses. This offers the opportunity to improve the performance of inexpensive polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics through defect dipole engineering for a range of applications including piezoelectric sensors, actuators, and transducers.

  16. Defects of mitochondrial DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William C

    2014-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is replicated by DNA polymerase γ in concert with accessory proteins such as the mitochondrial DNA helicase, single-stranded DNA binding protein, topoisomerase, and initiating factors. Defects in mitochondrial DNA replication or nucleotide metabolism can cause mitochondrial genetic diseases due to mitochondrial DNA deletions, point mutations, or depletion, which ultimately cause loss of oxidative phosphorylation. These genetic diseases include mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes such as Alpers or early infantile hepatocerebral syndromes, and mitochondrial DNA deletion disorders, such as progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia-neuropathy, or mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy. This review focuses on our current knowledge of genetic defects of mitochondrial DNA replication (POLG, POLG2, C10orf2, and MGME1) that cause instability of mitochondrial DNA and mitochondrial disease. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome in co-occurrence: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørsum-Meyer, Thomas; Herlin, Morten; Qvist, Niels; Petersen, Michael B

    2016-12-21

    defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome is extremely rare. This group of patients has unusual phenotypic characteristics. The long-term outcome after treatment of defects is not well reported. A single unifying cause is not known and the etiology probably includes both genetic and non-genetic causes. We stress the importance of future studies to optimized treatment, follow-up, and etiology.

  18. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Mišičko; Tibor Kvačkaj; Martin Vlado; Lucia Gulová; Miloslav Lupták; Jana Bidulská

    2009-01-01

    The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores) without filler (surface defects) and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects). First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D...

  19. Computational mask defect review for contamination and haze inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Corcoran, Noel; Satake, Masaki; Hu, Peter; Peng, Danping; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram; Wolf, Yulian; Shah, Pinkesh

    2013-09-01

    the mask manufacturing process. The latter characterization qualifies real defect signatures, such as pin-dots or pin-holes, extrusions or intrusions, assist-feature or dummy-fill defects, writeerrors or un-repairable defects, chrome-on-shifter or missing chrome-from-shifter defects, particles, etc., and also false defect signatures, such as those due to inspection tool registration or image alignment, interlace artifacts, CCD camera artifacts, optical shimmer, focus errors, etc. Such qualitative characterization of defects has enabled better inspection tool SPC and process defect control in the mask shop. In this paper, the same computational approach to defect review has been extended to contamination style defect inspections, including Die-to-Die reflected, and non Die-to-Die or single-die inspections. In addition to the computational methods used for transmitted aerial images, defects detected in die-to-die reflected light mode are analyzed based on special defect and background coloring in reflected-light, and other characteristics to determine the exact type and severity. For those detected in the non Die-to-Die mode, only defect images are available from the inspection tool. Without a reference, i.e., defect-free image, it is often difficult to determine the true nature or impact of the defect in question. Using a combination of inspection-tool modeling and image inversion techniques, Luminescent's LAIPHTM system generates an accurate reference image, and then proceeds with automated defect characterization as if the images were simply from a die-to-die inspection. The disposition of contamination style defects this way, filters out >90% of false and nuisance defects that otherwise would have been manually reviewed or measured on AIMSTM. Such computational defect review, unifying defect disposition across all available inspection modes, has been imperative to ensuring no yield losses due to errors in operator defect classification on one hand, and on the other

  20. Quantum computing with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel

    2011-03-01

    The development of a quantum computer is contingent upon the identification and design of systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information. One of the most promising candidates consists of a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center, since it is an individually-addressable quantum system that can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. While the success of the NV-1 stems from its nature as a localized ``deep-center'' point defect, no systematic effort has been made to identify other defects that might behave in a similar way. We provide guidelines for identifying other defect centers with similar properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate systems. To elucidate these points, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). Using hybrid functionals, we report formation energies, configuration-coordinate diagrams, and defect-level diagrams to compare and contrast the properties of these defects. We find that the NC VSi - 1 center in SiC, a structural analog of the NV-1 center in diamond, may be a suitable center with very different optical transition energies. We also discuss how the proposed criteria can be translated into guidelines to discover NV analogs in other tetrahedrally coordinated materials. This work was performed in collaboration with J. R. Weber, W. F. Koehl, B. B. Buckley, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, and D. D. Awschalom. This work was supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF.

  1. Structure defects in cementite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    After a presentation of experimental techniques (elaboration principles, elaboration techniques, and investigation techniques for cementite thin layers and iron-carbon massive alloys), the author of this research thesis reports the study of cementite structure (interatomic distance, description and representation), reports the study of iron-carbon thin layers (structure, influence of silicon, defects), reports the study of perfect and imperfect dislocations and of plane defects in cementite. The author also reports hardness measurements, and discusses the relationships between cementite and other iron carbides

  2. Quantum computing with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J R; Koehl, W F; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2010-05-11

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV(-1)) center stands out for its robustness--its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV(-1) center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors.

  3. Defects in semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sizes were less than 100 Si atoms due to computational limitations. An interesting parallel is that current first principles calculations alluded to in §5 are size ham- pered for similar reasons. These 'defect molecule' calculations were probably the first studies in SN. We believe that a perusal of this 'ancient' scientific literature.

  4. Production of point defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppiroli, L.

    1975-01-01

    Vacancies at thermodynamic equilibrium and the annealing of these defects are studied first, after which electron irradiations are dealt with. The displacement threshold energy concept is introduced. Part three concerns heavy ion and neutron irradiations. Displacement cascades and the thermal spike concept are discussed [fr

  5. Fetal abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Defects in flexoelectric solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sheng; Purohit, Prashant K.

    2015-11-01

    A solid is said to be flexoelectric when it polarizes in proportion to strain gradients. Since strain gradients are large near defects, we expect the flexoelectric effect to be prominent there and decay away at distances much larger than a flexoelectric length scale. Here, we quantify this expectation by computing displacement, stress and polarization fields near defects in flexoelectric solids. For point defects we recover some well known results from strain gradient elasticity and non-local piezoelectric theories, but with different length scales in the final expressions. For edge dislocations we show that the electric potential is a maximum in the vicinity of the dislocation core. We also estimate the polarized line charge density of an edge dislocation in an isotropic flexoelectric solid which is in agreement with some measurements in ice. We perform an asymptotic analysis of the crack tip fields in flexoelectric solids and show that our results share some features from solutions in strain gradient elasticity and piezoelectricity. We also compute the energy release rate for cracks using simple crack face boundary conditions and use them in classical criteria for crack growth to make predictions. Our analysis can serve as a starting point for more sophisticated analytic and computational treatments of defects in flexoelectric solids which are gaining increasing prominence in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  7. Semiconductor Nanowires: Defects Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    2008-05-01

    Structural defects commonly observed in semiconducting nanowires by electron microscopy will be reviewed and their origins discussed. Their effects on electrical and optical properties will be illustrated with examples from GaSb, InAs, and ZnSe nanowires grown by MOCVD and MBE.

  8. Reduction in Defect Content of ODS Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritherdon, J

    2001-05-15

    The work detailed within this report is a continuation of earlier work carried out under contract number 1DX-SY382V. The earlier work comprises a literature review of the sources and types of defects found principally in Fe-based ODS alloys as well as experimental work designed to identify defects in the prototype ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al alloy, deduce their origins and to recommend methods of defect reduction. The present work is an extension of the experimental work already reported and concentrates on means of reduction of defects already identified rather than the search for new defect types. This report also includes results gathered during powder separation trials, conducted by the University of Groningen, Netherlands and coordinated by the University of Liverpool, involving the separation of different metallic powders in terms of their differing densities. The scope and objectives of the present work were laid out in the technical proposal ''Reduction in Defect Content in ODS Alloys-III''. All the work proposed in the ''Statement of Work'' section of the technical proposal has been carried out and all work extra to the ''Statement of Work'' falls within the context of an ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al alloy of improved overall quality and potential creep performance in the consolidated form. The outturn of the experimental work performed is reported in the following sections.

  9. Maternal autoimmune disease and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Meredith M; Browne, Marilyn L; Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Richardson, Sandra D; Blossom, Sarah J; Broussard, Cheryl S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the association between maternal autoimmune disease or its treatment and the risk of birth defects. We examined these associations using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Analyses included 25,116 case and 9897 unaffected control infants with estimated delivery dates between 1997 and 2009. Information on autoimmune disease, medication use, and other pregnancy exposures was collected by means of telephone interview. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for birth defects with five or more exposed cases; crude ORs and exact 95% CIs were estimated for birth defects with three to four exposed cases. Autoimmune disease was reported by 373 mothers (279 case and 94 control mothers). The majority of birth defects evaluated were not associated with autoimmune disease; however, a statistically significant association between maternal autoimmune disease and encephalocele was observed (OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.95-11.04). Eighty-two mothers with autoimmune disease used an immune modifying/suppressing medication during pregnancy; this was associated with encephalocele (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.37-24.61) and atrial septal defects (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.16-7.80). Our findings suggest maternal autoimmune disease and treatment are not associated with the majority of birth defects, but may be associated with some defects, particularly encephalocele. Given the low prevalence of individual autoimmune diseases and the rare use of specific medications, we were unable to examine associations of specific autoimmune diseases and medications with birth defects. Other studies are needed to confirm these findings. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:950-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Ventricular Septal Defect (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a heart defect should avoid getting body piercings. Piercing increases the possibility that bacteria can get into ... damage heart valves. If you're considering a piercing and you have a heart defect, talk to ...

  11. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed until the teen years — or even adulthood. Newborn Screening Newborns in the U.S. are screened at ... Has a Heart Defect Coarctation of the Aorta Arrhythmias Mitral Valve Prolapse Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal ...

  12. Defects in Quantum Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardas, Bartłomiej; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H; Zwolak, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The shift of interest from general purpose quantum computers to adiabatic quantum computing or quantum annealing calls for a broadly applicable and easy to implement test to assess how quantum or adiabatic is a specific hardware. Here we propose such a test based on an exactly solvable many body system-the quantum Ising chain in transverse field-and implement it on the D-Wave machine. An ideal adiabatic quench of the quantum Ising chain should lead to an ordered broken symmetry ground state with all spins aligned in the same direction. An actual quench can be imperfect due to decoherence, noise, flaws in the implemented Hamiltonian, or simply too fast to be adiabatic. Imperfections result in topological defects: Spins change orientation, kinks punctuating ordered sections of the chain. The number of such defects quantifies the extent by which the quantum computer misses the ground state, and is, therefore, imperfect.

  13. Reconstructions of eyelid defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

  14. Computer experiment studies on mechanisms for irradiation induced defect production and annealing processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeler, J.R. Jr.; Beeler, M.F.

    1979-06-01

    This research is based on pair potentials used in the Brookhaven work. It extends their use in defect production simulations to the 5 MeV range and characterizes the short term annealing of the primary defect states. Defect properties and interactions are studied. Defect interactions include carbon, helium, and misfit metallic substitutional impurity interactions with vacancy and interstitial defects as well as vacancy-vacancy, interstitial-interstitial and vacancy-interstitial interactions. (FS)

  15. Computer experiment studies on mechanisms for irradiation induced defect production and annealing processes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeler, J.R. Jr.; Beeler, M.F.

    1979-06-01

    This research is based on pair potentials used in the Brookhaven work. It extends their use in defect production simulations to the 5 MeV range and characterizes the short term annealing of the primary defect states. Defect properties and interactions are studied. Defect interactions include carbon, helium, and misfit metallic substitutional impurity interactions with vacancy and interstitial defects as well as vacancy-vacancy, interstitial-interstitial and vacancy-interstitial interactions

  16. Ultrasonic NDE Simulation for Composite Manufacturing Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of composites in aerospace components is expected to continue into the future. The large scale use of composites in aerospace necessitates the development of composite-appropriate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to quantitatively characterize defects in as-manufactured parts and damage incurred during or post manufacturing. Ultrasonic techniques are one of the most common approaches for defect/damage detection in composite materials. One key technical challenge area included in NASA's Advanced Composite's Project is to develop optimized rapid inspection methods for composite materials. Common manufacturing defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include fiber waviness (in-plane and out-of-plane), porosity, and disbonds; among others. This paper is an overview of ongoing work to develop ultrasonic wavefield based methods for characterizing manufacturing waviness defects. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with in-plane fiber waviness (also known as marcelling). Wavefield data processing methods are applied to the simulation data to explore possible routes for quantitative defect characterization.

  17. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  18. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  19. Thermal properties of defective fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the thermal conductivity of defective fullerene (C60) by using the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) method. It is found that the thermal conductivity of C60 with one defect is lower than the thermal conductivity of perfect C60. However, double defects in C60 have either positive or negative influence on the thermal conductivity, which depends on the positions of the defects. The phonon spectra of perfect and defective C60 are also provided to give corresponding supports. Our results can be extended to long C60 chains, which is helpful for the thermal management of C60.

  20. Analysis of the defect clusters in congruent lithium tantalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalikh, Anastasia; Zschornak, Matthias; Köhler, Thomas; Nentwich, Melanie; Weigel, Tina; Hanzig, Juliane; Zaripov, Ruslan; Vavilova, Evgenia; Gemming, Sibylle; Brendler, Erica; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2018-01-01

    A wide range of technological applications of lithium tantalate (LT) is closely related to the defect chemistry. In literature, several intrinsic defect models have been proposed. Here, using a combinational approach based on DFT and solid-state NMR, we demonstrate that distribution of electric field gradients (EFGs) can be employed as a fingerprint of a specific defect configuration. Analyzing the distribution of 7Li EFGs, the FT-IR and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra, and the 7Li spin-lattice relaxation behavior, we have found that the congruent LT samples provided by two manufacturers show rather different defect concentrations and distributions although both were grown by the Czochralski method. After thermal treatment hydrogen out-diffusion and homogeneous distribution of other defects have been observed by ESR, NMR, and FT-IR. The defect structure in one of two congruent LT crystals after annealing has been identified and proved by defect formation energy considerations, whereas the more complex defect configuration, including the presence of extrinsic defects, has been suggested for the other LT sample. The approach of searching the EFG fingerprints from DFT calculations in NMR spectra can be applied for identifying the defect clusters in other complex oxides.

  1. Defect reaction network in Si-doped InAs. Numerical predictions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This Report characterizes the defects in the def ect reaction network in silicon - doped, n - type InAs predicted with first principles density functional theory. The reaction network is deduced by following exothermic defect reactions starting with the initially mobile interstitial defects reacting with common displacement damage defects in Si - doped InAs , until culminating in immobile reaction p roducts. The defect reactions and reaction energies are tabulated, along with the properties of all the silicon - related defects in the reaction network. This Report serves to extend the results for the properties of intrinsic defects in bulk InAs as colla ted in SAND 2013 - 2477 : Simple intrinsic defects in InAs : Numerical predictions to include Si - containing simple defects likely to be present in a radiation - induced defect reaction sequence . This page intentionally left blank

  2. Fermi-level pinning through defects at GaAs/oxide interfaces: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Davide; Miceli, Giacomo; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2015-09-01

    Using density functional calculations, we study a set of candidate defects for Fermi-level pinning at GaAs/oxide interfaces. The set of considered defects comprises both bulklike and interfacial defects, including As antisites, Ga and As dangling bonds, the As-As dimer/dangling bond defect, and several defect complexes. The defects are generated within atomistic model structures representing the GaAs /Al2O3 interface. Formation energies of bulklike defects are obtained and compared with those of corresponding bulk defects, while interfacial defects are studied through their relative defect energies. Finite-size corrections to the defect energies are applied through a scheme that accounts for the interfacial geometry of our models. Defect levels are defined as thermodynamic transition levels between different charge states and are calculated for all considered defects. Through an alignment procedure based on hybrid functional calculations, the defect levels are then positioned within the calculated band gap of GaAs that reproduces the experimental one, thereby enabling direct comparisons with the experimental density of defect states. Our study shows that several As-related defects show a similar amphoteric bistability between an As-As dimer state and a configuration with two doubly occupied As dangling bonds. The associated charge transition levels generally lie in the midgap region, in accord with experimental observations. This mechanism is proposed as the origin of the observed Fermi-level pinning at GaAs/oxide interfaces.

  3. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  4. Computer programs for eddy-current defect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, J. R.; Dodd, C. V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1990-06-01

    Several computer programs to aid in the design of eddy-current tests and probes have been written. The programs, written in Fortran, deal in various ways with the response to defects exhibited by four types of probes: the pancake probe, the reflection probe, the circumferential boreside probe, and the circumferential encircling probe. Programs are included which calculate the impedance or voltage change in a coil due to a defect, which calculate and plot the defect sensitivity factor of a coil, and which invert calculated or experimental readings to obtain the size of a defect. The theory upon which the programs are based is the Burrows point defect theory, and thus the calculations of the programs will be more accurate for small defects. 6 refs., 21 figs.

  5. Conductivity of epitaxial and CVD graphene with correlated line defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radchenko, T. M.; Shylau, Artsem; Zozoulenko, I. V.

    2014-01-01

    -type scattering potential. The dc conductivity is calculated numerically for different cases of distribution of line defects. This includes a random (uncorrelated) and a correlated distribution with a prevailing direction in the orientation of lines. The anisotropy of the conductivity along and across the line...... defects is revealed, which agrees with experimental measurements for epitaxial graphene grown on SiC. We performed a detailed study of the conductivity for different defect correlations, introducing the correlation angle αmax-the maximum possible angle between any two lines. We find that for a given...... electron density, the relative enhancement of the conductivity for the case of fully correlated line defects in comparison to the case of uncorrelatecl ones is larger for a higher defect density. Finally, we, for the first time, study the conductivity of realistic samples where both extended line defects...

  6. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  7. Osteochondral defects in the ankle: why painful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, C. Niek; Reilingh, Mikel L.; Zengerink, Maartje; van Bergen, Christiaan J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Osteochondral defects of the ankle can either heal and remain asymptomatic or progress to deep ankle pain on weight bearing and formation of subchondral bone cysts. The development of a symptomatic OD depends on various factors, including the damage and insufficient repair of the subchondral bone

  8. Multiple congenital defects in a newborn foal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of multiple congenital defects in a newborn foal is reported. The animal showed hypoplasia of the left pelvic limb bones, uterus unicornis, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and unilateral renal and ureteral agenesis. This report includes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions observed in the case.

  9. Defects and diffusion in semiconductors XIV

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J

    2012-01-01

    This 14th volume in the series covers the latest results in the field of Defects and Diffusion in Semiconductor. The issue also includes some original papers: An Experimental Study of the Thermal Properties of Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel; Physico-Mechanical Properties of Sintered Iron-Silica Sand Nanoparticle Composites: A Preliminary Study; Defect and Dislocation Density Parameters of 5251 Al Alloy Using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Technique; A Novel Computational Strategy to Enhance the Ability of Elaborate Search by Entire Swarm to Find the Best Solution in Optimization of AMCs; Synthesis and

  10. Atrioventricular septal defects among infants in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolas; Andersen, Helle; Garne, Ester

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of chromosomal and non-chromosomal cases of atrioventricular septal defects in Europe. METHODS: Data were obtained from EUROCAT, a European network of population-based registries collecting data on congenital anomalies. Data from 13 registries for the period...... 2000-2008 were included. RESULTS: There was a total of 993 cases of atrioventricular septal defects, with a total prevalence of 5.3 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval 4.1 to 6.5). Of the total cases, 250 were isolated cardiac lesions, 583 were chromosomal cases, 79 had multiple anomalies, 58...... of pregnancy owing to foetal anomaly. Among the groups, additional associated cardiac anomalies were most frequent in heterotaxia cases (38%) and least frequent in chromosomal cases (8%). Coarctation of the aorta was the most common associated cardiac defect. The 1-week survival rate for live births was 94...

  11. Dipole defects in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R

    2010-01-01

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  12. Severe cardiac defect in a patient with the OEIS complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, S G; Bartelings, M M; Kibbelaar, R E; Van Haeringen, A

    1997-10-01

    The OEIS complex is an association of fetal malformations including omphalocele, exstrophy of the cloaca, imperforate anus and spinal defects. We present a fetus with the OEIS complex in combination with a cardiac defect. Until now very few cases with this combination have been described.

  13. Cloacal Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Canfield, Mark A.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Merlob, Paul; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Siffel, Csaba; Carey, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloacal exstrophy presents as a complex abdominal wall defect thought to result from a mesodermal abnormality. Anatomically, its main components are Omphalocele, bladder Exstrophy and Imperforate anus. Other associated malformations include renal malformations and Spine defects (OEIS complex).

  14. Autosomal dominant familial radial luxation, carpal fusion and scapular dysplasia with variable heart defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bever, Y.; Dijkstra, P. F.; Hennekam, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A family is described with skeletal abnormalities involving the shoulder, elbow, and hand, in combination with variable cardiac defects including conduction defects and anatomical anomalies. The disorder followed an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with apparently full penetrance for the

  15. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth

  16. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs

  17. Diaphragmatic defect in trisomy 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Reinwein, H.; Back, E.

    1986-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic defect is often combined with other malformations that are severe or fatal. The rare finding of a congenital diaphragmatic defect in a newborn with trisomy 13 is reported. The newborn died within 2 days. Postmortem examination showed typical malformations due to trisomy 13 besides a diaphragmatic defect of left retrosternal position. Karyotype revealed a 13/14 translocation of trisomy 13. (orig.) [de

  18. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings

  19. Point defects in lines in single crystalline phosphorene: directional migration and tunable band gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Ma, Liang; Wang, Dayong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-10-20

    Extended line defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can play an important role in modulating their electronic properties. During the experimental synthesis of 2D materials, line defects are commonly generated at grain boundaries between domains of different orientations. In this work, twelve types of line-defect structures in single crystalline phosphorene are examined by using first-principles calculations. These line defects are typically formed via migration and aggregation of intrinsic point defects, including the Stone-Wales (SW), single or double vacancy (SV or DV) defects. Our calculated results demonstrate that the migration of point defects in phosphorene is anisotropic, for instance, the lowest migration energy barriers are 1.39 (or 0.40) and 2.58 (or 0.49) eV for SW (or SV) defects in zigzag and armchair directions, respectively. The aggregation of point defects into lines is energetically favorable compared with the separated point defects in phosphorene. In particular, the axis of line defects in phosphorene is direction-selective, depending on the composed point defects. The presence of line defects effectively modulates the electronic properties of phosphorene, rendering the defect-containing phosphorene either metallic or semiconducting with a tunable band gap. Of particular interest is the fact that the SV-based line defect can behave as a metallic wire, suggesting a possibility to fabricate a circuit with subnanometer widths in the semiconducting phosphorene for nanoscale electronic application.

  20. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  1. Who named the quantum defect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, A.R.P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Inokuti, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-08-01

    The notion of the quantum defect is important in atomic and molecular spectroscopy and also in unifying spectroscopy with collision theory. In the latter context, the quantum defect may be viewed as an ancestor of the phase shift. However, the origin of the term quantum defect does not seem to be explained in standard textbooks. It occurred in a 1921 paper by Schroedinger, preceding quantum mechanics, yet giving the correct meaning as an index of the short-range interactions with the core of an atom. The authors present the early history of the quantum-defect idea, and sketch its recent developments.

  2. Studies of defects and defect agglomerates by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, Morten Mostgaard; Singh, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    A brief introduction to positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), and in particular lo its use for defect studies in metals is given. Positrons injected into a metal may become trapped in defects such as vacancies, vacancy clusters, voids, bubbles and dislocations and subsequently annihilate from...

  3. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  4. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  5. Study on on-machine defects measuring system on high power laser optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chi; Shi, Feng; Lin, Zhifan; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Guilin

    2017-10-01

    The influence of surface defects on high power laser optical elements will cause some harm to the performances of imaging system, including the energy consumption and the damage of film layer. To further increase surface defects on high power laser optical element, on-machine defects measuring system was investigated. Firstly, the selection and design are completed by the working condition analysis of the on-machine defects detection system. By designing on processing algorithms to realize the classification recognition and evaluation of surface defects. The calibration experiment of the scratch was done by using the self-made standard alignment plate. Finally, the detection and evaluation of surface defects of large diameter semi-cylindrical silicon mirror are realized. The calibration results show that the size deviation is less than 4% that meet the precision requirement of the detection of the defects. Through the detection of images the on-machine defects detection system can realize the accurate identification of surface defects.

  6. Thermal buckling behavior of defective CNTs under pre-load: A molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehralian, Fahimeh; Tadi Beni, Yaghoub; Kiani, Yaser

    2017-05-01

    Current study is concentrated on the extraordinary properties of defective carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The role of vacancy defects in thermal buckling response of precompressed CNTs is explored via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Defective CNTs are initially compressed at a certain ratio of their critical buckling strain and then undergo a uniform temperature rise. Comprehensive study is implemented on both armchair and zigzag CNTs with different vacancy defects including monovacancy, symmetric bivacancy and asymmetric bivacancy. The results reveal that defects have a pronounced impact on the buckling behavior of CNTs; interestingly, defective CNTs under compressive pre-load show higher resistance to thermal buckling than pristine ones. In the following, the buckling response of defective CNTs is shown to be dependent on the vacancy defects, location of defects and chirality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Optical modulator including grapene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  8. Ocular Defects in Photosensitive Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere C. Anyanwu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with photosensitive epilepsy are susceptible to seizures due to photoparoxysmal response (PPR. This response adversely precipitates factors that modify the functional status of the visual system. Such factors may or may not be evident superficially, but may lead to ocular defects due to trauma, hormonal imbalance, abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP, or any other reflex-inducing stimuli. The extent to which photosensitive epileptic patients suffer from PPR-related ocular defects has not been documented fully. In this investigation, ocular defects in patients with photosensitive epilepsy are studied using visual-evoked response (VER. A total of 212 photosensitive epileptic patients were studied to ascertain the magnitude and distribution of ocular defects using the changes in EEG and visual-evoked potential (VEP; 51% of the patients were female, the age range was 1–46 years. The major ocular defects and complications found were visual field defects, optic nerve abnormalities, nystagmus, cataracts, amblyopia, and migraine. These findings were analyzed according to age and sex. The relationship between the ocular abnormalities and the interpretations of the changes in the characteristics of the VEP indicated that optic-related atrophies, visual defects, optic neuritis, chiasmal compression, nystagmus, migraine headache, cataracts, and amblyopia were prevalent in photosensitive epileptic patients at varying degrees. The results showed that although ocular defects in photosensitive epilepsy may not be obvious differentially, VEP can be used in their diagnosis, contrary to earlier studies reporting that VEP is not of much value in epilepsy diagnosis.

  9. Space mapping and defect correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverría, D.; Hemker, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show that space-mapping optimization can be understood in the framework of defect correction. Then, space-mapping algorithms can be seen as special cases of defect correction iteration. In order to analyze the properties of space mapping and the space-mapping function, we introduce

  10. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  11. Holographic Chern-Simons defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutoshi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky,Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Melby-Thompson, Charles M. [Department of Physics, Fudan University,220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Meyer, René [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan); Sugimoto, Shigeki [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS),The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-06-28

    We study SU(N) Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory in the presence of defects that shift the Chern-Simons level from a holographic point of view by embedding the system in string theory. The model is a D3-D7 system in Type IIB string theory, whose gravity dual is given by the AdS soliton background with probe D7 branes attaching to the AdS boundary along the defects. We holographically renormalize the free energy of the defect system with sources, from which we obtain the correlation functions for certain operators naturally associated to these defects. We find interesting phase transitions when the separation of the defects as well as the temperature are varied. We also discuss some implications for the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect and for 2-dimensional QCD.

  12. Toward Intelligent Software Defect Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Markland J.

    2011-01-01

    Source code level software defect detection has gone from state of the art to a software engineering best practice. Automated code analysis tools streamline many of the aspects of formal code inspections but have the drawback of being difficult to construct and either prone to false positives or severely limited in the set of defects that can be detected. Machine learning technology provides the promise of learning software defects by example, easing construction of detectors and broadening the range of defects that can be found. Pinpointing software defects with the same level of granularity as prominent source code analysis tools distinguishes this research from past efforts, which focused on analyzing software engineering metrics data with granularity limited to that of a particular function rather than a line of code.

  13. Congenital disorders of glycosylation: new defects and still counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Gadomski, T.; Kozicz, L.T.; Morava, E.

    2014-01-01

    Almost 50 inborn errors of metabolism have been described due to congenital defects in N-linked glycosylation. These phenotypically diverse disorders typically present as clinical syndromes, affecting multiple systems including the central nervous system, muscle function, transport, regulation,

  14. Structural defects in monocrystalline silicon: from radiation ones to growing and technological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimenko, N.N.; Pavlyuchenko, M.N.; Dzhamanbalin, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The systematical review of properties and conditions of radiation structures in monocrystalline silicon including own defects (elementary and complex, disordered fields) as well as defect-impurity formations is presented. The most typical examples of principle effects influence of known defects on radiation-induced processes (phase transformations, diffusion and heteration and others are considered. Experimental facts and models of silicon radiation amorphization have been analyzed in comparison of state of the radiation amorphization radiation problem of metals and alloys. The up-to-date status of the problem of the radiation defects physics are discussed, including end-of-range -, n+-, rod-like- defects. The phenomenon self-organization in crystals with defects has been considered. The examples of directed using radiation defects merged in independent trend - defects engineering - are given

  15. Tetralogy of Fallot with restrictive ventricular septal defect by accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mahipat Raj Soni; Deepak A. Bohara; Ajay U. Mahajan; Pratap J. Nathani

    2012-01-01

    In tetralogy of Fallot septal defect is usually large because of malalignment of outlet septum, restrictive defect has been reported rarely. We present a case of tetralogy of Fallot with accessory tricuspid leaflet tissue restricting ventricular septal defect. The report includes echocardiographic and catheter images of this rare presentation of tetralogy of Fallot.

  16. Cardiac Defects and Results of Cardiac Surgery in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotti, Adriano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Gerardo; Saffirio, Claudia; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Marino, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Specific types and subtypes of cardiac defects have been described in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as well as in other genetic syndromes. The conotruncal heart defects occurring in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic…

  17. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. [Ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects reconstruction with free flaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Mao, Chi; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Lei; An, Jin-gang; Yu, Guang-yan

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the application, indications and outcomes of free flaps for ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects reconstruction. Twenty consecutive cases of ora-maxillofacial the traumatic defects reconstruction with free flaps were reviewed. All clinical data including causes of injuries, the type of defects, selection of free flaps, perioperative complications and the follow-up were analyzed. All the cases underwent free flap reconstruction for ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects: 8 cases with soft tissue defects, 12 cases with soft and hard tissue defects. Fifteen patients received two-stage operation and 5 patients underwent primary reconstruction at the time of debridement or fracture reduction. Twenty free flaps were applied for the reconstruction, 11 cases with fibula flap, 1 case with iliac crest free flap, 7 cases with radial forearm flap and 1 case with scapula flap. No flap failure occurred. The successful rate of free flaps transfer was 100%. The free flaps transfer is reliable and can reconstruct the ora-maxillofacial traumatic soft and hard tissue defects. Fibula and radial forearm free flap are the most common used flaps. Early aggressive surgery with free flaps transfer for traumatic defects can prevent the scar contracture and tissue displace, which can shorten the treatment period and improve the final outcome.

  19. 2010 Defects in Semiconductors GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengbai Zhang

    2011-01-06

    Continuing its tradition of excellence, this Gordon Conference will focus on research at the forefront of the field of defects in semiconductors. The conference will have a strong emphasis on the control of defects during growth and processing, as well as an emphasis on the development of novel defect detection methods and first-principles defect theories. Electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors will be discussed in detail. In contrast to many conferences, which tend to focus on specific semiconductors, this conference will deal with point and extended defects in a broad range of electronic materials. This approach has proved to be extremely fruitful for advancing fundamental understanding in emerging materials such as wide-band-gap semiconductors, oxides, sp{sup 2} carbon based-materials, and photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and in understanding important defect phenomena such as doping bottleneck in nanostructures and the diffusion of defects and impurities. The program consists of about twenty invited talks and a number of contributed poster sessions. The emphasis should be on work which has yet to be published. The large amount of discussion time provides an ideal forum for dealing with topics that are new and/or controversial.

  20. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Mišičko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores without filler (surface defects and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects. First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D setting to the limited condition for samples with surface defects. Samples of material with low-carbon steel of sizes h x b x l have been chosen and the surface defects shape „U” and „V” of scores have been injected artificially by software. The process of rolling have been simulated on the deformation temperatures 1200°C and 900°C, whereas on the both of this deformation temperatures have been applied amount of deformation 10 and 50 %. With respect to the process of computer simulation, it is not possible to truthful real oxidation condition (physical – chemical process during heat of metal, in the second phase of our investigation have been observed influence of oxides and casting powders inside the scores for a defect behavior in plastic deformation process (hot and cold rolling process in laboratory condition. The basic material was STN steel class 11 375, cladding material was steel on the bases C-Mn-Nb-V. Scores have been filled by scales to get from the heating temperatures (1100°C a 1250°C, varied types of casting powders, if you like mixture of scale and casting powders in the rate 1:4. The joint of the basic and cladding material have been done by peripheral welded joint. Experiment results from both phases are pointed on the evolution of original typology defects in rolling process.

  1. Positron studies of defected metals, metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansil, A.

    1991-01-01

    Specific problems proposed under this project included the treatment of electronic structure and momentum density in various disordered and defected systems. Since 1987, when the new high-temperature superconductors were discovered, the project focused extensively on questions concerning the electronic structure and Fermiology of high-T c superconductors, in particular, (i) momentum density and positron experiments, (ii) angle-resolved photoemission intensities, (iii) effects of disorder and substitutions in the high-T c 's

  2. Theory of radiation induced defect production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.T.

    1975-10-01

    The theory of defect production in solids by neutron irradiation is reviewed, including discussions of the nuclear reactions which produce the primary recoils and the loss of energy from the displacement cascade by electron excitations. The theoretical predictions are compared with the limited available experiments on thermal and fast neutron irradiation. The results are in rough agreement in most instances, but further improvements in the theory are clearly needed

  3. The role of point defects and defect complexes in silicon device processing. Summary report and papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.; Tan, T.Y.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of a workshop hold on August 24--26, 1992. Session 1 of the conference discussed characteristics of various commercial photovoltaic silicon substrates, the nature of impurities and defects in them, and how they are related to the material growth. Session 2 on point defects reviewed the capabilities of theoretical approaches to determine equilibrium structure of defects in the silicon lattice arising from transitional metal impurities and hydrogen. Session 3 was devoted to a discussion of the surface photovoltaic method for characterizing bulk wafer lifetimes, and to detailed studies on the effectiveness of various gettering operations on reducing the deleterious effects of transition metals. Papers presented at the conference are also included in this summary report.

  4. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...

  5. Defect detection based on extreme edge of defective region histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zouhir Wakaf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic thresholding has been used by many applications in image processing and pattern recognition systems. Specific attention was given during inspection for quality control purposes in various industries like steel processing and textile manufacturing. Automatic thresholding problem has been addressed well by the commonly used Otsu method, which provides suitable results for thresholding images based on a histogram of bimodal distribution. However, the Otsu method fails when the histogram is unimodal or close to unimodal. Defects have different shapes and sizes, ranging from very small to large. The gray-level distributions of the image histogram can vary between unimodal and multimodal. Furthermore, Otsu-revised methods, like the valley-emphasis method and the background histogram mode extents, which overcome the drawbacks of the Otsu method, require preprocessing steps and fail to use the general threshold for multimodal defects. This study proposes a new automatic thresholding algorithm based on the acquisition of the defective region histogram and the selection of its extreme edge as the threshold value to segment all defective objects in the foreground from the image background. To evaluate the proposed defect-detection method, common standard images for experimentation were used. Experimental results of the proposed method show that the proposed method outperforms the current methods in terms of defect detection.

  6. First-Principles Investigations of Defects in Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ashok K.

    2011-07-01

    The ideal crystal has an infinite 3-dimensional repetition of identical units which may be atoms or molecules. But real crystals are limited in size and they have disorder in stacking which as called defects. Basically three types of defects exist in solids: 1) point defects, 2) line defects, and 3) surface defects. Common point defects are vacant lattice sites, interstitial atoms and impurities and these are known to influence strongly many solid-state transport properties such as diffusion, electrical conduction, creep, etc. In thermal equilibrium point defects concentrations are determined by their formation enthalpies and their movement by their migration barriers. Line and surface defects are though absent from the ideal crystal in thermal equilibrium due to higher energy costs but they are invariably present in all real crystals. Line defects include edge-, screw- and mixed-dislocations and their presence is essential in explaining the mechanical strength and deformation of real crystals. Surface defects may arise at the boundary between two grains, or small crystals, within a larger crystal. A wide variety of grain boundaries can form in a polycrystal depending on factors such growth conditions and thermal treatment. In this talk we will present our first-principles density functional theory based defect studies of SiO2 polymorphs (stishovite, CaCl2-, α-PbO2-, and pyrite-type), Mg2SiO4 polymorphs (forsterite, wadsleyite and ringwoodite) and MgO [1-3]. Briefly, several native point defects including vacancies, interstitials, and their complexes were studied in silica polymorphs upto 200 GPa. Their values increase by a factor of 2 over the entire pressure range studied with large differences in some cases between different phases. The Schottky defects are energetically most favorable at zero pressure whereas O-Frenkel pairs become systematically more favorable at pressures higher than 20 GPa. The geometric and electronic structures of defects and migrating

  7. Is Maternal Parity an Independent Risk Factor for Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Hao T.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Canfield, Mark A.; Case, Amy; McNeese, Melanie L.; Waller, Dorothy Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although associations between maternal parity and birth defects have been observed previously, few studies have focused on the possibility that parity is an independent risk factor for birth defects. We investigated the relation between levels of parity and a range of birth defects, adjusting each defect group for the same covariates. METHODS We included infants who had an estimated delivery date between 1997 and 2007 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multisite case-control study. Cases included infants or fetuses belonging to 38 phenotypes of birth defects (n = 17,908), and controls included infants who were unaffected by a major birth defect (n = 7173). Odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for 12 covariates using logistic regression. RESULTS Compared with primiparous mothers, nulliparous mothers were more likely to have infants with amniotic band sequence, hydrocephaly, esophageal atresia, hypospadias, limb reduction deficiencies, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele, gastroschisis, tetralogy of Fallot, and septal cardiac defects, with significant ORs (1.2 to 2.3). Compared with primiparous mothers, multiparous mothers had a significantly increased risk of omphalocele, with an OR of 1.5, but had significantly decreased risk of hypospadias and limb reduction deficiencies, with ORs of 0.77 and 0.77. CONCLUSIONS Nulliparity was associated with an increased risk of specific phenotypes of birth defects. Most of the phenotypes associated with nulliparity in this study were consistent with those identified by previous studies. Research into biologic or environmental factors that are associated with nulliparity may be helpful in explaining some or all of these associations. PMID:22371332

  8. Birth Defects Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit" /> Information For… Media Policy Makers Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... and critical. Read below for the latest national statistics on the occurrence of birth defects in the ...

  9. What Are Congenital Heart Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of a Normal Heart and a Heart With Tetralogy of Fallot Figure A shows the structure and blood flow ... shows a heart with the four defects of tetralogy of Fallot. Babies and children who have tetralogy of Fallot ...

  10. Birth Defects Research and Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental public health tracking is the ongoing collection, integration, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data on environmental ... 2016) Key Findings: Gastroschisis – a Serious Birth Defect – Continues to Increase New CDC research shows that the ...

  11. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilly, L.

    1993-04-01

    In this thesis, experimental results of the transition metals Ti, V, Nb, Mo, and W as impurity centres in silicon are presented. Transition metal doping was accomplished by ion implantation. Emphasis is put on energy level position, electrical and optical properties of the encountered defect levels. Junction space charge methods (JSCM) such as DLTS, photocapacitance and photocurrent techniques are employed. Three energy levels are found for the 3d-transition metals Ti(E c -0.06eV, E c -0.30eV, E v +0.26) and V(E c -0.21eV, E c -0,48e, E v +0.36eV), and for the 4d-element Nb(E c -0.29eV, E c -0.58eV, E v +0.163eV) in Silicon, whereas only one transition metal induced level is found for Mo(E v +0.30eV) and W(E v +0.38eV) respectively. Electrical and optical characteristics of Si 1-x Ge x ,0.7 7 cm -2 . The solvent Bi, used in the LPE-process, is found to be the dominant impurity element. Furthermore, liquid phase epitaxy of high purity In 0.53 Ga 0.57 As on InP, together with the properties of the Cu-induced acceptor in this material are examined. Free electron concentrations of n=5x10 14 cm -3 and electron Hall-mobilities of μ 77K = 44000 cm 2 /Vs are achieved. The energy level position of the Cu-acceptor is found to be E v +0.025eV. Photoluminescence and Hall-effect measurements, together with JSCM are the main characterization methods used. The band linups of In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As with GaAs and with InP are determined according to the Cu-acceptor energy level position in these materials. Additionally, the hydrostatic pressure dependence of the Cu-acceptor energy level position in In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As is examined. (103 refs.)

