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Sample records for spore forming fungi

  1. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini feeding on stinkhorn spores (Fungi, Phallales: robbery or dispersal?

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    Marcio L. Oliveira

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Records about stingless bee-fungi interaction are very rare. In Brazilian Amazonia, workers of Trigona crassipes (Fabricius, 1793 and Trigona fulviventris Guérin, 1835 visiting two stinkhorn species, Dictyophora sp. and Phallus sp., respectively, were observed. The workers licked the fungi gleba, a mucilaginous mass of spores covering the pileum. Neither gleba residue nor spores were found on the body surface of these bee workers. These observations indicate that these bee species include spores as a complement in their diet. On the other hand, they also suggest that these stingless bees can, at times, facilitale spore dispersal, in case intact spores are eliminated with the feces.

  2. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore propagation using single spore as starter inoculum and a plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Selvakumar; Shagol, Charlotte C; Kang, Yeongyeong; Chung, Bong Nam; Han, Seung Gab; Tong-Min, Sa

    2018-02-02

    The propagation of pure cultures of AMF is an essential requirement for their large scale agricultural application and commercialization as biofertilizers. The present study aimed to propagate AMF using the single spore inoculation technique and compare their propagation ability with the known reference spores. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores were collected from the salt-affected Saemangeum reclaimed soil in South Korea. The technique involved inoculation of Sorghum-Sudan grass (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings with single, healthy spores on filter paper followed by the transfer of successfully colonized seedlings to 1 kg capacity pots containing sterilized soil. After the first plant cycle, the contents were transferred to 2.5 kg capacity pots containing sterilized soil. Among the 150 inoculants, only 27 seedlings were colonized by AMF spores. After 240 days, five inoculants among the 27 seedlings resulted in the production of over 500 spores. The 18S rDNA sequencing of spores revealed that the spores produced through single spore inoculation method belonged to Gigaspora margarita, Claroideoglomus lamellosum, and Funneliformis mosseae. Furthermore, indigenous spore Funneliformis mosseae M-1 reported a higher spore count than the reference spores. The AMF spores produced using single spore inoculation technique may serve as potential bio-inoculants with an advantage of being more readily adopted by farmers due to the lack of requirement of a skilled technique in spore propagation. The results of the current study describes the feasible and cost effective method to mass produce AMF spores for large scale application. The AMF spores obtained from this method can effectively colonize plant roots and may be easily introduced to the new environment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. The fastest flights in nature: high-speed spore discharge mechanisms among fungi.

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    Levi Yafetto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A variety of spore discharge processes have evolved among the fungi. Those with the longest ranges are powered by hydrostatic pressure and include "squirt guns" that are most common in the Ascomycota and Zygomycota. In these fungi, fluid-filled stalks that support single spores or spore-filled sporangia, or cells called asci that contain multiple spores, are pressurized by osmosis. Because spores are discharged at such high speeds, most of the information on launch processes from previous studies has been inferred from mathematical models and is subject to a number of errors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we have used ultra-high-speed video cameras running at maximum frame rates of 250,000 fps to analyze the entire launch process in four species of fungi that grow on the dung of herbivores. For the first time we have direct measurements of launch speeds and empirical estimates of acceleration in these fungi. Launch speeds ranged from 2 to 25 m s(-1 and corresponding accelerations of 20,000 to 180,000 g propelled spores over distances of up to 2.5 meters. In addition, quantitative spectroscopic methods were used to identify the organic and inorganic osmolytes responsible for generating the turgor pressures that drive spore discharge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new video data allowed us to test different models for the effect of viscous drag and identify errors in the previous approaches to modeling spore motion. The spectroscopic data show that high speed spore discharge mechanisms in fungi are powered by the same levels of turgor pressure that are characteristic of fungal hyphae and do not require any special mechanisms of osmolyte accumulation.

  5. Estimation of Available Phosphorus in Soil Using the Population of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Spores

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    Machfud Effendy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbes, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF have the ability to dissolve unavailable phosphorus (P and they can be used as an indicator of the P availability in soil. The study was conducted on upland soil in East Java. The soil was sampled twice, before and after planting at the harvesting time. The population of AMF spores and soil P availability were observed. The AMF spores were isolated using wet sieving method, decanting, and followed by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The available P was observed using the Olsen extraction. The numbers of AMF spore was corelated with available P, moreover the numbers of AMF spore was compared to the availabality of P. The results showed that the total number of AMF spores at six sites were ranged from a little to midle, and the available P ranged from low to high level. All soil site samples had a linear corelation between numbers of AMF spore and available P in soil. The greater the number of AMF spore, the higher the available P in soil. It was likely that the availability of P in soil can be predicted by the population of AMF spores in soil. Therefore, the number of AMF spore can be need as a biological method to predict the available P in soil and to make a recommendation the use of P fertilizer.

  6. Effect of berberine and (+/-)-bicuculline isolated from Corydalis chaerophylla on spore germination of some fungi.

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    Basha, S Ameer; Mishra, R K; Jha, R N; Pandey, V B; Singh, U P

    2002-01-01

    Berberine and (+/-)-bicuculline were isolated from roots and leaves, respectively, of Corydalis chaerophylla. Both were effective in vitro against spore germination of some plant pathogenic fungi (Alternaria brassicicola, A. brassicae, A. cheiranthi, A. melongenae, A. solani, Colletotrichum musae, C. falcatum, Curvularia penniseti, C. lunata, C. maculans, C. pallescens, Curvularia sp., Erysiphe pisi, E. cichoracearum, Erysiphe sp., Fusarium udum, Helminthosporium spiciferum, H. penniseti, H. frumentacei, Heterosporium sp., Oidium erysiphoides and Ustilago cynodontis). Berberine and (+/-)-bicuculline significantly inhibited spore germination of all the fungi at concentrations of 100-1000 ppm. Berberine was effective against all the fungi at all concentrations; most of the fungi did not germinate at 1000 ppm. H. penniseti conidia did not germinate at any concentration of (+/-)-bicuculline. U. cynodontis was the least sensitive fungus at lower concentrations but 800 ppm dose was highly effective.

  7. LEVELS AND TYPES OF AEROBIC SPORE FORMING BACTERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Limnothrissa miodon) had the product sourced from them analysed morphologically by a microscope and biochemically for levels of aerobic spore forming bacteria that could adversely affect safety of the product. The four companies whose packaged ...

  8. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    1994-01-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.)

  9. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko [Japan Radioisotope Association, Shiga (Japan). Koka Laboratory

    1994-12-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.).

  10. Caracterización morfológica y genética de las ectomicorrizas formadas entre Pinus montezumae y los hongos presentes en los bancos de esporas en la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana Morphologic and genetic characterization of ectomycorrhizae formed by Pinus montezumae and spore bank fungi in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt

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    Roberto Garibay-Orijel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Los hongos ectomicorrízicos son indispensables para el establecimiento y funcionamiento de los bosques templados. Algunos de ellos tienen esporas u otros propágulos resistentes y longevos; éstos se acumulan en el suelo forestal formando bancos de propágulos que constituyen la fuente de inóculo más importante después de disturbios severos. En este trabajo caracterizamos morfológica y genéticamente las ectomicorrizas formadas entre Pinus montezumae y los hongos presentes en los bancos de esporas de la Faja Volcánica Transmexicana. Las micorrizas se obtuvieron por medio de un bioensayo del suelo de 8 de los volcanes más representativos, con plántulas de P. montezumae cultivadas durante 7 meses. La identidad taxonómica de los hongos se obtuvo por la similitud genética de la región de los ITS. Se presentan las descripciones de 27 ectomicorrizas; de éstas, 20 no habían sido publicadas previamente. Geopora sp., Hebeloma helodes, H. leucosarx, Peziza sp. 1, P. aff. ostracoderma, Pezizaceae sp. 1, sp. 2, sp. 4, Pulvinula constellatio, Sebacina sp. 1, sp. 2, Sordariales sp. 1, sp. 2 y Tuber separans, no se habían encontrado en bancos de propágulos. Estas especies podrían usarse para reforestar con plantas y hongos endémicos, lo que aumentaría la sobrevivencia, pues ambos simbiontes estarían adaptados a las condiciones ambientales locales.Ectomycorrhizal fungi are keystone in temperate forest establishment and functioning. Some of them have resistant and long living spores and propagules. These use to accumulate in soil, forming the so-called spore banks, which are the main inoculum resource after an intense disturbance. In this paper, we provide the morphological and genetic characterization of ectomycorrhizae formed by Pinus montezumae and the spore bank fungi from the Transmexican Volcanic Belt. We made a bioassay with P. montezumae and soil from 9 of the most representative volcanoes. Mycorrhizae were dissected after 7 months of

  11. Soil spore bank communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi in endangered Chinese Douglas-fir forests.

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    Wen, Zhugui; Shi, Liang; Tang, Yangze; Hong, Lizhou; Xue, Jiawang; Xing, Jincheng; Chen, Yahua; Nara, Kazuhide

    2018-01-01

    Chinese Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga sinensis) is an endangered Pinaceae species found in several isolated regions of China. Although soil spore banks of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can play an important role in seedling establishment after disturbance, such as in the well-known North American relative (Pseudotsuga menziesii), we have no information about soil spore bank communities in relict forests of Chinese Douglas-fir. We conducted bioassays of 73 soil samples collected from three Chinese Douglas-fir forests, using North American Douglas-fir as bait seedlings, and identified 19 species of ECM fungi. The observed spore bank communities were significantly different from those found in ECM fungi on the roots of resident trees at the same sites (p = 0.02). The levels of potassium (K), nitrogen (N), organic matter, and the pH of soil were the dominant factors shaping spore bank community structure. A new Rhizopogon species was the most dominant species in the spore banks. Specifically, at a site on Sanqing Mountain, 22 of the 57 surviving bioassay seedlings (representing 21 of the 23 soil samples) were colonized by this species. ECM fungal richness significantly affected the growth of bioassay seedlings (R 2  = 0.20, p = 0.007). Growth was significantly improved in seedlings colonized by Rhizopogon or Meliniomyces species compared with uncolonized seedlings. Considering its specificity to Chinese Douglas-fir, predominance in the soil spore banks, and positive effect on host growth, this new Rhizopogon species could play critical roles in seedling establishment and forest regeneration of endangered Chinese Douglas-fir.

  12. Discrimination of Spore-Forming Bacilli Using spoIVA

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    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara

    2009-01-01

    A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong

  13. Inhibitive Effect of Fuyuziphine isolated from Plant (Pittapapra) (Fumaria indica) on Spore Germination of Some Fungi.

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    Pandey, M B; Singh, Ashok K; Singh, Anil K; Singh, U P

    2007-09-01

    The alkaloid fuyuziphine was isolated from the whole plant of Fumaria indica. It had inhibitive effect against spore germination of some plant pathogenic fungi (Collectotrichum sp., C. gloeosporioides, C. falcatum, Curvularia maculans, C. lunata, Erysiphe cichoracearum, Helminthosporium pennisetti, Oidium erysiphoides, Ustilago cynodontis, Alternaria chieranthi, A. melongenae, A. brassicicola and A. solani). Curvularia lunata, Oidium erysiphoides, Alternaria brassicicola and A. solani did not germinate at 750 and 1000 ppm and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. falcatum, Curvularia maculans were inhibited at 1000 ppm for 24 hr incubation. Germination of most fungi was significantly inhibited at 100~750 ppm.

  14. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore- forming bacteria.

  15. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore-forming bacteria.

  16. Spore communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal associations in different ecosystems, south Australia

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    Z. I. Antoniolli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were surveyed in different South Australian ecosystems. The soil was wet-sieved for spore extraction, followed by the determination of presence and abundance of AMF species as well as the percentage of root colonization. Mycorrhizal associations were common and there was substantial fungal diversity in different ecosystems. Spores were most abundant in the permanent pasture system and less abundant under continuous wheat. The incidence of mycorrhizal associations in different plant species and the occurrence of Arum and Paris type colonization generally conformed with previous information. Spores of seventeen AMF were verified throughout seasonal changes in 1996 and 1997 in the permanent pasture and on four host species (Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata, Sorghum sp. and Trifolium subterraneum , set up with the same soils under greenhouse conditions. Glomus mosseae was the dominant spore type at all sampling times and in all trap cultures. Mycorrhizal diversity was significantly affected by different sampling times in trap cultures but not in field-collected soil. P. lanceolata, Sorghum sp. and T. subterraneum as hosts for trap cultures showed no differences in richness and diversity of AMF spores that developed in association with their roots. Abundance and diversity were lowest, however, in association with L. perenne , particularly in December 1996. Results show that the combination of spore identification from field-collected soil and trap cultures is essential to study population and diversity of AMF. The study provides baseline data for ongoing monitoring of mycorrhizal populations using conventional methods and material for the determination of the symbiotic effectiveness of AMF key members.

  17. Fungi in a changing world: growth rates will be elevated, but spore production may decrease in future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damialis, Athanasios; Mohammad, Aqilah B.; Halley, John M.; Gange, Alan C.

    2015-09-01

    Very little is known about the impact of climate change on fungi and especially on spore production. Fungal spores can be allergenic, thus being important for human health. The aim of this study was to investigate how climate change influences the responsive ability of fungi by simulating differing environmental regimes. Fungal species with high spore allergenic potential and atmospheric abundance were grown and experimentally examined under a variety of temperatures and different nutrient availability. Each represented the average decadal air temperature of the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s in the UK, along with an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate change scenario for 2100. All tests were run on six fungal species: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cladosporium oxysporum and Epicoccum purpurascens. Mycelium growth rate and spore production were examined on each single species and competitive capacity among species combinations in pairs. All fungal species grew faster at higher temperatures, and this was more pronounced for the temperature projection in 2100. Most species grew faster when there was lower nutrient availability. Exceptions were the species with the highest growth rate ( E. purpurascens) and with the highest competition capacity ( A. alternata). Most species (except for E. purpurascens) produced more spores in the richer nutrient medium but fewer as temperature increased. C. cladosporioides was an exception, exponentially increasing its spore production in the temperature of the 2100 scenario. Regarding competitive capacity, no species displayed any significant alterations within the environmental range checked. It is suggested that in future climates, fungi will display dramatic growth responses, with faster mycelium growth and lower spore production, with questions risen on relevant allergen potential.

  18. Influence of Long-Term Fertilization on Spore Density and Colonization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Brown Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Luo, Peiyu; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to explore changes of long-term fertilization on spore density and colonization of AMF (Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) under a 38-y long-term fertilization in a brown soil. Soil samples (0-20 cm,20-40cm,40-60cm)were taken from the six treatments of the long-term fertilization trial in October 2016:no fertilizer (CK), N1(mineral nitrogen fertilizer), N1P (mineral nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer), N1PK (mineral nitrogen, phosphate and potassic fertilizer), pig manure (M2), M2N1P (pig manure, mineral nitrogen andphosphate fertilizer).Spores were isolated from soils by wet sieving and sucrose density gradient centrifugation; mycorrhizal colonization levels were determined by the gridline intersect. The spore density was highest in the topsoils (0-20 cm), and was decreased with increasing of soil depth in each treatment. The spores density of M2N1P treatment was significantly higher than that of other treatments in each soil layer. Application of inorganic fertilizer (especially inorganic with organic fertilizer) can greatly improve the level of colonization. Our results suggested that long-term fertilization significantly affects spore density and colonization of AMF, however, spore density is not related to colonization rate.

  19. Spore germination of fungi belonging to Aspergillus species under deep-sea conditions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.; Nagarajan, M.; Raghukumar, C.

    of fungal spores in the deep sea may face several obstacles like the mycostatic effect of seawater (Kirk, 1980), low temperature, elevated hydrostatic pressure and low nutrient conditions. A defining characteristic of spores is their ability to develop... hyphal colony. The first step in this is the spore germina- tion, which can be defined as the sequence of events that converts the resting/dormant spore into a rapidly growing germ tube from which the myce- lium is produced by elongation, septum formation...

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in chronically petroleum-contaminated soils in Mexico and the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Ramírez, Alicia; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Varela-Fregoso, Lucía; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús; Alarcón, Alejandro

    2007-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been hypothesized to enhance plant adaptation and growth in petroleum-contaminated soils. Nevertheless, neither AMF-biodiversity under chronically petroleum-contaminated soils nor spore germination response to petroleum hydrocarbons has been well studied. Chronically petroleum-contaminated rhizosphere soil and roots from Echinochloa polystachya, Citrus aurantifolia and C. aurantium were collected from Activo Cinco Presidentes, Tabasco, Mexico. Root colonization and spore abundance were evaluated. Additionally, rhizosphere soil samples were propagated using Sorghum vulgare L. as a plant trap under greenhouse conditions; subsequently, AMF-spores were identified. AMF-colonization ranged from 63 to 77% while spore number ranged from 715 to 912 in 100 g soil, suggesting that AMF tolerate the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere. From grass species, four AMF-morphospecies were identified: Glomus ambisporum, G. sinuosum (previously described as Sclerocystis sinuosum), Acaulospora laevis, and Ambispora gerdermanni. From citrus trees, four AMF-species were also identified: Scutellospora heterogama, G. ambisporum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, and G. citricola. In a second study, it was observed that spore germination and hyphal length of G. mosseae, G. ambisporum, and S. heterogama were significantly reduced by either volatile compounds of crude oil or increased concentrations of benzo[a ]pyrene or phenanthrene in water-agar.

  1. Optimization of Spore Forming Bacteria Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery in North Sea Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    was used for this purpose. A spore forming bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis 421, was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in the previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results show that B. licheniformis 421 when injected...

  2. Spore population, colonization, species diversity and factors influencing the association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with litchi trees in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Rajesh; Kumar, Ajit; Anal, Dubedi

    2016-01-01

    Abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in association with litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) trees were studied during 2012-2013, where orchard soil had high pH (7.42-9.53) and salinity (0.07- 0.39 dSm(-1)). A total of 105 rhizospheric soil and root samples were collected considering variables like location, age of tree, cultivar and production management. Results showed that spore count was in the range of 1-22 g(-1) soil. All the examined root segments had colonization of AMF, which ranged between 3.3 to 90.0%. AMF community comprised of Glomus mosseae, G. intaradices, G. constricta, G. coronatum, G. fasciculatum, G. albidum, G. hoi, G. multicauli, Acaulospora scrobiculata, A. laevis, Rhizophagus litchi and Entrophosphora infrequens. Higher spore density and AMF colonization were observed at medium level (13-28 kg ha(-1)) of available phosphorus that decreased ('r' = -0.21 for spore density, -0.48 for root colonization) with increasing soil phosphorus. While nitrogen did not influence the AMF association, a weak negative linear relationship with AMF colonization ('r' = -0.30) was apparent in the medium level (112-200 kg ha(-1)) of potash. Micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and B) did not affect spore density (zero or a very weak linear correlation) but influenced root colonization ('r' = -0.53 to -0.44), the effect being more prominent above critical limits. Nutritionally sufficient, irrigated litchi orchards had greater spore count (46% samples having 5-22 spores g(-1) soil) and colonization (> 50% in 37.4% roots examined) than nutrient deficient, non-irrigated orchards, indicating essentiality of a threshold nutrients and moisture regime for the association. AMF symbiosis was influenced by cultivar (greater in 'China'), but tree age was not correlated to mycorrhizal association. A consortium of native species coupled with the understanding of nutrient effects on AMF would be useful for field application in litchi.

  3. Formation and characterization of non-growth states in Clostridium thermocellum: spores and L-forms

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    Mearls Elizabeth B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that exhibits high levels of cellulose solublization and produces ethanol as an end product of its metabolism. Using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for fuel production is an attractive prospect, however, growth arrest can negatively impact ethanol production by fermentative microorganisms such as C. thermocellum. Understanding conditions that lead to non-growth states in C. thermocellum can positively influence process design and culturing conditions in order to optimize ethanol production in an industrial setting. Results We report here that Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 enters non-growth states in response to specific growth conditions. Non-growth states include the formation of spores and a L-form-like state in which the cells cease to grow or produce the normal end products of metabolism. Unlike other sporulating organisms, we did not observe sporulation of C. thermocellum in low carbon or nitrogen environments. However, sporulation did occur in response to transfers between soluble and insoluble substrates, resulting in approximately 7% mature spores. Exposure to oxygen caused a similar sporulation response. Starvation conditions during continuous culture did not result in spore formation, but caused the majority of cells to transition to a L-form state. Both spores and L-forms were determined to be viable. Spores exhibited enhanced survival in response to high temperature and prolonged storage compared to L-forms and vegetative cells. However, L-forms exhibited faster recovery compared to both spores and stationary phase cells when cultured in rich media. Conclusions Both spores and L-forms cease to produce ethanol, but provide other advantages for C. thermocellum including enhanced survival for spores and faster recovery for L-forms. Understanding the conditions that give rise to these two different non-growth states, and the implications that

  4. Spore Acquisition and Survival of Ambrosia Beetles Associated with the Laurel Wilt Pathogen in Avocados after Exposure to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Pasco B; Bojorque, Verónica; Gámez, Cecilia; Duncan, Rita E; Carrillo, Daniel; Cave, Ronald D

    2018-04-25

    Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely on chemical control and sanitation practices. Beneficial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are the most common and prevalent natural enemies of pathogen vectors. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that commercial strains of EPF can increase the mortality of the primary vector, Xyleborus glabratus , and potential alternative vectors, Xylosandrus crassiusculus , Xyleborus volvulus and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Our study provides baseline data for three formulated commercially-available entomopathogenic fungi used as potential biocontrol agents against X. crassiusculus , X. volvulus and X. bispinatus. The specific objectives were to determine: (1) the mean number of viable spores acquired per beetle species adult after being exposed to formulated fungal products containing different strains of EPF ( Isaria fumosorosea , Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana ); and (2) the median and mean survival times using paper disk bioassays. Prior to being used in experiments, all fungal suspensions were adjusted to 2.4 × 10⁶ viable spores/mL. The number of spores acquired by X. crassiusculus was significantly higher after exposure to B. bassiana , compared to the other fungal treatments. For X. volvulus , the numbers of spores acquired per beetle were significantly different amongst the different fungal treatments, and the sequence of spore acquisition rates on X. volvulus from highest to lowest was I. fumosorosea > M. brunneum > B. bassiana . After X. bispinatus beetles were exposed to the different suspensions, the rates of acquisition of spores per beetle amongst the different fungal treatments were similar. Survival estimates (data pooled across two tests) indicated an

  5. Spore Acquisition and Survival of Ambrosia Beetles Associated with the Laurel Wilt Pathogen in Avocados after Exposure to Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco B. Avery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely on chemical control and sanitation practices. Beneficial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are the most common and prevalent natural enemies of pathogen vectors. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that commercial strains of EPF can increase the mortality of the primary vector, Xyleborus glabratus, and potential alternative vectors, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Xyleborus volvulus and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae. Our study provides baseline data for three formulated commercially-available entomopathogenic fungi used as potential biocontrol agents against X. crassiusculus, X. volvulus and X. bispinatus. The specific objectives were to determine: (1 the mean number of viable spores acquired per beetle species adult after being exposed to formulated fungal products containing different strains of EPF (Isaria fumosorosea, Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana; and (2 the median and mean survival times using paper disk bioassays. Prior to being used in experiments, all fungal suspensions were adjusted to 2.4 × 106 viable spores/mL. The number of spores acquired by X. crassiusculus was significantly higher after exposure to B. bassiana, compared to the other fungal treatments. For X. volvulus, the numbers of spores acquired per beetle were significantly different amongst the different fungal treatments, and the sequence of spore acquisition rates on X. volvulus from highest to lowest was I. fumosorosea > M. brunneum > B. bassiana. After X. bispinatus beetles were exposed to the different suspensions, the rates of acquisition of spores per beetle amongst the different fungal treatments were similar. Survival estimates (data pooled across two tests indicated an

  6. A Clostridium difficile-Specific, Gel-Forming Protein Required for Optimal Spore Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lauren Donnelly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC. Activated SleC degrades the protective spore cortex layer, a step that is essential for germination to proceed. Since CspC incorporation into spores also depends on CspA, a related pseudoprotease domain, Csp family proteins play a critical role in germination. However, how Csps are incorporated into spores remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that incorporation of the CspC, CspB, and CspA germination regulators into spores depends on CD0311 (renamed GerG, a previously uncharacterized hypothetical protein. The reduced levels of Csps in gerG spores correlate with reduced responsiveness to bile salt germinants and increased germination heterogeneity in single-spore germination assays. Interestingly, asparagine-rich repeat sequences in GerG’s central region facilitate spontaneous gel formation in vitro even though they are dispensable for GerG-mediated control of germination. Since GerG is found exclusively in C. difficile, our results suggest that exploiting GerG function could represent a promising avenue for developing C. difficile-specific anti-infective therapies.

  7. Radiosensibility of spores in water suspension of fungi that affect papers; Radiosensibilidade de esporos em suspensao aquosa de fungos que atacam papeis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomazello, Maria Guiomar Carneiro [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica]. E-mail: mgtomaze@unimpe.br; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail: mtomazel@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; Moraes, Silvia Goreti Cardoso de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil)

    1998-06-01

    The paper and graphic documents can be affected by biological, chemical and physical agents. Among the biological agents, the most important are the fungi and insects, causing damage to bibliographic materials and promoting the deterioration and destruction of scientific-historical or cultural valuable documents. Together with the traditional methods of fungal prevention, such as application of fumigants, studies have been made since the late sixties, with the employment of gamma radiation for the disinfection of materials affected by fungi. The objective of this paper is to study the radio sensibility of the spores of some main fungi that attack papers. The results showed that the spores in water suspension have different levels of sensibility when irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. The D{sub 0} doses - survival of 37% of the spores - varied from 1,43 kGy (cladosporium cladosporioides) to 0,077 kGy (Penicillium purpurogenum). (author)

  8. Radiosensibility of spores in aqueous suspension of fungi that attack papers; Radiosensibilidade de esporos em suspensao aquosa de fungos que afetam papeis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro-Tomazello, Maria G.; Moraes, Silvia G.C. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil); Wiendl, Frederico M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz

    1997-12-01

    The paper and graphic documents can be affected by biological, chemical and physical agents. Among the biological agents, the most important are the fungi and insects, causing damage to bibliographic materials and promoting the deterioration and destruction of scientific-historical or cultural valuable documents. Together with the traditional methods of fungal prevention, like the application of fumigants, studies have been made since the late sixties, with the employment of gamma radiation for the desinfection of materials affected by fungi. The objective of this paper was to study the radiosensibility of the spores of the principal fungi that attack papers. The results showed that the spores in water suspension have different levels of sensibility when irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. The Do doses survival of 37% of the spores-varied from 1,43 (cladosporium cladosporioides) to 0,077 kGy (Penicillium purpurogenum). (author). 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Contamination pathways of spore-forming bacteria in a vegetable cannery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Loïc; Planchon, Stella; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; André, Stéphane; Carlin, Frédéric; Remize, Fabienne

    2015-06-02

    Spoilage of low-acid canned food during prolonged storage at high temperatures is caused by heat resistant thermophilic spores of strict or facultative bacteria. Here, we performed a bacterial survey over two consecutive years on the processing line of a French company manufacturing canned mixed green peas and carrots. In total, 341 samples were collected, including raw vegetables, green peas and carrots at different steps of processing, cover brine, and process environment samples. Thermophilic and highly-heat-resistant thermophilic spores growing anaerobically were counted. During vegetable preparation, anaerobic spore counts were significantly decreased, and tended to remain unchanged further downstream in the process. Large variation of spore levels in products immediately before the sterilization process could be explained by occasionally high spore levels on surfaces and in debris of vegetable combined with long residence times in conditions suitable for growth and sporulation. Vegetable processing was also associated with an increase in the prevalence of highly-heat-resistant species, probably due to cross-contamination of peas via blanching water. Geobacillus stearothermophilus M13-PCR genotypic profiling on 112 isolates determined 23 profile-types and confirmed process-driven cross-contamination. Taken together, these findings clarify the scheme of contamination pathway by thermophilic spore-forming bacteria in a vegetable cannery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AND AUTECOLOGY OF SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladka, G V; Romanovskaya, V A; Tashyreva, H O; Tashyrev, O B

    2015-01-01

    Multi-resistant to extreme factors spore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus are isolated from hypersaline environments of the Crimea (Ukraine) and the Dead Sea (Israel). Phylogenetic analysis showed distinction of dominating extremophilic culturable species in studied regions. In Crimean environments they are B. mojavensis and B. simplex, in the Dead Sea ecosystem--B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. simplex. Isolates are simultaneously halotolerant and resistant to UV radiation. Strains isolated from the Dead Sea and the Crimea environments were resistant to UV: LD90 and LD99.99 made 100-170 J/m2 and 750-1500 J/m2 respectively. Spores showed higher UV-resistance (LD99.99-2500 J/m2) than the vegetative cells. However the number of spores made 0.02-0.007% of the whole cell population, and should not significantly affect the UV LD99.99 value. Isolates of both environments were halotolerant in the range of 0.1-10% NaCl and thermotolerant in the range of 20-50 °C, and didn't grow at 15 °C. Survival strategy of spore-forming bacteria from hypersaline environments under high UV radiation level can be performed by spore formation which minimize cell damage as well as efficient DNA-repair systems that remove damages.

  11. Wild boars as spore dispersal agents of ectomycorrhizal fungi: consequences for community composition at different habitat types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne-Luzon, Stav; Avidan, Yael; Weber, Gil; Migael, Hen; Bruns, Thomas; Ovadia, Ofer; Shemesh, Hagai

    2017-04-01

    The success of dispersal events depend on the organism's ability to reach and establish in a new habitat. In symbiotic organisms, establishment also depends on the presence of their symbiont partner in the new habitat. For instance, the establishment of obligate ectomycorrhizal (EM) trees outside the forest is largely limited by the presence of EM fungi in soil. Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are important dispersal agents of EM fungal spores, particularly in the moderately dry Mediterranean region. The aim of this study was to explore how EM fungal spores dispersed by wild boars influence the EM fungal community associated with the roots of Pinus halepensis seedlings at different habitat types. Using a greenhouse bioassay, we grew pine seedlings in two soil types: old-field and forest soils mixed with either natural or autoclaved wild boar feces. In both soils, we observed a community dominated by a few EM fungal species. Geopora (85 %) and Suillus (68 %) species dominated the forest and old-field soils, respectively. The addition of natural wild boar feces increased the abundance of Tuber species in both EM fungal communities. However, this effect was more pronounced in pots with old-field soil, leading to a more even community, equally dominated by both Tuber and Suillus species. In forest soil, Geopora maintained dominance, but decreased in abundance (67 %), due to the addition of Tuber species. Our findings indicate that wild boar feces can be an important source for EM inoculum, especially in habitats poor in EM fungi such as old-fields.

  12. Gene discovery in EST sequences from the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina sexual spores, asexual spores and haustoria, compared to other rust and corn smut fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynhoven Brian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rust fungi are biotrophic basidiomycete plant pathogens that cause major diseases on plants and trees world-wide, affecting agriculture and forestry. Their biotrophic nature precludes many established molecular genetic manipulations and lines of research. The generation of genomic resources for these microbes is leading to novel insights into biology such as interactions with the hosts and guiding directions for breakthrough research in plant pathology. Results To support gene discovery and gene model verification in the genome of the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina (Pt, we have generated Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs by sampling several life cycle stages. We focused on several spore stages and isolated haustorial structures from infected wheat, generating 17,684 ESTs. We produced sequences from both the sexual (pycniospores, aeciospores and teliospores and asexual (germinated urediniospores stages of the life cycle. From pycniospores and aeciospores, produced by infecting the alternate host, meadow rue (Thalictrum speciosissimum, 4,869 and 1,292 reads were generated, respectively. We generated 3,703 ESTs from teliospores produced on the senescent primary wheat host. Finally, we generated 6,817 reads from haustoria isolated from infected wheat as well as 1,003 sequences from germinated urediniospores. Along with 25,558 previously generated ESTs, we compiled a database of 13,328 non-redundant sequences (4,506 singlets and 8,822 contigs. Fungal genes were predicted using the EST version of the self-training GeneMarkS algorithm. To refine the EST database, we compared EST sequences by BLASTN to a set of 454 pyrosequencing-generated contigs and Sanger BAC-end sequences derived both from the Pt genome, and to ESTs and genome reads from wheat. A collection of 6,308 fungal genes was identified and compared to sequences of the cereal rusts, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt and stripe rust, P. striiformis f. sp

  13. Structure, diversity and evolution of protein toxins from spore-forming entomopathogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Bravo, A.; Berry, C.; Crickmore, N.; Schnepf, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    Gram-positive spore-forming entomopathogenic bacteria can utilize a large variety of protein toxins to help them invade, infect, and finally kill their hosts, through their action on the insect midgut. These toxins belong to a number of homology groups containing a diversity of protein structures

  14. Desulfotomaculum thermobenzoicum subsp. thermosyntrophicum subsp. nov., a thermophilic, syntrophic, propionate-oxidizing, spore-forming bacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.; Balk, M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    From granular sludge from a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor operated at 55 degrees C with a mixture of volatile fatty acids as feed, a novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, syntrophic, spore-forming bacterium, strain TPO, was enriched on propionate in co-culture with

  15. A simple identification method for spore-forming bacteria showing high resistance against γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko; Sone, Koji; Kobayashi, Toshikazu

    1993-01-01

    A simple identification method was developed for spore-forming bacteria which are highly resistant against γ-rays. Among 23 species of Bacillus studied, the spores of Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. pumilus and B. aneurinolyticus showed high resistance against γ-rays as compared with other spores of Bacillus species. Combination of the seven kinds of biochemical tests, namely, the citrate utilization test, nitrate reduction test, starch hydrolysis test, Voges-Proskauer reaction test, gelatine hydrolysis test, mannitol utilization test and xylose utilization test showed a characteristic pattern for each species of Bacillus. The combination pattern of each the above tests with a few supplementary test, if necessary, was useful to identify Bacillus species showing high radiation resistance against γ-rays. The method is specific for B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis and B. pumilus, and highly selective for B. aneurinolyticus and B. cereus. (author)

  16. Mosquitocidal toxins of spore forming bacteria: recent advancement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mosquito borne diseases form a major component of vector borne diseases from all over the world. Several control strategies have been adopted to control diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. The discovery of highly potential bacteriocides like Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) have ...

  17. The Spoilage Yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii Forms Mitotic Spores: a Screening Method for Haploidization

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Fernando; Ludovico, Paula; Sousa, Maria João; Steensma, H. Yde; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília

    2003-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii ISA 1307 and the type strain of this spoilage yeast show a diploid DNA content. Together with a rather peculiar life cycle in which mitotic but no meiotic spores appear to be formed, the diploid DNA content explains the observed difficulties in obtaining auxotrophic mutants. Mitotic chromosome loss induced by benomyl and selection on canavanine media resulted in three haploid strains of Z. bailii. This new set of Z. bailii strains allows the easy isolation...

  18. Cave Entrance dependent Spore Dispersion of Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Various Sediments of Iron Ore Cave in Brazil: a colloquy on human threats while caving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Linzi Silva Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Caves are stable environments with characteristics favoring the development of fungi. The fungal community present in a cave also includes pathogenic and opportunistic species out of which some are also served as energy sources in such energy stared ecosystems. Studies on microbial diversity and their role on such energy starved ecosystem are scarce. The present study was aimed to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi present in the various sediment of an iron ore cave and to recognize them as pathogenic and/or opportunistic species. Further the impact of cave entrance on the spore depositions on various distances dependent sediments were analyzed. The results suggest a diverse microbial community inhabiting the cave and an influence of cave entrance over spore deposition on various sediments. We counted a total of 4,549 filamentous fungi that included 34 species of 12 genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Paecilomyces, Purpureocillium, Penicillium, Torula, Trichoderma, Mucor and Rhizopus. A positive significant relation was observed between spore deposition and distance from cave entrance (p= 0.001. Areas of potential mycoses risks were recognized. This is the first study on microbiological community of an iron ore cave in the country.

  19. Hygiene Aspects of the Biogas Process with Emphasis on Spore-Forming Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagge, Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Biogas is a renewable source of energy which can be obtained from processing of biowaste. The digested residues can be used as fertiliser. Biowaste intended for biogas production contains pathogenic micro-organisms. A pre-pasteurisation step at 70 deg C for 60 min before anaerobic digestion reduces non spore-forming bacteria such as Salmonella spp. To maintain the standard of the digested residues it must be handled in a strictly hygienic manner to avoid recontamination and re-growth of bacteria. The risk of contamination is particularly high when digested residues are transported in the same vehicles as the raw material. However, heat treatment at 70 deg C for 60 min will not reduce spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. Spore-forming bacteria, including those that cause serious diseases, can be present in substrate intended for biogas production. The number of species and the quantity of Bacillus spp. and Clostridium spp. in manure, slaughterhouse waste and in samples from different stages during the biogas process were investigated. The number of species of clostridia seemed to decrease following digestion, likewise the quantity. However, Bacillus spp. seemed to pass unaffected through the biogas process. In laboratory-scale experiments the effects on clostridia during pasteurisation and digestion were investigated. Pathogenic clostridia were inoculated in substrates from homogenisation tanks and digester tanks. The inoculated clostridia remained after pasteurisation, but the impacts of digestion differ between different species. Culture followed by identification of C. chauvoei by PCR in samples from cattle died from blackleg, is faster and safer than culture followed by biochemical identification of C. chauvoei. However, for environmental samples the PCR method is not practically applicable for detection of C. chauvoei. To avoid spreading of diseases via biogas plants when digested residues are spread on arable land, a pasteurisation

  20. Root colonization and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in distinct successional stages from an Atlantic rainforest biome in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangaro, Waldemar; Rostirola, Leila Vergal; de Souza, Priscila Bochi; de Almeida Alves, Ricardo; Lescano, Luiz Eduardo Azevedo Marques; Rondina, Artur Berbel Lírio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Carrenho, Rosilaine

    2013-04-01

    The influence of plant functional groups and moderate seasonality on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status (root colonization and spore density) was investigated during 13 consecutive months in a chronosequence of succession in southern Brazil, consisting of grassland field, scrub vegetation, secondary forest and mature forest, in a region of transition from tropical to subtropical zones. AM root colonization and spore density decreased with advancing succession and were highest in early successional sites with grassland and scrub vegetation, intermediary in the secondary forest and lowest in the mature forest. They were little influenced by soil properties, but were sufficiently influenced by the fine root nutrient status and fine root traits among different functional plant groups. AM root colonization and spore density were higher during the favourable plant growth season (spring and summer) than during the less favourable plant growth season (autumn and winter). Spore density displayed significant seasonal variation at all sites, whilst root colonization displayed significant seasonal variation in grassland, scrub and secondary forest, but not in mature forest. The data suggest that (1) different plant functional groups display different relationships with AM fungi, influencing their abundance differentially; (2) plant species from early successional phases are more susceptible to AM root colonization and maintain higher AM sporulation than late successional species; (3) fine root traits and nutrient status influence these AM fungal attributes; and (4) higher AM spore production and root colonization is associated with the season of higher light incidence and temperature, abundant water in soil and higher plant metabolic activity.

  1. Adaptation of the spore discharge mechanism in the basidiomycota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Stolze-Rybczynski

    Full Text Available Spore discharge in the majority of the 30,000 described species of Basidiomycota is powered by the rapid motion of a fluid droplet, called Buller's drop, over the spore surface. In basidiomycete yeasts, and phytopathogenic rusts and smuts, spores are discharged directly into the airflow around the fungal colony. Maximum discharge distances of 1-2 mm have been reported for these fungi. In mushroom-forming species, however, spores are propelled over much shorter ranges. In gilled mushrooms, for example, discharge distances of <0.1 mm ensure that spores do not collide with opposing gill surfaces. The way in which the range of the mechanism is controlled has not been studied previously.In this study, we report high-speed video analysis of spore discharge in selected basidiomycetes ranging from yeasts to wood-decay fungi with poroid fruiting bodies. Analysis of these video data and mathematical modeling show that discharge distance is determined by both spore size and the size of the Buller's drop. Furthermore, because the size of Buller's drop is controlled by spore shape, these experiments suggest that seemingly minor changes in spore morphology exert major effects upon discharge distance.This biomechanical analysis of spore discharge mechanisms in mushroom-forming fungi and their relatives is the first of its kind and provides a novel view of the incredible variety of spore morphology that has been catalogued by traditional taxonomists for more than 200 years. Rather than representing non-selected variations in micromorphology, the new experiments show that changes in spore architecture have adaptive significance because they control the distance that the spores are shot through air. For this reason, evolutionary modifications to fruiting body architecture, including changes in gill separation and tube diameter in mushrooms, must be tightly linked to alterations in spore morphology.

  2. Reconstructing the early evolution of the fungi using a six gene phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, T.Y.; Kauff, F.; Schoch, C.L.; Matheny, P.B.; Hofstetter, V.; Cox, C.J.; Celio, G.; Gueidan, C.; Fraker, E.; Miadlikowska, J.; Lumbsch, H.T.; Rauhut, A.; Reeb, V.; Arnold, A.E.; Amtoft, A.; Stajich, J.E.; Hosaka, K.; Sung, G.H.; Johnson, D.; O'Rourke, B.; Binder, M.; Curtis, J.M.; Slot, J.C.; Wang, Z.; Wilson, A.W.; Schüßler, A.; Longcore, J.E.; O'Donnell, K.; Mozley-Standridge, S.; Porter, D.; Letcher, P.M.; Powell, M.J.; Taylor, J.W.; White, M.M.; Griffith, G.W.; Davies, D.R.; Sugiyama, J.; Rossman, A.Y.; Rogers, J.D.; Pfister, D.H.; Hewitt, D.; Hansen, K.; Hambleton, S.; Shoemaker, R.A.; Kohlmeyer, J.; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B.; Spotts, R.A.; Serdani, M.; Crous, P.W.; Hughes, K.W.; Matsuura, K.; Langer, E.; Langer, G.; Untereiner, W.A.; Lücking, R.; Büdel, B.; Geiser, D.M.; Aptroot, A.; Diederich, P.; Schmitt, I.; Schultz, M.; Yahr, R.; Hibbett, D.S.; Lutzoni, F.; McLaughlin, D.J.; Spatafora, J.W.; Vilgalys, R.

    2006-01-01

    The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to members of the extant phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids). Current classifications assume that chytrids form an early-diverging clade within the kingdom Fungi and imply a single loss of the spore

  3. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Timothy Y; Kauff, Frank; Schoch, Conrad L; Matheny, P Brandon; Hofstetter, Valérie; Cox, Cymon J; Celio, Gail; Gueidan, Cécile; Fraker, Emily; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Lumbsch, H Thorsten; Rauhut, Alexandra; Reeb, Valérie; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Amtoft, Anja; Stajich, Jason E; Hosaka, Kentaro; Sung, Gi-Ho; Johnson, Desiree; O'Rourke, Ben; Crockett, Michael; Binder, Manfred; Curtis, Judd M; Slot, Jason C; Wang, Zheng; Wilson, Andrew W; Schüssler, Arthur; Longcore, Joyce E; O'Donnell, Kerry; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon; Porter, David; Letcher, Peter M; Powell, Martha J; Taylor, John W; White, Merlin M; Griffith, Gareth W; Davies, David R; Humber, Richard A; Morton, Joseph B; Sugiyama, Junta; Rossman, Amy Y; Rogers, Jack D; Pfister, Don H; Hewitt, David; Hansen, Karen; Hambleton, Sarah; Shoemaker, Robert A; Kohlmeyer, Jan; Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, Brigitte; Spotts, Robert A; Serdani, Maryna; Crous, Pedro W; Hughes, Karen W; Matsuura, Kenji; Langer, Ewald; Langer, Gitta; Untereiner, Wendy A; Lücking, Robert; Büdel, Burkhard; Geiser, David M; Aptroot, André; Diederich, Paul; Schmitt, Imke; Schultz, Matthias; Yahr, Rebecca; Hibbett, David S; Lutzoni, François; McLaughlin, David J; Spatafora, Joseph W; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2006-01-01

    The ancestors of fungi are believed to be simple aquatic forms with flagellated spores, similar to members of the extant phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids). Current classifications assume that chytrids form an early-diverging clade within the kingdom Fungi and imply a single loss of the spore

  4. Toxigenic potential and heat survival of spore-forming bacteria isolated from bread and ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Palmira; Minervini, Fiorenza; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Valerio, Francesca; Lavermicocca, Paola; Sisto, Angelo

    2015-03-16

    Fifty-four spore-forming bacterial strains isolated from bread ingredients and bread, mainly belonging to the genus Bacillus (including Bacillus cereus), together with 11 reference strains were investigated to evaluate their cytotoxic potential and heat survival in order to ascertain if they could represent a risk for consumer health. Therefore, we performed a screening test of cytotoxic activity on HT-29 cells using bacterial culture filtrates after growing bacterial cells in Brain Heart Infusion medium and in the bread-based medium Bread Extract Broth (BEB). Moreover, immunoassays and PCR analyses, specifically targeting already known toxins and related genes of B. cereus, as well as a heat spore inactivation assay were carried out. Despite of strain variability, the results clearly demonstrated a high cytotoxic activity of B. cereus strains, even if for most of them it was significantly lower in BEB medium. Cytotoxic activity was also detected in 30% of strains belonging to species different from B. cereus, although, with a few exceptions (e.g. Bacillus simplex N58.2), it was low or very low. PCR analyses detected the presence of genes involved in the production of NHE, HBL or CytK toxins in B. cereus strains, while genes responsible for cereulide production were not detected. Production of NHE and HBL toxins was also confirmed by specific immunoassays only for B. cereus strains even if PCR analyses revealed the presence of related toxin genes also in some strains of other species. Viable spore count was ascertained after a heat treatment simulating the bread cooking process. Results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens strains almost completely survived the heat treatment showing less than 2 log-cycle reductions similarly to two strains of B. cereus group III and single strains belonging to Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mojavensis and Paenibacillus spp. Importantly, spores from strains of the B. cereus group IV exhibited a thermal resistance markedly lower than B

  5. The structural bases of long-term anabiosis in non-spore-forming bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzina, Natalia E.; Mulyukin, Andrey L.; Dmitriev, Vladimir V.; Nikolaev, Yury A.; Shorokhova, Anna P.; Bobkova, Yulia S.; Barinova, Ekaterina S.; Plakunov, Vladimir K.; El-Registan, Galina I.; Duda, Vitalii I.