  12. One step automated unpatterned wafer defect detection and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dou Lie; Kesler, Daniel; Bruno, William; Monjak, Charles; Hunt, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Automated detection and classification of crystalline defects on micro-grade silicon wafers is extremely important for integrated circuit (IC) device yield. High training cost, limited capability of classifying defects, increasing possibility of contamination, and unexpected human mistakes necessitate the need to replace the human visual inspection with automated defect inspection. The Laser Scanning Surface Inspection Systems (SSISs) equipped with the Reconvergent Specular Detection (RSD) apparatus are widely used for final wafer inspection. RSD, more commonly known as light channel detection (LC), is capable of detecting and classifying material defects by analyzing information from two independent phenomena, light scattering and reflecting. This paper presents a new technique including a new type of light channel detector to detect and classify wafer surface defects such as slipline dislocation, Epi spikes, Pits, and dimples. The optical system to study this technique consists of a particle scanner to detect and quantify light scattering events from contaminants on the wafer surface and a RSD apparatus (silicon photo detector). Compared with the light channel detector presently used in the wafer fabs, this new light channel technique provides higher sensitivity for small defect detection and more defect scattering signatures for defect classification. Epi protrusions (mounds and spikes), slip dislocations, voids, dimples, and some other common defect features and contamination on silicon wafers are studied using this equipment. The results are compared quantitatively with that of human visual inspection and confirmed by microscope or AFM. This new light channel technology could provide the real future solution to the wafer manufacturing industry for fully automated wafer inspection and defect characterization

  13. Topological defects from the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Blanco-Pillado, Jose J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Garriga, Jaume, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu, E-mail: josejuan.blanco@ehu.es, E-mail: jaume.garriga@ub.edu, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble.

  14. Topological defects from the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Blanco-Pillado, Jose J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48013, Bilbao (Spain); Garriga, Jaume [Departament de Fisica Fonamental i Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Vilenkin, Alexander [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2015-05-28

    Many theories of the early universe predict the existence of a multiverse where bubbles continuously nucleate giving rise to observers in their interior. In this paper, we point out that topological defects of several dimensionalities will also be produced in de Sitter like regions of the multiverse. In particular, defects could be spontaneously nucleated in our parent vacuum. We study the evolution of these defects as they collide with and propagate inside of our bubble. We estimate the present distribution of defects in the observable part of the universe. The expected number of such nearby defects turns out to be quite small, even for the highest nucleation rate. We also study collisions of strings and domain walls with our bubble in our past light cone. We obtain simulated full-sky maps of the loci of such collisions, and find their angular size distribution. Similarly to what happens in the case of bubble collisions, the prospect of detecting any collisions of our bubble with ambient defects is greatly enhanced in the case where the cosmological constant of our parent vacuum is much higher than the vacuum energy density during inflation in our bubble.

  15. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mica, Isabella; Polignano, Maria Luisa; Marco, Cinzia De

    2004-01-01

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

  16. [Diagnosis of atrial septal defect using magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, M; Kobayashi, S; Imai, H; Watanabe, S; Masuda, Y; Inagaki, Y

    1987-12-01

    We studied the morphological features of defects of the interatrial septum using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the sizes of defects and other abnormalities. MR images were obtained in 28 patients with atrial septal defect, including five cases with complicated anomalies (two with Ebstein's anomaly, one pentalogy of Fallot, and one anomalous pulmonary vein connection and azygos continuation). Images were also obtained in the control subjects including seven normal volunteers and 142 patients with various acquired heart diseases. The diagnosis of atrial septal defect was established by cardiac catheterization, angiography and two-dimensional echocardiography prior to the MRI studies, and in 14 patients, the diagnosis was confirmed by surgery. The MRI unit had a superconducting magnet and operated at 0.25 or 0.50 Tesla. A spin echo pulse sequence was used with an echo time of 40 or 60 msec. At the beginning of this study, non-gated MRI images were obtained in the 28 controls and in three patients with atrial septal defect. Nongated MRI could not image the anatomical structure of the interatrial septa of 12 of the 28 controls, or any of the three patients with atrial septal defect. Nongated MRI was, therefore, inadequate for visualizing cardiac anatomy. Gated MRI images were obtained in 141 controls and in 25 patients with atrial septal defect. Gated MRI revealed the interatrial septum, interventricular septum, atrioventricular septum, mitral valve, tricuspid valve and other intracardiac structures in most subjects. In 17 control subjects (12%), however, there was a very faint signal from the central portion of the interatrial septum. In these instances, there was a gradual fading of the signal of the interatrial septum, so that they could be distinguished from the atrial septal defect. The sudden disappearance of the signal from the interatrial septum was observed by gated MRI in all 25 patients with atrial septal defect. The sizes of the defects by

  17. Reconstruction of sternal defect - a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Alexander Andersen; Koudahl, Vibeke; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The management of sternal defects arisen after deep sternal wound infection is challenging and often requires extensive interdisciplinary teamwork between plastic and thoracic surgeons. In this study, the published literature on methods used to reconstruct sternal defects arisen...... as a result of deep sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery will be reviewed. DESIGN: The Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, and SveMed+ databases were searched in December 2011. Only papers regarding treatment of deep sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery in adults were included. RESULTS......: The literature search identified 224 original papers that met the inclusion criteria. The majority dealt with surgical techniques. None of the studies regarding reconstructive options were designed as randomized controlled trials, and the levels of evidence are generally low. CONCLUSION: The treatment of deep...

  18. Hyaluronic acid in calves defects correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Rosset

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Since the advent of fillers, new techniques are continuously developed for different uses. In this study, we evaluated the use of hyaluronic acid for calf augmentation. Methods: A total of 42 patients were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent augmentation procedure in our centers under local anesthesia, the operations were completed within 1 h with a prompt correction of the defects. Results: Thirty-nine patients were satisfied with the treatment (93%, while three had complications, local infection, and lumps, that were resolved quickly (7%. Conclusion: Macrofillers can be injected into the calf to correct any defects. The advantages include short duration of treatment; the procedure performed under local anesthesia and limited side-effects that resolve promptly. This study suggests the use of biocompatible macrofillers for the augmentation of not only calves, but also for augmentation of breast and buttocks.

  19. Computed tomography of lambdoid calvarial defect in neurofibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, H.; Kozic, Z.; Medinilla, O.R.

    1983-01-01

    A patient with neurofibromatosis is reported in whom cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed a calvarial defect with an associated soft-tissue mass in the region of the left lambdoid suture. This defect has been the subject of several previous reports, having been demonstrated by means of conventional skull radiography. It should be included in the differential diagnosis when a lytic calvarial lesion is found on CT. (orig.)

  20. Ultrasonic defect characterization using parametric-manifold mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Bai, L.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation includes the detection and characterization of defects, and an understanding of the nature of defects is essential for the assessment of structural integrity in safety critical systems. In general, the defect characterization challenge involves an estimation of defect parameters from measured data. In this paper, we explore the extent to which defects can be characterized by their ultrasonic scattering behaviour. Given a number of ultrasonic measurements, we show that characterization information can be extracted by projecting the measurement onto a parametric manifold in principal component space. We show that this manifold represents the entirety of the characterization information available from far-field harmonic ultrasound. We seek to understand the nature of this information and hence provide definitive statements on the defect characterization performance that is, in principle, extractable from typical measurement scenarios. In experiments, the characterization problem of surface-breaking cracks and the more general problem of elliptical voids are studied, and a good agreement is achieved between the actual parameter values and the characterization results. The nature of the parametric manifold enables us to explain and quantify why some defects are relatively easy to characterize, whereas others are inherently challenging.

  1. Optical coherence tomography use in the diagnosis of enamel defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azri, Khalifa; Melita, Lucia N.; Strange, Adam P.; Festy, Frederic; Al-Jawad, Maisoon; Cook, Richard; Parekh, Susan; Bozec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) affects the permanent incisors and molars, whose undermineralized matrix is evidenced by lesions ranging from white to yellow/brown opacities to crumbling enamel lesions incapable of withstanding normal occlusal forces and function. Diagnosing the condition involves clinical and radiographic examination of these teeth, with known limitations in determining the depth extent of the enamel defects in particular. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging hard and soft tissue imaging technique, which was investigated as a new potential diagnostic method in dentistry. A comparison between the diagnostic potential of the conventional methods and OCT was conducted. Compared to conventional imaging methods, OCT gave more information on the structure of the enamel defects as well as the depth extent of the defects into the enamel structure. Different types of enamel defects were compared, each type presenting a unique identifiable pattern when imaged using OCT. Additionally, advanced methods of OCT image analysis including backscattered light intensity profile analysis and enface reconstruction were performed. Both methods confirmed the potential of OCT in enamel defects diagnosis. In conclusion, OCT imaging enabled the identification of the type of enamel defect and the determination of the extent of the enamel defects in MIH with the advantage of being a radiation free diagnostic technique.

  2. Method of identifying defective particle coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E.; Whiting, Carlton D.

    1986-01-01

    A method for identifying coated particles having defective coatings desig to retain therewithin a build-up of gaseous materials including: (a) Pulling a vacuum on the particles; (b) Backfilling the particles at atmospheric pressure with a liquid capable of wetting the exterior surface of the coated particles, said liquid being a compound which includes an element having an atomic number higher than the highest atomic number of any element in the composition which forms the exterior surface of the particle coating; (c) Drying the particles; and (d) Radiographing the particles. By television monitoring, examination of the radiographs is substantially enhanced.

  3. Defects and diffusion, theory & simulation II

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J

    2010-01-01

    This second volume in a new series covering entirely general results in the fields of defects and diffusion includes 356 abstracts of papers which appeared between the end of 2009 and the end of 2010. As well as the abstracts, the volume includes original papers on theory/simulation, semiconductors and metals: ""Predicting Diffusion Coefficients from First Principles ..."" (Mantina, Chen & Liu), ""Gouge Assessment for Pipes ..."" (Meliani, Pluvinage & Capelle), ""Simulation of the Impact Behaviour of ... Hollow Sphere Structures"" (Ferrano, Speich, Rimkus, Merkel & Öchsner), ""Elastic-Plastic

  4. Determination of defect content and defect profile in semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubiaga, A [Laboratory of Physics, HUT, PO Box 1100, 02015 TKK, Espoo (Finland); Garcia, J A; Plazaola, F [Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unbertsitatea, P. K. 644, 48080, Bilbao (Spain); Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V, E-mail: fernando.plazaola@ehu.es [Universitat de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada i Electromagnetisme, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-10

    In this article we present an overview of the technique to obtain the defects depth profile and width of a deposited layer and multilayer based on positron annihilation spectroscopy. In particular we apply the method to ZnO and ZnO/ZnCdO layers deposited on sapphire substrates. After introducing some terminology we first calculate the trend that the W/S parameters of the Doppler broadening measurements must follow, both in a qualitative and quantitative way. From this point we extend the results to calculate the width and defect profiles in deposited layer samples.

  5. Stoichiometric Defects in Silicon Carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Ting; Bedoya-Martinez, O. N.; Roma, G.; Liao, Ting; Liao, Ting

    2010-01-01

    Defect structures showing odd-membered rings are known features of several tetrahedral semiconductors as well as carbon nano-structures; examples of them are bond defects in crystalline and amorphous silicon, Stone Wales defects in fullerenes and carbon nano-tubes, and the core structure of partial dislocations in some tetrahedral semiconductors. We investigate, using Density Functional Theory, two types of stoichiometry-conserving defects, which we call SCD and anti-SCD and which are metastable structures presenting five- and seven-membered rings, both in the cubic and in the hexagonal 4H-SiC polytypes. We also investigate the annealing properties of the two mentioned variants and find that one of them (SCD) easily disappears, turning back to a normal site, while the other (anti-SCD) transforms to an antisite pair, overcoming a barrier of 0. 21 eV. The very short lifetimes at ambient conditions explain why those defects have not been observed up to now, but they suggest they should be observable at very low temperature, and we provide local vibrational modes to facilitate their identification. (authors)

  6. Genetic epidemiology of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Agopian, A J; Castillo, Heidi; Castillo, Jonathan; Clayton, Gerald H; Dosa, Nienke P; Hopson, Betsy; Joseph, David B; Rocque, Brandon G; Walker, William O; Wiener, John S; Mitchell, Laura E

    2017-12-11

    It has been estimated that 60-70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) have a genetic component, but few causative genes have been identified. The lack of information on genes associated with non-syndromic NTDs in humans is especially notable as the "genomic revolution" has led to new tools (e.g., genome-wide genotyping arrays, next-generation sequencing) that are helping to elucidate the full spectrum of genetic variation (from common to rare) contributing to complex traits, including structural birth defects. However, the application of modern genomic approaches to the study of NTDs has lagged behind that of some other common structural birth defects. This may be due to the difficulty of assembling large study cohorts for anencephaly or spina bifida. The purpose of this review is to outline the evolution of genetic studies of NTDs, from studies of familial aggregation to candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, through whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. Strategies for addressing gaps in NTD genetic research are also explored.

  7. Automatically high accurate and efficient photomask defects management solution for advanced lithography manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Chen, Lijun; Ma, Lantao; Li, Dejian; Jiang, Wei; Pan, Lihong; Shen, Huiting; Jia, Hongmin; Hsiang, Chingyun; Cheng, Guojie; Ling, Li; Chen, Shijie; Wang, Jun; Liao, Wenkui; Zhang, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Defect review is a time consuming job. Human error makes result inconsistent. The defects located on don't care area would not hurt the yield and no need to review them such as defects on dark area. However, critical area defects can impact yield dramatically and need more attention to review them such as defects on clear area. With decrease in integrated circuit dimensions, mask defects are always thousands detected during inspection even more. Traditional manual or simple classification approaches are unable to meet efficient and accuracy requirement. This paper focuses on automatic defect management and classification solution using image output of Lasertec inspection equipment and Anchor pattern centric image process technology. The number of mask defect found during an inspection is always in the range of thousands or even more. This system can handle large number defects with quick and accurate defect classification result. Our experiment includes Die to Die and Single Die modes. The classification accuracy can reach 87.4% and 93.3%. No critical or printable defects are missing in our test cases. The missing classification defects are 0.25% and 0.24% in Die to Die mode and Single Die mode. This kind of missing rate is encouraging and acceptable to apply on production line. The result can be output and reloaded back to inspection machine to have further review. This step helps users to validate some unsure defects with clear and magnification images when captured images can't provide enough information to make judgment. This system effectively reduces expensive inline defect review time. As a fully inline automated defect management solution, the system could be compatible with current inspection approach and integrated with optical simulation even scoring function and guide wafer level defect inspection.

  8. Enamel Defects of Human Primary Dentition as Virtual Memory of Early Developmental Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Asl Aminabadi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence and the position of enamel defects of primary teeth and hence to estimate the approximate time of an insult. Material and methods. 121 children aged 3 to 5 years were included in the study. The Modified Developmental Defects of Enamel Index was used to diagnose and classify the defects. The defects were categorized as hypoplasia, hypocalcification or a combination of them. Each tooth was investigated for occlusal/incisal, middle, cervical, incisomiddle, cervicomiddle and complete crown defects. Results. 55.37% of the children were affected by enamel defects, 23.96% being categorized as hypocalcification and 22.31% as hypoplasia. The enamel defects were more abundant in maxillary primary incisors and mandibular primary canines. Minimum involvement was seen in maxillary primary second molars and mandibular primary lateral incisors. The prevalence of cervical defects in maxillary primary incisors was significantly more than the middle or incisal defects (P < 0.05. The prevalence of incisal defects in mandibular primary incisors was significantly more than the middle or cervical defects (P < 0.05. Conclusions. The results revealed a considerable number of enamel defects which are multiple, symmetric and chronologically accordant with the estimated neonatal line in primary teeth of healthy children.

  9. Freely-migrating defects: Their production and interaction with cascade remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.; Wiedersich, H.

    1991-05-01

    Many microstructural changes that occur during irradiation are driven primarily by freely-migrating defects, i.e. those defects which escape from nascent cascades to migrate over distances that are large relative to typical cascade dimensions. Several measurements during irradiation at elevated temperatures have shown that the survival rate of freely-migrating defects decreases much more strongly with increasing primary recoil energy than does the survival rate for defects generated at liquid helium temperatures. For typical fission or fusion recoil spectra, and for heavy-ion bombardment, the fraction of defects that migrate long-distances is apparently only ∼1% of the calculated dpa. This small surviving fraction of freely-migrating defects results at least partially from additional intracascade recombination at elevated temperatures. However, cascade remnants, e.g., vacancy and interstitial clusters, also contribute by enhancing intercascade defect annihilation. A recently developed rate-theory approach is used to discuss the relative importance of intra- and intercascade recombination to the survival rate of freely-migrating defects. Within the validity of certain simplifying assumptions, the additional sink density provided by defect clusters produced directly within individual cascades can explain the difference between a defect survival rate of about 30% for low dose, low temperature irradiations with heavy ions, and a survival rate of only ∼1% for freely-migrating defects at elevated temperatures. The status of our current understanding of freely-migrating defects, including remaining unanswered questions, is also discussed. 33 refs., 5 figs

  10. Enhancing native defect sensitivity for EUV actinic blank inspection: optimized pupil engineering and photon noise study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yow-Gwo; Neureuther, Andrew; Naulleau, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the impact of optimized pupil engineering and photon noise on native defect sensitivity in EUV actinic blank inspection. Native defects include phase-dominated defects, absorber defects, and defects with a combination of phase and absorption behavior. First, we extend the idea of the Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) method and study the impact of optimum phase shift in the pupil plane on native defect sensitivity, showing a 23% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement compare to bright field (BF) for a phase defect with 20% absorption. We also describe the possibility to increase target defect SNR on target defect sizes at the price of losing the sensitivity on smaller (non-critical) defects. Moreover, we show the advantage of the optimized phase contrast (OZPC) method over BF EUV actinic blank inspection. A single focus scan from OZPC has better inspection efficiency over BF. Second, we make a detailed comparison between the phase contrast with apodization (AZPC) method and dark field (DF) method based on defect sensitivity in the presence of both photon shot noise and camera noise. Performance is compared for a variety of photon levels, mask roughness conditions, and combinations of defect phase and absorption.

  11. Defect CFTs and holographic multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiol, Bartomeu, E-mail: bfiol@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    We investigate some aspects of a recent proposal for a holographic description of the multiverse. Specifically, we focus on the implications on the suggested duality of the fluctuations of a bubble separating two universes with different cosmological constants. We do so by considering a similar problem in a 2+1 CFT with a codimension one defect, obtained by an M5-brane probe embedding in AdS{sub 4} × S{sup 7}, and studying its spectrum of fluctuations. Our results suggest that the kind of behavior required by the spectrum of bubble fluctuations is not likely to take place in defect CFTs with an AdS dual, although it might be possible if the defect supports a non-unitary theory.

  12. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides: interface and defect engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zehua; Wu, Zhangting; Han, Cheng; He, Jun; Ni, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei

    2018-03-06

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been considered as promising candidates for next generation nanoelectronics. Because of their atomically-thin structure and high surface to volume ratio, the interfaces involved in TMDC-based devices play a predominant role in determining the device performance, such as charge injection/collection at the metal/TMDC interface, and charge carrier trapping at the dielectric/TMDC interface. On the other hand, the crystalline structures of TMDCs are enriched by a variety of intrinsic defects, including vacancies, adatoms, grain boundaries, and substitutional impurities. Customized design and engineering of the interfaces and defects provides an effective way to modulate the properties of TMDCs and finally enhance the device performance. Herein, we summarize and highlight recent advances and state-of-the-art investigations on the interface and defect engineering of TMDCs and their corresponding applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Various interface engineering approaches for TMDCs are overviewed, including surface charge transfer doping, TMDC/metal contact engineering, and TMDC/dielectric interface engineering. Subsequently, different types of structural defects in TMDCs are introduced. Defect engineering strategies utilized to modulate the optical and electronic properties of TMDCs, as well as the developed high-performance and functional devices are summarized. Finally, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for interface and defect engineering in TMDC materials for electronics and optoelectronics.

  13. Satellite spot defect reduction on 193-nm contact hole lithography using photo cell monitor methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulenger, Caroline; Caze, Jean-Luc; Mihet, Mihaela

    2006-03-01

    The goal of overall process and yield improvement requires a litho defect management and reduction strategy, which includes several layers of tactical methods. Defects may be identified through a number of schemes, including After-Develop Inspection (ADI), which was the primary tool in this study in our 0,13μ fab. Defects on 193nm contact hole lithography were identified using a KLA-Tencor 2351 High Resolution Imaging Patterned Wafer Inspection System, coupled with in-line Automatic Defect Classification (iADC). The optimized inspection was used at the core of the Photo Cell Monitor (PCM) to isolate critical defect types. PCM uses the fab's standard production resist coat, exposure, develop, and rinse process, with the focus and exposure optimized for resist on silicon test wafers. Through Pareto analysis of 193nm defects, one defect type, called satellite spot, was targeted for immediate improvement and monitoring. This paper describes the work done in improving the litho defectivity. The work includes optimization of inspection and classification parameters and the Design of Experiments (DOE) to identify the source (including the interaction between the resist and developer) and contributing factors. Several process modifications were identified which resulted in lowered defectivity up to complete suppression of satellite spot defects, although at higher process complexity and cost. This work was also done in conjunction with resist suppliers, which used the same inspection to confirm the problem at their facilities. The work with the suppliers continues with the goal of identifying a less expensive permanent solution.

  14. Defect branes as Alice strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Takashi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2015-01-01

    There exist various defect-brane backgrounds in supergravity theories which arise as the low energy limit of string theories. These backgrounds typically have non-trivial monodromies, and if we move a charged probe around the center of a defect, its charge will be changed by the action of the monodromy. During the process, the charge conservation law seems to be violated. In this paper, to resolve this puzzle, we examine a dynamics of the charge changing process and show that the missing charge of the probe is transferred to the background. We then explicitly construct the resultant background after the charge transfer process by utilizing dualities. This background has the same monodromy as the original defect brane, but has an additional charge which does not have any localized source. In the literature, such a charge without localized source is known to appear in the presence of Alice strings. We argue that defect branes can in fact be regarded as a realization of Alice strings in string theory and examine the charge transfer process from that perspective.

  15. Space Mapping and Defect Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Echeverria (David); D.J.P. Lahaye (Domenico); P.W. Hemker (Piet); W.H.A. Schilders (Wil); H.A. van der Vorst (Henk); J. Rommes

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this chapter we present the principles of the space-mapping iteration techniques for the efficient solution of optimization problems. We also show how space-mapping optimization can be understood in the framework of defect correction. We observe the difference between the solution

  16. Space mapping and defect correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Echeverría, D.; Lahaye, D.; Hemker, P.W.; Schilders, W.H.A.; van der Vorst, H.A.; Rommes, J.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we present the principles of the space-mapping iteration techniques for the efficient solution of optimization problems. We also show how space-mapping optimization can be understood in the framework of defect correction. We observe the difference between the solution of the

  17. Grassman defectivity à la Terracini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Dionisi

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is a modern rivisitation of a classical paper by nA. Terracini, going back to 1915, which suggests an elementary but powerful method for studying Grassmann defective varieties. In particular, the case of Veronese surfaces is completely understood, giving a positive answer to the so-called Waring problem for pairs of homogeneous polynomials in three variables.

  18. Defects and an unusual superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gor' kov, L.P.; Kalugin, P.A.

    1985-03-10

    If the superconducting gap in a pure material has zeros on an entire line along the Fermi surface, the state density is finite at epsilon = 0, beginning with the lowest defect concentrations. The splitting of the superconducting transition by impurities, U/sub 1-x/Th/sub x/Be/sub 13/ is discussed.

  19. Delamination initiated by a defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, Anders; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2016-01-01

    Composite materials in wind turbines are mainly joined with adhesives. Adhesive joining is preferable since it distributes the stresses over a larger area. This study shows how a defect can influence the fracture behaviour of adhesively joined composite. Repeated experiments are performed using d...

  20. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  1. Polymicrobial Chronic Infection Including Acinetobacter Baumannii in a Plated Segmental Defect in the Rat Femur

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsukayama, Dean T

    2008-01-01

    .... This model could then be used to assess the combined therapy of an osteogenic agent to stimulate bone formation while local and system antibiotic therapy was being applied to control the polymicrobial infection...

  2. States of Stress and Strain in Adhesive Joints Including Photoelastic Imaging of Defects in Adherends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-30

    T = Dt/a 2 , R = ra, C = c/ cSAT with D a constant diffusion coefficient. 19 II By using a suitable substitution this equation is Bessel’s of order...to allow a joint to be made at the cut has been very carefully examined. A custom built chain wrench closes the gap too quickly, and a range of

  3. Software defect prevention based on human error theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun HUANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Software defect prevention is an important way to reduce the defect introduction rate. As the primary cause of software defects, human error can be the key to understanding and preventing software defects. This paper proposes a defect prevention approach based on human error mechanisms: DPeHE. The approach includes both knowledge and regulation training in human error prevention. Knowledge training provides programmers with explicit knowledge on why programmers commit errors, what kinds of errors tend to be committed under different circumstances, and how these errors can be prevented. Regulation training further helps programmers to promote the awareness and ability to prevent human errors through practice. The practice is facilitated by a problem solving checklist and a root cause identification checklist. This paper provides a systematic framework that integrates knowledge across disciplines, e.g., cognitive science, software psychology and software engineering to defend against human errors in software development. Furthermore, we applied this approach in an international company at CMM Level 5 and a software development institution at CMM Level 1 in the Chinese Aviation Industry. The application cases show that the approach is feasible and effective in promoting developers’ ability to prevent software defects, independent of process maturity levels.

  4. The role of defects and doping in 2D graphene sheets and 1D nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrones, Humberto; Lv, Ruitao; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-06-01

    Defects are usually seen as imperfections in materials that could significantly degrade their performance. However, at the nanoscale, defects could be extremely useful since they could be exploited to generate novel, innovative and useful materials and devices. Graphene and graphene nanoribbons are no exception. This review therefore tries to categorize defects, emphasize their importance, introduce the common routes to study and identify them and to propose new ways to construct novel devices based on 'defective' graphene-like materials. In particular, we will discuss defects in graphene-like systems including (a) structural (sp(2)-like) defects, (b) topological (sp(2)-like) defects, (c) doping or functionalization (sp(2)- and sp(3)-like) defects and (d) vacancies/edge type defects (non-sp(2)-like). It will be demonstrated that defects play a key role in graphene physicochemical properties and could even be critical to generate biocompatible materials. There are numerous challenges in this emerging field, and we intend to provide a stimulating account which could trigger new science and technological developments based on defective graphene-like materials that could be introduced into other atomic layered materials, such as BN, MoS(2) and WS(2), not discussed in this review.

  5. Ambient air pollution and birth defects in brisbane, australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or palate among births in Brisbane, Australia (1998-2004. METHODS: Ambient air pollution levels were averaged over weeks 3-8 of pregnancy among 150,308 births. Using a case-control design, we used conditional logistic regression and matched cases to 5 controls. Analyses were conducted using all births, and then births where the mother resided within 6 and 12 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor. FINDINGS: When analyzing all births there was no indication that ambient air pollution in Brisbane was associated with a higher risk of cardiac defects. Among births where the mother resided within 6 kilometers of an ambient air quality monitor, a 5 ppb increase in O(3 was associated with an increased risk of pulmonary artery and valve defects (OR 2.96, 95% CI: 1.34, 7.52 while a 0.6 ppb increase in SO(2 was associated with an increased risk of aortic artery and valve defects (OR 10.76, 95% CI: 1.50, 179.8. For oral cleft defects among all births, the only adverse association was between SO(2 and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.62. However, various significant inverse associations were also found between air pollutants and birth defects. CONCLUSIONS: This study found mixed results and it is difficult to conclude whether ambient air pollution in Brisbane has an adverse association with the birth defects examined. Studies using more detailed estimates of air pollution exposure are needed.

  6. Congenital Heart Defects and Receipt of Special Education Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Autry, Andrew; Razzaghi, Hilda; Boyle, Coleen A; Mahle, William T; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence of receipt of special education services among children with congenital heart defects (CHDs) compared with children without birth defects. Children born from 1982 to 2004 in metropolitan Atlanta with CHDs (n = 3744) were identified from a population-based birth defect surveillance program; children without birth defects (n = 860 715) were identified from birth certificates. Cohorts were linked to special education files for the 1992-2012 school years to identify special education services. Children with noncardiac defects or genetic syndromes were excluded; children with CHDs were classified by presence or absence of critical CHDs (ie, CHDs requiring intervention by age one year). We evaluated the prevalence of receipt of special education services and prevalence rate ratios using children without birth defects as a reference. Compared with children without birth defects, children with CHDs were 50% more likely to receive special education services overall (adjusted prevalence rate ratio [aPRR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-1.7). Specifically, they had higher prevalence of several special education categories including: intellectual disability (aPRR = 3.8; 95% CI: 2.8-5.1), sensory impairment (aPRR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.8-5.0), other health impairment (aPRR = 2.8; 95% CI: 2.2-3.5), significant developmental delay (aPRR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.8), and specific learning disability (aPRR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.7). For most special education services, the excess prevalence did not vary by presence of critical CHDs. Children with CHDs received special education services more often than children without birth defects. These findings highlight the need for special education services and the importance of developmental screening for all children with CHDs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Topological defects in epithelia govern cell death and extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Thuan Beng; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Nier, Vincent; Kocgozlu, Leyla; Thampi, Sumesh; Toyama, Yusuke; Marcq, Philippe; Lim, Chwee Teck; Yeomans, Julia M.; Ladoux, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Epithelial tissues (epithelia) remove excess cells through extrusion, preventing the accumulation of unnecessary or pathological cells. The extrusion process can be triggered by apoptotic signalling, oncogenic transformation and overcrowding of cells. Despite the important linkage of cell extrusion to developmental, homeostatic and pathological processes such as cancer metastasis, its underlying mechanism and connections to the intrinsic mechanics of the epithelium are largely unexplored. We approach this problem by modelling the epithelium as an active nematic liquid crystal (that has a long range directional order), and comparing numerical simulations to strain rate and stress measurements within monolayers of MDCK (Madin Darby canine kidney) cells. Here we show that apoptotic cell extrusion is provoked by singularities in cell alignments in the form of comet-shaped topological defects. We find a universal correlation between extrusion sites and positions of nematic defects in the cell orientation field in different epithelium types. The results confirm the active nematic nature of epithelia, and demonstrate that defect-induced isotropic stresses are the primary precursors of mechanotransductive responses in cells, including YAP (Yes-associated protein) transcription factor activity, caspase-3-mediated cell death, and extrusions. Importantly, the defect-driven extrusion mechanism depends on intercellular junctions, because the weakening of cell-cell interactions in an α-catenin knockdown monolayer reduces the defect size and increases both the number of defects and extrusion rates, as is also predicted by our model. We further demonstrate the ability to control extrusion hotspots by geometrically inducing defects through microcontact printing of patterned monolayers. On the basis of these results, we propose a mechanism for apoptotic cell extrusion: spontaneously formed topological defects in epithelia govern cell fate. This will be important in predicting

  8. Defects and Rearrangements in Disordered Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtmans, Sven

    In this thesis, I will investigate the properties of disordered materials under strain. Disordered materials encompass a large variety of materials, including glasses, polymers, granular matter, dense colloids, and gels. There is currently no constitutive equation based on microscopic observables that describes these materials. Given the prevalence and usefulness of these materials, we derive tools to aid our understanding of them. We develop a new method to isolate localized defects from extended vibrational modes in disordered solids. This method augments particle interactions with an artificial potential that acts as a high-pass filter: it preserves small-scale structures while pushing extended vibrational modes to higher frequencies. The low-frequency modes that remain are ``bare" defects; they are exponentially localized without the quadrupolar tails associated with elastic interactions. We demonstrate that these localized excitations are excellent predictors of plastic rearrangements in the solid. We characterize several of the properties of these defects that appear in mesoscopic theories of plasticity, including their distribution of energy barriers, number density, and size, which is a first step in testing and revising continuum models for plasticity in disordered solids. We additionally study the properties of rearrangement types in 2D disordered packings of particles with a harmonic potential at a range of packing fractions above jamming. We develop a generalizable procedure that classifies events by stress drop, energy drop, and reversibility under two protocols. Somewhat surprisingly, we find a large population of contact change events that have no associated stress drop. Reversible events become more common at high pressures above a packing fraction of phi=0.865, at which point line reversible events are more common than loop reversible events. At low pressures, irreversible events are associated with spatially extended events, while at high

  9. Predicting internal red oak (Quercus rubra) log defect features using surface defect defect measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Determining the defects located within a log is crucial to understanding the tree/log resource for efficient processing. However, existing means of doing this non-destructively requires the use of expensive x-ray/CT (computerized tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), or microwave technology. These methods do not lend themselves to fast, efficient, and cost-...

  10. Study of defect characteristics essential for NDT testing methods ET, UT and RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirdelius, H.; Oesterberg, Elena

    2000-10-01

    This paper presents results from a literature review of defect characteristics essential for nondestructive testing (NDT). Most of the major NDT methods are included in the study - ultrasonic testing (UT), radiography (RT) and eddy current testing (ET). The study was performed by means of searching in scientific databases, technical journals, conference proceedings etc. Mainly the following databases were used: CHANS (Chalmers database), INSPEC, NTIS, Ei Compendex, World Surface Coating Abs, METADEX, JICST-Eplus, Aerospace database, Pascal, Eng Materials, SciSearch and Weldasearch. It is concluded that for eddy current testing, the defect geometry, the defect size and the defect orientation influence the outcome signal. A number of investigations address the relationships between the defect parameters like defect depth, length and width and the outcome signal parameters like amplitude, phase and signal shape. Also the phenomena of the electrical contacts between the defect surfaces (for a crack) was studied. Defect parameters that are essential to the quality of ultrasonic testing are defect position in the object (includes the depth), orientation, size, crack surface roughness, closure and tip radius. This investigation has been focused on those parameters that are not that easy to reconstruct and only briefly discussed the influence on the signal response due to defect position, orientation and size. When it comes to radiographic techniques, the most important defect related parameters that influence the quality are the difference in radio opacity of the specimen and defect and the angle between the volumetric extension of the defect and the direction of projection. The defect gape and the morphology of the crack are also very essential parameters. A very simple model of the detectability as a function of depth, width and misorientation (angle to the radiation beam) has been validated and to some extent also verified in a number of papers. Even for defects with

  11. 2012 Gordon Research Conference on Defects in Semiconductors - Formal Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Evan [Naval Research Lab. (NRL), Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-08-17

    The meeting shall strive to develop and further the fundamental understanding of defects and their roles in the structural, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of bulk, thin film, and nanoscale semiconductors and device structures. Point and extended defects will be addressed in a broad range of electronic materials of particular current interest, including wide bandgap semiconductors, metal-oxides, carbon-based semiconductors (e.g., diamond, graphene, etc.), organic semiconductors, photovoltaic/solar cell materials, and others of similar interest. This interest includes novel defect detection/imaging techniques and advanced defect computational methods.

  12. T-shaped Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction of an Extensive Circumferential Pharyngeal Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Miyamoto, MD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In the era of free-flap transfer, the pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap still plays a unique role in head and neck reconstruction. We report on a patient with a recurrent hypopharyngeal carcinoma after total pharyngolaryngectomy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in whom defects included a circumferential defect of the oropharynx and the entire tongue. The defects were successfully reconstructed with a T-shaped pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap whose skin island included multiple intercostal perforators from the internal mammary vessels. This flap design is effective for reconstructing circumferential pharyngeal defects in vessel-depleted neck.

  13. Charged Semiconductor Defects Structure, Thermodynamics and Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Seebauer, Edmund G

    2009-01-01

    The technologically useful properties of a solid often depend upon the types and concentrations of the defects it contains. Not surprisingly, defects in semiconductors have been studied for many years, in many cases with a view towards controlling their behavior through various forms of "defect engineering." For example, in the bulk, charging significantly affects the total concentration of defects that are available to mediate phenomena such as solid-state diffusion. Surface defects play an important role in mediating surface mass transport during high temperature processing steps such as epitaxial film deposition, diffusional smoothing in reflow, and nanostructure formation in memory device fabrication. Charged Semiconductor Defects details the current state of knowledge regarding the properties of the ionized defects that can affect the behavior of advanced transistors, photo-active devices, catalysts, and sensors. Features: Group IV, III-V, and oxide semiconductors; Intrinsic and extrinsic defects; and, P...

  14. Modeling defect trends for iterative development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Spanguolo, J. N.

    2003-01-01

    The Employment of Defects (EoD) approach to measuring and analyzing defects seeks to identify and capture trends and phenomena that are critical to managing software quality in the iterative software development lifecycle at JPL.

  15. Cooperation and Defection in Ghetto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    We consider ghetto as a community of people ruled against their will by an external power. Members of the community feel that their laws are broken. However, attempts to leave ghetto makes their situation worse. We discuss the relation of the ghetto inhabitants to the ruling power in context of their needs, organized according to the Maslow hierarchy. Decisions how to satisfy successive needs are undertaken in cooperation with or defection the ruling power. This issue allows to construct the tree of decisions and to adopt the pruning technique from the game theory. Dynamics of decisions can be described within the formalism of fundamental equations. The result is that the strategy of defection is stabilized by the estimated payoff.

  16. Iatrogenic Urethral Defect Repairment: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulas Fidan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available    Iatrogenic urethral defect is a complication that occurs after vaginal surgical procedures. Many surgical methods according to place of defect are described in case of injury of urethra. In this article, we reported the repairment of distal urethral defect with the help of greft taken from labia minor. This defect is made by the excision of the granulation tissue that occurred after chronic paraurethral  gland infection.

  17. Curvature-Controlled Topological Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Mesarec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Effectively, two-dimensional (2D closed films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering (ordered shells might be instrumental for the realization of scaled crystals. In them, ordered shells are expected to play the role of atoms. Furthermore, topological defects (TDs within them would determine their valence. Namely, bonding among shells within an isotropic liquid matrix could be established via appropriate nano-binders (i.e., linkers which tend to be attached to the cores of TDs exploiting the defect core replacement mechanism. Consequently, by varying configurations of TDs one could nucleate growth of scaled crystals displaying different symmetries. For this purpose, it is of interest to develop a simple and robust mechanism via which one could control the position and number of TDs in such atoms. In this paper, we use a minimal mesoscopic model, where variational parameters are the 2D curvature tensor and the 2D orientational tensor order parameter. We demonstrate numerically the efficiency of the effective topological defect cancellation mechanism to predict positional assembling of TDs in ordered films characterized by spatially nonhomogeneous Gaussian curvature. Furthermore, we show how one could efficiently switch among qualitatively different structures by using a relative volume v of ordered shells, which represents a relatively simple naturally accessible control parameter.

  18. Reflection and transmission for conformal defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quella, T.; Runkel, I.; Watts, G.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We consider conformal defects joining two conformal field theories along a line. We define two new quantities associated to such defects in terms of expectation values of the stress tensors and we propose them as measures of the reflectivity and transmissivity of the defect. Their

  19. Metastable and bistable defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, Bulat N; Abdullin, Kh A; Gorelkinskii, Yurii V

    2000-01-01

    Existing data on the properties and structure of metastable and bistable defects in silicon are analyzed. Primary radiation-induced defects (vacancies, self-interstitial atoms, and Frenkel pairs), complexes of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and other impurity atoms and defects with negative correlation energy are considered. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Gastroschisis and associated defects: an international study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2007-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency and type of malformations associated with gastroschisis in a large pool of international data, to identify malformation patterns, and to evaluate the role of maternal age in non-isolated cases. Case-by-case information from 24 registries, all members of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR), were evaluated. After the exclusion of other abdominal wall defects cases were classified as: (a) isolated; (b) recognizable syndrome, chromosomal or not; (c) multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Our results showed that out of 3,322 total cases 469 non-isolated cases were registered (14.1%): 41 chromosomal syndromes, 24 other syndromes, and 404 MCA. Among MCA four groups of anomalies were most frequent: CNS (4.5%), cardio-vascular (2.5%), limb (2.2%), and kidney anomalies (1.9%). No similar patterns emerged except two patterns resembling limb-body wall complex and OEIS. In both of them the gastroschisis could be however misclassified. Chromosomal trisomies and possibly non-syndromic MCA are associated with an older maternal age more than isolated cases. On consideration of our data and the most valid studies published in the literature, the best estimate of the proportion of gastroschisis associated with major unrelated defects is about 10%, with a few cases associated to recognizable syndromes. Recognized syndromes with gastroschisis seem to be so exceptional that the well documented and validated cases are worth being published as interesting case report. An appropriate case definition in etiological studies should include only isolated gastroschisis after an appropriate definition of isolated and non-isolated cases and a thorough case-by-case review.

  1. Spontaneous Breaking of Rotational Symmetry with Arbitrary Defects and a Rigidity Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, Simon

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this paper is twofold. First we prove a rigidity estimate, which generalises the theorem on geometric rigidity of Friesecke, James and Müller to 1-forms with non-vanishing exterior derivative. Second we use this estimate to prove a kind of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry for some models of crystals, which allow almost all kinds of defects, including unbounded defects as well as edge, screw and mixed dislocations, i.e. defects with Burgers vectors.