    2006-01-01

    Peculiarities of the structural organization in non-spore-forming bacteria associated with long-term anabiosis were revealed both in laboratory cultures and in natural populations isolated from 1 3-Myr-old Eastern Siberian permafrost and tundra soil. Different advanced methods were used, including (a) high-resolution electron microscopy; (b) simulation of in situ conditions in the laboratory by varying the composition of growth medium and cultivation conditions; (c) low-temperature fractionation to isolate and concentrate microbial cells from natural soils; (d) comparative morphological analysis of microbial cells in model cultures and natural soils (in situ). Under laboratory conditions, the intense formation of resting cells by representatives of various taxa of eubacteria and halophilic archaea occurred in 2 9-month-old cultures grown in carbon-, nitrogen-, or phosphorus-limited media, in starved cell suspensions in the presence of sodium silicate, or on soil agar. Among resting cells, we revealed cystlike forms having a complicated structure and common features. These included a thick capsule; a thickened and multiprofile cell wall; the presence of large intramembrane particles on PF- and EF-fracture surfaces; fine-grained or lumpy cytoplasm; and a condensed nucleoid. The general morphological properties, ultrastructural organization, physiological features of cystlike cells, and their ability to germinate under the appropriate conditions suggest the existence of constitutive dormancy in non-spore-forming bacteria. It was found that the majority of microorganisms in permafrost and tundra soil are cystlike cells, very similar to those in laboratory cultures. Anabiotic (resting) cystlike cells are responsible for the survival of non-spore-formers in extreme Earth habitats and may be regarded as possible analogs of extraterrestrial forms of microbial life.

  6. The spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii forms mitotic spores: a screening method for haploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando; Ludovico, Paula; Sousa, Maria João; Steensma, H Yde; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Leão, Cecília

    2003-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii ISA 1307 and the type strain of this spoilage yeast show a diploid DNA content. Together with a rather peculiar life cycle in which mitotic but no meiotic spores appear to be formed, the diploid DNA content explains the observed difficulties in obtaining auxotrophic mutants. Mitotic chromosome loss induced by benomyl and selection on canavanine media resulted in three haploid strains of Z. bailii. This new set of Z. bailii strains allows the easy isolation of recessive mutants and is suitable for further molecular genetic studies.

  7. Infections with Spore-forming Bacteria in Persons Who Inject Drugs, 2000-2009.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmateer, NE; Hope, VD; Roy, K; Marongiu, A; White, JM; Grant, KA; Ramsay, CN; Goldberg, DJ; Ncube, F

    2013-01-01

    : Since 2000 in the United Kingdom, infections caused by spore-forming bacteria have been associated with increasing illness and death among persons who inject drugs (PWID). To assess temporal and geographic trends in these illnesses (botulism, tetanus, Clostridium novyi infection, and anthrax), we compared rates across England and Scotland for 2000-2009. Overall, 295 infections were reported: 1.45 per 1,000 PWID in England and 4.01 per 1,000 PWID in Scotland. The higher rate in Scotland was ...

  8. Advances in the study of genetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Yanpeng Liu; Bokyoon Sohn; Miaoyan Wang; Guoyong Jiang; Runjin Liu

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are obligate symbiotic endophytes which have not been cultured in vitro. The life cycle of AM fungi can be completed only when the mycorrhiza forms between the fungi and plant roots. There are more than 200 genetically-diverse species of AM fungi belonging to Glomeromycota in the Kingdom Fungi. It is well documented that surprisingly high genetic variability exists between and within species, and even in a single spore of AM fungi. We summarize recent advance...

  9. Microbial enhanced oil recovery—a modeling study of the potential of spore-forming bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Nesterov, Igor; Shapiro, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) utilizes microbes for enhancing the recovery by several mechanisms, among which the most studied are the following: (1) reduction of oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) by the produced biosurfactant and (2) selective plugging by microbes and metabolic products...... cause sporulation, reducing the risk of clogging. Substrate released during sporulation can be utilized by attached vegetative bacteria and they will continue growing and producing surfactant, which prolongs the effect of the injected substrate. The simulation scenarios show that application...... of the spore-forming bacteria gives a higher total production of surfactant and the reduced risk of clogging, leading to an increased period of production and a higher oil recovery....

  10. Comparison of the interleukin-1β-inducing potency of allergenic spores from higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) in a cryopreserved human whole blood system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E.; Vysyaraju, Kranthi; Negherbon, Jesse; Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W. Elliot; Hartung, Thomas; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Spores from basidiomycete fungi (basidiospores) are highly prevalent in the atmosphere of urban and rural settings. Studies have confirmed their potential to affect human health as allergens. Less is known about their potential to serve as stimuli of the innate immune system and induce pro-inflammatory reactions. Methods In this study, we evaluated the pro-inflammatory potential of spores from 11 allergenic gilled (Pleurotus ostreatus, Oudemansiella radicata, Armillaria tabescens, Coprinus micaceus, Pluteus cervinus, Chlorophyllum molybdites) and non-gilled (Pisolithus arhizus, Merulius tremullosus, Calvatia cyathiformis, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Boletus bicolor) basidiomycetes fungi based on their potency to induce the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β in a cryopreserved human whole blood system. In addition, the role of morphological features of the spores (surface area, shape, and pigmentation) were examined for their role in the spores’ interleukin (IL)-1β-including potency. Peripheral blood from healthy volunteers was collected, pooled, and cryopreserved. After stimulating the cryopreserved pooled blood with 106 to 103 basidiospores/ml, the concentration of IL-1β in culture supernatants was determined with ELISA. Results Basidiospores manifested concentration-dependent IL-1β-inducing potency, which was more noteworthy among basidiospores from gilled basidiomycetes. At higher concentrations of basidiospores, the IL-1β-inducing potency was able to be differentiated in the cryopreserved human whole blood system. Morphological features did not correlate with the IL-1β-inducing potency of the basidiospores, suggesting that non-morphological properties modulate the IL-1β-inducing potency. Conclusion Our data provides evidence of the pro-inflammatory potential of basidiospores, and the utility of cryopreserved human whole blood as a human-based in-vitro system to study the immune reactivity of allergenic basidiospores. PMID

  11. New records of Lichen-forming Fungi from Kenya | Kirika | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diversity of tropical lichen-forming fungi, especially crustose lichens is currently poorly known. Since lichens are important bioindicators of air pollution, forest health, and climate change, we addressed the lichen diversity in Kenya. Our study focused on the diversity of lichen-forming fungi in the Mount Kenya montane forests ...

  12. Effects of inhaled fine dust on lung tissue changes and antibody response induced by spores of opportunistic fungi in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Charles W; Layton, Robert C; Straus, David C; Ayers, J R

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the effects of sterile fine dust aerosol inhalation on antibody responses and lung tissue changes induced by Mucor ramosissimus or Trichoderma viride spores following intratracheal inoculation in goats. 36 weanling Boer-Spanish goats. 6 goats were allocated to each of 2 M ramosissimus-inoculated groups, 2 T viride-inoculated groups, and 2 control (tent or pen) groups. One of each pair of sporetreated groups and the tent control group were exposed 7 times to sterilized fine feedyard dust (mean+/-SD particle diameter, dust. Goats received an IV challenge with equine RBCs to assess antibody responses to foreign antigens. Postmortem examinations were performed at study completion (day 68) to evaluate lung tissue lesions. 5 of 7 deaths occurred between days 18 and 45 and were attributed to fine dust exposures prior to fungal treatments. Fine dust inhalation induced similar lung lesions and precipitating antibodies among spore-treated goats. Following spore inoculations, dust-exposed goats had significantly more spores per gram of consolidated lung tissue than did their nonexposed counterparts. Fine dust inhalation appeared to decrease the ability of goats to successfully clear fungal spores from the lungs following intratracheal inoculation.

  13. Clonal diversity and population genetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus spp.) studied by multilocus genotyping of single spores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva; Rosendahl, Søren

    2005-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) approach was used for multilocus genotyping of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal populations. This method allowed us to amplify multiple loci from Glomus single spores in a single PCR amplification. Variable introns in the two protein coding genes Gm......FOX2 and GmTOR2 were applied as codominant genetic markers together with the LSU rDNA.   Genetic structure of Glomus spp. populations from an organically and a conventionally cultured field were compared by hierarchical sampling of spores from four plots in each field. Multilocus genotypes were...

  14. Is the switch to an ectomycorrhizal state an evolutionary key innovation in mushroom-forming fungi? A case study in the Tricholomatineae (Agaricales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Marisol; Matheny, Patrick Brandon

    2017-01-01

    Although fungi are one of the most diverse groups of organisms, little is known about the processes that shape their high taxonomic diversity. This study focuses on evolution of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushroom-forming fungi, symbiotic associates of many trees and shrubs, in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We used the BiSSE model and BAMM to test the hypothesis that the ECM habit represents an evolutionary key innovation that allowed the colonization of new niches followed by an increase in diversification rate. Ancestral state reconstruction (ASR) supports the ancestor of the Tricholomatineae as non-ECM. We detected two diversification rate increases in the genus Tricholoma and the Rhodopolioid clade of the genus Entoloma. However, no increases in diversification were detected in the four other ECM clades of Tricholomatineae. We suggest that diversification of Tricholoma was not only due to the evolution of the ECM lifestyle, but also to the expansion and dominance of its main hosts and ability to associate with a variety of hosts. Diversification in the Rhodopolioid clade could be due to the unique combination of spore morphology and ECM habit. The spore morphology may represent an exaptation that aided spore dispersal and colonization. This is the first study to investigate rate shifts across a phylogeny that contains both non-ECM and ECM lineages. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Challenges and advances in systems biology analysis of Bacillus spore physiology; molecular differences between an extreme heat resistant spore forming Bacillus subtilis food isolate and a laboratory strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, Stanley; van Beilen, Johan; Caspers, Martien P M; O'Brien, Andrea; de Koster, Chris; Oomes, Suus; Smelt, Jan; Kort, Remco; Ter Beek, Alex

    Bacterial spore formers are prime organisms of concern in the food industry. Spores from the genus Bacillus are extremely stress resistant, most notably exemplified by high thermotolerance. This sometimes allows surviving spores to germinate and grow out to vegetative cells causing food spoilage and

  16. Challenges and advances in systems biology analysis of Bacillus spore physiology; molecular differences between an extreme heat resistant spore forming Bacillus subtilis food isolate and a laboratory strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; van Beilen, J.; Caspers, M.; O'Brien, A.; de Koster, C.; Oomes, S.; Smelt, J.; Kort, R.; ter Beek, A.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial spore formers are prime organisms of concern in the food industry. Spores from the genus Bacillus are extremely stress resistant, most notably exemplified by high thermotolerance. This sometimes allows surviving spores to germinate and grow out to vegetative cells causing food spoilage and

  17. Biofilm forming cyanobacteria, algae and fungi on two historic monuments in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm on the sandstone substrata of the bridge 'Brankov most' and on the granite substrata of the 'Monument of the Unknown Hero' contains a complex consortia of cyanobacteria, algae, and fungi. Coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms make up the photosynthetic part of the biofilm while hyphal fragments, chlamydospores, fruiting bodies and spores take part as fungal components. These structures make a dense layer by intertwining and overlapping the stone surface. Five cyanobacterial, 11 algal and 23 fungal taxa were found. The interaction of the biofilm's constituents results in the bioweathering of the stone substrata through mechanical penetration, acid corrosion and the production of secondary mycogenic biominerals. .

  18. The Prevalence and Control of Bacillus and Related Spore-Forming Bacteria in the Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Nidhi; Hill, Colin; Ross, Paul R.; Beresford, Tom P.; Fenelon, Mark A.; Cotter, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Milk produced in udder cells is sterile but due to its high nutrient content, it can be a good growth substrate for contaminating bacteria. The quality of milk is monitored via somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts, with prescribed regulatory limits to ensure quality and safety. Bacterial contaminants can cause disease, or spoilage of milk and its secondary products. Aerobic spore-forming bacteria, such as those from the genera Sporosarcina, Paenisporosarcina, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Geobacillus and Bacillus, are a particular concern in this regard as they are able to survive industrial pasteurization and form biofilms within pipes and stainless steel equipment. These single or multiple-species biofilms become a reservoir of spoilage microorganisms and a cycle of contamination can be initiated. Indeed, previous studies have highlighted that these microorganisms are highly prevalent in dead ends, corners, cracks, crevices, gaskets, valves and the joints of stainless steel equipment used in the dairy manufacturing plants. Hence, adequate monitoring and control measures are essential to prevent spoilage and ensure consumer safety. Common controlling approaches include specific cleaning-in-place processes, chemical and biological biocides and other novel methods. In this review, we highlight the problems caused by these microorganisms, and discuss issues relating to their prevalence, monitoring thereof and control with respect to the dairy industry. PMID:26733963

  19. The prevalence and control of Bacillus and related spore-forming bacteria in the dairy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi eGopal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk produced in udder cells is sterile but due to its high nutrient content, it can be a good growth substrate for contaminating bacteria. The quality of milk is monitored via somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts, with prescribed regulatory limits to ensure quality and safety. Bacterial contaminants can cause disease, or spoilage of milk and its secondary products. Aerobic spore-forming bacteria, such as those from the genera Sporosarcina, Paenisporosarcina, Brevibacillus, Paenibacillus, Geobacillus and Bacillus, are a particular concern in this regard as they are able to survive industrial pasteurisation and form biofilms within pipes and stainless steel equipment. These single or multiple-species biofilms become a reservoir of spoilage microorganisms and a cycle of contamination can be initiated. Indeed, previous studies have highlighted that these microorganisms are highly prevalent in dead ends, corners, cracks, crevices, gaskets, valves and the joints of stainless steel equipment used in the dairy manufacturing plants. Hence, adequate monitoring and control measures are essential to prevent spoilage and ensure consumer safety. Common controlling approaches include specific cleaning-in-place processes, chemical and biological biocides and other novel methods. In this review, we highlight the problems caused by these microorganisms, and discuss issues relating to their prevalence, monitoring thereof and control with respect to the dairy industry.

  20. Isolation and genetic identification of spore-forming bacteria associated with concentrated-milk processing in Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bismarck A; Stratton, Jayne; Bianchini, Andreia

    2017-02-01

    Spore-forming bacteria are heat-resistant microorganisms capable of surviving and germinating in milk after pasteurization. They have been reported to affect the quality of dairy products by the production of enzymes (lipolytic and proteolytic) under low-temperature conditions in fluid milk, and have become a limiting factor for milk powder in reaching some selective markets. The objective of this research was to isolate and identify the population of spore-forming bacteria (psychrotrophic and thermophilic strains) associated with concentrated milk processing in Nebraska. During 2 seasons, in-process milk samples from a commercial plant (raw, pasteurized, and concentrated) were collected and heat-treated (80°C/12 min) to recover only spore-formers. Samples were spread-plated using standard methods agar and incubated at 32°C to enumerate mesophilic spore counts. Heat-treated samples were also stored at 7°C and 55°C to recover spore-formers that had the ability to grow under those temperature conditions. Isolates obtained from incubation or storage conditions were identified using molecular techniques (16S or rpoB sequencing). Based on the identification of the isolates and their relatedness, strains found in raw, pasteurized, and concentrated milk were determined to be similar. Paenibacillus spp. were associated with both raw and concentrated milk. Due to their known ability to cause spoilage under refrigeration, this shows the potential risk associated with the transferring of these problematic organisms into other dairy products. Other Bacillus species found in concentrated milk included Bacillus clausii, Bacillus subtilis, Lysinibacillus sp., Bacillus safensis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sonorensis, and Brevibacillus sp., with the last 3 organisms being capable of growing at thermophilic temperatures. These strains can also be translocated to other dairy products, such as milk powder, representing a quality problem. The results of this research

  1. [Microbial resistance to formaldehyde. I. Comparative quantitative studies in some selected species of vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores, fungi, bacteriophages and viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, G; Peters, J

    1976-12-01

    The resistence of different microorganisms to formaldehyde was determined. As test objects served gram-negative and gram-positive vegetative germs (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi-B, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis), bacterial spores (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis), fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans), bacteriophages (Escherichia coli phages, T1, T2, T3), and viruses (adenovirus, poliomyelitis virus, vaccinia virus). For the studies, suspensions of germs were exposed at identical temperature (20 degrees C) and pH (7.0). The microbicidal effect of formaldehyde was measured by the decrease of the proportion of germs capable of multiplication in the suspension (lg (N/N0); where: N0 equals initial number of germs capable of multiplication; N equals number of germs capable of multiplication after exposure to formaldehyde). For all germs the dependence of the microbicidal effect on the concentration of formaldehyde was determined. In all experiments, the duration of exposure was two hours. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi-B were found to be more susceptible than Staphylococcus aureus (vf. Fig. 1 A). The strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa used were widely varying as to their susceptibility. To obtain equal microbicidal effects, concentrations of formaldehyde almost three times as high had to be used for the most resistant strain than were necessary for the most susceptible strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae examined were found to have an identical resistence to formaldehyde. Streptococcus faecalis was even more resistant to formaldehyde than Staphylococcus aureus. In the case of Streptococcus faecalis, a concentration of formaldehyde about three times as high had to be used to obtain microbicidal effects of identical magnitude. For the killing of Candida albicans cells concentrations of

  2. Investigation of spore forming bacterial flooding for enhanced oil recovery in a North Sea chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Eliasson Lantz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis 421 was used as it was shown to be a good candidate in a previous study. Bacterial spore can penetrate deeper into the chalk rock, squeezing through the pore throats. Our results showed that injection of B. licheniformis 421 as a tertiary oil recovery method, in the residual oil...

  3. Barcoding lichen-forming fungi using 454 pyrosequencing is challenged by artifactual and biological sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Kristiina; Cornejo, Carolina; Keller, Christine; Flück, Daniela; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Although lichens (lichen-forming fungi) play an important role in the ecological integrity of many vulnerable landscapes, only a minority of lichen-forming fungi have been barcoded out of the currently accepted ∼18 000 species. Regular Sanger sequencing can be problematic when analyzing lichens since saprophytic, endophytic, and parasitic fungi live intimately admixed, resulting in low-quality sequencing reads. Here, high-throughput, long-read 454 pyrosequencing in a GS FLX+ System was tested to barcode the fungal partner of 100 epiphytic lichen species from Switzerland using fungal-specific primers when amplifying the full internal transcribed spacer region (ITS). The present study shows the potential of DNA barcoding using pyrosequencing, in that the expected lichen fungus was successfully sequenced for all samples except one. Alignment solutions such as BLAST were found to be largely adequate for the generated long reads. In addition, the NCBI nucleotide database-currently the most complete database for lichen-forming fungi-can be used as a reference database when identifying common species, since the majority of analyzed lichens were identified correctly to the species or at least to the genus level. However, several issues were encountered, including a high sequencing error rate, multiple ITS versions in a genome (incomplete concerted evolution), and in some samples the presence of mixed lichen-forming fungi (possible lichen chimeras).

  4. Comparative analysis of the diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in raw milk from organic and conventional dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorevits, An; De Jonghe, Valerie; Vandroemme, Joachim; Reekmans, Rieka; Heyrman, Jeroen; Messens, Winy; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of raw milk can originate from different sources: air, milking equipment, feed, soil, faeces and grass. It is hypothesized that differences in feeding and housing strategies of cows may influence the microbial quality of milk. This assumption was investigated through comparison of the aerobic spore-forming flora in milk from organic and conventional dairy farms. Laboratory pasteurized milk samples from five conventional and five organic dairy farms, sampled in late summer/autumn and in winter, were plated on a standard medium and two differential media, one screening for phospholipolytic and the other for proteolytic activity of bacteria. Almost 930 isolates were obtained of which 898 could be screened via fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Representative isolates were further analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)(5)-PCR. The majority of aerobic spore-formers in milk belonged to the genus Bacillus and showed at least 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with type strains of Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus subtilis and with type strains of species belonging to the Bacillus cereus group. About 7% of all isolates may belong to possibly new spore-forming taxa. Although the overall diversity of aerobic spore-forming bacteria in milk from organic vs. conventional dairy farms was highly similar, some differences between both were observed: (i) a relatively higher number of thermotolerant organisms in milk from conventional dairy farms compared to organic farms (41.2% vs. 25.9%), and (ii) a relatively higher number of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic (81.3%) and Ureibacillus thermosphaericus in milk from conventional (85.7%) dairy farms. One of these differences, the higher occurrence of B. cereus group organisms in milk from organic dairy farms, may be linked to differences in housing strategy between the two types of dairy farming. However, no plausible clarification was found for

  5. Development and fine structure of sclerotia and spores of the actinomycete Chainia olivacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, G P; Williams, S T

    1976-01-01

    Sclerotia and spores of Chainia olivacea were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Sclerotia formed by repeated branching of several hyphea. Branch tips were delimited by septa and increased in size, becoming filled with lipid-like inclusions. In mautre sclerotia, empty cells and intra-hyphal growth were observed. An electron-dense fibrillar material was deposited between hyphae and on the sclerotium surface. The similarities between these and the sclerotia of certain fungi are discussed. Spores were formed in a manner similar to that in Streptomyces species. Large inter-sporal pads were formed during ingrowth of the septa delimiting the spores.

  6. Microbial Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by the Aid of Inhabitant Spore-Forming Bacteria: An Insight Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibulal, Biji; Al-Bahry, Saif N.; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M.; Elshafie, Abdulkader E.; Al-Bemani, Ali S.; Joshi, Sanket J.

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is an important tertiary oil recovery method which is cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to drive the residual oil trapped in the reservoirs. The potential of microorganisms to degrade heavy crude oil to reduce viscosity is considered to be very effective in MEOR. Earlier studies of MEOR (1950s) were based on three broad areas: injection, dispersion, and propagation of microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs; selective degradation of oil components to improve flow characteristics; and production of metabolites by microorganisms and their effects. Since thermophilic spore-forming bacteria can thrive in very extreme conditions in oil reservoirs, they are the most suitable organisms for the purpose. This paper contains the review of work done with thermophilic spore-forming bacteria by different researchers. PMID:24550702

  7. Microbial Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by the Aid of Inhabitant Spore-Forming Bacteria: An Insight Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biji Shibulal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is the major source of energy worldwide being exploited as a source of economy, including Oman. As the price of crude oil increases and crude oil reserves collapse, exploitation of oil resources in mature reservoirs is essential for meeting future energy demands. As conventional recovery methods currently used have become less efficient for the needs, there is a continuous demand of developing a new technology which helps in the upgradation of heavy crude oil. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR is an important tertiary oil recovery method which is cost-effective and eco-friendly technology to drive the residual oil trapped in the reservoirs. The potential of microorganisms to degrade heavy crude oil to reduce viscosity is considered to be very effective in MEOR. Earlier studies of MEOR (1950s were based on three broad areas: injection, dispersion, and propagation of microorganisms in petroleum reservoirs; selective degradation of oil components to improve flow characteristics; and production of metabolites by microorganisms and their effects. Since thermophilic spore-forming bacteria can thrive in very extreme conditions in oil reservoirs, they are the most suitable organisms for the purpose. This paper contains the review of work done with thermophilic spore-forming bacteria by different researchers.

  8. Desulfotomaculum arcticum sp. nov., a novel spore-forming, moderately thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold fjord sediment of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, Verona; Knoblauch, Christian; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2006-01-01

    Strain 15T is a novel spore-forming, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold fjord sediment of Svalbard. Sulfate could be replaced by sulfite or thiosulfate. Hydrogen, formate, lactate, propionate, butyrate, hexanoate, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, pyruvate, malate...... growth occurred at 44 degrees C. Therefore, strain 15T apparently cannot grow at in situ temperatures of Arctic sediments from where it was isolated, and it was proposed that it was present in the sediment in the form of spores. The DNA G+C content was 48.9 mol%. Strain 15T was most closely related...

  9. Mysterious Mycorrhizae? A Field Trip & Classroom Experiment to Demystify the Symbioses Formed between Plants & Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy C.; Chaudhary, V. Bala; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Moore, John C.; Pringle, Anne; Umbanhowar, James A.; Wilson, Gail W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Biology curricula cover fungi in units on bacteria, protists, and primitive plants, but fungi are more closely related to animals than to bacteria or plants. Like animals, fungi are heterotrophs and cannot create their own food; but, like plants, fungi have cell walls, and are for the most part immobile. Most species of fungi have a filamentous…

  10. [The study of mycolytic properties of aerobic spore-forming bacteria producing extracellular chitinases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktuganov, G E; Melent'ev, A I; Galimzianova, N F; Shirokov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The mycolytic activity of 27 strains of antagonistic bacilli belonging to two taxonomic groups (18 strains of Bacillus subtilis and 9 strains of Paenibacillus ehimensis) capable of induced synthesis of chitinolytic enzymes was studied. Most of the B. subtilis strains neither displayed visible mycolytic effects on the phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana in vitro, nor produced chitinases in the presence of an auto-claved mycelium. On the contrary, P. ehimensis strains grown under conditions favorable for induction of chitinases and other hydrolases exhibited a pronounced lytic effect on B. sorokiniana and actively grew by utilizing mycelium as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Comparison of the mycolytic activities of extracellular hydrolases in the studied strains demonstrated low correlation between chitinase production and the ability of the strains to degrade the cell walls of B. sorokiniana. Characterization of enzyme profiles in the studied strains revealed that beta-1,3-glucanase was a more significant factor than chitinase for determining the mycolytic potential of bacteria and their ability to utilize the mycelium of phytopathogenic fungi as a growth substrate.

  11. Diversity and evolution of ABC proteins in mycorrhiza-forming fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2015-12-28

    Transporter proteins are predicted to have an important role in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, due to the fact that this type of an interaction between plants and fungi requires a continuous nutrient and signalling exchange. ABC transporters are one of the large groups of transporter proteins found both in plants and in fungi. The crucial role of plant ABC transporters in the formation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis has been demonstrated recently. Some of the fungal ABC transporter-encoding genes are also induced during the mycorrhiza formation. However, no experimental evidences of the direct involvement of fungal ABC transporters in this process are available so far. To facilitate the identification of fungal ABC proteins with a potential role in the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis, we have performed an inventory of the ABC protein-encoding genes in the genomes of 25 species of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. We have identified, manually annotated and curated more than 1300 gene models of putative ABC protein-encoding genes. Out of those, more than 1000 models are predicted to encode functional proteins, whereas about 300 models represent gene fragments or putative pseudogenes. We have also performed the phylogenetic analysis of the identified sequences. The sets of ABC proteins in the mycorrhiza-forming species were compared to the related saprotrophic or plant-pathogenic fungal species. Our results demonstrate the high diversity of ABC genes in the genomes of mycorrhiza-forming fungi. Via comparison of transcriptomics data from different species, we have identified candidate groups of ABC transporters that might have a role in the process of the mycorrhiza formation. Results of our inventory will facilitate the identification of fungal transporters with a role in the mycorrhiza formation. We also provide the first data on ABC protein-coding genes for the phylum Glomeromycota and for orders Pezizales, Atheliales, Cantharellales and Sebacinales, contributing to

  12. Anaerosporomusa subterranea gen. nov., sp. nov., a spore-forming anaerobe belonging to the class Negativicutes isolated from saprolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jessica K; Shah, Madhavi; Yee, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, spore-forming, anaerobic bacterium designated strain RU4T was isolated from a saprolite core collected from Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Cells were slightly curved rods and exhibited an outer membrane exterior to a thin cell wall. Strain RU4T formed heat-resistant endospores in late-log phase and stationary phase cultures. Under anaerobic conditions, strain RU4T grew by fermenting fumarate and maleate, but did not grow on glucose, glycerol, pyruvate, lactate, succinate, citrate, formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate or valerate. Strain RU4T did not reduce sulfate or ferric iron. The main cellular fatty acids were C17 : 0 cyclo, C16 : 0 and C15 : 0. The DNA G+C content was 52 mol%. Analysis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, recA, infB, gyrB and atpD gene sequences indicated that the isolate is related to members of the family Sporomusaceae. Based on 92 % sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene to its closest relatives in the family Sporomusaceae and divergent physiological traits, the newly-cultivated isolate was assigned to a novel species of a new genus, Anaerosporomusa subterranea gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Anaerosporomusa subterranea is RU4T (=DSM 29728T=ATCC BAA-2723T).

  13. New records of rare lichenicolous and lichen-forming fungi from volcanic rocks in SW Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szczepańska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Records of two lichenicolous and nine lichen-forming fungi found in the southwestern part of Poland are presented. All of the reported species are very rare and they have only a few scattered localities in the country. One of them, Lecanora pannonica, is reported for the second time from Poland. Additionally, the new, contemporary records of Cercidospora macrospora, Rhizocarpon disporum, R. viridiatrum and Stereocaulon pileatum in Lower Silesia were noted. These species were known only from historical collections in the study area. Furthermore, Lecidea fuscoatra has been found a new host for Sagediopsis barbara. All of the localities of recorded species were found on natural outcrops of basalt rocks.

  14. VeA of Aspergillus niger increases spore dispersing capacity by impacting conidiophore architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fengfeng; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wyatt, Timon; Wösten, Han A B; Bleichrodt, Robert-Jan

    Aspergillus species are highly abundant fungi worldwide. Their conidia are among the most dominant fungal spores in the air. Conidia are formed in chains on the vesicle of the asexual reproductive structure called the conidiophore. Here, it is shown that the velvet protein VeA of Aspergillus niger

  15. Microbiological method for radiation sterilization (III). Development of identification software of spore-forming bacteria by using BBL CRYSTAL GP identification kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironiwa, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    2004-01-01

    The part III in this title series describes the development of software for identification of spore-forming bacteria using the commercially available BBL CRYSTAL GP Identification Kit (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Ltd.), which is essentially for identification of Gram positive bacteria and is not always suitable for the spore-former in the radiation sterilization of medical devices. Isolation and identification of a spore-forming bacterium have to be confirmed by phase-contrast microscopy. The bacteria cultured overnight are to be inoculated in the Kit and cultured for 18-24 hr at 35-37 deg C with the lid attached by substrates for identification. Here, 30 substrates and probability of positive reactions to the substrates have been tested for spore-formers to make the computer software for final identification. The system is possible to identify 13 spp. of Bacillus, 4 of Paenibacillus, 2 of Brevibaccilus and 1 of Virgibacillus, which are the usual bioburden. For possible misidentification, re-isolation of the bacterium, prolonged culture, concentrated inoculation and re-consideration for ranking of identification the software provides are necessary as well as other identification approaches. Thus, as described in this series, the radio-resistance of, and radiation dose for, the bioburden can be evaluated more easily than hitherto, with use of the kits in radiation sterilization. (N.I.)

  16. Hydrothermal vents in Lake Tanganyika harbor spore-forming thermophiles with extremely rapid growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Prieur, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    endospores. Based on the 16 S rDNA sequence the novel strain was homologous to Thermobrachium celere and Caloramator indicus, which are closely related. The novel strain was strictly anaerobic, fermentative and had a doubling time as short as 10 min during growth on complex substrates, such as yeast extract......A thermophilic anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a sublacustrine hydrothermal vent site in Lake Tanganyika (East Africa) with recorded fluid temperatures of 66–103 °C and pH values of 7.7–8.9. The bacterium (strain TR10) was rod-shaped, about 1 by 5 μm in size, and readily formed distal...

  17. Contribution of RPB2 to multilocus phylogenetic studies of the euascomycetes (Pezizomycotina, Fungi) with special emphasis on the lichen-forming Acarosporaceae and evolution of polyspory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Valérie; Lutzoni, François; Roux, Claude

    2004-09-01

    Despite the recent progress in molecular phylogenetics, many of the deepest relationships among the main lineages of the largest fungal phylum, Ascomycota, remain unresolved. To increase both resolution and support on a large-scale phylogeny of lichenized and non-lichenized ascomycetes, we combined the protein coding-gene RPB2 with the traditionally used nuclear ribosomal genes SSU and LSU. Our analyses resulted in the naming of the new subclasses Acarosporomycetidae and Ostropomycetidae, and the new class Lichinomycetes, as well as the establishment of the phylogenetic placement and novel circumscription of the lichen-forming fungi family Acarosporaceae. The delimitation of this family has been problematic over the past century, because its main diagnostic feature, true polyspory (numerous spores issued from multiple post-meiosis mitoses) with over 100 spores per ascus, is probably not restricted to the Acarosporaceae. This observation was confirmed by our reconstruction of the origin and evolution of this form of true polyspory using maximum likelihood as the optimality criterion. The various phylogenetic analyses carried out on our data sets allowed us to conclude that: (1) the inclusion of phylogenetic signal from ambiguously aligned regions into the maximum parsimony analyses proved advantageous in reconstructing phylogeny; however, when more data become available, Bayesian analysis using different models of evolution is likely to be more efficient; (2) neighbor-joining bootstrap proportions seem to be more appropriate in detecting topological conflict between data partitions of large-scale phylogenies than posterior probabilities; and (3) Bayesian bootstrap proportion provides a compromise between posterior probability outcomes (i.e., higher accuracy, but with a higher number of significantly supported wrong internodes) vs. maximum likelihood bootstrap proportion outcomes (i.e., lower accuracy, with a lower number of significantly supported wrong internodes).

  18. Effect of Essential Oils on Germination and Growth of Some Pathogenic and Spoilage Spore-Forming Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voundi, Stève Olugu; Nyegue, Maximilienne; Lazar, Iuliana; Raducanu, Dumitra; Ndoye, Florentine Foe; Marius, Stamate; Etoa, François-Xavier

    2015-06-01

    The use of essential oils as a food preservative has increased due to their capacity to inhibit vegetative growth of some bacteria. However, only limited data are available on their effect on bacterial spores. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of some essential oils on the growth and germination of three Bacillus species and Geobacillus stearothermophilus. Essential oils were chemically analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of vegetative growth and spore germination were assessed using the macrodilution method. Germination inhibitory effect of treated spores with essential oils was evaluated on solid medium, while kinetic growth was followed using spectrophotometry in the presence of essential oils. Essential oil from Drypetes gossweileri mainly composed of benzyl isothiocyanate (86.7%) was the most potent, with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.0048 to 0.0097 mg/mL on vegetative cells and 0.001 to 0.002 mg/mL on spore germination. Furthermore, essential oil from D. gossweileri reduced 50% of spore germination after treatment at 1.25 mg/mL, and its combination with other oils improved both bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities with additive or synergistic effects. Concerning the other essential oils, the minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 5 to 0.63 mg/mL on vegetative growth and from 0.75 to 0.09 mg/mL on the germination of spores. Spectrophotometric evaluation showed an inhibitory effect of essential oils on both germination and outgrowth. From these results, it is concluded that some of the essential oils tested might be a valuable tool for bacteriological control in food industries. Therefore, further research regarding their use as food preservatives should be carried out.

  19. Efficiency of boiling and four other methods for genomic DNA extraction of deteriorating spore-forming bacteria from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The spore-forming microbiota is mainly responsible for the deterioration of pasteurized milk with long shelf life in the United States. The identification of these microorganisms, using molecular tools, is of particular importance for the maintenance of the quality of milk. However, these molecular techniques are not only costly but also labor-intensive and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of boiling in conjunction with four other methods for the genomic DNA extraction of sporulated bacteria with proteolytic and lipolytic potential isolated from raw milk in the states of Paraná and Maranhão, Brazil. Protocols based on cellular lysis by enzymatic digestion, phenolic extraction, microwave-heating, as well as the use of guanidine isothiocyanate were used. This study proposes a method involving simple boiling for the extraction of genomic DNA from these microorganisms. Variations in the quality and yield of the extracted DNA among these methods were observed. However, both the cell lysis protocol by enzymatic digestion (commercial kit and the simple boiling method proposed in this study yielded sufficient DNA for successfully carrying out the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR of the rpoB and 16S rRNA genes for all 11 strains of microorganisms tested. Other protocols failed to yield sufficient quantity and quality of DNA from all microorganisms tested, since only a few strains have showed positive results by PCR, thereby hindering the search for new microorganisms. Thus, the simple boiling method for DNA extraction from sporulated bacteria in spoiled milk showed the same efficacy as that of the commercial kit. Moreover, the method is inexpensive, easy to perform, and much less time-consuming.

  20. Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., a new anaerobic, haloalkaliphilic, spore-forming acetogen isolated from Mono Lake in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, E. V.; Hoover, R. B.; Bej, A. K.; Marsic, D.; Detkova, E. N.; Whitman, W. B.; Krader, P.

    2003-01-01

    A novel extremely haloalkaliphilic, strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium strain APO was isolated from sediments of the athalassic, meromictic, alkaline Mono Lake in California. The Gram-positive, spore-forming, slightly curved rods with sizes 0.55- 0.7x1.7-3.0 microns were motile by a single laterally attached flagellum. Strain APO was mesophilic (range 10-48 C, optimum of 37 C); halophilic (NaCl range 1-20% (w/v) with optimum of 3-5% (w/v), and alkaliphilic (pH range 8.0-10.5, optimum 9.5). The novel isolate required sodium ions in the medium. Strain APO was an organotroph with a fermentative type of metabolism and used the substrates peptone, bacto-tryptone, casamino acid, yeast extract, L-serine, L-lysine, L-histidine, L-arginine, and pyruvate. The new isolate performed the Stickland reaction with the following amino acid pairs: proline + alanine, glycine + alanine, and tryptophan + valine. The main end product of growth was acetate. High activity of CO dehydrogenase and hydrogenase indicated the presence of a homoacetogenic, non-cycling acetyl-coA pathway. Strain APO was resistant to kanamycin but sensitive to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and gentamycin. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.4 mol% (by HPLC method). The sequence of the 16s rRNA gene of strain APO possessed 98.2% similarity with the sequence from Tindullia magadiensis Z-7934, but the DNA-DNA hybridization value between these organisms was only 55%. On the basis of these physiological and molecular properties, strain APO is proposed to be a novel species of the genus Tindallia with the name Tindallia californiensis sp. nov., (type strain APO = ATCC BAA-393 - DSM 14871).

  1. Comparative study on disinfection potency of spore forming bacteria by electron-beam irradiation and gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Hironobu; Suzuki, Satoru; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Takama, Kozo; Hayashi, Toru; Yasumoto, Kyoden.

    1990-01-01

    Along with gamma-ray irradiation, electron-beam irradiation (EB) is a method to disinfect microorganisms which cause food decomposition and food-poisoning. The present study was undertaken to compare sterilization efficacy of EB and gamma-ray irradiation on bacterial spores and vegetative cells under various conditions. Spores of Bacillus pumilus, a marker strain for irradiation study, and Bacillus stearothermophilus known as a thermophilic bacteria were irradiated by electron-beam and gamma-ray separately at irradiation dose of 0 to 10 kGy on combination of wet/dry and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Sterilization effect of irradiation on spores was evaluated by colony counting on agar plates. Results showed that both EB and gamma-ray irradiation gave sufficient sterilization effect on spores, and the sterilization effect increased exponentially with irradiation dose. The sterilization effect of gamma-ray irradiation was higher than that of EB in all cases. Higher disinfection effect was observed under aerobic condition. The present study suggests that oxygen supply in EB is more important than gamma-ray irradiation. No results suggesting that chlorine ion at 0.1 ppm (as available chlorine concentration) enhanced the sterilization efficacy of either EB or gamma-ray irradiation was obtained under any conditions examined. (author)

  2. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI AS AN INDICATOR OF SOIL FERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akhid Syibli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are ubiquitous organism that forms association with the root of most terrestrial plants. AMF association also influence soil fertility through the enhancement of chemical, biological and physical content. In this study, we enumerated AMF spores from rhizosphere of Tithonia difersivolia as an indicator of soil fertility. The results showed that the most fertile soil had the highest AMF spores density. This research has confirmed that AMF has high interaction with organic carbon, organic matter, total phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, water level, soil fungi and soil bacteria. Partial regression analysis revealed the mathematic equation for their interaction. This equation used the abundant of AMF spores as an indicator for chemical, biological and physical fertility of the soil.

  3. Lichen-forming fungus Caloplaca flavoruscens inhibits transcription factors and chromatin remodeling system in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Youngho; Cha, Jaeyul; Chiang, Jennifer; Tran, Grant; Nislow, Corey; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2016-06-01

    Lichen-forming fungi and extracts derived from them have been used as alternative medicine sources for millennia and recently there has been a renewed interest in their known bioactive properties for anticancer agents, cosmetics and antibiotics. Although lichen-forming fungus-derived compounds are biologically and commercially valuable, few studies have been performed to determine their modes of action. This study used chemical-genetic and chemogenomic high-throughput analyses to gain insight into the modes of action of Caloplaca flavoruscens extracts. High-throughput screening of 575 lichen extracts was performed and 39 extracts were identified which inhibited yeast growth. A C. flavoruscens extract was selected as a promising antifungal and was subjected to genome-wide haploinsufficiency profiling and homozygous profiling assays. These screens revealed that yeast deletion strains lacking Rsc8, Pro1 and Toa2 were sensitive to three concentrations (IC25.5, IC25 and IC50, respectively) of C. flavoruscens extract. Gene-enrichment analysis of the data showed that C. flavoruscens extracts appear to perturb transcription and chromatin remodeling. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Lichen-Forming Fungi of Bryoria Section Implexae (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Nadyeina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The locally rare, haploid, lichen-forming fungi Bryoria capillaris, B. fuscescens, and B. implexa are associated with boreal forests and belong to Bryoria sect. Implexae. Recent phylogenetic studies consider them to be conspecific. Microsatellite loci were developed to study population structure in Bryoria sect. Implexae and its response to ecosystem disturbances. Methods and Results: We developed 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers using 454 pyrosequencing data assessed in 82 individuals. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13 with an average of 4.6. Nei's unbiased gene diversity, averaged over loci, ranged from 0.38 to 0.52. The markers amplified with all three species, except for markers Bi05, Bi15, and Bi18. Conclusions: The new markers will allow the study of population subdivision, levels of gene introgression, and levels of clonal spread of Bryoria sect. Implexae. They will also facilitate an understanding of the effects of forest disturbance on genetic diversity of these lichen species.

  5. Feasibility of flotation concentration of fungal spores as a method to identify toxigenic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzle LJ

    2014-12-01

    97.5% of trials. The most common spore shapes observed were globose, spiked, elliptical, smooth and reticulate. Conclusion: Flotation can concentrate mushroom spores; however, false negative results can occur. Spore morphology could not be used to differentiate species of mushroom-forming fungi since the spore shape and surface characteristics seen in the present study were often observed with multiple species of mushroom-forming fungi. Keywords: gastrointestinal contents, mushroom spore identification, mushroom toxicity, Amanita spp.

  6. Bacteriophages and bacteriophage-derived endolysins as potential therapeutics to combat Gram-positive spore forming bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna, A; Cooper, C J; Gryko, R

    2015-09-01

    Since their discovery in 1915, bacteriophages have been routinely used within Eastern Europe to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Although initially ignored by the West due to the success of antibiotics, increasing levels and diversity of antibiotic resistance is driving a renaissance for bacteriophage-derived therapy, which is in part due to the highly specific nature of bacteriophages as well as their relative abundance. This review focuses on the bacteriophages and derived lysins of relevant Gram-positive spore formers within the Bacillus cereus group and Clostridium genus that could have applications within the medical, food and environmental sectors. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Sexual selection in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, B P S; Aanen, D K

    2012-12-01

    The significance of sexual selection, the component of natural selection associated with variation in mating success, is well established for the evolution of animals and plants, but not for the evolution of fungi. Even though fungi do not have separate sexes, most filamentous fungi mate in a hermaphroditic fashion, with distinct sex roles, that is, investment in large gametes (female role) and fertilization by other small gametes (male role). Fungi compete to fertilize, analogous to 'male-male' competition, whereas they can be selective when being fertilized, analogous to female choice. Mating types, which determine genetic compatibility among fungal gametes, are important for sexual selection in two respects. First, genes at the mating-type loci regulate different aspects of mating and thus can be subject to sexual selection. Second, for sexual selection, not only the two sexes (or sex roles) but also the mating types can form the classes, the members of which compete for access to members of the other class. This is significant if mating-type gene products are costly, thus signalling genetic quality according to Zahavi's handicap principle. We propose that sexual selection explains various fungal characteristics such as the observed high redundancy of pheromones at the B mating-type locus of Agaricomycotina, the occurrence of multiple types of spores in Ascomycotina or the strong pheromone signalling in yeasts. Furthermore, we argue that fungi are good model systems to experimentally study fundamental aspects of sexual selection, due to their fast generation times and high diversity of life cycles and mating systems. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Novel symbiotic protoplasts formed by endophytic fungi explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Atsatt

    Full Text Available Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi that are able to form novel protoplasts called mycosomes. We found that mycosomes cultured from plants and phylogenetically diverse endophytic fungi have common morphological characteristics, express similar developmental patterns, and can revert back to the free-living walled state. Observed with electron microscopy, mycosome ontogeny within Aureobasidium pullulans may involve two organelles: double membrane-bounded promycosome organelles (PMOs that form mycosomes, and multivesicular bodies that may form plastid-infecting vesicles. Cultured mycosomes also contain a double membrane-bounded organelle, which may be homologous to the A. pullulans PMO. The mycosome PMO is often expressed as a vacuole-like organelle, which alternatively may contain a lipoid body or a starch grain. Mycosome reversion to walled cells occurs within the PMO, and by budding from lipid or starch-containing mycosomes. Mycosomes discovered in chicken egg yolk provided a plant-independent source for analysis: they formed typical protoplast stages, contained fungal ITS sequences and reverted to walled cells, suggesting mycosome symbiosis with animals as well as plants. Our results suggest that diverse endophytic fungi express a novel protoplast phase that can explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom. Importantly, our findings outline "what, where, when and how", opening the way for cell and organelle-specific tests using in situ DNA hybridization and fluorescent labels. We discuss developmental, ecological and evolutionary contexts that

  9. Novel Symbiotic Protoplasts Formed by Endophytic Fungi Explain Their Hidden Existence, Lifestyle Switching, and Diversity within the Plant Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsatt, Peter R.; Whiteside, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi that are able to form novel protoplasts called mycosomes. We found that mycosomes cultured from plants and phylogenetically diverse endophytic fungi have common morphological characteristics, express similar developmental patterns, and can revert back to the free-living walled state. Observed with electron microscopy, mycosome ontogeny within Aureobasidium pullulans may involve two organelles: double membrane-bounded promycosome organelles (PMOs) that form mycosomes, and multivesicular bodies that may form plastid-infecting vesicles. Cultured mycosomes also contain a double membrane-bounded organelle, which may be homologous to the A. pullulans PMO. The mycosome PMO is often expressed as a vacuole-like organelle, which alternatively may contain a lipoid body or a starch grain. Mycosome reversion to walled cells occurs within the PMO, and by budding from lipid or starch-containing mycosomes. Mycosomes discovered in chicken egg yolk provided a plant-independent source for analysis: they formed typical protoplast stages, contained fungal ITS sequences and reverted to walled cells, suggesting mycosome symbiosis with animals as well as plants. Our results suggest that diverse endophytic fungi express a novel protoplast phase that can explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom. Importantly, our findings outline “what, where, when and how”, opening the way for cell and organelle-specific tests using in situ DNA hybridization and fluorescent labels. We discuss developmental, ecological and evolutionary contexts that provide a robust

  10. Novel symbiotic protoplasts formed by endophytic fungi explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsatt, Peter R; Whiteside, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Diverse fungi live all or part of their life cycle inside plants as asymptomatic endophytes. While endophytic fungi are increasingly recognized as significant components of plant fitness, it is unclear how they interact with plant cells; why they occur throughout the fungal kingdom; and why they are associated with most fungal lifestyles. Here we evaluate the diversity of endophytic fungi that are able to form novel protoplasts called mycosomes. We found that mycosomes cultured from plants and phylogenetically diverse endophytic fungi have common morphological characteristics, express similar developmental patterns, and can revert back to the free-living walled state. Observed with electron microscopy, mycosome ontogeny within Aureobasidium pullulans may involve two organelles: double membrane-bounded promycosome organelles (PMOs) that form mycosomes, and multivesicular bodies that may form plastid-infecting vesicles. Cultured mycosomes also contain a double membrane-bounded organelle, which may be homologous to the A. pullulans PMO. The mycosome PMO is often expressed as a vacuole-like organelle, which alternatively may contain a lipoid body or a starch grain. Mycosome reversion to walled cells occurs within the PMO, and by budding from lipid or starch-containing mycosomes. Mycosomes discovered in chicken egg yolk provided a plant-independent source for analysis: they formed typical protoplast stages, contained fungal ITS sequences and reverted to walled cells, suggesting mycosome symbiosis with animals as well as plants. Our results suggest that diverse endophytic fungi express a novel protoplast phase that can explain their hidden existence, lifestyle switching, and diversity within the plant kingdom. Importantly, our findings outline "what, where, when and how", opening the way for cell and organelle-specific tests using in situ DNA hybridization and fluorescent labels. We discuss developmental, ecological and evolutionary contexts that provide a robust

  11. Diversity and evolution of ABC proteins in mycorrhiza-forming fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Kohler, Annegret; Martin, Francis; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Transporter proteins are predicted to have an important role in the mycorrhizal symbiosis, due to the fact that this type of an interaction between plants and fungi requires a continuous nutrient and signalling exchange. ABC transporters are one of the large groups of transporter proteins found both in plants and in fungi. The crucial role of plant ABC transporters in the formation of the mycorrhizal symbiosis has bee...