  2. Vascularized fibular transfer in longstanding and infected large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê Thua, Trung-Hau; Pham, Dang-Nhat; Boeckx, Willy; De Mey, Albert

    2014-03-01

    The reconstruction of large bone defects in the infectious environment is still a big challenge for limb salvage because of disturbance in bacterial flora, bacterial resistance and limitation of blood supply at scarred tissue. This retrospective study was to evaluate long-term outcomes in patients who were performed vascularized fibular transfers for treatment of large bone defects in the infectious environment. The review included 26 patients with an average age of 27 years old. Bone defects were located at the arm in 1 patient, the forearm in 2 patients, the thigh in 6 patients and the leg in 17 patients. The cause of the bone defects included high-energy trauma in 14 cases, chronic osteomyelitis in 7 cases, infected non-union in 5 cases. All patients had had several previous operative procedures. The average length of fibular vascularized graft was 16.6 cm (range, 10-22 cm), and the average size of the associated fasciocutaneous component in 16 patients was 3.6 x 8.5 cm. Three patients had partial necrosis of skin paddle. Three patients, who were stabilized by screw and external fixator, had an infection at the distal part of the fibular graft and pin tracts. 25 fibular grafts (96%) showed complete bone union. This review has showed that the vascularized fibular transfer can be effective for management of large segmental bone defects in the infectious environment.

  3. Hair defects in Hoxc13 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, A R; Capecchi, M R

    1999-12-01

    Hox genes encode transcription factors that are important during normal embryonic development of diverse organisms including vertebrates. In mammals, Hox genes are responsible for conferring regional identity in embryonic tissues, including the limb bud, the neural tube, the presomitic mesoderm and the intestinal tract. Recent studies have demonstrated expression of Hox genes in skin and hair follicles, suggesting potential functions for these genes in epidermal appendages. These studies are reviewed here with emphasis on Hoxc13, as Hoxc13 mutants are the first Hox mutants to demonstrate overt hair defects. In addition, because Hoxc13 does not show regionally restricted expression in the skin, as demonstrated for other Hox genes, the potentially different roles of Hoxc13 versus other Hox genes in the skin are discussed.

  4. Empirical formula for rates of hot pixel defects based on pixel size, sensor area, and ISO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Glenn H.; Thomas, Rohit; Koren, Zahava; Koren, Israel

    2013-02-01

    Experimentally, image sensors measurements show a continuous development of in-field permanent hot pixel defects increasing in numbers over time. In our tests we accumulated data on defects in cameras ranging from large area (cell phone cameras. The results show that the rate of defects depends on the technology (APS or CCD), and on design parameters like imager area, pixel size (from 1.5 to 7 um), and gain (from ISO100 to 1600). Comparing different sensor sizes with similar pixel sizes has shown that defect rates scale linearly with sensor area, suggesting the metric of defects/year/sq mm, which we call defect density. A search was made to model this defect density as a function of the two parameters pixel size and ISO. The best empirical fit was obtained by a power law curve. For CCD imagers, the defect densities are proportional to the pixel size to the power of -2.25 times the ISO to the power of 0.69. For APS (CMOS) sensors the power law had the defect densities proportional to the pixel size to the power of -3.07 times the ISO raised to the power of 0.5. Extending our empirical formula to include ISO allows us to predict the expected defect development rate for a wide set of sensor parameters.

  5. Selecting the best defect reduction methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, C.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barkan, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Defect rates less than 10 parts per million, unimaginable a few years ago, have become the standard of world-class quality. To reduce defects, companies are aggressively implementing various quality methodologies, such as Statistical Quality Control Motorola`s Six Sigma, or Shingo`s poka-yok. Although each quality methodology reduces defects, selection has been based on an intuitive sense without understanding their relative effectiveness in each application. A missing link in developing superior defect reduction strategies has been a lack of a general defect model that clarifies the unique focus of each method. Toward the goal of efficient defect reduction, we have developed an event tree which addresses a broad spectrum of quality factors and two defect sources, namely, error and variation. The Quality Control Tree (QCT) predictions are more consistent with production experience than obtained by the other methodologies considered independently. The QCT demonstrates that world-class defect rates cannot be achieved through focusing on a single defect source or quality control factor, a common weakness of many methodologies. We have shown that the most efficient defect reduction strategy depend on the relative strengths and weaknesses of each organization. The QCT can help each organization identify the most promising defect reduction opportunities for achieving its goals.

  6. Magnetic signature of surface defects at nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmers, Nora Jenny; Gerstmann, Uwe; Schmidt, Wolf Gero [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Paderborn (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The n-type doping of diamond has been a long-standing issue, which recently gained attention in the context of nanodiamonds. Attempts of doping with nitrogen failed to result in the Electron paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) fingerprints expected from bulk material. Instead, the nanodiamond signals show a much larger deviation from the free-electron g-value and are believed to be related to intrinsic, carbon inherited defects. However, the absence of the bulk-like EPR spectra does not mean that nitrogen is not incorporated at all. The N atoms could be built in predominantly at or at least close to the surfaces yielding EPR spectra, very different from those measured in the bulk. In this work, we elucidate the situation by investigating the magnetic signature of paramagnetic defects in the nanodiamonds. We use the gauge-including projector augmented plane wave (GI-PAW) approach to calculate the hyperfine splittings and the elements of the electronic g-tensor. Taking the C(100) surface as a first model system, a possible contribution of nitrogen is discussed by comparing EPR parameters for different N incorporation depths: Incorporated directly at the surface, N gives rise to surface states similar to intrinsic carbon dangling bond-like states. Otherwise N is able to introduce surface conductivity as demonstrated by calculated effective mass tensors.

  7. Congenital heart defects in children with oral clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahvi H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Oral clefts are among the most common congenital anomalies. Infants with oral clefts often have other associated congenital defects, especially congenital heart defects. The reported incidences and the types of associated malformations and congenital heart defects vary between different studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of associated congenital heart defects in children with oral clefts. Methods: All infants with cleft lip and palate referred to the Children's Medical Center and Bahramy; the teaching Hospitals of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences from 1991 to 2005 were prospectively enrolled in this study group. All patients were examined and noted by an academic cleft team contain; a pediatrician and a pediatric surgeon, and received cardiac consultation and echocardiography by a pediatric cardiologist. non cardiac associated anomalies, still born and patients without echocardiography were excluded from the study.  Data including age, gender, exposure to contagions and high risk elements ,consanguinity and familial history of oral cleft, type of oral cleft, results of cardiac consultation and echocardiography and associated cardiac anomalies were cumulated and analyzed by SSPS version 13.5Results: Among the 284 infants with oral clefts, 162 were male (57% and 122 were female (43%. Seventy-nine patients (27.8% had cleft lip, 84 (29.5% had cleft palate and 121 (42.6% had both cleft lip and palate. Of all the patients, 21.1% had congenital heart defects. the most common type Of these congenital heart defects(28.3%  was atrial septal defect.Conclusions: For patients with cleft lip and palate, we recommend preoperative cardiac consultation, careful examination and routine echocardiography for associated cardiac anomalies, as well as appropriate management and prophylactic antibiotic therapy for those with associated congenital heart anomaly.

  8. Appositional bone formation in marginal defects at implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botticelli, Daniele; Berglundh, Tord; Buser, Daniel; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-02-01

    In a previous experiment, it was demonstrated that a wide marginal defect around an implant can heal with a high degree of osseointegration. The present experiment was performed to evaluate the degree and quality of de novo bone formation and osseointegration in marginal defects adjacent to submerged titanium implants. All mandibular premolars and 1st molars were extracted in four Labrador dogs. Four experimental sites were identified in the right side of the mandible. In two sites, custom-made implants with a sandblasted, large grit, acid-etched (SLA) surface were installed without further ostectomy (control sites). In the two remaining sites (test sites), a specially designed step drill was used to widen the marginal 5 mm of the canal. A barrier membrane was used to cover the implants in the defect sites. All implants were submerged. One month later, an identical procedure, including site preparation and implant installation, was performed in the left side of the mandible. Two months following the first implant installation procedure, biopsies were collected and prepared for sectioning. Ostectomy and implant installation in the control location resulted in a series of bone tissue alterations which eventually allowed newly formed bone to establish contact with the SLA surface. The marginal defect lateral to the implant in the test locations gradually became filled with newly formed bone. De novo bone formation started within the walls of the surgically prepared defect. Bone-to-implant contact was first established in the apical portion of the gap. This new bone tissue was in the coronal direction continuous with a dense, non-mineralized 'implant attached' soft tissue which, over time, also became mineralized to increase the height of the zone of bone-to-implant contact. The results suggest that healing of a wide marginal defect around an implant is characterized by appositional bone growth from the lateral and apical bone walls of the defect.

  9. Photoluminescence as a tool for characterizing point defects in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Photoluminescence is one of the most powerful tools used to study optically-active point defects in semiconductors, especially in wide-bandgap materials. Gallium nitride (GaN) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have attracted considerable attention in the last two decades due to their prospects in optoelectronics applications, including blue and ultraviolet light-emitting devices. However, in spite of many years of extensive studies and a great number of publications on photoluminescence from GaN and ZnO, only a few defect-related luminescence bands are reliably identified. Among them are the Zn-related blue band in GaN, Cu-related green band and Li-related orange band in ZnO. Numerous suggestions for the identification of other luminescence bands, such as the yellow band in GaN, or green and yellow bands in ZnO, do not stand up under scrutiny. In these conditions, it is important to classify the defect-related luminescence bands and find their unique characteristics. In this presentation, we will review the origin of the major luminescence bands in GaN and ZnO. Through simulations of the temperature and excitation intensity dependences of photoluminescence and by employing phenomenological models we are able to obtain important characteristics of point defects such as carrier capture cross-sections for defects, concentrations of defects, and their charge states. These models are also used to find the absolute internal quantum efficiency of photoluminescence and obtain information about nonradiative defects. Results from photoluminescence measurements will be compared with results of the first-principle calculations, as well as with the experimental data obtained by other techniques such as positron annihilation spectroscopy, deep-level transient spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  10. 3D defect detection using optical wide-field microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tympel, Volker; Schaaf, Marko; Srocka, Bernd

    2007-06-01

    We report a method to detect signed differences in two similar data sets representing 3-dimensional intensity profiles recorded by optical wide-field microscopes. The signed differences describe missing or unexpected intensity values, defined as defects. In technical applications like wafer and mask inspection, data sets often represent surfaces. The reported method is able to describe the size and position especially in relation to the neighboring surface and is called Three-Dimension-Aberration (TDA)-Technology. To increase the tool performance and to handle different sizes of defects a scaled bottom-up method is implemented and started with high reduced data sets for the search of large defects. Each analysis contains three steps. The first step is a correlation to calculate the displacement vector between the similar data sets. In the second step a new data set is created. The new data set consists of intensity differences. Extreme values in the data set represent the position of defects. By the use of linear and non-linear filters the stability of detection can be improved. If all differences are below a threshold the bottom-up method starts with the next larger scaled data set. In the other case it is assumed that the defect is detected and step three starts with the detection of the convex hull of the defect and the search of the neighboring surface. As a result the defect is described by a parameter set including the relative position. Because of the layered structure of the data set and the bottom-up technique the method is suitable for multi-core processor architectures.

  11. Point defects and atomic transport in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidiard, A.B.

    1981-02-01

    There are two principle aspects to the theory of atomic transport in crystals as caused by the action of point defects, namely (1) the calculation of relevant properties of the point defects (energies and other thermodynamic characteristics of the different possible defects, activation energies and other mobility parameters) and (2) the statistical mechanics of assemblies of defects, both equilibrium and non-equilibrium assemblies. In the five lectures given here both these aspects are touched on. The first two lectures are concerned with the calculation of relevant point defect properties, particularly in ionic crystals. The first lecture is more general, the second is concerned particularly with some recent calculations of the free volumes of formation of defects in various ionic solids; these solve a rather long-standing problem in this area. The remaining three lectures are concerned with the kinetic theory of defects mainly in relaxation, drift and diffusion situations

  12. Yield impacting systematic defects search and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Qingxiu; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xing; Ning, Jay; Cheng, Guojie; Chen, Shijie; Zhang, Gary; Vikram, Abhishek; Su, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Despite great effort before design tapeout, there are still some pattern related systematic defects showing up in production, which impact product yield. Through various check points in the production life cycle endeavor is made to detect these defective patterns. It is seen that apart from the known defective patterns, slight variations of polygon sizes and shapes in the known defective patterns also cause yield loss. This complexity is further compounded when interactions among multiple process layers causes the defect. Normally the exact pattern matching techniques cannot detect these variations of the defective patterns. With the currently existing tools in the fab it is a challenge to define the 'sensitive patterns', which are arbitrary variations in the known 'defective patterns'. A design based approach has been successfully experimented on product wafers to detect yield impacting defects that greatly reduces the TAT for hotspot analysis and also provides optimized care area definition to enable high sensitivity wafer inspection. A novel Rule based pattern search technique developed by Anchor Semiconductor has been used to find sensitive patterns in the full chip design. This technique allows GUI based pattern search rule generation like, edge move or edge-to-edge distance range, so that any variations of a particular sensitive pattern can be captured and flagged. Especially the pattern rules involving multiple process layers, like M1-V1-M2, can be defined easily using this technique. Apart from using this novel pattern search technique, design signatures are also extracted around the defect locations in the wafer and used in defect classification. This enhanced defect classification greatly helps in determining most critical defects among the total defect population. The effectiveness of this technique has been established through design to defect correlation and SEM verification. In this paper we will report details of the design based experiments that

  13. If Your Child Has a Heart Defect (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventricular septal defect , truncus arteriosus, atrioventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot , and transposition of the great arteries) can be ... Care and Your Newborn Coarctation of the Aorta Tetralogy of Fallot Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect When Your ...

  14. Obtaining global equations for the Young’s modulus of perfect and defective carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi Dehghan Pir, Mohammad; Rahmandoust, Moones; Öchsner, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    There are limited studies which have extracted global equations for calculation of Young’s modulus (E) in both pristine and defective carbon nanotubes (CNT), especially when a combination of different defects such as atom-vacancy and-misplacement exist simultaneously in the studied CNT. In this study, the finite element method was used to investigate E for a large set of perfect and defective single walled carbon nanotubes (2440 finite element models), including armchair, zigzag and chiral tubes. The obtained results were then employed as the basis for achieving accurate global equations for calculation of E in perfect and defective carbon nanotubes at various defect percentages. Despite most previous studies, which were based on the tube’s diameter, the chiral indices (n, m) have been considered here as variables to predict the stiffness of carbon nanotubes. The achieved equations showed to be accurate, with maximum errors below 2% and 10% for perfect and defective tubes, respectively, compared to FE results. Based on the obtained equations, a computer execution file was developed which is capable of calculating E when different percentages of defects are introduced to the structure. The results show that unlike single defect states, the existence of any combination of atom vacancy and atom misplacement defects causes dramatic reduction in the stiffness of carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, the role of vacancy defects in the reduction of tube’s elastic properties revealed to be more significant than misplacement defects. The results not only demonstrate that edge defects influence Young’s modulus more noticeably, but also confirm previous works showing that armchair edged structures are less vulnerable to defects, as compared to zigzag.

  15. A Study on the Effects of Ball Defects on the Fatigue Life in Hybrid Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ching-Yao; Foerster, Chad E.; O'Brien, Michael J.; Hardy, Brian S.; Goyal, Vinay K.; Nelson, Benjamin A.; Robinson, Ernest Y.; Ward, Peter C.; Hilton, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid ball bearings using silicon nitride ceramic balls with steel rings are increasingly being used in space mechanism applications due to their high wear resistance and long rolling contact fatigue life. However, qualitative and quantitative reports of the effects of ball defects that cause early fatigue failure are rare. We report on our approach to study these effects. Our strategy includes characterization of defects encountered in use, generation of similar defects in a laboratory setting, execution of full-scale bearing tests to obtain lifetimes, post-test characterization, and related finite-element modeling to understand the stress concentration of these defects. We have confirmed that at least one type of defect of appropriate size can significantly reduce fatigue life. Our method can be used to evaluate other defects as they occur or are encountered.

  16. Gerbode defect: A comprehensive review of its history, anatomy, embryology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfanul Saker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to survey the literature on Gerbode defect and provide an overview of its history, anatomy, development, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment options. The available literature on this topic, including case reports, was thoroughly reviewed. Gerbode defect is defined as abnormal shunting between the left ventricle and right atrium resulting from either a congenital defect or prior cardiac insults. The pathophysiology underlying the development of Gerbode defect is a disease process that injures the atrioventricular septum and leads to the abnormal shunting of blood. Although the most prevalent cause of Gerbode defect has historically been congenital, an increasing trend towards acquired cases has recently been reported owing to improved diagnostic capabilities and a greater number of invasive cardiac procedures. In conclusion, Gerbode defect is an increasingly recognized condition that warrants further study.

  17. Micro Surface Defect Detection Method for Silicon Steel Strip Based on Saliency Convex Active Contour Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechen Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate detection of surface defect is an indispensable section in steel surface inspection system. In order to detect the micro surface defect of silicon steel strip, a new detection method based on saliency convex active contour model is proposed. In the proposed method, visual saliency extraction is employed to suppress the clutter background for the purpose of highlighting the potential objects. The extracted saliency map is then exploited as a feature, which is fused into a convex energy minimization function of local-based active contour. Meanwhile, a numerical minimization algorithm is introduced to separate the micro surface defects from cluttered background. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method presents good performance for detecting micro surface defects including spot-defect and steel-pit-defect. Even in the cluttered background, the proposed method detects almost all of the microdefects without any false objects.

  18. Fabrication of a hollow bulb prosthesis for the rehabilitation of an acquired total maxillectomy defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsi Krishna, C H; Babu, Jaya Krishna; Fathima, Tanveer; Reddy, G V K

    2014-01-01

    The prosthodontic rehabilitation of maxillary defects is a challenging and demanding task which requires careful pre-surgical and post-surgical planning. Maxillary defects can be congenital or acquired. Acquired defects include those following trauma or surgical treatment of benign or malignant neoplasms. A prosthodontist encounters problems such as absence of support, poor retention, and lack of prosthesis stability in treating these patients. The present case report describes a procedure to fabricate a definitive hollow bulb obturator prosthesis for the rehabilitation of a total maxillectomy defect. PMID:24671313

  19. Radiographic and ultrasonographic features of uroliths and other urinary tract filling defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, G.R.; Walter, P.A.; Feeney, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiopaque uroliths and nonradiopaque (water density) uroliths are filling defects encountered in the urinary tracts of dogs and cats. Other free luminal and attached soft tissue density filling defects encountered during uroradiographic special procedures include blood clots, air bubbles, hematomas, granulomas, abscesses, inflammatory and neoplastic polyps. Nonradiopaque uroliths cannot be identified on survey radiographs from other soft tissue dense structures. Gray scale ultrasonography can be used to differentiate nonradiopaque (water dense) uroliths from other soft tissue attached or free luminal filling defects of the excretory pathway. The differential radiographic features of filling defects encountered during cystography and urethrography are described and illustrated

  20. Communication: The electronic entropy of charged defect formation and its impact on thermochemical redox cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lany, Stephan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA

    2018-02-21

    The ideal material for solar thermochemical water splitting, which has yet to be discovered, must satisfy stringent conditions for the free energy of reduction, including, in particular, a sufficiently large positive contribution from the solid-state entropy. By inverting the commonly used relationship between defect formation energy and defect concentration, it is shown here that charged defect formation causes a large electronic entropy contribution manifesting itself as the temperature dependence of the Fermi level. This result is a general feature of charged defect formation and motivates new materials design principles for solar thermochemical hydrogen production.

  1. Communication: The electronic entropy of charged defect formation and its impact on thermochemical redox cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Stephan

    2018-02-01

    The ideal material for solar thermochemical water splitting, which has yet to be discovered, must satisfy stringent conditions for the free energy of reduction, including, in particular, a sufficiently large positive contribution from the solid-state entropy. By inverting the commonly used relationship between defect formation energy and defect concentration, it is shown here that charged defect formation causes a large electronic entropy contribution manifesting itself as the temperature dependence of the Fermi level. This result is a general feature of charged defect formation and motivates new materials design principles for solar thermochemical hydrogen production.

  2. Defect generation/passivation by low energy hydrogen implant for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopori, B.L.; Zhou, T.Q.; Rozgonyi, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Low energy ion implant is shown to produce defects in silicon. These defects include surface damage, hydrogen agglomeration, formation of platelets with (111) habit plane and decoration of dislocations. Hydrogen also produces an inversion type of surface on boron doped silicon. These effects indicate that a preferred approach for passivation is to incorporate hydrogen from the back side of the cell. A backside H + implant technique is described. The results show that degree of passivation differs for various devices. A comparison of the defect structures of hydrogenated devices indicates that the structure and the distribution of defects in the bulk of the material plays a significant role in determining the degree of passivation

  3. The analysis of the defects of the view field of the UV image intensifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, RongGuo; Wei, YiFang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Xu; Wang, GuiYuan

    2017-05-01

    UV(ultraviolet) image intensifier is a vacuum image device with Cs2Te (Cesium Tellurium) photocathode. It converts the incident ultraviolet(UV) light from the optical lens into electronic signal, then the electronic signal is converted into responding visible image on the phosphor screen. Defects of different sizes can be seen on the screen when it works. A system is build to inspect the distribution of the defects, then the sources and category of the defects of the view field are analyzed, including photocathode, microchannel plate and phosphor screen, some improving technique is brought to decrease the defects.

  4. Packing defects into ordered structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechstein, R.; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh; Vilhelmsen, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    We have studied vicinal TiO2(110) surfaces by high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. On TiO2 surfaces characterized by a high density of ⟨11̅ 1⟩ steps, scanning tunneling microscopy reveals a high density of oxygen-deficient strandlike adstructures....... With the help of density functional theory calculations we develop a complete structural model for the entire strand and demonstrate these adstructures to be more stable than an equivalent amount of bulk defects such as Ti interstitials. We argue that strands can form particularly easy on stepped surfaces...

  5. Impact of model defect and experimental uncertainties on evaluated output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neudecker, D.; Capote, R.; Leeb, H.

    2013-01-01

    One of the current major problems in nuclear data evaluation is the unreasonably small evaluated uncertainties often obtained. These small uncertainties are partly attributed to missing correlations of experimental uncertainties as well as to deficiencies of the model employed for the prior information. In this article, both uncertainty sources are included in an evaluation of 55 Mn cross-sections for incident neutrons. Their impact on the evaluated output is studied using a prior obtained by the Full Bayesian Evaluation Technique and a prior obtained by the nuclear model program EMPIRE. It is shown analytically and by means of an evaluation that unreasonably small evaluated uncertainties can be obtained not only if correlated systematic uncertainties of the experiment are neglected but also if prior uncertainties are smaller or about the same magnitude as the experimental ones. Furthermore, it is shown that including model defect uncertainties in the evaluation of 55 Mn leads to larger evaluated uncertainties for channels where the model is deficient. It is concluded that including correlated experimental uncertainties is equally important as model defect uncertainties, if the model calculations deviate significantly from the measurements. -- Highlights: • We study possible causes of unreasonably small evaluated nuclear data uncertainties. • Two different formulations of model defect uncertainties are presented and compared. • Smaller prior than experimental uncertainties cause too small evaluated ones. • Neglected correlations of experimental uncertainties cause too small evaluated ones. • Including model defect uncertainties in the prior improves the evaluated output

  6. Loop Growth and Point-Defect Profiles during HVEM Irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Singh, Bachu Narain

    1979-01-01

    The point-defect profile in a thin foil is included in the model for the growth of dislocation loops during HVEM irradiation suggested by Kiritani, Yoshida, Takata, and Maehara, and the possible effect of divacancies is discussed. It is found that there is a fairly wide transition range between...

  7. MANAGING SCALP DEFECTS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA J. N. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-02-01

    Feb 1, 2004 ... reconstruction to restore contour and skull integrity remains secondary to adequate wound closure. ... produce partial thickness losses in the subgaleal layer(1). Small avulsion injuries of that nature can be ... Full thickness defects, involving loss of all layers, including pericranium, are more difficult to ...

  8. Point-defect migration into an infinitesimal dislocation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.

    1981-11-01

    Point-defect migration into an infinitesimal dislocation loop in an isotropic linear elastic medium is described. Particular care has been taken to include the effects of the saddle-point shape anisotropy of the point defect. Expressions for the reaction radii and the bias are derived, both in the presence and absence of an external applied stress. These are found to depend on intrinsic parameters, such as the loop strength, the loop nature (vacancy or interstitial), the relaxation volume, the saddle-point shape, and extrinsic parameters, such as the magnitude and direction of the external stress, and the temperature. The implications of the results are discussed

  9. Descriptive Epidemiology of Nonsyndromic Complete Atrioventricular Canal Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A. J.; Moulik, Mousumi; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Marengo, Lisa K.; Mitchell, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Complete atrioventricular canal defects (CAVC) are a common heart defect, but few epidemiologic studies have evaluated nonsyndromic CAVC. Risk factors for nonsyndromic CAVC have not been well established. Methods To assess the relationship between risk for nonsyndromic CAVC in offspring and several sociodemographic and reproductive parental factors, including maternal diabetes and obesity, we conducted Poisson regression analyses, using data ascertained through the Texas Birth Defects Registry, a large, population-based birth defects registry. Data were evaluated for 563 nonsyndromic cases with CAVC. Results Significant associations were observed between nonsyndromic CAVC in offspring and maternal pregestational diabetes (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 6.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.67–12.37), gestational diabetes [aPR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.79], and obesity [aPR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24, 2.30]. Comments Our findings add nonsyndromic CAVC to the growing list of birth defects that appear to be associated with maternal diabetes and obesity. PMID:23061687

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of non-syndromic complete atrioventricular canal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Moulik, Mousumi; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Marengo, Lisa K; Mitchell, Laura E

    2012-11-01

    Complete atrioventricular canal defects (CAVC) are a common heart defect, but few epidemiologic studies have evaluated non-syndromic CAVC. Risk factors for non-syndromic CAVC have not been well established. To assess the relationship between risk for non-syndromic CAVC in offspring and several sociodemographic and reproductive parental factors, including maternal diabetes and obesity, we conducted Poisson regression analyses, using data ascertained through the Texas Birth Defects Registry, a large, population-based birth defects registry. Data were evaluated for 563 non-syndromic cases with CAVC. Significant associations were observed between non-syndromic CAVC in offspring and maternal pregestational diabetes (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 6.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.67, 12.37), gestational diabetes (aPR 1.69; 95% CI 1.03, 2.79) and obesity (aPR 1.69; 95% CI 1.24, 2.30).  Our findings add non-syndromic CAVC to the growing list of birth defects that appear to be associated with maternal diabetes and obesity. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Talbot effect of the defective grating in deep Fresnel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shuyun; Wang, Junhong; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Yuwei

    2015-02-01

    Talbot effect of the grating with different defect is studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper. The defects of grating include the loss of the diffraction unit, the dislocation of the diffraction unit and the modulation of the unit separation. The exact diffraction distributions of three kinds of defective gratings are obtained according to the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The calculation results show the image of the missing or dislocating unit appears at the Talbot distance (as mentioned in K. Patorski Prog. Opt., 27, 1989, pp.1-108). This is the so-called self-repair ability of grating imaging. In addition, some more phenomena are discovered. The loss or the dislocation of diffraction unit causes the diffraction distortion within a certain radial angle. The regular modulation of unit separation changes the original diffraction, but the new periodicity of the diffraction distribution rebuilds. The self-imaging of grating with smaller random modulation still keeps the partial self-repair ability, and yet this characteristic depends on the modulation degree of defective grating. These diffraction phenomena of the defective gratings are explained by use of the diffraction theory of grating. The practical experiment is also performed and the experimental results confirm the theoretic predictions.

  12. Hot Spots from Generated Defects in HMX Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Christian; Cummock, Nicholas; O'Grady, Caitlin; Gunduz, I. Emre; Son, Steven

    2017-06-01

    There are several hot spot initiation mechanisms that have been proposed. However, direct observation of shock or impact compression of these mechanisms at macroscopic scale in explosives is difficult. Phase contrast imaging (PCI) may be applied to these systems. Here, high-speed video was used to record optical spectrum and for x-ray Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI) of shockwave interaction with low defect HMX crystals and crystals with engineered defects. Additionally, multiple crystals were arranged and observed under shock loading with PCI and optical high-speed video. Sample preparation techniques for generating voids and other engineered defects will be discussed. These methods include drilled holes and laser machined samples. Insight into hot spot mechanisms was obtained. Funding from ONR's PC@Xtreme MURI.

  13. Ionization-induced rearrangement of defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinetskij, V.L.; Manojlo, M.A.; Matvijchuk, A.S.; Strikha, V.I.; Kholodar', G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Ionizing factor effect on defect rearrangement in silicon including centers with deep local electron levels in the p-n-transition region is considered. Deep center parameters were determined using non-steady-state capacity spectroscopy of deep levels (NCDLS) method. NCDLS spectrum measurement was performed using source p + -n - diodes and after their irradiation with 15 keV energy electrons or laser pulses. It is ascertained that in silicon samples containing point defect clusters defect rearrangement under ionizing factor effect takes place, i.e. deep level spectra are changed. This mechanism is efficient in case of silicon irradiation with subthreshold energy photons and electrons and can cause degradation of silicon semiconducting structures

  14. Test and Diagnosis for Small-Delay Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Tehranipoor, Mohammad; Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces new techniques for detecting and diagnosing small-delay defects (SDD) in integrated circuits. Although this sort of timing defect is commonly found in integrated circuits manufactured with nanometer technology, this will be the first book to introduce effective and scalable methodologies for screening and diagnosing small-delay defects, including important parameters such as process variations, crosstalk, and power supply noise. This book presents new techniques and methodologies to improve overall SDD detection with very small pattern sets. These methods can result in pattern counts as low as a traditional 1-detect pattern set and long path sensitization and SDD detection similar to or even better than n-detect or timing-aware pattern sets. The important design parameters and pattern-induced noises such as process variations,power supply noise (PSN) and crosstalk are taken into account in the methodologies presented. A diagnostic flow is also presented to identify whether the failure is ...

  15. Defects detecting method of lamp cap of single soldering lug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jihe; Lv, Jidong

    2017-07-01

    In order to resolve the problems of low efficiency and large separating difference in fault detection of lamp holders with single soldering lug, an image-detection-based defect detection method is presented in this paper. The selected image is first preprocessed, where the possible area of soldering lug is cut in this preprocessing to narrow the scope for subsequent partition with the consideration that the smooth surface of metal at lamp holder and black insulation glass may reflect the light. Then, the soldering lug is extracted by a series of processing including clustering partition. Based on this, the defects are detected by regional marking, area comparison, circularity and coordinate deviation. The experiment results show that the designed method is simple and practical to detect main quality defects of lamp holder with single soldering lug correctly and efficiently.

  16. Multiple-level defect species evaluation from average carrier decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuf, Didier

    2003-10-01

    An expression for the average decay is determined by solving the the carrier continuity equations, which include terms for multiple defect recombination. This expression is the decay measured by techniques such as the contactless photoconductance decay method, which determines the average or volume integrated decay. Implicit in the above is the requirement for good surface passivation such that only bulk properties are observed. A proposed experimental configuration is given to achieve the intended goal of an assessment of the type of defect in an n-type Czochralski-grown silicon semiconductor with an unusually high relative lifetime. The high lifetime is explained in terms of a ground excited state multiple-level defect system. Also, minority carrier trapping is investigated.

  17. Emanation-thermal analysis in investigations of nonstoichiometric defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os'kina, T.E.; Kapustin, O.A.; Zaborenko, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    A model, permitting on the basis of emanation-thermal analysis results to evaluate the interrelation between self-diffusion and diffusion parameters of impurity (including radon) in supposition of different mechanisms of defect formation, conditioning crystal nonstoichiometry, is proposed. Motive force of diffusion process in solid body depends on the charge of the particle diffusing (matrix proper ion or radon neutral ion), on the mechanism of defect formation and ratios of particle dimensions and lattice constant. The model adequacy is tested, using the systems of thorium hydrides and nonstoichiometric phases of tin dioxide. An example of mathematical treatment of emanation curves, permitting to relate diffusion parameters of radon-220 in the system with the type and concentration of nonstoichiometric defects, appearing in the matrix, is given

  18. Extracting software static defect models using data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Yousef

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Large software projects are subject to quality risks of having defective modules that will cause failures during the software execution. Several software repositories contain source code of large projects that are composed of many modules. These software repositories include data for the software metrics of these modules and the defective state of each module. In this paper, a data mining approach is used to show the attributes that predict the defective state of software modules. Software solution architecture is proposed to convert the extracted knowledge into data mining models that can be integrated with the current software project metrics and bugs data in order to enhance the prediction. The results show better prediction capabilities when all the algorithms are combined using weighted votes. When only one individual algorithm is used, Naïve Bayes algorithm has the best results, then the Neural Network and the Decision Trees algorithms.

  19. Magnetoencephalography signals are influenced by skull defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S; Flemming, L; Haueisen, J

    2014-08-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals had previously been hypothesized to have negligible sensitivity to skull defects. The objective is to experimentally investigate the influence of conducting skull defects on MEG and EEG signals. A miniaturized electric dipole was implanted in vivo into rabbit brains. Simultaneous recording using 64-channel EEG and 16-channel MEG was conducted, first above the intact skull and then above a skull defect. Skull defects were filled with agar gels, which had been formulated to have tissue-like homogeneous conductivities. The dipole was moved beneath the skull defects, and measurements were taken at regularly spaced points. The EEG signal amplitude increased 2-10 times, whereas the MEG signal amplitude reduced by as much as 20%. The EEG signal amplitude deviated more when the source was under the edge of the defect, whereas the MEG signal amplitude deviated more when the source was central under the defect. The change in MEG field-map topography (relative difference measure, RDM(∗)=0.15) was geometrically related to the skull defect edge. MEG and EEG signals can be substantially affected by skull defects. MEG source modeling requires realistic volume conductor head models that incorporate skull defects. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dopants and defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    McCluskey, Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    "The book goes beyond the usual textbook in that it provides more specific examples of real-world defect physics … The book will be most useful for beginning graduate students in materials science. … an easy reading, broad introductory overview of the field …"-Materials Today, July-August 2012"… well written, with clear, lucid explanations …"-Chemistry World"The scientific development towards the method of controllable doping transformed the erratic and not reproducible family of semiconductor materials into the truly wonderful basis of modern microelectronics. This book tells the remarkable success story and I recommend it!"-Hans J. Queisser, Max-Planck-Institute, Stuttgart, Germany"McCluskey and Haller have written an outstanding modern guide to this field that will be useful to newcomers, and also to active researchers who want to broaden their horizons, as a means to learn the capabilities and limitations of the many techniques that are used in semiconductor-defect science."-Professor Michael J....

  1. Combining Cep290 and Mkks ciliopathy alleles in mice rescues sensory defects and restores ciliogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachel, R.A.; May-Simera, H.L.; Veleri, S.; Gotoh, N.; Choi, B.Y.; Murga-Zamalloa, C.; McIntyre, J.C.; Marek, J.; Lopez, I.; Hackett, A.N.; Zhang, J.; Brooks, M.; Hollander, A.I. den; Beales, P.L.; Li, T.; Jacobson, S.G.; Sood, R.; Martens, J.R.; Liu, P.; Friedman, T.B.; Khanna, H.; Koenekoop, R.K.; Kelley, M.W.; Swaroop, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cilia are highly specialized microtubule-based organelles that have pivotal roles in numerous biological processes, including transducing sensory signals. Defects in cilia biogenesis and transport cause pleiotropic human ciliopathies. Mutations in over 30 different genes can lead to cilia defects,

  2. Folate and neural tube defects - Recommendations from a Danish working group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Andersson, G.

    1998-01-01

    A working group was established to evaluate the need for an increased folate intake in Danish women to decrease the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). NTD are birth defects a which include anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. In Denmark the incidence is about 1.4 per 1,000 pregnancies...

  3. Quantum defect theory and asymptotic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that quantum defect theory provides a basis for the development of various analytical methods for the examination of electron-ion collision phenomena, including di-electronic recombination. Its use in conjuction with ab initio calculations is shown to be restricted by problems which arise from the presence of long-range non-Coulomb potentials. Empirical fitting to some formulae can be efficient in the use of computer time but extravagant in the use of person time. Calculations at a large number of energy points which make no use of analytical formulae for resonance structures may be made less extravagant in computer time by the development of more efficient asymptotic methods. (U.K.)

  4. Basement Membrane Defects in Genetic Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Chew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular basement membrane (GBM is a specialized structure with a significant role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier. This GBM is formed from the fusion of two basement membranes during development and its function in the filtration barrier is achieved by key extracellular matrix components including type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The characteristics of specific matrix isoforms such as laminin-521 (α5β2γ1 and the α3α4α5 chain of type IV collagen are essential for the formation of a mature GBM and the restricted tissue distribution of these isoforms makes the GBM a unique structure. Detailed investigation of the GBM has been driven by the identification of inherited abnormalities in matrix proteins and the need to understand pathogenic mechanisms causing severe glomerular disease. A well-described hereditary GBM disease is Alport syndrome, associated with a progressive glomerular disease, hearing loss, and lens defects due to mutations in the genes COL4A3, COL4A4, or COL4A5. Other proteins associated with inherited diseases of the GBM include laminin β2 in Pierson syndrome and LMX1B in nail patella syndrome. The knowledge of these genetic mutations associated with GBM defects has enhanced our understanding of cell–matrix signaling pathways affected in glomerular disease. This review will address current knowledge of GBM-associated abnormalities and related signaling pathways, as well as discussing the advances toward disease-targeted therapies for patients with glomerular disease.

  5. Altering graphene line defect properties using chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Smitha; White, Carter; Gunlycke, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    First-principles calculations are presented of a fundamental topological line defect in graphene that was observed and reported in Nature Nanotech. 5, 326 (2010). These calculations show that atoms and smaller molecules can bind covalently to the surface in the vicinity of the graphene line defect. It is also shown that the chemistry at the line defect has a strong effect on its electronic and magnetic properties, e.g. the ferromagnetically aligned moments along the line defect can be quenched by some adsorbates. The strong effect of the adsorbates on the line defect properties can be understood by examining how these adsorbates affect the boundary-localized states in the vicinity of the Fermi level. We also expect that the line defect chemistry will significantly affect the scattering properties of incident low-energy particles approaching it from graphene.

  6. Automatic classification of defects in weld pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuar Mikdad Muad; Mohd Ashhar Hj Khalid; Abdul Aziz Mohamad; Abu Bakar Mhd Ghazali; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2000-01-01

    With the advancement of computer imaging technology, the image on hard radiographic film can be digitized and stored in a computer and the manual process of defect recognition and classification may be replace by the computer. In this paper a computerized method for automatic detection and classification of common defects in film radiography of weld pipe is described. The detection and classification processes consist of automatic selection of interest area on the image and then classify common defects using image processing and special algorithms. Analysis of the attributes of each defect such as area, size, shape and orientation are carried out by the feature analysis process. These attributes reveal the type of each defect. These methods of defect classification result in high success rate. Our experience showed that sharp film images produced better results

  7. Intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide

    OpenAIRE

    Åberg, Daniel; Erhart, Paul; Williamson, Andrew J.; Lordi, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    Calculations within density functional theory on the basis of the local density approximation are carried out to study the properties of intrinsic point defects in aluminum antimonide. Special care is taken to address finite-size effects, band gap error, and symmetry reduction in the defect structures. The correction of the band gap is based on a set of GW calculations. The most important defects are identified to be the aluminum interstitial $Al_{i,Al}^{1+}$, the antimony antisites $Sb_{Al}^...

  8. Diffusional changes of defect structure in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubov, B.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Some problems of the theory of vacancy and impurity atoms diffusion in structure heterogeneous solidsi connected with changes in their defect structure, are reviewed. Two aspects of changes in the defect structure are discussed: an unconcervative movement of dislocations and a growth of damage of material continuity. Analytical solution methods in the theory of diffusional changes of defect structure in solids are illustrated as applied to hydrogen corrosion in steels, sintering kinetics, thermal conductivity theory [ru

  9. Phosphorous–vacancy–oxygen defects in silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2013-07-30

    Electronic structure calculations employing the hybrid functional approach are used to gain fundamental insight in the interaction of phosphorous with oxygen interstitials and vacancies in silicon. It recently has been proposed, based on a binding energy analysis, that phosphorous–vacancy–oxygen defects may form. In the present study we investigate the stability of this defect as a function of the Fermi energy for the possible charge states. Spin polarization is found to be essential for the charge neutral defect.

  10. Effects of mass defect in atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    We consider some implications of the mass defect on the frequency of atomic transitions. We have found that some well-known frequency shifts (such as gravitational and quadratic Doppler shifts) can be interpreted as consequences of the mass defect, i.e., without the need for the concept of time dilation used in special and general relativity theories. Moreover, we show that the inclusion of the mass defect leads to previously unknown shifts for clocks based on trapped ions..

  11. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

  12. Surface defect detection in tiling Industries using digital image processing methods: analysis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad H; Asemani, Davud

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic and tile industries should indispensably include a grading stage to quantify the quality of products. Actually, human control systems are often used for grading purposes. An automatic grading system is essential to enhance the quality control and marketing of the products. Since there generally exist six different types of defects originating from various stages of tile manufacturing lines with distinct textures and morphologies, many image processing techniques have been proposed for defect detection. In this paper, a survey has been made on the pattern recognition and image processing algorithms which have been used to detect surface defects. Each method appears to be limited for detecting some subgroup of defects. The detection techniques may be divided into three main groups: statistical pattern recognition, feature vector extraction and texture/image classification. The methods such as wavelet transform, filtering, morphology and contourlet transform are more effective for pre-processing tasks. Others including statistical methods, neural networks and model-based algorithms can be applied to extract the surface defects. Although, statistical methods are often appropriate for identification of large defects such as Spots, but techniques such as wavelet processing provide an acceptable response for detection of small defects such as Pinhole. A thorough survey is made in this paper on the existing algorithms in each subgroup. Also, the evaluation parameters are discussed including supervised and unsupervised parameters. Using various performance parameters, different defect detection algorithms are compared and evaluated. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation defects in α-iron: Structure and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudarev, S.L.; Fitzgerald, S.P.; Lavrentiev, M.Y.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Gilbert, M.R.; Yao, Z.; Jenkins, M.L.; Arakawa, K.; Mori, H.

    2009-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of materials under neutron irradiation is driven by the generation of defects in collision cascades and by their subsequent interaction, resulting in the agglomeration of defects and formation of mesoscopic defect structures, for example large dislocation loops and voids. The notion of dislocation bias, a concept central to the Rate Theory model, is a relatively simple means for including the effect of long-range elastic interactions between defects and dislocations in the treatment of microstructural evolution. The recently developed kinetic Monte-Carlo models, including the synchronous parallel implementations of the kinetic Monte-Carlo method, focus on the investigation of diffusive migration of defects, and treat interactions as short-range events occurring only if two defects get within a certain 'interaction radius' derived from either semi-phenomenological arguments or experimental observations. Observing interaction between single self-interstitial atom defects is still beyond the capability of modern electron microscopes. However, recent in-situ work showed that it is possible to observe, in real time, the effects of thermally activated, as well as electron beam stimulated, migration of small dislocation loops formed by the agglomeration of several self-interstitial defects. Furthermore, in-situ observations demonstrate that migrating dislocation loops interact. Depending on the orientation of their Burgers vectors the loops either repel or attract, in the latter case forming complexes where loops with the same Burgers vector line-up along a particular direction and then move coherently along their glide cylinders, held together over long period of time by the elastic forces. Observations show that this bound group-motion of loops generally occurs as a pre-cursor to the eventual coalescence of the loops resulting in the formation of extended dislocation lines. We investigate the formation of groups of 1/2 interstitial dislocation

  14. Influence of point defects on the near edge structure of hexagonal boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Nicholas L.; Partridge, Jim G.; Nicholls, Rebecca J.; Russo, Salvy P.; McCulloch, Dougal G.

    2017-10-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with applications including gate insulation layers in graphene transistors, far-ultraviolet light emitting devices and as hydrogen storage media. Due to its complex microstructure, defects in hBN are challenging to identify. Here, we combine x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy with ab initio theoretical modeling to identify energetically favorable defects. Following annealing of hBN samples in vacuum and oxygen, the B and N K edges exhibited angular-dependent peak modifications consistent with in-plane defects. Theoretical calculations showed that the energetically favorable defects all produce signature features in XANES. Comparing these calculations with experiments, the principle defects were attributed to substitutional oxygen at the nitrogen site, substitutional carbon at the boron site, and hydrogen passivated boron vacancies. Hydrogen passivation of defects was found to significantly affect the formation energies, electronic states, and XANES. In the B K edge, multiple peaks above the major 1 s to π* peak occur as a result of these defects and the hydrogen passivated boron vacancy produces the frequently observed doublet in the 1 s to σ* transition. While the N K edge is less sensitive to defects, features attributable to substitutional C at the B site were observed. This defect was also calculated to have mid-gap states in its band structure that may be responsible for the 4.1-eV ultraviolet emission frequently observed from this material.

  15. Maternal obesity and congenital heart defects: a population-based study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James L; Troendle, James; Conley, Mary R; Carter, Tonia; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects almost one-third of pregnant women and causes many complications, including neural tube defects. It is not clear whether the risk of congenital heart defects, the most common malformations, is also increased. Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether obesity is associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects. Design: A population-based, nested, case-control study was conducted in infants born with congenital heart defects and unaffected controls from the cohort of all births (n = 1,536,828) between 1993 and 2003 in New York State, excluding New York City. The type of congenital heart defect, maternal body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2), and other risk factors were obtained from the Congenital Malformations Registry and vital records. Mothers of 7392 congenital heart defect cases and 56,304 unaffected controls were studied. Results: All obese women (BMI ≥ 30) were significantly more likely than normal-weight women (BMI: 19–24.9) to have children with a congenital heart defect [odds ratio (OR): 1.15; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.23; P congenital heart defects with increasing maternal obesity (P congenital heart defects, and the risk increases with increasing BMI. Weight reduction as a way to reduce risk should be investigated. PMID:20375192

  16. Transport-reaction model for defect and carrier behavior within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel Maxwell,

    2014-02-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.

  17. Classification of weld defect based on information fusion technology for radiographic testing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongquan; Liang, Zeming, E-mail: heavenlzm@126.com; Gao, Jianmin; Dang, Changying [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing System Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Improving the efficiency and accuracy of weld defect classification is an important technical problem in developing the radiographic testing system. This paper proposes a novel weld defect classification method based on information fusion technology, Dempster–Shafer evidence theory. First, to characterize weld defects and improve the accuracy of their classification, 11 weld defect features were defined based on the sub-pixel level edges of radiographic images, four of which are presented for the first time in this paper. Second, we applied information fusion technology to combine different features for weld defect classification, including a mass function defined based on the weld defect feature information and the quartile-method-based calculation of standard weld defect class which is to solve a sample problem involving a limited number of training samples. A steam turbine weld defect classification case study is also presented herein to illustrate our technique. The results show that the proposed method can increase the correct classification rate with limited training samples and address the uncertainties associated with weld defect classification.

  18. Defect-Tolerant Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Kuhar, Korina

    2016-01-01

    -principles investigation of defect tolerance in 29 monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) of interest for nanoscale optoelectronics. We find that the TMDs based on group VI and X metals form deep gap states upon creation of a chalcogen (S, Se, Te) vacancy, while the TMDs based on group IV metals form only...... shallow defect levels and are thus predicted to be defect-tolerant. Interestingly, all the defect sensitive TMDs have valence and conduction bands with a very similar orbital composition. This indicates a bonding/antibonding nature of the gap, which in turn suggests that dangling bonds will fall inside...

  19. Defect reduction through Lean methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Kathleen; Kindt, Louis; Densmore, Jim; Benson, Craig; Zhou, Nancy; Leonard, John; Whiteside, Cynthia; Nolan, Robert; Shanks, David

    2010-09-01

    Lean manufacturing is a systematic method of identifying and eliminating waste. Use of Lean manufacturing techniques at the IBM photomask manufacturing facility has increased efficiency and productivity of the photomask process. Tools, such as, value stream mapping, 5S and structured problem solving are widely used today. In this paper we describe a step-by-step Lean technique used to systematically decrease defects resulting in reduced material costs, inspection costs and cycle time. The method used consists of an 8-step approach commonly referred to as the 8D problem solving process. This process allowed us to identify both prominent issues as well as more subtle problems requiring in depth investigation. The methodology used is flexible and can be applied to numerous situations. Advantages to Lean methodology are also discussed.

  20. Assisted reproductive technology and major birth defects in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michele; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; de Klerk, Nicholas; Burton, Peter; Bower, Carol

    2012-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence of major birth defects diagnosed by 6 years of age in all births and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly conceived by assisted reproductive technology (when this included intracytoplasmic sperm injection and in vitro fertilization [IVF]) and the remainder of nonassisted reproductive technology-conceived children born in Western Australia from 1994 to 2002. This retrospective cohort study used data linkage between three population-based registers (Reproductive Technology Register, Western Australian Register of Developmental Anomalies, and Midwives' Notification of Birth System) to identify all assisted reproductive technology (n=2,911) and nonassisted reproductive technology (n=210,997) births with and without birth defects diagnosed by age 6 and all terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. A major birth defect was diagnosed in 8.7% of assisted reproductive technology and 5.4% of nonassisted reproductive technology singletons (odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.79), as well as 7.1% of assisted reproductive technology twins and 5.9% of nonassisted reproductive technology twins of unlike sex (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.77-1.51). The prevalence of birth defects in assisted reproductive technology singletons and twins decreased markedly over the study period. This change was evident across all three clinics contributing data over the whole study and was particularly marked for children conceived as a result of IVF. There has been a decrease in the prevalence of birth defects over time in children born as a result of assisted reproductive technology in Western Australia; however, the prevalence of major birth defects in assisted reproductive technology singletons remains increased compared with nonassisted reproductive technology singletons. II.

  1. Optimizing reconstruction of oncologic sternectomy defects based on surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, James A; Garvey, Patrick B; Baumann, Donald P; Zhang, Hong; Rice, David C; Butler, Charles E

    2013-08-01

    The optimal strategy for oncologic sternectomy reconstruction has not been well characterized. We hypothesized that the major factors driving the reconstructive strategy for oncologic sternectomy include the need for skin replacement, extent of the bony sternectomy defect, and status of the internal mammary vessels. We reviewed consecutive oncologic sternectomy reconstructions performed at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center during a 10-year period. Regression models analyzed associations between patient, defect, and treatment factors and outcomes to identify patient and treatment selection criteria. We developed a generalized management algorithm based on these data. Forty-nine consecutive patients underwent oncologic sternectomy reconstruction (mean follow-up 18 ± 23 months). More sternectomies were partial (74%) rather than total/subtotal (26%). Most defects (n = 40 [82%]) required skeletal reconstruction. Pectoralis muscle flaps were most commonly used for sternectomies with intact overlying skin (64%) and infrequently used when a presternal skin defect was present (36%; p = 0.06). Free flaps were more often used for total/subtotal vs partial sternectomy defects (75% vs 25%, respectively; p = 0.02). Complication rates for total/subtotal sternectomy and partial sternectomy were equivalent (46% vs 44%, respectively; p = 0.92). Despite more extensive sternal resections, total/subtotal sternectomies resulted in equivalent postoperative complications when combined with the appropriate soft-tissue reconstruction. Good surgical and oncologic outcomes can be achieved with defect-characteristic-matched reconstructive strategies for these complex oncologic sternectomy resections. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Additive manufacturing for in situ repair of osteochondral defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Daniel L; Lipton, Jeffrey I; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Lipson, Hod

    2010-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for injury repair and replacement of defective body parts. While a number of techniques exist for creating living biological constructs in vitro, none have been demonstrated for in situ repair. Using novel geometric feedback-based approaches and through development of appropriate printing-material combinations, we demonstrate the in situ repair of both chondral and osteochondral defects that mimic naturally occurring pathologies. A calf femur was mounted in a custom jig and held within a robocasting-based additive manufacturing (AM) system. Two defects were induced: one a cartilage-only representation of a grade IV chondral lesion and the other a two-material bone and cartilage fracture of the femoral condyle. Alginate hydrogel was used for the repair of cartilage; a novel formulation of demineralized bone matrix was used for bone repair. Repair prints for both defects had mean surface errors less than 0.1 mm. For the chondral defect, 42.8 ± 2.6% of the surface points had errors that were within a clinically acceptable error range; however, with 1 mm path planning shift, an estimated ∼75% of surface points could likely fall within the benchmark envelope. For the osteochondral defect, 83.6 ± 2.7% of surface points had errors that were within clinically acceptable limits. In addition to implications for minimally invasive AM-based clinical treatments, these proof-of-concept prints are some of the only in situ demonstrations to-date, wherein the substrate geometry was unknown a priori. The work presented herein demonstrates in situ AM, suggests potential biomedical applications and also explores in situ-specific issues, including geometric feedback, material selection and novel path planning techniques.

  3. Prosthetic rehabilitation of large mid-facial defect with magnet-retained silicone prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Jajoo Shrivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of maxillofacial defect patients is a challenging task. The most common prosthetic treatment problem with such patients is, getting adequate retention, stability, and support. In cases of large maxillofacial defect, movement of the prosthesis is inevitable. The primary objectives in rehabilitating the maxillofacial defect patients are to restore the function of mastication, deglutition, speech, and to achieve normal orofacial appearance. This clinical report describes maxillofacial prosthetic rehabilitation of large midfacial defect including orbit along with its contents, zygoma and soft tissues including half of the nose, cheeks, upper lip of left side, accompanying postsurgical microstomia and orofacial communication, which resulted from severe fungal infection mucormycosis. The defect in this case was restored with magnet retained two piece maxillofacial prosthesis having hollow acrylic resin framework and an overlying silicone facial prosthesis. The retention of prosthesis was further enhanced with the use of spectacles. This type of combination prosthesis enhanced the cosmesis and functional acceptability of prosthesis.

  4. Omphalocele-Exstrophy-Imperforate Anus-Spinal Defects Complex: Associated Malformations in 12 New Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, Michael Rudolf; Reutter, Heiko; Müller, Annette Margarete; Geipel, Annegret; Berg, Christoph; Gembruch, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects (OEIS) complex is a rare variant of the bladder exstrophy epispadias complex with in most cases unknown etiology. Due to the rarity of the disease, no large series exist that describe the prenatal spectrum of disease or additional malformations. In this study, we present the prenatal findings in a series of 12 cases. All fetuses showed exstrophy of the bladder, 9/12 omphalocele, 9/12 anal atresia, 10/12 neural tube defects, 4/12 vertebral defects, 5/12 lower extremity defects including clubfeet, and 4/12 a single umbilical artery. Additional malformations included hydrocephalus, hypertelorism, aplasia of the gall bladder, heart defects and kidney malformations. All karyotyped fetuses (11/11) showed a normal karyotype. These findings illustrate the spectrum of disease in prenatal diagnosis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  6. Vancomycin graft composite for infected bone defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.; Janata, O.; Georgopoulos, A.

    1999-01-01

    Reconstructive surgery under septic conditions represents a major challenge in orthopaedics. Local application of antibiotics can provide high drug levels at the site of infection without systemic effects. However, removal of non-resorbable implants and filling of defects usually requires additional operative procedures. An ideal antibiotic carrier should provide for : 1) Effective bactericidal activity, especially against staphylococci including MRSA; 2) High and long lasting levels at the site of infection without local or systemic toxicity; 3) Repair of defects without a second stage procedure. Allogeneic cancellous bone is proven to be effective in restoration of bone stock. Vancomycin is effective against all gram-positive populations and the agent of choice for infections with MRSA. The aim of our study is to investigate the efficacy of a combination of both components in bone infection. Cancellous bone of human origin was processed during several steps and incubated in 10% vancomycin solution. The antimicrobial activity of the vancomycin graft composite (VGC) was evaluated using an agar diffusion bioassay against staphylococcus aureus and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The testing period was up to 9 weeks. Elution of vancomycin from the graft was evaluated in 2.5% human albumin solution, which was exchanged every 24 hours. Concentration of vancomycin in allograft-bone was between 6.653[tg/g and 23.194gg/g with an average of 15.250 [tg/g, which is equivalent to 10.000 times the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for s. aureus. The initial activity decreased to approx. 50% during the first week and approx. 30% at the end of the 9th week. The lowest values measured exceeded the MIC by 2000 times. Concentration in surrounding fluid decreased from 24.395,80 to 18,43pg/ml after 11 complete exchanges. Human cancellous bone, processed in an adequate way, offers capability to store high quantities of vancomycin. Vancomycin graft composites are

  7. Clinical concepts for regenerative therapy in intrabony defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Tonetti, Maurizio S

    2015-06-01

    Evidence indicates that periodontal regeneration is an efficacious and predictable procedure for the treatment of isolated and multiple intrabony defects. Meta-analyses from systematic reviews indicate an added benefit, in terms of clinical attachment level gain, when demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft, barrier membranes and active biologic products/compounds are applied in addition to open flap debridement. On the other hand, a consistent amount of variability of the outcomes is evident among different studies and within the experimental population of each study. This variability is explained, at least in part, by different patient and defect characteristics. Patient-related factors include smoking habit, compliance with home oral hygiene and residual inflammation after cause-related therapy. Defect-associated factors include defect depth and radiographic angle, the number of residual bony walls, pocket depth and the degree of hypermobility. In addition, surgical-related variables, such as surgical skill, clinical experience and knowledge, and application of the different regenerative materials, have a significant impact on clinical outcomes. This paper presents a strategy to optimize the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration. The surgical design of the flap, the use of different regenerative materials and the application of appropriate passive sutures are discussed in this review along with the scientific foundations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Antihistamines and birth defects: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Suzanne M; Ailes, Elizabeth C; Rai, Ramona P; Anderson, Jaynia A; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 10 - 15% of women reportedly take an antihistamine during pregnancy for the relief of nausea and vomiting, allergy and asthma symptoms, or indigestion. Antihistamines include histamine H1-receptor and H2-receptor antagonists. This is a systematic evaluation of the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature published through February 2014 on the association between prenatal exposure to antihistamines and birth defects. Papers addressing histamine H1- or H2-receptor antagonists are included. Papers addressing pyridoxine plus doxylamine (Bendectin in the United States, Debendox in the United Kingdom, Diclectin in Canada, Lenotan and Merbental in other countries) prior to the year 2001 were excluded post hoc because of several previously published meta-analyses and commentaries on this medication. The literature on the safety of antihistamine use during pregnancy with respect to birth defects is generally reassuring though the positive findings from a few large studies warrant corroboration in other populations. The findings in the literature are considered in light of three critical methodological issues: i) selection of appropriate study population; ii) ascertainment of antihistamine exposures; and iii) ascertainment of birth defect outcomes. Selected antihistamines have been very well studied (e.g., loratadine); others, especially H2-receptor antagonists, require additional study before an assessment of safety with respect to birth defect risk could be made.

  9. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  10. Defining defect specifications to optimize photomask production and requalification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiekowsky, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Reducing defect repairs and accelerating defect analysis is becoming more important as the total cost of defect repairs on advanced masks increases. Photomask defect specs based on printability, as measured on AIMS microscopes has been used for years, but the fundamental defect spec is still the defect size, as measured on the photomask, requiring the repair of many unprintable defects. ADAS, the Automated Defect Analysis System from AVI is now available in most advanced mask shops. It makes the use of pure printability specs, or "Optimal Defect Specs" practical. This software uses advanced algorithms to eliminate false defects caused by approximations in the inspection algorithm, classify each defect, simulate each defect and disposition each defect based on its printability and location. This paper defines "optimal defect specs", explains why they are now practical and economic, gives a method of determining them and provides accuracy data.

  11. Spina bifida and other neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, H; Volcik, K A

    2000-01-01

    NTDs, resulting from failure of the neural tube to close during the fourth week of embryogenesis, are the most common severely disabling birth defects in the United States, with a frequency of approximately 1 of every 2000 births. Neural tube malformations involving the spinal cord and vertebral arches are referred to as spina bifida, with severe types of spina bifida involving protrusion of the spinal cord and/or meninges through a defect in the vertebral arch. Depending on the level of the lesion, interruption of the spinal cord at the site of the spina bifida defect causes paralysis of the legs, incontinence of urine and feces, anesthesia of the skin, and abnormalities of the hips, knees, and feet. Two additional abnormalities often seen in children with spina bifida include hydrocephalus and the Arnold-Chiari type II malformation. Despite the physical and particular learning disabilities children with spina bifida must cope with, participation in individualized educational programs can allow these children to develop skills necessary for autonomy in adulthood. Advances in research to uncover the molecular basis of NTDs is enhanced by knowledge of the link between both the environmental and genetic factors involved in the etiology of NTDs. The most recent development in NTD research for disease-causing genes is the discovery of a genetic link to the most well-known environmental cause of neural tube malformation, folate deficiency in pregnant women. Nearly a decade ago, periconceptional folic acid supplementation was proven to decrease both the recurrence and occurrence of NTDs. The study of folate and its association with NTDs is an ongoing endeavor that has led to numerous studies of different genes involved in the folate metabolism pathway, including the most commonly studied thermolabile mutation (C677T) in the MTHFR gene. An additional focus for NTD research involves mouse models that exhibit both naturally occurring NTDs, as well as those created by

  12. Modeling the relationships among internal defect features and external Appalachian hardwood log defect indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    As a hardwood tree grows and develops, surface defects such as branch stubs and wounds are overgrown. Evidence of these defects remain on the log surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. As the tree grows the defect is encapsulated or grown over by new wood. During this process the appearance of the defect in the tree's bark changes. The...

  13. Lattice defects as Lotka-Volterra societies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, F.G.

    1995-07-01

    Since the early part of this century the Lotka-Volterra or predator-prey equations have been known to simulate the stability, instability, and persistent oscillations observed in many biological and ecological societies. These equations have been modified in many ways and have been used to model phenomena as varied as childhood epidemics, enzyme reactions, and conventional warfare. In the work to be described, similarities are drawn between various lattice defects and Lotka-Volterra (LV) societies. Indeed, grain boundaries are known to ``consume`` dislocations, inclusions ``infect`` grain boundaries, and dislocations ``annihilate`` dislocations. Several specific cases of lattice defect interaction kinetics models are drawn from the materials science literature to make these comparisons. Each model will be interpreted as if it were a description of a biological system. Various approaches to the modification of this class of interaction kinetics will be presented and discussed. The earliest example is the Damask-Dienes treatment of vacancy-divacancy annealing kinetics. This historical model will be modified to include the effects of an intermediate species and the results will be compared with the original model. The second example to be examined is the Clark-Alden model for deformation-enhanced grain growth. Dislocation kinetics will be added to this model and results will be discussed considering the original model. The third example to be presented is the Ananthakrishna-Sahoo model of the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect that was offered in 1985 as an extension of the classical Cottrell atmosphere explanation. Their treatment will be modified by inclusion of random interference from a pesky but peripheral species and by allowing a rate constant to be a function of time.

  14. Coronene and Pyrene (5,7)-member Ring Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettl, Silvia; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Huber, Stefan E.

    2015-08-01

    knowledge of the IR spectra of coronene and pyrene including the defect will support future studies aiming for a thorough understanding of the unidentified infrared emission bands.

  15. Method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Molodova, M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects, in a railway-track by measuring an axle box acceleration signal of a rail vehicle, wherein a longitudinal axle box acceleration signal is used as a measure to detect the occurrence of said rail defects, in

  16. Predicting internal white oak (Quercus alba) log defect features using surface defect indicator measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph E. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    As hardwood trees grow and develop, surface defects such as limb stubs and wounds are overgrown and encapsulated into the tree. Evidence of these defects can remain on the tree's surface for decades and in many instances for the life of the tree. The location and severity of internal defects dictate the quality and value of products that can be obtained from logs...

  17. Defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies: synthesis, properties and photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyang; Yang, Min-Quan; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the synthesis of defective TiO2 with oxygen vacancies, and the defect related properties of TiO2 including structural, electronic, optical, dissociative adsorption and reductive properties, which are intimately related to the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. In particular, photocatalytic applications with regard to defective TiO2 are outlined. In addition, we offer some perspectives on the challenge and new direction for future research in this field. We hope that this tutorial minireview would provide some useful contribution to the future design and fabrication of defective semiconductor-based nanomaterials for diverse photocatalytic applications.Titanium dioxide (TiO2), as an important semiconductor metal oxide, has been widely investigated in the field of photocatalysis. The properties of TiO2, including its light absorption, charge transport and surface adsorption, are closely related to its defect disorder, which in turn plays a significant role in the photocatalytic performance of TiO2. Among all the defects identified in TiO2, oxygen vacancy is one of the most important and is supposed to be the prevalent defect in many metal oxides, which has been widely investigated both by theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations. Here, we give a short review on the existing strategies for the

  18. Evolutionary dynamics of sporophytic self-incompatibility alleles in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide; Vekemans, Xavier; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge

    1997-01-01

    codominantly in both pollen and style (SSIcod), in the second, alleles form a dominance hierarchy in pollen and style (SSIdom). In the third model, alleles interact codominantly in the style and form a dominance hierarchy in the pollen (SSIdomcod). The SSIcod model behaves similarly to the model...

  19. Precise design-based defect characterization and root cause analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qian; Venkatachalam, Panneerselvam; Lee, Julie; Chen, Zhijin; Zafar, Khurram

    2017-03-01

    As semiconductor manufacturing continues its march towards more advanced technology nodes, it becomes increasingly important to identify and characterize design weak points, which is typically done using a combination of inline inspection data and the physical layout (or design). However, the employed methodologies have been somewhat imprecise, relying greatly on statistical techniques to signal excursions. For example, defect location error that is inherent to inspection tools prevents them from reporting the true locations of defects. Therefore, common operations such as background-based binning that are designed to identify frequently failing patterns cannot reliably identify specific weak patterns. They can only identify an approximate set of possible weak patterns, but within these sets there are many perfectly good patterns. Additionally, characterizing the failure rate of a known weak pattern based on inline inspection data also has a lot of fuzziness due to coordinate uncertainty. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) Review attempts to come to the rescue by capturing high resolution images of the regions surrounding the reported defect locations, but SEM images are reviewed by human operators and the weak patterns revealed in those images must be manually identified and classified. Compounding the problem is the fact that a single Review SEM image may contain multiple defective patterns and several of those patterns might not appear defective to the human eye. In this paper we describe a significantly improved methodology that brings advanced computer image processing and design-overlay techniques to better address the challenges posed by today's leading technology nodes. Specifically, new software techniques allow the computer to analyze Review SEM images in detail, to overlay those images with reference design to detect every defect that might be present in all regions of interest within the overlaid reference design (including several classes of defects

  20. 49 CFR 213.337 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., due to incomplete penetration of the weld metal between the rail ends, lack of fusion between weld and... cracking. Weld defects may originate in the rail head, web, or base, and in some cases, cracks may progress... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective rails. 213.337 Section 213.337...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3761 - Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defects. 52.3761 Section 52.3761 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... to olives pitted along an axis other than the stem-flower axis. A defect is a unit where the angle of...

  2. Birth defects in children with newborn encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, JF; Badawi, N; Kurinczuk, JJ; Bower, C; Keogh, JM; Pemberton, PJ

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate birth defects found in association with newborn encephalopathy. All possible birth defects were ascertained in a population-based study of 276 term infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy and 564 unmatched term control infants. A strong association

  3. Simple intrinsic defects in InAs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in indium arsenide, InAs, as computed by density functional theory using semi-local density functionals, intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  4. Encephalocele and associated skull defects | Komolafe | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Encephalocele is a common congenital problem in the practice of Neurosurgery worldwide, with varying sizes of the underlying skull defects. This study was carried out to determine the size of the problem; to assess whether the skull defects are being under-managed or not; and also to determine those patients that will ...

  5. Unsound defect volume in hardwood pallet cants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Araman; Matt Winn; Firoz Kabir; Xavier Torcheux; Guillaume Loizeaud

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the percentage of unsound defect volume to sound/clear wood in pallet cants at selected sawmills in Virginia and West Virginia. Splits,wane, shake, holes, decay, unsound knots, bark pockets, and mechanical defects were all considered to be unsound. Data were collected from seven Appalachian area sawmills for four hardwood species: red...

  6. Interventricular communication in complete atrioventricular septal defect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suzuki, K.; Ho, S. Y.; Anderson, R. H.; Becker, A. E.; Neches, W. H.; Tatsuno, K.; Mimori, S.

    1998-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to whether the interventricular communication in complete atrioventricular septal defect is different beneath the superior and inferior bridging leaflets, a feature of obvious surgical significance. We searched for a defect under the bridging leaflets and examined the

  7. 9 CFR 91.30 - Defective fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Defective fittings. 91.30 Section 91... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.30 Defective fittings. If previously used fittings aboard an ocean vessel are employed, any portion thereof found by the inspector to be...

  8. Failures and Defects in the Building Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Function failures, defects, mistakes and poor communication are major problems for the construction sector. As the empirical element in the research, a large construction site was observed from the very start to the very end and all failures and defects of a certain size were recorded and analysed...

  9. Indicators for Building Process without Final Defects -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Rasmussen, Grane Mikael Gregaard; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the preliminary data analysis, as well as the underlying theories and methods for identifying the indicators for building process without final defects. Since 2004, the Benchmark Centre for the Danish Construction Sector (BEC) has collected information about legal defects...

  10. Defective Reduction in Frozen Pie Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooted, Oranuch; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat

    2017-06-01

    The frozen pie production has a lot of defects resulting in high production cost. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique has been applied to improve the frozen pie process. Pareto chart is also used to determine the major defects of frozen pie. There are 3 main processes that cause the defects which are the 1st freezing to glazing process, the forming process, and the folding process. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) obtained from FMEA is analyzed to reduce the defects. If RPN of each cause exceeds 45, the process will be considered to be improved and selected for the corrective and preventive actions. The results showed that RPN values decreased after the correction. Therefore, the implementation of FMEA technique can help to improve the performance of frozen pie process and reduce the defects approximately 51.9%.

  11. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  12. [Skin defect coverage with micro skin graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Nazim; Kaya, Yalçin; Karakaya, Sadik; Camci, Cemalettin

    2002-04-01

    The aim of this study is to coverage of the large skin defect with microskin graft. The wound coverage of the large skin defect may be difficult with auto skin graft. In these patients, split thickness skin graft may be used in a bloc shape or expanded skin graft shape and a stamp skin graft shape or expanded stamp skin graft shape. On the other hand, split thickness skin graft may be used as a micrograft shape after the mincing process, which reduces of the graft size in a few millimeters. In this study, 6 patients with skin defect was admitted in our clinic, and their skin defect was treated with micro skin graft. Expansion ratio was 1:15. Epithelialization on the wound surface was completed in 4 to 6 weeks and cobblestone appearance was observed after the wound coverage. Skin defect coverage with micrograft is an effective technique like the other skin graft coverage methods.

  13. Defect rates in butt welded steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guille-Stevens, D.; Silcock, P.

    1980-01-01

    As the primary circuit of CANDU reactors consists largely of pipe, the reliability of pipe welds is of interest to reactor designers. A project involving 64 000 manual and semi-automatic pipe welds was inspected to the requirements of ANSI B31.3. Records of 6 000 carbon steel and 1 900 alloy steel butt welds ranging from 50 to 400 mm were inspected by radiography and ultrasonics, and analysed. No correlation between defects and number of weld passes was observed. However, small pipes exhibited a higher defect rate, per weld length and per weld volume, than did large pipes. Porosity was the major cause of defects (60 per cent) followed by root defects (27 per cent); only one crack was recorded. The results show that small (50 mm) pipe welds have the highest defect rate; however, the low overall rate shows that high standards can be maintained over many thousand welds [af

  14. Stafne Bone Defect: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Münevveroğlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stafne bone defects are asymptomatic lingual bone depressions of the lower jaw. In 1942, Stafne described for the first time 35 asymptomatic, radiolucent cavities, unilaterally located in the posterior region of the mandible, between the mandibular angle and the third molar, below the inferior dental canal and slightly above the basis mandibulae. In this study, the clinical and radiological characteristics of 2 cases of Stafne bone defects were described. Orthopantomograph and CBCT were used for diagnosing the defects. The bone defects of two patients in this study were asymptomatic and any other bone lesions, such as cysts and tumors, were excluded because no signs of inflammatory or tumoral changes were evident Therefore, surgery was not considered and the patients were followed for 1 year. Stafne bone defect was an incidental finding, presenting no evolutionary changes, and as such conservatory therapy based on periodic controls was indicated. Currently, complementary techniques such as CT are sufficient to establish a certain diagnosis.

  15. Topological defect dynamics in operando battery nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Meng, Shirley; Shpyrko, Oleg

    2015-03-01

    Topological defects are ubiquitous in physics and manifest themselves as magnetic monopoles in quantum field theories and crystallographic imperfections in condensed matter systems. In the latter, the defect properties determine many of the material's properties and as such represent substantial novel opportunities for design and optimization of desired functionalities through deliberate defect engineering and manipulation. However, this approach of ``defect choreography'' currently suffers from the lack of suitable nanoscale probes to track buried single defects in-situ and in-operando. Here we report 3D imaging of single edge dislocations and their motion in an individual nanoparticle under operando conditions in a Lithium ion battery. We further observe the dislocation act as a nucleation point during the structural phase transformation. We find that the region near the dislocation enters a negative Poisson's ratio, or auxetic, regime at high voltage. Dislocation imaging is thus a powerful nanotechnology and it opens a new, powerful avenue for facilitating improvement of nanostructured devices.

  16. Radioactive preparation of defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambe, J.

    1962-01-01

    One of the major areas of interest in solid state physics is the study of defects in nearly perfect crystals. The controlled formation of such defects is thus an important aspect of these studies. Chemical additions and radiation damage are among the techniques which have been widely used to make such defects. In the present work some possibilities have been examined of using radioactive decay to form defects in solids. The technique is simply to make as perfect a material as possible but with some of the host crystal atoms radioactive. When these atoms decay the daughter product essentially forms the defect. As a simple means of testing the feasibility of this technique, it was used to prepare tritium atoms trapped in a crystal of solid molecular tritium. The experiments indicate that the technique is feasible and should have particular application to the preparation of free radicals in organic materials which are fairly resistant to radiation damage. (author) [fr

  17. Influence of neutrophil defects on Burkholderia cepacia complex pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Porter

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc is a group of Gram-negative bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and have emerged as opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. The primary patient populations infected with Bcc include individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as those with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD. While Bcc infection in CF is better characterized than in CGD, these two genetic diseases are not obviously similar and it is currently unknown if there is any commonality in host immune defects that is responsible for the susceptibility to Bcc. CF is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator, resulting in manifestations in various organ systems, however the major cause of morbidity and mortality is currently due to bacterial respiratory infections. CGD, on the other hand, is a genetic disorder that is caused by defects in phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Because of the defect in CGD, phagocytes in these patients are unable to produce reactive oxygen species, which results in increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. Despite this significant defect in microbial clearance, the spectrum of pathogens frequently implicated in infections in CGD is relatively narrow and includes some bacterial species that are considered almost pathognomonic for this disorder. Very little is known about the cause of the specific susceptibility to Bcc over other potential pathogens more prevalent in the environment, and a better understanding of specific mechanisms required for bacterial virulence has become a high priority. This review will summarize both the current knowledge and future directions related to Bcc virulence in immunocompromised individuals with a focus on the roles of bacterial factors and neutrophil defects in pathogenesis.

  18. Dragging two-dimensional discrete solitons by moving linear defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnyi, Valeriy A; Malomed, Boris A

    2011-07-01

    We study the mobility of small-amplitude solitons attached to moving defects which drag the solitons across a two-dimensional (2D) discrete nonlinear Schrödinger lattice. Findings are compared to the situation when a free small-amplitude 2D discrete soliton is kicked in a uniform lattice. In agreement with previously known results, after a period of transient motion the free soliton transforms into a localized mode pinned by the Peierls-Nabarro potential, irrespective of the initial velocity. However, the soliton attached to the moving defect can be dragged over an indefinitely long distance (including routes with abrupt turns and circular trajectories) virtually without losses, provided that the dragging velocity is smaller than a certain critical value. Collisions between solitons dragged by two defects in opposite directions are studied too. If the velocity is small enough, the collision leads to a spontaneous symmetry breaking, featuring fusion of two solitons into a single one, which remains attached to either of the two defects.

  19. Porosity Defect Remodeling and Tensile Analysis of Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linfeng Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tensile properties on ASTM A216 WCB cast steel with centerline porosity defect were studied with radiographic mapping and finite element remodeling technique. Non-linear elastic and plastic behaviors dependent on porosity were mathematically described by relevant equation sets. According to the ASTM E8 tensile test standard, matrix and defect specimens were machined into two categories by two types of height. After applying radiographic inspection, defect morphologies were mapped to the mid-sections of the finite element models and the porosity fraction fields had been generated with interpolation method. ABAQUS input parameters were confirmed by trial simulations to the matrix specimen and comparison with experimental outcomes. Fine agreements of the result curves between simulations and experiments could be observed, and predicted positions of the tensile fracture were found to be in accordance with the tests. Chord modulus was used to obtain the equivalent elastic stiffness because of the non-linear features. The results showed that elongation was the most influenced term to the defect cast steel, compared with elastic stiffness and yield stress. Additional visual explanations on the tensile fracture caused by void propagation were also given by the result contours at different mechanical stages, including distributions of Mises stress and plastic strain.

  20. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  1. Detection of small-size solder ball defects through heat conduction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuyun; Chen, Yaqiu; Lu, Xiaochuan

    2018-02-01

    Aiming to solve the defect detection problem of a small-size solder ball in the high density chip, heat conduction analysis based on eddy current pulsed thermography is put forward to differentiate various defects. With establishing the 3D finite element model about induction heating, defects such as cracks and void can be distinguished by temperature difference resulting from heat conduction. Furthermore, the experiment of 0.4 mm-diameter solder balls with different defects is carried out to prove that crack and void solder can be distinguished. Three kinds of crack length on a gull-wing pin are selected, including 0.24 mm, 1.2 mm, and 2.16 mm, to verify that the small defect can be discriminated. Both the simulation study and experiment result show that the heat conduction analysis method is reliable and convenient.

  2. Air Pollution, Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Factors, and Neural Tube Defects in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Amy M; Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L; Tager, Ira B; Lurmann, Frederick; Hammond, S Katharine; Shaw, Gary M

    2015-11-01

    Environmental pollutants and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors have been associated with neural tube defects, but the potential impact of interaction between ambient air pollution and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors on the risks of neural tube defects is not well understood. We used data from the California Center of the National Birth Defects Study and the Children's Health and Air Pollution Study to investigate whether associations between air pollutant exposure in early gestation and neural tube defects were modified by neighbourhood socioeconomic factors in the San Joaquin Valley of California, 1997-2006. There were 5 pollutant exposures, 3 outcomes, and 9 neighbourhood socioeconomic factors included for a total of 135 investigated associations. Estimates were adjusted for maternal race-ethnicity, education, and multivitamin use. We present below odds ratios (ORs) that exclude 1 and a chi-square test of homogeneity P-value of factors in the association of particulate matter and neural tube defects in California. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Stability and kinetics of point defects in SiO2 and in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma, G.

    2012-01-01

    This document is conceived as an overview of Guido Roma's research achievements on defects stability and kinetics in two materials of interest in nuclear science and for many other application domains: silicon dioxide and silicon carbide. An extended summary in french is followed by the main document, in english. Chapter 1 describes the context, introduces the approach and explains the choice of silicon dioxide and silicon carbide. Chapter 2 discusses several approximations and specific issues of the application of Density Functional Theory to point defects in non-metallic materials for the study of defects energetics and diffusion. Chapter 3 is devoted to native defects in silicon dioxide and the understanding of self-diffusion in crystalline and amorphous SiO 2 . Chapter 4 summarises the results on native defects and palladium impurities in silicon carbide. A conclusion, including suggestions for future developments, closes the main part of the document. (author) [fr

  4. Birth defects and genetic disorders among Arab Americans--Michigan, 1992-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanni, Emad A; Copeland, Glenn; Olney, Richard S

    2010-06-01

    Birth defects and genetic disorders are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality in many countries. Population-based data on birth defects among Arab-American children have not been documented previously. Michigan has the second largest Arab-American community in the United States after California. Using data from the Michigan Birth Defects Registry (MBDR), which includes information on parents' country of birth and ancestry, birth prevalences were estimated in offspring of Michigan women of Arab ancestry for 21 major categories of birth defects and 12 congenital endocrine, metabolic, and hereditary disorders. Compared with other non-Hispanic white children in Michigan, Arab-American children had similar or lower birth prevalences of the selected types of structural birth defects, with higher rates of certain hereditary blood disorders and three categories of metabolic disorders. These estimates are important for planning preconception and antenatal health care, genetic counseling, and clinical care for Arab Americans.

  5. Pupillary anomaly masquerading as a glaucomatous visual field defect: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tey Adrian

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients are often referred to ophthalmologists with focal visual field defects on routine testing, possibly related to a potential diagnosis of glaucoma. However, examination of the individual patient's ocular characteristics as well as facial characteristics may often reveal a cause of the visual field defect. Case presentation We describe a patient who was found to have a superior visual field defect on routine testing by the optician. Repeat perimetry with pharmacological dilatation of the pupil revealed that the cause of the field defect was related to an eccentric inferiorly displaced pupil, secondary to trauma some years previously. Discussion Individual patient characteristics, including both ocular, as well as facial, need to be considered, when interpreting any visual field defect.

  6. A magnetically tunable non-Bragg defect mode in a corrugated waveguide filled with liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Fan, Ya-Xian; Liu, Huan; Han, Xu; Lu, Wen-Qiang; Tao, Zhi-Yong

    2018-04-01

    A magnetically tunable, non-Bragg defect mode (NBDM) was created in the terahertz frequency range by inserting a defect in the middle of a periodically corrugated waveguide filled with liquid crystals (LCs). In the periodic waveguide, non-Bragg gaps beyond the Bragg ones, which appear in the transmission spectra, are created by different transverse mode resonances. The transmission spectra of the waveguide containing a defect showed that a defect mode was present inside the non-Bragg gap. The NBDM has quite different features compared to the Bragg defect mode, which includes more complex, high-order guided wave modes. In our study, we filled the corrugated waveguide with LCs to realize the tunability of the NBDM. The simulated results showed that the NBDM in a corrugated waveguide filled with LCs can be used in filters, sensors, switches, and other terahertz integrated devices.

  7. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of Pulsed Thermography, Lock-in Thermography and Vibrothermography on Foreign Object Defect (FOD) in CFRP

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Bin; Zhang, Hai; Fernandes, Henrique; Maldague, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In this article, optical excitation thermographic techniques, including pulsed thermography and lock-in thermography, were used to detect foreign object defect (FOD) and delamination in CFRP. Then, vibrothermography as an ultrasonic excitation technique was used to detect these defects for the comparative purposes. Different image processing methods, including cold image subtraction (CIS), principal component thermography (PCT), thermographic signal reconstruction (TSR) and Fourier transform ...