  12. Endophytic Fungi Associated With Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. Can Inhibit Histamine-Forming Bacteria in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eris Septiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. is a medicinal plant that is commonly used as spice and preservative. Many types of endophytic fungi have been reported as being associated with medicinal plants and able to synthesize secondary metabolites. In this study, endophytic fungi were isolated from all plant parts of turmeric plants. Identification of the endophytic fungi was done using morphological characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of ribosomal DNA. The dual culture method was used for screening antibacterial activity of the endophytic fungi against Morganella morganii, a common histamine-producing bacteria. The disc diffusion method was used to test the ability of water fractions of selected endophytic fungi to inhibit M. morganii growth. Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography was used to determine the fungal extract inhibition activity on histamine formation. In total, 11 endophytic fungi were successfully isolated and identified as Arthrobotrys foliicola, Cochliobolus kusanoi, Daldinia eschscholzii, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium verticillioides, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Phaeosphaeria ammophilae. Five isolates showed inhibition activity against M. morganii in the dual culture tests. Based on the disc diffusion assay, A. foliicola and F. verticillioides inhibited the growth of M. morganii as a histamine-producing bacteria, and inhibiting histamine formation in fish. The best effects in inhibiting growth of the histamine-producing bacteria and histamine formation inhibition in fish were produced with F. verticillioides water fraction at 0°C incubation.

  13. Diversity of spore-forming bacteria and identification of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a species frequently associated with the ropy spoilage of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, F; De Bellis, P; Di Biase, M; Lonigro, S L; Giussani, B; Visconti, A; Lavermicocca, P; Sisto, A

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the diversity of spore-forming bacteria isolated from raw materials/bread using molecular methods along with a rapid and innovative technology, the FT-NIR spectroscopy. Microbiological analysis showed that 23% of semolina and 42% of other raw materials (including grain, brewer yeast, improvers) contained more than 100 spores/g and more than 50% of each kind of sample was contaminated at a level ranging from 1 to 100 spores/g. A high bacterial diversity characterized raw materials. In total 176 isolates were collected and characterized: 13 bacterial species belonging to Bacillus (10) and Paenibacillus (3) genera were identified by sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrA or gyrB genes. The two closely related species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain N45.1) and Bacillus subtilis (strain S63) were also analyzed by the spectroscopic technique FT-NIR. This analysis gave clear discrimination between the strains in the score plot obtained by the PCA and allowed to identify the spectral region 5600-4000 cm(-1) as the information-rich region for discrimination. B. amyloliquefaciens, possibly misidentified as B. subtilis in previous studies, was recognized as the most frequent species, found also in ropy bread. Moreover, the screening test for rope production indicated that mainly B. amyloliquefaciens, together with B. subtilis and Bacillus pumilus, could cause spoilage in bread, even if the last two species were represented by a low number of isolates. The Bacillus cereus group and Bacillus megaterium showed a lower percentage (30-70%) of isolates potentially able to cause the rope, but considering the high number of B. cereus group isolates detected in this study, this bacterial group should also be considered important in rope spoilage. In conclusion, results demonstrate that raw materials used to produce bread represent a rich source of spore-forming bacteria, therefore their microbiological quality should be monitored before use. Moreover, this study

  14. Synergistic action of cinnamaldehyde with silver nanoparticles against spore-forming bacteria: a case for judicious use of silver nanoparticles for antibacterial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh IN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Indro Neil Ghosh,1,* Supriya Deepak Patil,1,* Tarun Kumar Sharma,1,2 Santosh Kumar Srivastava,1 Ranjana Pathania,1 Naveen Kumar Navani11Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand, 2Center for Biodesign and Diagnostics, Translational Health Science and Technology Institute, Gurgaon Haryana, India*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Silver has long been advocated as an effective antimicrobial. However, toxicity issues with silver have led to limited use of silver in nanoform, especially for food preservation. With the aim of exploring combinatorial options that could increase the antibacterial potency of silver nanoparticles and reduce the effective dosage of silver, we evaluated the extent of synergy that a combination of silver nanoparticles and an essential oil representative (cinnamaldehyde could offer. A battery of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains was utilized for antibacterial assays, and extents of synergism were calculated from fractional inhibitory concentration indices. The activity of nanoparticles was greatly enhanced when utilized in the presence of cinnamaldehyde. We observed combinatorial effects that were strongly additive against all the bacterial strains tested, and genuine synergy was found against spore forming Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens – bacterial strains associated with release of cytotoxins in contaminated food and known for their persistence. Bacterial kill curve analysis revealed a very fast bactericidal action when a combination of two agents was used. The electron and atomic force microscopy also revealed extensive damage to the bacterial cell envelop in the presence of both agents. We also performed hemolysis assays to investigate and approximate the extent of toxicity exhibited by the two agents, and observed no adverse effect at the concentrations required for synergy. This study shows that safe levels of silver in

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans Spores Reveal a Critical Role for Capsule Biosynthesis Genes in Spore Biogenesis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botts, Michael R.; Giles, Steven S.; Gates, Marcellene A.; Kozel, Thomas R.; Hull, Christina M.

    2009-01-01

    Spores are essential particles for the survival of many organisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. Among the eukaryotes, fungi have developed spores with superior resistance and dispersal properties. For the human fungal pathogens, however, relatively little is known about the role that spores play in dispersal and infection. Here we present the purification and characterization of spores from the environmental fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. For the first time, we purified spores to homogeneity and assessed their morphological, stress resistance, and surface properties. We found that spores are morphologically distinct from yeast cells and are covered with a thick spore coat. Spores are also more resistant to environmental stresses than yeast cells and display a spore-specific configuration of polysaccharides on their surfaces. Surprisingly, we found that the surface of the spore reacts with antibodies to the polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, the most abundant component of the polysaccharide capsule required for C. neoformans virulence. We explored the role of capsule polysaccharide in spore development by assessing spore formation in a series of acapsular strains and determined that capsule biosynthesis genes are required for proper sexual development and normal spore formation. Our findings suggest that C. neoformans spores may have an adapted cell surface that facilitates persistence in harsh environments and ultimately allows them to infect mammalian hosts. PMID:19181873

  16. Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildesø, J.; Wurtz, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    The release and transport of fungal spores from water-damaged building materials is a key factor for understanding the exposure to particles of fungal origin as a possible cause of adverse health effects associated to growth of fungi indoors. In this study, the release of spores from nine species...

  17. Lyophilized spore dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, A. D. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lyophilized spore dispenser is provided which produces a finely divided, monoparticulate cloud of bacterial spores. The spores are contained within a tightly sealed chamber, and a turbulator orifice connected to an air supply source provides a jet of air which stirs up the spores and causes the spores to be suspended in eddy currents within the chamber. This air jet also produces a positive pressure within the chamber which forces the spores out of an injection orifice.

  18. Updates on Clostridium difficile spore biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Fernando; Lagos-Moraga, Sebastián; Calderón-Romero, Paulina; Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, anaerobic spore former, and an important nosocomial pathogenic bacterium. C. difficile spores are the morphotype of transmission and recurrence of the disease. The formation of C. difficile spores and their subsequent germination are essential processes during the infection. Recent in vitro and in vivo work has shed light on how spores are formed and the timing of in vivo sporulation in a mouse model. Advances have also been made in our understanding of the machineries involved in spore germination, and how antibiotic-induced dysbiosis affects the metabolism of bile salts and thus impacts C. difficile germination in vivo. Studies have also attempted to identify how C. difficile spores interact with the host's intestinal mucosa. Spore resistance has also been revisited by several groups highlighting the extreme resistance of this morphotype to traditional food processing regimes and disinfectants used in clinical settings. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize recent advances on spore formation/germination in vitro and in vivo, spore-host interactions, and spore resistance that contribute to our knowledge of the role of C. difficile spores in the infectious process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Spore-killing meiotic drive factors in a natural population of the fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.; Debets, A.J.M.; Oosterhof, J.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Thijssen, J.A.G.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    In fungi, meiotic drive is observed as spore killing. In the secondarily homothallic ascomycete Podospora anserina it is characterized by the abortion of two of the four spores in the ascus. We have identified seven different types of meiotic drive elements (Spore killers). Among 99 isolates from

  20. Phospholipase Cδ regulates germination of Dictyostelium spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, Peter van; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Background: Many eukaryotes, including plants and fungi make spores that resist severe environmental stress. The micro-organism Dictyostelium contains a single phospholipase C gene (PLC); deletion of the gene has no effect on growth, cell movement and differentiation. In this report we show that PLC

  1. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi forming symbiosis with Pinus pinaster seedlings exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Marques, Ana P G C; Castro, Paula M L

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and its accumulation in the upper layers of forest soils affects plants, microorganisms and their interactions. Adequate strategies for the reforestation of metal contaminated sites are of vital importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the response of Pinus pinaster seedlings to Cd exposure and to assess the effect of inoculation with two selected ectomycorrhizal fungi, Suillus bovinus and Rhizopogon roseolus on that response. Seedlings were exposed to soil contaminated at 15 and 30 mg Cd kg(-1). Shoot biomass of P. pinaster decreased ca. 36% when exposed to 15 mg Cd kg(-1). Overall, colonization by S. bovinus significantly enhanced shoot development up to 30% in contaminated soil while colonization by R. roseolus produced no significant effect at both Cd concentrations tested and significantly increased the level of Cd in the shoots at both Cd concentrations. Metal accumulation in the shoots and roots of non-inoculated and S. bovinus-inoculated seedlings increased at the higher Cd levels whereas R. roseolus-inoculated seedlings were not sensitive to Cd variation in the soil. The results from our research show that inoculation with ECM fungi has a significant impact on metal uptake and development of P. pinaster seedlings; the differential response induced by the two tested species highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate strains for nursery inoculation, and, as such, this biological tool ought to be considered in reforestation processes of heavy metal contaminated areas by woody species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  3. Bacillus subtilis Spore Inner Membrane Proteome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, L.; Abhyankar, W.; Ouwerling, N.; Dekker, H.L.; van Veen, H.; van der Wel, N.N.; Roseboom, W.; de Koning, L.J.; Brul, S.; de Koster, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    The endospore is the dormant form of Bacillus subtilis and many other Firmicutes. By sporulation, these spore formers can survive very harsh physical and chemical conditions. Yet, they need to go through germination to return to their growing form. The spore inner membrane (IM) has been shown to

  4. Electron Beam Irradiation Dose Dependently Damages the Bacillus Spore Coat and Spore Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Fiester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective control of spore-forming bacilli begs suitable physical or chemical methods. While many spore inactivation techniques have been proven effective, electron beam (EB irradiation has been frequently chosen to eradicate Bacillus spores. Despite its widespread use, there are limited data evaluating the effects of EB irradiation on Bacillus spores. To study this, B. atrophaeus spores were purified, suspended in sterile, distilled water, and irradiated with EB (up to 20 kGy. Irradiated spores were found (1 to contain structural damage as observed by electron microscopy, (2 to have spilled cytoplasmic contents as measured by spectroscopy, (3 to have reduced membrane integrity as determined by fluorescence cytometry, and (4 to have fragmented genomic DNA as measured by gel electrophoresis, all in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cytometry data reveal decreased spore size, increased surface alterations, and increased uptake of propidium iodide, with increasing EB dose, suggesting spore coat alterations with membrane damage, prior to loss of spore viability. The present study suggests that EB irradiation of spores in water results in substantial structural damage of the spore coat and inner membrane, and that, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent spore inactivation.

  5. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodkin, Alexander; Gavrilov, Sergey; Ionov, Victor; Iliyin, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite). After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  6. Spore-Forming Thermophilic Bacterium within Artificial Meteorite Survives Entry into the Earth's Atmosphere on FOTON-M4 Satellite Landing Module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Slobodkin

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions of the lithopanspermia hypothesis is that microorganisms situated within meteorites could survive hypervelocity entry from space through the Earth's atmosphere. So far, all experimental proof of this possibility has been based on tests with sounding rockets which do not reach the transit velocities of natural meteorites. We explored the survival of the spore-forming thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus, placed within 1.4-cm thick basalt discs fixed on the exterior of a space capsule (the METEORITE experiment on the FOTON-M4 satellite. After 45 days of orbital flight, the landing module of the space vehicle returned to Earth. The temperature during the atmospheric transit was high enough to melt the surface of basalt. T. siderophilus survived the entry; viable cells were recovered from 4 of 24 wells loaded with this microorganism. The identity of the strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence and physiological tests. This is the first report on the survival of a lifeform within an artificial meteorite after entry from space orbit through Earth's atmosphere at a velocity that closely approached the velocities of natural meteorites. The characteristics of the artificial meteorite and the living object applied in this study can serve as positive controls in further experiments on testing of different organisms and conditions of interplanetary transport.

  7. Spore Preparation Protocol for Enrichment of Clostridia from Murine Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Eric M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2017-05-20

    In recent years, many spore-forming commensal Clostridia found in the gut have been discovered to promote host physiology, immune development, and protection against infections. We provide a detailed protocol for rapid enrichment of spore-forming bacteria from murine intestine. Briefly, contents from the intestinal cecum are collected aerobically, diluted and finally treated with chloroform to enrich for Clostridia spores.

  8. What can spores do for us?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolken, W.A.M.; Tramper, J.; Werf, van der M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Many organisms have the ability to form spores, a remarkable phase in their life cycles. Compared with vegetative cells, spores have several advantages (e.g. resistance to toxic compounds, temperature, desiccation and radiation) making them well suited to various applications. The applications of

  9. Metabolic potential of a Novel Gram-Negative, Spore-forming, and Putatively Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium in the Continental Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C. Y. M.; Becraft, E. D.; Cason, E. D.; Borgonie, G.; Kieft, T. L.; Li, L.; van Heerden, E.; Jarett, J.; Woyke, T.; Stepanauskas, R.; Onstott, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic sulfate reduction is among the most thermodynamically favorable biochemical reactions in the deep subsurface environments. Phylogenetically and functionally diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) within Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes have been reported. However, only few of them have been isolated in pure cultures for detailed physiological characterization. Previous studies showed that fracture fluid samples from the 1 km-deep borehole DR5IPC (Driefontein gold mine, South Africa) harbored novel SRB, as indicated by the low percentages (84% and 90%) of identity of the 16S ribosomal RNA clone sequences to known SRB. To overcome the challenge of low cultivability, we employed next-generation sequencing to unveil the metabolic potential of these novel SRB. Metagenomic assembly and binning yielded seven >50% complete genomes including a methylotrophic SRB belonging to Deltaproteobacteria (DR5_3) and two draft genomes representing an uncultivated phylum, tentatively "Driefonteinae" (DR5_4 and DR5_5). They accounted for 3%, 2% and 18% of all metagenomic reads. Three single-cell assembled genomes (SAGs) sharing 99% of average nucleotide identity (ANI) with DR5_5 were obtained. Analysis of the protein-coding genes in DR5_5 and related SAGs indicated that "Driefonteinae" possesses dissimilatory sulfite reductase genes (dsrAB), suggesting that sulfate would be the terminal electron acceptor. Whereas it may use diverse electron acceptors such as carbon monoxide, acetate, lactate and formate. A near-complete collection of genes for Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and genes for partial pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle further showed that "Driefonteinae" may live a mixotrophic life style. It is evident that archaeal genes related to methanogens were acquired through horizontal gene transfer. Phenotypically, "Driefonteinae" has a Gram-negative cell wall and flagella. The ability of forming spores would enable this microorganism to endure

  10. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Damare, S.

    > and can reach fresh habitats. It has been recently reported that spores of Aspergillus sydowii are croTied from the Saharan deserts across the Atlantic Ocean during dust storm!) to the Carihhean islands and cause aspergillosis disease in seafan~(87). Fungi... hand, heat shock pre treatment increased barotolerance in S. cerevisiae (strain IFO-0224) cells, indicating that hydrostatic pressure and high temperature may have the same physiological effects on this yeast (31). Heat shock treatment also prevented...

  11. Expression and characterization of a novel spore wall protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic, spore-forming parasites. The environmentally resistant spores, which harbor a rigid cell wall, are critical for their survival outside their host cells and host-to-host transmission. The spore wall comprises two major layers: the exospore and the endospore. In Nosema ...

  12. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Etienne V; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw-milk-associated factors. In contrast, recontamination with spores, particularly from the B. cereus complex, seems to occur. To enhance milk quality throughout the entire shelf life, improved plant sanitation and disinfection that target the elimination of spores are necessary.

  13. [Contribution to the rapid diagnosis of yeast-forming fungi of clinical and hospital interest (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, M; Linares, M J

    1980-11-25

    Because the chlamydospore formation test for the identification of C. albicans is frequently utilized in most clinical Mycology laboratories, a comparative study of the different methods employed for the test was carried out. A total of 108 strains of yeast forming organisms belonging to C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. stellatoidea, C. pseudotropicalis, C. parakrusei, C. guillermondii, C. neoformans, C. laurentii, C. albidus, C. candidum, T. glabrata, R. rubra, T. cutaneum, and S. carlsbergensis was used. The following culture media were compared: corn meal agar, rice agar, chlamydospore agar, PCB, and the recently described TOC medium (tween 80, oxgall and caffeic acid). Chlamydospore formation was positive, respectively, in 54.2%, 66.6%, 71.4%, 82.8%, and 91.4% and pseudomycelia formation, in 85.7%, 80%, 71.4%, 94.2%, and 91.4%. Only Cryptococcus neoformans produced in the TOC medium a characteristic coffee brown pigmentation which distinguished it from the other fungi. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the TOC medium in comparison with other culture media for the chlamydospore formation test for the diagnosis of C. albicans, and for the diagnosis of C. neoformans because of the characteristic pigmentation it produces.

  14. Symbiotic fungi that are essential for plant nutrient uptake investigated with NMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallon, J.; Wallander, H.; Hammer, E.; Arteaga Marrero, N.; Auzelyte, V.; Elfman, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Nilsson, C.; Olsson, P.A.; Wegden, M.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear microprobe (NMP) technique using PIXE for elemental analysis and STIM on/off axis for parallel mass density normalization has proven successful to investigate possible interactions between minerals and ectomycorrhizal (EM) mycelia that form symbiotic associations with forest trees. The ability for the EM to make elements biologically available from minerals and soil were compared in field studies and in laboratory experiments, and molecular analysis (PCR-RFLP) was used to identify ectomycorrhizal species from the field samplings. EM rhizomorphs associated with apatite in laboratory systems and in mesh bags incubated in forest ecosystems contained larger amounts of Ca than similar rhizomorphs connected to acid-washed sand. EM mycelium produced in mesh bags had a capacity to mobilize P from apatite-amended sand and a high concentration of K in some rhizomorphs suggests that these fungi are good accumulators of K and may have a significant role in transporting K to trees. Spores formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in laboratory cultures were compared with spores formed in saline soils in Tunisia in Northern Africa. We found lower concentrations of P and higher concentrations of Cl in the spores collected from the field than in the spores collected from laboratory cultures. For the case of laboratory cultures, the distribution of e.g. P and K was found to be clearly correlated

  15. Symbiotic fungi that are essential for plant nutrient uptake investigated with NMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallon, J.; Wallander, H.; Hammer, E.; Arteaga Marrero, N.; Auzelyte, V.; Elfman, M.; Kristiansson, P.; Nilsson, C.; Olsson, P. A.; Wegdén, M.

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear microprobe (NMP) technique using PIXE for elemental analysis and STIM on/off axis for parallel mass density normalization has proven successful to investigate possible interactions between minerals and ectomycorrhizal (EM) mycelia that form symbiotic associations with forest trees. The ability for the EM to make elements biologically available from minerals and soil were compared in field studies and in laboratory experiments, and molecular analysis (PCR-RFLP) was used to identify ectomycorrhizal species from the field samplings. EM rhizomorphs associated with apatite in laboratory systems and in mesh bags incubated in forest ecosystems contained larger amounts of Ca than similar rhizomorphs connected to acid-washed sand. EM mycelium produced in mesh bags had a capacity to mobilize P from apatite-amended sand and a high concentration of K in some rhizomorphs suggests that these fungi are good accumulators of K and may have a significant role in transporting K to trees. Spores formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in laboratory cultures were compared with spores formed in saline soils in Tunisia in Northern Africa. We found lower concentrations of P and higher concentrations of Cl in the spores collected from the field than in the spores collected from laboratory cultures. For the case of laboratory cultures, the distribution of e.g. P and K was found to be clearly correlated.

  16. Distribution of mycorrhizal fungal spores in soils under agroforestry and monocultural coffee systems in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Boddington, C.L.; Janssen, B.H.; Oenema, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    Deep-rooting trees in agroforestry systems may promote distribution of spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at deeper soil levels. We investigated the vertical distribution of AMF spores in Oxisols under agroforestry and monocultural (unshaded) coffee systems in on-farm experiments (

  17. Reductions in complexity of mitochondrial genomes in lichen-forming fungi shed light on genome architecture of obligate symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogoda, Cloe S; Keepers, Kyle G; Lendemer, James C; Kane, Nolan C; Tripp, Erin A

    2018-03-01

    Symbioses among co-evolving taxa are often marked by genome reductions such as a loss of protein-coding genes in at least one of the partners as a means of reducing redundancy or intergenomic conflict. To explore this phenomenon in an iconic yet under-studied group of obligate symbiotic organisms, mitochondrial genomes of 22 newly sequenced and annotated species of lichenized fungi were compared to 167 mitochondrial genomes of nonlichenized fungi. Our results demonstrate the first broad-scale loss of atp9 from mitochondria of lichenized fungi. Despite key functions in mitochondrial energy production, we show that atp9 has been independently lost in three different lineages spanning 10 of the 22 studied species. A search for predicted, functional copies of atp9 among genomes of other symbionts involved in each lichen revealed the full-length, presumably functional copies of atp9 in either the photosynthetic algal partner or in other symbiotic fungi in all 10 instances. Together, these data yield evidence of an obligate symbiotic relationship in which core genomic processes have been streamlined, likely due to co-evolution. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. [Bacterial spore--a new vaccine vehicle--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanchun; Zhang, Zhaoshan

    2008-03-01

    Bacterial spores are robust and dormant life forms with formidable resistance properties. Spores of the genus Bacillus have been used for a long time as probiotics for oral bacteriotherapy both in humans and animals. Recently, genetically modified B. subtilis spores and B. anthracis spores have been used as indestructible delivery vehicles for vaccine antigens. They were used as vaccine vehicles or spore vaccine for oral immunization against tetanus and anthrax, and the results were very exciting. Unlike many second generation vaccine systems currently under development, bacterial spores offer heat stability and the flexibility for genetic manipulation. At the same time, they can elicit mucosal immune response by oral and nasal administration. This review focuses on the use of recombinant spores as vaccine delivery vehicles.

  19. Detection and identification of xerophilic fungi in Belgian chocolate confectionery factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Nikki; Van Coillie, Els; Van Pamel, Els; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank; Vlaemynck, Geertrui

    2015-04-01

    Chocolate confectionery fillings are generally regarded as microbiologically stable. The stability of these fillings is largely due to the general practice of adding either alcohol or preservatives. Consumer demands are now stimulating producers to move away from adding alcohol or other preservatives to their confectionery fillings and instead to search for innovative formulations. Such changes in composition can influence the shelf life of the product and may lead to spoilage by xerophilic fungi. The aim of this study was to test whether the production environment of Belgian chocolate confectionery factories and common ingredients of chocolate confectioneries could be potential sources of contamination with xerophilic fungal species. In the factory environment, the general and strictly xerophilic fungal spore load was determined using an RCS Air Sampler device in combination with DG18 and MY50G medium, respectively. Four basic ingredients of chocolate confectionery fillings were also examined for fungal spore levels using a direct plating technique. Detected fungi were identified to species level by a combination of morphological characterization and sequence analysis. Results indicated a general fungal spore load in the range of 50-250 colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3) air) and a more strict xerophilic spore load below 50 CFU/m(3) air. These results indicate rather low levels of fungal spores present in the factory environment. The most prevalent fungi in the factory environment were identified as Penicillium spp., particularly Penicillium brevicompactum. Examination of the basic ingredients of confectionery fillings revealed nuts to be the most likely potential source of direct contamination. In nuts, the most prevalent fungal species identified were Eurotium, particularly Eurotium repens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Live cell imaging of germination and outgrowth of individual Bacillus subtilis spores; the effect of heat stress quantitatively analyzed with SporeTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.; ter Beek, A.; Vischer, N.O.E.; Smelt, J.P.P.M.; Brul, S.; Manders, E.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spore-forming bacteria are a special problem for the food industry as some of them are able to survive preservation processes. Bacillus spp. spores can remain in a dormant, stress resistant state for a long period of time. Vegetative cells are formed by germination of spores followed by a more

  1. High fungal spore burden with predominance of Aspergillus in hospital air of a tertiary care hospital in Chandigarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Rudramurthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of fungal spores in the hospital air is essential to understand the hospital-acquired fungal infections. Air conditioners (ACs used in hospitals may either reduce spores in air or be colonised by fungi and aid in its dissemination. The present study was conducted to assess the fungal spore burden in AC and non-AC areas. We found a high fungal spore count in air irrespective of whether the area was AC or non-AC. The most predominant species isolated were Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Such high concentrations of pathogenic fungi in air may predispose individuals to develop disease.

  2. Single Spore Isolation as a Simple and Efficient Technique to obtain fungal pure culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, E.; Al-Gheethi, AA; Rahman, N. K.; Talip, B.; Mohamed, R.; H, N.; Kadir, O. A.

    2018-04-01

    The successful identification of fungi by phenotypic methods or molecular technique depends mainly on the using an advanced technique for purifying the isolates. The most efficient is the single spore technique due to the simple requirements and the efficiency in preventing the contamination by yeast, mites or bacteria. The method described in the present work is depends on the using of a light microscope to transfer one spore into a new culture medium. The present work describes a simple and efficient procedure for single spore isolation to purify of fungi recovered from the clinical wastes.

  3. Seasonal Trends in Airborne Fungal Spores in Coastal California Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin, J.; Crandall, S. G.; Gilbert, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne fungal spores cause disease in plants and animals and may trigger respiratory illnesses in humans. In terrestrial systems, fungal sporulation, germination, and persistence are strongly regulated by local meteorological conditions. However, few studies investigate how microclimate affects the spatio-temporal dynamics of airborne spores. We measured fungal aerospora abundance and microclimate at varying spatial and time scales in coastal California in three habitat-types: coast redwood forest, mixed-evergreen forest, and maritime chaparral. We asked: 1) is there a difference in total airborne spore concentration between habitats, 2) when do we see peak spore counts, and 3) do spore densities correlate with microclimate conditions? Fungal spores were caught from the air with a volumetric vacuum air spore trap during the wet season (January - March) in 2013 and 2014, as well as monthly in 2014. Initial results suggest that mixed-evergreen forests exhibit the highest amounts of spore abundance in both years compared to the other habitats. This may be due to either a higher diversity of host plants in mixed-evergreen forests or a rich leaf litter layer that may harbor a greater abundance of saprotrophic fungi. Based on pilot data, we predict that temperature and to a lesser degree, relative humidity, will be important microclimate predictors for high spore densities. These data are important for understanding when and under what weather conditions we can expect to see high levels of fungal spores in the air; this can be useful information for managers who are interested in treating diseased plants with fungicides.

  4. Phosphorescence In Bacillus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinisch, Lou; Swartz, Barry A; Bronk, Burt V

    2003-01-01

    .... Our present work attempts to build on this approach for environmental applications. We have measured a change in the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of Bacillus bacteria between the vegetative bacteria and their spores at room temperature...

  5. Spore analysis and tetrad dissection of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe the processing of Schizosaccharomyces pombe spores in batches (random spore analysis) or through tetrad dissections. Spores are usually prepared from matings between haploid strains (producing zygotic asci) or from sporulating diploids (producing azygotic asci). In random spore...... analysis, a snail enzyme preparation is used to digest the walls of asci to release free spores that are diluted and plated to form colonies. In tetrad dissection, a needle attached to a micromanipulator is used to pick asci and separate spores. Tetrad dissection has traditionally been the method of choice...

  6. Bacterial Spores in Food : Survival, Emergence, and Outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Eijlander, Robyn T; den Besten, Heidy M W; Berendsen, Erwin M; Warda, Alicja K; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Xiao, Yinghua; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    Spore-forming bacteria are ubiquitous in nature. The resistance properties of bacterial spores lie at the heart of their widespread occurrence in food ingredients and foods. The efficacy of inactivation by food-processing conditions is largely determined by the characteristics of the different types

  7. Fifth international fungus spore conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timberlake, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    This folio contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Fungal Spore Conference held August 17-21, 1991 at the Unicoi State Park at Helen, Georgia. The volume contains abstracts of each oral presentation as well as a collection of abstracts describing the poster sessions. Presentations were organized around the themes (1) Induction of Sporulation, (2) Nuclear Division, (3) Spore Formation, (4) Spore Release and Dispersal, and (4) Spore Germination.

  8. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  9. Genetic Diversity and Association Characters of Bacteria Isolated from Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spore Walls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Selvakumar

    Full Text Available Association between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and bacteria has long been studied. However, the factors influencing their association in the natural environment is still unknown. This study aimed to isolate bacteria associated with spore walls of AMF and identify their potential characters for association. Spores collected from coastal reclamation land were differentiated based on their morphology and identified by 18S rDNA sequencing as Funneliformis caledonium, Racocetra alborosea and Funneliformis mosseae. Bacteria associated with AMF spore walls were isolated after treating them with disinfection solution at different time intervals. After 0, 10 and 20 min of spore disinfection, 86, 24 and 10 spore associated bacteria (SAB were isolated, respectively. BOX-PCR fingerprinting analysis showed that diverse bacterial communities were associated to AMF spores. Bacteria belonging to the same genera could associate with different AMF spores. Gram positive bacteria were more closely associated with AMF spores. Isolated SAB were characterized and tested for spore association characters such as chitinase, protease, cellulase enzymes and exopolysaccharide production (EPS. Among the 120 SAB, 113 SAB were able to show one or more characters for association and seven SAB did not show any association characters. The 16S rDNA sequence of SAB revealed that bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bactereiodes were associated with AMF spore walls.

  10. Lipoxygenase Activity Accelerates Programmed Spore Germination in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Fischer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS to germling (GL and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of programmed spore germination. Overexpression of loxB (OE::loxB increases germination with rapid advance to the GL stage. However, deletion of loxB (ΔloxB or its signal peptide only delays progression to the SS stage in the presence of arachidonic acid (AA; no delay is observed in minimal media. This delay is remediated by the addition of the oxygenated AA oxylipin 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE that is a product of human Alox5. We propose that A. fumigatus acquisition of LoxB (found in few fungi enhances germination rates in polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich environments.

  11. Lysinibacillus louembei sp. nov., a spore-forming bacterium isolated from Ntoba Mbodi, alkaline fermented leaves of cassava from the Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irène I.; Mbozo, Alain B. Vouidibio; Thorsen, Line

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the microbial diversity of Ntoba Mbodi, an African food made from the alkaline fermentation of cassava leaves, revealed the presence of a Gram-positive, catalase-positive, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped endospore-forming bacterium (NM73) with unusual phenotypic and genotypic...

  12. Effect of Various Organic Matter stimulates Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Plantations on Eroded Slopes in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha Vaidya, G.; Shrestha, K.; Wallander, H.

    2009-04-01

    Erosion resulting from landslides is a serious problem in mountainous countries such as Nepal. To restore such sites it is essential to establish plant cover that protects the soil and reduces erosion. Trees and shrubs on the lower hillsides in Nepal form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and these fungi are important for the uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil. In addition, the mycelia formed by these fungi have an important function in stabilizing the soil. The success of plantations of these eroded slopes is therefore highly dependent on the extent of mycorrhizal colonization of the plants. Mycorrhizal fungi growing in symbiosis with plants are essential in this respect because they improve both plant and nutrient uptake and soil structure. We investigated the influence of organic matter and P amendment on recently produced biomass of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in eroded slopes in Nepal. Eroded soil mixed with different types of organic matter was placed in mesh bags which were buried around the trees of Bauhinia purpurea and Leucaena diversifolia .This experiment were done in two seasons ( (the wet and the dry season). Signature fatty acids were used to determine bacterial and AM fungal biomass after the six month intervals. The amount and composition of AM fungal spores were analyzed in the mesh bags from the wet and dry seasons. More microbial biomass was produced during wet season than during dry season. Further more, organic matter addition enhanced the production of AM fungal and bacterial biomass during both seasons. The positive influence of organic matter addition on AM fungi could be an important contribution to plant survival, growth and nutrient composition in the soil in plantations on eroded slopes. Different AM spore communities and bacterial profiles were obtained with different organic amendments and this suggests a possible way of selecting for specific microbial communities in the management of eroded

  13. Bacteria, mould and yeast spore inactivation studies by scanning electron microscope observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozali, Siti N M; Milani, Elham A; Deed, Rebecca C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2017-12-18

    Spores are the most resistant form of microbial cells, thus difficult to inactivate. The pathogenic or food spoilage effects of certain spore-forming microorganisms have been the primary basis of sterilization and pasteurization processes. Thermal sterilization is the most common method to inactivate spores present on medical equipment and foods. High pressure processing (HPP) is an emerging and commercial non-thermal food pasteurization technique. Although previous studies demonstrated the effectiveness of thermal and non-thermal spore inactivation, the in-depth mechanisms of spore inactivation are as yet unclear. Live and dead forms of two food spoilage bacteria, a mould and a yeast were examined using scanning electron microscopy before and after the inactivation treatment. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Geobacillus stearothermophilus bacteria are indicators of acidic foods pasteurization and sterilization processes, respectively. Neosartorya fischeri is a phyto-pathogenic mould attacking fruits. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a yeast with various applications for winemaking, brewing, baking and the production of biofuel from crops (e.g. sugar cane). Spores of the four microbial species were thermally inactivated. Spores of S. cerevisiae were observed in the ascus and free form after thermal and HPP treatments. Different forms of damage and cell destruction were observed for each microbial spore. Thermal treatment inactivated bacterial spores of A. acidoterrestris and G. stearothermophilus by attacking the inner core of the spore. The heat first altered the membrane permeability allowing the release of intracellular components. Subsequently, hydration of spores, physicochemical modifications of proteins, flattening and formation of indentations occurred, with subsequent spore death. Regarding N. fischeri, thermal inactivation caused cell destruction and leakage of intracellular components. Both thermal and HPP treatments of S. cerevisiae free spores attacked

  14. Dry season and diurnal surveys of phylloplane fungi of Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Okhuoya; C. O. Ahweyevu

    2014-01-01

    Monthly and diurnal variation of phylloplane fungi of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves were studied over a period of four months in the dry season, using two culturing methods. Composite fungal population was the highest in April and the lowest in February. Serial dilution method recorded the higher number of fungal spores than ballistospore method. Mature leaves were found to have more fungal spores than premature and young leaves. Spore concentration on the leaves showed diurnal periodici...

  15. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  16. Using Spores for Fusarium spp. Classification by MALDI-Based Intact Cell/Spore Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Winkler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is a widespread genus of filamentous fungi and a member of the soil microbial community. Certain subspecies are health threatening because of their mycotoxin production that affects the human and animal food chain. Thus, for early and effective pest control, species identification is of particular interest; however, differentiation on the subspecies level is challenging and time-consuming for this fungus. In the present study, we show the possibilities of intact cell mass spectrometry for spore analysis of 22 different Fusarium strains belonging to six Fusarium subspecies. We found that species differentiation is possible if mass spectrometric analyses are performed under well-defined conditions with fixed parameters. A critical point for analysis is a proper sample preparation of spores, which increases the quality of mass spectra with respect to signal intensity and m/z value variations. It was concluded that data acquistion has to be performed automatically; otherwise, user-specific variations are introduced generating data which cannot fit the existing datasets. Data that show clearly that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-based intact cell/intact spore mass spectrometry (IC/ISMS can be applied to differentiate closely related Fusarium spp. are presented. Results show a potential to build a database on Fusarium species for accurate species identification, for fast response in the case of infections in the cornfield. We furthermore demonstrate the high precision of our approach in classification of intact Fusarium species according to the location of their collection.

  17. Radiation sensitivity of food decay fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.G.; Lee, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    Five species of food decay fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Asp. uiger, Penicillium sp., Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer, were examined for their radiosensitivity in several suspension media. Asp. flavus, Asp. niger and Penicillium sp. have almost the same sensitivity toward gamma rays, with D value in the range of 30 to 35 K rad, whereas Botrytis cinerea has a D value of approximately 55 K rad and Rhizopus stolonifer, the most resistant fungus studied, has a D value of approximately 100 K rad. Dry spores of Asp. flavus showed a considerable increase in their radioresistance when compared with spores irradiated in water. Asp. flavus and Penicillium sp. spores irradiated in citrate buffer at pH 3-7 showed almost no change in their radiosensitivity with pH, but Botrytis cinerea spores showed a distinct decrease in their radioresistance at pH 6 and 7. Penicillium sp. spores irradiated in sucrose solutions showed no significant change in their radioresistance. Botrytis cinerea spores displayed a higher radioresistance when they were irradiated in sucrose solution than in water. (author)

  18. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IDENTIFICATION IN AVOCADO TREES INFECTED WITH Phytophthora cinnamomi RANDS UNDER BIOCONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Blanca Nieves Lara Chavez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi presences in the rhizosphere of avocado trees with symptoms of root rot sadness caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi were determined. The investigation was done in the avocado orchard "Ojo de agua" in the town of Tancitaro, Michoacan, Mexico, in 21 previously selected trees. For the control of P. cinnamomi were applied three strains of Trichoderma (T. erinaceum, T. aggressivum and T. arundinaceum before the application was made the first soil sampling, the second 6 months later, before the second application of Tricoderma strains and the last 12 months before the third application. To remove soil spores was used wet sieving and decantation protocol proposed by Gerdemann and Nicolson (1963, followed by centrifugation on sucrose (400 g L-1 at 2000 rpm. Taxonomic identification was based on the morphological characteristics of AMF spores, considering the shape, size and color, and thickness, ornamentations and number of the layers of the wall, coupling form and supporting hyphae, identifications were made by comparison with original descriptions available in the International Collection of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Glomeromycota species list. The first sampling were identified eleven species in seven genera: Glomus with two undetermined species, Glomus sp.1, Glomus sp.2, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus geosporum; genus Acaulospora, one undetermined species Acaulospora sp., A. spinosa, A. bireticulata and A. denticulate; genus Entrophospora, E. infrequens; genus Diversispora, D. aurantia; genus Scutellospora, S. pellucida; genus Racocetra, R. castanea and R. verrucosa and genus Gigaspora, Gi. decipiens. In the second and third sampling, the presence of new kinds of HMA there was not observed but the number of spores increased (average 38.09% and 30% respectively. The application of these species in the genus Trichoderma to control root pathogens of avocado encouraged the growth of HMA spores in the rhizosphere of the

  19. Fungi from the Lower Carboniferous of central France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, T.N.; Galtier, J.; Axsmith, B.J. (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology)

    1994-09-01

    Chlamydospores and sporocarps (Roannaisia bivitilis gen. et sp. nov.) are described from late Visean permineralized plant material collected from the Roannais area of central France. Chlamydospores are slightly elongate and several show a short segment of the hyphal attachment. Each chlamydospore contains a thin-walled spore; mycoparasites appear to be present in some spores. Also present in the peat matrix are spherical sporocarps up to 600[mu]m in diameter. The wall is constructed of two layers of interwoven, non-septate, irregularly-branched hyphae. The sporocarp lumen contains a single, multilayered spore. The systematic affinities of both fungi are discussed.

  20. Infrared signatures to discriminate viability of autoclaved Bacillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthew D. W.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available. Spores are also resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH; such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case of B. anthracis. Thus, having rapid analytical methods to determine a spore's viability after attempts to clean a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify the viable vs. the autoclaved (dead) spores.

  1. Changes in concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores during summer storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2013-09-01

    Fungal spores are known to cause allergic sensitization. Recent studies reported a strong association between asthma symptoms and thunderstorms that could be explained by an increase in airborne fungal spore concentrations. Just before and during thunderstorms the values of meteorological parameters rapidly change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create a predictive model for hourly concentrations of atmospheric Alternaria and Cladosporium spores on days with summer storms in Szczecin (Poland) based on meteorological conditions. For this study we have chosen all days of June, July and August (2004-2009) with convective thunderstorms. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and meteorological parameters: positive for air temperature and ozone content while negative for relative humidity. In general, before a thunderstorm, air temperature and ozone concentration increased, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in spore concentration. During and after a storm, relative humidity increased while both air temperature ozone concentration along with spore concentrations decreased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to assess forecasting possibilities. Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms.

  2. Rapid degradation of FOG discharged from food industry wastewater by lipolytic fungi as a bioaugmentation application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witharana, Ayoma; Manatunge, Jagath; Ratnayake, Niranjanie; Nanayakkara, Chandrika M; Jayaweera, Mahesh

    2017-07-11

    Fats, oils and grease (FOG) congregate in grease traps and are a slowly biodegradable particulate organic matter, which may require enzymatic or hydrolytic conversion to form readily biodegradable soluble organic matter. The existing treatment methods employ water-based hydrolysis of FOG to form long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). The LCFAs discharged into wastewater treatment system create functional difficulties, especially the inhibitory effect caused by accumulation of LCFAs. This study aims to find an effective treatment method for this persistent problem encountered in conventional wastewater treatment system. Solid-state degradation by lipolytic fungi was performed in a tray-type reactor as a novel approach of bioaugmentation. Grease trap waste samples were dried to have moisture content of 25-35% and mixed with coir fiber (1% w/v) for proper aeration. Each 10 mg/g dry weight of substrate was inoculated with 1 mL of spore suspension (1 × 10⁷ spores/mL) of lipolytic fungi. Thereafter, moisture content in the reactor was increased to 65%, and incubated at 30°C. Within 72 h of post incubation, degradation efficiency of about 50% was recorded by fungal isolates. The feasibility of using developed protocol for FOG degradation was tested with a laboratory-scale prototype reactor.

  3. How do fungi measure wind speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Marcus; Tomasek, Michael; Lin, Yuxi; Dressaire, Emilie

    2017-11-01

    For successful dispersal, a fungus must push its spores through the boundary layer of nearly still air that clings to it. Some spores pass through this boundary layer by being forcibly ejected. But many spores and fungi have no mechanism for active ejection, and must be carried away passively by the wind. To facilitate dispersal, the spores are borne on the top of aerial structures. Regulating the height of these aerial structures is an engineering challenge; too long and the structures will collapse under their own weight; too short, and they may not reach high enough to cross the boundary layer. A fungus therefore benefits by knowing the wind speed (and therefore the boundary layer thickness). How does it make this measurement? I will show that the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa uses water evaporation rate to accurately measure wind speed. In addition to showing that fungi control and optimize even passive mechanisms for dispersal, our findings highlight the importance of physical conditions in controlling fungal growth and behavior.

  4. Fungi isolated in school buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  5. Natural attenuation in a slag heap contaminated with cadmium: The role of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C. [Programa de Edafologia. Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo. Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5. Montecillo, Texcoco, Mexico, 56230 (Mexico)], E-mail: carmeng@colpos.mx; Carrillo-Gonzalez, R.; Gutierrez-Castorena, M.C. [Programa de Edafologia. Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agricolas, Campus Montecillo. Carretera Mexico-Texcoco, km 36.5. Montecillo, Texcoco, Mexico, 56230 (Mexico)

    2009-01-30

    A field study of the natural attenuation occurring in a slag heap contaminated with high available cadmium was carried out. The aims of this research were: to determine plants colonizing this slag heap; to analyze colonization and morphological biodiversity of spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF); to determine spore distribution in undisturbed samples; to know mycelium and glomalin abundance in the rhizosphere of these plants, and to investigate glomalin participation in Cd-stabilization. Forming vegetal islands, 22 different pioneering plant species from 11 families were colonizing the slag heap. The most common plants were species of Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae. Almost all plants were hosting AMF in their roots, and spores belonging to Gigaspora, Glomus, Scutellospora and Acaulospora species were observed. Micromorphological analysis showed that spores were related to decomposing vegetal residues and excrements, which means that mesofauna is contributing to their dispersion in the groundmass. Mycelium mass ranged from 0.11 to 26.3 mg/g, which contained between 13 and 75 mg of glomalin/g. Slag-extracted total glomalin was between 0.36 and 4.74 mg/g. Cadmium sequestered by glomalin extracted from either slag or mycelium was 0.028 mg/g. The ecological implication of these results is that organisms occupying vegetal patches are modifying mine residues, which contribute to soil formation.

  6. Natural attenuation in a slag heap contaminated with cadmium: The role of plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Chavez, M.C.; Carrillo-Gonzalez, R.; Gutierrez-Castorena, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    A field study of the natural attenuation occurring in a slag heap contaminated with high available cadmium was carried out. The aims of this research were: to determine plants colonizing this slag heap; to analyze colonization and morphological biodiversity of spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF); to determine spore distribution in undisturbed samples; to know mycelium and glomalin abundance in the rhizosphere of these plants, and to investigate glomalin participation in Cd-stabilization. Forming vegetal islands, 22 different pioneering plant species from 11 families were colonizing the slag heap. The most common plants were species of Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae. Almost all plants were hosting AMF in their roots, and spores belonging to Gigaspora, Glomus, Scutellospora and Acaulospora species were observed. Micromorphological analysis showed that spores were related to decomposing vegetal residues and excrements, which means that mesofauna is contributing to their dispersion in the groundmass. Mycelium mass ranged from 0.11 to 26.3 mg/g, which contained between 13 and 75 mg of glomalin/g. Slag-extracted total glomalin was between 0.36 and 4.74 mg/g. Cadmium sequestered by glomalin extracted from either slag or mycelium was 0.028 mg/g. The ecological implication of these results is that organisms occupying vegetal patches are modifying mine residues, which contribute to soil formation

  7. Spore production in Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) samson strains on agro-industrial residues

    OpenAIRE

    Robl, Diogo; Sung, Letizia B.; Novakovich, Jo?o Henrique; Marangoni, Paulo R.D.; Zawadneak, Maria Aparecida C.; Dalzoto, Patricia R.; Gabardo, Juarez; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2009-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus has potential for pests control. We aimed to analyze mycelial growth and spore production in P. lilacinus strains in several agro-industrial residues and commercial media. This study suggests alternative nutrient sources for fungi production and that the biotechnological potential of agro-industrial refuses could be employed in byproducts development.

  8. Airborne pollen and spore survey in relation to allergy and plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Airborne bio-particles of allergic significance were recorded at a height of 15m in Nsukka during September 1999 – February 2000. Spores of fungi and pollen grains, which are important part of the exposure that may lead to allergic discomfort and plant diseases, dominated the particles. Other primary sources of the allergic ...

  9. Late Silurian trilete spores from northern Jiangsu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang; Li

    2000-08-01

    The Late Silurian is generally considered to a particular significant key period in the study of early land vascular plants. A trilete spore assemblage of the Upper Silurian is described from northern Jiangsu, China. This assemblage comprises 11 genera and 20 species of trilete spores (including laevigate, apiculate, perinotrilite, patinate, rarely distally murornate and equatorially crassitate, and three indeterminate trilete miospores forms). It has similarities to those described from coeval assemblages from around the world (e.g., England and South Wales; Tripolitania, Libya; Cornwallis Island, Canadian Arctic; Northwest Spain). The rare cryptospore, only one specimen (Tetrahedraletes sp.) had been found to be associated with the Chinese trilete spore assemblage. The discovery of the trilete spores from Late Silurian rocks indicates the existence of early land plants, some possibly vascular, at that time in northern Jiangsu, China.

  10. Antifungal Activity of Narceine Methyl Ester and Narceine Isolated from Corydalis longipes Against Some Phytopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Dibyendu; Maurya, S; Pandey, M B; Pandey, V B; Sarma, B K; Singh, U P

    2005-12-01

    Narceine methyl ester and narceine are potent alkaloids which were isolated from Corydalis longipes were found effective in vitro at very low concentration, i.e., 100~500 ppm against spore germination of some test plant pathogenic fungi (Alternaria solani, A. tagetica, Cercospora abelmoschi, Curvularia maculans, Erysiphe cichoracearum, E. pisi, Fusarium udum, Helminthosporium oryzae, H. penniseti, Ustilago cynodontis). Among the test, phytopathogens the spores of F. udum, C. maculans and H. penniseti were highly sensitive at 200 ppm. However, spores of E. pisi, A. solani and A. tagetica were less sensitive at low concentration followed by other test fungi. Most of the fungi showed zero or nearly zero percent spore germination at 400 and 500 ppm.

  11. Studies on foliicolous fungi VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosagoudar, V.B.

    2002-01-01

    An account is given of three foliicolous fungi from India. Two new species, viz. Clasterosporium cyperacearum and Questieriella grewiae are described. Dysrhynchis uncinata forms a new generic and specific record to India and is reported on an endemic host.

  12. and fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... protein extracts from wild mushroom fungi and native plant species against hospital pathogens. J. Pharma. Phytotherap. 2: 103-107. Hu M, McClements D, Decker E (2003). Lipid oxidation in corn oil-in- water emulsions stabilized by casein, whey protein isolate, and soy protein isolate, J. Agric. Food Chem.

  13. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  14. The search and identification of the new immunodiagnostic targets of bacillus anthracis spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biketov, S.; Dunaytsev, I.; Baranova, E.; Marinin, L.; Dyatlov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis have been used as bio warfare agent to bio terrorize purposes. As efficiency of anti-epidemic measures included urgent prevention and treatment is determined by terms within which the bio agent is identified. Direct and rapid spore detection by antibodies based detection system is very attractive alternative to current PCR-based assays or routine phenotyping which are the most accurate but are also complex, time-consumption and expensive. The main difficulty with respect to such kind of anthrax spores detection is a cross-reaction with spores of closely related bacteria. For development of species-specific antibodies to anthrax spores recombinant scFvs or hybridoma technique were used. In both case surface spore antigens contained species-specific epitopes are need. Among exosporium proteins only ExsF(BxpB), ExsK and SoaA are specific to B.cereus group. On the surface of B. anthracis spores, a unique tetrasaccharides containing an novel monosaccharide - anthrose, was discovered. It was shown that anthrose can be serving as species-specific target for B. anthracis spores detection. We have revealed that EA1 isolated from spore of Russians strain STI-1 contain carbohydrate which formed species-specific epitopes and determine immunogenicity of this antigen. Antibodies to this antigen specifically recognized the surface target of B. anthracis spores and do not reacted with others Bacillus spore. Based on these antibodies we developed the test-systems in different formats for rapid direct detection and identification of B. anthracis spores. The results of trial these test-systems with using more than 50 different Bacillus strains were indicated that carbohydrate of EA1 isolated from spore is effective immunodiagnostic target for anthrax spores bio detection.(author)

  15. Zygomycetes in Vesicular Basanites from Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin--A New Type of Cryptoendolithic Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Ivarsson

    Full Text Available Fungi have been recognized as a frequent colonizer of subseafloor basalt but a substantial understanding of their abundance, diversity and ecological role in this environment is still lacking. Here we report fossilized cryptoendolithic fungal communities represented by mainly Zygomycetes and minor Ascomycetes in vesicles of dredged volcanic rocks (basanites from the Vesteris Seamount in the Greenland Basin. Zygomycetes had not been reported from subseafloor basalt previously. Different stages in zygospore formation are documented in the studied samples, representing a reproduction cycle. Spore structures of both Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes are mineralized by romanechite-like Mn oxide phases, indicating an involvement in Mn(II oxidation to form Mn(III,VI oxides. Zygospores still exhibit a core of carbonaceous matter due to their resistance to degradation. The fungi are closely associated with fossiliferous marine sediments that have been introduced into the vesicles. At the contact to sediment infillings, fungi produced haustoria that penetrated and scavenged on the remains of fragmented marine organisms. It is most likely that such marine debris is the main carbon source for fungi in shallow volcanic rocks, which favored the establishment of vital colonies.

  16. Fungi Treated with Small Chemicals Exhibit Increased Antimicrobial Activity against Facultative Bacterial and Yeast Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zutz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fungi have been the main source for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. Recent sequencing efforts revealed a still high number of so far unknown “cryptic” secondary metabolites. The production of these metabolites is presumably epigenetically silenced under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of six small mass chemicals, of which some are known to act as epigenetic modulators, on the production of antimicrobial compounds in 54 spore forming fungi. The antimicrobial effect of fungal samples was tested against clinically facultative pathogens and multiresistant clinical isolates. In total, 30 samples of treated fungi belonging to six different genera reduced significantly growth of different test organisms compared to the untreated fungal sample (growth log reduction 0.3–4.3. For instance, the pellet of Penicillium restrictum grown in the presence of butyrate revealed significant higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S. aureus and multiresistant S. aureus strains and displayed no cytotoxicity against human cells, thus making it an ideal candidate for antimicrobial compound discovery. Our study shows that every presumable fungus, even well described fungi, has the potential to produce novel antimicrobial compounds and that our approach is capable of rapidly filling the pipeline for yet undiscovered antimicrobial substances.

  17. Fungi treated with small chemicals exhibit increased antimicrobial activity against facultative bacterial and yeast pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Christoph; Bandian, Dragana; Neumayer, Bernhard; Speringer, Franz; Gorfer, Markus; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    For decades, fungi have been the main source for the discovery of novel antimicrobial drugs. Recent sequencing efforts revealed a still high number of so far unknown "cryptic" secondary metabolites. The production of these metabolites is presumably epigenetically silenced under standard laboratory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of six small mass chemicals, of which some are known to act as epigenetic modulators, on the production of antimicrobial compounds in 54 spore forming fungi. The antimicrobial effect of fungal samples was tested against clinically facultative pathogens and multiresistant clinical isolates. In total, 30 samples of treated fungi belonging to six different genera reduced significantly growth of different test organisms compared to the untreated fungal sample (growth log reduction 0.3-4.3). For instance, the pellet of Penicillium restrictum grown in the presence of butyrate revealed significant higher antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and multiresistant S. aureus strains and displayed no cytotoxicity against human cells, thus making it an ideal candidate for antimicrobial compound discovery. Our study shows that every presumable fungus, even well described fungi, has the potential to produce novel antimicrobial compounds and that our approach is capable of rapidly filling the pipeline for yet undiscovered antimicrobial substances.

  18. Gene activity during germination of spores of the fern, Onoclea sensibilis. Cell-free translation analysis of mRNA of spores and the effect of alpha-amanitin on spore germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, V.

    1992-01-01

    Poly(A)-RNA fractions of dormant, dark-imbibed (non-germinating) and photoinduced (germinating) spores of Onoclea sensibilis were poor templates in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate protein synthesizing system, but the translational efficiency of poly(A)+RNA was considerably higher than that of unfractionated RNA. Poly(A)+RNA isolated from photoinduced spores had a consistently higher translational efficiency than poly(A)+RNA from dark-imbibed spores. Analysis of the translation products by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed no qualitative differences in the mRNA populations of dormant, dark-imbibed, and photoinduced spores. However, poly(A)+RNA from dark-imbibed spores appeared to encode in vitro fewer detectable polypeptides at a reduced intensity than photoinduced spores. A DNA clone encoding the large subunit of maize ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase hybridized at strong to moderate intensity to RNA isolated from dark-imbibed spores, indicating the absence of mRNA degradation. Although alpha-amanitin did not inhibit the germination of spores, the drug prevented the elongation of the rhizoid and protonemal initial with a concomitant effect on the synthesis of poly(A)+RNA. These results are consistent with the view that some form of translational control involving stored mRNA operates during dark-imbibition and photoinduced germination of spores.

  19. Spore Coat Architecture of Clostridium novyi-NT spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; McCafferey, J; Cheong, I; Huang, X; Bettegowda, C; Kinzler, K; Zhou, S; Vogelstein, B; Malkin, A

    2007-05-07

    Spores of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium novyi-NT are able to germinate in and destroy hypoxic regions of tumors in experimental animals. Future progress in this area will benefit from a better understanding of the germination and outgrowth processes that are essential for the tumorilytic properties of these spores. Towards this end, we have used both transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to determine the structure of dormant as well as germinating spores. We found that the spores are surrounded by an amorphous layer intertwined with honeycomb parasporal layers. Moreover, the spore coat layers had apparently self-assembled and this assembly was likely to be governed by crystal growth principles. During germination and outgrowth, the honeycomb layers as well as the underlying spore coat and undercoat layers sequentially dissolved until the vegetative cell was released. In addition to their implications for understanding the biology of C. novyi-NT, these studies document the presence of proteinaceous growth spirals in a biological organism.

  20. A mobile genetic element profoundly increases heat resistance of bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Boekhorst, Jos; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial endospores are among the most resilient forms of life on earth and are intrinsically resistant to extreme environments and antimicrobial treatments. Their resilience is explained by unique cellular structures formed by a complex developmental process often initiated in response to nutrient deprivation. Although the macromolecular structures of spores from different bacterial species are similar, their resistance to environmental insults differs widely. It is not known which of the factors attributed to spore resistance confer very high-level heat resistance. Here, we provide conclusive evidence that in Bacillus subtilis, this is due to the presence of a mobile genetic element (Tn1546-like) carrying five predicted operons, one of which contains genes that encode homologs of SpoVAC, SpoVAD and SpoVAEb and four other genes encoding proteins with unknown functions. This operon, named spoVA 2mob , confers high-level heat resistance to spores. Deletion of spoVA 2mob in a B. subtilis strain carrying Tn1546 renders heat-sensitive spores while transfer of spoVA 2mob into B. subtilis 168 yields highly heat-resistant spores. On the basis of the genetic conservation of different spoVA operons among spore-forming species of Bacillaceae, we propose an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of extremely heat-resistant spores in B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. amyloliquefaciens. This discovery opens up avenues for improved detection and control of spore-forming bacteria able to produce highly heat-resistant spores.

  1. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995 parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  2. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. III.

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-01-01

    The investigations csrried out on algae revealed the following species of fungi from the order of Chytridialis Hawksworth et al. (1995) parasitizing on algae: Rhizophydium subgulosum, R. ganlosporum, R. planctonicum, Entophlyctis rhizina and Harpochytrium hedinii. These species arc new to Poland. The figure of resting spore of Entophlyctis rhizina is the fint graphic documentation of this species.

  3. The occurrence of Ganoderma spores in the air and its relationships with meteorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, Ganoderma may be the third genus, after Alternaria and Cladosporium, whose spores cause symptoms of allergy and whose levels are directly related to meteorological factors. There are only few articles from different parts of the world about the relationships between Ganoderma spore count and meteorological factors. The aim of the study was to review all available publications about airborne Ganoderma spores and to compare the results in a short useful form.

  4. Mushroom's spore size and time of fruiting are strongly related: is moisture important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Halvorsen, Rune; Boddy, Lynne; Høiland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-04-23

    Most basidiomycete fungi produce annual short-lived sexual fruit bodies from which billions of microscopic spores are spread into the air during a short time period. However, little is known about the selective forces that have resulted in some species fruiting early and others later in the fruiting season. This study of relationships between morphological and ecological characteristics, climate factors and time of fruiting are based upon thorough statistical analyses of 66 520 mapped records from Norway, representing 271 species of autumnal fruiting mushroom species. We found a strong relationship between spore size and time of fruiting; on average, a doubling of spore size (volume) corresponded to 3 days earlier fruiting. Small-spored species dominate in the oceanic parts of Norway, whereas large-spored species are typical of more continental parts. In separate analyses, significant relationships were observed between spore size and climate factors. We hypothesize that these relationships are owing to water balance optimization, driven by water storage in spores as a critical factor for successful germination of primary mycelia in the drier micro-environments found earlier in the fruiting season and/or in continental climates.

  5. A continental view of pine-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal spore banks: a quiescent functional guild with a strong biogeographic pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Peay, Kabir G; Talbot, Jennifer M; Smith, Dylan P; Chung, Judy A; Taylor, John W; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruns, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    Ecologists have long acknowledged the importance of seed banks; yet, despite the fact that many plants rely on mycorrhizal fungi for survival and growth, the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spore banks remains poorly understood. The primary goal of this study was to assess the geographic structure in pine-associated ECM fungal spore banks across the North American continent. Soils were collected from 19 plots in forests across North America. Fresh soils were pyrosequenced for fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicons. Adjacent soil cores were dried and bioassayed with pine seedlings, and colonized roots were pyrosequenced to detect resistant propagules of ECM fungi. The results showed that ECM spore banks correlated strongly with biogeographic location, but not with the identity of congeneric plant hosts. Minimal community overlap was found between resident ECM fungi vs those in spore banks, and spore bank assemblages were relatively simple and dominated by Rhizopogon, Wilcoxina, Cenococcum, Thelephora, Tuber, Laccaria and Suillus. Similar to plant seed banks, ECM fungal spore banks are, in general, depauperate, and represent a small and rare subset of the mature forest soil fungal community. Yet, they may be extremely important in fungal colonization after large-scale disturbances such as clear cuts and forest fires. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Infrared Signatures to Discriminate Viability of Autoclaved Bacillus Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Matthew D.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2011-10-06

    Optical methods can offer good sensitivity for detecting small amounts of chemicals and biologicals, and as these methods mature, are some of the few techniques that can offer true standoff detection. For detection of biological species, determining the viability is clearly important: Certain species of gram-positive bacteria are capable of forming endospores, specialized structures that arise when living conditions become unfavorable or little growth medium is available, being resistant to many chemicals as well as changes in heat or pH. Such spores can remain dormant from months to years until more favorable conditions arise, resulting in germination back to the vegetative state. This persistence characteristic of bacterial spores allows for contamination of a surface (e.g. food or medical equipment) even after the surface has been nominally cleaned. Bacterial spores have also been used as biological weapons, as in the case with B. anthracis. Thus, rapid analysis to determine a spore's viability in a given environment or after attempts to sterilize a given environment is crucial. The increasing availability of portable spectrometers may provide a key to such rapid onsite analysis. The present study was designed to determine whether infrared spectroscopy may be used to differentiate between viable vs. dead B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus spores. Preliminary results show that the reproducible differences in the IR signatures can be used to identify viable vs. autoclaved (dead) B. subtilis and B. atrophaeus bacterial spores.

  7. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiao-Man; Rao, Carol Y.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chao, H. Jasmine

    Characteristics and determinants of ambient aeroallergens are of much concern in recent years because of the apparent health impacts of allergens. Yet relatively little is known about the complex behaviors of ambient aeroallergens. To address this issue, we monitored ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan from 1993-1996 to examine the compositions and temporal variations of fungi, and to evaluate possible determinants. We used a Burkard seven-day volumetric spore trap to collect daily fungal spores. Air pollutants, meteorological factors, and Asian dust events were included in the statistical analyses to predict fungal levels. We found that the most dominant fungal categories were ascospores, followed by Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium. The majority of the fungal categories had significant diurnal and seasonal variations. Total fungi, Cladosporium, Ganoderma, Arthrinium/Papularia, Cercospora, Periconia, Alternaria, Botrytis, and PM 10 had significantly higher concentrations ( p<0.05) during the period affected by Asian dust events. In multiple regression models, we found that temperature was consistently and positively associated with fungal concentrations. Other factors correlated with fungal concentrations included ozone, particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10), relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Most of the fungal categories had higher levels in 1994 than in 1995-96, probably due to urbanization of the study area. In this study, we demonstrated complicated interrelationships between fungi and air pollution/meteorological factors. In addition, long-range transport of air pollutants contributed significantly to local aeroallergen levels. Future studies should examine the health impacts of aeroallergens, as well as the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather, and local and global-scale air pollutions.

  8. The role of heat resistance in thermorestoration of hydrated bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Y.S.; Grecz, N.

    1973-01-01

    This study for the first time presents evidence of the distinct role played in thermorestoration by cellular determinants such as the resistance to heat and radiation, and the ionic state of spores. In the past only radiochemical determinants associated with radical annealment have been studied in hydrated systems. The basic heat resistance of spores plays a significant role in the precipitous drop in spore survival due to 0.45 Mrad radiation plus heat above 65-75 0 C for B.cereus and 75-95 0 C for B.stearothermophilus. The effect of the spores radiation resistance was not distinct except in the frozen state and at the saturation plateau of thermorestoration where the radiation resistant B.cereus showed ca. 1 log cycle higher survival than the radiation sensitive B.stearothermophilus. When spores are chemically converted into their H + and Ca ++ ionic forms, the H + spores are distinctly more responsive than Ca ++ spores to processes of radical annealment responsible for thermorestoration in hydrated spore systems. At temperatures of extensive thermorestoration of water radicals, H + spores showed higher survival than Ca ++ spores. (F.J.)

  9. Sterilization of hydrogen peroxide resistant bacterial spores with stabilized chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Anthony; Zachariah, Malcolm; Middaugh, Amy; Heiser, Matt; Khanna, Neeraj; Vaishampayan, Parag; Rice, Charles V

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores isolated from a clean room environment are known to exhibit enhanced resistance to peroxide, desiccation, UV radiation and chemical disinfection than other spore-forming bacteria. The survival of B. pumilus SAFR-032 spores to standard clean room sterilization practices requires development of more stringent disinfection agents. Here, we report the effects of a stabilized chlorine dioxide-based biocidal agent against spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051. Viability was determined via CFU measurement after exposure. Chlorine dioxide demonstrated efficacy towards sterilization of spores of B. pumilus SAFR-032 equivalent or better than exposure to hydrogen peroxide. These results indicate efficacy of chlorine dioxide delivered through a stabilized chlorine dioxide product as a means of sterilization of peroxide- and UV-resistant spores.

  10. A highly redundant gene network controls assembly of the outer spore wall in S. cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coney Pei-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available The spore wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a multilaminar extracellular structure that is formed de novo in the course of sporulation. The outer layers of the spore wall provide spores with resistance to a wide variety of environmental stresses. The major components of the outer spore wall are the polysaccharide chitosan and a polymer formed from the di-amino acid dityrosine. Though the synthesis and export pathways for dityrosine have been described, genes directly involved in dityrosine polymerization and incorporation into the spore wall have not been identified. A synthetic gene array approach to identify new genes involved in outer spore wall synthesis revealed an interconnected network influencing dityrosine assembly. This network is highly redundant both for genes of different activities that compensate for the loss of each other and for related genes of overlapping activity. Several of the genes in this network have paralogs in the yeast genome and deletion of entire paralog sets is sufficient to severely reduce dityrosine fluorescence. Solid-state NMR analysis of partially purified outer spore walls identifies a novel component in spore walls from wild type that is absent in some of the paralog set mutants. Localization of gene products identified in the screen reveals an unexpected role for lipid droplets in outer spore wall formation.

  11. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a chrono-sequence of alluvial and degraded soils due to mining processes in bajo cauca antioqueno, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina S, Marisol; Orozco P, Francisco H; Marquez F, Maria E

    2009-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) presence and diversity were evaluated in undisturbed and disturbed soils form alluvial mining processes. The soils belong to the Tropic Fluvaquent, Typical Dystropept, and Typical Paleudult sub-groups which corresponded to Low, Middle and High terraces, respectively, of the Cauca river at Taraza town. AMF propagules were multiplied in Leonard jars under glass house conditions using sterile substrate, modified Hoagland's solution and different fractions of soil used as sources of inoculum, which corresponded to the size of the spores. A first assay was made in maize (Zea mays) which allowed mycorrhizal colonization in roots but not spore production. In a second assay, in kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) AMF spores and colonized roots were obtained with the treatments corresponding to propagules obtained from high terrace and disturbed soil. These treatments presented a significant effect on kudzu yield (P?0,001) respect to the other treatments. The AMF spores of undisturbed and disturbed soils showed low infective capacity. Nevertheless, propagules of AMF were multiplied in trap cultures, which produced spores of four morpho types. One of these was identified as G. microagregatum. The polymorphism obtained by RAPD's made possible the differentiation of these morpho types with the primer OPA2. Similitude above 38% was achieved using UPGMA system. The results indicated that four morpho types belong to the genus Glomus, but they possibly belong to different species. Our results are promissory in the differentiation of native strains of AMF with low number of spores collected from soil samples in rehabilitation processes, which normally is unknown.

  12. A probabilistic modeling approach in thermal inactivation: estimation of postprocess Bacillus cereus spore prevalence and concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Membre, J.M.; Amezquita, A.; Bassett, J.; Giavedoni, P.; Blackburn, W.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    The survival of spore-forming bacteria is linked to the safety and stability of refrigerated processed foods of extended durability (REPFEDs). A probabilistic modeling approach was used to assess the prevalence and concentration of Bacillus cereus spores surviving heat treatment for a semiliquid

  13. Effects of High Pressure on Bacillus licheniformis Spore Germination and Inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch-Pedersen, Kristina; Mellegård, Hilde; Reineke, Kai; Boysen, Preben; Sevenich, Robert; Lindbäck, Toril; Aspholm, Marina

    2017-07-15

    Bacillus and Clostridium species form spores, which pose a challenge to the food industry due to their ubiquitous nature and extreme resistance. Pressurization at 300 MPa likely triggers germination by opening dipicolinic acid (DPA) channels present in the inner membrane of the spores. In this work, we expose spores of Bacillus licheniformis , a species associated with food spoilage and occasionally with food poisoning, to high pressure (HP) for holding times of up to 2 h. By using mutant spores lacking one or several GRs, we dissect the roles of the GerA, Ynd, and GerK GRs in moderately HP (mHP; 150 MPa)-induced spore germination. We show that Ynd alone is sufficient for efficient mHP-induced spore germination. GerK also triggers germination with mHP, although at a reduced germination rate compared to that of Ynd. GerA stimulates mHP-induced germination but only in the presence of either the intact GerK or Ynd GR. These results suggests that the effectiveness of the individual GRs in mHP-induced germination differs from their effectiveness in nutrient-induced germination, where GerA plays an essential role. In contrast to Bacillus subtilis spores, treatment with very HP (vHP) of 550 MPa at 37°C did not promote effective germination of B. licheniformis spores. However, treatment with vHP in combination with elevated temperatures (60°C) gave a synergistic effect on spore germination and inactivation. Together, these results provide novel insights into how HP affects B. licheniformis spore germination and inactivation and the role of individual GRs in this process. IMPORTANCE Bacterial spores are inherently resistant to food-processing regimes, such as high-temperature short-time pasteurization, and may therefore compromise food durability and safety. The induction of spore germination facilitates subsequent inactivation by gentler processing conditions that maintain the sensory and nutritional qualities of the food. High-pressure (HP) processing is a nonthermal

  14. Comparative characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by spore extract of Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahdi Ghasemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Silver nanostructures have gathered remarkable attention due to their applications in diversefields. Researchers have recently demonstrated that bacterial spores are capable of reducing silver ions toelemental silver leading to formation of nanoparticles.Materials and Methods: In this study, spores of Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus stearothermophilus wereemployed to produce silver nanoparticles (SNPs from silver nitrate (AgNO3 through a green synthesismethod. The production of SNPs by spores, heat inactivated spores (microcapsule and spore extracts wasmonitored and compared at wavelengths between 300 to 700 nm. The biosynthesized SNPs by spore extractswere characterized and confirmed by XRD and TEM analyses.Results: UV-Visible spectroscopy showed that the spore extracts were able to synthesize more SNPs thanthe other forms. The XRD pattern also revealed that the silver nanometals have crystalline structure withvarious topologies. The TEM micrographs showed polydispersed nanocrystal with dimensions ranging from30 to 90 nm and 15 to 50 nm produced by spore extracts of B. subtilis and G. stearothermophilus, respectively.Moreover, these biologically synthesized nanoparticles exhibited antimicrobial activity against differentopportunistic pathogens.Conclusion: This study suggests the bacterial spore extract as a safe, efficient, cost effective and eco-friendlymaterial for biosynthesis of SNPs.

  15. Live cell imaging of germination and outgrowth of individual bacillus subtilis spores; the effect of heat stress quantitatively analyzed with SporeTracker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachna Pandey

    Full Text Available Spore-forming bacteria are a special problem for the food industry as some of them are able to survive preservation processes. Bacillus spp. spores can remain in a dormant, stress resistant state for a long period of time. Vegetative cells are formed by germination of spores followed by a more extended outgrowth phase. Spore germination and outgrowth progression are often very heterogeneous and therefore, predictions of microbial stability of food products are exceedingly difficult. Mechanistic details of the cause of this heterogeneity are necessary. In order to examine spore heterogeneity we made a novel closed air-containing chamber for live imaging. This chamber was used to analyze Bacillus subtilis spore germination, outgrowth, as well as subsequent vegetative growth. Typically, we examined around 90 starting spores/cells for ≥4 hours per experiment. Image analysis with the purposely built program "SporeTracker" allows for automated data processing from germination to outgrowth and vegetative doubling. In order to check the efficiency of the chamber, growth and division of B. subtilis vegetative cells were monitored. The observed generation times of vegetative cells were comparable to those obtained in well-aerated shake flask cultures. The influence of a heat stress of 85°C for 10 min on germination, outgrowth, and subsequent vegetative growth was investigated in detail. Compared to control samples fewer spores germinated (41.1% less and fewer grew out (48.4% less after the treatment. The heat treatment had a significant influence on the average time to the start of germination (increased and the distribution and average of the duration of germination itself (increased. However, the distribution and the mean outgrowth time and the generation time of vegetative cells, emerging from untreated and thermally injured spores, were similar.

  16. Biology of flower-infecting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Henry K; Scherm, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The ability to infect host flowers offers important ecological benefits to plant-parasitic fungi; not surprisingly, therefore, numerous fungal species from a wide range of taxonomic groups have adopted a life style that involves flower infection. Although flower-infecting fungi are very diverse, they can be classified readily into three major groups: opportunistic, unspecialized pathogens causing necrotic symptoms such as blossom blights (group 1), and specialist flower pathogens which infect inflorescences either through the gynoecium (group 2) or systemically through the apical meristem (group 3). This three-tier system is supported by life history attributes such as host range, mode of spore transmission, degree of host sterilization as a result of infection, and whether or not the fungus undergoes an obligate sexual cycle, produces resting spores in affected inflorescences, and is r- or K-selected. Across the three groups, the flower as an infection court poses important challenges for disease management. Ecologically and evolutionarily, terms and concepts borrowed from the study of venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases of animals do not adequately capture the range of strategies employed by fungi that infect flowers.

  17. The effect of metal ions commonly present in food on gene expression of sporulating Bacillus subtilis cells in relation to spore wet heat resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Brul, S.

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a food spoilage spore-forming bacterium. The spores can be very heat-resistant and may cause problems in the production of foods. Varying the metal concentration in the sporulation media is known to influence the heat resistance of the spores. The effect of changing the metal

  18. The proteome of spore surface layers in food spoiling bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abhyankar, W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Endospores are dormant, multilayered, highly resistant cellular structures formed in response to stress by certain bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium and other related organisms. In presence of nutrients and favorable conditions spores germinate and grow out as normal vegetative

  19. Spore Proteomics: The Past, Present and the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abhyankar, W.; de Koning, L.J.; Brul, S.; de Koster, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    Endospores are metabolically dormant, multi-layered cellular structures formed by Gram positive bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium and related organisms. Their external layers are composed of proteins which in part play a role in resistance behaviour of spores to varied chemical

  20. Effect of irradiation of bacteria on the formation of spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, M.; Tropilo, J.; Olszewski, G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were carried out on bacteria: Bac. subtilis, Bac. cereus, Cl. perfringens, Cl. botulinum which were irradiated in two media (PBS and broth containing 1% of protein) with 100, 1000, 5000 and 10 000 X-radiation doses. The results obtained show that: all bacteria species studied (vegetative forms) are characterized by a high sensitivity to X-radiation, though distinctly lower than the species of Enterobacteriaceae family; the bacteria species studied are characterized by various sporing rate. The highest sporing rate was shown by Bac. cereus, the following: Bac. subtilis, Cl. perfringens and Cl. botulinum; increased X-radiation doses weaken sporing of Bac. subtilis and Bac. cereus. This effect could not be observed in Cl. perfringens and Cl. botulinum. (author)

  1. Reduction of Clostridium sporogenes spore outgrowth in natural sausage casings using nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, J J; Weerts, E A W S; Breukink, E J; Houben, J H; Lipman, L J A

    2011-08-01

    Preservation of natural sausage casings using dry salt or saturated brine is regarded as sufficient to inactivate vegetative pathogenic non-spore-forming bacteria present on the casings. Although the outgrowth of bacterial spores is prevented by salt or saturated brine preservation, these spores will remain present and develop into vegetative cells when conditions are more favourable. To prevent subsequent outgrowth additional preservation measures should be implemented. In the experiments described the use of nisin was evaluated to reduce outgrowth of spores in desalinated casings. The bacteriocin nisin was chosen because of its known efficacy against spore-forming bacteria and their spores in various foodstuffs. Clostridium spore suspensions (Clostridium sporogenes, ATCC 3584) were used in two concentrations to inoculate three nisin concentrations (10, 50, 100 μg/mL) in water containing gamma-irradiated casings. Additionally, the binding of nisin to casings, using (14)C-labeled nisin Z and subsequent availability of nisin were evaluated. Results demonstrate that nisin is partly reversibly bound to casings and can reduce the outgrowth of Clostridium spores in the model used by approximately 1 log(10) (90%). However, the biological relevance of these results needs to be determined further by conducting industrial trials before any recommendation can be made on the practical implementation of nisin in the preservation of natural sausage casings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Analysis of bacterial colonization associated with Gigaspora margarita spores by green fluorescence protein (GFP) marked technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Liangkun; Yao, Qing; Ai, Yuncan; Zhu, Honghui

    2009-05-01

    We analyzed bacterial colonization associated with spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Gigaspora margarita, to indicate their ecological niche, and to provide information for further researches on their populations or functions. Six bacteria strains (Peanibacillus sp. M060106-1, Peanibacillus sp. M061122-2, Peanibacillus sp. M061122-6, Bacillus sp. M061122-4, Bacillus sp. M061122-10 and Brevibacillus sp. M061122-12) isolated from G. margarita spores were tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP) using the carrier plasmid pNF8 (gfp-mut1). We analyzed the ecological niche and population dynamics of tagged strains on G. margarita under different conditions by using fluorescent microscope and/or plate counts. Four strains (M060106-1, M061122-6, M061122-10 and M061122-12) were tagged with GFP, showing high plasmid stability. These tagged strains possessed the basic characteristics identical to their original strains and, hence, were fit for short-term study of environmental colonization. All four GFP-tagged strains colonized the spore wall of G. margarita, and M061122-6 and M061122-12 further colonized the fungal hyphae. Under different pH conditions,the population dynamic of each GFP-tagged strain on the spores showed the same trend, i.e. first increased and then decreased, and the effects on the population size varied with different pH value. GFP-tagged strains colonized the spores of low viability more easily than those of high viability, and the population dynamic on the spores of high viability was different for each tagged strain. The isolated bacteria associated with G. margarita spores can re-colonize the fungal spores, whereas their colonizing ability depends on their characteristics and environmental factors. These data contributes to the further understanding of populations and functions of AMF-associated bacteria.

  3. Nitrogen and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF effect on two commercial sweet potato clones on an inseptisol soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Espinosa Cuéllar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam], is the fifth most important food crop in developing countries due to its outstanding nutritional and culinary characteristics and it is also considered one of the two most important food crops along with cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. The response of various crops to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is well known. The research was conducted at the The Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tuber Crops (INIVIT on an inseptisol soil. The objective was to compare the effect of five nitrogen doses in the presence or absence of an effective AMF strain oin two sweet potato clones ‘INIVIT B2-2005’ and ‘CEMSA 78-354’. Yield, colonization rate and amount of spores were evaluated. Treatments inoculated with effective strains obtained higher yields of 35 to 37 t.ha-1 with a dose of 60 kg N ha-1; and chemical fertilizer nitrogen was reduced by 37.5 % in the form of N. A yield of 30 to35 t.ha-1 was obtained with a dose of 90 kg ha-1 of N and no AMF application. In all cases the best colonization values and spore numbers in 50 g soil coincide with optimal fertilization doses for the treatment inoculated efficiently. Colonization values were in the range of 71 to 76 % and 628-659 spores for the nitrogen dose of 60 kg ha-1.

  4. Populations and identification of fungi causing postharvest molds, on pineapple peduncles in two regions in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanny Castro Chinchilla

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple peduncle mold is an important postharvest problem in Costa Rica and it causes fruit rejection. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the most important fungi in different postharvest phases. Monthly samplings were performed during one production year in 2 regions of Costa Rica. The main genera of fungi were identified and characterized at the molecular level. The colony forming units (CFU were determined in disinfection water, wax, cooling rooms air and in the peel and peduncle of fruits before (NP and after (P processing with the common postharvest treatments of the farms. Fruits were stored in cooling rooms during 22 days and at the end incidence and severity of peduncle molds were evaluated. During the year, changes in fungi populations were observed in all postharvest phases and in the fruits, with higher populations in wax than in disinfection water. Fungi population and molds were higher in the peduncle of NP fruits as compared with P fruits, coincident with larger mold populations at the end of storage. Fungi recovered in the cooling rooms air could also be a source for peduncle molds development. Penicillium purpureogenum, P. diversum and Penicllium sp., were the main fungi identified, with an in vitro high sporulation rate and growing in the peduncle. Moreover, different commercial practices, such as waxing and cooling, where spores were captured, can enhance the peduncle molds development, so it is considered important the cleaning of cooling rooms, as well as developing mechanisms to avoid accumulation in wax of important populations of microorganisms.

  5. The relationships between air pollutants, meteorological parameters and concentration of airborne fungal spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka; Wolski, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    Fungal spores are an important component of bioaerosol and also considered to act as indicator of the level of atmospheric bio-pollution. Therefore, better understanding of these phenomena demands a detailed survey of airborne particles. The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of two the most important allergenic taxa of airborne fungi - Alternaria and Cladosporium - on meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations during three consecutive years (2006-2008). This study is also an attempt to create artificial neural network (ANN) forecasting models useful in the prediction of aeroallergen abundance. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and environmental parameters as well as pollutants, confirmed by the Spearman's correlation rank analysis and high performance of the ANN models obtained. The concentrations of Cladosporium and Alternaria spores can be predicted with quite good accuracy from meteorological conditions and air pollution recorded three days earlier. - ANN models predict airspore contents from weather conditions and air pollutant.

  6. The relationships between air pollutants, meteorological parameters and concentration of airborne fungal spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka, E-mail: agofr@univ.szczecin.p [Department of Plant Taxonomy and Phytogeography, Faculty of Natural Science, University of Szczecin, Waska 13 Street, 71-415 Szczecin (Poland); Strzelczak, Agnieszka [Department of Food Process Engineering, Faculty of Food Science and Fisheries, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Wolski, Tomasz [Physical Oceanography Laboratory, University of Szczecin (Poland)

    2011-02-15

    Fungal spores are an important component of bioaerosol and also considered to act as indicator of the level of atmospheric bio-pollution. Therefore, better understanding of these phenomena demands a detailed survey of airborne particles. The objective of this study was to examine the dependence of two the most important allergenic taxa of airborne fungi - Alternaria and Cladosporium - on meteorological parameters and air pollutant concentrations during three consecutive years (2006-2008). This study is also an attempt to create artificial neural network (ANN) forecasting models useful in the prediction of aeroallergen abundance. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and environmental parameters as well as pollutants, confirmed by the Spearman's correlation rank analysis and high performance of the ANN models obtained. The concentrations of Cladosporium and Alternaria spores can be predicted with quite good accuracy from meteorological conditions and air pollution recorded three days earlier. - ANN models predict airspore contents from weather conditions and air pollutant.

  7. Photometric immersion refractometry of bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, P; Beaman, T C; Corner, T R; Greenamyre, J T; Tisa, L S

    1982-01-01

    Photometric immersion refractometry was used to determine the average apparent refractive index (n) of five types of dormant Bacillus spores representing a 600-fold range in moist-heat resistance determined as a D100 value. The n of a spore type increased as the molecular size of various immersion solutes decreased. For comparison of the spore types, the n of the entire spore and of the isolated integument was determined by use of bovine serum albumin, which is excluded from permeating into them. The n of the sporoplast (the structures bounded by the outer pericortex membrane) was determined by use of glucose, which was shown to permeate into the spore only as deeply as the pericortex membrane. Among the various spore types, an exponential increase in the heat resistance correlated with the n of the entire spore and of the sporoplast, but not of the isolated perisporoplast integument. Correlation of the n with the solids content of the entire spore provided a method of experimentally obtaining the refractive index increment (dn/dc), which was constant for the various spore types and enables the calculation of solids and water content from an n. Altogether, the results showed that the total water content is distributed unequally within the dormant spore, with less water in the sporoplast than in the perisporoplast integument, and that the sporoplast becomes more refractile and therefore more dehydrated as the heat resistance becomes greater among the various spore types. PMID:6802796

  8. A Clostridium difficile alanine racemase affects spore germination and accommodates serine as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ritu; Lockless, Steve W; Sorg, Joseph A

    2017-06-23

    Clostridium difficile has become one of the most common bacterial pathogens in hospital-acquired infections in the United States. Although C. difficile is strictly anaerobic, it survives in aerobic environments and transmits between hosts via spores. C. difficile spore germination is triggered in response to certain bile acids and glycine. Although glycine is the most effective co-germinant, other amino acids can substitute with varying efficiencies. Of these, l-alanine is an effective co-germinant and is also a germinant for most bacterial spores. Many endospore-forming bacteria embed alanine racemases into their spore coats, and these enzymes are thought to convert the l-alanine germinant into d-alanine, a spore germination inhibitor. Although the C. difficile Alr2 racemase is the sixth most highly expressed gene during C. difficile spore formation, a previous study reported that Alr2 has little to no role in germination of C. difficile spores in rich medium. Here, we hypothesized that Alr2 could affect C. difficile l-alanine-induced spore germination in a defined medium. We found that alr2 mutant spores more readily germinate in response to l-alanine as a co-germinant. Surprisingly, d-alanine also functioned as a co-germinant. Moreover, we found that Alr2 could interconvert l- and d-serine and that Alr2 bound to l- and d-serine with ∼2-fold weaker affinity to that of l- and d-alanine. Finally, we demonstrate that l- and d-serine are also co-germinants for C. difficile spores. These results suggest that C. difficile spores can respond to a diverse set of amino acid co-germinants and reveal that Alr2 can accommodate serine as a substrate. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Dry season and diurnal surveys of phylloplane fungi of Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Okhuoya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Monthly and diurnal variation of phylloplane fungi of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis leaves were studied over a period of four months in the dry season, using two culturing methods. Composite fungal population was the highest in April and the lowest in February. Serial dilution method recorded the higher number of fungal spores than ballistospore method. Mature leaves were found to have more fungal spores than premature and young leaves. Spore concentration on the leaves showed diurnal periodicity, with peak period of spores between 12-18 hr. Rubber leaves outside the plantation, had more spores on their surfaces than those shaded by the plantation canopy. The factors responsible for these observations were discussed.

  10. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Yekimova

    2014-11-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature. Keywords: seeds, disease, infection

  11. The ice nucleation ability of one of the most abundant types of fungal spores found in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Iannone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent atmospheric measurements show that biological particles are a potentially important class of ice nuclei. Types of biological particles that may be good ice nuclei include bacteria, pollen and fungal spores. We studied the ice nucleation properties of water droplets containing fungal spores from the genus Cladosporium, one of the most abundant types of spores found in the atmosphere. For water droplets containing a Cladosporium spore surface area of ~217 μm2 (equivalent to ~5 spores with average diameters of 3.2 μm , 1% of the droplets froze by −28.5 °C and 10% froze by –30.1 °C. However, there was a strong dependence on freezing temperature with the spore surface area of Cladosporium within a given droplet. Mean freezing temperatures for droplets containing 1–5 spores are expected to be approximately −35.1 ± 2.3 °C (1σ S. D.. Atmospheric ice nucleation on spores of Cladosporium sp., or other spores with similar surface properties, thus do not appear to explain recent atmospheric measurements showing that biological particles participate as atmospheric ice nuclei. The poor ice nucleation ability of Cladosporium sp. may be attributed to the surface which is coated with hydrophobins (a class of hydrophobic proteins that appear to be widespread in filamentous fungi. Given the ubiquity of hydrophobins on spore surfaces, the current study may be applicable to many fungal species of atmospheric importance.

  12. DNA extraction method for PCR in mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manian, S; Sreenivasaprasad, S; Mills, P R

    2001-10-01

    To develop a simple and rapid DNA extraction protocol for PCR in mycorrhizal fungi. The protocol combines the application of rapid freezing and boiling cycles and passage of the extracts through DNA purification columns. PCR amplifiable DNA was obtained from a number of endo- and ecto-mycorrhizal fungi using minute quantities of spores and mycelium, respectively. DNA extracted following the method, was used to successfully amplify regions of interest from high as well as low copy number genes. The amplicons were suitable for further downstream applications such as sequencing and PCR-RFLPs. The protocol described is simple, short and facilitates rapid isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA from a large number of fungal isolates in a single day. The method requires only minute quantities of starting material and is suitable for mycorrhizal fungi as well as a range of other fungi.

  13. Evaluation of the Performance of Iodine-Treated Biocide Filters Challenged with Bacterial Spores and Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jin-Hwa; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Filter media coated with a cationic resin in triiodide form were challenged by Bacillus subtilis spores and MS2 bacteriophage aerosols delivered from a Collison nebulizer through air at 35% RH and 23 C...