  9. Effect of Transport Distance and Season on Some Defects of Fresh Hams Destined for DPO Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Agnese; Redaelli, Veronica; Luzi, Fabio; Dall’Olio, Stefania; Pace, Vincenzo; Nanni Costa, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport to the slaughterhouse is a stressful event for pigs. Travel duration and conditions can negatively affect animal welfare and carcass quality. Some defects in fresh hams are strictly connected to pre-slaughter transportation. Journeys with short (170 km) distances may increase damage in fresh hams and decrease Denomination Protected of Origin (DPO) Parma dry-cured ham production. Abstract Pre-slaughter handling is related to defects in fresh hams that result in exclusion from the DPO Parma chain, including hematomas, lacerations, microhaemorrhages and veining. To determine the effects of transport conditions on hams, we collected data on defects in 901,990 trimmed fresh hams from heavy pigs provided by 3,650 batches from slaughterhouse during 2012 and 2013. For all batches, transport distance (1–276 km) season and year of delivery were considered. A decrease of all defect occurrences was observed for increasing distance up to 170 km (P < 0.05). Above 170 km, however, all defects frequencies increased (P < 0.05). Season showed an effect on the incidence of defects, with an increasing of hematomas and lacerations in winter and autumn respectively (P < 0.05) and the highest percentage of veining and hemorrhages in spring (P < 0.05). Summer had the lowest incidence of defects on fresh hams. We concluded that the incidence of the examined defects and the subsequent rejection for DPO Parma ham production is lower in fresh hams transported 38–170 km during the summer. PMID:26480322

  10. Influence of cover defects on the attenuation of radon with earthen covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkwarf, D.R.; Mayer, D.W.

    1983-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical evaluations of radon flux through laboratory-scale defective soil columns are presented together with a survey of literature on the formation and prevention of defects in soil covers. This report focuses on air-filled, centimeter-scale defects that are most probable in earthen covers for attenuating radon emission from uranium-mill tailings. Examples include shirnkage and erosion cracks, erosion piping, animal burrows and air channels formed by the biodegradation of vegetation roots. Calculations based on mathematical models indicate that collections of defects which could increase the radon flux from an earthen cover by a factor of two would be easily detected by visual inspection. However, these models ignore air-turbulence in the defect and drying of the soil around the defect. Laboratory measurements showed that turbulent diffusion of radon occurred through defects as narrow as 0.3 cm when subjected to a transverse air velocity of 1 to 6 miles per hour at the surface. Both turbulence and more-rapid drying of soil can accelerate radon flux to the cover surface. Consequently, recommended methods to inhibit defect formation should be applied. 29 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  11. Developmental defects of enamel and dentine: challenges for basic science research and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K

    2014-06-01

    Abnormalities of enamel and dentine are caused by a variety of interacting factors ranging from genetic defects to environmental insults. The genetic changes associated with some types of enamel and dentine defects have been mapped, and many environmental influences, including medical illnesses that can damage enamel and dentine have been identified. Developmental enamel defects may present as enamel hypoplasia or hypomineralization while dentine defects frequently demonstrate aberrant calcifications and abnormalities of the dentine-pulp complex. Clinically, developmental enamel defects often present with problems of discolouration and aesthetics, tooth sensitivity, and susceptibility to caries, wear and erosion. In contrast, dentine defects are a risk for endodontic complications resulting from dentine hypomineralization and pulpal abnormalities. The main goals of managing developmental abnormalities of enamel and dentine are early diagnosis and improvement of appearance and function by preserving the dentition and preventing complications. However, despite major advances in scientific knowledge regarding the causes of enamel and dentine defects, further research is required in order to translate the knowledge gained in the basic sciences research to accurate clinical diagnosis and successful treatment of the defects. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Fast inspection of bulk and surface defects of large aperture optics in high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan'an; Hu, Guohang; Liu, Shijie; Yi, Kui; Shao, Jianda

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced damage for nanosecond pulse duration is attributed to the existence of defects. The growth and polishing, as well as coating deposition, may induce versatile kinds of defects, including dig, scratch and inclusion. It is special important to get the information of the defects, such as size and location, which is the basis to know the origin of the defects and figures out effective techniques to eliminate it. It is quite easy to get the information of the defects with micron-level resolution, but it is time-consuming and is not suitable for fast inspection of the large aperture (hundreds of millimeters). In this work, on-the-fly image capture technique was employed to realize fast inspection of large aperture optics. A continuous green laser was employed as illumination source to enhance and enlarge the image of bulk defects. So it could detect the submicron-scale defects. A transmission microscopy with white light illumination was employed to detect the surface defect. Its field of view was about 2.8mm×1.6mm. The sample was raster scanned driving by a stepper motor through the stationary illumination laser and digital camera, and the speed to scan the sample was about 10mm/s. The results of large aperture optics proved the functions of this fast inspection technique.

  13. Is Three-Dimensional Echocardiography Useful in Evaluation of Atrial Septal Defects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles German

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Of all birth defects, Congenital Heart Disease (CHD remains the most prevalent. These malformations are largely multifactorial with both environmental and genetic components, but known chromosomal abnormalities and mutations of single genes account for less than 10% of all cardiac defects (1. They affect approximately 6 to 13 newborns per 1000 live births (2 and are made up of 5 major Atrial Septal Defects (ASDs, including primum and secundum type defects, sinus venosus and coronary sinus defects, and Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO. However, there is debate within the medical community regarding inclusion of PFOs and coronary sinus defects within the realm of CHD. PFOs do not have absent septal tissue, and coronary sinus defects, or unroofed coronary sinus, represent an abnormal communication between the superior portion of the coronary sinus and the neighboring left atrium. Regardless, these anomalies can go undetected at birth, particularly if asymptomatic. Though some defects may be innocuous at birth, the continued shunting of blood between the atria can lead to pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and even death. Thus, finding an accurate and reliable means of diagnosis via echocardiography is necessary in establishing the optimal treatment and ultimately improving patient mortality.

  14. Ferromagnetically coupled local moments along an extended line defect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carter T.; Vasudevan, Smitha; Gunlycke, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Recently an extended line defect was observed composed of octagonal and pentagonal carbon rings embedded in a graphene sheet [Nat. Nanotech. 5, 326 (2010)]. We report results of studies we have made of this defect using both first-principles and semi-empirical methods. Two types of boundary-localized states arising from the defect are identified. The first (second) type has eigenstates with wavefunctions that are anti- symmetric (symmetric) with respect to a mirror plane that is perpendicular to the graphene sheet and passes through the line defect center line. The boundary-localized anti-symmetric states are shown to be intimately connected to the zigzag edge states of semi-infinite graphene. They exhibit little dispersion along the defect line and lie close to the Fermi level giving rise to a spontaneous spin polarization along the defect once electron-electron interactions are included at the level of a mean field approximation to a Hubbard Model. Within this approach, symmetry requires that the principal moments couple ferromagnetically both along and across the line defect leading to approximately 2/3 more up than down spin electrons per defect repeat unit. This work was supported by ONR, directly and through NRL.

  15. Modeling of Powder Bed Manufacturing Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindt, H.-W.; Desmaison, O.; Megahed, M.; Peralta, A.; Neumann, J.

    2018-01-01

    Powder bed additive manufacturing offers unmatched capabilities. The deposition resolution achieved is extremely high enabling the production of innovative functional products and materials. Achieving the desired final quality is, however, hampered by many potential defects that have to be managed in due course of the manufacturing process. Defects observed in products manufactured via powder bed fusion have been studied experimentally. In this effort we have relied on experiments reported in the literature and—when experimental data were not sufficient—we have performed additional experiments providing an extended foundation for defect analysis. There is large interest in reducing the effort and cost of additive manufacturing process qualification and certification using integrated computational material engineering. A prerequisite is, however, that numerical methods can indeed capture defects. A multiscale multiphysics platform is developed and applied to predict and explain the origin of several defects that have been observed experimentally during laser-based powder bed fusion processes. The models utilized are briefly introduced. The ability of the models to capture the observed defects is verified. The root cause of the defects is explained by analyzing the numerical results thus confirming the ability of numerical methods to provide a foundation for rapid process qualification.

  16. Exploring atomic defects in molybdenum disulphide monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jinhua

    2015-02-19

    Defects usually play an important role in tailoring various properties of two-dimensional materials. Defects in two-dimensional monolayer molybdenum disulphide may be responsible for large variation of electric and optical properties. Here we present a comprehensive joint experiment-theory investigation of point defects in monolayer molybdenum disulphide prepared by mechanical exfoliation, physical and chemical vapour deposition. Defect species are systematically identified and their concentrations determined by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy, and also studied by ab-initio calculation. Defect density up to 3.5 × 10 13 cm \\'2 is found and the dominant category of defects changes from sulphur vacancy in mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapour deposition samples to molybdenum antisite in physical vapour deposition samples. Influence of defects on electronic structure and charge-carrier mobility are predicted by calculation and observed by electric transport measurement. In light of these results, the growth of ultra-high-quality monolayer molybdenum disulphide appears a primary task for the community pursuing high-performance electronic devices.

  17. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  18. Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Morgan, Kenneth E.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Stack, Glen A.

    2017-04-18

    Bulk single crystal of aluminum nitride (AlN) having an areal planar defect density.ltoreq.100 cm.sup.-2. Methods for growing single crystal aluminum nitride include melting an aluminum foil to uniformly wet a foundation with a layer of aluminum, the foundation forming a portion of an AlN seed holder, for an AlN seed to be used for the AlN growth. The holder may consist essentially of a substantially impervious backing plate.

  19. Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Morgan, Kenneth E.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Slack, Glen A.

    2017-06-06

    Bulk single crystal of aluminum nitride (AlN) having an areal planar defect density .ltoreq.100 cm.sup.-2. Methods for growing single crystal aluminum nitride include melting an aluminum foil to uniformly wet a foundation with a layer of aluminum, the foundation forming a portion of an AlN seed holder, for an AlN seed to be used for the AlN growth. The holder may consist essentially of a substantially impervious backing plate.

  20. Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Morgan, Kenneth; Slack, Glen A; Rao, Shailaja P.; Gibb, Shawn Robert

    2017-09-26

    Bulk single crystal of aluminum nitride (AlN) having an areal planar defect density.ltoreq.100 cm.sup.-2. Methods for growing single crystal aluminum nitride include melting an aluminum foil to uniformly wet a foundation with a layer of aluminum, the foundation forming a portion of an AlN seed holder, for an AlN seed to be used for the AlN growth. The holder may consist essentially of a substantially impervious backing plate.

  1. Study of irradiation induced defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Gayatri; Sebastian, K.C.; Somayajulu, D.R.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    Pure high resistivity (6000 ohm-cm) silicon wafers were recoil implanted with 1.8 MeV 111 In ions. As-irradiated wafers showed a 13 MHz quadrupole interaction frequency, which was not observed earlier. The annealing behaviour of these defects in the implanted wafers was studied between room temperature and 1073 K. At different annealing temperatures two more interaction frequencies corresponding to defect complexes D2 and D3 are observed. Even though the experimental conditions were different, these are identical to the earlier reported ones. Based on an empirical point charge model calculation, an attempt is made to identify the configuration of these defect complexes. (author)

  2. Mass defect effects in atomic clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Valeriy; Taichenachev, Alexey

    2018-03-01

    We consider some implications of the mass defect on the frequency of atomic transitions. We have found that some well-known frequency shifts (the gravitational shift and motion-induced shifts such as quadratic Doppler and micromotion shifts) can be interpreted as consequences of the mass defect in quantum atomic physics, i.e. without the need for the concept of time dilation used in special and general relativity theories. Moreover, we show that the inclusion of the mass defect leads to previously unknown shifts for clocks based on trapped ions.

  3. Interdisciplinary Management of an Isolated Intrabony Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Ghivari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of intrabony defects is a real challenge in molar teeth as it is chronic, slowly progressing disease which needs timely intervention. Periodontal inflammation associated with intrabony defect is not a separate entity as it secondarily affects the pulp causing retrograde pulpitis. However, treatment of these lesions will be complicated due to extensive bone loss. The tooth was endodontically treated followed by periodontal surgery to eliminate the deep periodontal pocket and promote bone fill in osseous defect. PepGen P-15 composited with platelet rich plasma was utilized for enhancing bone formation. The combination of these graft materials provides synergistic effect on bone regeneration.

  4. Stress concentrations in nanoscale defective graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congwei; Wang, Junzhong; Barber, Asa H.

    2017-11-01

    Defect-free graphene nanosheets are the strongest material known but manufactured graphene tends to contain flaws of different forms and dimensions, leading to the degradation of mechanical performance. Here we report a quantitative mechanical approach to quantitatively evaluate the influence of defects within exfoliated pristine graphene sheets. Results indicate stress concentrations around defects within graphene sheets that lower strength. The description of stress concentration broadly follows a Griffith strength approach for continuum materials, despite the non-continuum structure of graphene, but has little impact on the Young's modulus.

  5. Tibial and fibular developmental fields defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, N.J.; Haddad, M.C.; Hourani, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    Malformations of the lower limbs are rare and heterogeneous anomalies. To explain the diversity and complexity of these abnormalities, authors introduced the concept of tibial and fibular developmental fields. Defects in these fields are responsible for different malformations, which have been described, to our knowledge, in only one report in the radiology literature. We present a case of a newborn with femoral bifurcation, absent fibulae and talar bones, ankle and foot malformations, and associated atrial septal defect. Our case is an example of defects in both fibular and tibial developmental fields. (orig.)

  6. Radiation defects in complex perovskite solid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuklja, M.M., E-mail: mkukla@nsf.gov [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Kotomin, E.A. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Sharia, O. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Mastrikov, Yu.A. [Materials Science and Engineering Dept., University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia); Maier, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    First principles density functional theory (DFT) based modeling is performed to explore formation energies of a series of point cation and oxygen defects, Frenkel and Schottky disorder, as well as structural disorder in Ba{sub 1−x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub 1−y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3−δ} (BSCF) perovskite solid solutions. The results are compared with previous studies on a prototype SrTiO{sub 3} perovskite. It is shown that BSCF permits accommodation of a high concentration of defects and cation clusters but not antisite defects.

  7. Radiation defects in complex perovskite solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklja, M. M.; Kotomin, E. A.; Sharia, O.; Mastrikov, Yu. A.; Maier, J.

    2014-05-01

    First principles density functional theory (DFT) based modeling is performed to explore formation energies of a series of point cation and oxygen defects, Frenkel and Schottky disorder, as well as structural disorder in Ba1-xSrxCo1-yFeyO3-δ (BSCF) perovskite solid solutions. The results are compared with previous studies on a prototype SrTiO3 perovskite. It is shown that BSCF permits accommodation of a high concentration of defects and cation clusters but not antisite defects.

  8. Dimensions of defects determined by radiographical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterberg, J.

    Normally industrial radiography using x-rays or radionuclides gives information on the existence of defects in welds. These defects may in some instances be harmless, the size of the flaw is important. Radiography may be used for determining the thickness of the defect in many cases, by measuring the blackening of the photographic film used. The report gives a theoretical treatment of the problems and goes on to practical examples of the application. For flaws that have a width of at least 0.3 mm, a thickness of the order 0.1 mm can be determined with sufficient accuracy in materials 40 mm thick.(P.Aa.)

  9. Intercalary bone segment transport in treatment of segmental tibial defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Amin, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results and complications of intercalary bone segment transport in the treatment of segmental tibial defects. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of patients with segmental tibial defects who were treated with intercalary bone segment transport method. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from September 1997 to April 2001. Subjects and methods: Thirteen patients were included in the study who had developed tibial defects either due to open fractures with bone loss or subsequent to bone debridement of infected non unions. The mean bone defect was 6.4 cms and there were eight associated soft tissue defects. Locally made unilateral 'Naseer-Awais' (NA) fixator was used for bone segment transport. The distraction was done at the rate of 1mm/day after 7-10 days of osteotomy. The patients were followed-up fortnightly during distraction and monthly thereafter. The mean follow-up duration was 18 months. Results: The mean time in external fixation was 9.4 months. The m ean healing index' was 1.47 months/cm. Satisfactory union was achieved in all cases. Six cases (46.2%) required bone grafting at target site and in one of them grafting was required at the level of regeneration as well. All the wounds healed well with no residual infection. There was no residual leg length discrepancy of more than 20 mm nd one angular deformity of more than 5 degrees. The commonest complication encountered was pin track infection seen in 38% of Shanz Screws applied. Loosening occurred in 6.8% of Shanz screws, requiring re-adjustment. Ankle joint contracture with equinus deformity and peroneal nerve paresis occurred in one case each. The functional results were graded as 'good' in seven, 'fair' in four, and 'poor' in two patients. Overall, thirteen patients had 31 (minor/major) complications with a ratio of 2.38 complications per patient. To treat the bone defects and associated complications, a mean of

  10. Vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome in co-occurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørsum-Meyer, Thomas; Herlin, Morten; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Background: The vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome are rare conditions. We aimed to present two cases with the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac...... defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser co-occurrence from our local surgical center and through a systematic literature search detect published cases. Furthermore, we aimed to collect existing knowledge...... in the embryopathogenesis and genetics in order to discuss a possible link between the vertebral defect, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula/esophageal atresia, renal defect, and limb defect association and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Case presentation: Our first case was a white girl...

  11. Malignant lymphomas (including myeloproliferative disorders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, I.D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter deals with the radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy of the malignant lymphomas. Included within this group are Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mycosis fungoides, and chronic lymphatic leukaemia. A further section deals with the myeloproliferative disorders, including granulocytic leukaemia, polycythaemia vera, and primary thrombocythaemia. Excluded are myeloma and reticulum cell sarcoma of bone and acute leukaemia. With regard to Hodgkin's disease, the past 25 years have seen general recognition of the curative potential of radiotherapy, at least in the local stages, and, more recently, awareness of the ability to achieve long-term survival after combination chemotherapy in generalised or in recurrent disease. At the same time the importance of staging has become appreciated and the introduction of procedures such as lymphography, staging laparotomy, and computer tomography (CT) has enormously increased its reliability. Advances have not been so dramatic in the complex group of non-Hodgkins's lymphomas, but are still very real

  12. Multiplet structure of the defect modes in 1D helical photonic crystals with twist defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avendano, C G [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. P 20-364 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico); Ponti, S [Dipartimento di Fisica Politecnico di Torino and INFM, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Reyes, J A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. P 20-364 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico); Oldano, C [Dipartimento di Fisica Politecnico di Torino and INFM, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2005-10-14

    We theoretically analyse the defect modes generated by equispaced twist defects in 1D helical (cholesteric-like) structures within their frequency gap which is such that only the first two of the four eigenwaves 1{sup {+-}}, 2{sup {+-}} are exponentially attenuated. n{sub 0} identical defects generate n{sub 0} different defect modes, each one represented by a linear combination of the four eigenwaves. The components 1{sup +} and 1{sup -} are by far the dominant ones and they are localized near the defect planes. We give exact analytic expressions for the elements of the transfer and scattering matrices of the defect planes, for the functions defining the defect mode when n{sub 0} = 1, and for the defect frequencies when n{sub 0} = 1, 2, 3. In the particular case n{sub 0} = 2 and twist angle {theta} = {pi}/2, the difference between the two defect wavelengths {lambda}{sub d2}, {lambda}{sub d1} depends exponentially on the distance z{sub 1} between the defect planes, going to zero for z{sub 1} {yields} {infinity} and becoming as large as the entire frequency gap for z{sub 1} {yields} 0.

  13. Coffin-Siris syndrome with the rarest constellation of congenital cardiac defects: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Nemani, Lalita; Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayana; Mishra, Ramesh C; Rao, Amaresh M; Kapur, Pragati

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of type-A Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) with a unique constellation of congenital heart defects. A 17-year-old Indian boy was referred to our hospital for central cyanosis with features of right heart failure. The cardiac abnormalities included biventricular outflow tract obstruction, small atrial septal defect (ASD), subaortic ventricular septal defect, drainage of left superior venacava to left atrial appendage, and aortic arch anomaly. Patient underwent successful right vent...

  14. Computational techniques for determining printability of real defects in EUV mask pilot line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul; Rost, Daniel; Price, Daniel; Li, Ying; Peng, Daniel; Chen, Dongxue; Hu, Peter; Corcoran, Noel; Son, Donghwan; Yonenaga, Dean; Tolani, Vikram

    2014-04-01

    With EUV lithography on the ITRS roadmap for sub-2X half-pitch patterning, it has become increasingly essential to ramp up efforts in being able to manufacture defect-free reticles or at least ones with minimal defects initially. For this purpose, much of the focus in recent years has been in finding ways to adequately detect, characterize, and reduce defects on both EUV blanks and patterned masks. For detection purposes, the current high-resolution DUV or e-beam inspection platforms are being extended to inspect EUV blanks and patterned masks but being non-actinic, make it very challenging to assess the real impact of the detected defects on EUV plane. Even with the realization of the EUV beta AIMS™ aerial-image based metrology in 2014-2015, the exact nature of each critical defect needs to be determined in order to be able to come up with an appropriate repair strategy. In this paper, we demonstrate the application of computational techniques to non-actinic supplemental metrology data collected on EUV mask defects to effectively determine the nature and also predict printability of these defects. The fundamental EUV simulation engine used in this approach is the EUV Defect Printability Simulator (DPS), which uses simulation and modeling methods designed specifically for the individual EUV mask components, and achieves runtimes several orders of magnitude faster than rigorous FDTD and RCWA methods while maintaining adequate accuracy. The EUV DPS simulator is then coupled with supplemental inspection and metrology measurements of real defects to effectively predict wafer printability of these defects. Several sources of such supplementary data are explored here, and may sometimes be dependent on the actual nature of defect. These sources include AFM height-profile data, SEM top-down images, and 193nm high-NA inspection images of single or multiple focus plane capture. From each of these supplemental data sources, the mask pattern and defect information is first

  15. Point defects dynamics in a stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetniansky de De Grande, Nelida.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of anisotropic defect diffusion on stress is studied for a hexagonal close packed (hcp) material under irradiation and uniaxially stressed. The diffusion is described as a discrete process of thermally activated jumps. It is shown that the presence of an external stress field enhances the intrinsic anisotropic diffusion, being this variation determined by the defect dipole tensors' symmetry in the equilibrium and saddle point configurations. Also, the point defect diffusion equations to sinks, like edge dislocations and spherical cavities, are solved and the sink strengths are calculated. The conclusion is that the dynamics of the interaction between defects and sinks is controlled by the changes in diffusivity induced by stress fields. (Author) [es

  16. Holographic entanglement entropy of surface defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentle, Simon A.; Gutperle, Michael; Marasinou, Chrysostomos [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-04-12

    We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy in type IIB supergravity solutions that are dual to half-BPS disorder-type surface defects in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The entanglement entropy is calculated for a ball-shaped region bisected by a surface defect. Using the bubbling supergravity solutions we also compute the expectation value of the defect operator. Combining our result with the previously-calculated one-point function of the stress tensor in the presence of the defect, we adapt the calculation of Lewkowycz and Maldacena http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2014)025 to obtain a second expression for the entanglement entropy. Our two expressions agree up to an additional term, whose possible origin and significance is discussed.

  17. Holographic entanglement entropy of surface defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, Simon A.; Gutperle, Michael; Marasinou, Chrysostomos

    2016-04-01

    We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy in type IIB supergravity solutions that are dual to half-BPS disorder-type surface defects in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The entanglement entropy is calculated for a ball-shaped region bisected by a surface defect. Using the bubbling supergravity solutions we also compute the expectation value of the defect operator. Combining our result with the previously-calculated one-point function of the stress tensor in the presence of the defect, we adapt the calculation of Lewkowycz and Maldacena [1] to obtain a second expression for the entanglement entropy. Our two expressions agree up to an additional term, whose possible origin and significance is discussed.

  18. Electronic structure of point defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneval, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    This 'Habilitation a diriger des Recherches' memoir presents most of my scientific activities during the past 7 years, in the field of electronic structure calculations of defects in solids. Point defects (vacancies, interstitials, impurities) in functional materials are a key parameter to determine if these materials will actually fill the role they have been assigned or not. Indeed, the presence of defects cannot be avoided when the temperature is increased or when the material is subjected to external stresses, such as irradiation in the nuclear reactors and in artificial satellites with solar radiations. However, in many cases, defects are introduced in the materials on purpose to tune the electronic transport, optical or even magnetic properties. This procedure is called the doping of semiconductors, which is the foundation technique for transistors, diodes, or photovoltaic cells. However, doping is not always straightforward and unexpected features may occur, such as doping asymmetry or Fermi level pinning, which can only be explained by complex phenomena involving different types of defects or complexes of defects. In this context, the calculations of electronic structure ab initio is an ideal tool to complement the experimental observations, to gain the understanding of phenomena at the atomic level, and even to predict the properties of defects. The power of the ab initio calculations comes from their ability to describe any system of electrons and nuclei without any specific adjustment. But although there is a strong need for numerical simulations in this field, the ab initio calculations for defects are still under development as of today. The work presented in this memoir summarizes my contributions to methodological developments on this subject. These developments have followed two main tracks. The first topic is the better understanding of the unavoidable finite size effects. Indeed, defects in semiconductors or insulators are generally present in

  19. Intrinsic defects in 3D printed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Christopher; Dagastine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of bulk structural defects on the coherence, phase and polarisation of light passing through transparent 3D printed materials fabricated using a variety of commercial print technologies.

  20. Genetic Counseling for Congenital Heart Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Genetic Counseling for Congenital Heart Defects Updated:Jan 19,2018 ... person with congenital heart disease considers having children. Genetic counseling can help answer these questions and address your ...

  1. Holographic entanglement entropy of surface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentle, Simon A.; Gutperle, Michael; Marasinou, Chrysostomos

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the holographic entanglement entropy in type IIB supergravity solutions that are dual to half-BPS disorder-type surface defects in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The entanglement entropy is calculated for a ball-shaped region bisected by a surface defect. Using the bubbling supergravity solutions we also compute the expectation value of the defect operator. Combining our result with the previously-calculated one-point function of the stress tensor in the presence of the defect, we adapt the calculation of Lewkowycz and Maldacena http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2014)025 to obtain a second expression for the entanglement entropy. Our two expressions agree up to an additional term, whose possible origin and significance is discussed.

  2. OEIS complex (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects): a review of 14 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler-Noreuil, K M

    2001-04-01

    OEIS complex refers to a combination of defects consisting of omphalocele, exstrophy of the cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects. Possible embryologic mechanisms proposed for these findings have included: a single defect of early blastogenesis or a defect of mesodermal migration during the primitive streak period. Fourteen cases with OEIS complex and related malformations were reviewed for demographic features, prenatal and family histories, and clinical, radiological and pathological findings including the frequency and types of associated anomalies. The pathogenetic mechanisms causing OEIS complex and related malformations, such as anorectal and spinal defects, are discussed. The findings in these cases illustrate the spectrum of defects that can occur in the embryologic development of the cloaca and the urorectal septum. Differences in the timing and extent of mesenchymal ingrowth as well as cloacal membrane rupture may account for these variable findings. A developmental field defect involving the intraembryonic mesoderm suggests a possible etiologic role for homeobox genes, such as HLXB9 with mutations, resulting in anorectal and spine abnormalities, or retinoic acid receptors. OEIS complex with its mostly sporadic occurrence suggests etiologic heterogeneity with a possible role for environmental and genetic causes. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Defect clustering in concentrated alloys during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Shigenaka, N.; Fuse, M.

    1992-01-01

    A rate theory based model is presented to investigate the kinetics of interstitial clustering processes in a face-centered cubic (fcc) binary alloy containing A- and B-atoms. Three types of interstitial dumbbells, AA-, BB- and AB-type dumbbells, are considered. Conversions between these interstitial dumbbells are explicitly introduced into the formulation, based on the consideration of dumbbell configurations and movements. A di- interstitial is assumed to be the nucleus of a dislocation loop. Reactions of point defect production by irradiation, mutual recombination of an interstitial and a vacancy, dislocation loop nucleation and their growth are included in the model. Parameter values are chosen based on the atom size of the alloy elements, and dislocation loop formation kinetics are investigated while varying alloy compositions. Two different types of kinetics are obtained in accordance with the dominant loop nucleus types. Conversions between interstitial dumbbells are important in the determination of the interstitial dumbbell concentration ratios, of the dominant nucleus types, and consequently, the loop formation kinetics. Dislocation loop concentration decreases with increasing undersized atom content, but dose rate and temperature dependence of loop concentration are insensitive to alloy compositions. (author)

  4. Regional Odontodysplasia with Generalised Enamel Defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Al-Mullahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (ROD is uncommon developmental anomaly, which tends to be localised and involves the ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components. A five-year-old female was referred to Department of Child Dental Health at the Leeds Dental Institute regarding malformed primary teeth. On examination 64, 74, and 72 had localised hypomineralized enamel defect. The crown of 55 was broken down with only the root remaining below the gingival level. 54 has a yellowish brown discolouration with rough irregular surface. The upper anterior teeth show mild enamel opacity. Radiographically, 55 and 54 had thin radioopaque contour, showing poor distinction between the enamel and dentine and the classic feature of a wide pulp chamber. 15, 16, and 17 were developmentally delayed and were displaying the characteristic “ghost appearance.” Comprehensive dental care was done under local anaesthesia and it included extraction of the primary molars affected by ROD, stainless steel crown on 64, and caries prevention program. Fifteen months following the initial assessment the patient’s oral condition remains stable and she is under regular follow-up at the department. Paediatric dentists should be aware of this anomaly as it involves both dentitions and usually requires multidisciplinary care.

  5. Defect-induced mix experiment for NIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt M.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME-II will measure the implosion and mix characteristics of CH capsules filled with 5 atmospheres of DT by incorporating mid-Z dopant layers of Ge and Ga. This polar direct drive (PDD experiment also will demonstrate the filling of a CH capsule at target chamber center using a fill tube. Diagnostics for these experiments include areal x-ray backlighting to obtain early time images of the implosion trajectory and a multiple-monochromatic imager (MMI to collect spectrally-resolved images of the capsule dopant line emission near bangtime. The inclusion of two (or more thin dopant layers at separate depths within the capsule shell facilitates spatial correlation of mix between the layers and the hot gas core on a single shot. The dopant layers are typically 2 μm thick and contain dopant concentrations of 1.5%. Three dimensional Hydra simulations have been performed to assess the effects of PDD asymmetry on capsule performance.

  6. Structure and energy of point defects in TiC: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.

    2015-04-01

    We employ first-principles calculations to study the atomic and electronic structure of various point defects such as vacancies, interstitials, and antisites in the stoichiometric as well as slightly off-stoichiometric Ti1 -cCc (including both C-poor and C-rich compositions, 0.49 ≤c ≤0.51 ). The atomic structure analysis has revealed that both interstitial and antisite defects can exist in split conformations involving dumbbells. To characterize the electronic structure changes caused by a defect, we introduce differential density of states (dDOS) defined as a local perturbation of the density of states (DOS) on the defect site and its surrounding relative to the perfect TiC. This definition allows us to identify the DOS peaks characteristic of the studied defects in several conformations. So far, characteristic defect states have been discussed only in connection with carbon vacancies. Here, in particular, we have identified dDOS peaks of carbon interstitials and dumbbells, which can be used for experimental detection of such defects in TiC. The formation energies of point defects in TiC are derived in the framework of a grand-canonical formalism. Among the considered defects, carbon vacancies and interstitials are shown to have, respectively, the lowest and the second-lowest formation energies. Their formation energetics are consistent with the thermodynamic data on the phase stability of nonstoichiometric TiC. A cluster type of point defect is found to be next in energy, a titanium [100] dumbbell terminated by two carbon vacancies.

  7. Integrating image processing and classification technology into automated polarizing film defect inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Lai, Chun-Yu; Kao, Chih-Hsiang; Chiu, Chin-Hsun

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the current manual inspection and classification process for polarizing film on production lines, this study proposes a high precision automated inspection and classification system for polarizing film, which is used for recognition and classification of four common defects: dent, foreign material, bright spot, and scratch. First, the median filter is used to remove the impulse noise in the defect image of polarizing film. The random noise in the background is smoothed by the improved anisotropic diffusion, while the edge detail of the defect region is sharpened. Next, the defect image is transformed by Fourier transform to the frequency domain, combined with a Butterworth high pass filter to sharpen the edge detail of the defect region, and brought back by inverse Fourier transform to the spatial domain to complete the image enhancement process. For image segmentation, the edge of the defect region is found by Canny edge detector, and then the complete defect region is obtained by two-stage morphology processing. For defect classification, the feature values, including maximum gray level, eccentricity, the contrast, and homogeneity of gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) extracted from the images, are used as the input of the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) classifier, 96 defect images are then used as training samples, and 84 defect images are used as testing samples to validate the classification effect. The result shows that the classification accuracy by using RBFNN is 98.9%. Thus, our proposed system can be used by manufacturing companies for a higher yield rate and lower cost. The processing time of one single image is 2.57 seconds, thus meeting the practical application requirement of an industrial production line.

  8. Relationship between ventral hernia defect area and intra-abdominal pressure: dynamic in vivo measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qandeel, Haitham; O'Dwyer, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    It is an acceptable concept that the ventral hernia defect area will increase with a rise in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). The literature lacks the evidence about how much this increase is in vivo. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the change in the ventral hernia defect area with increasing intra-abdominal pressure. In a prospective study of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair, the area of hernia defect was measured from inside the abdomen using a sterile paper ruler. The horizontal (width) and vertical (length) measurements of the defect were taken at two pressure points: (IAP = 8 mmHg) and (IAP = 15 mmHg). The hernia defect area was calculated as an oval shape using a standard formula. Eighteen consecutive patients with a ventral hernia were included in this study (8 males: 10 females). Median age was 60 years (30-81), body mass index (BMI) was 29.9 (22.6-37.6). Changing the IAP significantly, (P hernia defect. The median calculated defect area, as an oval shape, was 5.6 cm(2) (Q1-Q3 = 3.5-15.5) and 6.9 cm(2) (Q1-Q3 = 4.5-18.7) at 8 and 15 mmHg IAP, respectively. The calculated area of mesh required to cover the defect with a 5 cm overlap increased by a median of 5% (Q1-Q3 = 3-6%). The change in defect area did not differ significantly between obese and non-obese patients (P = 0.5). Dynamic, rather than static, measurements of ventral hernia area during laparoscopy provide a simple way of in vivo objective measurement that helps the surgeon choose the appropriate area of mesh. When choosing mesh area, we support the trend toward a larger overlap of at least 5 cm if less precise methods of measuring defect area are been used.

  9. Dural sinus filling defect: intrasigmoid encephalocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatag, Ozan; Cosar, Murat; Kizildag, Betul; Sen, Halil Murat

    2013-01-01

    Filling defects of dural venous sinuses are considered to be a challenging problem especially in case of symptomatic patients. Many lesions have to be ruled out such as sinus thrombosis, arachnoid granulations and tumours. Encephalocele into dural sinus is also a rare cause of these filling defects of dural sinuses. Here, we report an extremely rare case with spontaneous occult invagination of temporal brain tissue into the left sigmoid sinus and accompanying cerebellar ectopia. PMID:24311424

  10. 49 CFR 215.103 - Defective wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective wheel. 215.103 Section 215.103... § 215.103 Defective wheel. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if— (a) A wheel flange... tread of the wheel; (b) The height of a wheel flange on the car, from the tread to the top of the flange...

  11. (AJST) MULTIPLE DEFECT DISTRIBUTIONS ON WEIBULL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weibull model for fatigue life distributions of unfiltered and filtered castings. Statistical parameters. Old oxide film defects. (o). Slip mechanisms. (s). Young and old oxide film defects (o). Pores attached to oxide films. (p). Characteristics fatigue life,. N c (cycles). 3.8 x 10. 5. 5.3 x 10. 6. 3.3 x 10. 5. 2.3 x 10. 5. Weibull modulus, b.

  12. Defect core detection in radiata pine logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.

    1993-01-01

    Internal defect cores in Pinus radiata logs arise primarily from the practice in New Zealand of pruning trees to increase the amount of clear wood. Realising the benefits of this practice when milling the logs is hampered by the lack of a practical method for detecting the defect cores. This report attempts to establish industry requirements for detections and examine techniques which may be suitable. Some trials of a novel technique are described. (author) 19 refs.; 11 figs

  13. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  14. EUV actinic defect inspection and defect printability at the sub-32 nm half pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Sungmin; Kearney, Patrick; Wurm, Stefan; Goodwin, Frank; Han, Hakseung; Goldberg, Kenneth; Mochi, Iacopp; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2009-08-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask blanks with embedded phase defects were inspected with a reticle actinic inspection tool (AIT) and the Lasertec M7360. The Lasertec M7360, operated at SEMA TECH's Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC) in Albany, NY, has a sensitivity to multilayer defects down to 40-45 nm, which is not likely sufficient for mask blank development below the 32 nm half-pitch node. Phase defect printability was simulated to calculate the required defect sensitivity for a next generation blank inspection tool to support reticle development for the sub-32 nm half-pitch technology node. Defect mitigation technology is proposed to take advantage of mask blanks with some defects. This technology will reduce the cost of ownership of EUV mask blanks. This paper will also discuss the kind of infrastructure that will be required for the development and mass production stages.

  15. Comparison of clinical values between cone beam computed tomography and conventional intraoral radiography in periodontal and infrabony defect assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphanantachat, Supreda; Tantikul, Keenna; Tamsailom, Suphot; Kosalagood, Pasupen; Nisapakultorn, Kanokwan; Tavedhikul, Kanoknadda

    2017-08-01

    The use of CBCT for periodontal diagnosis and treatment plan is limited. The aim of this study is to compare the assessment of periodontal conditions and infrabony defects between conventional intraoral radiography (IOR) and CBCT. The study included 25 subjects who had periodontitis and at least two infrabony defects. All subjects received clinical periodontal examination, IOR and CBCT. Three periodontists assigned periodontal diagnosis and prognosis of each tooth. For teeth with infrabony defects, the number of defect walls and treatment was determined. IOR and CBCT assessment was compared. There were 666 teeth and 123 infrabony defects. The overall concordance between IOR and CBCT for periodontal diagnosis, prognosis, infrabony defect type and infrabony defect treatment were 79.3%, 69.5%, 44.7% and 64.2%, respectively. IOR underestimated diagnosis, prognosis and the number of infrabony defect walls at 16.4%, 24% and 37.4%, respectively. IOR and CBCT had poor concordance for periodontal regeneration (43.3%). Tooth extraction was more prevalent when assessed by CBCT (35.0% vs 22.7%). CBCT had excellent interexaminer agreement (Fleiss' kappa 0.87-0.94) and higher percentage of complete agreement among examiners than IOR for all assessments. IOR underestimated the severity and prognosis of periodontal disease. CBCT was superior to IOR for evaluation of infrabony defect morphology and treatment. CBCT provides excellent agreement among examiners on periodontal and infrabony defect assessment.

  16. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of cantilever arms (12) contacting the surface of the test sample when performing the movement....... arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area...

  17. Influences of vacancy defects on tensile failure of open-tip carbon nanocones

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Liang Liao

    2017-01-01

    This paper studied influences of vacancy defects on tensile failure of open-tip carbon nanocones (CNCs) by molecular dynamics simulations. Carbon nanocones, perfect and containing mono-vacancy defects (including CNCs with the upper-vacancy, the middle-vacancy, and the lower-vacancy), were simulated in order to understand the influence of the presence and location of the vacancy defects on the CNCs tensile behavior. Some findings were obtained. It was found that the upper-vacancy CNC has the g...

  18. The Boomerang-shaped Pectoralis Major Musculocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction of Circular Defect of Cervical Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchi Azuma, MD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. We report on a patient with a recurrence of oral cancer involving a cervical lymph node. The patient’s postexcision cervical skin defect was nearly circular in shape, and the size was about 12 cm in diameter. The defect was successfully reconstructed with a boomerang-shaped pectoralis major musculocutaneous flap whose skin paddle included multiple intercostal perforators of the internal mammary vessels. This flap design is effective for reconstructing an extensive neck skin defect and enables primary closure of the donor site with minimal deformity.

  19. The OEIS complex (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects): recurrence in sibs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N M; Chambers, H M; Furness, M E; Haan, E A

    1992-10-01

    The OEIS complex comprises a combination of defects including omphalocele, exstrophy of the cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects. It may represent the most severe manifestation of a spectrum of birth defects, the exstrophy-epispadias sequence. The OEIS complex affects 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 pregnancies and is of unknown cause. The purpose of the current report is to document the occurrence of OEIS in sibs from separate pregnancies and suggest that some cases may have a genetic basis.

  20. The OEIS complex (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects): recurrence in sibs.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, N M; Chambers, H M; Furness, M E; Haan, E A

    1992-01-01

    The OEIS complex comprises a combination of defects including omphalocele, exstrophy of the cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects. It may represent the most severe manifestation of a spectrum of birth defects, the exstrophy-epispadias sequence. The OEIS complex affects 1 in 200,000 to 400,000 pregnancies and is of unknown cause. The purpose of the current report is to document the occurrence of OEIS in sibs from separate pregnancies and suggest that some cases may have a genetic basis.

  1. Acoustic emission test on a 25mm thick mild steel pressure vessel with inserted defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P.G.; Dawson, D.G.; Hanley, D.J.; Kirby, N.