  14. Ultraviolet-Resistant Bacterial Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Newcombe, David; LaDuc, Myron T.; Osman, Shariff R.

    2007-01-01

    A document summarizes a study in which it was found that spores of the SAFR-032 strain of Bacillus pumilus can survive doses of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radiation, and hydrogen peroxide in proportions much greater than those of other bacteria. The study was part of a continuing effort to understand the survivability of bacteria under harsh conditions and develop means of sterilizing spacecraft to prevent biocontamination of Mars that could interfere with the search for life there.

  15. Spore liberation in mosses revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallenmüller, Friederike; Langer, Max; Poppinga, Simon; Kassemeyer, Hanns-Heinz; Speck, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The ability to perform hygroscopic movements has evolved in many plant lineages and relates to a multitude of different functions such as seed burial, flower protection or regulation of diaspore release. In most mosses, spore release is controlled by hygroscopic movements of the peristome teeth and also of the spore capsule. Our study presents, for the first time, temporally and spatially well-resolved kinematic analyses of these complex shape changes in response to humidity conditions and provides insights into the sophisticated functional morphology and anatomy of the peristome teeth. In Brachythecium populeum the outer teeth of the peristome perform particularly complex hygroscopic movements during hydration and desiccation. Hydration induces fast inward dipping followed by partial re-straightening of the teeth. In their final shape, wet teeth close the capsule. During desiccation, the teeth perform an outward flicking followed by a re-straightening which opens the capsule. We present a kinematic analysis of these shape changes and of the underlying functional anatomy of the teeth. These teeth are shown to be composed of two layers which show longitudinal gradients in their material composition, structure and geometry. We hypothesize that these gradients result in (i) differences in swelling/shrinking capacity and velocity between the two layers composing the teeth, and in (ii) a gradient of velocity of swelling and shrinking from the tip to the base of the teeth. We propose these processes explain the observed movements regulating capsule opening or closing. This hypothesis is corroborated by experiments with isolated layers of peristome teeth. During hydration and desiccation, changes to the shape and mass of the whole spore capsule accompany the opening and closing. Results are discussed in relation to their significance for humidity-based regulation of spore release.

  16. In vitro mutagenesis of commercial fern, Asplenium nidus from spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin

    2004-01-01

    Asplenium is a largest, most diverse fern genera. One of the common species is Asplenium nidus, well known as Bird's-nest fern, a medium to large fern with erect, stout, unbranched rhizomes. In creating variability of ferns for the benefit of the ornamental plant industry, in vitro mutagenesis is used. In this study, spores of Asplenium nidus were collected from frond bearing mature sporangia. Spores were cultured in modified 1/2 MS basal medium supplemented with various combinations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA). Spore cultures were incubated in incubation room at 24 degree C with 16 hours photoperiod (3500 lux). It was found that, the most effective combinations were 1 mg/1 BAP + 0. 1 mg/1 NAA and 2mg/1 BAP + 0. 1 mg/1 NAA. Prothallus was formed after 10 days of cultures and gametophytes were formed 1 month later. These gametophytes were irradiated with Gamma ray at doses of 0, 20, 90, 120, 150 and 180 Gy. From the preliminary result obtained from this study, for generating variations and desired phenotypic expression for Asplenium nidus, recommended doses for in vitro mutagenesis using spores are between 90 Gy to 150 Gy. Gametophytes were subcultured at monthly interval to ensure further development and propagation. Frequent monitoring for any changes in the morphology of the irradiated Asplenium nidus plants were carried out. (Author)

  17. Absence of Fungal Spore Internalization by Bronchial Epithelium in Mouse Models Evidenced by a New Bioimaging Approach and Transmission Electronic Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammaert, Blandine; Jouvion, Grégory; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Szczepaniak, Claire; Renaudat, Charlotte; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chrétien, Fabrice; Dromer, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    Clinical data and experimental studies suggest that bronchial epithelium could serve as a portal of entry for invasive fungal infections. We therefore analyzed the interactions between molds and the bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium at the early steps after inhalation. We developed invasive aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) and mucormycosis (Lichtheimia corymbifera) murine models that mimic the main clinical risk factors for these infections. Histopathology studies were completed with a specific computer-assisted morphometric method to quantify bronchial and alveolar spores and with transmission electron microscopy. Morphometric analysis revealed a higher number of bronchial/bronchiolar spores for A. fumigatus than L. corymbifera. The bronchial/bronchiolar spores decreased between 1 and 18 hours after inoculation for both fungi, except in corticosteroid-treated mice infected with A. fumigatus, suggesting an effect of cortisone on bronchial spore clearance. No increase in the number of spores of any species was observed over time at the basal pole of the epithelium, suggesting the lack of transepithelial crossing. Transmission electron microscopy did not show spore internalization by bronchial epithelial cells. Instead, spores were phagocytized by mononuclear cells on the apical pole of epithelial cells. Early epithelial internalization of fungal spores in vivo cannot explain the bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium invasion observed in some invasive mold infections. The bioimaging approach provides a useful means to accurately enumerate and localize the fungal spores in the pulmonary tissues. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Sensitive Method for Examining Whole Cell Biochemical Composition in Single Cells of Filamentous Fungi using Synchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantin,J.; Gough, K.; Julian, R.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cell function is related to cell composition. The asexual state of filamentous fungi (molds and mildews) has two main life cycle stages: vegetative hyphae for substrate colonization and nutrient acquisition, and asexual spores for survival and dispersal. Hyphal composition changes over a few tens of microns during growth and maturation; spores are different from hyphae. Most biochemical analyses are restricted to studying a few components at high spatial resolution (e.g. histochemistry) or many compounds at low spatial resolution (e.g. GC-MS). Synchrotron FTIR spectromicroscopy can be used to study fungal cell biology by fingerprinting varieties of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids at about 6 microm spatial resolution. FTIR can distinguish fungal species and changes during hyphal growth, and reveals that even fungi grown under optimal vs mildly stressed conditions exhibit dramatic biochemical changes without obvious morphological effects. Here we compare hypha and spore composition of two fungi, Neurospora and Rhizopus. There are clear biochemical changes when Neurospora hyphae commit to spore development, during spore maturation and following germination, many of which are consistent with results from molecular genetics, but have not been shown before at high spatial resolution. Rhizopus spores develop within a fluid-containing sporangium that becomes dry at maturity. Rhizopus spores had similar protein content and significantly more carbohydrate than the sporangial fluid, both of which are novel findings.

  19. Strigolactones Stimulate Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi by Activating Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserer, Arnaud; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Kiefer, Patrick; Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Jauneau, Alain; Roy, Sébastien; Portais, Jean-Charles; Roux, Christophe; Bécard, Guillaume

    2006-01-01

    The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF) that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10 −13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants. PMID:16787107

  20. Strigolactones stimulate arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by activating mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Besserer

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi with plant roots is the oldest and ecologically most important symbiotic relationship between higher plants and microorganisms, yet the mechanism by which these fungi detect the presence of a plant host is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that roots secrete a branching factor (BF that strongly stimulates branching of hyphae during germination of the spores of AM fungi. In the BF of Lotus, a strigolactone was found to be the active molecule. Strigolactones are known as germination stimulants of the parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche. In this paper, we show that the BF of a monocotyledonous plant, Sorghum, also contains a strigolactone. Strigolactones strongly and rapidly stimulated cell proliferation of the AM fungus Gigaspora rosea at concentrations as low as 10(-13 M. This effect was not found with other sesquiterperne lactones known as germination stimulants of parasitic weeds. Within 1 h of treatment, the density of mitochondria in the fungal cells increased, and their shape and movement changed dramatically. Strigolactones stimulated spore germination of two other phylogenetically distant AM fungi, Glomus intraradices and Gl. claroideum. This was also associated with a rapid increase of mitochondrial density and respiration as shown with Gl. intraradices. We conclude that strigolactones are important rhizospheric plant signals involved in stimulating both the pre-symbiotic growth of AM fungi and the germination of parasitic plants.

  1. Aerobiology of the built environment: Synergy between Legionella and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alum, Absar; Isaacs, Galahad Zachariah

    2016-09-02

    The modern built environment (BE) design creates unique ecological niches ideal for the survival and mutual interaction of microbial communities. This investigation focused on the synergistic relations between Legionella and the fungal species commonly found in BEs and the impact of these synergistic relationships on the survival and transmission of Legionella. A field study was conducted to identify the types and concentrations of fungi in BEs. The fungal isolates purified from BEs were cocultured with Legionella to study their synergistic association. Cocultured Legionella cells were aerosolized in an air-tight chamber to evaluate the efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) to inactivate these cells. Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Cladosporium were the most common fungi detected in samples that tested positive for Legionella. After coculturing, Legionella cells were detected inside fungal hyphae. The microscopic observations of Legionella internalization in fungal hyphae were confirmed by molecular analyses. UV disinfection of the aerosolized Legionella cells that were cocultured with fungi indicated that fungal spores and propagules act as a shield against UV radiation. The shield effect of fungal spores on Legionella cells was quantified at >2.5 log10. This study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, of Legionella cell presence inside fungi detected in an indoor environment. This symbiotic relationship with fungi results in longer survival of Legionella under ambient conditions and provides protection against UV rays. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Physiological characteristics of fungi associated with dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben

    Knowledge about physiological characteristics of food-borne fungi is important in understanding how the environment affects colonization of different foods and feeds. The response of a fungus to changes in the environment will, however, depend on the stage of the life cycle or the physiological...... mode of the mycelium. Germination of spores is a key event in the fungal life cycle giving rise to colonization by a growing mycelium. Understanding of the factors controlling germination are of major importance as no infection of food-stuffs will occur if spores do not germinate. Food spoilage...... and production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites represent two other areas of great concern in relation to food spoilage, which might be controlled by different regulation mechanisms. Detailed as well as more general information on behaviour of fungi in relation to important growth controlling...

  3. Effects of steam autoclave treatment on Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesca-Espitia, L C; Suvira, M; Rosenbeck, K; Korza, G; Setlow, B; Li, W; Wang, S; Li, Y-Q; Setlow, P

    2016-11-01

    To determine the mechanism of autoclave killing of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores used in biological indicators (BIs) for steam autoclave sterilization, and rates of loss of spore viability and a spore enzyme used in BIs. Spore viability, dipicolinic acid (DPA) release, nucleic acid staining, α-glucosidase activity, protein structure and mutagenesis were measured during autoclaving of G. stearothermophilus spores. Loss of DPA and increases in spore core nucleic acid staining were slower than loss of spore viability. Spore core α-glucosidase was also lost more slowly than spore viability, although soluble α-glucosidase in spore preparations was lost more rapidly. However, spores exposed to an effective autoclave sterilization lost all viability and α-glucosidase activity. Apparently killed autoclaved spores were not recovered by artificial germination in supportive media, much spore protein was denatured during autoclaving, and partially killed autoclave-treated spore preparations did not acquire mutations. These results indicate that autoclave-killed spores cannot be revived, spore killing by autoclaving is likely by protein damage, and spore core α-glucosidase activity is lost more slowly than spore viability. This work provides insight into the mechanism of autoclave killing of spores of an organism used in BIs, and that a spore enzyme in a BI is more stable to autoclaving than spore viability. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Laboratory Investigations on the Survival of Bacillus subtilis Spores in Deliquescent Salt Mars Analog Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, Danielle L.; Gough, Raina V.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Spry, James A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2017-10-01

    Observed features such as recurring slope lineae suggest that liquid water may exist on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars today. The presence of this liquid water, likely in the form of a brine, has important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. It is possible that this water is formed, at least partially, by deliquescence of salts, a process during which hygroscopic salts absorb water vapor from the atmosphere and form a saturated liquid brine. We performed laboratory experiments to examine the ability of Bacillus subtilis (B-168) spores, alone or mixed with calcium perchlorate salt (Ca(ClO4)2), to form liquid water via deliquescence under Mars-relevant conditions. Spore survival after exposure to these conditions was examined. An environmental chamber was used to expose the samples to temperature and relative humidity (RH) values similar to those found on Mars, and Raman microscopy was used to identify the phases of water and salt that were present and to confirm the presence of spores. We found that B-168 spores did not condense any detectable water vapor on their own during the diurnal cycle, even at 100% RH. However, when spores were mixed with perchlorate salt, the entire sample deliquesced at low RH values, immersing the spores in a brine solution during the majority of the simulated martian temperature and humidity cycle. After exposure to the simulated diurnal cycles and, in some cases, perchlorate brine, the impact of each environmental scenario on spore survival was estimated by standard plate assay. We found that, if there are deliquescent salts in contact with spores, there is a mechanism for the spores to acquire liquid water starting with only atmospheric water vapor as the H2O source. Also, neither crystalline nor liquid Ca(ClO4)2 is sporicidal despite the low water activity.

  5. Isolation and analysis of bacteria associated with spores of Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A F; Horii, S; Ochiai, S; Yasuda, A; Ishii, T

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work was to observe bacteria associated with the spores of Gigaspora margarita, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF). First, a direct analysis of DNA from sterilized spores indicated the bacteria belonging to the genus Janthinobacterium. In the second assay, two bacterial strains were isolated by osmosis from protoplasts, which were derived from spores by using two particular enzymes: lysing enzymes and yatalase. After isolation, cultivation and identification by their DNA as performed in the first experiment, the species with the closest relation were Janthinobacterium lividum (KCIGM01) and Paenibacillus polymyxa (KCIGM04) isolated with lysing enzymes and yatalase respectively. Morphologically, J. lividum was Gram negative and oval, while P. polymyxa was also oval, but Gram positive. Both strains had antagonistic effects to the pathogenic fungi Rosellimia necatrix, Pythium ultimum, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. In particular, J. lividum was much stronger in this role. However, in phosphorus (P) solubilization P. polymyxa functioned better than J. lividum. This experiment had revealed two new bacteria species (P. polymyxa and J. lividum), associated with AMF spores, which functioned to suppress diseases and to solubilize P. AMF spores could be a useful source for bacterial antagonists to soil-borne diseases and P solubilization.

  6. Monitoring of fungal spores in the indoor air of preschool institution facilities in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milana S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal spores can cause a range of health problems in humans such as respiratory diseases and mycotoxicoses. Since children are the most vulnerable, the presence of fungal spores in the facilities of preschool and school institutions should be investigated readily. In order to estimate air contamination by fungal spores, air sampling was conducted in eight facilities of the preschool institution in Novi Sad during February and March, 2007. Sedimentation plate method was used for the detection of viable fungal spores, mostly being members of subdv. Deuteromycota (Fungi imperfecti. In 32 samples a total of 148 colonies were developed, among which five genera were identified: Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Acremonium while non-sporulating fungal colonies were labeled as sterile mycelia. Most frequently recorded genera were Penicillium with 46 colonies and Cladosporium with 44 colonies. The genera Aspergillus and Alternaria were represented with 3 colonies each and Acremonium with only 1 colony. The greatest number of colonies emerged in the samples from the day care facilities “Vendi” (58 colonies and “Panda” (49 colonies. Most diverse samples were obtained from the day care center “Zvončica”, with presence of all identified genera. These results showed notable presence of fungal spores in the indoor air of Preschool institution facilities and indicated the need for further, more complete seasonal research. Obtained information is considered useful for the evaluation of potential mycofactors that endanger health of children. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43002

  7. Mimicry in plant-parasitic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Henry K; Scherm, Harald

    2006-04-01

    Mimicry is the close resemblance of one living organism (the mimic) to another (the model), leading to misidentification by a third organism (the operator). Similar to other organism groups, certain species of plant-parasitic fungi are known to engage in mimetic relationships, thereby increasing their fitness. In some cases, fungal infection can lead to the formation of flower mimics (pseudo flowers) that attract insect pollinators via visual and/or olfactory cues; these insects then either transmit fungal gametes to accomplish outcrossing (e.g. in some heterothallic rust fungi belonging to the genera Puccinia and Uromyces) or vector infectious spores to healthy plants, thereby spreading disease (e.g. in the anther smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum and the mummy berry pathogen Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi). In what is termed aggressive mimicry, some specialized plant-parasitic fungi are able to mimic host structures or host molecules to gain access to resources. An example is M. vaccinii-corymbosi, whose conidia and germ tubes, respectively, mimic host pollen grains and pollen tubes anatomically and physiologically, allowing the pathogen to gain entry into the host's ovary via stigma and style. We review these and other examples of mimicry by plant-parasitic fungi and some of the mechanisms, signals, and evolutionary implications.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycota of the Bledowska Desert, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; Glomales, Zygomycetes associated with plants growing in sand dune soils of the Blędowska Desert, Poland, was investigated in 1995-1997. A total of 134 mixtures of soils and roots were sampled. The mixtures represented 26 plant species in 14 families and one unrecognized plant. Spores of AMF were found in 118 soil-root mixtures. The AMF spore populations comprised 20 described species of the genera Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Glomus and Scutellospora, as well as two undescribed morphospecies of the genus Glomus. The AMF most frequently occurring in the field-collected soils were members of the genus Scutellospora The AMF spore populations comprised 20 described species in the genera Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Glomus and Scutellospora, as well as two undescribed morpho-species of the genus Glomus. The fungal species most frequently and numerously found was Scutellospora armeniaca. The fungi relatively frequently present also were A. rugosa, A. lacunosa, G. aggregatum, an undescribed Glomus 142 and Sc. dipurpurescens. The overall spore abundance of AMF averaged 69.1 and ranged from 0 to 837 in 100 g dry soil. The highest abundance of spores occurred among roots of the families Cupressaceae, followed by the Rosaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae. Of the plant species investigated two and more times, most spores harboured Juniperus communis. The overall average species richness was 2.4 and ranged from 0 to 6 in 100 g dry soil. Of the plant species sampled at lest two times, the highest average species diversity was found in the root zone of Salix arenaria. The plant species that hosted the highest overall number of species of AMF was Festuca rubra. Trap pot cultures with soilroot mixtures collected in 1997 revealed 10 species of AMF that were not found in field soils sampled in the same year. This suggests that a great part of AMF of Błędowska Desert is represented by rarely or non-sporulating species.

  9. Mycorrhizal fungi increase coffee plants competitiveness against Bidens pilosa interference

    OpenAIRE

    França,André Cabral; Freitas,Ana Flávia de; Santos,Edson Aparecido dos; Grazziotti,Paulo Henrique; Andrade Júnior,Valter Carvalho de

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycorrhizae provide several benefits to coffee plants. This study evaluated whether these benefits influence the damage caused by the Bidens pilosa competition with coffee seedlings. A randomized blocks design was used, with treatments established in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (presence and absence of B. pilosa interference in non-inoculated control or plants inoculated with either Claroideoglomus etunicatum or Dentiscutata heterogama). Coffee seedlings were inoculated with fungi spore...

  10. Long-Distance Dispersal of Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Jacob J; Pringle, Anne

    2017-07-01

    Dispersal is a fundamental biological process, operating at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Despite an increasing understanding of fungal biodiversity, most research on fungal dispersal focuses on only a small fraction of species. Thus, any discussion of the dispersal dynamics of fungi as a whole is problematic. While abundant morphological and biogeographic data are available for hundreds of species, researchers have yet to integrate this information into a unifying paradigm of fungal dispersal, especially in the context of long-distance dispersal (LDD). Fungal LDD is mediated by multiple vectors, including meteorological phenomena (e.g., wind and precipitation), plants (e.g., seeds and senesced leaves), animals (e.g., fur, feathers, and gut microbiomes), and in many cases humans. In addition, fungal LDD is shaped by both physical constraints on travel and the ability of spores to survive harsh environments. Finally, fungal LDD is commonly measured in different ways, including by direct capture of spores, genetic comparisons of disconnected populations, and statistical modeling and simulations of dispersal data. To unify perspectives on fungal LDD, we propose a synthetic three-part definition that includes (i) an identification of the source population and a measure of the concentration of source inoculum and (ii) a measured and/or modeled dispersal kernel. With this information, LDD is defined as (iii) the distance found within the dispersal kernel beyond which only 1% of spores travel.

  11. Anaerobic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorou, M.K.; Brookman, J.; Trinci, A.P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Although the rumen represents one of the most thoroughly investigated of all microbial ecosystems, more information is required about the size, diversity and function of the various cultivatable and non-cultivatable subgroups that constitute the rumen microflora. While microbial, molecular methodologies are developing at a considerable pace, and this will ultimately assist in the description of non-cultivatable forms, there is still a need to study the cultivatable forms, and to do this we need to grow and maintain their viability in axenic laboratory culture

  12. What Defines the "Kingdom" Fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A; Leonard, Guy; Wideman, Jeremy G

    2017-06-01

    The application of environmental DNA techniques and increased genome sequencing of microbial diversity, combined with detailed study of cellular characters, has consistently led to the reexamination of our understanding of the tree of life. This has challenged many of the definitions of taxonomic groups, especially higher taxonomic ranks such as eukaryotic kingdoms. The Fungi is an example of a kingdom which, together with the features that define it and the taxa that are grouped within it, has been in a continual state of flux. In this article we aim to summarize multiple lines of data pertinent to understanding the early evolution and definition of the Fungi. These include ongoing cellular and genomic comparisons that, we will argue, have generally undermined all attempts to identify a synapomorphic trait that defines the Fungi. This article will also summarize ongoing work focusing on taxon discovery, combined with phylogenomic analysis, which has identified novel groups that lie proximate/adjacent to the fungal clade-wherever the boundary that defines the Fungi may be. Our hope is that, by summarizing these data in the form of a discussion, we can illustrate the ongoing efforts to understand what drove the evolutionary diversification of fungi.

  13. Germination of Spores of Astrobiologically Relevant Bacillus Species in High-Salinity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Katja; Julius, Christina; Moeller, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    In times of increasing space exploration and search for extraterrestrial life, new questions and challenges for planetary protection, aiming to avoid forward contamination of different planets or moons with terrestrial life, are emerging. Spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus species have a high contamination potential due to their spores' extreme resistance, enabling them to withstand space conditions. Spores require liquid water for their conversion into a growing cell (i.e., spore germination and subsequent growth). If present, water on extraterrestrial planets or moons is likely to be closely associated with salts (e.g., in salty oceans or brines), thus constituting high-salinity environments. Spores of Bacillus subtilis can germinate despite very high salt concentrations, although salt stress does exert negative effects on this process. In this study, germination and metabolic reactivation ("outgrowth") of spores of five astrobiologically relevant Bacillus species (B. megaterium, B. pumilus SAFR-032, B. nealsonii, B. mojavensis, and B. vallismortis) in high salinity (≤3.6 M NaCl) were investigated. Spores of different species exhibited different germination and outgrowth capabilities in high salinity, which strongly depended on germination conditions, especially the exact composition of the medium. In this context, a new "universal" germination trigger for Bacillus spores, named KAGE (KCl, L-alanine, D-glucose, ectoine), was identified, which will be very useful for future comparative germination and outgrowth studies on different Bacillus species. Overall, this study yielded interesting new insights on salt stress effects on spore germination and points out the difficulty of predicting the potential of spores to contaminate salty environments on extraterrestrial celestial bodies.

  14. Adhesion of Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis on a Planar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Joy, David Charles [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion of spores of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and spherical silica particles on surfaces was experimentally and theoretically investigated in this study. Topography analysis via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy indicates that Bt spores are rod shaped, {approx}1.3 {mu}m in length and {approx}0.8 {mu}m in diameter. The adhesion force of Bt spores and silica particles on gold-coated glass was measured at various relative humidity (RH) levels by AFM. It was expected that the adhesion force would vary with RH because the individual force components contributing to the adhesion force depend on RH. The adhesion force between a particle and a planar surface in atmospheric environments was modeled as the contribution of three major force components: capillary, van der Waals, and electrostatic interaction forces. Adhesion force measurements for Bt spore (silica particle) and the gold surface system were comparable with calculations. Modeling results show that there is a critical RH value, which depends on the hydrophobicity of the materials involved, below which the water meniscus does not form and the contribution of the capillary force is zero. As RH increases, the van der Waals force decreases while the capillary force increases to a maximum value.

  15. Sporulation Temperature Reveals a Requirement for CotE in the Assembly of both the Coat and Exosporium Layers of Bacillus cereus Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Bornard, Isabelle; Henriques, Adriano O; Carlin, Frédéric; Broussolle, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus spore surface layers consist of a coat surrounded by an exosporium. We investigated the interplay between the sporulation temperature and the CotE morphogenetic protein in the assembly of the surface layers of B. cereus ATCC 14579 spores and on the resulting spore properties. The cotE deletion affects the coat and exosporium composition of the spores formed both at the suboptimal temperature of 20°C and at the optimal growth temperature of 37°C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ΔcotE spores had a fragmented and detached exosporium when formed at 37°C. However, when produced at 20°C, ΔcotE spores showed defects in both coat and exosporium attachment and were susceptible to lysozyme and mutanolysin. Thus, CotE has a role in the assembly of both the coat and exosporium, which is more important during sporulation at 20°C. CotE was more represented in extracts from spores formed at 20°C than at 37°C, suggesting that increased synthesis of the protein is required to maintain proper assembly of spore surface layers at the former temperature. ΔcotE spores formed at either sporulation temperature were impaired in inosine-triggered germination and resistance to UV-C and H2O2 and were less hydrophobic than wild-type (WT) spores but had a higher resistance to wet heat. While underscoring the role of CotE in the assembly of B. cereus spore surface layers, our study also suggests a contribution of the protein to functional properties of additional spore structures. Moreover, it also suggests a complex relationship between the function of a spore morphogenetic protein and environmental factors such as the temperature during spore formation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Distinction of broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores using FTIR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun; Sheng, Daping; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to identify broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. For IR spectra, broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores were mainly different in the regions of 3000-2800, 1660-1600, 1400-1200 and 1100-1000 cm-1. For curve fitting, the results showed the differences in the protein secondary structures and the polysaccharide structures/content between broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. Moreover, the value of A1078/A1741 might be a potentially useful factor to distinguish broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores from G. lucidum spores. Additionally, FTIR microspectroscopy could identify broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores accurately when it was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. The result suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is very simple and efficient for distinction of broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. The result also indicates FTIR microspectroscopy may be useful for TCM identification.

  17. Spore attachment and extracellular mucilage of aquatic hyphomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, D W; Jones, E B; Moss, S T

    1996-01-01

    Stages in conidiun attachment to surfaces of Lemmoniera aquatica and Mycocentrospora filiformis (freshwater Hyphomycetes) were studied at the light microscope and scanning and transmission electron microscope levels. Sigmoid conidia of M. filiformis attach by pre-existing conidial mucilage at the spore pole and at a point along the conidial body. Tetraradiate conidia of L. aquatica attach by the thigmotropic release of mucilage at the tips of the three "arms";. Germination in both species is followed by the production of germ tubes, germ hyphae and appressoria. The chemical composition of the mucilage involved in attachment was determined by enzymatic studies and lectin-gold cytochemical studies. The major component was found to be acidic poly-saccharide, comprising mainly ß-1, 3-glucan, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and N-acetyl-neuraminic acid. Variation in mucilage composition exists between the two species, among different structures of the same species, and on different regions of the same structure. This indicates that mucilage producton in the two species is a dynamic process.The ability to secure rapid spore attachment, often in turbulent condition, would be a competitive advantage to these saprobic fungi in the colonization of substrata.

  18. Rates of molecular evolution in bacteria are relatively constant despite spore dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Heather

    2007-02-01

    Rates of molecular evolution are known to vary considerably among lineages, partially due to differences in life-history traits such as generation time. The generation-time effect has been well documented in some eukaryotes, but its prevalence in prokaryotes is unknown. "Because many species of Firmicute bacteria spend long periods of time as metabolically dormant spores, which could result in fewer DNA substitutions per unit time, they present an excellent system for testing predictions of the molecular clock hypothesis." To test whether spore-forming bacteria evolve more slowly than their non-spore-forming relatives, I used phylogenetic methods to determine if there were differences in rates of amino acid substitution between spore-forming and non-spore-forming lineages of Firmicute bacteria. Although rates of evolution do vary among lineages, I find no evidence for an effect of spore-formation on evolutionary rate and, furthermore, evolutionary rates are similar to those calculated for enteric bacteria. These results support the notion that variation in generation time does not affect evolutionary rates in bacterial lineages.

  19. Survival of B. Horneckiae Spores Under Ground-simulated Space Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanche, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    To prevent forward contamination and maintain the scientific integrity of future life detection missions, it is important to characterize and attempt to eliminate terrestrial microorganisms associated with exploratory spacecraft and landing vehicles. Among the organisms isolated from spacecraft-associated habitats, spore-forming microbes are highly resistant to various physical and chemical conditions, which include ionizing and UV radiation, desiccation and oxidative stress, and the harsh environment of outer space or planetary surfaces. Recently a radiation resistant, spore forming bacterial isolate, Bacillus horneckiae, was isolated from a clean room of the Kennedy Space Center where the Phoenix spacecraft was assembled. The exceptionally high tolerance of extreme conditions demonstrated by sporeforming bacteria highlighted the need to assess the viability of these microbes in situ (in real) space. The proposed BOSS (Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space) project aims to understand the mechanisms by which biofilm forming organisms, such as B. horneckiae, will potentially be able to withstand harsh space conditions. As previously stated, the spore producing ability of these species gives them increased survivability to harsh conditions. Some of the spores will have the protective exosporium layer artificially removed before the test to determine if the existence of this layer significantly changes the survivability during the mission. In preparation for that experiment, we analyzed spores which were exposed during a ground simulation, the EXPOSE R2 Biofilm Organisms Surfing Space (BOSS). Previous to exposure, spores were deposited onto spacecraft grade aluminum coupons in a spore suspension calculated to contain between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 8) spores. This precursor series will be used to establish a baseline survivability function for comparison with the future flight tests during EXPOSE-R. For each coupon, a 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film was applied and peeled

  20. Myco-heterotrophy: when fungi host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckx, Vincent; Bidartondo, Martin I; Hynson, Nicole A

    2009-12-01

    Myco-heterotrophic plants are partly or entirely non-photosynthetic plants that obtain energy and nutrients from fungi. These plants form a symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal, ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic fungi to meet their nutrient demands. This Botanical Briefing summarizes current knowledge about myco-heterotrophy, discusses its controversial aspects and highlights future directions for research. Considerable recent progress has been made in terms of understanding the evolutionary history, germination and nutrition of myco-heterotrophic plants. Myco-heterotrophic plants: (1) are diverse and often ancient lineages that have coevolved with fungi, (2) often demonstrate unusually high specificity towards fungi during germination and maturity, and (3) can either cheat common mycorrhizal networks supported by neighbouring photosynthetic plants to satisfy all or part of their energetic and nutritional needs, or recruit free-living saprotrophic fungi into novel mycorrhizal symbioses. However, several fundamental aspects of myco-heterotrophy remain controversial or unknown, such as symbiotic costs and physiology.

  1. arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status of some crops in the cross river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    The incidence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and rhizospheric spore prevalence of ten crops was studied in relation to their foliar concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the Calabar area of the Cross. River Basin of Nigeria in order to determine their mycorrhizal status. All crops studied ...

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi status of some crops in the cross river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and rhizospheric spore prevalence of ten crops was studied in relation to their foliar concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the Calabar area of the Cross River Basin of Nigeria in order to determine their mycorrhizal status. All crops studied ...

  3. New and interesting ectomycorrhizal fungi from Puerto Rico, Mona, and Guana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orson K. Miller; D. Jean Lodge; Timothy J. Baroni

    2000-01-01

    A report of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi from Puerto Rico, Mona, and Guana Island in the Greater Antilles includes four species of Amanita, three of which are new species; two Lactarius, one is new, and two species of Boletus, one new. In addition, new distribution records of Phlebopus beniensis, Russula littoralis, Lactarius ferrugineus, a new small spored...

  4. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    Full Text Available We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae. Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the 'throwing arm' of the sporangium catapult and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1, and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal.

  5. Induction of Rhizopus oryzae germination under starvation using host metabolites increases spore susceptibility to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Kakongi, Nathan; Schneider, Avishai; Vinokur, Yakov; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Carmeli, Shmuel; Levy, Maggie; Skory, Christopher D; Lichter, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2014-03-01

    Sweetpotato is a nutritional source worldwide. Soft rot caused by Rhizopus spp. is a major limiting factor in the storage of produce, rendering it potentially unsafe for human consumption. In this study, Rhizopus oryzae was used to develop a concept of postharvest disease control by weakening the pathogen through induction of spore germination under starvation conditions. We isolated the sweetpotato active fractions (SPAFs) that induce spore germination and used them at a low dose to enhance spore weakening caused by starvation. Germination in SPAF at 1 mg/ml weakened the pathogen spores by delaying their ability to form colonies on rich media and by increasing their sensitivity to heat stress. The weakening effect was also supported by reduced metabolic activity, as detected by Alarmar Blue fluorescent dye assays. Spores incubated with SPAF at 1 mg/ml showed DNA fragmentation in some of their nuclei, as observed by TUNEL assay. In addition, these spores exhibited changes in ultrastructural morphology (i.e., shrinkage of germ tubes, nucleus deformation, and vacuole formation) which are hallmarks of programmed cell death. We suggest that induction of spore germination under starvation conditions increases their susceptibility to stress and, therefore, might be considered a new strategy for pathogen control.

  6. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of ...

  7. Nano-Mechanical Properties of Heat Inactivated Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    spores were grown in plastic petri dishes on Criterion Dehydrated Culture Media , which contained per liter of formula 15 grams agar , 5 grams gelatin...became reality in 2001 when terrorists sent spores in a powdered form in letters to two senators and several news media offices, killing five people...is the causative agent of the disease anthrax. B. thuringiensis is often used in pesticides and bioengineering pest resistant crops because of its

  8. Plutonium uptake by a soil fungus and transport to its spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckert, W.F.; Au, F.H.F.

    1976-01-01

    Three concentrations of plutonium-238 nitrate, citrate and dioxide were each added to separate plates of malt agar buffered to pH 2.5 and 5.5 to determine the uptake of plutonium from these chemical forms and concentrations by a common soil fungus, Aspergillus niger. After inoculation and incubation, the aerial spores of Aspergillus niger were collected using a technique that excluded the possibility of cross-contamination of the spores by the culture media or by mycelial fragments. 238 Pu was taken up from all three chemical forms and transported to the aerial spores of Aspergillus niger at each concentration and at both pH levels. The specific activities of the spores grown at pH 5.5 were generally at least twice those of the spores grown at pH 2.5. The uptake of plutonium from the dioxide form was about one-third of that from the nitrate and citrate forms at both pH levels. The term 'transport factor' is used as a means to compare the transport of plutonium from the media to the fungal spores; the concentration-independent transport factor is defined as the specific activity of the spores divided by the specific activity of the dry culture medium. Though the transport factors were less than 1, which indicates discrimination against the transport of 238 Pu from the culture media to the spores, these findings suggest that this common soil fungus may be solubilizing soil-deposited plutonium and rendering it more biologically available for higher plants and animals. (author)

  9. β-1,6-glucan synthesis-associated genes are required for proper spore wall formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua-Ping; Wang, Ning; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Hideki; Gao, Xiao-Dong

    2017-11-01

    The yeast spore wall is an excellent model to study the assembly of an extracellular macromolecule structure. In the present study, mutants defective in β-1,6-glucan synthesis, including kre1∆, kre6∆, kre9∆ and big1∆, were sporulated to analyse the effect of β-1,6-glucan defects on the spore wall. Except for kre6∆, these mutant spores were sensitive to treatment with ether, suggesting that the mutations perturb the integrity of the spore wall. Morphologically, the mutant spores were indistinguishable from wild-type spores. They lacked significant sporulation defects partly because the chitosan layer, which covers the glucan layer, compensated for the damage. The proof for this model was obtained from the effect of the additional deletion of CHS3 that resulted in the absence of the chitosan layer. Among the double mutants, the most severe spore wall deficiency was observed in big1∆ spores. The majority of the big1∆chs3∆ mutants failed to form visible spores at a higher temperature. Given that the big1∆ mutation caused a failure to attach a GPI-anchored reporter, Cwp2-GFP, to the spore wall, β-1,6-glucan is involved in tethering of GPI-anchored proteins in the spore wall as well as in the vegetative cell wall. Thus, β-1,6-glucan is required for proper organization of the spore wall. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  11. Ptaquiloside in bracken spores from Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Schmidt, Bjørn; Sheffield, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Secondary metabolites from bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) are suspected of causing cancer in humans. The main carcinogen is the highly water-soluble norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside, which may be ingested by humans through food, e.g. via contaminated water, meat or milk. It has been postulated that carcinogens could also be ingested through breathing air containing bracken spores. Ptaquiloside has not previously been identified in bracken spores. The aim of the study was to determine whether ptaquiloside is present in bracken spores, and if so, to estimate its content in a collection of spores from Britain. Ptaquiloside was present in all samples, with a maximum of 29 μg g(-1), which is very low compared to other parts of the fern. Considering the low abundance of spores in breathing air under normal conditions, this exposure route is likely to be secondary to milk or drinking water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Deposition of Bacteria and Bacterial Spores by Bathroom Hot Air Hand Dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Huesca-Espitia, Luz; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Feinn, Richard; Joseph, Gabrielle; Murray, Thomas S; Setlow, Peter

    2018-02-09

    Hot air hand dryers in multiple men's and women's bathrooms in 3 basic science research areas in an academic health center were screened for their deposition on plates of: i) total bacteria, some of which were identified; and ii) a kanamycin resistant Bacillus subtilis strain, PS533, spores of which are produced in large amounts in one basic science research laboratory. Plates exposed to hand dryer air for 30 seconds averaged 18-60 colonies/plate but interior hand dryer nozzle surfaces had minimal bacterial levels, plates exposed to bathroom air for 2 minutes with hand dryers off averaged ≤1 colony, and plates exposed to bathroom air moved by a small fan for 20 minutes had averages of 15 and 12 colonies/plate in two buildings tested. Retrofitting hand dryers with HEPA filters reduced bacterial deposition by hand dryers ∼4-fold, and potential human pathogens were recovered from plates exposed to hand dryer air whether or not a HEPA filter was present, and from bathroom air moved by a small fan. Spore-forming colonies, identified as B. subtilis PS533 averaged ∼2.5-5% of bacteria deposited by hand dryers throughout basic research areas examined regardless of distance from the spore forming laboratory, and these were almost certainly deposited as spores. Comparable results were obtained when bathroom air was sampled for spores. These results indicate that many kinds of bacteria, including potential pathogens and spores, can be deposited on hands exposed to bathroom hand dryers, and that spores could be dispersed throughout buildings and deposited on hands by hand dryers. Importance While there is evidence that bathroom hand dryers can disperse bacteria from hands or deposit bacteria on surfaces, including recently washed hands, there is less information on: i) the organisms dispersed by hand dryers; ii) if hand dryers provide a reservoir of bacteria or simply blow large amounts of bacterially contaminated air; and iii) if bacterial spores are deposited on

  13. Lethal effects of high-intensity violet 405-nm light on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and on dormant and germinating spores of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, L E; McKenzie, K; Maclean, M; Macgregor, S J; Anderson, J G

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of high-intensity violet light on selected yeast and mould fungi. Cell suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and dormant and germinating spores (conidia) of the mould Aspergillus niger were exposed to high-intensity narrow band violet light with peak output at 405 nm generated from a light-emitting diode (LED) array. All three fungal species were inactivated by the 405-nm light without a requirement for addition of exogenous photosensitiser chemicals. Of the fungal species tested, S. cerevisiae was most sensitive and dormant conidia of A. niger were most resistant to 405-nm light exposure. Five-log10 colony forming units per millilitre (CFU ml(-1)) reductions of the tested species required exposure doses of 288 J cm(-2) for S. cerevisiae, 576 J cm(-2) for C. albicans, and a much higher value of 2.3 kJ cm(-2) for dormant conidia of A. niger. During germination, A. niger conidia became more sensitive to 405-nm light exposure and sensitivity increased as germination progressed over an 8 h test period. Light exposure under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, together with results obtained using ascorbic acid as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species, revealed that 405-nm light inactivation in fungi involved an oxygen-dependent mechanism, as previously described in bacteria. The inactivation results achieved with yeast cells and fungal spores together with operational advantages associated with the use of a visible (nonultraviolet (UV)) light source highlight the potential of 405-nm light for fungal decontamination applications. Copyright © 2013 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A Gompertz regression model for fern spores germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel y Galán, Jose María

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Germination is one of the most important biological processes for both seed and spore plants, also for fungi. At present, mathematical models of germination have been developed in fungi, bryophytes and several plant species. However, ferns are the only group whose germination has never been modelled. In this work we develop a regression model of the germination of fern spores. We have found that for Blechnum serrulatum, Blechnum yungense, Cheilanthes pilosa, Niphidium macbridei and Polypodium feuillei species the Gompertz growth model describe satisfactorily cumulative germination. An important result is that regression parameters are independent of fern species and the model is not affected by intraspecific variation. Our results show that the Gompertz curve represents a general germination model for all the non-green spore leptosporangiate ferns, including in the paper a discussion about the physiological and ecological meaning of the model.La germinación es uno de los procesos biológicos más relevantes tanto para las plantas con esporas, como para las plantas con semillas y los hongos. Hasta el momento, se han desarrollado modelos de germinación para hongos, briofitos y diversas especies de espermatófitos. Los helechos son el único grupo de plantas cuya germinación nunca ha sido modelizada. En este trabajo se desarrolla un modelo de regresión para explicar la germinación de las esporas de helechos. Observamos que para las especies Blechnum serrulatum, Blechnum yungense, Cheilanthes pilosa, Niphidium macbridei y Polypodium feuillei el modelo de crecimiento de Gompertz describe satisfactoriamente la germinación acumulativa. Un importante resultado es que los parámetros de la regresión son independientes de la especie y que el modelo no está afectado por variación intraespecífica. Por lo tanto, los resultados del trabajo muestran que la curva de Gompertz puede representar un modelo general para todos los helechos leptosporangiados

  15. Susceptibility of food-contaminating Penicillium genus fungi to some preservatives and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskaite, Loreta

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are able to contaminate and deteriorate various food products and can subsequently cause health problems. Long usage of the same preservatives and disinfectants against spoilage fungi may lead to the development of fungal resistance to those chemicals. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of 3 Penicillium genus fungi, isolated from foodstuffs, to organic acid preservatives and some disinfectants, taking into consideration 2 aspects of their development: spore germination and mycelial growth. Susceptibility of Penicillium spinulosum, P. expansum and P. verruculosum to the preservatives, namely benzoic acid, sodium lactate, potassium sorbate, as well as disinfectants such as Topax DD, Suma Bac D10, Biowash and F210 Hygisept, was investigated. The biocides were used at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10%. Of the preservatives, benzoic acid and potassium sorbate showed the best inhibition, both on spore germination and mycelial growth. Benzoic acid at a concentration of a 0.1% reduced spore germination by 33-55%, and mycelial growth by 54-97%, whereas at 1% the inhibition was 74-85% and 97-100%, respectively. The effect of the disinfectants at a concentration of 0.1% on spore germination was 25-84% and on colonial growth 68-97%, while at 1.0% the reduction in spore germination reached 53-91% and the inhibition of growth 89-100%. In most cases, the same concentrations added to the media showed higher inhibitory effect on mycelial growth than on spore germination. It was noticed that the fungi responded rather unevenly towards the biocides, showing individual susceptibility.

  16. The use of germinants to potentiate the sensitivity of Bacillus anthracis spores to peracetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur eCelebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of Bacillus anthracis spores from the environment is a difficult and costly process due in part to the toxicity of current sporicidal agents. For this reason we investigated the ability of the spore germinants L-alanine (100 mM and inosine (5 mM to reduce the concentration of peracetic acid (PAA required to inactivate B.anthracis spores. While L-alanine significantly enhanced (p=0.0085 the bactericidal activity of 500 ppm PAA the same was not true for inosine suggesting some form of negative interaction. In contrast the germinant combination proved most effective at 100 ppm PAA (p=0.0009. To determine if we could achieve similar results in soil we treated soil collected from the burial site of an anthrax infected animal which had been supplemented with spores of the Sterne strain of B.anthracis to increase the level of contamination to 104 spores/g. Treatment with germinants followed one hour later by 5000 ppm PAA eliminated all of the spores. In contrast direct treatment of the animal burial site using this approach delivered using a back pack sprayer had no detectable effect on the level of B.anthracis contamination or on total culturable bacterial numbers over the course of the experiment. It did trigger a significant, but temporary, reduction (p<0.0001 in the total spore count suggesting that germination had been triggered under real world conditions. In conclusion, we have shown that the application of germinants increase the sensitivity of bacterial spores to PAA. While the results of the single field trial were inconclusive, the study highlighted the potential of this approach and the challenges faced when attempting to perform real world studies on B.anthracis spores contaminated sites.

  17. Evaluation of some physical and chemical treatments for inactivating microsporidian spores isolated from fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiro, José M; Piazzon, Carla; Domínguez, Berta; Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús

    2012-05-15

    Microsporidia are a large diverse group of intracellular parasites now considered as fungi. They are particularly prevalent in fish and are recognized as important opportunistic parasites in humans. Although the mode of transmission of microsporidia has not been fully clarified, the consumption and manipulation of infected fish may be a risk factor for humans. Comparative analysis of rDNA sequence revealed that the microsporidians used in the present study had 99-100% identity with anglerfish microsporidians of the genus Spraguea and very low identity with microsporidians that infect humans. Microsporidian spores were exposed to different physical and chemical treatments: freezing at -20°C for 24-78 h, heating at 60°C for 5-15 min, microwaving at 700 W, 2.45 GHz for 15-60s, and treatment with ethanol at concentrations of between 1 and 70% for 15 min. The viability of the spores after each treatment was evaluated by two methods: a) haemocytometer counts, measuring the extrusion of the polar filament in control and treated spores, and b) a fluorometric method, testing the membrane integrity by propidium iodide exclusion. The results of both methods were concordant. Spores were inactivated by freezing at -20°C for more than 48 h, by heating to 60°C for 10 min and by microwaving at 750 W, for 20s. Exposure to 70% ethanol for 15 min also inactivated microsporidian spores. The results suggest that both freezing and heating are effective treatments for destroying microsporidian spores in European white anglerfish, and that 70% ethanol could be used by fish processors to disinfect their hands and the utensils used in processing fish. The fluorometric method can be used as an alternative to haemocytometer counts in disinfection studies aimed at establishing strategies for inactivating and reducing the viability and the potential infectivity of microsporidians present in fish or in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A history of the taxonomy and systematics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi belonging to the phylum Glomeromycota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürmer, Sidney Luiz

    2012-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are grouped in a monophyletic group, the phylum Glomeromycota. In this review, the history and complexity of the taxonomy and systematics of these obligate biotrophs is addressed by recognizing four periods. The initial discovery period (1845-1974) is characterized by description mainly of sporocarp-forming species and the proposal of a classification for these fungi. The following alpha taxonomy period (1975-1989) established a solid morphological basis for species identification and classification, resulting in a profuse description of new species and a need to standardize the nomenclature of spore subcellular structures. The cladistics period from 1990 to 2000 saw the first cladistic classification of AMF based on phenotypic characters only. At the end of this period, genetic characters played a role in defining taxa and elucidating evolutionary relationships within the group. The most recent phylogenetic synthesis period (2001 to present) started with the proposal of a new classification based on genetic characters using sequences of the multicopy rRNA genes. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  19. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Lucas Costa; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Chalfoun, Sara Maria; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy. The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization) and to identify the best among them.

  20. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy . The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization and to identify the best among them.

  1. CEREALS ASSESSMENT TOWARDS CONTAMINATION OF PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST-STEPPE AREA OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekimova V. B.

    2014-12-01

    according to the procedures used a method of washing and centrifugation, seeds, embryos analysis method, biological method based on the stimulation of development and growth of pathogens in the infected seeds during seed germination in nutrient media. We analyzed 200 samples of wheat and barley grain with 8 games on the definition of the infestation and root rot spores solid and smut. In all the samples studied was dominated latent form of infection grains (outwardly healthy, germinating, well executed seeds had normal luster, patina fungus was absent; but sometimes observed apparent lesion (plaque formation, a different degree of deformation of grains. When the microscope isolated fungi was established dominance of species such as fungi of the genera Alternaria, Helmintosporium, Fusarium, smut fungi. The research of cereal seeds showed that all the tested party for the harvest in 2014 were infected with different pathogens in different degrees. On the basis of literature data and our own observations, comparing infection rates average cereal seeds complex fungal diseases, it may be noted that in 2014 the percentage of infestation was higher than in previous years, there is a trend of growth in incidence. The results showed that the overall percentage of infected root rots seeds of spring wheat in 2014 was 55.5 %, the infestation of spring barley was 64.7 %. Compared to previous years the trend increase in the prevalence of fungal diseases on cereals: wheat infestation grew by 12.8 %, barley - 2.13 %. Smut infected - 11.2 % wheat, barley - 37.4 %. Infection bunt was 4.6 %, including 3.3 % of wheat; Barley 17.6 %. The growth and development of root rot during the growing season depended on the presence of soil infection. Infection of grain crops by smut diseases depend on the quality of seed sown. Reducing the prevalence of smut disease is possible at early winter and late spring sowing to prevent the spore germination at low temperature.

  2. Absorption edge imaging of sporocide-treated and non-treated bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.; Tortora, G.T.; Warren, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    When deprived of nutrients, spore forming bacilli produce endospores which are remarkably resistant to chemical sterilization. Little is known about the morphology and response fo these spores following exposure to sporocidal agents. Light microscopy does not provide sufficient resolution for studying the rupture of the spore coat and fate of intracellular material. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy offer superior resolution but require specimen preparation methods that induce physiologic as well as morphologic changes in the spores, thereby making accurate interpretation of micrographs difficult. To eliminate the possible artifacts induced by chemical fixation, dehydration, embeddment, staining and sectioning, treated and non-sporocide-treated endospores of B. thuringiensis and B. subtilis were imaged by x-ray contact microscopy using monochromatic x-rays. 6 refs., 2 figs

  3. Systematic studies in the genus Mohria (Anemiaceae: Pteridophyta. III. Comparative sporangium and spore morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Roux

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available The genera Mohria and Anemia (Anemiaceae: Pteridophyta can be separated on both their sporangia and spores. In Mohria the capsule is globose with an apical annulus but in Anemia it is ovate-globose to cylindrical with a subapical annulus. The spores of both genera are radially symmetrical, tetrahedral and trilete with near parallel muri. The exinal sculpture in Mohria is cicatricose and in Anemia it can be canaliculate or cicatricose. In both genera the mural sets anastomose to form common muri that extend from near the distal pole to the equatorial radial region. The muri in Mohria are hollow and differ from those in Anemia which are solid or microporate. Supramural sculpturing in Mohria and Anemia is perinous. Spores of the other schizaealean ferns show no or little taxonomic affinities with Mohria and Anemia. In Actinostachys and Schizaea the spores are monolete and in  Lygodium trilete but the exinal sculpture is smooth.

  4. Vertical transmission of endobacteria in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita through generation of vegetative spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianciotto, V; Genre, A; Jargeat, P; Lumini, E; Bécard, G; Bonfante, P

    2004-06-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi living in symbiotic association with the roots of vascular plants have also been shown to host endocellular rod-shaped bacteria. Based on their ribosomal sequences, these endobacteria have recently been identified as a new taxon, Candidatus Glomeribacter gigasporarum. In order to investigate the cytoplasmic stability of the endobacteria in their fungal host and their transmission during AM fungal reproduction (asexual), a system based on transformed carrot roots and single-spore inocula of Gigaspora margarita was used. Under these in vitro sterile conditions, with no risk of horizontal contamination, the propagation of endobacteria could be monitored, and it was shown, by using primers designed for both 16S and 23S ribosomal DNAs, to occur through several vegetative spore generations (SG0 to SG4). A method of confocal microscopy for quantifying the density of endobacteria in spore cytoplasm was designed and applied; endobacteria were consistently found in all of the spore generations, although their number rapidly decreased from SG0 to SG4. The study demonstrates that a vertical transmission of endobacteria takes place through the fungal vegetative generations (sporulation) of an AM fungus, indicating that active bacterial proliferation occurs in the coenocytic mycelium of the fungus, and suggests that these bacteria are obligate endocellular components of their AM fungal host.

  5. Longitudinal assessment of dairy farm management practices associated with the presence of psychrotolerant Bacillales spores in bulk tank milk on 10 New York State dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masiello, S. N.; Kent, D.V.; Martin, N. H.; Schukken, Y. H.; Wiedmann, M.; Boor, K. J.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of certain spore-forming bacteria in the order Bacillales (e.g., Bacillus spp., Paenibacillus spp.) to survive pasteurization in spore form and grow at refrigeration temperatures results in product spoilage and limits the shelf life of high temperature, short time (HTST)-pasteurized

  6. Low cost medium for spore production of Bacillus KKU02 and KKU03 and the effects of the produced spores on growth of giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangka-Orm, Charkrit; Deeseenthum, Sirirat; Leelavatcharamas, Vichai

    2014-08-01

    In order to extend the shelf life of 2 high potential Bacillus probiotic isolates which were Bacillus KKU02 and Bacillus KKU03, the spore forms of these 2 Bacillus isolates were studied for using as probiotic instead. The low cost medium for spore production of these 2 Bacillus isolates was examined in order to produce probiotic spores for feeding the shrimps. It was found that cassava at 100 g L(-1) and supplemented with 20.0 g L(-1) dextrose, 0.1 g L(-1) MgSO4 and 2.0 g L(-1) (NH4)2SO4 showed the highest spore concentration at about 1 x 10(8) CFU mL(-1). The effects of feeding these 2 Bacillus spores on the growth of giant freshwater prawns were further examined. The spores of Bacillus KKU02 and Bacillus KKU03 (-10(7) spore mL(-1)) in pure and mixed culture forms were mixed with commercial prawn feed (200 mL kg(-1)) to give six feed treatments. Body length and weight of the prawns in mixed spore culture tanks after rearing for 90 days (13.5 cm and 59.8 g, respectively) were significantly higher (p = 0.05) than other treatments. The treated prawns were further challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila for 7 days. The percentages of survival after the challenge in the prawns fed with the mixed spores (46.8%) were also found significantly higher (p = 0.05) than others groups, except the mixed live cell treatment (60%). These results indicated that the spores of Bacillus KKU02 and Bacillus KKU03 had a high potential for using as commercial probiotics.

  7. Sensitivity of thermally treated Bacillus subtilis spores to subsequent irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, S.A.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    B. subtilis spores exposed to thermal treatment at 70 or 80 0 C for 1 hr were more sensitive to subsequent radiation exposure than non-heated spores. Deactivation of previously heated spores by increasing dose of 0-radiation followed an exponential function while, for non-heated spores a shoulder followed by exponential deactivation was noticed. Combined heat-radiation treatment exhibited a synergistic effect on spore deactivation at low irradiation doses, while at high irradiation doses, the effect was more or less additive. Added values of spore injury was higher for B. subtilis spores that received heat and radiation separately than the observed injury for spores that received combined treatment (heat followed by radiation). Results of spore deactivation and injury due to heat followed by radiation treatment are discussed in comparison to those of spores that received radiation-heat sequence

  8. Rapid onsite assessment of spore viability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Gaucher, Sara P.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2005-12-01

    This one year LDRD addresses problems of threat assessment and restoration of facilities following a bioterror incident like the incident that closed down mail facilities in late 2001. Facilities that are contaminated with pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis spores must be shut down while they are treated with a sporicidal agent and the effectiveness of the treatment is ascertained. This process involves measuring the viability of spore test strips, laid out in a grid throughout the facility; the CDC accepted methodologies require transporting the samples to a laboratory and carrying out a 48 hr outgrowth experiment. We proposed developing a technique that will ultimately lead to a fieldable microfluidic device that can rapidly assess (ideally less than 30 min) spore viability and effectiveness of sporicidal treatment, returning facilities to use in hours not days. The proposed method will determine viability of spores by detecting early protein synthesis after chemical germination. During this year, we established the feasibility of this approach and gathered preliminary results that should fuel a future more comprehensive effort. Such a proposal is currently under review with the NIH. Proteomic signatures of Bacillus spores and vegetative cells were assessed by both slab gel electrophoresis as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection. The conditions for germination using a number of chemical germinants were evaluated and optimized and the time course of protein synthesis was ascertained. Microseparations were carried out using both viable spores and spores inactivated by two different methods. A select number of the early synthesis proteins were digested into peptides for analysis by mass spectrometry.

  9. The Survival and Recovery of Irradiated Bacterial Spores as Affected by Population Density and Some External Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Kiss, I.; Andrássy, E.

    1967-01-01

    The radiation resistance of Bacillus cereus spores as affected by the pH-value and cell density of the irradiated spore suspensions was investigated. The portions of the survival curves of suspensions of 10 8 , 4 x 10 3 and 5 x 10 1 per millilitre viable cell counts, respectively, were compared for a three-orders-of-magnitude decrease in viable cell count. It was established that the initial cell density did not affect radiation resistance of spores. Radiation resistance as affected by pH-value in the range of 3 to 8 was investigated. In the range of pH 5 to 8, the radiation resistance of B. cereus spores was not affected. By lowering the pH-value to below 5, the radiation resistance decreased below that observed in the neutral region. The colony-forming capacity of B. cereus, B. coagulans and B. pumilus as a function of the pH-value in the nutrient medium, and the pH-sensitivity of bacterial spores as affected by radiation, were also investigated. It was established that irradiation increased the pH-sensitivity of surviving bacterial spores in all three strains. The initial phase of spore germination (the phase accompanied by decrease of refractivity of the spores) and the division stage of vegetative cells proved to be the most sensitive to the value of the hydrogen ion concentration. (author)

  10. Fungal spores overwhelm biogenic organic aerosols in a midlatitudinal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Both primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs and oxidation products of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs contribute significantly to organic aerosols (OAs in forested regions. However, little is known about their relative importance in diurnal timescales. Here, we report biomarkers of PBAP and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs for their diurnal variability in a temperate coniferous forest in Wakayama, Japan. Tracers of fungal spores, trehalose, arabitol and mannitol, showed significantly higher levels in nighttime than daytime (p < 0.05, resulting from the nocturnal sporulation under near-saturated relative humidity. On the contrary, BVOC oxidation products showed higher levels in daytime than nighttime, indicating substantial photochemical SOA formation. Using tracer-based methods, we estimated that fungal spores account for 45 % of organic carbon (OC in nighttime and 22 % in daytime, whereas BVOC oxidation products account for 15 and 19 %, respectively. To our knowledge, we present for the first time highly time-resolved results that fungal spores overwhelmed BVOC oxidation products in contributing to OA especially in nighttime. This study emphasizes the importance of both PBAPs and SOAs in forming forest organic aerosols.

  11. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  12. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  13. Terpenoids from Endophytic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucimar Jorgeane de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi.

  14. Population and function analysis of cultivable bacteria associated with spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Liangkun; Lin, Qunying; Yao, Qing; Zhu, Honghui

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the diversity and function of bacterial population associated with Gigaspora margarita spores. The fungus was propagated in sterilized sand/soil pots using alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), or maize (Zea mays) as host plants, or in sterilized vermiculite pots using alfalfa as host plants, respectively. Bacteria were isolated from the new-formed spores using diluted plate method, and typical bacterial isolates were identified according to 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. Total 43 bacterial isolates affiliated to three phyla and 23 genera were obtained. The spore-associated bacterial communities were obviously different among the four source spores, suggesting that plant species or substrates could influence the bacterial population. Bacillus and Streptomyces were most frequently associated with the fungal spores. Function analysis of these bacteria by plate tests, it was found that about 30.2% isolates stimulated the spore germination, five out of seven tested isolates improved the hyphal growth, total 57.5% of the tested isolates solubilized phosphorus at different levels, 15% isolates degraded chitin, and a few isolates suppressed the growth of Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus. In pot experiment, three bacterial isolates (belonging to Curtobacterium, Ensifer, or Bacillus, respectively) displayed improvement effect on alfalfa growth and/or the colonization of roots by G. margarita.

  15. The nature of water within bacterial spores: protecting life in extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Friedline, Anthony; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm M.; Thomas, Kieth J., III

    2011-10-01

    The bacterial spore is a formidable container of life, protecting the vital contents from chemical attack, antimicrobial agents, heat damage, UV light degradation, and water dehydration. The exact role of the spore components remains in dispute. Nevertheless, water molecules are important in each of these processes. The physical state of water within the bacterial spore has been investigated since the early 1930's. The water is found two states, free or bound, in two different areas, core and non-core. It is established that free water is accessible to diffuse and exchange with deuterated water and that the diffusible water can access all areas of the spore. The presence of bound water has come under recent scrutiny and has been suggested the water within the core is mobile, rather than bound, based on the analysis of deuterium relaxation rates. Using an alternate method, deuterium quadrupole-echo spectroscopy, we are able to distinguish between mobile and immobile water molecules. In the absence of rapid motion, the deuterium spectrum of D2O is dominated by a broad line, whose line shape is used as a characteristic descriptor of molecular motion. The deuterium spectrum of bacterial spores reveals three distinct features: the broad peak of immobilized water, a narrow line of water in rapid motion, and a signal of intermediate width. This third signal is assigned this peak from partially deuterated proteins with the spore in which N-H groups have undergone exchange with water deuterons to form N-D species. As a result of these observations, the nature of water within the spore requires additional explanation to understand how the spore and its water preserve life.

  16. Qualitative Analysis of Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Fungi in Cowshed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pavan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the most serious problems to human health. Fungi are the causal agents for different diseases in animals, plants, and human beings. Otomycosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, allergy, and systemic mycosis are among the fungal diseases caused. The present study was conducted to analyze the monthly incidence of airborne fungi, seasonal variation, and influence of meteorological parameters in indoor and outdoor fungi of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village, Bangalore. An aeromycological survey of indoor and outdoor area of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village in Bangalore city was carried out using the Andersen two-stage sampler onto a petri dish containing malt extract agar from January 2011 to December 2011. Altogether, 29 species belonging to 13 genera from indoor and 26 species belonging to 12 genera were recorded from outdoor environment of the cowshed; the dominant fungal species identified were Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Alternaria alternata. Seasonal occurrence of fungal spores in both indoor and outdoor of the cowshed revealed that maximum spores were recorded in summer season followed by winter and rainy season.

  17. A method for the determination of bacterial spore DNA content based on isotopic labelling, spore germination and diphenylamine assay; ploidy of spores of several Bacillus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, P.M.; Karamata, D.

    1992-01-01

    A reliable method for measuring the spore DNA content, based on radioactive DNA labelling, spore germination in absence of DNA replication and diphenylamine assay, was developed. The accuracy of the method, within 10 - 15%, is adequate for determining the number of chromosomes per spore, provided that the genome size is known. B subtilis spores were shown to be invariably monogenomic, while those of larger bacilli Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis, often, if not invariably, contain two genomes. Attempts to modify the spore DNA content of B subtilis by altering the richness of the sporulation medium, the sporulation conditions (liquid or solid medium), or by mutation, were apparently unsuccessful. An increase of spore size with medium richness, not accompanied by an increase in DNA content, was observed. The implication of the apparently species-specific spore ploidy and the influence of the sporulation conditions on spore size and shape are discussed

  18. Fusarium toxins and fungi associated with handling of grain on eight Finnish farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Sanna; Nikulin, Marjo; Berg, Seija; Parikka, Päivi; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa

    Farmers' exposure to airborne dust, fungi and possibly also to Fusarium toxins during the drying and milling of grain and feeding of cattle was studied on eight Finnish farms. Airborne viable and total spores were collected on polycarbonate filters. Spore concentrations and fungal flora were determined by cultivation and epifluorescence microscope counting. Eighteen airborne dust samples were taken on glass-fiber filters with a high-volume sampler, and biological toxicity was tested from those samples. In toxic dust samples, Fusarium toxins were analyzed with a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Fungi and Fusarium toxins were also analyzed in ten grain samples collected from the farms during the air sampling. Yeasts, as well as species of Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Absidia and Fusarium occurred in the air at all three stages of grain handling. Airborne spore concentrations ranged from 103 to 10 6 cfu m -3 for viable fungi and from 10 5 to 10 7 spores m -3 for total spores; airborne dust concentrations varied from 0.04 to 81.1 mg m -3. Low deoxynivalenol concentrations (3 and 20 ng m -3) were found in two air samples collected during milling. Fusarium spp. were identified in eight grain samples, and DON concentrations of 0.004-11 mg kg -1 were detected in all samples analyzed. Although any conclusion on Finnish farmers' exposure to mycotoxins cannot be done on the basis of this small data, it can be assumed that toxigenic fungi and Fusarium toxins may occur in the air and inhalation exposure of farmers to Fusarium toxins is possible in agricultural environment.

  19. Gel-free proteomic identification of the Bacillus subtilis insoluble spore coat protein fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abhyankar, W.; ter Beek, A.; Dekker, H.; Kort, R.; Brul, S.; de Koster, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Species from the genus Bacillus have the ability to form endospores, dormant cellular forms that are able to survive heat and acid preservation techniques commonly used in the food industry. Resistance characteristics of spores towards various environmental stresses are in part attributed to their

  20. Sporulation dynamics and spore heat resistance in wet and dry biofilms of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayrapetyan, Hasmik; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions and growth history can affect the sporulation process as well as subsequent properties of formed spores. The sporulation dynamics was studied in wet and air-dried biofilms formed on stainless steel (SS) and polystyrene (PS) for Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 and the

  1. Bacterial spores in food: how phenotypic variability complicates prediction of spore properties and bacterial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijlander, R.T.; Abee, T.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus spores are a known cause of food spoilage and their increased resistance poses a major challenge in efficient elimination. Recent studies on bacterial cultures at the single cell level have revealed how minor differences in essential spore properties, such as core water content or germinant

  2. Bacterial spores in food : how phenotypic variability complicates prediction of spore properties and bacterial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijlander, Robyn T.; Abee, Tjakko; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    Bacillus spores are a known cause of food spoilage and their increased resistance poses a major challenge in efficient elimination. Recent studies on bacterial cultures at the single cell level have revealed how minor differences in essential spore properties, such as core water content or germinant

  3. Bacillus cereus spore damage recovery and diversity in spore germination and carbohydrate utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial spores are extremely robust survival vehicles that are highly resistant towards environmental stress conditions including heat, UV radiation and other stresses commonly applied during food production and preservation. Spores, including those of the toxin-producing food-borne human pathogen

  4. Bacillus cereus spore damage recovery and diversity in spore germination and carbohydrate utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial spores are extremely robust survival vehicles that are highly resistant towards environmental stress conditions including heat, UV radiation and other stresses commonly applied during food production and preservation. Spores, including those of the toxin-producing food-borne human

  5. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Patents on Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, M; Gupta, D; Gupta, U; Faraz, R; Sandhu, S S

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of organisms, mainly belonging to the Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Endophytes usually produce the enzymes necessary for the colonization of plant tissues. Endophytes are able to utilize components of plant cells without disturbing host metabolism, which is confirmed by isozyme analysis and studies on substrate utilization. The patents related to enzymes and metabolites produced by endophytic fungi are associated with their ecological significance. Application of metabolites and growth promoting factors produced from endophytic fungi, in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, is now well established. The patents on secretion of extracellular enzymes in vitro by endophytic fungi needed for cell wall degradation, support the hypothesis that fungal endophytes represent a group of organisms specialized to live within plant tissue. This review presents the patents granted on different aspects of endophytic fungi for the last 11 years. This expresses the scenario and impact of these patents regarding significance in human society. In the last few years, research and inventions regarding the different aspects of endophytic fungi beneficial for host plant as well as for human beings have been carried out, which is supported by the increasing number of patents granted on endophytic fungi. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Identification of entomopathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides essential assistance for the identification of the most important genera (and main species) of fungal pathogens affecting insects, mites, and spiders. The key allows identifications regardless of which major spore types might be present with the specimen. The phylogenetic affi...

  8. Can we use indoor fungi as bioindicators of indoor air quality? Historical perspectives and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-09-15

    Microbiological analysis of atmospheres witnessed substantial technical improvements in the 1940s to 1960s. May's cascade impactor and Hirst's spore trap allowed the counting of total cells but had limited capacity for identification of the spores. Bourdillon's sampler enabled the counting of cultivable fungi and their identification. A great step forward was given with the Andersen's six-stage impactor, which allowed discrimination of particles by size, counting of cultivable cells, and species identification. This period also witnessed the development of impingers, namely, the AGI-30 described by Malligo and Idoine, and the three-stage model designed by K. R. May. The 1990s to 2000s witnessed innovative discoveries on the biology of indoor fungi. Work carried out in several laboratories showed that indoor fungi can release groups of spores, individual spores and fungal fragments, and produce volatile organic compounds and mycotoxins. Integrating all findings a holistic interpretation emerged for the sick building syndrome. Healthy houses and buildings, with low indoor humidity, display no appreciable indoor fungal growth, and outdoor Cladosporium dominates. On the contrary, in sick houses and buildings, high indoor humidity allows fungal growth (mainly of Penicillium and Aspergillus), with concomitant release of conidia and fragments into the atmosphere. The intoxication probably results from a chronic exposure to volatile organic compounds and mycotoxins produced by Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Stachybotrys. Very clean atmospheres are difficult to study by conventional methods. However, some of these atmospheres, namely, those of hospital rooms, should be monitored. Sedimentary sampling, chemical methods applied to impinger's collection liquid, and selected molecular methods can be useful in this context. It was concluded that fungi can be useful indicators of indoor air quality and that it is important to deepen the studies of indoor atmospheres in order to

  9. In-vitro predatory activity of nematophagous fungi from Costa Rica with potential use for controlling sheep and goat parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Soto-Barrientos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In tropical and subtropical regions of the world, parasitic diseases are a main cause of losses in livestock productivity. The increased acquired resistence to anthelmintics by gastrointestinal nematodes, requires biological control be considered as a potential feasible and effective alternative. The most effective natural soil enemies of nematodes are nematophagous fungi. In order to collect and identify predator nematophagous fungi (PNF, samples were obtained from 51 farms distributed throughout the seven provinces of Costa Rica. The origin samples included: soil from different crops (potatoes, tomatoes, bananas, ornamental plants, squash and coffee; animal feces (cattle, sheep, goat and horse; soil and fallen leaves from forest; and plants with signs of nematode infection. Each sample was processed using three techniques for the extraction of fungi from soil: sprinkling technique, soil dilution and humidity chamber. Twenty four strains of nematophagous fungi were found in 19 farms; 83.3% of the fungi were isolated by sprinkling technique. The following fungi were idenified: Arthrobotrys oligospora (n=13; Candelabrella musiformis (n=9; and for the first time there was isolation of A. conoides (n=1 and A. dactyloides (n=1 in the country. Moreover, 16 strains from Trichoderma (n=13, Beauveria (n=1, Clonostachys (n=1 and Lecanicillium (n=1 were obtained. In addition, pH of each possible fungal isolation source was measured, and it varied from 5.2 to 9.9, however PNF isolates fell within the range of 5.6 to 7.5. The PNF strains were cultivated in four different media for the production of chhlamydospores: potato dextrose agar (PDA; corn meal agar (CMA; malt extract agar (MEA and potato carrot agar (PCA. Out of these cultures, 95.8% of the strains formed chlamydospores primarily in the PCA. Of these strains, the profilic spore producers were subjected to ruminant artificial gastrointestinal conditions. A total of 14 fungi were tested, out of which

  10. Stanley Corrsin Award Talk: Fluid Mechanics of Fungi and Slime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Michael

    2013-11-01

    There are interesting fluid mechanics problems everywhere, even in the most lowly and hidden corners of forest floors. Here I discuss some questions we have been working on in recent years involving fungi and slime. A critical issue for the ecology of fungi and slime is nutrient availability: nutrient sources are highly heterogeneous, and strategies are necessary to find food when it runs out. In the fungal phylum Ascomycota, spore dispersal is the primary mechanism for finding new food sources. The defining feature of this phylum is the ascus, a fluid filled sac from which spores are ejected, through a build up in osmotic pressure. We outline the (largely fluid mechanical) design constraints on this ejection strategy, and demonstrate how it provides strong constraints for the diverse morphologies of spores and asci found in nature. The core of the argument revisits a classical problem in elastohydrodynamic lubrication from a different perspective. A completely different strategy for finding new nutrient is found by slime molds and fungi that stretch out - as a single organism- over enormous areas (up to hectares) over forest floors. As a model problem we study the slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which forages with a large network of connected tubes on the forest floors. Localized regions in the network find nutrient sources and then pump the nutrients throughout the entire organism. We discuss fluid mechanical mechanisms for coordinating this transport, which generalize peristalsis to pumping in a heterogeneous network. We give a preliminary discussion to how physarum can detect a nutrient source and pump the nutrient throughout the organism.

  11. Dothistroma septosporum: spore production and weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, M.; Drapela, K.; Kankovsky, L.

    2012-11-01

    Dartmouth's septosporum, the causal agent of Dothistroma needle blight is a widespread fungus which infects more than 80 species of coniferous trees through the entire world. Spreading of the infection is strongly affected by climatic factors of each locality where it is recorded. We attempt to describe the concrete limiting climatic factors necessary for the releasing of conidia of D. septosporum and to find out the timing of its spore production within the year. For this purpose we used an automatic volumetric spore trap and an automatic meteorological station. We found that a minimum daily average temperature of 10 degree centigrade was necessary for any spore production, as well as a long period of high air humidity. The values obtained in the present study were a little bit higher than those previously published, which may arise questions about a possible changing trend of the behaviour in the development of the Dothistroma needle blight causal agent. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to predict the spore counts on the base of previous values of spore counts and dew point. For a locality from Hackerovka, the best ARIMA model was 1,0,0; and for a locality from Lanzhot, the best was 3,1,0. (Author) 19 refs.

  12. Role of DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis spore resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Setlow, B; Setlow, P

    1996-01-01

    Wet-heat or hydrogen peroxide treatment of wild-type Bacillus subtilis spores did not result in induction of lacZ fusions to three DNA repair-related genes (dinR, recA, and uvrC) during spore outgrowth. However, these genes were induced during outgrowth of wild-type spores treated with dry heat or UV. Wet-heat, desiccation, dry-heat, or UV treatment of spores lacking major DNA-binding proteins (termed alpha-beta- spores) also resulted in induction of the three DNA repair genes during spore ou...

  13. Nutrient transfer to plants by phylogenetically diverse fungi suggests convergent evolutionary strategies in rhizospheric symbionts

    OpenAIRE

    Behie, Scott W.; Padilla-Guerrero, Israel E.; Bidochka, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Most land plants are able to form symbiotic associations with fungi, and in many cases these associations are necessary for plant and fungal survival. These plant/fungal associations are formed with mycorrhizal (arbuscular mycorrhizal or ectomycorrhizal) or endophytic fungi, fungi from distinct phylogenetic lineages. While it has been shown that mycorrhizal fungi are able to transfer nutrients to plant roots in exchange for carbon, endophytes have been thought as asymptomatic colonizers. Rece...

  14. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  15. Pigments in Thermophilic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, T; Rao, Sanjay SR; Maheshwari, R

    1986-01-01

    UV and visible absorption spectra of thermophilic fungi were obtained by photoacoustic spectroscopy. Based on these data as well as on the chem. properties and IR spectra, it is suggested that the pigments may be hydroxylated polycyclic quinones.

  16. Adaptive Immunity to Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George S.; Klein, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Only a handful of the more than 100,000 fungal species on our planet cause disease in humans, yet the number of life-threatening fungal infections in patients has recently skyrocketed as a result of advances in medical care that often suppress immunity intensely. This emerging crisis has created pressing needs to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi, with the ultimate goal of therapeutic applications. Herein, we describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses deployed against pathogenic fungi. The review focuses on adaptive immune responses to the major medically important fungi and emphasizes how dendritic cells and subsets in various anatomic compartments respond to fungi, recognize their molecular patterns, and signal responses that nurture and shape the differentiation of T cell subsets and B cells. Also emphasized is how the latter deploy effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these nasty invaders while also constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. PMID:22224780

  17. Maarja Unduski 'Fungi'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    24. nov.-st Linnagaleriis Tallinnas Maarja Unduski kolmas isiknäitus 'Fungi'. Eksponeeritud hiigelseened ja rida värviliste lehtedega ramatuid, mille kaante valmistamisel on autor esmakordselt kasutanud ka lõuendit ja paberreljeefi.

  18. Manglicolous fungi from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chinnaraj, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    This paper deals with nine Ascomycetous fungi viz. Rhizophila marina Hyde et Jones, Trematosphaeria striatispora Hyde, Lineolata rhizophorae (Kohlm. et. Kohlm.) Kohlm. et. Volkm.-Kohlm., Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., Passeriniella savoryellopsis...

  19. Development of bioprocess for high density cultivation yield of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans and its spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R. Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus coagulans is a spore forming lactic acid bacterium. Spore forming bacteria, have been extensively studied and commercialized as probiotics. Probiotics are produced by fermentation technology. There is a limitation to biomass produced by conventional modes of fermentation. With the great demand generated by range of probiotic products, biomass is becoming very valuable for several pharmaceutical, dairy and probiotic companies. Thus, there is a need to develop high cell density cultivation processes for enhanced biomass accumulation. The bioprocess development was carried out in 6.6 L bench top lab scale fermentor. Four different cultivation strategies were employed to develop a bioprocess for higher growth and sporulation efficiencies of probiotic B. coagulans. Batch fermentation of B. coagulans yielded 18 g L-1 biomass (as against 8.0 g L-1 productivity in shake flask with 60% spore efficiency. Fed-batch cultivation was carried out for glucose, which yielded 25 g L-1 of biomass. C/N ratio was very crucial in achieving higher spore titres. Maximum biomass yield recorded was 30 g L-1, corresponding to 3.8 × 1011 cells mL-1 with 81% of cells in sporulated stage. The yield represents increment of 85 times the productivity and 158 times the spore titres relative to the highest reported values for high density cultivation of B. coagulans.

  20. Effect of volatiles versus exudates released by germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita on lateral root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Guang; Bonfante, Paola; Tang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi influence the root system architecture of their hosts; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Ectomycorrhizal fungi influence root architecture via volatiles. To determine whether volatiles also play a role in root system changes in response to AM fungi, spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita were inoculated on the same plate as either wild type (WT) Lotus japonicus, the L. japonicus mutant Ljcastor (which lacks the symbiotic cation channel CASTOR, which is required for inducing nuclear calcium spiking, which is necessary for symbiotic partner recognition), or Arabidopsis thaliana, separated by cellophane membranes (fungal exudates experiment), or on different media but with a shared head space (fungal volatiles experiment). Root development was monitored over time. Both germinating spore exudates (GSEs) and geminated-spore-emitted volatile organic compounds (GVCs) significantly promoted lateral root formation (LRF) in WT L. japonicus. LRF in Ljcastor was significantly enhanced in the presence of GVCs. GVCs stimulated LRF in A. thaliana, whereas GSEs showed an inhibitory effect. The expression profile of the genes involved in mycorrhizal establishment and root development were investigated using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Only the expression of the LjCCD7 gene, an important component of the strigolactone synthesis pathway, was differentially expressed following exposure to GVCs. We conclude that volatile organic compounds released by the germinating AM fungal spores may stimulate LRF in a symbiosis signaling pathway (SYM)- and host-independent way, whereas GSEs stimulate LRF in a SYM- and host-dependent way. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fungal spores in four catholic churches in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo León State, Mexico – First study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rocha Estrada

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. About 500,000 species of fungi have been described to-date, although an estimated between 1 – 1.5 million species may occur. They have a wide distribution in nature, contributing to the decomposition of organic matter and playing a part in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. A small number are considered pathogens of animals and plants. There is ample historical evidence that certain types of allergies are associated with fungi; exposure to fungal allergens occurs in both outdoor and indoor spaces. Many indoor allergens are the same as those found outside buildings, entering through windows and doors, ventilation systems, or through cracks or other fissures in the walls. Objective. To determine the diversity and abundance of fungal spores inside four churches in the metropolitan area of Monterrey city in Mexico. Materials and methods. The study was carried out from July 2009 – January 2010 using a Hirst type volumetric collector (Burkard Manufacturing Co Ltd. Results. A total of 31,629 spores from 54 taxa were registered in the four churches. The building that showed the highest amount of spores was the Santa Catarina Mártir Church with 12,766 spores, followed by Cristo Rey with 7,155 and Nuestra Señora del Roble with 6,887. Regularly high concentrations of spores were recorded from 14:00 – 20:00 hours. The highest concentration value was observed at the church of Santa Catarina Mártir at 16:00 hours with 1153 spores/m 3 air. Conclusions. The most abundant spores in the four churches studied corresponded to Cladosporium, the [i]Aspergillus/Penicillium complex[/i], [i]Coprinus[/i], [i]Ganoderma[/i], [i]Curvularia and Ustilago[/i].

  2. Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Ag2O samples show high amounts of Ag0.55Al0.35. Of the metal ions, silver exhibits the highest toxicity for microorganisms and the least toxicity to...Of the metal ions, silver typically exhibits the highest toxicity for microorganisms and the least toxicity to animal cells depending on the system...of metallic and metal oxide sponges , Nature Mater. 2: 386-390 (2003). 14. B. C. Tappan,* M. H. Huynh, M. A. Hiskey, D. E. Chavez, E. P. Luther, J. T

  3. Incidence of spore-forming bacteria in unsweetened evaporated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brand C, to 0.54x105 for brand B and 1.67x105 for brand A. The organisms isolated from the three brands were identified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium perfringens, with B. subtilis having the highest frequency of occurrence ...

  4. Determination of the Persistence of Non-Spore-Forming ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report This report presents the results of an investigation to evaluate the persistence (or natural attenuation) of Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis), Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis), and Burkholderia mallei (B. mallei) on glass and soil under multiple environmental conditions and time points.

  5. In vivo interactions of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria spp. and Metarhizium anisopliae with selected opportunistic soil fungi of sugarcane ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, N; Preseetha, M; Hari, K; Santhalakshmi, G; Bai, K Subadra

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the interactions of entomopathogenic fungi viz., Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae among themselves and three other opportunistic soil fungi from the sugarcane ecosystem namely, Fusarium saachari, Aspergillus sp. and Penecillium sp. were assayed in vivo against Galleria mellonella larvae. The tested fungi were co-applied on IV instar G. mellonella @ 1 x 10(7) ml(-1), in combinations of two, at the interval of 24 hrs either preceding or succeeding each otherto assess their efficacy and sporulation rates. Results showed that often mortality rates did not correspond to the spore harvest of the mortality agent and presence of other fungus may be antagonistic. The efficacy of B. bassiana (90%) and B. brongniartii (100%) was not enhanced further but was negatively affected in most combinations with other fungi. In case of M. anisopliae compatibility was higher, resulting in higher mortality by application of B. bassiana before (100%) or after (83.3%) M. anisopliae than when it was applied alone (70%). During sporulation, B. bassiana faced the most intense competition from M. anisopliae (2.75 x 10(6) larva(-1)) and enhancement due to F sacchari irrespective of sequence of application. In case of B. brongniartii, sporulation was lowest in the combination of B. brongniartiipreceding M. anisopliae (1.83 x10(6) larva(-1)) and B. brongniartii succeeding B. bassiana (1.58 x 10(6) larva(-1)). Of all fungi tested, except F sacchari (65.33 x 10(6) larva(-1)) all the other species affected sporulation of M. ansiopliae with the least in treatment of B. bassiana application following M. anisopliae. Similar kind of interaction was observed during sporulation of soil fungi when combined with entomopathogenic fungi, though individually they could not cause mortality of larvae.

  6. High-Resolution Spore Coat Architecture and Assembly of Bacillus Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Elhadj, S; Plomp, M

    2011-03-14

    Elucidating the molecular architecture of bacterial and cellular surfaces and its structural dynamics is essential to understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis, immune response, physicochemical interactions, environmental resistance, and provide the means for identifying spore formulation and processing attributes. I will discuss the application of in vitro atomic force microscopy (AFM) for studies of high-resolution coat architecture and assembly of several Bacillus spore species. We have demonstrated that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. We have proposed that strikingly different species-dependent coat structures of bacterial spore species are a consequence of sporulation media-dependent nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the assembly of the outer spore coat. Spore coat layers were found to exhibit screw dislocations and two-dimensional nuclei typically observed on inorganic and macromolecular crystals. This presents the first case of non-mineral crystal growth patterns being revealed for a biological organism, which provides an unexpected example of nature exploiting fundamental materials science mechanisms for the morphogenetic control of biological ultrastructures. We have discovered and validated, distinctive formulation-specific high-resolution structural spore coat and dimensional signatures of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) grown in different formulation condition. We further demonstrated that measurement of the dimensional characteristics of B. anthracis spores provides formulation classification and sample matching with high sensitivity and specificity. I will present data on the development of an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures on the B. anthracis surfaces. These studies demonstrate that AFM can probe microbial surface architecture, environmental dynamics and the life cycle of bacterial and cellular systems at near

  7. Oomycetes and fungi: similar weaponry to attack plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latijnhouwers, M.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Govers, F.

    2003-01-01

    Fungi and Oomycetes are the two most important groups of eukaryotic plant pathogens. Fungi form a separate kingdom and are evolutionarily related to animals. Oomycetes are classified in the kingdom Protoctista and are related to heterokont, biflagellate, golden-brown algae. Fundamental differences

  8. Impact of sorbic acid and other mild preservation stresses on germination and outgrowth of Bacillus cereus spores

    OpenAIRE

    Melis, van, C.C.J.

    2013-01-01

      Weak organic acids such as sorbic acid, lactate, and acetic acid are widely used by the food industry as preservatives to control growth of micro-organisms. With the current trend towards milder processing of food products, opportunities arise for spore-forming spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms such as Bacillus cereus, that may survive the use of milder heating regimes. Dormant spores produced by B. cereus can survive processing conditions and their subsequent outgrowth increases ...

  9. Assessing the Impact of Germination and Sporulation Conditions on the Adhesion of Bacillus Spores to Glass and Stainless Steel by Fluid Dynamic Gauging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Zhou, Ke; Li, Nan; Christie, Graham; Wilson, D Ian

    2017-11-01

    The adhesion of spores of 3 Bacillus species with distinctive morphologies to stainless steel and borosilicate glass was studied using the fluid dynamic gauging technique. Marked differences were observed between different species of spores, and also between spores of the same species prepared under different sporulation conditions. Spores of the food-borne pathogen B. cereus were demonstrated to be capable of withstanding shear stresses greater than 1500 Pa when adhered to stainless steel, in contrast to spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium, which detached in response to lower shear stress. An extended DLVO model was shown to be capable of predicting the relative differences in spore adhesion between spores of different species and different culture conditions, but did not predict absolute values of force of adhesion well. Applying the model to germinating spores showed a significant reduction in adhesion force shortly after triggering germination, indicating a potential strategy to achieve enhanced removal of spores from surfaces in response to shear stress, such as during cleaning-in-place procedures. Spore-forming bacteria are a concern to the food industry because they have the potential to cause food-borne illness and product spoilage, while being strongly adhesive to processing surfaces and resistant to cleaning-in-place procedures. This work is of significance to the food processors and manufacturers because it offers insight to the properties of spore adhesion and identifies a potential strategy to facilitate the removal of spores during cleaning procedures. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  10. Bicarbonate and amino acids are co-germinants for spores of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates carrying plasmid-borne enterotoxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnoman, Maryam; Udompijitkul, Pathima; Banawas, Saeed; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2018-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A isolates carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin (cpe) gene (C-cpe) are generally linked to food poisoning, while isolates carrying cpe on a plasmid (P-cpe) are associated with non-food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. Both C-cpe and P-cpe isolates can form metabolically dormant spores, which through germination process return to actively growing cells to cause diseases. In our previous study, we showed that only 3 out of 20 amino acids (aa) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) triggered germination of spores of P-cpe isolates (P-cpe spores). We now found that 14 out of 20 individual aa tested induced germination of P-cpe spores in the presence of bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.0). However, no significant spore germination was observed with bicarbonate (pH 7.0) alone, indicating that aa and bicarbonate are co-germinants for P-cpe spores. P-cpe strain F4969 gerKC spores did not germinate, and gerAA spores germinated extremely poorly as compared to wild-type and gerKA spores with aa-bicarbonate (pH 7.0) co-germinants. The germination defects in gerKC and gerAA spores were partially restored by complementing gerKC or gerAA spores with wild-type gerKC or gerAA, respectively. Collectively, this study identified aa-bicarbonate as a novel nutrient germinant for P-cpe spores and provided evidence that GerKC and GerAA play major roles in aa-bicarbonate induced germination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Panchal, Rekha G; Fuller, Claudette L; Ribot, Wilson J

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhaled anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores...

  12. Extraction of High Molecular Weight DNA from Fungal Rust Spores for Long Read Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Rathjen, John P

    2017-01-01

    Wheat rust fungi are complex organisms with a complete life cycle that involves two different host plants and five different spore types. During the asexual infection cycle on wheat, rusts produce massive amounts of dikaryotic urediniospores. These spores are dikaryotic (two nuclei) with each nucleus containing one haploid genome. This dikaryotic state is likely to contribute to their evolutionary success, making them some of the major wheat pathogens globally. Despite this, most published wheat rust genomes are highly fragmented and contain very little haplotype-specific sequence information. Current long-read sequencing technologies hold great promise to provide more contiguous and haplotype-phased genome assemblies. Long reads are able to span repetitive regions and phase structural differences between the haplomes. This increased genome resolution enables the identification of complex loci and the study of genome evolution beyond simple nucleotide polymorphisms. Long-read technologies require pure high molecular weight DNA as an input for sequencing. Here, we describe a DNA extraction protocol for rust spores that yields pure double-stranded DNA molecules with molecular weight of >50 kilo-base pairs (kbp). The isolated DNA is of sufficient purity for PacBio long-read sequencing, but may require additional purification for other sequencing technologies such as Nanopore and 10× Genomics.

  13. Study on the ice nucleation activity of fungal spores (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pummer, B. G.; Atanasova, L.; Bauer, H.; Bernardi, J.; Druzhinina, I. S.; Grothe, H.

    2012-04-01

    Biogenic ice nucleation (IN) in the atmosphere is a topic of growing interest, as, according to IPCC, the impact of IN on global climate is crucial to perform reliable climate model calculations. About 20 years ago IN activity of a few lichen and Fusarium species [1,2] was reported, while all other investigated fungi were IN-negative. However, as the fungal kingdom is vast, many abundant species, especially the Basidiomycota (most mushrooms), were not tested before. Furthermore, the focus of the past studies was on the IN activity of the mycelium as a cryoprotective mechanism, and not on the airborne spores. We carried out oil immersion measurements [3] with spores from 17 different fungal species of ecological, economical or sanitary importance. Most of these species have not been investigated before, like exponents of Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Agaricales (most mushrooms). Apart from F. avenaceum, spores of all measured species showed moderate or no IN activity, supporting the hypothesis that significant IN activity is a rather exclusive property of only a few species within the fungal kingdom. [1] Kieft TL and Ruscetti T: J. Bacteriol. 172, 3519-3523, 1990. [2] Pouleur S et al.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 2960-2964, 1992. [3] Marcolli C et al.: Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 5081-5091, 2007.

  14. Potential sources of airborne Alternaria spp. spores in South-west Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Sadyś, Magdalena; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Maya-Manzano, José María; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2015-11-15

    Fungi belonging to the genus of Alternaria are recognised as being significant plant pathogens, and Alternaria allergens are one of the most important causes of respiratory allergic diseases in Europe. This study aims to provide a detailed and original analysis of Alternaria transport dynamics in Badajoz, SW Spain. This was achieved by examining daily mean and hourly observations of airborne Alternaria spores recorded during days with high airborne concentrations of Alternaria spores (>100 s m(-3)) from 2009 to 2011, as well as four inventory maps of major Alternaria habitats, the overall synoptic weather situation and analysis of air mass transport using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model and geographic information systems. Land use calculated within a radius of 100 km from Badajoz shows that crops and grasslands are potentially the most important local sources of airborne Alternaria spores recorded at the site. The results of back trajectory analysis show that, during the examined four episodes, the two main directions where Alternaria source areas were located were: (1) SW-W; and (2) NW-NE. Regional scale and long distance transport could therefore supplement the airborne catch recorded at Badajoz with Alternaria conidia originating from sources such as crops and orchards situated in other parts of the Iberian Peninsula. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Fifth international fungus spore conference. [Abstracts]: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timberlake, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    This folio contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Fungal Spore Conference held August 17-21, 1991 at the Unicoi State Park at Helen, Georgia. The volume contains abstracts of each oral presentation as well as a collection of abstracts describing the poster sessions. Presentations were organized around the themes (1) Induction of Sporulation, (2) Nuclear Division, (3) Spore Formation, (4) Spore Release and Dispersal, and (4) Spore Germination.