    1976-12-01

    Acoustic emission measurements have been taken on an experimental mild steel vessel with 4 inserted defects ranging in severity up to 90% of through thickness. The vessel was subjected to a series of pressure excursions of increasing magnitude until failure occurred by extension of the largest inserted defect through the vessel wall. No acoustic emission was detected throughout any part of the tests which would indicate the presence of such serious defects or of impending failure. Measurements of acoustic emission from metallurgical specimens are included and the results of post test inspection using conventional NDT and metallographic techniques are reported. (author)

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treating Articular Cartilage Defects and Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Yuan, Mei; Guo, Quan-yi; Lu, Shi-bi; Peng, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Articular cartilage damage and osteoarthritis are the most common joint diseases. Joints are prone to damage caused by sports injuries or aging, and such damage regularly progresses to more serious joint disorders, including osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative disease characterized by the thinning and eventual wearing out of articular cartilage, ultimately leading to joint destruction. Osteoarthritis affects millions of people worldwide. Current approaches to repair of articular cartilage damage include mosaicplasty, microfracture, and injection of autologous chondrocytes. These treatments relieve pain and improve joint function, but the long-term results are unsatisfactory. The long-term success of cartilage repair depends on development of regenerative methodologies that restore articular cartilage to a near-native state. Two promising approaches are (i) implantation of engineered constructs of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-seeded scaffolds, and (ii) delivery of an appropriate population of MSCs by direct intra-articular injection. MSCs may be used as trophic producers of bioactive factors initiating regenerative activities in a defective joint. Current challenges in MSC therapy are the need to overcome current limitations in cartilage cell purity and to in vitro engineer tissue structures exhibiting the required biomechanical properties. This review outlines the current status of MSCs used in cartilage tissue engineering and in cell therapy seeking to repair articular cartilage defects and related problems. MSC-based technologies show promise when used to repair cartilage defects in joints.

  3. Autotaxin overexpression causes embryonic lethality and vascular defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Yukiura

    Full Text Available Autotaxin (ATX is a secretory protein, which converts lysophospholipids to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, and is essential for embryonic vascular formation. ATX is abundantly detected in various biological fluids and its level is elevated in some pathophysiological conditions. However, the roles of elevated ATX levels remain to be elucidated. In this study, we generated conditional transgenic (Tg mice overexpressing ATX and examined the effects of excess LPA signalling. We found that ATX overexpression in the embryonic period caused severe vascular defects and was lethal around E9.5. ATX was conditionally overexpressed in the neonatal period using the Cre/loxP system, which resulted in a marked increase in the plasma LPA level. This resulted in retinal vascular defects including abnormal vascular plexus and increased vascular regression. Our findings indicate that the ATX level must be carefully regulated to ensure coordinated vascular formation.

  4. Autotaxin Overexpression Causes Embryonic Lethality and Vascular Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukiura, Hiroshi; Kano, Kuniyuki; Kise, Ryoji; Inoue, Asuka; Aoki, Junken

    2015-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secretory protein, which converts lysophospholipids to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and is essential for embryonic vascular formation. ATX is abundantly detected in various biological fluids and its level is elevated in some pathophysiological conditions. However, the roles of elevated ATX levels remain to be elucidated. In this study, we generated conditional transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing ATX and examined the effects of excess LPA signalling. We found that ATX overexpression in the embryonic period caused severe vascular defects and was lethal around E9.5. ATX was conditionally overexpressed in the neonatal period using the Cre/loxP system, which resulted in a marked increase in the plasma LPA level. This resulted in retinal vascular defects including abnormal vascular plexus and increased vascular regression. Our findings indicate that the ATX level must be carefully regulated to ensure coordinated vascular formation PMID:25992708

  5. A cascade method for TFT-LCD defect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Songsong; Wu, Xiaojun; Yu, Zhiyang; Mo, Zhuoya

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel cascade detection algorithm which focuses on point and line defects on TFT-LCD. At the first step of the algorithm, we use the gray level difference of su-bimage to segment the abnormal area. The second step is based on phase only transform (POT) which corresponds to the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), normalized by the magnitude. It can remove regularities like texture and noise. After that, we improve the method of setting regions of interest (ROI) with the method of edge segmentation and polar transformation. The algorithm has outstanding performance in both computation speed and accuracy. It can solve most of the defect detections including dark point, light point, dark line, etc.

  6. Defects quantization in industrial radiographs by image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briand, F.Y.; Brillault, B.; Philipp, S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper refers to the industrial application of image processing using Non Destructive Testing by radiography. The various problems involved by the conception of a numerical tool are described. This tool intends to help radiograph experts to quantify defects and to follow up their evolution, using numerical techniques. The sequences of processings that achieve defect segmentation and quantization are detailed. They are based on the thorough knowledge of radiographs formation techniques. The process uses various methods of image analysis, including textural analysis and morphological mathematics. The interface between the final product and users will occur in an explicit language, using the terms of radiographic expertise without showing any processing details. The problem is thoroughly described: image formation, digitization, processings fitted to flaw morphology and finally product structure in progress. 12 refs [fr

  7. MRI of fibrous cortical defect and non-ossifying fibroma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, Yoshiko; Aoki, Takatoshi; Watanabe, Hideyuki; Nakata, Hajime; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshitaka [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-02-01

    Fibrous cortical defect and non-ossifying fibroma are the benign fibrous lesions of bone commonly involving children. Their diagnosis is usually done with radiography, and MR examinations are rarely performed. We evaluated MRI findings of 11 lesions in 10 cases of fibrous cortical defect and non-ossifying fibroma. Signal intensity of the lesions was varied and large lesions (2 cm<) tended to show heterogeneous signal intensity on both T1-weighted and T2-weighted images corresponding to a mixture of components including fibrous tissue, hemosiderin and foam cells. MRI helps to delineate the extent of the involved bone and to assess the various histological components of the lesions. However, their diagnosis is basically made on the radiographic findings and the role of MRI is limited. (author)

  8. System for Analyzing Microscopic Defects and Defect Propagation Due to Aging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New technology is needed for sensing and characterizing incipient defects, and assessing the effects of aging in aerospace components. Next generation materials,...

  9. Multiscale crystal defect dynamics: A coarse-grained lattice defect model based on crystal microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Dandan; Li, Shaofan

    2017-10-01

    Crystal defects have microstructure, and this microstructure should be related to the microstructure of the original crystal. Hence each type of crystals may have similar defects due to the same failure mechanism originated from the same microstructure, if they are under the same loading conditions. In this work, we propose a multiscale crystal defect dynamics (MCDD) model that models defects by considering its intrinsic microstructure derived from the microstructure or material genome of the original perfect crystal. The main novelties of present work are: (1) the discrete exterior calculus and algebraic topology theory are used to construct a scale-up (coarse-grained) dual lattice model for crystal defects, which may represent all possible defect modes inside a crystal; (2) a higher order Cauchy-Born rule (up to the fourth order) is adopted to construct atomistic-informed constitutive relations for various defect process zones, and (3) an hierarchical strain gradient theory based finite element formulation is developed to support an hierarchical multiscale cohesive (process) zone model for various defects in a unified formulation. The efficiency of MCDD computational algorithm allows us to simulate dynamic defect evolution at large scale while taking into account atomistic interaction. The MCDD model has been validated by comparing of the results of MCDD simulations with that of molecular dynamics (MD) in the cases of nanoindentation and uniaxial tension. Numerical simulations have shown that MCDD model can predict dislocation nucleation induced instability and inelastic deformation, and thus it may provide an alternative solution to study crystal plasticity.

  10. Automated Heuristic Defect Classification (AHDC) for haze-induced defect growth management and mask requalification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Saghir; Qidwai, Gul

    2012-03-01

    This article presents results from a heuristic automated defect classification algorithm for reticle inspection that mimics the classification rules. AHDC does not require CAD data, thus it can be rapidly deployed in a high volume production environment without the need for extensive design data management. To ensure classification consistency a software framework tracks every defect in repeated inspections. Through its various image based derived metrics it is shown that such a system manages and tracks repeated defects in applications such as haze induced defect growth.

  11. Coffin-Siris syndrome with the rarest constellation of congenital cardiac defects: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Nemani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of type-A Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS with a unique constellation of congenital heart defects. A 17-year-old Indian boy was referred to our hospital for central cyanosis with features of right heart failure. The cardiac abnormalities included biventricular outflow tract obstruction, small atrial septal defect (ASD, subaortic ventricular septal defect, drainage of left superior venacava to left atrial appendage, and aortic arch anomaly. Patient underwent successful right ventricular infundibular resection, subaortic membrane resection, closure of atrial and ventricular septal defect, rerouting left superior vena cava to left pulmonary artery and aortic valve replacement.

  12. Coffin-Siris syndrome with the rarest constellation of congenital cardiac defects: A case report with review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemani, Lalita; Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, Amar Narayana; Mishra, Ramesh C; Rao, Amaresh M; Kapur, Pragati

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of type-A Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) with a unique constellation of congenital heart defects. A 17-year-old Indian boy was referred to our hospital for central cyanosis with features of right heart failure. The cardiac abnormalities included biventricular outflow tract obstruction, small atrial septal defect (ASD), subaortic ventricular septal defect, drainage of left superior venacava to left atrial appendage, and aortic arch anomaly. Patient underwent successful right ventricular infundibular resection, subaortic membrane resection, closure of atrial and ventricular septal defect, rerouting left superior vena cava to left pulmonary artery and aortic valve replacement.

  13. Persistent renal cortical scintigram defects in children 2 years after urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditchfield, Michael R.; Cook, David J.; Campo, John F. de [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Grimwood, Keith [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Powell, Harley R.; Gulati, Sanjeev [Department of Nephrology, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia); Sloane, Robert [Department of General Paediatrics, Royal Children' s Hospital, 3052, Parkville, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-06-01

    Background: Renal cortical scintigraphic studies challenge the role of vesicoureteric reflux in renal scar development, emphasizing instead the part played by acute pyelonephritis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of renal cortical defects in a child cohort 2 years after the child's first diagnosed urinary tract infection and to analyze the relationship of these defects with acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux and recurrent infections. Materials and methods: In a prospective cohort study, 193 children younger than 5 years with their first proven urinary tract infection underwent renal sonography, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal cortical scintigraphy within 15 days of diagnosis. Two years later, 150 of the 193 children, or 77.7%, had a further renal cortical scintigram, including 75, or 86.2%, of the 87 children who had acute scintigraphic defects. The relationship of cortical defects to age, gender, pre-treatment symptom duration, hospitalization, presence and grade of vesicoureteric reflux, and recurrent urinary tract infections was evaluated. Results: Overall, 20 of the 150 (13.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3, 19.8) children had persistent defects 2 years after infection. This included 20 of 75 (26.7%; 95% CI 17.1, 38.1) with initially abnormal scintigrams. No new defects were detected. Although acute defects were more common in the young, those with persistent defects were older (median ages 16.4 vs. 6.8 months, P=0.004) than those with transient abnormalities. After adjustment for age, persistent defects were no longer associated with gender and were not predicted by acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux or recurrent infections. (orig.)

  14. Persistent renal cortical scintigram defects in children 2 years after urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchfield, Michael R.; Cook, David J.; Campo, John F. de; Grimwood, Keith; Powell, Harley R.; Gulati, Sanjeev; Sloane, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background: Renal cortical scintigraphic studies challenge the role of vesicoureteric reflux in renal scar development, emphasizing instead the part played by acute pyelonephritis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of renal cortical defects in a child cohort 2 years after the child's first diagnosed urinary tract infection and to analyze the relationship of these defects with acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux and recurrent infections. Materials and methods: In a prospective cohort study, 193 children younger than 5 years with their first proven urinary tract infection underwent renal sonography, voiding cystourethrogram, and renal cortical scintigraphy within 15 days of diagnosis. Two years later, 150 of the 193 children, or 77.7%, had a further renal cortical scintigram, including 75, or 86.2%, of the 87 children who had acute scintigraphic defects. The relationship of cortical defects to age, gender, pre-treatment symptom duration, hospitalization, presence and grade of vesicoureteric reflux, and recurrent urinary tract infections was evaluated. Results: Overall, 20 of the 150 (13.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3, 19.8) children had persistent defects 2 years after infection. This included 20 of 75 (26.7%; 95% CI 17.1, 38.1) with initially abnormal scintigrams. No new defects were detected. Although acute defects were more common in the young, those with persistent defects were older (median ages 16.4 vs. 6.8 months, P=0.004) than those with transient abnormalities. After adjustment for age, persistent defects were no longer associated with gender and were not predicted by acute illness variables, primary vesicoureteric reflux or recurrent infections. (orig.)

  15. Geometrically unrestricted, topologically constrained control of liquid crystal defects using simultaneous holonomic magnetic and holographic optical manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Michael C. M.; Jenness, Nathan J.; Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2014-02-01

    Despite the recent progress in physical control and manipulation of various condensed matter, atomic, and particle systems, including individual atoms and photons, our ability to control topological defects remains limited. Recently, controlled generation, spatial translation, and stretching of topological point and line defects have been achieved using laser tweezers and liquid crystals as model defect-hosting systems. However, many modes of manipulation remain hindered by limitations inherent to optical trapping. To overcome some of these limitations, we integrate holographic optical tweezers with a magnetic manipulation system, which enables fully holonomic manipulation of defects by means of optically and magnetically controllable colloids used as "handles" to transfer forces and torques to various liquid crystal defects. These colloidal handles are magnetically rotated around determined axes and are optically translated along three-dimensional pathways while mechanically attached to defects, which, combined with inducing spatially localized nematic-isotropic phase transitions, allow for geometrically unrestricted control of defects, including previously unrealized modes of noncontact manipulation, such as the twisting of disclination clusters. These manipulation capabilities may allow for probing topological constraints and the nature of defects in unprecedented ways, providing the foundation for a tabletop laboratory to expand our understanding of the role defects play in fields ranging from subatomic particle physics to early-universe cosmology.

  16. High defect stage, contralateral defects, and poor flexibility are negative predictive factors of bone union in pediatric and adolescent athletes with spondylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazufumi; Kota, Shintaro; Oikawa, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yoshiji

    2018-01-01

    To identify predisposition to spondylolysis and physical characteristics associated with "bone union" following conservative spondylolysis treatment among pediatric and adolescent athletes. We retrospectively analyzed pediatric and adolescent athletes with spondylolysis who underwent conservative treatment and rehabilitation for three or more consecutive months following sports activity cessation. Patients with terminal spondylolysis or who did not discontinue sports activities were excluded. We compared physical fitness factors in the union and nonunion groups and examined the association between bone union and spondylolysis severity by logistic regression analysis. Of 183 patients with spondylolysis who underwent rehabilitation over a four-year period, 127 patients with 227 defects were included in the final analysis. Bone union was achieved in 66.5% (151/227) of the pars interarticularis defects and 70.1% (89/127) of the patients. On multivariate analysis, stage of pars interarticularis defect (odds ratio [OR], 0.26;p = 0.0027), stage of contralateral pars interarticularis defect (OR, 0.51;p = 0.00026), and straight leg-raising test (OR, 1.06;p = 0.028) were significantly associated with bone union. High defect stage, stage of the contralateral pars interarticularis defect, and poor flexibility were negative prognostic factors of bone healing in athletes with spondylolysis. J. Med. Invest. 65:126-130, February, 2018.

  17. Omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defect complex, multiple major reconstructive surgeries needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Nada; Tarabay, Mohmoud Salem

    2018-01-01

    OEIS complex is a rare combination of serious birth defects including omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects. The aim of managements has shifted from merely providing survival to improve patient outcomes and quality of life with higher level of physical and social independence. Multiple complicated reconstructive surgeries always needed for achieving the goals of treatment. In this case report, we aimed to present our surgical approach for this rare abnormality to achieve functionally and socially acceptable outcome.

  18. Omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defect complex, multiple major reconstructive surgeries needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Neel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available OEIS complex is a rare combination of serious birth defects including omphalocele, exstrophy of cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects. The aim of managements has shifted from merely providing survival to improve patient outcomes and quality of life with higher level of physical and social independence. Multiple complicated reconstructive surgeries always needed for achieving the goals of treatment. In this case report, we aimed to present our surgical approach for this rare abnormality to achieve functionally and socially acceptable outcome.

  19. Formation Energies of Native Point Defects in Strained-Layer Superlattices (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-05

    literature. Then we calculate the formation energy of various NPDs in a number of InAs- GaSb SLS systems. From the calculated defect formation energies...Unclassified Joseph Burns 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include Area Code) (937) 255-9594 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by... number of InAs-GaSb SLS systems. From the calculated defect formation energies in SLS rel- ative to that in constituent bulk material, the probability

  20. Under-reporting of major birth defects in Northwest Russia: a registry-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Anton A.; Brenn, Tormod; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Nieboer, Evert; Krettek, Alexandra; Anda, Erik Eik

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective was to assess the prevalence of selected major birth defects, based on data from two medical registries in Murmansk County, and compare the observed rates with those available for Norway and Arkhangelsk County, Northwest Russia. It included all newborns (≥22 completed weeks of gestation) registered in the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) and born between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2009 (n=35,417). The infants were followed-up post-partum for 2 years through direct linkage to the Murmansk Regional Congenital Defects Registry (MRCDR). Birth defects identified and confirmed in both registries constituted the “cases” and corresponded to one or more of the 21 birth defect types reportable to health authorities in Moscow. The overall prevalence of major birth defects recorded in the MRCDR was 50/10,000 before linkage and 77/10,000 after linkage with the MCBR. Routine under-reporting to the MRCDR of 40% cases was evident. This study demonstrates that birth registry data improved case ascertainment and official prevalence assessments and reduced the potential of under-reporting by physicians. The direct linkage of the two registries revealed that hypospadias cases were the most prevalent among the major birth defects in Murmansk County. A bbreviations: ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision; MCBR, Murmansk County Birth Registry; MRCDR, Murmansk Regional Congenital Defects Registry; MGC, Murmansk Genetics Center PMID:28853333

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Defects at the Dentin-Post Space in Endodontically Treated Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariasevera Di Comite

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess frequency and extension of the defects affecting the dentin-post interface after using different combinations of irrigants and sealers. The experimental work was conducted on single-rooted teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. The specimens were divided into different groups, according to irrigant and endodontic cement utilized, and endodontically instrumented. After fiberglass posts cementation, cross sections were obtained at apical, middle and coronal level of the root and submitted to quantitative analyses. Different types of defects were found: bubbles, bonding defects, polymerization defect, and cement residues. The percent extension of each defect and its frequency were related to the specific irrigant/sealer combination and to the root level. Detachments of the material from dentin were found only at apical and middle levels. Chlorhexidine digluconate seems to have more beneficial effects if compared to sodium hypochlorite: samples prepared with chlorhexidine digluconate showed a higher performance, with roots including null to few defects. In detail, samples treated with chlorhexidine digluconate and Pulp Canal Sealer showed the lowest frequency and the smallest dimension of defects.

  2. Blockage of ultrafast and directional diffusion of Li atoms on phosphorene with intrinsic defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiqi; Wu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jinlong

    2016-02-21

    The diffusion of Li in electrode materials is a key factor for the charging/discharging rate capacity of a Li-ion battery (LIB). Recently, two-dimensional phosphorene has been proposed as a very promising electrode material due to its ultrafast and directional lithium diffusion, as well as large energy capacity. Herein, on the basis of density functional theory, we report that intrinsic point defects, including vacancy and stone-wales defects, will block the directional ultrafast diffusion of lithium in phosphorene. On the defect-free phosphorene, diffusion of Li along the zig-zag lattice direction is 1.6 billion times faster than along the armchair lattice direction, and 260 times faster than that in graphite. After introducing intrinsic vacancy and stone-wales defect, the diffusion energy barrier of Li along the zig-zag lattice direction increases sharply to the range of 0.17-0.49 eV, which blocks the ultrafast migration of lithium along the zig-zag lattice direction. Moreover, the open circuit voltage increases with the emergence of defects, which is not suitable for anode materials. In addition, the formation energies of the defects in phosphorene are considerably lower than those in graphene and silicene sheet; therefore, it is highly important to generate defect-free phosphorene for LIB applications.

  3. Estimated Maternal Pesticide Exposure from Drinking Water and Heart Defects in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Swartz, Michael D; Langlois, Peter H; Romitti, Paul A; Weyer, Peter; Mitchell, Laura E; Luben, Thomas J; Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Malik, Sadia; Lupo, Philip J; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Meyer, Robert E; Winston, Jennifer J; Reefhuis, Jennita; Blossom, Sarah J; Bell, Erin; Agopian, A J

    2017-08-08

    Our objective was to examine the relationship between estimated maternal exposure to pesticides in public drinking water and the risk of congenital heart defects (CHD). We used mixed-effects logistic regression to analyze data from 18,291 nonsyndromic cases with heart defects from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and 4414 randomly-selected controls delivered in Texas from 1999 through 2005. Water district-level pesticide exposure was estimated by linking each maternal residential address to the corresponding public water supply district's measured atrazine levels. We repeated analyses among independent subjects from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (1620 nonsyndromic cases with heart defects and 1335 controls delivered from 1999 through 2005). No positive associations were observed between high versus low atrazine level and eight CHD subtypes or all included heart defects combined. These findings should be interpreted with caution, in light of potential misclassification and relatively large proportions of subjects with missing atrazine data. Thus, more consistent and complete monitoring and reporting of drinking water contaminants will aid in better understanding the relationships between pesticide water contaminants and birth defects.

  4. A fast button surface defects detection method based on convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lizhe; Cao, Danhua; Wu, Songlin; Wu, Yubin; Wei, Taoran

    2018-01-01

    Considering the complexity of the button surface texture and the variety of buttons and defects, we propose a fast visual method for button surface defect detection, based on convolutional neural network (CNN). CNN has the ability to extract the essential features by training, avoiding designing complex feature operators adapted to different kinds of buttons, textures and defects. Firstly, we obtain the normalized button region and then use HOG-SVM method to identify the front and back side of the button. Finally, a convolutional neural network is developed to recognize the defects. Aiming at detecting the subtle defects, we propose a network structure with multiple feature channels input. To deal with the defects of different scales, we take a strategy of multi-scale image block detection. The experimental results show that our method is valid for a variety of buttons and able to recognize all kinds of defects that have occurred, including dent, crack, stain, hole, wrong paint and uneven. The detection rate exceeds 96%, which is much better than traditional methods based on SVM and methods based on template match. Our method can reach the speed of 5 fps on DSP based smart camera with 600 MHz frequency.

  5. Minimization of Defective Products in The Department of Press Bridge & Rib Through Six Sigma DMAIC Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, YA; Agustin, A.

    2017-06-01

    This study proposes the DMAIC Six Sigma approach of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve/Implement and Control (DMAIC) to minimizing the number of defective products in the bridge & rib department. There are 5 types of defects were the most dominant are broken rib, broken sound board, strained rib, rib sliding and sound board minori. The imperative objective is to improve the quality through the DMAIC phases. In the define phase, the critical to quality (CTQ) parameters was identified minimization of product defects through the pareto chart and FMEA. In this phase, to identify waste based on the current value stream mapping. In the measure phase, the specified control limits product used to maintain the variations of the product, the calculation of the value of DPMO (Defect Per Million Opportunities) and the calculation of the value of sigma level. In analyze phase, determine the type of defect of the most dominant and identify the causes of defective products. In the improve phase, the existing design was modified through various alternative solutions by conducting brainstorming sessions. In this phase, the solution was identified based on the results of FMEA. Improvements were made to the seven priority causes of disability based on the highest RPN value. In the control phase, focusing on improvements to be made. Proposed improvements include making and define standard operating procedures, improving the quality and eliminate waste defective products.

  6. Defects and diffusion, theory and simulation an annual retrospective I

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, David J

    2009-01-01

    This first volume, in a new series covering entirely general results in the fields of defects and diffusion, includes abstracts of papers which appeared between the beginning of 2008 and the end of October 2009 (journal availability permitting).This new series replaces the 'general' section which was previously part of each issue of the Metals, Ceramics and Semiconductor retrospective series. As well as 356 abstracts, the volume includes original papers on all of the usual material groups: ""Predicting Diffusion Coefficients from First Principles via Eyring's Reaction Rate Theory"" (Mantina, C

  7. Modeling charged defects, dopant diffusion and activation mechanisms for TCAD simulations using kinetic Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Bragado, Ignacio [Synopsys Inc, 700 East Middlefield Road, Mountain View, 94043 CA (United States)]. E-mail: Ignacio.martin-bragado@synopsys.com; Tian, S. [Synopsys Inc, 700 East Middlefield Road, Mountain View, 94043 CA (United States); Johnson, M. [Synopsys Inc, 700 East Middlefield Road, Mountain View, 94043 CA (United States); Castrillo, P. [Department of Electronics, University of Valladolid Campus Miguel Delibes, Camino del Cementerio S/N, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Pinacho, R. [Department of Electronics, University of Valladolid Campus Miguel Delibes, Camino del Cementerio S/N, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Rubio, J. [Department of Electronics, University of Valladolid Campus Miguel Delibes, Camino del Cementerio S/N, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Jaraiz, M. [Department of Electronics, University of Valladolid Campus Miguel Delibes, Camino del Cementerio S/N, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2006-12-15

    This work will show how the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) technique is able to successfully model the defects and diffusion of dopants in Si-based materials for advanced microelectronic devices, especially for non-equilibrium conditions. Charge states of point defects and paired dopants are also simulated, including the dependency of the diffusivities on the Fermi level and charged particle drift coming from the electric field. The KMC method is used to simulate the diffusion of the point defects, and formation and dissolution of extended defects, whereas a quasi-atomistic approach is used to take into account the carrier densities. The simulated mechanisms include the kick-out diffusion mechanism, extended defect formation and the activation/deactivation of dopants through the formation of impurity clusters. Damage accumulation and amorphization are also taken into account. Solid phase epitaxy regrowth is included, and also the dopants redistribution during recrystallization of the amorphized regions. Regarding the charged defects, the model considers the dependencies of charge reactions, electric bias, pairing and break-up reactions according to the local Fermi level. Some aspects of the basic physical mechanisms have also been taken into consideration: how to smooth out the atomistic dopant point charge distribution, avoiding very abrupt and unphysical charge profiles and how to implement the drift of charged particles into the existing electric field. The work will also discuss the efficiency, accuracy and relevance of the method, together with its implementation in a technology computer aided design process simulator.

  8. Structure Defect Property Relationships in Binary Intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medasani, Bharat; Ding, Hong; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin; Canning, Andrew; Haranczyk, Maciej; Asta, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Ordered intermetallics are light weight materials with technologically useful high temperature properties such as creep resistance. Knowledge of constitutional and thermal defects is required to understand these properties. Vacancies and antisites are the dominant defects in the intermetallics and their concentrations and formation enthalpies could be computed by using first principles density functional theory and thermodynamic formalisms such as dilute solution method. Previously many properties of the intermetallics such as melting temperatures and formation enthalpies were statistically analyzed for large number of intermetallics using structure maps and data mining approaches. We undertook a similar exercise to establish the dependence of the defect properties in binary intermetallics on the underlying structural and chemical composition. For more than 200 binary intermetallics comprising of AB, AB2 and AB3 structures, we computed the concentrations and formation enthalpies of vacancies and antisites in a small range of stoichiometries deviating from ideal stoichiometry. The calculated defect properties were datamined to gain predictive capabilities of defect properties as well as to classify the intermetallics for their suitability in high-T applications. Supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231 under the Materials Project Center grant (Award No. EDCBEE).

  9. [Skin defect modeling in experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleshko, A N; Kornienko, V V; Tkachenko, Yu A; Kurganskaya, V A

    2015-02-01

    To assess the skin regeneration and explore new medical devices for the treatment of skin defects is necessary to conduct long-term experiments using laboratory animals. Currently, there are many methods for skin trauma modeling but most of them have disadvantages that limit their use. The purpose of this work - the development of an experimental model of the formation of skin defect of various etiologies with the specified parameters of depth and area of damage to the absence of systemic effects on the animal's body. We have developed an installation that allows us to form a skin defect of mechanical, thermal and chemical etiology with area from 1.76 cm2 to 2.0 cm2. The experiment was conducted on 18 male laboratory rats to examine the effectiveness of current method and control the depth and area of the defect. As a result of the new methodology, we were able to carry out simulation skin injuries of different etiology on laboratory animals in the short term and reduce the severity of injuries to extend the life span of animals to monitor the repair processes, as well as to standardize the modeling of injuries according to the criteria of area and depth of the defect.

  10. Coating defect evaluation based on stimulated thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Davide; Tamborrino, Rosanna; Galietti, Umberto

    2017-05-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings are used to protect the materials from severe temperature and chemical environments. In particular, these materials are used in the engineering fields where high temperatures, corrosive environments and high mechanical stress are required. Defects present between substrate material and coating, as detachments may cause the break of coating and the consequent possibility to exposure the substrate material to the environment conditions. The capability to detect the defect zones with non-destructive techniques could allow the maintenance of coated components with great advantages in terms of costs and prediction of fatigue life. In this work, two different heat sources and two different thermographic techniques have been used to detect the adhesion defects among the base material and the coating. Moreover, an empirical thermographic method has been developed to evaluate the thickness of the thermal coating and to discriminate between an unevenness of the thickness and a defect zone. The study has been conducted on circular steel specimens with simulated adhesion defect and on specimens prepared with different thicknesses of thermal barrier coating.

  11. Defect kinetics in novel detector materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacEvoy, B C

    2000-01-01

    Silicon particle detectors will be used extensively in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, where unprecedented particle fluences will cause significant atomic displacement damage. We present a model of the evolution of defect concentrations and consequent electrical behaviour in "novel" detector materials with various oxygen and carbon impurity concentrations. The divacancy-oxygen (V/sub 2/O) defect is identified as the cause of changes in device characteristics during /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation. In the case of hadron irradiation changes in detector doping concentration (N/sub eff/) are dominated by cluster defects, in particular the divacancy (V/sub 2/), which exchange charge directly via a non-Shockley-Read- Hall mechanism. The V/sub 2/O defect also contributes to Ne/sub eff/. This defect is more copiously produced during 24 GeV/c proton irradiation than during 1 MeV neutron irradiation on account of the higher vacancy introduction rate, hence the radiation hardness of materials is more sensiti...

  12. Anomalous rapid defect annihilation in self-assembled nanopatterns by defect melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Hoon; Park, So Jung; Jin, Hyeong Min; Kim, Ju Young; Son, Seung-Woo; Kim, Myung-Hyun; Koo, Chong Min; Shin, Jonghwa; Kim, Jaeup U; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2015-02-11

    Molecular self-assembly commonly suffers from dense structural defect formation. Spontaneous defect annihilation in block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly is particularly retarded due to significant energy barrier for polymer chain diffusion and structural reorganization. Here we present localized defect melting induced by blending short neutral random copolymer chain as an unusual method to promote the defect annihilation in BCP self-assembled nanopatterns. Chemically neutral short random copolymer chains blended with BCPs are specifically localized and induce local disordered states at structural defect sites in the self-assembled nanopatterns. Such localized "defect melting" relieves the energy penalty for polymer diffusion and morphology reorganization such that spontaneous defect annihilation by mutual coupling is anomalously accelerated upon thermal annealing. Interestingly, neutral random copolymer chain blending also causes morphology-healing self-assembly behavior that can generate large-area highly ordered 10 nm scale nanopattern even upon poorly defined defective prepatterns. Underlying mechanisms of the unusual experimental findings are thoroughly investigated by three-dimensional self-consistent field theory calculation.

  13. Enamel defect of deciduous teeth in small gestational age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willyanti S Syarif

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enamel defect could be caused by genetic and environmental factors in prenatal period. Meanwhile, prenatal malnutrition could also cause small gestational age (SGA. Small Gestational Age is the term used for a neonatal baby with birthweight below the -2SD normal value or 10th percentile on the intrauterine Lubchenco curve. This condition is due to intra-uterine growth restriction, and eventually ends up with several developmental defects of organs, including teeth. In fact, deciduous tooth development has a critical phase within this development period. Purpose: The aim of this study is not only to find out the incidence of enamel defect in SGA children, but also to know the percentage of SGA risk factor to develop enamel defect. Method: This was a epidemiology research with consecutive admission technique. It consisted of 153 SGA children aged 9–48 months. Next, the Ponderal index was used to assign SGA types, symmetrical or asymmetrical one-in this study 59 and 94 respectively. On the other hand, three hundred and ninety Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA children aged 4–48 months were also included in the study as a control group. Enamel defect then was determined by intraoral examination, classified into hypoplasia and hypocalcifications. Chi-square test was finally used to determine the relative risk ratio between the SGA and the control AGA children. Result: The result of this research showed that incidence of enamel defect in SGA children was 86.92%, meanwhile, that in AGA children was 23.08%, 66.00% of which were commonly suffered from hypocalcification. With p<0.05 it is also known that SGA children has the risk of enamel defect with hypocalcification, about 79% higher than AGA children. Conclusion: It could be concluded that 79% of SGA children had the risk of deciduous tooth enamel defect with hypocalcification as the most.Latar belakang: Defek email dapat terjadi karena faktor genetik dan lingkungan sistemik yang

  14. Spinal neural tube defects in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankole, O B; Arigbabu, S O; Kanu, O O

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects is known to vary among regions. Very little has been reported about the incidence in Sub-Saharan Africa except for the general impression that the prevalent rates are low. To determine the profile of patients presenting with neural tube defects in Lagos, Nigeria We studied all patients with congenital midline back swellings presenting to one of two neurosurgical services in the state over a 5-year period to establish the incidence of spina bifida and develop demographic data. Data collected included the age at presentation, maternal age, education and parity, presence of co-existing anomalies and the social status of the parents. One hundred and eight patients with congenital midline swellings of the back were studied. Meningomyelocele accounted for 96% of the cases seen. Half the patients presented within the first two weeks of life and although fifty percent of mothers had ultrasound scans done during pregnancy none of the patients were diagnosed prenatally. Seventy-three percent of mothers of affected children were from a low socio-economic class. The commonest co-existing congenital anomaly was lower limb deformity (Talipes equino-varus). Spina bifida is the commonest indication for neurosurgical clinic referral with the exception of trauma in our environment. The prevalence is higher among women in the lower socio-economic groups. Improved perinatal care is required to ensure that children with such birth defects get prompt medical attention and thereby prevent worsening of an already complex problem.

  15. Understanding the defect structure of solution grown zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, Laura-Lynn; Sankar, Gopinathan; Handoko, Albertus D.; Goh, Gregory K.L.; Kohara, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide bandgap semiconducting oxide with many potential applications in various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Much effort has been made to understand the ZnO structure and its defects. However, one major issue in determining whether it is Zn or O deficiency that provides ZnO its unique properties remains. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is an ideal, atom specific characterization technique that is able to probe defect structure in many materials, including ZnO. In this paper, comparative studies of bulk and aqueous solution grown (≤90 °C) ZnO powders using XAS and x-ray pair distribution function (XPDF) techniques are described. The XAS Zn–Zn correlation and XPDF results undoubtedly point out that the solution grown ZnO contains Zn deficiency, rather than the O deficiency that were commonly reported. This understanding of ZnO short range order and structure will be invaluable for further development of solid state lighting and other optoelectronic device applications. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: ► ZnO powders have been synthesized through an aqueous solution method. ► Defect structure studied using XAS and XPDF. ► Zn–Zn correlations are less in the ZnO powders synthesized in solution than bulk. ► Zn vacancies are present in the powders synthesized. ► EXAFS and XPDF, when used complementary, are useful characterization techniques.

  16. Defect-related luminescent materials: synthesis, emission properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuimiao; Lin, Jun

    2012-12-07

    Luminescent materials have found a wide variety of applications, including information displays, lighting, X-ray intensification and scintillation, and so on. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to exploring novel luminescent materials so far. In the past decade, defect-related luminescent materials have inspired intensive research efforts in their own right. This kind of luminescent material can be basically classified into silica-based materials, phosphate systems, metal oxides, BCNO phosphors, and carbon-based materials. These materials combine several favourable attributes of traditional commercially available phosphors, which are stable, efficient, and less toxic, being free of the burdens of intrinsic toxicity or elemental scarcity and the need for stringent, intricate, tedious, costly, or inefficient preparation steps. Defect-related luminescent materials can be produced inexpensively and on a large scale by many approaches, such as sol-gel process, hydro(solvo)thermal reaction, hydrolysis methods, and electrochemical methods. This review article highlights the recent advances in the chemical synthesis and luminescent properties of the defect-related materials, together with their control and tuning, and emission mechanisms (solid state physics). We also speculate on their future and discuss potential developments for their applications in lighting and biomedical fields.

  17. Four-dimensional superconformal theories with interacting boundaries or defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmenger, Johanna; Guralnik, Zachary; Kirsch, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    We study four-dimensional superconformal field theories coupled to three-dimensional superconformal boundary or defect degrees of freedom. Starting with bulk N=2, d=4 theories, we construct Abelian models preserving N=2, d=3 supersymmetry and the conformal symmetries under which the boundary/defect is invariant. We write the action, including the bulk terms, in N=2, d=3 superspace. Moreover we derive Callan-Symanzik equations for these models using their superconformal transformation properties and show that the beta functions vanish to all orders in perturbation theory, such that the models remain superconformal upon quantization. Furthermore, we study a model with N=4 SU(N) Yang-Mills theory in the bulk coupled to an N=4, d=3 hypermultiplet on a defect. This model was constructed by DeWolfe, Freedman, and Ooguri, and conjectured to be conformal based on its relation to an AdS configuration studied by Karch and Randall. We write this model in N=2, d=3 superspace, which has the distinct advantage that nonrenormalization theorems become transparent. Using N=4, d=3 supersymmetry, we argue that the model is conformal

  18. Advanced repair solution of clear defects on HTPSM by using nanomachining tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Munsik; Jung, Hoyong; Kim, Sangpyo; Yim, Donggyu

    2015-10-01

    As the mask specifications become tighter for low k1 lithography, more aggressive repair accuracy is required below sub 20nm tech. node. To meet tight defect specifications, many maskshops select effective repair tools according to defect types. Normally, pattern defects are repaired by the e-beam repair tool and soft defects such as particles are repaired by the nanomachining tool. It is difficult for an e-beam repair tool to remove particle defects because it uses chemical reaction between gas and electron, and a nanomachining tool, which uses physical reaction between a nano-tip and defects, cannot be applied for repairing clear defects. Generally, film deposition process is widely used for repairing clear defects. However, the deposited film has weak cleaning durability, so it is easily removed by accumulated cleaning process. Although the deposited film is strongly attached on MoSiN(or Qz) film, the adhesive strength between deposited Cr film and MoSiN(or Qz) film becomes weaker and weaker by the accumulated energy when masks are exposed in a scanner tool due to the different coefficient of thermal expansion of each materials. Therefore, whenever a re-pellicle process is needed to a mask, all deposited repair points have to be confirmed whether those deposition film are damaged or not. And if a deposition point is damaged, repair process is needed again. This process causes longer and more complex process. In this paper, the basic theory and the principle are introduced to recover clear defects by using nanomachining tool, and the evaluated results are reviewed at dense line (L/S) patterns and contact hole (C/H) patterns. Also, the results using a nanomachining were compared with those using an e-beam repair tool, including the cleaning durability evaluated by the accumulated cleaning process. Besides, we discuss the phase shift issue and the solution about the image placement error caused by phase error.

  19. Mothers' beliefs as to causation and prevention of birth defects in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Elegbe, I

    1984-06-01

    The type of birth defects ever seen or heard of and beliefs as to the causation and means of preventing the defects were investigated among 225 newly deliverd and nursing mothers through interviews. The majority were between the ages of 20 to 29 years; 9.3% were between 35 and 40 years. The bulk of the respondents are illiterates. More than 75% of the mothers had 2 or more children. The most common birth defects seen were amputated leg; dislocated hips; lamed hand or funny elbows or ankles; extra digits; and missing digits. Common perceptions of the causes were God's will (32.9%) and evil doers or evil powers due to witchcraft or sorcery (40.9%). Poor nutrition or poor antenatal care was reported by only 2.2%; while 1.3% attributed the cause to an excessive combination of native and modern drugs. The majority believed that avoidance of walking at night and midafternoon during pregnancy would prevent birth defects. 10.2% and 5.3% were of the opinion that praying to God and going to the herbalist respectively would prevent birth defects. Prevention of birth defects is an essential task for all health workers in Nigeria. The causes of birth defects should be brodcast on radio and television and published in national dialects in the newspapers. 83.6% claimed that they were not informed of various means of preventing birth defects during prenatal clinic visits. The schools should include prevention and causation of birth defects in a health education curriculum.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score and Classification System (AMADEUS) for Assessment of Preoperative Cartilage Defect Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Pia M; Welsch, Götz H; Brittberg, Mats; Trattnig, Siegfried; Braun, Sepp; Imhoff, Andreas B; Salzmann, Gian M

    2017-07-01

    Objective To design a simple magnetic resonance (MR)-based assessment system for quantification of osteochondral defect severity prior to cartilage repair surgery at the knee. Design The new scoring tool was supposed to include 3 different parameters: (1) cartilage defect size, (2) depth/morphology of the cartilage defect, and (3) subchondral bone quality, resulting in a specific 3-digit code. A clearly defined numeric score was developed, resulting in a final score of 0 to 100. Defect severity grades I through IV were defined. For intra- and interobserver agreement, defects were assessed by 2 independent readers on preoperative knee MR images of n = 44 subjects who subsequently received cartilage repair surgery. For statistical analyses, mean values ± standard deviation (SD), interclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and linear weighted kappa values were calculated. Results The mean total Area Measurement And DEpth & Underlying Structures (AMADEUS) score was 48 ± 24, (range, 0-85). The mean defect size was 2.8 ± 2.6 cm 2 . There were 36 of 44 full-thickness defects. The subchondral bone showed defects in 21 of 44 cases. Kappa values for intraobserver reliability ranged between 0.82 and 0.94. Kappa values for interobserver reliability ranged between 0.38 and 0.85. Kappa values for AMADEUS grade were 0.75 and 0.67 for intra- and interobserver agreement, respectively. ICC scores for the AMADEUS total score were 0.97 and 0.96 for intra- and interobserver agreement, respectively. Conclusions The AMADEUS score and classification system allows reliable severity encoding, scoring and grading of osteochondral defects on knee MR images, which is easily clinically applicable in daily practice.

  1. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Birth Defects: Effects of Subfertility and Multiple Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Rebecca F; Getz, Kelly D; Heinke, Dominique; Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Declercq, Eugene R; Chen, Xiaoli; Lin, Angela E; Anderka, Marlene

    2017-08-15

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with birth defects, but the contributions of multiple births and underlying subfertility remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of subfertility and mediation by multiple births on associations between ART and nonchromosomal birth defects. We identified a retrospective cohort of Massachusetts live births and stillbirths from 2004 to 2010 among ART-exposed, ART-unexposed subfertile, and fertile mothers using linked information from fertility clinics, vital records, hospital discharges, and birth defects surveillance. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mediation analyses were performed to deconstruct the ART-birth defects association into the direct effect of ART, the indirect effect of multiple births, and the effect of ART-multiples interaction. Of 17,829 ART-exposed births, 355 had a birth defect, compared with 162 of 9431 births to subfertile mothers and 6183 of 445,080 births to fertile mothers. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6) for ART and 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) in subfertile compared with fertile deliveries. We observed elevated rates of several birth defects with ART, including tetralogy of Fallot and hypospadias. Subfertility and multiple births affect these associations, with multiple births explaining 36% of the relative effect of ART on nonchromosomal birth defects. Although the risk of birth defects with ART is small, a substantial portion of the relative effect is mediated through multiple births, with subfertility contributing an important role. Future research is needed to determine the impact of newer techniques, such as single embryo transfer, on these risks. Birth Defects Research 109:1144-1153, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tricuspid valve detachment in closure of congenital ventricular septal defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinping; Li, Jun; Wei, Xiang; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Wei

    2003-01-01

    From January 1991 through December 2001, 600 patients underwent closure of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect through a right atrial approach at our institution. In 122 of these patients, the operation included temporary detachment of a tricuspid valve septal leaflet from the annulus to allow complete visualization of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect The mean age of the patients at surgery was 4.6 years in those who underwent leaflet detachment and 4.7 years in the 478 patients who did not (P > 0.05). Preoperatively, all patients were in sinus rhythm. Echocardiography showed trivial tricuspid regurgitation in 21 of the patients undergoing detachment and in 39 of the non-detachment patients. There was no difference in bypass time or aortic cross-clamp time between the 2 groups. Postoperatively, 3 patients in the non-detachment group had heart block; all other patients were in sinus rhythm. Echocardiograms on the 7th postoperative day showed small residual ventricular septal defects in none of the patients who underwent valve detachment and in 10 of the non-detachment patients; mild tricuspid regurgitation was present in 12 non-detachment patients only; and trivial tricuspid regurgitation was present in 19 patients who underwent valve detachment and in 29 who did not. There was no hospital death in either group. Long-term follow-up showed no progression of tricuspid regurgitation or tricuspid stenosis. All patients remained in sinus rhythm. This study suggests that tricuspid valve detachment is a safe, effective technique that improves exposure for ventricular septal defect repair and does not adversely affect valve competence.

  3. Defective glycinergic synaptic transmission in zebrafish motility mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hirata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs.

  4. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  5. Defective modernization and health in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, J M

    1987-01-01

    This paper uses data gathered in a semi-arid, mountain region of the border state of Sonora, Mexico to illustrate that modernization and the importation of urban ideas and values can influence health status in unexpected ways. It traces the historic process of modernization in a rural municipio, relating this to social promises and economic cycles in Mexico. Modernization is seen to encompass life standard improvements and access to medical care; extension of road and transportation systems; and the widespread availability of information and education, as well as lifestyle changes required to incorporate these 'urban' influences. Reviewing the link between climate and health in arid lands, the paper notes that such modernization can be a well-meaning intrusion upon a set of cultural and social practices which had proved adaptive in dealing with climatic extremes. Initial modernization produces impressive declines in mortality and morbidity, as illustrated in an analysis of mortality figures and causes in relation to age cohorts and decades for the years 1955-1984. However, reductions in epidermic-related infant mortality are shown to be offset by increases in deaths due to trauma, chronic conditions and endemic disease. An analysis of morbidity for the year 1983-84 indicates that continuing high rates of infectious disease are related to conditions which result from increasingly defective modernization. To maintain technology, including water, electrical, and sewage systems, continual capital expenditure on both the public and private level is required. The economic crisis in Mexico is reducing available funds at a time when the community has adjusted its traditional lifestyle to incorporate technological improvements. In light of this, it is likely that inroads against infectious disease will not just continue to be stalemated, but could actually be reversed. This finding has implications for towns and villages on both sides of the Mexican-American border.

  6. Heavy and Overweight Vehicle Defects Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), along with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), has an interest in overweight commercial motor vehicles, how they affect infrastructure, and their impact on safety on the nation s highways. To assist both FHWA and FMCSA in obtaining more information related to this interest, data was collected and analyzed from two separate sources. A large scale nationwide data collection effort was facilitated by the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance as part of a special study on overweight vehicles and an additional, smaller set, of data was collected from the state of Tennessee which included a much more detailed set of data. Over a six-month period, 1,873 Level I inspections were performed in 18 different states that volunteered to be a part of this study. Of the 1,873 inspections, a vehicle out-of-service (OOS) violation was found on 44.79% of the vehicles, a rate significantly higher than the national OOS rate of 27.23%. The main cause of a vehicle being placed OOS was brake-related defects, with approximately 30% of all vehicles having an OOS brake violation. Only about 4% of vehicles had an OOS tire violation, and even fewer had suspension and wheel violations. Vehicle weight violations were most common on an axle group as opposed to a gross vehicle weight violation. About two thirds of the vehicles cited with a weight violation were overweight on an axle group with an average amount of weight over the legal limit of about 2,000 lbs. Data collection is scheduled to continue through January 2014, with more potentially more states volunteering to collect data. More detailed data collections similar to the Tennessee data collection will also be performed in multiple states.

  7. Defining obstructive ventilatory defect in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zied Affes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no clear consensus as to what constitutes an obstructive ventilatory defect (OVD: Is it FEV1/FVCincluding 4,730 subjects aged 17–85 years. Subjects were divided according to the presence [physio (+ or operat (+] or absence [physio (− or operat (−] of an OVD, and into younger (<45 years, n=2,076, older (≥45 years, n=2,654, smokers (n=1,208, and non-smokers (n=3,522 groups. Results: For the total sample, the younger and older groups [mean±SD of age (years, respectively, 46.7±14.1; 33.9±7.4, and 56.8±9.1], the ‘physiological definition’ detected, respectively, 13.46, 43.22, and 5.09% more OVD than the ‘operational one’ (p<0.05. In addition, the operational definition, compared with the physiological one, overdiagnosed OVD in 2.33 and 0.44% of smokers and non-smokers, respectively, and underdiagnosed it in 4.46% and 29.72% of smokers and non-smokers, respectively (p<0.05. Compared with the group ‘physio (−, operat (+’, the ‘physio (+, operat (−’ one was younger (74.2±4.7 years vs. 40.9±10.3 years and had significantly higher FEV1 (62±13% vs. 78±17% and FVC (71±15% vs. 93±19%. Conclusion: The frequency of OVD much depends on the criteria used for its definition.

  8. ROLE OF DATA MINING CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE IN SOFTWARE DEFECT PREDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.A.R.Pon Periyasamy; Mrs A.Misbahulhuda

    2017-01-01

    Software defect prediction is the process of locating defective modules in software. Software quality may be a field of study and apply that describes the fascinating attributes of software package product. The performance should be excellent with none defects. Software quality metrics are a set of software package metrics that target the standard aspects of the product, process, and project. The software package defect prediction model helps in early detection of defects and contributes to t...

  9. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  10. Cyanotic Congenital Heart Defects – literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Drăgoi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects are one of the most interesting and important chapters regarding abnormal fetal growth pathology. The objective of this article is to present a literature review for the main cyanotic congenital heart defects. The ones presented in the article are: tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great vessels, double outlet right ventricle, truncus arteriosus, total anomalous pulmonary venous circulation and additional information regarding very rare malformations such as pentalogy of Cantrell and Uhl anomaly. An early and precise identification of congenital heart defects is an important step in an accurate follow-up of a potential problematic pregnancy. Knowing the sonographic aspect, associated pathology and the current available treatment procedures are vital for the fetal outcome and for the physician to adapt the right management in every situation that might appear during the pregnancy and in the neonatal period.

  11. Defective cerebrovascular autoregulation after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L G; Schroeder, T V

    1993-01-01

    Correction of high grade carotid artery stenosis may result in cerebral hyperperfusion because of defective vascular autoregulation. Thus, transcranial Doppler was used to determine mean arterial flow velocity (Vmean) of the middle cerebral artery in 95 patients before and after carotid endartere......Correction of high grade carotid artery stenosis may result in cerebral hyperperfusion because of defective vascular autoregulation. Thus, transcranial Doppler was used to determine mean arterial flow velocity (Vmean) of the middle cerebral artery in 95 patients before and after carotid...... (130-332)% of the preoperative value (p reduced in symptomatic patients with labetalol, ipsilateral Vmean decreased from 92 (69-124) to 56 (32-93) cm s-1 (p ... that ipsilateral middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity was pressure dependent. This substantiates the hypothesis of defective autoregulation in the ipsilateral hemisphere after carotid endarterectomy, and in turn demonstrates an immediate cessation of symptoms with reduction of arterial pressure even...

  12. Production defects in marine composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    Composite structures are often used when there is a requirement for low weight. Then a key aspect is to be able to take full advantage of the material and utilise it to its limits. To do this it is important to achieve as low a variability as possible in the manufacture of such structures......, and to have a good understanding of the way in which production defects and imperfections influence the structural performance, so that adequate levels of structural safety and reliability can be achieved without having to apply excessively large factors of safety. A review is made of the types of defects...... that arise in the relevant production processes, of their causes and the means that can be used to reduce or eliminate them, and of models that enable the effects of defects and imperfections on structural performance to be predicted....

  13. Prevalence of birth defects and risk-factor analysis from a population-based survey in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xingguang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth Defects are a series of diseases that seriously affect children's health. Birth defects are generally caused by several interrelated factors. The aims of the article is to estimate the prevalence rate and types of birth defects in Inner Mongolia, China, to compare socio-demographic characteristics among the children with birth defects and to analyze the association between risk factors and birth defects. Methods Data used in this study were obtained through baseline survey of Inner Mongolia Birth Defects Program, a population-based survey conducted from 2005 to 2008. The survey used cluster sampling method in all 12 administrative districts of Inner Mongolia. Sampling size is calculated according to local population size at a certain percentage. All live births, stillbirths and abortions born from October 2005 to September 2008, whose families lived in Inner Mongolia at least one year, were included. The cases of birth defects were diagnosed by the clinical doctors according to their experiences with further laboratory tests if needed. The inclusion criteria of the cases that had already dead were decided according to death records available at local cites. We calculated prevalence rate and 95% confidence intervals of different groups. Outcome variable was the occurrence of birth defects and associations between risk factors and birth defects were analyzed by using Poisson regression analysis. Results 976 children with birth defects were diagnosed. The prevalence rate of birth defects was 156.1 per 10000 births (95%CI: 146.3-165.8. The prevalence rate of neural tube defect (20.1 per 10000 births including anencephaly(6.9 per 10000, spina bifida (10.6 per 10000, and encephalocele (2.7 per 10000 was the highest, followed by congenital heart disease (17.1 per 10000. The relative risk (RR for maternal age less than 25 was 2.22 (95%CI: 2.05, 2.41. The RR of the ethnic Mongols was lower than Han Chinese (RR: 0.84; 95%CI: 0

  14. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods to prevent turbogenerators design elements defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Володимирівна Шевченко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that the determination of a failure probability due to the design, technological and operational drawbacks, as well as due to the turbogenerators working time exceeding from statistics data is inaccurate. Machine park of turbogenerators being rather limited in number, the classification and the distribution of generators into groups is random. It can not be used in practice to identify the pre-emergency state of turbogenerators and their timely stop. Analysis and classification of most frequent defects of turbogenerators has been performed. Methods for assessing such defects and reduction of their development have been offered. The article notes that expenses should be taken into account when setting up a monitoring system to assess the state and to identify defects. Reduction of expenditures on both operating and new turbogenerators must be justified. Rapid return of investments must be ensured. The list of additional tests has been proposed: measurement of infrared radiation outside the body of the turbogenerator for the estimation of the thermal field distribution and the defects of gas coolers identification; vibroacoustic inspection of the stator core and casing to find out the defects in the suspension of the core in the stator casing; analysis of the impurities in the cooling gas and in the dry remains of the drainage products to detect the products of the steel core and the winding insulation wear; value measurement and establishment of the partial discharges formation position; research of vibrations to reveal the cracks in the shaft, circuiting in the rotor windings and defects in the bearings. The paper notes that at upgrading as power grows overall and mounting dimensions must be preserved so that the existing foundation could be used as well as the existing security systems. Therefore, when designing or upgrading turbogenerators with an increase in power it is necessary to introduce new design decisions

  16. Maternal diabetes induces congenital heart defects in mice by altering the expression of genes involved in cardiovascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Srinivasan Dinesh; Dheen, S Thameem; Tay, Samuel Sam Wah

    2007-10-30

    Congenital heart defects are frequently observed in infants of diabetic mothers, but the molecular basis of the defects remains obscure. Thus, the present study was performed to gain some insights into the molecular pathogenesis of maternal diabetes-induced congenital heart defects in mice. We analyzed the morphological changes, the expression pattern of some genes, the proliferation index and apoptosis in developing heart of embryos at E13.5 from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Morphological analysis has shown the persistent truncus arteriosus combined with a ventricular septal defect in embryos of diabetic mice. Several other defects including defective endocardial cushion (EC) and aberrant myofibrillogenesis have also been found. Cardiac neural crest defects in experimental embryos were analyzed and validated by the protein expression of NCAM and PGP 9.5. In addition, the protein expression of Bmp4, Msx1 and Pax3 involved in the development of cardiac neural crest was found to be reduced in the defective hearts. The mRNA expression of Bmp4, Msx1 and Pax3 was significantly down-regulated (p hearts of experimental embryos. Further, the proliferation index was significantly decreased (p cells were significantly increased (p heart defects.

  17. Visual field defects due to optic disk drusen in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval, Susana; Visa, Josep; Contreras, Inés

    2013-10-01

    Optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) are deposits due to abnormalities in axonal metabolism and degeneration. Studies so far have focused on adults. Our aim was to study the effect of ONHD on visual function as well as optic nerve head structure using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in children. Subjects younger than 18 years of age with ONHD and who had a reliable visual field defect in at least one eye due to ONHD were considered for inclusion. All subjects underwent an extensive ophthalmic examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), funduscopy, and SITA 24-2 standard automated perimetry. OCT scanning was performed using Cirrus-HD Model 4000. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness data were compared with a group of age-matched healthy children. Fifteen children were included, with a mean age of 13 years (range 7 to 17 years). BCVA was 1.0 in all eyes, except in a child with concomitant esotropia. ONHD were bilateral in 13 children. Among the 28 eyes with ONHD, 12 (43%) were classified as type 1 (buried), eight (29%) as type 2 (ringed) and eight (29%) as type 3 (superficial). All children had a visual field defect in at least one eye, according to the inclusion criteria; however, two eyes (7%) had no defect in spite of the presence of ONHD. Five eyes showed an isolated enlarged blind spot (18%), 15 cases showed a nasal defect (54%), and six eyes showed a constricted visual field (21%). RNFL thickness was higher in type 1 and 2 ONHD than in the control group, although these differences were only significant for the average, superior, and inferior quadrant thicknesses in type 1 and the inferior quadrant in type 2. RNFL thickness was lower in type 3 ONHD than in the control group, although these differences were only significant for the average, superior, and nasal quadrant thicknesses. ONHD may lead to the development of visual field defects, even in children. In initial stages, ONHD produce an increase in RNFL thickness as measured with OCT. As

  18. Seed defective reduction in automotive Electro-Deposition Coating Process of truck cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonthilug, Aekkalag; Chutima, Parames

    2018-02-01

    The case study company is one of players in Thailand’s Automotive Industry who manufacturing truck and bus for both domestic and international market. This research focuses on a product quality problem about seed defects occurred in the Electro-Deposition Coating Process of truck cabin. The 5-phase of Six Sigma methodology including D-Define, M-Measure, A-Analyze, I-Improve, and C-Control is applied to this research to identify root causes of problem for setting new parameters of each significant factor. After the improvement, seed defects in this process is reduced from 9,178 defects per unit to 876 defects per unit (90% improvement)

  19. Splitting, linking, knotting, and solitonic escape of topological defects in nematic drops with handles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasinkevych, Mykola; Campbell, Michael G; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2014-11-18

    Topologically nontrivial field excitations, including solitonic, linked, and knotted structures, play important roles in physical systems ranging from classical fluids and liquid crystals, to electromagnetism, classic, and quantum field theories. These excitations can appear spontaneously during symmetry-breaking phase transitions. For example, in cosmological theories, cosmic strings may have formed knotted configurations influencing the Early Universe development, whereas in liquid crystals transient tangled defect lines were observed during isotropic-nematic transitions, eventually relaxing to defect-free states. Knotted and solitonic fields and defects were also obtained using optical manipulation, complex-shaped colloids, and frustrated cholesterics. Here we use confinement of nematic liquid crystal by closed surfaces with varied genus and perpendicular boundary conditions for a robust control of appearance and stability of such field excitations. Theoretical modeling and experiments reveal structure of defect lines as a function of the surface topology and material and geometric parameters, establishing a robust means of controlling solitonic, knotted, linked, and other field excitations.

  20. Pattern recognition of concrete surface cracks and defects using integrated image processing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbin, Jessie R.; Hortinela, Carlos C.; Garcia, Ramon G.; Baylon, Sunnycille; Ignacio, Alexander Joshua; Rivera, Marco Antonio; Sebastian, Jaimie

    2017-06-01

    Pattern recognition of concrete surface crack defects is very important in determining stability of structure like building, roads or bridges. Surface crack is one of the subjects in inspection, diagnosis, and maintenance as well as life prediction for the safety of the structures. Traditionally determining defects and cracks on concrete surfaces are done manually by inspection. Moreover, any internal defects on the concrete would require destructive testing for detection. The researchers created an automated surface crack detection for concrete using image processing techniques including Hough transform, LoG weighted, Dilation, Grayscale, Canny Edge Detection and Haar Wavelet Transform. An automatic surface crack detection robot is designed to capture the concrete surface by sectoring method. Surface crack classification was done with the use of Haar trained cascade object detector that uses both positive samples and negative samples which proved that it is possible to effectively identify the surface crack defects.

  1. Reconstruction of full thickness abdominal wall defect following tumor resection: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reconstruction of a full thickness abdominal wall defect is a demanding procedure for general and also for plastic surgeons, requiring vigorous planning and reconstruction of three layers. Case Outline. We present a case of a 70-year-old patient with a huge abdominal wall tumor with 40 years evolution. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. Full thickness abdominal defect appeared after the tumor resection. Reconstruction followed in the same act. The defect was reconstructed using a combination of techniques, including omental flap, fascia lata graft, local skin flaps and skin grafts. After surgery no major complications were noted, only a partial skin flap loss, which was repaired using partial thickness skin grafts. The final result was described by the patient as very good, without hernia formation. Conclusion. Omenthoplasty, abdominal wall reconstruction in combination with free fascia lata graft and skin grafts can be one of good options for the reconstruction of full thickness abdominal wall defects.

  2. Size and location of defects at the coupling interface affect lithotripter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyan; Williams, James C; Pishchalnikov, Yuri A; Liu, Ziyue; McAteer, James A

    2012-12-01

    within the coupling window acted to narrow the focal width of the lithotripter; an 8.2% defect reduced the focal width ~30% compared to no obstruction (4.4 mm vs 6.5 mm). • Coupling defects located slightly off centre disrupted the symmetry of the acoustic field; an 18% defect positioned 1.0 cm off-axis shifted the focus of maximum positive pressure ~1.0 mm laterally. • Defects on and off-axis imposed a significant reduction in the energy density of shock waves across the focal zone. • In addition to blocking the transmission of shock-wave energy, coupling defects also disrupt the properties of shock waves that play a role in stone breakage, including the focal width of the lithotripter and the symmetry of the acoustic field • The effect is dependent on the size and location of defects, with defects near the centre of the coupling window having the greatest effect. • These data emphasize the importance of eliminating air pockets from the coupling interface, particularly defects located near the centre of the coupling window. © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  3. Visual detection of defects in solder joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaignan, V. B.; Bourbakis, Nikolaos G.; Moghaddamzadeh, Ali; Yfantis, Evangelos A.

    1995-03-01

    The automatic, real-time visual acquisition and inspection of VLSI boards requires the use of machine vision and artificial intelligence methodologies in a new `frame' for the achievement of better results regarding efficiency, products quality and automated service. In this paper the visual detection and classification of different types of defects on solder joints in PC boards is presented by combining several image processing methods, such as smoothing, segmentation, edge detection, contour extraction and shape analysis. The results of this paper are based on simulated solder defects and a real one.

  4. Point defect relaxation volumes for copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.M.

    1979-11-01

    The methods used for the determination of point defect relaxation volumes are discussed and it is shown that a previous interatomic potential derived for copper is inaccurate and results obtained using it are invalid. A new interatomic potential has been produced for copper and a computer simulation of point and planar defects carried out. A vacancy relaxation volume of -0.33 atomic volumes has been found with interstitial values in the range 1.7 to 2.0 atomic volumes. It is shown that these values in current theories of irradiation induced swelling lead to an anomalously high value for dislocation bias compared with that determined experimentally. (author)

  5. Keyhole defect production in tubular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, H E; Gunther, W M

    2000-03-01

    Fracture characteristics, reported primarily for the cranium, are valuable indicators of bullet direction. A bullet striking the vault tangentially produces an irregular opening, termed a "keyhole defect." with the circular portion of the defect being the initial point of impact. Identifying this feature in tubular bone (long bone) can also demonstrate bullet direction and the position of the bone at the time of the shooting. This case study involving a tangential shot (i.e., a keyhole fracture) to the humerus demonstrates some of the same fracture mechanics seen in the cranium.

  6. Agglomeration defects on irradiated carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Stein Moura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT were irradiated in the longitudinal and perpendicular directions, with low energy carbon and helium ions in order to observe the formation of defects in the atomic structure. Analysis through Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy indicated bundle rupture and ion track formation on nanotube bundles. Aligned CNT presented a kind of defect comprising ravine formation and tube agglomeration on top of the substrate. The latter structure is possibly caused by static charge accumulation induced by the incoming ions. Fluence plays a role on the short range order. Higher fluence irradiation transforms CNT into amorphous carbon nanowires.

  7. Renal acidification defects in medullary sponge kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Hansen, A B; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen patients with medullary sponge kidney underwent a short ammonium chloride loading test to investigate their renal acidification capacity. All but 1 presented with a history of recurrent renal calculi and showed bilateral widespread renal medullary calcification on X-ray examination. Nine...... patients had some form of renal acidification defect; 8 had the distal type of renal tubular acidosis, 2 the complete and 6 the incomplete form. One patient had proximal renal tubular acidosis. These findings, which suggest that renal acidification defects play an important role in the pathogenesis...... of renal calculi in medullary sponge kidney, have considerable therapeutic implications....

  8. Photoresponse in graphene induced by defect engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruxia; Wang, Wenhui; Du, Jianxin; Guo, Xitao; Liu, Er; Bing, Dan; Bai, Jing

    2016-11-01

    We present a photoresponse study on a lateral defect/pristine graphene junction device fabricated by a simple plasma irradiation method. The junction between pristine graphene and plasma-modified graphene was created by controlling the location of Ar+ plasma treatment. We found that a distinct photocurrent was generated at the junction by photocurrent line scanning measurements, and further analysis reveals that the photo-thermoelectric (PTE) effect, instead of the photovoltaic (PV) effect, dominates the photocurrent generation at the interface. Additionally, the obtained results suggest that tuning the defect density could be effective in modulating the optoelectronic performance of junctions in our device.

  9. Defects in Static Elasticity of Quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A review on mathematical elasticity of quasicrystals is given. In this review, the focus is on various defects of quasicrystals. Dislocation and crack are two classes of typical topological defects, while their existence has great influence on the mechanical behavior of quasicrystals. The analytic and numerical solutions of dislocations and crack in quasicrystals are the core of the static and dynamic elasticity theory, and this paper gives a comprehensive review on the solutions for dislocations and crack with different configurations in different various important quasicrystalline systems. We review some results in linear elasticity of quasicrystals, referring to different boundary value problems. We also add some new achievements.

  10. GaN: Defect and Device Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1998-11-09

    The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

  11. Electronic structure of defects in semiconductor heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussy, Bernard; Ganghoffer, Jean Francois

    2002-01-01

    Full text.heterojunctions and semiconductors and superlattices are well known and well used by people interested in optoelectronics communications. Components based on the use of heterojunctions are interesting for confinement of light and increase of quantum efficiency. An heterojunction is the contact zone between two different semiconductors, for example GaAs and Ga 1-x Al x As. Superlattices are a succession of heterojunctions (up to 10 or 20). These systems have been the subjects of many experiments ao analyse the contact between semiconductors. They also have been theoretically studied by different types of approach. The main result of those studies is the prediciton of band discontinuities. Defects in heterojunctions are real traps for charge carriers; they can affect the efficiency of the component decreasing the currents and the fluxes in it. the knowledge of their electronic structure is important, a great density of defects deeply modifies the electronic structure of the whole material creating real new bands of energy in the band structure of the component. in the first part of this work, we will describe the heterostructure and the defect in terms of quantum wells and discrete levels. This approach allows us to show the role of the width of the quantum well describing the structure but induces specific behaviours due to the one dimensional modelling. Then a perturbative treatment is proposed using the Green's functions formalism. We build atomic chains with different types of atoms featuring the heterostructure and the defect. Densities of states of a structure with a defect and levels associated to the defect are obtained. Results are comparable with the free electrons work, but the modelling do not induce problems due to a one dimensional approach. To extend our modelling, a three dimensions approach, based on a cavity model, is investigated. The influence of the defect, - of hydrogenoid type - introduced in the structure, is described by a cavity

  12. Gauge theory and defects in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Edelen, DGB

    2012-01-01

    This new series Mechanics and Physics of Discrete Systems aims to provide a coherent picture of the modern development of discrete physical systems. Each volume will offer an orderly perspective of disciplines such as molecular dynamics, crystal mechanics and/or physics, dislocation, etc. Emphasized in particular are the fundamentals of mechanics and physics that play an essential role in engineering applications.Volume 1, Gauge Theory and Defects in Solids, presents a detailed development of a rational theory of the dynamics of defects and damage in solids. Solutions to field e

  13. Management of Class I and Class II Amalgam Restorations with Localized Defects: Five-Year Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of dental restorations has been the traditional treatment for defective restorations. This five-year prospective clinical trial evaluated amalgam restorations with localized defects that were treated by means of repair or refurbishing. Fifty-two patients (50% female and 50% male, mean age 28.3±18.1 years, range 18–80 with 160 class I and class II defective restorations were included. The study focused on the application of two minimally invasive treatments for localized restoration defects and compared these with no treatment and total replacement as negative and positive controls, respectively. Restorations were assessed by two calibrated examiners according to modified U.S. Public Health Service criteria, including marginal adaptation, anatomic form, secondary caries, and roughness. At five years, recall was examined in 45 patients with 108 restorations (67.5%. The results suggest that repair treatment is as effective as total replacement of restorations with localized defects, reducing biological costs to the patient and providing new tools to the clinician. Refinishing restoration is a useful treatment for localized anatomic form defects.

  14. Functional outcome following treatment of segmental skeletal defects of the forearm bones by Ilizarov application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mowafi, Hani; Elalfi, Barakat; Wasfi, Khaled

    2005-04-01

    Managing a segmental skeletal defect is a challenge, even more so if the combination of local infection with bone defect exacerbates the problem and provides an even more negative prognosis. Several techniques have been tried, among which skeletal allografts, autologous cortical or cancellous bone graft and vascularised bone graft, each with its limitation and success. In this study, we report our results with the Ilizarov method of bone transport to overcome bone defects of forearm bones due to infection. This series included 16 patients with bone defects of forearm bones, following either debridement of osteomylitis or infected nonunion. The mean time from injury to the Ilizarov procedure was 11.7 months. The mean number of operative procedures before application of the Ilizarov device was 3.4. The mean length of the defects after debridement was 6.4 cm. Monofocal osteotomy was performed. The mean external fixation index, distraction index and maturation index were 41.5 days/cm, 19.8 days/ cm, and 21.7 days/cm respectively. The mean time in the frame was 8.9 months. The mean total duration of treatment was 11.4 months. There were 14 complications in 11 patients including pin-track infection, premature consolidation, delayed union at the docking site and refracture. Ilizarov's technique of bone transport is an ideal solution for a large skeletal defect in spite of the high incidence of associated complications.

  15. Periodontal regeneration - furcation defects: a systematic review from the AAP Regeneration Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Ortiz, Gustavo; De Buitrago, Juan G; Reddy, Michael S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this review is to present the available evidence regarding the effectiveness of different regenerative approaches for the treatment of furcation defects in specific clinical scenarios compared with conventional surgical therapy to provide clinical guidelines for the therapeutic management of furcation defects and to identify priorities for future research that may advance the understanding of periodontal regenerative medicine. A comprehensive search based on predetermined eligibility criteria was conducted to identify human original studies and systematic reviews on the topic of periodontal regeneration of furcation defects. Two reviewers independently screened the title and abstract of the entries yielded from the initial search. Subsequently, both reviewers read the full-text version of potentially eligible studies, made a final article selection, and extracted the data of the selected studies considering specific clinical scenarios. The clinical scenarios contemplated in this review included the following: 1) facial and interproximal Class I defects in maxillary molars; 2) facial and lingual Class I defects in mandibular molars; 3) facial and interproximal Class II furcation defects in maxillary molars; 4) facial and lingual Class II furcation defects in mandibular molars; 5) Class III furcation defects in maxillary molars; 6) Class III furcation defects in mandibular molars; and 7) Class I, II, or III furcation defects in maxillary premolars. Endpoints of interest included different clinical, radiographic, microbiologic, histologic, and patient-reported outcomes. The initial search yielded a total of 1,500 entries. The final selection consisted of 150 articles, of which six were systematic reviews, 109 were clinical trials, 27 were case series, and eight were case reports. A summary of the main findings of previously published systematic reviews and the available evidence relative to the indication of regenerative approaches for the treatment of

  16. Enamel hypoplasia in the deciduous teeth of great apes: variation in prevalence and timing of defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, J R

    2001-11-01

    . Results from all three study collections reveal that among the great apes, gorillas (87-92%) and orangutans (91%) have a significantly higher prevalence of canine enamel defects than chimpanzees (22-48%). Sex differences in canine enamel hypoplasia are small and not statistically significant in any great ape. Factors influencing intergroup variation in prevalence of enamel defects and their distribution on the canine crown, including physiological stress and interspecific dento-gnathic morphological variation, are evaluated. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Scanning laser polarimetry and optical coherence tomography for detection of retinal nerve fiber layer defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Yong Yeon

    2009-09-01

    To compare the ability of scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDx-VCC) and Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect photographic retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defects. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 45 eyes of 45 consecutive glaucoma patients with RNFL defects in red-free fundus photographs. The superior and inferior temporal quadrants in each eye were included for data analysis separately. The location and presence of RNFL defects seen in red-free fundus photographs were compared with those seen in GDx-VCC deviation maps and OCT RNFL analysis maps for each quadrant. Of the 90 quadrants (45 eyes), 31 (34%) had no apparent RNFL defects, 29 (32%) had focal RNFL defects, and 30 (33%) had diffuse RNFL defects in red-free fundus photographs. The highest agreement between GDx-VCC and red-free photography was 73% when we defined GDx-VCC RNFL defects as a cluster of three or more color-coded squares (p<5%) along the traveling line of the retinal nerve fiber in the GDx-VCC deviation map (kappa value, 0.388; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.195 to 0.582). The highest agreement between OCT and red-free photography was 85% (kappa value, 0.666; 95% CI, 0.506 to 0.825) when a value of 5% outside the normal limit for the OCT analysis map was used as a cut-off value for OCT RNFL defects. According to the kappa values, the agreement between GDx-VCC deviation maps and red-free photography was poor, whereas the agreement between OCT analysis maps and red-free photography was good.

  18. Somatic Development in Children with Congenital Heart Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poryo, Martin; Paes, Laura Antonia; Pickardt, Thomas; Bauer, Ulrike M M; Meyer, Sascha; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Somatic development is impaired in children with congenital heart defects (CHDs), and head circumference seems to be a strong predictor of neurodevelopmental prognosis. The aim of this study was to generate up-to-date reference values for the somatic development (head circumference, body weight, and length/height) of children with CHDs. Our study population consisted of all patients included in the PAN study (Prävalenz angeborener Herzfehler bei Neugeborenen in Deutschland), which was conducted prospectively over a 3-year study period by the Competence Network for Congenital Heart Defects. All children with mild, moderate, and severe CHDs born in 2006-2009 in Germany were enrolled. For computing of z-scores, only children with the following characteristics were included: appropriate for gestational age, nonsyndromic disease, term or post-term delivery, and no cardiac surgery. There were 2818 patients included. New z-scores for the described somatic measures of children with mild, moderate, and severe CHDs were computed. Comparisons with the KiGGS study (Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland) and the Berlin Longitudinal Study revealed significantly lower measurements for all measures-most notably in children with severe CHDs and/or cardiac surgery. In our cohort, no catch-up growth was seen after cardiac surgery. Children with severe CHDs demonstrated the most abnormal pattern in growth, including head circumference before and after cardiac surgery, which is indicative of accompanying brain pathology unrelated to operative injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Point defects and defect clusters examined on the basis of some fundamental experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppiroli, L.

    1975-01-01

    On progressing from the centre of the defect to the surface the theoretical approach to a point defect passes from electronic theories to elastic theory. Experiments by which the point defect can be observed fall into two categories. Those which detect long-range effects: measurement of dimensional variations in the sample; measurement of the mean crystal parameter variation; elastic X-ray scattering near the nodes of the reciprocal lattice (Huang scattering). Those which detect more local effects: low-temperature resistivity measurement; positron capture and annihilation; local scattering far from the reciprocal lattice nodes. Experiments involving both short and long-range effects can always be found. This is the case for example with the dechanneling of α particles by defects. Certain of the experimental methods quoted above apply also to the study of point defect clusters. These methods are illustrated by some of their most striking results which over the last twenty years have refined our knowledge of point defects and defect clusters: length and crystal parameter measurements; diffuse X-ray scattering; low-temperature resistivity measurements; ion emission microscopy; electron microscopy; elastoresistivity [fr

  20. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  1. Defects and Disorder in the Drosophila Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangwoo; Carthew, Richard; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    Cell division and differentiation tightly control the regular pattern in the normal eye of the Drosophila fruit fly while certain genetic mutations introduce disorder in the form of topological defects. Analyzing data from pupal retinas, we develop a model based on Voronoi construction that explains the defect statistics as a consequence of area variation of individual facets (ommatidia). The analysis reveals a previously unknown systematic long-range area variation that spans the entire eye, with distinct effects on topological disorder compared to local fluctuations. The internal structure of the ommatidia and the stiffness of their interior cells also plays a crucial role in the defect generation. Accurate predictions of the correlation between the area variation and the defect density in both normal and mutant animals are obtained without free parameters. This approach can potentially be applied to cellular systems in many other contexts to identify size-topology correlations near the onset of symmetry breaking. This work has been supported by the NIH (GM098077) and the NSF (Grant No. 1504301).

  2. What Are the Types of Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientific Counselors (BSC) National Advisory Child Health and Human Development (NACHHD) Council Council Archive National Advisory Board on ... defects, such as missing or misshaped valves Abnormal limbs, such as a ... to the growth and development of the brain and spinal cord Functional or ...

  3. Ultrasound stimulation of mandibular bone defect healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, Jurjen

    2004-01-01

    The conclusions of the experimental work presented in this thesis are: 1. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is not effective in stimulating bone growth into a rat mandibular defect, either with or without the use of osteoconductive membranes. 2. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound does not seem to have an

  4. PROSTHETICS IN CANCER PATIENTS WITH ORBITAL DEFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kulakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthopedic treatment was performed in 53 patients with postoperative defects in the orbital area during 1969–2012. The developed practical guidelines could improve the cosmetic aspects of ectoprostheses, their fixation, and quality of life in the patients.

  5. 7 CFR 51.1564 - External defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false External defects. 51.1564 Section 51.1564 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wall defects managed in a tertiary center in Japan. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2009 Feb;35(1): ... Reviewed : August 2016 Published : March 6, 2018 The resources on this site should not be used as a ... Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Library of ...

  7. 49 CFR 213.113 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., oriented in or near the transverse plane, due to incomplete penetration of the weld metal between the rail ends, lack of fusion between weld and rail end metal, entrainment of slag or sand, under-bead or other shrinkage cracking, or fatigue cracking. Weld defects may originate in the rail head, web, or base, and in...

  8. Parotidectomy with simultaneously reconstruction after surgical defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khasanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to improve the results of parotidectomy with using the simultaneously reconstruction surgery in the postoperative defects.Background. The radical surgical treatment for salivary gland tumors is parotidectomy with preservation of the facial nerve. However, this treatment leads to postoperative defects and Frey’s syndrome (25 % of cases. Elimination of the above-mentioned disadvantages requires plastic, reconstructive surgery.Materials and methods. In the department of head and neck tumors in the National Cancer Center of Uzbekistan during the period 2015 to 2016 were performed parotidectomy with preservation of the facial nerve and simultaneous retromandibular zone reconstruction with displacing muscle flap in 29 patients. In 25 (86 % patients diagnosed mixed tumor (pleomorphic adenoma and 4 (14 % patients had cancer of parotid gland with the verification of histology.Results. In all of 29 patients were performed parotidectomy with preservation of the facial nerve and the simultaneous reconstruction of retromandibular zone with displacing own bodymuscle flap reduced postoperative complications, which had been revealed before as a defect and hypersensitivity of the retromandibular area.Conclusions. Reconstructive-restorative surgery in patients with tumors in the parotid gland after parotidectomy with saving of the facial nerve is decreased number of cosmetic defect and hypersensitivity. Using the own bodymuscle flap is preferred to patients than allotransplant.

  9. Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, C.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    An osteochondral defect (OCD) of the talus involves the articular cartilage and subchondral bone. It most frequently appears in the second and third decade of life. A traumatic insult, usually ankle sprain, is the most frequent etiologic factor. The typical symptom is persistent or intermittent deep

  10. Point defects in group IV semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzini, S

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this book is to focus on the properties of defects in semiconductors of the fourth group under a physico-chemical approach, capable to demonstrate whether the full acknowledgement of their chemical nature could account for several problems encountered in practice or would suggest further experimental or theoretical accomplishments.

  11. The real defect and its nondestructive characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, H.

    1982-01-01

    Nondestructive test techniques to evaluate defect severity and component degradation are typically based on transmission of energy into the material to be inspected. The capabilities of such techniques are controlled by physical phenomena which generally do not coincide with inspection requirements. This paper reviews several recent developments (mainly in ultrasonic and eddy current testing) which highlight the state of the art

  12. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  13. Optical defect modes in chiral liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, V. A.; Semenov, S. V.

    2011-01-01

    An analytic approach to the theory of optical defect modes in chiral liquid crystals (CLCs) is developed. The analytic study is facilitated by the choice of the problem parameters. Specifically, an isotropic layer (with the dielectric susceptibility equal to the average CLC dielectric susceptibility) sandwiched between two CLC layers is studied. The chosen model allows eliminating the polarization mixing and reducing the corresponding equations to the equations for light of diffracting polarization only. The dispersion equation relating the defect mode (DM) frequency to the isotropic layer thickness and an analytic expression for the field distribution in the DM structure are obtained and the corresponding dependences are plotted for some values of the DM structure parameters. Analytic expressions for the transmission and reflection coefficients of the DM structure (CLC-defect layer-CLC) are presented and analyzed for nonabsorbing, absorbing, and amplifying CLCs. The anomalously strong light absorption effect at the DM frequency is revealed. The limit case of infinitely thick CLC layers is considered in detail. It is shown that for distributed feedback lasing in a defect structure, adjusting the lasing frequency to the DM frequency results in a significant decrease in the lasing threshold. The DM dispersion equations are solved numerically for typical values of the relevant parameters. Our approach helps clarify the physics of the optical DMs in CLCs and completely agrees with the corresponding results of the previous numerical investigations.