  16. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  17. The Cooperative and Interdependent Roles of GerA, GerK, and Ynd in Germination of Bacillus licheniformis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch-Pedersen, Kristina; Lindbäck, Toril; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Kidd, Shani W; O'Sullivan, Kristin; Granum, Per Einar; Aspholm, Marina

    2016-07-15

    When nutrients are scarce, Bacillus species form metabolically dormant and extremely resistant spores that enable survival over long periods of time under conditions not permitting growth. The presence of specific nutrients triggers spore germination through interaction with germinant receptors located in the spore's inner membrane. Bacillus licheniformis is a biotechnologically important species, but it is also associated with food spoilage and food-borne disease. The B. licheniformis ATCC 14580/DSM13 genome exhibits three gerA family operons (gerA, gerK, and ynd) encoding germinant receptors. We show that spores of B. licheniformis germinate efficiently in response to a range of different single l-amino acid germinants, in addition to a weak germination response seen with d-glucose. Mutational analyses revealed that the GerA and Ynd germination receptors function cooperatively in triggering an efficient germination response with single l-amino acid germinants, whereas the GerK germination receptor is essential for germination with d-glucose. Mutant spores expressing only GerA and GerK or only Ynd and GerK show reduced or severely impaired germination responses, respectively, with single l-amino acid germinants. Neither GerA nor Ynd could function alone in stimulating spore germination. Together, these results functionally characterize the germination receptor operons present in B. licheniformis We demonstrate the overlapping germinant recognition patterns of the GerA and Ynd germination receptors and the cooperative functionalities between GerA, Ynd, and GerK in inducing germination. To ensure safe food production and durable foods, there is an obvious need for more knowledge on spore-forming bacteria. It is the process of spore germination that ultimately leads to food spoilage and food poisoning. Bacillus licheniformis is a biotechnologically important species that is also associated with food spoilage and food-borne disease. Despite its importance, the

  18. [Effect of flooding time length on mycorrhizal colonization of three AM fungi in two wetland plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei-Meng; Wang, Peng-Teng; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide information for elucidating effect of flooding on the formation and function of AM in wetland plants, three AM fungi (Glomus intraradices, Glomus versiforme, Glomus etunicatum) were used to investigate the effects of flooding time length on their colonization in cattail (Typha orientalis) and rice (Oryza sativa L. ). The results showed that the mycorrhizal colonization rate (MCR) presented downtrend with increasing flooding time length. In cattail, MCR of the fungus F3 was higher than those of fungi F1 and F2, but no significant difference in MCR was found between fungi F1 and F2. In rice, the MCRs of fungi F2 and F3 were higher than that of E1. In both plants, the proportional frequency of hyphae was the highest while the proportional frequency of arbuscules and vesicles was very low in all treatments, indicating that hyphal colonization was the main route for AM formation. The proportional frequency of hyphae in cattail increased with the flooding time length, but no significant trend was observed in rice plant. The proportional frequency of arhuscules decreased with the increase of flooding time, and was the highest in the treatment without flooding (treatment IV). The number of spores produced by AM fungi increased with increasing flooding time, and reached the highest in the treatment of long time flooding (treatment I). In the same treatment, the fungus F3 produced more spores than fungi F1 and F2. Changes in wet weight of the two plants showed that AM could increase cattail growth under flooding, hut little effect on rice growth was found. It is concluded that flooding time length significantly affected the mycorrhizal colonization rate and the proportional frequency of colonization. AM could enhance the growth of wetland plant, but this depends on the mycorrhizal dependence of host plant on AM fungi. Therefore, flooding time length should be considered in the inoculation of wetland plants with AM fungi.

  19. Geraniol biotransformation-pathway in spores of Penicillium digitatum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolken, W.A.M.; Werf, M.J. van der

    2001-01-01

    Spores of Penicillium digitatum ATCC 201167 transform geraniol, nerol, citral, and geranic acid into methylheptenone. Spore extracts of P. digitatum convert geraniol and nerol NAD+-dependently into citral. Spore extract also converts citral NAD+-dependently into geranic acid. Furthermore, a novel

  20. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Judge, J.

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark

  1. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W. [Univ. of London, Surrey (United Kingdom); Judge, J. [Unilever plc, Sharnbrook (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark.

  2. A Waking Review: Old and Novel Insights into the Spore Germination in Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bobek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex development undergone by Streptomyces encompasses transitions from vegetative mycelial forms to reproductive aerial hyphae that differentiate into chains of single-celled spores. Whereas their mycelial life – connected with spore formation and antibiotic production – is deeply investigated, spore germination as the counterpoint in their life cycle has received much less attention. Still, germination represents a system of transformation from metabolic zero point to a new living lap. There are several aspects of germination that may attract our attention: (1 Dormant spores are strikingly well-prepared for the future metabolic restart; they possess stable transcriptome, hydrolytic enzymes, chaperones, and other required macromolecules stabilized in a trehalose milieu; (2 Germination itself is a specific sequence of events leading to a complete morphological remodeling that include spore swelling, cell wall reconstruction, and eventually germ tube emergences; (3 Still not fully unveiled are the strategies that enable the process, including a single cell’s signal transduction and gene expression control, as well as intercellular communication and the probability of germination across the whole population. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the germination process in Streptomyces, while focusing on the aforementioned points.

  3. Detection and differentiation of bacterial spores in a mineral matrix by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and chemometrical data treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandes Ammann Andrea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR has been used as analytical tool in chemistry for many years. In addition, FTIR can also be applied as a rapid and non-invasive method to detect and identify microorganisms. The specific and fingerprint-like spectra allow - under optimal conditions - discrimination down to the species level. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and reproducible non-molecular method to differentiate pure samples of Bacillus spores originating from different species as well as to identify spores in a simple matrix, such as the clay mineral, bentonite. Results We investigated spores from pure cultures of seven different Bacillus species by FTIR in reflection or transmission mode followed by chemometrical data treatment. All species investigated (B. atrophaeus, B. brevis, B. circulans, B. lentus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis are typical aerobic soil-borne spore formers. Additionally, a solid matrix (bentonite and mixtures of benonite with spores of B. megaterium at various wt/wt ratios were included in the study. Both hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the spectra along with multidimensional scaling allowed the discrimination of different species and spore-matrix-mixtures. Conclusions Our results show that FTIR spectroscopy is a fast method for species-level discrimination of Bacillus spores. Spores were still detectable in the presence of the clay mineral bentonite. Even a tenfold excess of bentonite (corresponding to 2.1 × 1010 colony forming units per gram of mineral matrix still resulted in an unambiguous identification of B. megaterium spores.

  4. Pollen and spore monitoring in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buters, J T M; Antunes, C; Galveias, A; Bergmann, K C; Thibaudon, M; Galán, C; Schmidt-Weber, C; Oteros, J

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air quality monitoring is a governmental duty that is widely carried out in order to detect non-biological ("chemical") components in ambient air, such as particles of world and to create an interactive visualization of their distribution. The method employed to collect information was based on: (a) a review of the recent and historical bibliography related to pollen and fungal spore monitoring, and (b) personal surveys of the managers of national and regional monitoring networks. The interactive application was developed using the R programming language. We have created an inventory of the active pollen and spore monitoring stations in the world. There are at least 879 active pollen monitoring stations in the world, most of which are in Europe (> 500). The prevalent monitoring method is based on the Hirst principle (> 600 stations). The inventory is visualised as an interactive and on-line map. It can be searched, its appearance can be adjusted to the users' needs and it is updated regularly, as new stations or changes to those that already exist can be submitted online. The map shows the current situation of pollen and spore monitoring and facilitates collaboration among those individuals who are interested in pollen and spore counts. It might also help to improve the monitoring of biological particles up to the current level employed for non-biological components.

  5. Detecting bacterial spores in soup manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijlen, A.C.M.; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Vos, P.; Brul, S.

    2009-01-01

    Spores from mesophilic aerobic sporeforming bacteria (Bacillus) are sometimes able to survive the thermal process of commercial sterile products and sporadically cause spoilage or food poisoning. Because of an increasing demand for more fresh products, ideally the processing temperatures should be

  6. Modeling to control spores in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling approach was used to identify measures at the farm that reduce transmission of microorganisms to raw milk. Butyric acid bacteria (BAB) and Bacillus cereus were used as case-studies. Minimizing the concentration of BAB spores in raw milk is important to prevent late-blowing of Gouda-type

  7. On some white-spored Geoglossaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1964-01-01

    Some genera of Geoglossaceae, characterized by colourless spores and positive iodine reaction of the ascus pore, are compared with respect to the structure of the stipe. Ochroglossum is reduced to the synonymy of Microglossum. Mitrula is regarded as a monotypic genus. The generic name Heyderia is

  8. Paleozoic in situ spores and pollen. Lycopsida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 296, 1/6 (2017), s. 1-111 ISSN 0375-0299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : in situ spores * reproductive organs * Lycopsida * Paleozoic Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016

  9. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  11. Amplicon sequencing for the quantification of spoilage microbiota in complex foods including bacterial spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de P.; Caspers, M.; Sanders, J.W.; Kemperman, R.; Wijman, J.; Lommerse, G.; Roeselers, G.; Montijn, R.; Abee, T.; Kort, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background
    Spoilage of food products is frequently caused by bacterial spores and lactic acid bacteria. Identification of these organisms by classic cultivation methods is limited by their ability to form colonies on nutrient agar plates. In this study, we adapted and optimized 16S rRNA amplicon

  12. Removal of Bacillus anthracis sterne spore from commercial unpasteurized liquid egg white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermal pasteurization used by the egg industry for controlling vegetative cells of pathogens is ineffective for destroying endospores. There is a strong need in the agri-industries to develop effective intervention strategies to eliminate the possible bioterrorism threat from spore forming bacteria...

  13. Behaviour of individual spores of non proteolytic Clostridium botulinum as an element in quantitative risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelt, J.P.; Stringer, S.C.; Brul, S.

    2013-01-01

    Botulism is a true food poisoning hazard. It is caused by a deadly neurotoxin produced in food by the spore forming organism Clostridium botulinum, which is found in soil all over the world. The frequency of botulism cases is rare, but each year a number of them occur. Ideally a quantitative

  14. Teaching Intelligent Design or Sparking Interest in Science? What Players Do with Will Wright's Spore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The 2008 commercial video game "Spore" allowed more than a million players to design their own life forms. Starting from single-celled organisms players played through a caricature of natural history. Press coverage of the game's release offer two frames for thinking about the implications of the game. Some scientists and educators saw the game as…

  15. Antifouling effects of the periostracum on algal spore settlement in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In nature, marine mussels (Mytilus edulis suffer less fouling colonization on the newly formed sides of their shells. Using settlement assays with algal spores of Porphyra suborbiculata, we determined that spore attachment and germination on the periostracum decreased to 36.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. Additionally, the spore settlement was considerably diminished by periostracum dichloromethane extracts containing 19 % oleamide, a major antifouling compound. A scanning electron micrograph of the surface revealed a regular ripple structure with approximately 1.4 μm between ripples. Based on these results, mussel periostraca or their associated biomimetic materials may become environmentally friendly, antifouling agents for preventing the settlement of soft foulants.

  16. Nylon biodegradation by lignin-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T; Kakezawa, M; Nishida, T

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of nylon by lignin-degrading fungi was investigated. The fungus IZU-154 significantly degraded nylon-66 membrane under ligninolytic conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that four end groups, CHO, NHCHO, CH3, and CONH2, were formed in the biodegraded nylon-66 membranes, suggesting that nylon-66 was degraded oxidatively. PMID:8979361

  17. Nylon biodegradation by lignin-degrading fungi.

    OpenAIRE

    Deguchi, T; Kakezawa, M; Nishida, T

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of nylon by lignin-degrading fungi was investigated. The fungus IZU-154 significantly degraded nylon-66 membrane under ligninolytic conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that four end groups, CHO, NHCHO, CH3, and CONH2, were formed in the biodegraded nylon-66 membranes, suggesting that nylon-66 was degraded oxidatively.

  18. Inhibiting Inosine Hydrolase and Alanine Racemase to Enhance the Germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spores: Potential Spore Decontamination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    2015): << Inhibiting inosine hydrolase and alanine racemase to enhance the germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores: potential spore...display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 02 OCT 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inhibiting...inosine hydrolase and alanine racemase to enhance the germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores potential spore decontamination strategies 5a

  19. Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

  20. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  1. Rare species of fungi parasiting on algae. II. Parasites of Desmidiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Z. Kadłubowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations carried out on the Desmidiaceae revealed the following species of fungi parasitizing on desmids: Myzocytium megastomum, Lagenidium closterii, Ancylistes closterii and Rhizophydium globosum. Legenidium closterii is new in Poland. It is the first information of this species as a parasite on the algae from the genus Tetmemorus. Figures of sporangia of Rhizophydium globosum on Euastrum ansatum, Cosmarium botrytis, C. pseudamoenum and a resting spore on Staurastrum punctulatum are the first graphic documentation of this species.

  2. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomas...

  3. Immunity against fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionakis, Michail S.; Iliev, Iliyan D.; Hohl, Tobias M.

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi cause a wide range of syndromes in immune-competent and immune-compromised individuals, with life-threatening disease primarily seen in humans with HIV/AIDS and in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies for cancer, autoimmunity, and end-organ failure. The discovery that specific primary immune deficiencies manifest with fungal infections and the development of animal models of mucosal and invasive mycoses have facilitated insight into fungus-specific recognition, signaling, effector pathways, and adaptive immune responses. Progress in deciphering the molecular and cellular basis of immunity against fungi is guiding preclinical studies into vaccine and immune reconstitution strategies for vulnerable patient groups. Furthermore, recent work has begun to address the role of endogenous fungal communities in human health and disease. In this review, we summarize a contemporary understanding of protective immunity against fungi. PMID:28570272

  4. Exploration of unique relation among industrial fungi by statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Siddique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to explore the relation among thermophilic cellulolytic fungi, which are of industrialimportance. There was no report found about the genetic relationship of fungi, which are used to produce industrial enzymes.So the aim of the study was to observe the similarity among different cellulolytic fungi on genetic level, which will providethe background to understand the correlation among cellulase producing systems of these fungi. Eleven (11 fungi werestudied for genetic diversity using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD a PCR based molecular marker system.In this regard twenty universal decamers used for RAPD resulted in 1527 numbers of bands observed during comparison ofall wild strains. Maximum polymorphism was generated with GLA-07. Average numbers of bands per 20 primers were 65-72.An Interesting feature of the study was the similarity of Humicola insolens with Torula thermophile, more than with theother members of the Humicola family. This genetic pattern affects the physical structure of the fungi. Spores of Torulathermophila are more related to Humicola insolens than to its own family. Similarity between the two was found to be 57.8%,whereas between Humicola lanuginosa (Thermomysis lanuginosus and Humicola grisea it was 57.3%. Apart from this,similarity between Talaromyces dupontii and Rhizomucor pusillus was 51.5%. Least similarity was found in Rhizomucorpusillus and Humicola grisea, which was 18.7% and Chaetomium thermophile and Sporotrichum thermophile, which was18.3%. Genetic similarity matrix was constructed on the basis of Nei and Li’s index.

  5. The fungi: 1, 2, 3 ... 5.1 million species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Meredith

    2011-03-01

    Fungi are major decomposers in certain ecosystems and essential associates of many organisms. They provide enzymes and drugs and serve as experimental organisms. In 1991, a landmark paper estimated that there are 1.5 million fungi on the Earth. Because only 70000 fungi had been described at that time, the estimate has been the impetus to search for previously unknown fungi. Fungal habitats include soil, water, and organisms that may harbor large numbers of understudied fungi, estimated to outnumber plants by at least 6 to 1. More recent estimates based on high-throughput sequencing methods suggest that as many as 5.1 million fungal species exist. Technological advances make it possible to apply molecular methods to develop a stable classification and to discover and identify fungal taxa. Molecular methods have dramatically increased our knowledge of Fungi in less than 20 years, revealing a monophyletic kingdom and increased diversity among early-diverging lineages. Mycologists are making significant advances in species discovery, but many fungi remain to be discovered. Fungi are essential to the survival of many groups of organisms with which they form associations. They also attract attention as predators of invertebrate animals, pathogens of potatoes and rice and humans and bats, killers of frogs and crayfish, producers of secondary metabolites to lower cholesterol, and subjects of prize-winning research. Molecular tools in use and under development can be used to discover the world's unknown fungi in less than 1000 years predicted at current new species acquisition rates.

  6. Proteins YlaJ and YhcN contribute to the efficiency of spore germination in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian L; Moir, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The YlaJ and YhcN spore lipoproteins of Bacillus subtilis contain a common domain, and are of unknown function. Homologues of YlaJ or YhcN are widespread in Bacilli and are also encoded in those Clostridia that use cortex lytic enzymes SleB and CwlJ for cortex hydrolysis during germination. In B. subtilis, we report that single and double mutants lacking YlaJ and/or YhcN show a reduced rate of spore germination in L-alanine, with a delay in loss of heat resistance, release of dipicolinic acid and OD fall. If B. subtilis spores lack the cortex lytic enzyme CwlJ, spore cortex degradation and subsequent outgrowth to form colonies is strictly dependent on the other cortex lytic enzyme SleB, allowing a test of SleB function; in a cwlJ mutant background, the combined loss of both ylaJ and yhcN genes resulted in a spore population in which only 20% of spores germinated and outgrew to form colonies, suggesting that SleB activity is compromised. YlaJ and YhcN have a role in germination that is not yet well defined, but these proteins are likely to contribute, directly or indirectly, to early events in germination, including effective SleB function. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Gu, Siyu; Xin, Ying; Bello, Ayodeji; Sun, Wenpeng; Xu, Xiuhong

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha) on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha) and high (45 Mg/ha) levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH) density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha) level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in black soil of

  8. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha and high (45 Mg/ha levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in

  9. The functions of grainy head-like proteins in animals and fungi and the evolution of apical extracellular barriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Paré

    Full Text Available The Grainy head (GRH family of transcription factors are crucial for the development and repair of epidermal barriers in all animals in which they have been studied. This is a high-level functional conservation, as the known structural and enzymatic genes regulated by GRH proteins differ between species depending on the type of epidermal barrier being formed. Interestingly, members of the CP2 superfamily of transcription factors, which encompasses the GRH and LSF families in animals, are also found in fungi--organisms that lack epidermal tissues. To shed light on CP2 protein function in fungi, we characterized a Neurospora crassa mutant lacking the CP2 member we refer to as grainy head-like (grhl. We show that Neurospora GRHL has a DNA-binding specificity similar to that of animal GRH proteins and dissimilar to that of animal LSF proteins. Neurospora grhl mutants are defective in conidial-spore dispersal due to an inability to remodel the cell wall, and we show that grhl mutants and the long-known conidial separation-2 (csp-2 mutants are allelic. We then characterized the transcriptomes of both Neurospora grhl mutants and Drosophila grh mutant embryos to look for similarities in the affected genes. Neurospora grhl appears to play a role in the development and remodeling of the cell wall, as well as in the activation of genes involved in defense and virulence. Drosophila GRH is required to activate the expression of many genes involved in cuticular/epidermal-barrier formation. We also present evidence that GRH plays a role in adult antimicrobial defense. These results, along with previous studies of animal GRH proteins, suggest the fascinating possibility that the apical extracellular barriers of some animals and fungi might share an evolutionary connection, and that the formation of physical barriers in the last common ancestor was under the control of a transcriptional code that included GRH-like proteins.

  10. Culturable fungi in potting soils and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Doris; Lesch, Susanne; Buzina, Walter; Galler, Herbert; Gutschi, Anna Maria; Habib, Juliana; Pfeifer, Bettina; Luxner, Josefa; Reinthaler, Franz F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the spectrum and the incidence of fungi in potting soils and compost was investigated. Since soil is one of the most important biotopes for fungi, relatively high concentrations of fungal propagules are to be expected. For detection of fungi, samples of commercial soils, compost and soils from potted plants (both surface and sub-surface) were suspended and plated onto several mycological media. The resulting colonies were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The results from the different sampling series vary, but concentrations on the surface of potted plants and in commercial soils are increased tenfold compared to compost and sub-surface soils. Median values range from 9.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/g to 5.5 × 10(5) CFU/g. The spectrum of fungi also varies in the soils. However, all sampling series show high proportion of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, including potentially pathogenic species such as Aspergillus fumigatus. Cladosporium, a genus dominant in the ambient air, was found preferably in samples which were in contact with the air. The results show that potentially pathogenic fungi are present in soils. Immunocompromised individuals should avoid handling soils or potted plants in their immediate vicinity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Decontamination of carpet exposed to Microsporum canis hairs and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriello, Karen A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vacuuming and three carpet cleaning methods for the removal of Microsporum canis spores and hairs from experimentally contaminated carpets. Methods Sterile Berber carpeting was artificially contaminated with naturally infective M canis hairs and spores. Carpet swatches were vacuumed for 10 s, 30 s and 60 s, and then cultured. Three carpet cleaning methods were evaluated on area rugs experimentally contaminated with infective material: a beater brush carpet shampooing, beater brush carpet shampooing post-disinfectant application and hot water extraction. Home cleaning products labeled as having efficacy against Trichophyton species were used in addition to 1% potassium peroxymonosulfate. Carpets were cultured at 24 h, 48 h and 7 days after cleaning. Good efficacy was no detectable spores at post-cleaning culture. Results All pretreatment carpet samples were culture positive for M canis (>300 colony-forming units [cfu]/site). Vacuuming did not decontaminate carpets but did remove intact hairs. Spores were not detected by wipe samples after two washings with an upright beater brush carpet shampooer or pretreatment with a disinfectant prior to carpet shampooing. Carpets cleaned with one hot water extraction technique had a decrease from 300 cfu/site to a mean of 5.5 cfu/site at 24 and 48 h post-cleaning and 2 cfu/site at day 7. The use of disinfectants was associated with odor, even when dry, and permanent discoloration. Hot water extraction cleaning was associated with the fastest drying time and no discoloration. Conclusions and relevance Carpets exposed to M canis can be disinfected via carpet shampooing or hot water extraction cleaning. Vacuuming of carpets is recommended to remove infective hairs. For homes, exposed carpeting can be decontaminated by routine washing with a carpet shampooer (twice) or hot water extraction. Use of pretreatment with a disinfectant is recommended when a high level

  12. Evaluation of airborne particulates and fungi during hospital renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overberger, P A; Wadowsky, R M; Schaper, M M

    1995-07-01

    This study was conducted over 30 weeks on a hospital floor undergoing partial renovation. Some patients housed on the floor were immunosuppressed, including bone marrow transplant recipients. The construction zone was placed under negative pressure and was separated from patient rooms by existing hospital walls and via erection of a temporary barrier. Other control measures minimized patient exposure to airborne materials. Air sampling was done for 3 weeks prior to construction, 24 weeks during construction, and 3 weeks after renovation was completed. Airborne particulate concentrations, total spore counts, particle size, and fungal species were assessed. At the beginning of the renovation there were increases in airborne particulates (from 0.2 to 2.0 mg/m3) and fungal spores (from 3.5 to 350 colony forming units (CFU/m3), but only in the construction zone. Throughout the remainder of the renovation, particulate and fungal spore levels fluctuated inside the construction zone but remained close to baseline values in the patient area. When renovation was completed, particulates and spore counts inside the construction zone decreased to preconstruction levels. The primary fungus isolated from air samples was Penicillium. This study demonstrated that control measures were effective in reducing exposures of hospitalized patients to airborne particulates and spores and in reducing the increased risk of aspergillosis and other fungal infections associated with hospital construction projects. The data from this study may be useful in establishing exposure guidelines for other health care settings.

  13. Communities, populations and individuals of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the phylum Glomeromycota are found globally in most vegetation types, where they form a mutualistic symbiosis with plant roots. Despite their wide distribution, only relatively few species are described. The taxonomy is based on morphological characters...

  14. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  15. Fun with Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  16. Senescence in Fungi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 3. Senescence in Fungi. Anthony Deepak D'souza Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 7 Issue 3 March 2002 pp 51-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/03/0051-0055 ...

  17. Senescence in Fungi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fungi are non-photosynthetic, filamentous organisms (Box 1). The filaments or the hyphae are branched and divided into segments by transverse walls or septa. The growth of the hypha is restricted to its tip, which grows linearly by the apical addi- tion of new cell wall material. The hyphal tip perpetuates itself.

  18. In situ hybridization for the detection of rust fungi in paraffin embedded plant tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Mitchell A; McMahon, Michael B; Bonde, Morris R; Palmer, Cristi L; Luster, Douglas G

    2016-01-01

    Rust fungi are obligate pathogens with multiple life stages often including different spore types and multiple plant hosts. While individual rust pathogens are often associated with specific plants, a wide range of plant species are infected with rust fungi. To study the interactions between these important pathogenic fungi and their host plants, one must be able to differentiate fungal tissue from plant tissue. This can be accomplished using the In situ hybridization (ISH) protocol described here. To validate reproducibility using the ISH protocol, samples of Chrysanthemum × morifolium infected with Puccinia horiana, Gladiolus × hortulanus infected with Uromyces transversalis and Glycine max infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi were tested alongside uninfected leaf tissue samples. The results of these tests show that this technique clearly distinguishes between rust pathogens and their respective host plant tissues. This ISH protocol is applicable to rust fungi and potentially other plant pathogenic fungi as well. It has been shown here that this protocol can be applied to pathogens from different genera of rust fungi with no background staining of plant tissue. We encourage the use of this protocol for the study of plant pathogenic fungi in paraffin embedded sections of host plant tissue.

  19. Bats Increase the Number of Cultivable Airborne Fungi in the "Nietoperek" Bat Reserve in Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokurewicz, Tomasz; Ogórek, Rafał; Pusz, Wojciech; Matkowski, Krzysztof

    2016-07-01

    The "Nietoperek" bat reserve located in Western Poland is one of the largest bat hibernation sites in the European Union with nearly 38,000 bats from 12 species. Nietoperek is part of a built underground fortification system from WWII. The aims of the study were (1) to determine the fungal species composition and changes during hibernation season in relation to bat number and microclimatic conditions and (2) evaluate the potential threat of fungi for bat assemblages and humans visiting the complex. Airborne fungi were collected in the beginning, middle and end of hibernation period (9 November 2013 and 17 January and 15 March 2014) in 12 study sites, one outside and 11 inside the complex. Ambient temperature (T a) and relative humidity (RH) were measured by the use of data loggers, and species composition of bats was recorded from the study sites. The collision method (Air Ideal 3P) sampler was used to detect 34 species of airborne fungi including Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd). The density of airborne fungi isolated from the outdoor air samples varied from 102 to 242 CFU/1 m(3) of air and from 12 to 1198 CFU in the underground air samples. There was a positive relationship between number of bats and the concentration of fungi. The concentration of airborne fungi increased with the increase of bats number. Analysis of other possible ways of spore transport to the underground indicated that the number of bats was the primary factor determining the number of fungal spores in that hibernation site. Microclimatic conditions where Pd was found (median 8.7 °C, min-max 6.1-9.9 °C and 100 %, min-max 77.5-100.0 %) were preferred by hibernating Myotis myotis and Myotis daubentonii; therefore, these species are most probably especially prone to infection by this fungi species. The spores of fungi found in the underground can be pathogenic for humans and animals, especially for immunocompromised persons, even though their concentrations did not exceed limits and

  20. Philatelic Mycology: Families of Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasas, W.F.O.; Marasas, H.M.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Philately, the study of postage stamps, and mycology, the study of fungi, are seldom connected by those that practice these very different activities. When associated, philatelic mycology would be considered as the study of fungi on stamps. The Fungi touch every aspect of our daily lives, most

  1. Validation of the Hirst-Type Spore Trap for Simultaneous Monitoring of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Biodiversities in Urban Air Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Ferencova, Zuzana; Rastrojo, Alberto; Guantes, Raúl; García, Ana M.; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A. Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A.

    2017-01-01

    Pollen, fungi, and bacteria are the main microscopic biological entities present in outdoor air, causing allergy symptoms and disease transmission and having a significant role in atmosphere dynamics. Despite their relevance, a method for monitoring simultaneously these biological particles in metropolitan environments has not yet been developed. Here, we assessed the use of the Hirst-type spore trap to characterize the global airborne biota by high-throughput DNA sequencing, selecting region...

  2. Effect of Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil on Population Density of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Roots of Grapevine in Urmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahdavi Bileh Savar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship of is one of the most useful interactions in terrestrial ecosystems that its positive effects on growth, physiology and ecology of different plants has been documented. This study investigated the relationship between important physicochemical characteristics of soils such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC, soil texture, organic carbon percentage, soil potassium percentage and the amount of accessible phosphorus with population of mycorrhizal fungi. After dividing the study region into four areas, 43 samples of soil were collected. The results of statistical analysis on physico-chemical characteristics of soil and their relation with population density of spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi showed that there was a negative correlation between electrical conductivity (EC, pH, clay percent, and percent of soil available phosphorus, potassium percent, and percentage of organic carbon with the mean number of fungi. There were positive correlations between silt and sand percentages and mean number of spores present in the soil. Based on the coefficien of determination and based on study conditions, the best model for the rhizosphere was found tobe the one in wich available phosphorus percent of soil was the independent variable, and mean population of fungi as the dependant variable. The correlation between available phosphorus percent in soil samples with average fungi population density negative (P<0/05, but there was not a meaningful correlation between other traits and population density of fungi

  3. Applicability of UV resistant Bacillus pumilus spore as a human adenovirus surrogate for evaluating the effectiveness of virus inactivation in low-pressure UV treatment systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data set includes UV dose, and Bacillus pumilus spore plate counts in colony forming units. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Boczek , L.,...

  4. Bacillus cereus spore formation, structure and germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial spores arespecializeddifferentiated celltypes for

  5. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine

  6. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Pantoya, M. L. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-12-21

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  7. In situ analysis of anastomosis in representative genera of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purin, Sonia; Morton, Joseph B

    2011-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form obligate symbiotic associations with plants. As a result, the role of hyphal interactions in the establishment and maintenance of common mycorrhizal networks is poorly understood because of constraints on methods for in situ analysis. We designed a rhizohyphatron that allows the examination of intact mycelia growing from whole mycorrhizal plants. Plants preinoculated with spores were cultivated in a compartment with a connecting tube from which hyphae extend through a fine nylon mesh onto agar-coated slides. Species selected from each of the five AMF genera were used to assess and characterize the anastomosis behavior in the rhizohyphatron. Hyphal networks of Paraglomus occultum, Ambispora leptoticha, Scutellospora heterogama, and Gigaspora gigantea growing on the agar-coated slides showed no evidence of hyphal fusion. In contrast, anastomosis occurred in the hyphal networks of Glomus clarum and Glomus intraradices at an average frequency of less than 15% for both species. The rhizohyphatron developed in this study will provide knowledge of the biology and genetics of self/non-self recognition in AMF and help to better understand Glomeromycotan life history strategies.

  8. Spore membrane(s) as the site of damage within heated Clostridium perfringens spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, R S; Adams, D M

    1976-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens spores were injured by ultrahigh-temperature treatment at 105 C for 5 min. Injury was manifested as an increased sensitivity to polymyxin and neomycin. Since many of the survivors could not germinate normally the ultrahigh-temperature-treated spores were sensitized to and germinated by lysozyme. Polymyxin reportedly acts upon the cell membrane. Neomycin may inhibit protein synthesis and has surface-active properties. Injured spores were increasingly sensitive to known surface-active agents, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium deoxycholate, and Roccal, a quaternary ammonium compound. Injured spores sensitive to polymyxin and neomycin also were osmotically fragile and died during outgrowth in a liquid medium unless the medium was supplemented with 20% sucrose, 10% dextran, or 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone. The results suggested that a spore structure destined to become cell membrane or cell wall was the site of injury. Repair of injury during outgrowth in the presence of protein, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and cell wall synthesis inhibitors was consistent with this hypothesis.

  9. Importance of saprotrophic freshwater fungi for pollen degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wurzbacher

    Full Text Available Fungi and bacteria are the major organic matter (OM decomposers in aquatic ecosystems. While bacteria are regarded as primary mineralizers in the pelagic zone of lakes and oceans, fungi dominate OM decomposition in streams and wetlands. Recent findings indicate that fungal communities are also active in lakes, but little is known about their diversity and interactions with bacteria. Therefore, the decomposer niche overlap of saprotrophic fungi and bacteria was studied on pollen (as a seasonally recurring source of fine particulate OM by performing microcosm experiments with three different lake types. Special emphasis was placed on analysis of fungal community composition and diversity. We hypothesized that (I pollen select for small saprotrophic fungi and at the same time for typical particle-associated bacteria; (II fungal communities form specific free-living and attached sub-communities in each lake type; (III the ratio between fungi or bacteria on pollen is controlled by the lake's chemistry. Bacteria-to-fungi ratios were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR, and bacterial and fungal diversity were studied by clone libraries and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprints. A protease assay was used to identify functional differences between treatments. For generalization, systematic differences in bacteria-to-fungi ratios were analyzed with a dataset from the nearby Baltic Sea rivers. High abundances of Chytridiomycota as well as occurrences of Cryptomycota and yeast-like fungi confirm the decomposer niche overlap of saprotrophic fungi and bacteria on pollen. As hypothesized, microbial communities consistently differed between the lake types and exhibited functional differences. Bacteria-to-fungi ratios correlated well with parameters such as organic carbon and pH. The importance of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen for bacteria-to-fungi ratios was supported by the Baltic Sea river dataset. Our findings highlight the fact

  10. Identification and characterization of a spore-like morphotype in chronically starved Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise A Lamont

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated.

  11. Mucosal delivery of antigens using adsorption to bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Min; Hong, Huynh A; Van Tong, Hoang; Hoang, Tran H; Brisson, Alain; Cutting, Simon M

    2010-01-22

    The development of new-generation vaccines has followed a number of strategic avenues including the use of live recombinant bacteria. Of these, the use of genetically engineered bacterial spores has been shown to offer promise as both a mucosal as well as a heat-stable vaccine delivery system. Spores of the genus Bacillus are currently in widespread use as probiotics enabling a case to be made for their safety. In this work we have discovered that the negatively charged and hydrophobic surface layer of spores provides a suitable platform for adsorption of protein antigens. Binding can be promoted under conditions of low pH and requires a potent combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between spore and immunogen. Using appropriately adsorbed spores we have shown that mice immunised mucosally can be protected against challenge with tetanus toxin, Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin and could survive challenge with anthrax toxin. In some cases protection is actually greater than using a recombinant vaccine. Remarkably, killed or inactivated spores appear equally effective as live spores. The spore appears to present a bound antigen in its native conformation promoting a cellular (T(h)1-biased) response coupled with a strong antibody response. Spores then, should be considered as mucosal adjuvants, most similar to particulate adjuvants, by enhancing responses against soluble antigens. The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with the attendant benefits of safety suggest that spore adsorption could be appropriate for improving the immunogenicity of some vaccines as well as the delivery of biotherapeutic molecules.

  12. Bryophyte spore germinability is inhibited by peatland substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhao-Jun; Li, Zhi; Liu, Li-Jie; Sundberg, Sebastian; Feng, Ya-Min; Yang, Yun-He; Liu, Shuang; Song, Xue; Zhang, Xing-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Bryophyte substrates and species may affect spore germination through allelopathy. Polytrichum strictum is currently expanding in peatlands in north-eastern China - is this an effect of its superior spore germinability or do its gametophytes have a stronger allelopathic effect than do Sphagnum? We conducted a spore burial experiment to test the effect of species identity, substrate and water table depth (WTD) on spore germinability and bryophyte allelopathic effect with P. strictum and two Sphagnum species (S. palustre and S. magellanicum). After 5 months of burial during a growing season, the spores were tested for germinability. Allelopathic effect of bryophyte substrates was assessed by the difference between spore germinability after being stored inside or outside the substrates. After burial, more than 90% of the spores lost their germinability across all three species due to ageing and allelopathy. Spore germinability differed among species, where the spores in S. palustre had a higher germination frequency than those in P. strictum. The three bryophytes maintained a higher germinability in Sphagnum than in Polytrichum hummocks, probably due to a stronger allelopathic effect of P. strictum. Water table drawdown by 10 cm increased germinability by more than 60% across the three species. The study indicates that P. strictum does not possess an advantage regarding spore germination but rather its gametophytes have a stronger allelopathic effect. Due to the weaker inhibitive effect of Sphagnum gametophytes, P. strictum may have a potential establishment superiority over Sphagnum in peatlands, in addition to a better drought tolerance, which may explain its current expansion.

  13. Identification of a Novel Lipoprotein Regulator of Clostridium difficile Spore Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Fimlaid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. C. difficile infections are transmitted when ingested spores germinate in the gastrointestinal tract and transform into vegetative cells. Germination begins when the germinant receptor CspC detects bile salts in the gut. CspC is a subtilisin-like serine pseudoprotease that activates the related CspB serine protease through an unknown mechanism. Activated CspB cleaves the pro-SleC zymogen, which allows the activated SleC cortex hydrolase to degrade the protective cortex layer. While these regulators are essential for C. difficile spores to outgrow and form toxin-secreting vegetative cells, the mechanisms controlling their function have only been partially characterized. In this study, we identify the lipoprotein GerS as a novel regulator of C. difficile spore germination using targeted mutagenesis. A gerS mutant has a severe germination defect and fails to degrade cortex even though it processes SleC at wildtype levels. Using complementation analyses, we demonstrate that GerS secretion, but not lipidation, is necessary for GerS to activate SleC. Importantly, loss of GerS attenuates the virulence of C. difficile in a hamster model of infection. Since GerS appears to be conserved exclusively in related Peptostreptococcaeace family members, our results contribute to a growing body of work indicating that C. difficile has evolved distinct mechanisms for controlling the exit from dormancy relative to B. subtilis and other spore-forming organisms.

  14. Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL).

  15. Amplicon sequencing for the quantification of spoilage microbiota in complex foods including bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Paulo; Caspers, Martien; Sanders, Jan-Willem; Kemperman, Robèr; Wijman, Janneke; Lommerse, Gijs; Roeselers, Guus; Montijn, Roy; Abee, Tjakko; Kort, Remco

    2015-01-01

    Spoilage of food products is frequently caused by bacterial spores and lactic acid bacteria. Identification of these organisms by classic cultivation methods is limited by their ability to form colonies on nutrient agar plates. In this study, we adapted and optimized 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing for quantification of bacterial spores in a canned food matrix and for monitoring the outgrowth of spoilage microbiota in a ready-to-eat food matrix. The detection limit of bar-coded 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was determined for the number of bacterial spores in a canned food matrix. Analysis of samples from a canned food matrix spiked with a mixture of equinumerous spores from the thermophiles, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, and the mesophiles, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus subtilis, led to the detection of these spores with an average limit of 2 × 10(2) spores ml(-1). The data were normalized by setting the number of sequences resulting from DNA of an inactivated bacterial species, present in the matrix at the same concentration in all samples, to a fixed value for quantitative sample-to-sample comparisons. The 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing method was also employed to monitor population dynamics in a ready-to-eat rice meal, incubated over a period of 12 days at 7 °C. The most predominant outgrowth was observed by the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, and Paenibacillus. Analysis of meals pre-treated with weak acids showed inhibition of outgrowth of these three genera. The specificity of the amplicon synthesis was improved by the design of oligonucleotides that minimize the amplification of 16S rRNA genes from chloroplasts originating from plant-based material present in the food. This study shows that the composition of complex spoilage populations, including bacterial spores, can be monitored in complex food matrices by bar-coded amplicon sequencing in a quantitative manner. In order to allow sample

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Germination of Nosema bombycis Spores under Extremely Alkaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Chen, Bosheng; Hu, Sirui; Liang, Xili; Lu, Xingmeng; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori , causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH > 10.5), which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for microsporidia. Here we show, using an in vitro spore germination model, how the proteome of N. bombycis changes during germination, analyse specific metabolic pathways employed in detail, and validate key functional proteins in vivo in silkworms. By a label-free quantitative proteomics approach that is directly based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) data, a total of 1136 proteins were identified with high confidence, with 127 proteins being significantly changed in comparison to non-germinated spores. Among them, structural proteins including polar tube protein 1 and 3 and spore wall protein (SWP) 4 and 30 were found to be significantly down-regulated, but SWP9 significantly up-regulated. Some nucleases like polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and flap endonucleases 1, together with a panel of hydrolases involved in protein degradation and RNA cleavage were overrepresented too upon germination, which implied that they might play important roles during spore germination. The differentially regulated trends of these genes were validated, respectively, by quantitative RT-PCR and 3 proteins of interest were confirmed by Western blotting analyses in vitro and in vivo . Furthermore, the pathway analysis showed that abundant up- and down-regulations appear involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, purine, and pyrimidine

  17. Quantitative proteomic analysis of germination of Nosema bombycis spores under extremely alkaline conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Shao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The microsporidian Nosema bombycis is an obligate intracellular pathogen of the silkworm Bombyx mori, causing the epidemic disease Pebrine and extensive economic losses in sericulture. Although N. bombycis forms spores with rigid spore walls that protect against various environmental pressures, ingested spores germinate immediately under the extremely alkaline host gut condition (Lepidoptera gut pH >10.5, which is a key developmental turning point from dormant state to infected state. However, to date this process remains poorly understood due to the complexity of the animal digestive tract and the lack of genetic tools for Microsporidia. Here we show, using an in vitro spore germination model, how the proteome of N. bombycis changes during germination, analyse specific metabolic pathways employed in detail, and validate key functional proteins in vivo in silkworms. By a label-free quantitative proteomics approach that is directly based on high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS data, a total of 1136 proteins were identified with high confidence, with 127 proteins being significantly changed in comparison to non-germinated spores. Among them, structural proteins including polar tube protein 1 and 3 and spore wall protein (SWP 4 and 30 were found to be significantly down-regulated, but SWP9 significantly up-regulated. Some nucleases like polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase and flap endonucleases 1, together with a panel of hydrolases involved in protein degradation and RNA cleavage were overrepresented too upon germination, which implied that they might play important roles during spore germination. The differentially regulated trends of these genes were validated respectively by quantitative RT-PCR and 3 proteins of interest were confirmed by Western blotting analyses in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore the pathway analysis showed that abundant up- and down-regulations appear involved in the glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, purine and

  18. Proposals to clarify and enhance the naming of fungi under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three proposals to modify the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants adopted in 2011 with respect to the provisions for fungi are made, in accordance with the wishes of mycologists expressed at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in 2014, and with the support of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), the votes of which are presented here. The proposals relate to: conditions for epitypification, registration of later typifications, protected lists of names, removal of exemptions for lichen-forming fungi, provision of a diagnosis when describing a new taxon, citation of sanctioned names, avoiding homonyms in other kingdoms, ending preference for sexually typified names, and treatment of conspecific names with the same epithet. These proposals are also being published in Taxon, will be considered by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and General Committee on Nomenclature, and voted on at the 19(th) International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in 2017.

  19. Septoglomus fuscum and S. furcatum, two new species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszkowski, Janusz; Chwat, Gerad; Kovacs, Gábor M

    2013-01-01

    Two new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species, (Glomeromycota) Septoglomus fuscum and S. furcatum, are described and illustrated. Spores of S. fuscum usually occur in loose hypogeous clusters, rarely singly in soil or inside roots, and S. furcatum forms only single spores in soil. Spores of S......’s reagent. In the field, S. fuscum was associated with roots of Arctotheca populifolia colonizing maritime dunes located near Strand in South Africa and S. furcatum was associated with Cordia oncocalyx growing in a dry forest in the Ceará State, Brazil. In single-species cultures with Plantago lanceolata...

  20. No evidence for a Ganoderma spore dispersal mutualism in an obligate spore-feeding beetle Zearagytodes maculifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Kohmei; Leschen, Richard A B; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2011-08-01

    The role of spore dispersal mutualism remains equivocal in many fungus-insect assemblages. We tested experimentally whether an obligate spore-feeding beetle Zearagytodes maculifer has a mutualistic relationship with its host bracket fungus Ganoderma cf. applanatum via spore dispersal. We asked three specific questions: (1) whether or not Ganoderma spore germination rate is increased via beetle digestive activity and (2) is dependent on temperature and sporocarp identity. Spore germination rates were examined in 2×3×2 factorial experiments (spores consumed by beetles or not×temperature 20, 25, and 30°C×two independent pairs of sporocarp-beetle populations) replicated five times in an array of 60 experimental cultures. Analysis showed that consumption by beetles significantly reduced germination rate of Ganoderma spores. The effect of temperature was modulated by the effect of individual sporocarp, and was overridden by beetle feeding. Microscopic analysis revealed that spores from beetle faecal pellets exhibited extensive damage to their thin outer walls (pellicles) and thick inner walls, as well as significant loss of cytoplasm, while control spores were intact. The overall evidence argued against our spore dispersal mutualism hypothesis, suggesting that Z. maculifer can potentially exert a negative, if vanishingly small, fitness effect on its host fungus G. cf. applanatum. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Endophytic fungi in elms

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenstein, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    Integrated pest management calls for new biocontrol solutions in management of forest diseases. Endophytic fungi that are commonly found in tree tissue may have potential in biocontrol. However, the links between endophyte status and disease tolerance are still unclear, and we know little about the mechanisms by which the endophytes can influence tree pathogens. The first goal of the thesis was to compare the endophyte status in elm (Ulmus spp.) trees with low vs. high susceptibility t...