  14. Complement defects in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunsbaek, Maria Quisgaard; Lange, Bibi; Kjeldsen, Anette D

    2012-01-01

    The complement system is an important part of our immune system, and complement defects lead generally to increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune diseases. We have studied the role of complement activity in relation with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and more specifically studied wh...

  15. Importance of packing in spiral defect chaos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop two measures to characterize the geometry of patterns exhibited by the state of spiral defect chaos, a weakly turbulent regime of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. These describe the packing of contiguous stripes within the pattern by quantifying their length and nearest-neighbor distributions. The distributions ...

  16. Partial Auricular Defects; Classification & Reconstruction Guideline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The protruding position of the auricle makes it susceptible to trauma and results in a wide variety of auricular defects .Therefore many techniques had been developed for reconstruction .To select a proper technique may represent a challenge to the occasional otoplastic surgeon. This article proposes a ...

  17. Living with a Congenital Heart Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Heart Defects Data & Statistics Tracking & Research Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Multimedia and Tools Links to Other Websites ... was followed by a year of a salt-free diet and no school. Having ... I opted to become a software engineer, and took up a career in information ...

  18. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1988-01-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system...

  19. Generation of optical vorticity from topological defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeron, Sébastien [Institut Jean Lamour, Université de Lorraine, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Pereira, Erms [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-900 Maceió, Alagoas (Brazil); Escola Politécnica de Pernambuco, Universidade de Pernambuco, Rua Benfíca, 455, 50720-001 Recife, PE (Brazil); Moraes, Fernando, E-mail: moraes@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física and Departamento de Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Física, CCEN, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    The propagation of an electromagnetic wave along a chiral string (or screw dislocation) is studied. Adopting the formalism of differential forms, it is shown that the singular torsion of the defect is responsible for quantized modes. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the modes thus obtained have well defined orbital angular momentum, opening the possibility for applications relevant both for cosmology and for optics.

  20. 7 CFR 51.1565 - Internal defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal defects. 51.1565 Section 51.1565 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  1. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Paul A.; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S.; Tregillis, Ian L.; Schmitt, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-α emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR--12-00287) published earlier.

  2. Preshot Predictions for Defect Induced Mix (DIME) Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krasheninnikova, Natalia S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tregillis, Ian L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmitt, Mark J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-31

    In this memo, we evaluate the most probable yield and other results for the Defect Induced Mix (DIME-12A) Polar Direct Drive (PDD) capsule-only shots. We evaluate the expected yield, bang time, burn averaged ion temperature, and the average electron temperature of the Ge line-emitting region. We also include synthetic images of the capsule backlit by Cu K-{alpha} emission (8.39 keV) and core self-emission synthetic images. This memo is a companion to the maximum credible yield memo (LA-UR-12-00287) published earlier.

  3. Pressure-induced Phase Transitions in Defect Pyrochlores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Perottoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of pressure and temperature on four compounds with defect pyrochlore structure (NH4NbWO6, RbNbWO6, CsNbWO6 and p-WO3 is explored by means of X-ray diffraction, vibrational (Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopy and computer simulations. Several structural transitions were observed, including an unusual insertion reaction with volume increase at high pressures. This latter transition is further explored to reveal the influence on the transition pressure of the nature and ionic radius of the cation residing inside the cages formed by the pyrochlore framework.

  4. Highly defective oxides as sinter resistant thermal barrier coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2005-08-16

    A thermal barrier coating material formed of a highly defective cubic matrix structure having a concentration of a stabilizer sufficiently high that the oxygen vacancies created by the stabilizer interact within the matrix to form multi-vacancies, thereby improving the sintering resistance of the material. The concentration of stabilizer within the cubic matrix structure is greater than that concentration of stabilizer necessary to give the matrix a peak ionic conductivity value. The concentration of stabilizer may be at least 30 wt. %. Embodiments include a cubic matrix of zirconia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % yttria, and a cubic matrix of hafnia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % gadolinia.

  5. Visual field defects after temporal lobe resection for epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Alvilda T; Olsen, Ane Sophie; Litman, Minna

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine visual field defects (VFDs) using methods of varying complexity and compare results with subjective symptoms in a population of newly operated temporal lobe epilepsy patients. METHODS: Forty patients were included in the study. Two patients failed to perform VFD testing...... symptoms were only reported by 28% of the patients with a VFD and in two of eight (sensitivity=25%) with a severe VFD. Most patients (86%) considered VFD information mandatory. CONCLUSION: VFD continue to be a frequent adverse event after epilepsy surgery in the medial temporal lobe and may affect...

  6. Associations between maternal periconceptional exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and major birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Romitti, Paul A; Botto, Lorenzo D; Anderka, Marlene T; Krikov, Sergey V; Tarpey, Morgan K; Feldkamp, Marcia L

    2016-11-01

    While associations between secondhand smoke and a few birth defects (namely, oral clefts and neural tube defects) have been noted in the scientific literature, to our knowledge, there is no single or comprehensive source of population-based information on its associations with a range of birth defects among nonsmoking mothers. We utilized data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based multisite case-control study, to examine associations between maternal reports of periconceptional exposure to secondhand smoke in the household or workplace/school and major birth defects. The multisite National Birth Defects Prevention Study is the largest case-control study of birth defects to date in the United States. We selected cases from birth defect groups having >100 total cases, as well as all nonmalformed controls (10,200), from delivery years 1997 through 2009; 44 birth defects were examined. After excluding cases and controls from multiple births and whose mothers reported active smoking or pregestational diabetes, we analyzed data on periconceptional secondhand smoke exposure-encompassing the period 1 month prior to conception through the first trimester. For the birth defect craniosynostosis, we additionally examined the effect of exposure in the second and third trimesters as well due to the potential sensitivity to teratogens for this defect throughout pregnancy. Covariates included in all final models of birth defects with ≥5 exposed mothers were study site, previous live births, time between estimated date of delivery and interview date, maternal age at estimated date of delivery, race/ethnicity, education, body mass index, nativity, household income divided by number of people supported by this income, periconceptional alcohol consumption, and folic acid supplementation. For each birth defect examined, we used logistic regression analyses to estimate both crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for both

  7. Thermographic Imaging of Defects in Anisotropic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Y. A.; Winfree, W. P.

    2000-01-01

    Composite materials are of increasing interest to the aerospace industry as a result of their weight versus performance characteristics. One of the disadvantages of composites is the high cost of fabrication and post inspection with conventional ultrasonic scanning systems. The high cost of inspection is driven by the need for scanning systems which can follow large curve surfaces. Additionally, either large water tanks or water squirters are required to couple the ultrasonics into the part. Thermographic techniques offer significant advantages over conventional ultrasonics by not requiring physical coupling between the part and sensor. The thermographic system can easily inspect large curved surface without requiring a surface following scanner. However, implementation of Thermal Nondestructive Evaluations (TNDE) for flaw detection in composite materials and structures requires determining its limit. Advanced algorithms have been developed to enable locating and sizing defects in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Thermal Tomography is a very promising method for visualizing the size and location of defects in materials such as CFRP. However, further investigations are required to determine its capabilities for inspection of thick composites. In present work we have studied influence of the anisotropy on the reconstructed image of a defect generated by an inversion technique. The composite material is considered as homogeneous with macro properties: thermal conductivity K, specific heat c, and density rho. The simulation process involves two sequential steps: solving the three dimensional transient heat diffusion equation for a sample with a defect, then estimating the defect location and size from the surface spatial and temporal thermal distributions (inverse problem), calculated from the simulations.

  8. Blood flow patterns underlie developmental heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgett, Madeline; Thornburg, Kent; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Although cardiac malformations at birth are typically associated with genetic anomalies, blood flow dynamics also play a crucial role in heart formation. However, the relationship between blood flow patterns in the early embryo and later cardiovascular malformation has not been determined. We used the chicken embryo model to quantify the extent to which anomalous blood flow patterns predict cardiac defects that resemble those in humans and found that restricting either the inflow to the heart or the outflow led to reproducible abnormalities with a dose-response type relationship between blood flow stimuli and the expression of cardiac phenotypes. Constricting the outflow tract by 10-35% led predominantly to ventricular septal defects, whereas constricting by 35-60% most often led to double outlet right ventricle. Ligation of the vitelline vein caused mostly pharyngeal arch artery malformations. We show that both cardiac inflow reduction and graded outflow constriction strongly influence the development of specific and persistent abnormal cardiac structure and function. Moreover, the hemodynamic-associated cardiac defects recapitulate those caused by genetic disorders. Thus our data demonstrate the importance of investigating embryonic blood flow conditions to understand the root causes of congenital heart disease as a prerequisite to future prevention and treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Congenital heart defects result from genetic anomalies, teratogen exposure, and altered blood flow during embryonic development. We show here a novel "dose-response" type relationship between the level of blood flow alteration and manifestation of specific cardiac phenotypes. We speculate that abnormal blood flow may frequently underlie congenital heart defects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. [Ultrasound scanning of the distraction regenerate in case of multilocus elongation of the fragments in patients with defects of long bones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshikova, T I; Borzunov, D Iu; Dolganova, T I

    2014-01-01

    It was done ultrasound examination of distraction regenerates in patients with defect of bone tissue. The first group included 4 patients who had the size of congenital bone tissue defect 15.8±8.1 cm; the second group (3 patients) included posttraumatic defects with defect size 11.75±3.6 cm; the third group (4 patients) included posttraumatic defects with defect size 11±5.3 cm. It was discovered the particularities of distraction regenerate structural condition in case of low level of reparative osteogenesis. In the first group "ischemic" regenerate was characterized by slow formation of bone trabecules. In the second group "ischemic" regenerate had one or two hypo-echogenic cystic-like formations in the intermediate regenerate area. All patients of the third group had organotypic remodeling of the regenerate according to terms of distraction and fixation.

  10. The role of defects in laser damage of multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, M.R.; Chow, R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser induced damage to optical coatings is generally a localized phenomenon associated with coating defects. The most common of the defect types are the well-known nodule defect. This paper reviews the use of experiments and modeling to understand the formation of these defects and their interaction with laser light. Of particular interest are efforts to identify which defects are most susceptible to laser damage. Also discussed are possible methods for stabilizing these defects (laser conditioning) or preventing their initiation (source stabilization, spatter particle trapping)

  11. FOREWORD International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Mário Ernesto Giroldo; Jackson, R. A.

    2010-11-01

    These proceedings represent a sample of the scientific works presented during ICDIM2008, the 16th International Conference on Defects in Insulating Materials, held at the Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil from 24-29 August 2008. The conference was the latest in a series which began at Argonne in 1956, and which has been held most recently in Riga, Latvia (2004) and Johannesburg, South Africa (2000). The conference was also related scientifically to the EURODIM series, which have been held most recently in Milan, Italy (2006), Wroclaw, Poland (2002) and Pecs, Hungary (2010). The aim of the conference was to bring together physicists, chemists and materials scientist to discuss defects in insulating materials and their effect on materials, including their optical, mass/charge transport, energy storage and sensor properties. The conference featured 6 plenary lectures, 60 contributed lectures and about 130 posters. The posters were displayed for the whole conference, but discussed in two three-hour sessions. We are grateful to the International Advisory Committee for suggesting invited speakers and to the Programme Committee for their help in refereeing all the abstracts and choosing the contributed oral contributions. We would also like to thank the Local Organising Committee and the Brazilian Physical Society for their help with local organisation and the online registration/payment process respectively. The chairpersons would like to specially thanks all the sponsors listed below for financial support. The Federal University of Sergipe, one of the public and 'free tuition' Universities of the Country, run by the Brazilian Ministry of Education, were pleased to host this 16th meeting, the first one in Latin America. Mario E G Valerio Conference Chair Robert A Jackson Programme Chair Conference Scope Scope of the Conference was the presentation of the latest investigations on point and extended defects in bulk materials and thin films. Technological

  12. Analytic Methods for Evaluating Patterns of Multiple Congenital Anomalies in Birth Defect Registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Evans, Jane A; Lupo, Philip J

    2018-01-15

    It is estimated that 20 to 30% of infants with birth defects have two or more birth defects. Among these infants with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), co-occurring anomalies may represent either chance (i.e., unrelated etiologies) or pathogenically associated patterns of anomalies. While some MCA patterns have been recognized and described (e.g., known syndromes), others have not been identified or characterized. Elucidating these patterns may result in a better understanding of the etiologies of these MCAs. This article reviews the literature with regard to analytic methods that have been used to evaluate patterns of MCAs, in particular those using birth defect registry data. A popular method for MCA assessment involves a comparison of the observed to expected ratio for a given combination of MCAs, or one of several modified versions of this comparison. Other methods include use of numerical taxonomy or other clustering techniques, multiple regression analysis, and log-linear analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of these approaches, as well as specific applications, were outlined. Despite the availability of multiple analytic approaches, relatively few MCA combinations have been assessed. The availability of large birth defects registries and computing resources that allow for automated, big data strategies for prioritizing MCA patterns may provide for new avenues for better understanding co-occurrence of birth defects. Thus, the selection of an analytic approach may depend on several considerations. Birth Defects Research 110:5-11, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity, thyroid hormone concentration and oxidant status in neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Sibel; Agacayak, Elif; Tunc, Senem Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Findik, Fatih Mehmet; Sak, Muhammet Erdal; Yalinkaya, Ahmet; Gul, Talip

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between neural tube defects and paraoxonase-1 activity in amniotic fluid. We studied total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, paraoxonase-1 activity and thyroid hormone amniotic fluid concentration in fetuses with neural tube defects. The present study was performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and the Department of Clinical Biochemistry of Dicle University between September 2011 and June 2013. The study group included 37 amniotic fluid samples from pregnant women (16-20 weeks of gestation) with fetuses affected by neural tube defects. The control group consisted of 36 pregnant women who were diagnosed with a high-risk pregnancy according to first or second trimester aneuploidy screening and were later confirmed on amniocentesis to have genetically normal fetuses. Amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity and total oxidant status were significantly higher (P = 0.023, P = 0.029, respectively) whereas free T4 was significantly lower (P = 0.022) in fetuses with neural tube defects compared with control subjects. In fetuses with neural tube defects, amniotic fluid paraoxonase-1 activity correlated positively with total oxidant status (r = 0.424**, P = 0.010), and amniotic fluid total antioxidant capacity correlated positively with free t4 (r = 0.381*, P = 0.022). This is the first study in the literature to show an association between paraoxonase-1 activity and thyroid hormone concentration and neural tube defects. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Finite element simulation of surface defects in the automobile door outer panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Masaru; Yamasaki, Yuji; Inage, Daisuke; Fujita, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a sheet metal forming simulation has become an indispensable tool for developing a new model of an automobile part within a limited short period. In these days, the utilization of a springback calculation of the formed part has been increasing. However, only a few papers on the prediction of surface defects have been reported in spite of serious needs.In this paper, surface defects in the door outer panel, especially those around the door handle embossment, have been investigated. Applying an explicit solver to the forming simulation, and an implicit solver to the springback calculation, we have tried to evaluate surface defects in the panel. In order to improve the accuracy of the simulation, numerical tools have been modeled including the precise shape of the draw beads so that the draw bead effects on both the material flow and the restraint on the springback deformation have been considered. Compared with the actual panel shape, which shows apparent surface defects, the simulated result has closely predicted the above defects around the embossment.To demonstrate the applicability of our simulation, a few sensitivity analyses have been carried out, modifying forming conditions such as blank holder force. Each result has shown slight but distinctive differences in the cross section profile of the panel. As a result, it has been realized that the influence of each considered factor on surface defects is qualitatively consistent with our practical knowledge

  15. First interim examination of defected BWR and PWR rods tested in unlimited air at 2290C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.; Cook, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A five-year whole rod test was initiated to investigate the long-term stability of spent fuel rods under a variety of possible dry storage conditions. Both PWR and BWR rods were included in the test. The first interim examination was conducted after three months of testing to determine if there was any degradation in those defected rods stored in an unlimited air atmosphere. Visual observations, diametral measurements and radiographic smears were used to assess the degree of cladding deformation and particulate dispersal. The PWR rod showed no measurable change from the pre-test condition. The two original artificial defects had not changed in appearance and there was no diametral growth of the cladding. One of the defects in BWR rod showed significant deformation. There was approximately 10% cladding strain at the defect site and a small axial crack had formed. The fuel in the defect did not appear to be friable. The second defect showed no visible change and no cladding strain. Following examination, the test was continued at 230 0 C. Another interim examination is planned during the summer of 1983. This paper discusses the details and meaning of the data from the first interim examination

  16. Strip Steel Surface Defects Recognition Based on SOCP Optimized Multiple Kernel RVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Jingzhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Strip steel surface defect recognition is a pattern recognition problem with wide applications. Previous works on strip surface defect recognition mainly focus on feature selection and dimension reduction. There are also approaches on real-time systems that mainly exploit the autocorrection within some given picture. However, the instances cannot be used in practical applications because of a bad recognition rate and low efficiency. In this paper, we study the intelligent algorithm of strip steel surface defect recognition, where the goal is to improve the accuracy and save running time. This problem is very important in various applications, especially the process testing of steel manufacturing. We propose an approach called the second-order cone programming (SOCP optimized multiple kernel relevance vector machine (MKRVM, which can recognize strip surface defects much better than other methods. The method includes the model parameter estimation, training, and optimization of the model based on SOCP and the classification test. We compare our approach with existing methods on strip surface defect recognition. The results demonstrate that our proposed approach can improve the recognition accuracy and reduce the time costs of the strip surface defect.

  17. Emerging Diluted Ferromagnetism in High‐T c Superconductors Driven by Point Defect Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Roger.; Mishra, Rohan; Bartolomé, Elena; Salafranca, Juan; Magén, Cesar; Varela, Maria; Coll, Mariona; Palau, Anna; Valvidares, S. Manuel; Gargiani, Pierluigi; Pellegrin, Eric; Herrero‐Martin, Javier.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Puig, Teresa; Obradors, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Defects in ceramic materials are generally seen as detrimental to their functionality and applicability. Yet, in some complex oxides, defects present an opportunity to enhance some of their properties or even lead to the discovery of exciting physics, particularly in the presence of strong correlations. A paradigmatic case is the high‐temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7‐δ (Y123), in which nanoscale defects play an important role as they can immobilize quantized magnetic flux vortices. Here previously unforeseen point defects buried in Y123 thin films that lead to the formation of ferromagnetic clusters embedded within the superconductor are unveiled. Aberration‐corrected scanning transmission microscopy has been used for exploring, on a single unit‐cell level, the structure and chemistry resulting from these complex point defects, along with density functional theory calculations, for providing new insights about their nature including an unexpected defect‐driven ferromagnetism, and X‐ray magnetic circular dichroism for bearing evidence of Cu magnetic moments that align ferromagnetically even below the superconducting critical temperature to form a dilute system of magnetic clusters associated with the point defects. PMID:27812469

  18. Traffic jam in the primitive streak: the role of defective mesoderm migration in birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herion, Nils J; Salbaum, J Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    Gastrulation is the process in which the three germ layers are formed that contribute to the formation of all major tissues in the developing embryo. We here review mouse genetic models in which defective gastrulation leads to mesoderm insufficiencies in the embryo. Depending on severity of the abnormalities, the outcomes range from incompatible with embryonic survival to structural birth defects, such as heart defects, spina bifida, or caudal dysgenesis. The combined evidence from the mutant models supports the notion that these congenital anomalies can originate from perturbations of mesoderm specification, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and mesodermal cell migration. Knowledge about the molecular pathways involved may help to improve strategies for the prevention of major structural birth defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Computational Modeling of Nondestructive Evaluation, Defect Detection, and Defect Identification for CFRP Composite Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed work is to improve NDE state-of-the-art for detection and identification of manufacturing and service-initiated defects in CFRP...

  20. Building defects in Danish construction: project characteristics influencing the occurrence of defects at handover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Casper Siebken; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Bonke, Sten

    2015-01-01

    characteristics are the planning of budgetary conditions, time schedules and early, continuous quality control. Furthermore, this study also indicates collaboration between stakeholders plus skills and safety initiatives as having a positive influence on the performance measured as defects at handover....

  1. Investigations on tunneling and kissing bond defects in FSW joints for dissimilar aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Noor Zaman, E-mail: noor_0315@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi (India); Siddiquee, Arshad Noor; Khan, Zahid A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi (India); Shihab, Suha K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering College, Diyala University, Diyala (Iraq)

    2015-11-05

    In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of two Friction Stir Welding (FSW) parameters i.e. tool pin offset and tool plunge depth on the formation of defects such as tunnel (tunneling defect) and kissing bond (KB) during welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys. 4.75 mm thick plates of AA5083-H116 and AA6063-T6 were welded using a novel work-fixture developed in-house which, apart from clamping the plated also imparted continuous variation of offset on both side of the faying line. The tunneling defect was modeled as a function of offset and plunge depth. The welds were characterised using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical testing. The causes of such defects have been analyzed and discussed and recommendations have been made to prevent their occurrence. The findings of the study have revealed that the tunneling defects are formed at all offset (including zero offset) values towards stronger material (advancing side). And the cross-section of the tunnel varied with the amount of offset. Further, KBs are formed at the interface for all pin offset values except 0.5 mm towards weaker material and high plunge depth resulting in the poor mechanical properties. - Highlights: • Two dissimilar aluminum alloys are welded using FSW. • Formation of kissing bond and tunneling defects are investigated. • Defects are formed at pin offsets towards stronger material and also without offset. • The size of tunnel reduces significantly by increasing the plunge depth. • Tool pin offset towards weaker material prevent tunneling defects.

  2. Frequency of cardiac defects among children at echocardiography centre in a teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.S.; Majeed, R.; Channer, M.S.; Saleem, M.I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess frequency of cardiac defects among children from birth to 12 years of age on each Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted at echocardiography centre in coronary care unit at Bahawal Victoria Hby Paediatric Transthoracic echo probe; 2-D colour Doppler, Acuson CV-70 and Niemo-30 echocardiography machines. Mothers of children with cardiac defects were interviewed at the echocardiography centre. Variables included were A- Muscular plus Vascular defects; B- Valvular defects; C-Pericardial effusion; D- Dextrocardia and E- Congestive cardiac failure. History of children for sore throat followed by joint pains; history of mothers for drug intake (antihypertensive, antipyretic, anti-emetic, hypoglycaemic) as well as chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, anaemia) during pregnancy were surveyed. Parity of mothers, their cousin marriages, and family socio-economic status was also inquired. The results were tabulated, analyzed and finally subjected to suitable test of significant (SR of proportion) to find out statistical significant if any. Results: It was found that out of 150 patients, 76 (50.66%) were suffering from Cardiac muscular and Vascular defects, 61 (40.66%) Valvular defects, 7 (4.66%) Pericardial effusion, 2 (1.33%) Dextrocardia and 4 (2.66%) from Congestive Cardiac Failure. According to age, 54 (36%) were from birth to 3 years of age and 51 (34%) from 10 to 12 years. There was history of Rheumatic fever among 45 (30%) children. There were 106 (70.6%) children from lower socio-economic class and 79 (52.6%) parents had history of cousin marriages. Conclusion: Frequency of cardiac defects was more in children of male sex, lower socio-economic group, from birth to three years age and children from primipara mothers in our specified locality. Rheumatic fever, cousin's marriage, and prescribed drugs intake during pregnancy (for metabolic and hormonal disorders) were other contributors to cardiac defects. (author)

  3. Dental enamel defects predict adolescent health indicators: A cohort study among the Tsimane' of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Erin E; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Eisenberg, Dan T A; Conde, Esther; Hujoel, Philippe P

    2018-02-05

    Bioarchaeological findings have linked defective enamel formation in preadulthood with adult mortality. We investigated how defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood is associated with risk factors for adult morbidity and mortality in adolescents. This cohort study of 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years of age) related extent of enamel defects on the central maxillary incisors (none, less than 1/3, 1/3 to 2/3, more than 2/3) to adolescent anthropometrics (height, weight) and biomarkers (hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, white blood cell count, and blood pressure). Risk differences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multiple linear regression. Enamel defects and stunted growth were compared in their ability to predict adolescent health indicators using log-binomial regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Greater extent of defective enamel formation on the tooth surface was associated with shorter height (-1.35 cm, 95% CI: -2.17, -0.53), lower weight (-0.98 kg, 95% CI: -1.70, -0.26), lower hemoglobin (-0.36 g/dL, 95% CI: -0.59, -0.13), lower glycated hemoglobin (-0.04 %A 1c , 95% CI: -0.08, -0.00008), and higher white blood cell count (0.74 10 9 /L, 95% CI: 0.35, 1.14) in adolescence. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth independently performed similarly as risk factors for adverse adolescent outcomes, including anemia, prediabetes/type II diabetes, elevated WBC count, prehypertension/hypertension, and metabolic health. Defective enamel formation in infancy and childhood predicted adolescent health outcomes and may be primarily associated with infection. Extent of enamel defects and stunted growth may be equally predictive of adverse adolescent health outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Mandibular defect reconstruction with nonvascularized iliac crest bone graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoje, V N; Obimakinde, O S; Arotiba, J T; Fasola, A O; Ogunlade, S O; Obiechina, A E

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of mandibular defect is a challenge to the head and neck surgeon because of associated functional and esthetic problems. Our experience with the use of nonvascularized iliac crest bone graft is hereby reported. The aim was to report our experience with the use of nonvascularized iliac crest bone for mandibular defect reconstruction at University College Hospital, Ibadan. Nigeria. A retrospective descriptive study was performed. Cases of mandibular reconstruction with iliac crest bone graft between January 2001 and December 2007 were included in this study. Grafts were secured with either a stainless steel wire or a titanium plate. Preoperative diagnosis, postoperative follow-up records including investigations, diagnosis of graft infection and subsequent treatment modalities were extracted from the available records. Descriptive variables were analyzed with SPSS version 14. A total of 47 patients had mandibular defect reconstruction with nonvascularized iliac crest block bone during the study period. Thirty-eight patients had graft secured with transosseous wire [NVIBw] while 9 had a titanium plate [NVIBp]. The male:female ratio was 26:21 while the mean age of the patients was 24.6±4.25 years. Ten patients (21.3%) developed persistent graft infection during the postoperative period. All cases of infection occurred in patients who had transosseous wiring and analysis showed that 60% of the infected grafts revealed mixed microbial isolates containing Klebsiela spp, Pseudomonas Aeurogenosa, and E coli. Six (60%) of the infected grafts were removed as a result of unabated infection while 4 (40%) were successfully treated by exploration and pus drainage. Nonvascularized iliac crest bone graft provides an affordable and less technical choice for mandibular reconstruction with minimal complications in a resource-limited economy.

  5. MULTIPLE VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS: A NEW STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Francesco Corno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONA multicenter prospective study was conducted to evaluate a new strategy for multiple Ventricular Septal Defects (VSDs.MATERIALS AND METHODSFrom 2004 to 2012 17 consecutive children (3 premature, 14 infants, mean age 3.2months (9 days to 9 months, mean body weight 4.2kg (3.1 to 6.1 kg, with multiple VSDs underwent Pulmonary Artery Banding (PAB with an adjustable FloWatch-PAB. Associated cardiac anomalies included patent ductus arteriosus (9, aortic coarctation (2, hypoplastic aortic arch (2 and left isomerism (1. Five patients (5/17 =29.4% required pre-operative mechanical ventilation, with a mean duration of 64 days (7 to 240 daysRESULTSThere were no early or late deaths during a mean follow-up of 48 months (7 to 98 months, with either FloWatch removal or last observation as end-points.FloWatch-PAB adjustments were required in all patients: a mean of 4.8 times/patient (2 to 9 to tighten the PAB, and a mean of 1.1 times/patient (0 to 3 to release the PAB with the patient’s growth. After a mean interval of 29 months (8 to 69 months 10/17 (59% patients underwent reoperation: 7/10 PAB removal, with closure of a remaining peri-membranous VSD in 6 and Damus-Kaye-Stansel, bi-directional Glenn, and atrial septectomy in 1; 3/9 patients required only PAB removal. All muscular multiple VSDs had closed in all 10 patients. PA reconstruction was required in 1/10 patient. In 5/7 of the remaining patients with the PAB still in situ, all muscular VSDs had already closed. The only 2 patients with persistent muscular multiple VSDs are the 2 patients with the shortest follow-up.CONCLUSIONS This reproducible new strategy with an adjustable PAB simplifies the management of infants with multiple VSDs and provides the following advantages: a good results (0% mortality, delayed surgery with a high incidence (15/17=88% of spontaneous closure of multiple muscular VSDs, and facilitated closure of residual peri-membranous VSD at an older age and h

  6. Extreme ultraviolet multilayer defect analysis and geometry reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongbo; Evanschitzky, Peter; Erdmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for the characterization of multilayer defects from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection images at different focus positions. The transport-of-intensity equation is applied to retrieve the phase distribution of the reflected light in the vicinity of the defect. The defect-induced intensity and phase modifications and their dependency from defect geometry parameters are analyzed by several selected optical properties of multilayer defect. To reconstruct the defect geometry parameters from the intensity and phase of a defect, a principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to parameterize the intensity and phase distributions into principal component coefficients. In order to construct the base functions of the PCA, a combination of a reference multilayer defect and appropriate pupil filters is introduced to obtain the designed sets of intensity and phase distributions. Finally, an artificial neural network is applied to correlate the principal component coefficients of the intensity and the phase of the defect with the defect geometry parameters and to reconstruct the unknown defect geometry parameters. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated both for mask blank defects and for defects in the vicinity of an absorber pattern.

  7. Implications of defect clusters formed in cascades on free defect generation and microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1992-12-01

    A large fraction of the defects produced by irradiation with energetic neutrons or heavy ions originates in cascades. Not only increased recombination of vacancy and interstitial defects but also significant clustering of like defects occur. Both processes reduce the number of point defects available for long range migration. Consequences of defect clustering in cascades will be discussed in a semi-quantitative form with the aid of calculations using a very simplified model: Quasi-steady-state distributions of immobile vacancy and/or interstitial clusters develop which, in turn, can become significant sinks for mobile defects, and, therefore reduce their lifetime. Although cluster sinks will cause segregation and, potentially, precipitation of second phases due to local changes of composition, the finite lifetime of clusters will not lead to lasting, local compositional changes. A transition from highly dense interstitial and vacancy cluster distributions to the void swelling regime occurs when the thermal evaporation of vacancies from small vacancy clusters becomes significant at higher temperatures. Unequal clustering of vacancies and interstitials leads to an imbalance of their fluxes of in the matrix and, hence, to unequal contributions to atom transport by interstitials and by vacancies even in the quasi-steady state approximation

  8. Classification of Atrial Septal Defect and Ventricular Septal Defect with Documented Hemodynamic Parameters via Cardiac Catheterization by Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Layered Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yıldız

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We aimed to develop a classification method to discriminate ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect by using severalhemodynamic parameters.Patients and Methods: Forty three patients (30 atrial septal defect, 13 ventricular septal defect; 26 female, 17 male with documentedhemodynamic parameters via cardiac catheterization are included to study. Such parameters as blood pressure values of different areas,gender, age and Qp/Qs ratios are used for classification. Parameters, we used in classification are determined by divergence analysismethod. Those parameters are; i pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, ii Qp/Qs ratio, iii right atrium pressure, iv age, v pulmonary arterysystolic pressure, vi left ventricular sistolic pressure, vii aorta mean pressure, viii left ventricular diastolic pressure, ix aorta diastolicpressure, x aorta systolic pressure. Those parameters detected from our study population, are uploaded to multi-layered artificial neuralnetwork and the network was trained by genetic algorithm.Results: Trained cluster consists of 14 factors (7 atrial septal defect and 7 ventricular septal defect. Overall success ratio is 79.2%, andwith a proper instruction of artificial neural network this ratio increases up to 89%.Conclusion: Parameters, belonging to artificial neural network, which are needed to be detected by the investigator in classical methods,can easily be detected with the help of genetic algorithms. During the instruction of artificial neural network by genetic algorithms, boththe topology of network and factors of network can be determined. During the test stage, elements, not included in instruction cluster, areassumed as in test cluster, and as a result of this study, we observed that multi-layered artificial neural network can be instructed properly,and neural network is a successful method for aimed classification.

  9. Anal sphincter defects and faecal incontinence 15-24 years after first delivery: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Rojas, Rodrigo A; Salvesen, Kjell Å; Volløyhaug, Ingrid

    2017-08-06

    To establish the prevalence of external (EAS) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) defects 15-24 years after childbirth in association to mode of delivery and faecal incontinence (FI), and compare the proportion of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) reported at delivery with defects on ultrasound. This was a cross-sectional study including 563 women, who delivered their first child from 1990-97. Women responded to a validated questionnaire (PFDI) in 2013-14. The proportion of women with FI was recorded. Information about OASIS was obtained from the National Birth Registry. Study participants underwent 4D transperineal ultrasound examination. A defect of the EAS and IAS of ≥30° in ≥4/6 planes on tomographic ultrasound was registered. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for comparison of prevalence of EAS defects between different modes of delivery and in association to FI. Fisher's exact test was used for IAS defects. Defects of EAS and IAS were found after normal delivery (n = 201): 10% and 1%; forceps (n = 144): 32% and 7%; vacuum (n = 120): 15% and 4%, and no defects after caesarean section (n = 98). Forceps was associated with increased risk of EAS defects compared to normal delivery (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 2.3-7.2) and vacuum (aOR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6-5.6) and increased risk of IAS defects compared to normal delivery (cOR 7.4, 95% CI 1.5-70.5). The difference between vacuum and normal delivery was not significant. FI was indicated by 18% of women with EAS defects, 29% with IAS defects and 8% without sphincter defects. EAS and IAS defects were associated with increased risk of FI (aOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.9; cOR 4.2, 95% CI 1.1-13.5). 80% of ultrasonographical sphincter defects were not reported as OASIS at first or subsequent deliveries. Anal sphincter defects visualized by transperineal ultrasound 15-24 years after delivery were associated with forceps and FI. Undetected OASIS was frequent. This article is

  10. [BIPADDLED SPLIT PECTORALIS MAJOR MYOCUTANEOUS FLAPS FOR IMMEDIATE RECONSTRUCTION OF ORAL MUCOSAL DEFECTS AND NECK DEFECTS AFTER RESECTION OF RECURRENT ORAL CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Jiang, Canhua; Li, Ning; Gao, Zhengyang; Chen, Lichun; Wu, Xiaoshan; Chen, Xinqun; Jian, Xinchun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for immediate reconstruction of oral mucosal defects and neck defects after resection of recurrent oral cancer. Six patients with oral mucosal defects combined with neck defects after recurrent oral cancer resection were treated with bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap between September 2013 and September 2014. There were 5 males and 1 female with an average age of 54.7 years (range, 45-62 years), including 4 cases of recurrent tongue cancer, 1 case of recurrent mandibular gingival cancer, and 1 case of mouth floor carcinoma. All patients underwent local recurrence at 8 to 14 months after first operation, with no distant metastasis. The defects of the intraoral mucosa was 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 3.5 cm and the defect of the neck skin was 5.5 cm x 3.5 cm to 7.5 cm x 5.0 cm. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps (14.0 cm x 3.5 cm to 17.0 cm x 5.5 cm) were incised at the level of the 3rd to the 4th rib, and then split down along the muscle fiber till about 2 cm away from the thoracoacromial vessels, forming 2 independent skin paddles with 1-2 branch vessels to the pedicles of the distal ones. The distal skin paddles were used for oral reconstruction while the proximal paddles for repair of neck defects. The chest donor sites were sutured directly. Cervical haematoma and infection happened in 1 patient respectively after operation, and were cured after symptomatic treatment. All 6 split pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps with 12 skin paddles completely survived. All patients were followed up 6 to 18 months (mean, 11 months). One patient died of pulmonary metastasis at 8 months after operation and the other 5 survived without relapse or metastasis during follow-up. The intraoral paddles showed good shape with satisfactory speech function and swallowing recovery. The paddles also healed perfectly on the neck with flat outlooks, and all patients obtained full

  11. Defects and permutation branes in the Liouville field theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkissian, Gor

    2009-01-01

    The defects and permutation branes for the Liouville field theory are considered. By exploiting cluster condition, equations satisfied by permutation branes and defects reflection amplitudes are obtained. It is shown that two types of solutions exist, discrete and continuous families....

  12. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Neural Tube Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How do health care providers diagnose neural tube defects? Neural tube defects ... AFP, as well as high levels of acetylcholinesterase; health care providers might conduct this test to confirm high ...

  13. Angio- and echocardiography: viewing heart defects in more detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, J.K.; Lombard, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Angio- and echocardiography can help to confirm the diagnosis or evaluate the severity of a heart defect. Angiograms of dogs with pulmonic stenosis and tetralogy of Fallot are shown. Echocardiographic features of common congenital heart defects are summarized

  14. Defect spectroscopy of single ZnO microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, M.; Ferreyra, J. M.; Zapata, C.; Barzola-Quiquia, J.; Iikawa, F.; Esquinazi, P.; Heluani, S. P.; de Lima, M. M.; Cantarero, A.

    2014-04-01

    The point defects of single ZnO microwires grown by carbothermal reduction were studied by microphotoluminescence, photoresistance excitation spectra, and resistance as a function of the temperature. We found the deep level defect density profile along the microwire showing that the concentration of defects decreases from the base to the tip of the microwires and this effect correlates with a band gap narrowing. The results show a characteristic deep defect levels inside the gap at 0.88 eV from the top of the VB. The resistance as a function of the temperature shows defect levels next to the bottom of the CB at 110 meV and a mean defect concentration of 4 × 1018 cm-3. This combination of techniques allows us to study the band gap values and defects states inside the gap in single ZnO microwires and opens the possibility to be used as a defect spectroscopy method.

  15. A Geometric Framework for the Kinematics of Crystals With Defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clayton, John D; Bammann, Douglas J; McDowell, David L

    2006-01-01

    ... fields, and plastic deformation resulting from defect fluxes. Also proposed is an additional micromorphic variable representing additional degrees-of-freedom associated with rotational lattice defects (i.e. disclinations...

  16. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Birth Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print How do health care providers diagnose birth defects? Diagnosis of birth defects depends on the specific problem and parts ... a physical examination of the baby immediately after birth. For other conditions, newborn screening or prenatal testing ...

  17. Development of Cloud Based Casting Defects Categorization System (CDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sata Amit V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Defects affect the properties and behavior of the casting during its service life. Since the defects can occur due to different reasons, they must be correctly identified and categorized, to enable applying the appropriate remedial measures. several different approaches for categorizing casting defects have been proposed in technical literature. They mainly rely on physical description, location, and formation of defects. There is a need for a systematic approach for classifying investment casting defects, considering appropriate attributes such as their size, location, identification stage, inspection method, consistency, appearance of defects. A systematic approach for categorization of investment casting defects considering multiple attributes: detection stage, size, shape, appearance, location, consistency and severity of occurrence. Information about the relevant attributes of major defects encountered in investment casting process has been collected from an industrial foundry. This has been implemented in a cloud-based system to make the system freely and widely accessible.

  18. Accurate modeling of defects in graphene transport calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Lukas; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Libisch, Florian

    2018-01-01

    We present an approach for embedding defect structures modeled by density functional theory into large-scale tight-binding simulations. We extract local tight-binding parameters for the vicinity of the defect site using Wannier functions. In the transition region between the bulk lattice and the defect the tight-binding parameters are continuously adjusted to approach the bulk limit far away from the defect. This embedding approach allows for an accurate high-level treatment of the defect orbitals using as many as ten nearest neighbors while keeping a small number of nearest neighbors in the bulk to render the overall computational cost reasonable. As an example of our approach, we consider an extended graphene lattice decorated with Stone-Wales defects, flower defects, double vacancies, or silicon substitutes. We predict distinct scattering patterns mirroring the defect symmetries and magnitude that should be experimentally accessible.

  19. Analysis of displacement damage and defect production under cascade damage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Singh, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    The production, annihilation, and accumulation of point defects in metals during displacive irradiation is dependent on a variety of physical conditions, including the nature and energy of the projectile particles and the irradiation temperature. This paper briefly reviews the evolution of the de......The production, annihilation, and accumulation of point defects in metals during displacive irradiation is dependent on a variety of physical conditions, including the nature and energy of the projectile particles and the irradiation temperature. This paper briefly reviews the evolution...

  20. Evaluation of morphological characteristics of septal rims affecting successful transcatheter atrial septal defect closure in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflaz, Mehmet Burhan; Pac, Feyza Aysenur; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Balli, Sevket; Ece, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Determining other echocardiographic predictors along with the measured atrial septal defect (ASD) size and evaluating the closure together with these predictors would increase the chance of success for transcatheter closure of ASD. To evaluate echocardiographic parameters affecting defect closure in children and adult patients with secundum ASD. In all patients, size of ASD, total length of atrial septum (TS), superior-posterior, inferior-posterior, superior-anterior and inferior-anterior rims surrounding the defect were measured by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and several measurement ratios were derived on the basis of TEE parameters. A total 216 patients with secundum ASD were included in this study. The device was successfully implanted in 65 children and 65 adults. Both in pediatric and adult cases, the ratio of successful closure was found to be significantly higher when the ratio of defect size to TS was ≤ 0.35, the ratio of superior-anterior (SA) rim to the defect size was > 0.75 and the ratio of inferior-posterior (IP) rim to the defect size was > 1.0. It was found that having more than one of these predictors in a single case increased the chance of closure success significantly (p rim to defect size > 0.75 and a ratio of IP rim to defect size > 1.0 were found to be echocardiographic predictors that could be used in successful transcatheter ASD closure both in children and adults.