  2. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes during Bacillus subtilis Spore Outgrowth in High-Salinity Environments Using RNA Sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagler, Katja; Krawczyk, Antonina O; De Jong, Anne; Madela, Kazimierz; Hoffmann, Tamara; Laue, Michael; Kuipers, Oscar P; Bremer, Erhard; Moeller, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    In its natural habitat, the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis often has to cope with fluctuating osmolality and nutrient availability. Upon nutrient depletion it can form dormant spores, which can revive to form vegetative cells when nutrients become available again. While the effects of salt stress

  3. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. A study of Ganoderma lucidum spores by FTIR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Xianliang; Qi, Zeming; Liu, Xingcun; Li, Weizu; Wang, Shengyi

    2012-06-01

    In order to obtain unique information of Ganoderma lucidum spores, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to study G. lucidum spores from Anhui Province (A), Liaoning Province (B) and Shangdong Province (C) of China. IR micro-spectra were acquired with high-resolution and well-reproducibility. The IR spectra of G. lucidum spores from different areas were similar and mainly made up of the absorption bands of polysaccharide, sterols, proteins, fatty acids, etc. The results of curve fitting indicated the protein secondary structures were dissimilar among the above G. lucidum spores. To identify G. lucidum spores from different areas, the H1078/H1640 value might be a potentially useful factor, furthermore FTIR microspectroscopy could realize this identification efficiently with the help of hierarchical cluster analysis. The result indicates FTIR microspectroscopy is an efficient tool for identification of G. lucidum spores from different areas. The result also suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is a potentially useful tool for the study of TCM.

  5. Large-scale diversity patterns in spore communities of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier Alvarez-Sanchez; Nancy C. Johnson; Anita Antoninka; V. Bala Chaudhary; Matthew K. Lau; Suzanne M. Owen; Patricia Gauadarrama; Silvia. Castillo

    2010-01-01

    Surprising little is known about the factors controlling Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity and distribution patterns. A better understanding of these factors is necessary before mycorrhizas can be effectively managed for their benefits in ecosystem restoration and agriculture. The goal of this chapter is to examine the relationships between AM fungal...

  6. The scope for nuclear selection within Termitomyces fungi associated with fungus-growing termites is limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Tania; Koopmanschap, Bertha; Baars, Johan J P; Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Aanen, Duur K

    2014-06-05

    We investigate the scope for selection at the level of nuclei within fungal individuals (mycelia) of the mutualistic Termitomyces cultivated by fungus-growing termites. Whereas in most basidiomycete fungi the number and kind of nuclei is strictly regulated to be two per cell, in Termitomyces mycelia the number of nuclei per cell is highly variable. We hypothesised that natural selection on these fungi not only occurs between mycelia, but also at the level of nuclei within the mycelium. We test this hypothesis using in vitro tests with five nuclear haplotypes of a Termitomyces species. First, we studied the transition from a mixture of five homokaryons (mycelia with identical nuclei) each with a different nuclear haplotype to heterokaryons (mycelia with genetically different nuclei). In vitro cultivation of this mixture for multiple asexual transfers led to the formation of multiple heterokaryotic mycelia, and a reduction of mycelial diversity over time. All heterokaryotic mycelia contained exactly two types of nucleus. The success of a heterokaryon during in vitro cultivation was mainly determined by spore production and to a lesser extent by mycelial growth rate. Second, heterokaryons invariably produced more spores than homokaryons implying that homokaryons will be outcompeted. Third, no homokaryotic 'escapes' from a heterokaryon via the formation of homokaryotic spores were found, despite extensive spore genotyping. Fourth, in contrast to most studied basidiomycete fungi, in Termitomyces sp. no nuclear migration occurs during mating, limiting the scope for nuclear competition within the mycelium. Our experiments demonstrate that in this species of Termitomyces the scope for selection at the level of the nucleus within an established mycelium is limited. Although 'mate choice' of a particular nuclear haplotype is possible during mating, we infer that selection primarily occurs between mycelia with two types of nucleus (heterokaryons).

  7. Use of an electronic nose for the early detection and differentiation between spoilage fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshri, G; Magan, N; Voysey, P

    1998-11-01

    Six spoilage fungi (four Eurotium species, a Penicillium sp. and Wallemia sebi) were grown as spore lawn surface cultures at 0.95 water activity and 25 degrees C. Prior to and during visible growth (24 and 48, and 72 h), single cultures were enclosed in polyethylene bags, the head space was sampled with an electronic nose unit, consisting of 14 polymer sensors, and the data analysed. There was good replication between volatile patterns of the same species and using principal component, discriminant function and cluster analyses it was possible to differentiate between the agar blanks, three Eurotium spp., the Penicillium sp. and W. sebi during microscopic growth for the first time. This suggests that there is potential for the early detection of the activity of spoilage fungi in general, as well as possible differentiation between related xerophilic spoilage fungi, by detection of the patterns of volatile odours produced using an electronic nose system.

  8. Modeling Radiation Effectiveness for Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES DISSERTATION Emily A. Knight, Major, USAF AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 DEPARTMENT OF THE...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES...EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES Emily A. Knight, B.A., M.S. Major, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. William P. Baker Chair Dr. Larry W

  9. Chitinolytic activity in viable spores of encephalitozoon species

    OpenAIRE

    Schottelius,J; Hünger,F; Schüler,Th; Gonçalves da Costa,SC

    2000-01-01

    By employing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-NN',N"-triacetylchitotriose substrate in a semi quantitative assay, chitinolytic activity in viable spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and E. intestinalis was detected and dependence on reaction time, spore concentration, concentration of substrate and temperature were demonstrated. It was possible to block the chitinolytic activity by chitin hydrolysate. By incubation at 80°C for 10 min or at 55°C for 20 min the spores were loosing the chitinolytic ac...

  10. Analysis of selected fungi variation and its dependence on season and mountain range in southern Poland-key factors in drawing up trial guidelines for aeromycological monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusz, Wojciech; Weber, Ryszard; Dancewicz, Andrzej; Kita, Włodzimierz

    2017-09-27

    The aim of the study was to identify fungal spores, in particular plant pathogenic fungi, occurring in the air in selected mountain ranges. The results revealed not only the array of fungal species migrating with air currents from the Czech Republic and Slovakia but also how the season of the year affects the distribution of spores. Such studies may lay a foundation for future aeromycological monitoring, in accordance with the requirements for integrated plant protection. Aeromycological research was carried out between 2013 and 2016 at 3-month intervals in mountainous areas along the southern borders of Poland: the Bieszczady, the Pieniny, the Giant Mountains (Karkonosze) and the Babia Góra Massif. The research relied on impact method employing Air Ideal 3P sampler, which, by drawing in atmospheric air, also collects fungal spores. Regardless of altitudinal zonation, the changing weather conditions appeared to be the main reason for the variations in the number of the fungal spores under study in those years.

  11. Outdoor fungi and child asthma health service attendances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Rachel; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Taylor, Philip E; Katelaris, Constance H; Vicendese, Don; Abramson, Michael J; Erbas, Bircan

    2014-08-01

    Asthma is a significant global public health issue. Severe asthma exacerbations can be triggered by environmental factors and require medical care from health services. Although it is known that fungal exposure may lead to allergic sensitization, little is understood about its impact on asthma exacerbations. This review aims to examine whether outdoor fungi play a significant role in child asthma exacerbations. Systematic search of seven electronic databases and hand searching for peer-reviewed studies published in English, up to 31 August 2013. Inclusion criteria were study population aged asthma, attended a health service; outdoor fungi exposure was reported. Quality and risk of bias assessments were conducted. Due to significant heterogeneity, meta-analysis was not conducted. Of the 1896 articles found, 15 were eligible. Findings were not consistent, possibly due to methodological variations in exposure classifications, statistical methods and inclusion of confounders. Cross-sectional studies found no or weak associations. All but one time series studies indicated an association that varied between fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that asthmatic children are susceptible to asthma exacerbations when exposed to outdoor fungal spores. There is limited understanding of the contributions of different fungal species. Research is needed to investigate interactions of outdoor fungi with pollen, air pollutants and respiratory viruses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chitinolytic activity in viable spores of encephalitozoon species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Schottelius

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available By employing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-NN',N"-triacetylchitotriose substrate in a semi quantitative assay, chitinolytic activity in viable spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and E. intestinalis was detected and dependence on reaction time, spore concentration, concentration of substrate and temperature were demonstrated. It was possible to block the chitinolytic activity by chitin hydrolysate. By incubation at 80°C for 10 min or at 55°C for 20 min the spores were loosing the chitinolytic activity. Incubation of the spores in trypsin reduced the chitinolytic activity. Cellulase activity could not be detected.

  13. Chitinolytic activity in viable spores of Encephalitozoon species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottelius, J; Hünger, F; Schüler, T; Gonçalves da Costa, S C

    2000-01-01

    By employing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-NN',N"-triacetylchitotriose substrate in a semi quantitative assay, chitinolytic activity in viable spores of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and E. intestinalis was detected and dependence on reaction time, spore concentration, concentration of substrate and temperature were demonstrated. It was possible to block the chitinolytic activity by chitin hydrolysate. By incubation at 80 degrees C for 10 min or at 55 degrees C for 20 min the spores were loosing the chitinolytic activity. Incubation of the spores in trypsin reduced the chitinolytic activity. Cellulase activity could not be detected.

  14. Effects of Chlorine Dioxide on Spore Structural and Functional Properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leighton, Terrance

    2003-01-01

    .... The experimental results described in this report were designed to test this hypothesis. Dormant bacterial endospores are highly birefringent due to the anhydrous nature of the spore cytoplasm...

  15. Results of studies on long-term exposition of dormant forms of various organisms in outer space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Nataliya; Gusev, Oleg; Sugimoto, Manabu; Deshevaya, Elena; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Okuda, Takashi; Orlov, Oleg; Alekseev, Victor; Poddubko, Svetlana; Polikarpov, Nikolay

    The planetary quarantine is one of the key problems of deep space exploration. Risks of the possible transfer of biological objects across interplanetary space should be necessarily assessed during space exploration. The risks associated with a possible transfer of biological objects and primarily microorganisms in interplanetary space is a priority for space studies We can assume, that on the exterior side of both unmanned and manned space stations there can be millions of microbial cells, many of which are in spore forms, the stability of which towards the unfavorable factors is extremely high. However, direct evidence to support this assumption, obtained only in recent years. “Biorisk” is an apparatus designed for conduction of space experiments focused on long-term exposition of latent stages of different forms of organism on the outer side of Russian Segment of International Space Station was developed and used in SSC RF - Institute for Biomedical Problems RAS. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the principle capability of preservation of life capacity in test-cultures of microorganisms during long-term exposure (comparable with the term of interplanetary flight) in space. The first experiment was performed using spores of bacteria (Bacillus) and fungi (Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium) housed in 3 boxes that were exposed to outer space for 7, 12 or 18 months. It was for the first time demonstrated that bacterial and fungal spores could survive an exposure to outer space during the time period comparable with the duration of a return mission to Mars. Moreover, the microbial strains proved viable and highly active. The second experiment was expanded by flying, in addition to the above spores, dormant forms of higher plants, insects, lower crustaceans and vertebrates. The 31-month experiment showed that, in spite of harsher than in the first study temperatures, some specimens remained viable and capable of further multiplication. In

  16. Impact of abiotic factors on development of the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soil: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamiołkowska, Agnieszka; Księżniak, Andrzej; Gałązka, Anna; Hetman, Beata; Kopacki, Marek; Skwaryło-Bednarz, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inhabiting soil play an important role for vascular plants. Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, plants and soil microorganisms leads to many mutual advantages. However, the effectiveness of mycorrhizal fungi depends not only on biotic, but also abiotic factors such as physico-chemical properties of the soil, availability of water and biogenic elements, agricultural practices, and climatic conditions. First of all, it is important to adapt the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species to changing environmental conditions. The compactness of the soil and its structure have a huge impact on its biological activity. Soil pH reaction has a substantial impact on the mobility of ions in soil dilutions and their uptake by plants and soil microflora. Water excess can be a factor negatively affecting arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi because these microorganisms are sensitive to a lower availability of oxygen. Mechanical cultivation of the soil has a marginal impact on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores. However, soil translocation can cause changes to the population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi abundance in the soil profile. The geographical location and topographic differentiation of cultivated soils, as well as the variability of climatic factors affect the population of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the soils and their symbiotic activity.

  17. Distribution and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi associated with ethnomedicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Singh, Garima; Passari, Ajit Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2016-03-01

    Distributions of endophytic fungi associated with ethnomedicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum L. was studied and 91 isolates belonging to 18 genera were recovered. The isolates were distributed to sordariomycetes (62.63%), dothideomycetes (19.78%), eurotiomycetes (7.69%), zygomycetes (4.19%), agaricomycetes (1.09%), and mycelia sterilia (4.39%). Based on colony morphology and examination of spores, the isolates were classified into 18 taxa, of which Colletotrichum, Phomopsis and Phoma were dominant, their relative frequencies were 23.07%, 17.58% and 12.08% respectively. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi was determined and found to be significantly higher in leaf segments (50.76%), followed by root (41.53%) and stem tissues (27.69%). All the isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity and revealed that 26.37% endophytic fungi were active against one or more pathogens. Twenty four isolates showing significant antimicrobial activity were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rRNA gene. Results indicated that endophytic fungi associated with leaf were functionally versatile as they showed antimicrobial activity against most of the tested pathogens. The endophytic fungi Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionalis (KF193982) inhibited all the tested bacterial pathogens, whereas, Penicillium chermesinum (KM405640) displayed most significant antifungal activity. This seems to be the first hand report to understand the distribution and antimicrobial ability of endophytic fungi from ethno-medicinal plant M. malabathricum.

  18. Development of an eco-friendly approach for biogenesis of silver nanoparticles using spores of Bacillus athrophaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Abari, Afrouzossadat; Emtiazi, Giti; Ghasemi, Seyed Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    The biological synthesis methods have been emerging as a promising new approach for production of nanoparticles due to their simplicity and non-toxicity. In the present study, spores of Bacillus athrophaeus were used to achieve the objective of developing a green synthesis method of silver nanoparticles. Enzyme assay revealed that the spores and their heat inactivated forms (microcapsules) were highly active and their enzymatic contents differed from the vegetative cells. Laccase, glucose oxidase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were detected in the dormant forms, but not in the vegetative cells. Although no nanoparticle was produced by active cells of B. athrophaeus, both spores and microcapsules were efficiently capable of reducing the silver ions (Ag⁺) to elemental silver (Ag⁰) leading to the formation of nanoparticles from silver nitrate (AgNO₃). The presence of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by obtaining broad spectra with maximum absorbance at 400 nm in UV-visible spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis pattern revealed that the nanoscale particles have crystalline nature with various topologies, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrograph showed the nanocrystal structures with dimensions ranging from 5 to 30 nm. Accordingly, the spore mixture could be employed as a factory for detoxification of heavy metals and subsequent production of nanoparticles. This research introduces an environmental friendly and cost effective biotechnological process for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the bacterial spores.

  19. The improvement of bioactive secondary metabolites accumulation in Rumex gmelini Turcz through co-culture with endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chang-Hong; Wang, Qian-Bo; Guo, Shenglei; Wang, Zhen-Yue

    Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., and Ramularia sp. were endophytic fungi isolated from Rumex gmelini Turcz (RGT), all of these three strains could produce some similar bioactive secondary metabolites of their host. However the ability to produce active components degraded significantly after cultured these fungi alone for a long time, and were difficult to recover. In order to obtain more bioactive secondary metabolites, the co-culture of tissue culture seedlings of RGT and its endophytic fungi were established respectively, and RGT seedling was selected as producer. Among these fungi, Aspergillus sp. showed the most significant enhancement on bioactive components accumulation in RGT seedlings. When inoculated Aspergillus sp. spores into media of RGT seedlings that had taken root for 20d, and made spore concentration in co-culture medium was 1×10 4 mL -1 , after co-cultured for 12d, the yield of chrysophaein, resveratrol, chrysophanol, emodin and physcion were 3.52-, 3.70-, 3.60-, 4.25-, 3.85-fold of the control group. The extreme value of musizin yield was 0.289mg, which was not detected in the control groups. The results indicated that co-culture with endophytic fungi could significantly enhance bioactive secondary metabolites production of RGT seedlings. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactions of polysporous cultures of antagonistic fungus Peneiphora gigantea (Fr. Massee and some decay fungi of spruce from Stara planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarev Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the control of the fungus Heterobasidion annosum the most frequently applied method is stump treatment with biological preparations containing dehydrated spores of the saprophytic fungus Phlebiopsis gigantea (syn. Peniophora gigantea /Fr./ Massee. In the field, this fungus is a competitor to the fungus Heterobasidion annosum. This paper presents the results of laboratory analyses of interactions of decay fungi isolated from the root and butt of uprooted spruce trees in the Nature Park "Stara Planina", and their relation to the fungus Ph. gigantea. The interactions of these fungi were analyzed at the temperatures of 20°C, 25°C and 30°C.

  1. Study of the antibacterial effects of chitosans on Bacillus cereus (and its spores) by atomic force microscopy imaging and nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Joao C.; Eaton, Peter; Gomes, Ana M.; Pintado, Manuela E.; Xavier Malcata, F.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that is widely distributed in nature. Its intrinsic thermal resistance coupled with the extraordinary resistance against common food preservation techniques makes it one of the most frequent food-poisoning microorganisms causing both intoxications and infections. In order to control B. cereus growth/sporulation, and hence minimize the aforementioned hazards, several antimicrobial compounds have been tested. The aim of this work was to assess by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the relationship between the molecular weight (MW) of chitosan and its antimicrobial activity upon both vegetative and resistance forms of B. cereus. The use of AFM imaging studies helped us to understand how chitosans with different MW act differently upon B. cereus. Higher MW chitosans (628 and 100 kDa) surrounded both forms of B. cereus cells by forming a polymer layer-which eventually led to the death of the vegetative form by preventing the uptake of nutrients yet did not affect the spores since these can survive for extended periods without nutrients. Chitooligosaccharides (COS) (<3 kDa), on the other hand, provoked more visible damages in the B. cereus vegetative form-most probably due to the penetration of the cells by the COS. The use of COS by itself on B. cereus spores was not enough for the destruction of a large number of cells, but it may well weaken the spore structure and its ability to contaminate, by inducing exosporium loss.

  2. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural substrata for corticioid fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene O. Yurchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the types of substrata inhabited by non-poroid resupinate Homobasidiomycetes in situ in global scale with both examples from literature sources and from observations on Belarus corticioid fungi biota. The groups of organic world colonized by corticioid basidiomata and vegetative mycelium are arboreous, semi-arboreous, and herbaceous vascular plants, Bryophyta, epiphytic coccoid algae, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, and occasionally myxomycetes and invertebrates. The fungi occur on living, dying, and dead on all decay stages parts of organisms. Besides, the fungi are known on soil, humus, stones, artificial inorganic and synthetic materials and dung.

  4. Airborne fungal spores of Alternaria, meteorological parameters and predicting variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali Ben Sidel, Farah; Bouziane, Hassan; del Mar Trigo, Maria; El Haskouri, Fatima; Bardei, Fadoua; Redouane, Abdelbari; Kadiri, Mohamed; Riadi, Hassane; Kazzaz, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Alternaria is frequently found as airborne fungal spores and is recognized as an important cause of respiratory allergies. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed using a Burkard volumetric spore traps. To establish predicting variables for daily and weakly spore counts, a stepwise multiple regression between spore concentrations and independent variables (meteorological parameters and lagged values from the series of spore concentrations: previous day or week concentration (Alt t - 1) and mean concentration of the same day or week in other years ( C mean)) was made with data obtained during 2009-2011. Alternaria conidia are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tetouan, although they show important seasonal fluctuations. The highest levels of Alternaria spores were recorded during the spring and summer or autumn. Alternaria showed maximum daily values in April, May or October depending on year. When the spore variables of Alternaria, namely C mean and Alt t - 1, and meteorological parameters were included in the equation, the resulting R 2 satisfactorily predict future concentrations for 55.5 to 81.6 % during the main spore season and the pre-peak 2. In the predictive model using weekly values, the adjusted R 2 varied from 0.655 to 0.676. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results from the expected values and the pre-peak spore data or weekly values for 2012, indicating that there were no significant differences between series compared. This test showed the C mean, Alt t - 1, frequency of the wind third quadrant, maximum wind speed and minimum relative humidity as the most efficient independent variables to forecast the overall trend of this spore in the air.

  5. Airborne fungal spores of Alternaria, meteorological parameters and predicting variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filali Ben Sidel, Farah; Bouziane, Hassan; Del Mar Trigo, Maria; El Haskouri, Fatima; Bardei, Fadoua; Redouane, Abdelbari; Kadiri, Mohamed; Riadi, Hassane; Kazzaz, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Alternaria is frequently found as airborne fungal spores and is recognized as an important cause of respiratory allergies. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed using a Burkard volumetric spore traps. To establish predicting variables for daily and weakly spore counts, a stepwise multiple regression between spore concentrations and independent variables (meteorological parameters and lagged values from the series of spore concentrations: previous day or week concentration (Alt t - 1) and mean concentration of the same day or week in other years (C mean)) was made with data obtained during 2009-2011. Alternaria conidia are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tetouan, although they show important seasonal fluctuations. The highest levels of Alternaria spores were recorded during the spring and summer or autumn. Alternaria showed maximum daily values in April, May or October depending on year. When the spore variables of Alternaria, namely C mean and Alt t - 1, and meteorological parameters were included in the equation, the resulting R (2) satisfactorily predict future concentrations for 55.5 to 81.6 % during the main spore season and the pre-peak 2. In the predictive model using weekly values, the adjusted R (2) varied from 0.655 to 0.676. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results from the expected values and the pre-peak spore data or weekly values for 2012, indicating that there were no significant differences between series compared. This test showed the C mean, Alt t - 1, frequency of the wind third quadrant, maximum wind speed and minimum relative humidity as the most efficient independent variables to forecast the overall trend of this spore in the air.

  6. Inactivation of Aspergillus flavus spores in a sealed package by cold plasma streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Mirzanejhad, S.; Shokri, H.; Nikpour, M.

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the inactivation efficacy of cold streamers in a sealed package on pathogenic fungi Aspergillus flavus ( A. flavus) spores that artificially contaminated pistachio surface. To produce penetrating cold streamers, electric power supply was adapted to deposit adequate power into the package. The plasma streamers were generated by an alternating high voltage with carrier frequency of 12.5 kHz which was suppressed by a modulated pulsed signal at frequency of 110 Hz. The plasma exposition time was varied from 8 to 18 min to show the effect of the plasma treatment on fungal clearance while the electrode and sample remained at room temperature. This proved a positive effect of the cold streamers treatment on fungal clearance. Benefits of deactivation of fungal spores by streamers inside the package include no heating, short treatment time and adaptability to existing processes. Given its ability to ensure the safety and longevity of food products, this technology has great potential for utilization in food packaging and processing industry. In this study, moisture and pH changes of pistachio samples after plasma streamers treatment were also investigated.

  7. Communication in Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Cottier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss fungal communication in the context of fundamental biological functions including mating, growth, morphogenesis, and the regulation of fungal virulence determinants. We will address intraspecies but also interkingdom signaling by systematically discussing the sender of the message, the molecular message, and receiver. Analyzing communication shows the close coevolution of fungi with organisms present in their environment giving insights into multispecies communication. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying microbial communication will promote our understanding of the “fungal communicome.”

  8. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and their influencing factors for aegiceras corniculatum and acanthus ilicifolius in southern china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, W.; Wu, Y.; Xin, G.

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed to explore Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and spore density for Aegiceras corniculatum and Acanthus ilicifolius across five mangrove ecosystems in southern China, focusing mainly on the relationships between AMF and biotic/abiotic factors. Soil physicochemical properties and seawater salinity, as well as the numbers of culturable soil microbes (bacteria, fungi and actinmycetes) were measured to analyze their potential effects on AMF colonization. The results showed that AMF were very common for both plant species in the investigated mangrove ecosystems, and hyphae were the dominant structures for both species. Total AMF colonization rates (TC%) ranged from 0.33% to 36.50%, while the average TC% for A. ilicifolius (13.47%) was slightly higher than for A. corniculatum (9.47%). The average spore density for A. corniculatum was 49.0 spores per 25g air dried soil, and 51.7 for A. ilicifolius. Soil physicochemical analysis showed that soil in mangroves was with high moisture and organic matter content, slightly acidic pH, low levels of total and available P and high levels of N content. Microbial counting experiment recorded high microorganism numbers in mangroves. Data analysis revealed that soil available P content and seawater salinity may be important factors influencing AMF in mangroves. The two mangrove species showed different correlations with microbial numbers, which may illustrate that host plant is a key factor influencing AMF and other microbes. (author)

  10. Mechanisms of humic substances degradation by fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Hadar, Y.; Grinhut, T.

    2012-04-01

    Humic substances (HS) are formed by secondary synthesis reactions (humification) during the decay process and transformation of biomolecules originating from plants and other dead organisms. In nature, HS are extremely resistant to biological degradation. Thus, these substances are major components in the C cycle and in the biosphere and therefore, the understanding of the process leading to their formation and transformation and degradation is vital. Fungi active in the decomposition process of HS include mainly ascomycetes and basidiomycetes that are common in the upper layer of forest and grassland soils. Many basidiomycetes belong to the white-rot fungi (WRF) and litter-decomposing fungi (LDF). These fungi are considered to be the most efficient lignin degraders due to their nonspecific oxidizing enzymes: manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP) and laccase. Although bacteria dominate compost and participate in the turnover of HS, their ability to degrade stable macromolecules such as lignin and HS is limited. The overall objectives of this research were to corroborate biodegradation processes of HS by WRF. The specific objectives were: (i) To isolate, identify and characterize HS degrading WRF from biosolids (BS) compost; (ii) To study the biodegradation process of three types of HS, which differ in their structure, by WRF isolated from BS compost; and (iii) To investigate the mechanisms of HA degradation by WRF using two main approaches: (a) Study the physical and chemical analyses of the organic compounds obtained from direct fungal degradation of HA as well as elucidation of the relevant enzymatic reactions; and (b) Study the enzymatic and biochemical mechanisms involved during HA degradation. In order to study the capability of fungi to degrade HS, seventy fungal strains were isolated from biosolids (BS) compost. Two of the most active fungal species were identified based on rDNA sequences and designated Trametes sp. M23 and Phanerochaetesp., Y6

  11. Contribution of fungal spores to particulate matter in a tropical rainforest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ting; Chan Chuenyu; Zhang Yinan; Zhang Zhisheng; Lin Mang; Sang Xuefang [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Engling, Guenter [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Li, Y D [Institute of Subtropical Forestry, Bureau of Forestry, Guangzhou (China); Li, Yok-Sheung, E-mail: guenter@gate.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: chzy@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2010-04-15

    The polyols arabitol and mannitol, recently proposed as source tracers for fungal spores, were used in this study to estimate fungal contributions to atmospheric aerosol. Airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10}) was collected at Jianfengling Mountain, a tropical rainforest on Hainan Island situated off the south China coast, during spring and analyzed for arabitol and mannitol by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The average concentrations of arabitol and mannitol exhibited high values with averages of 7.0 and 16.0 ng m{sup -3} respectively in PM{sub 2.5} and 44.0 and 71.0 ng m{sup -3} in PM{sub 10}. The two tracers correlated well with each other, especially in the coarse mode aerosol (PM{sub 2.5-10}), indicating they were mainly associated with coarse aerosol particles and had common sources. Arabitol and mannitol in PM{sub 10} showed significant positive correlations with relative humidity, as well as positive correlations with average temperature, suggesting a wet emissions mechanism of biogenic aerosol in the form of fungal spores. We made estimations of the contribution of fungal spores to ambient PM mass and to organic carbon, based on the observed ambient concentrations of these two tracers. The relative contributions of fungal spores to the PM{sub 10} mass were estimated to range from 1.6 to 18.2%, with a rather high mean value of 7.9%, and the contribution of fungal spores to organic carbon in PM{sub 10} ranged from 4.64 to 26.1%, with a mean value of 12.1%, implying that biological processes are important sources of atmospheric aerosol.

  12. The dawn of symbiosis between plants and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidartondo, Martin I; Read, David J; Trappe, James M; Merckx, Vincent; Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G

    2011-08-23

    The colonization of land by plants relied on fundamental biological innovations, among which was symbiosis with fungi to enhance nutrient uptake. Here we present evidence that several species representing the earliest groups of land plants are symbiotic with fungi of the Mucoromycotina. This finding brings up the possibility that terrestrialization was facilitated by these fungi rather than, as conventionally proposed, by members of the Glomeromycota. Since the 1970s it has been assumed, largely from the observation that vascular plant fossils of the early Devonian (400 Ma) show arbuscule-like structures, that fungi of the Glomeromycota were the earliest to form mycorrhizas, and evolutionary trees have, until now, placed Glomeromycota as the oldest known lineage of endomycorrhizal fungi. Our observation that Endogone-like fungi are widely associated with the earliest branching land plants, and give way to glomeromycotan fungi in later lineages, raises the new hypothesis that members of the Mucoromycotina rather than the Glomeromycota enabled the establishment and growth of early land colonists. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  13. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: Quantification of Bacterial Replication within Cadavers, Transmission via Cannibalism, and Inhibition of Spore Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  14. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. The Role of the Electrostatic Force in Spore Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic force is investigated as one of the components of the adhesion force between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores and planar surfaces. The surface potentials of a Bt spore and a mica surface are experimentally obtained using a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)-scanning surface potential microscopy technique. On the basis of experimental information, the surface charge density of the spores is estimated at 0.03 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} at 20% relative humidity and decreases with increasing humidity. The Coulombic force is introduced for the spore-mica system (both charged, nonconductive surfaces), and an electrostatic image force is introduced to the spore-gold system because gold is electrically conductive. The Coulombic force for spore-mica is repulsive because the components are similarly charged, while the image force for the spore-gold system is attractive. The magnitude of both forces decreases with increasing humidity. The electrostatic forces are added to other force components, e.g., van der Waals and capillary forces, to obtain the adhesion force for each system. The adhesion forces measured by AFM are compared to the estimated values. It is shown that the electrostatic (Coulombic and image) forces play a significant role in the adhesion force between spores and planar surfaces.

  16. Survival of Clostridium difficile spores at low water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Talukdar, Prabhat K; Sarker, Mahfuzur R; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Torres, J Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium difficile is frequently found in meat and meat products. Germination efficiency, defined as colony formation, was previously investigated at temperatures found in meat handling and processing for spores of strain M120 (animal isolate), R20291 (human isolate), and DK1 (beef isolate). In this study, germination efficiency of these spore strains was assessed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, a w ∼1.00), commercial beef jerky (a w ∼0.82/0.72), and a w -adjusted PBS (a w ∼0.82/0.72). Surface hydrophobicity was followed for spores stored in PBS. After three months and for all PBS a w levels tested, M120 and DK1 spores showed a ∼1 decimal reduction in colony formation but this was not the case when kept in beef jerky suggesting a protective food matrix effect. During storage, and with no significant a w effect, an increase in colony formation was observed for R20291 spores kept in PBS (∼2 decimal log increase) and beef jerky (∼1 decimal log increase) suggesting a loss of spore superdormancy. For all strains, no significant changes in spore surface hydrophobicity were observed after storage. Collectively, these results indicate that depending on the germination properties of C. difficile spores and the media properties, their germination efficiency may increase or decrease during long term food storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores adhered to stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Leeuw, de P.P.L.A.; Moezelaar, R.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Vries, de Y.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Adhered spores of Bacillus cereus represent a significant part of the surface-derived contamination in processing equipment used in the dairy industry. As germinated spores lose their resistance capacities instantaneously, efficient germination prior to a cleaning in place treatment could aid to the

  18. Inhibition of spore germination of Alternaria tenuis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couey, H.M.

    1962-08-01

    As a part of a continuing study of SO/sub 2/ fumigation of table grapes, the effect of SO/sub 2/ on spores of an isolate of A. tenuis Auct. causing decay of table grapes was determined. The amount of SO/sub 2/ required to inhibit completely spore germination depended on availability of moisture and the temperature. At 20/sup 0/C, wet spores required 20-min exposure to 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ to prevent germination, but spores equilibrated at 90% relative humidity (RH) required 10-min exposure to 1000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Dry spores at 60% RH were unaffected by a 20-min exposure to 4000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Increasing the temperature in the range 5-20/sup 0/C increased effectiveness of the SO/sub 2/ treatment. A comparison of Alternaria with Botrytis cinerea Fr. (studied earlier) showed that wet spores of these organisms were about equally sensitive to SO/sub 2/, but that dry Alternaria spores were more resistant to SO/sub 2/ than dry Botrytis spores under comparable conditions.

  19. Macroalgal spore dysfunction: ocean acidification delays and weakens adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Rebecca; Miklasz, Kevin; Carrington, Emily; Martone, Patrick T

    2018-04-01

    Early life stages of marine organisms are predicted to be vulnerable to ocean acidification. For macroalgae, reproduction and population persistence rely on spores to settle, adhere and continue the algal life cycle, yet the effect of ocean acidification on this critical life stage has been largely overlooked. We explicitly tested the biomechanical impact of reduced pH on early spore adhesion. We developed a shear flume to examine the effect of reduced pH on spore attachment time and strength in two intertidal rhodophyte macroalgae, one calcified (Corallina vancouveriensis) and one noncalcified (Polyostea robusta). Reduced pH delayed spore attachment of both species by 40%-52% and weakened attachment strength in C. vancouveriensis, causing spores to dislodge at lower flow-induced shear forces, but had no effect on the attachment strength of P. robusta. Results are consistent with our prediction that reduced pH disrupts proper curing and gel formation of spore adhesives (anionic polysaccharides and glycoproteins) via protonation and cation displacement, although experimental verification is needed. Our results demonstrate that ocean acidification negatively, and differentially, impacts spore adhesion in two macroalgae. If results hold in field conditions, reduced ocean pH has the potential to impact macroalgal communities via spore dysfunction, regardless of the physiological tolerance of mature thalli. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Live-imaging of Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium cause huge economic losses to the food industry. In food products, spores survive under food preservation conditions and subsequent germination and outgrowth eventually causes food spoilage. Therefore efforts are being made to

  1. Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    effect of SWNTs in combination with antimicrobial chemicals on inactivation of B. anthracis spores; 4) the effect of CNTs coated surfaces on the...2010 31-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: (Life Science Division/ Biochemistry ) Inactivation of Bacillus... Biochemistry ) Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes Report Title The Specific Aims of the project were to investigate: 1) the

  2. Breaking the spores of Ganoderma lucidum by fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, fermentation of G. lucidum with Lactobacillus plantarum was applied to break down the sporoderm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the spores. The broken spores were found on the 3rd day and complete breaking on the 5th day of fermentation. Lactic acid, acetic acid and ...

  3. Sensitivity of Dormant and Germinating B, Anthracis Spores to Polycationic Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    practical problems such as food spoilage , degradation of industrial materials, and "sick building syndrome" resulting from colonization of ventilation systems...species of Clostridium and Bacillus are of concern to the food industry due to their potential for spoilage of or toxin production in improperly...1.2. While most spore-forming bacterial species are classified as non-pathogenic or opportunistically pathogenic, Bacillus anthracis is well-known a

  4. Occurrence and ecological distribution of Heat Resistant Moulds Spores (HRMS) in raw materials used by food industry and thermal characterization of two Talaromyces isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquillini, Roberta; Scaramuzza, Nicoletta; Berni, Elettra

    2017-02-02

    In this study, screening of some raw materials used to produce pasteurized products was carried out to determine the occurrence and ecological distribution of heat-resistant fungi. The search for Heat Resistant Mould Spores (HRMS) resulted in the isolation of a limited number of fungal genera: Arthrinium, Aspergillus with either Eurotium-type or Neosartorya-type ascoma, Byssochlamys, Hyphodermella, Monascus, Penicillium, Rasamsonia, Talaromyces and Thermoascus. Sexual aspergilli constituted an overwhelming percentage of the mycobiota, totaling 93.5% of the heat-resistant fungi detected, and being the only fungi to be simultaneously detected in discrete concentrations on almost all matrices found positive for HRMS. Talaromyces spp., Penicillium spp. and Monascus sp. occurred at low percentages (up to 2.1%), though they were the most commonly occurring genera in lemon cells (Talaromyces, Monascus) and blueberries (Penicillium spp.). Among these isolates, two Talaromyces spp. (T. trachyspermus and T. bacillisporus) were tested for heat-resistance in both blueberry and grape juice or in buffered glucose solution, in order to assess their D- and z-values. Data obtained from thermal death curves and statistical elaboration of raw data showed that D-values of T. trachyspermus ranged between 50.0 and 90.9min at 75°C; 13.6 and 20.8min at 78°C; 5.1 and 12.4min at 80°C; 1.6 and 2.6min at 82°C. D values of T. bacillisporus ranged between 44.4 and 60.9min at 82°C; 11.9 and 15.5min at 85°C; 2.7 and 4.1min at 88°C and were equal to 1.2min at 91°C, depending on the medium. The heating times needed for inactivation were comparable to those applied to most heat-resistant species, but significantly lower than those applied to Talaromyces macrosporus or less common ascospore-forming fungal species such as Hamigera avellanea and Thermoascus crustaceus. Therefore, a traditional pasteurization process would be insufficient to avoid potential spoilage problems with T

  5. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Negero; Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-05-01

    To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  6. Presence survival spores of Bacillus thuringiensis varieties in grain warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genus Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt synthesized spores and crystals toxic to pest-insects in agriculture. Bt is comospolitan then possible to isolate some subspecies or varieties from warehouse. The aims of study were: i to isolate Bt varieties from grain at werehouse ii to evaluate Bt toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda and Shit-ophilus zeamaisese iii to analyze Bt spores persistence in Zea mays grains at werehouse compared to same Bt on grains exposed to sun radiation. Results showed that at werehouse were recovered more than one variety of Bt spores. According to each isolate Bt1 o Bt2 were toxic to S. frugiperda or S. zeamaisese. One those Bt belong to var morrisoni. At werehouse these spores on Z. mays grains surviving more time, while the same spores exposed to boicide sun radiation they died.

  7. Urediospores of rust fungi are ice nucleation active at > -10 °C and harbor ice nucleation active bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C. E.; Sands, D. C.; Glaux, C.; Samsatly, J.; Asaad, S.; Moukahel, A. R.; Gonçalves, F. L. T.; Bigg, E. K.

    2013-04-01

    Various features of the biology of the rust fungi and of the epidemiology of the plant diseases they cause illustrate the important role of rainfall in their life history. Based on this insight we have characterized the ice nucleation activity (INA) of the aerially disseminated spores (urediospores) of this group of fungi. Urediospores of this obligate plant parasite were collected from natural infections of 7 species of weeds in France, from coffee in Brazil and from field and greenhouse-grown wheat in France, the USA, Turkey and Syria. Immersion freezing was used to determine freezing onset temperatures and the abundance of ice nuclei in suspensions of washed spores. Microbiological analyses of spores from France, the USA and Brazil, and subsequent tests of the ice nucleation activity of the bacteria associated with spores were deployed to quantify the contribution of bacteria to the ice nucleation activity of the spores. All samples of spores were ice nucleation active, having freezing onset temperatures as high as -4 °C. Spores in most of the samples carried cells of ice nucleation-active strains of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (at rates of less than 1 bacterial cell per 100 urediospores), but bacterial INA accounted for only a small fraction of the INA observed in spore suspensions. Changes in the INA of spore suspensions after treatment with lysozyme suggest that the INA of urediospores involves a polysaccharide. Based on data from the literature, we have estimated the concentrations of urediospores in air at cloud height and in rainfall. These quantities are very similar to those reported for other biological ice nucleators in these same substrates. However, at cloud level convective activity leads to widely varying concentrations of particles of surface origin, so that mean concentrations can underestimate their possible effects on clouds. We propose that spatial and temporal concentrations of biological ice nucleators active at temperatures > -10

  8. Fungi that cause rot in bunches of grape identified in adult fruit flies (Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Machota Jr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann is the main species of frugivorous insect that damages berries of table grape (Vitis vinifera L. in Southern Brazil. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungi associated with bunch rot present in the body of adults of A. fraterculus collected in a commercial vineyard. From January to February 2011, adults of A. fraterculus were collected from a commercial vineyard of green grapes using adapted McPhail traps. In laboratory, flies bodies were divided into four parts (head, legs, wings, and ovipositor in Petri dishes with PDA medium to evaluate microorganisms associated. Six adult females of A. fraterculus collected in the field were also analyzed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM to identify spores of fungi. Phytopathogenic microorganisms were found in all sectioned parts. Fungal spores were recorded adhered to the body of adult females of A. fraterculus. The main species of fungi found in the body parts of A. fraterculus were Cladosporium spp. (20.2% of the obtained colonies, Botrytis cinerea Pers. (12.9%, Colletotrichum spp. (10.1%, Penicillium spp. (10.1%, Fusarium spp. (7.7%, followed by Rhizopus spp., Trichoderma spp. and Aspergillus spp., suggesting that the insect can serve as a mechanical vector of spores increasing damage in the vineyards.

  9. Plant biomass degradation by fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Donofrio, Nicole; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation by fungi has implications for several fields of science. The enzyme systems employed by fungi for this are broadly used in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, pulp & paper, detergents, textile, wine, and more recently biofuels and biochemicals. In addition, the

  10. Molecular Systematics of Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect parasitism has multiple and diverse origins within the Kingdom Fungi, with shifts to trophic specialization on insects having evolved one or more times in each of the four traditionally recognized phyla of fungi, the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. The rich legacy ...

  11. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in saline soils: vertical distribution at different soil depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Becerra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonize land plants in every ecosystem, even extreme conditions such as saline soils. In the present work we report for the first time the mycorrhizal status and the vertical fungal distribution of AMF spores present in the rhizospheric soil samples of four species of Chenopodiaceae (Allenrolfea patagonica, Atriplex argentina, Heterostachys ritteriana and Suaeda divaricata at five different depths in two saline of central Argentina. Roots showed medium, low or no colonization (0-50%. Nineteen morphologically distinctive AMF species were recovered. The number of AMF spores ranged between 3 and 1162 per 100 g dry soil, and AMF spore number decreased as depth increased at both sites. The highest spore number was recorded in the upper soil depth (0-10 cm and in S. divaricata. Depending of the host plant, some AMF species sporulated mainly in the deep soil layers (Glomus magnicaule in Allenrolfea patagonica, Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Atriplex argentina, others mainly in the top layers (G. brohultti in Atriplex argentina and Septoglomus aff. constrictum in Allenrolfea patagonica. Although the low percentages of colonization or lack of it, our results show a moderate diversity of AMF associated to the species of Chenopodiaceae investigated in this study. The taxonomical diversity reveals that AMF are adapted to extreme environmental conditions from saline soils of central Argentina.

  13. Inoculum production of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to soils under different forest covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Soares dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low natural fertility of Brazilian soils requires the use of inoculants that facilitate the absorption of nutrients by plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi such as obligatory biotrophics of active roots perform this function, but access to this resource is limited by the difficulty in producing inoculants. The objective of this study was to investigate the production of AMF inoculants native of soils under different forest covers in Vitória da Conquista, BA, by means of spore quantification, colonization rate and species identification. For this purpose, soils were collected from sites under Mata Nativa (native forest and plantations of Madeira Nova (Pterogyne nitens and Eucalyptus, placed into separate 500 mL disposable cups with seeds of Brachiaria sp. and cultivated for five months. Spores were quantified and the AMF species identified in the control soil (without brachiaria and in the cups cultivated with brachiaria at each month. From the first month, the colonization rate of brachiaria roots was evaluated. The inoculants produced showed differences in the number of spores and species, in the AMF species identified, and in the root colonization rate as a function of the forest cover. Thus, considering the increase in the number of spores, species and colonization over time, the inoculant produced from the soil under native forest was more promising for utilization.

  14. Role played by exosporium glycoproteins in the surface properties of Bacillus cereus spores and in their adhesion to stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequette, Yannick; Garénaux, Estelle; Tauveron, Grégoire; Dumez, Sylvain; Perchat, Stéphane; Slomianny, Christian; Lereclus, Didier; Guérardel, Yann; Faille, Christine

    2011-07-01

    Bacillus cereus spores are surrounded by a loose-fitting layer called the exosporium, whose distal part is mainly formed from glycoproteins. The role played by the exosporium glycoproteins of B. cereus ATCC 14579 (BclA and ExsH) was investigated by considering hydrophobicity and charge, as well as the properties of spore adhesion to stainless steel. The absence of BclA increased both the isoelectric point (IEP) and hydrophobicity of whole spores while simultaneously reducing the interaction between spores and stainless steel. However, neither the hydrophobicity nor the charge associated with BclA could explain the differences in the adhesion properties. Conversely, ExsH, another exosporium glycoprotein, did not play a significant role in spore surface properties. The monosaccharide analysis of B. cereus ATCC 14579 showed different glycosylation patterns on ExsH and BclA. Moreover, two specific glycosyl residues, namely, 2-O-methyl-rhamnose (2-Me-Rha) and 2,4-O-methyl-rhamnose (2,4-Me-Rha), were attached to BclA, in addition to the glycosyl residues already reported in B. anthracis.

  15. The Exosporium of B.cereus Contains a Binding Site for gC1qR/p33: Implication in Spore Attachment and/or Entry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GHEBREHIWET,B.; TANTRAL, L.; TITMUS, M.A.; PANESSA-WARREN, B.J.; TORTORA, G.T.; WONG, S.S.; WARREN, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    B. cereus, is a member of a genus of aerobic, gram-positive, spore-forming rod-like bacilli, which includes the deadly, B. anthracis. Preliminary experiments have shown that gC1qR binds to B.cereus spores that have been attached to microtiter plates. The present studies were therefore undertaken, to examine if cell surface gC1qR plays a role in B.cereus spore attachment and/or entry. Monolayers of human colon carcinoma (Caco-2) and lung cells were grown to confluency on 6 mm coverslips in shell vials with gentle swirling in a shaker incubator. Then, 2 {micro}l of a suspension of strain SB460 B.cereus spores (3x10{sup 8}/ml, in sterile water), were added and incubated (1-4 h; 36{sup 0} C) in the presence or absence of anti-gC1qR mAb-carbon nanoloops. Examination of these cells by EM revealed that: (1) When B. cereus endospores contacted the apical Caco-2 cell surface, or lung cells, gClqR was simultaneously detectable, indicating upregulation of the molecule. (2) In areas showing spore contact with the cell surface, gClqR expression was often adjacent to the spores in association with microvilli (Caco-2 cells) or cytoskeletal projections (lung cells). (3) Furthermore, the exosporia of the activated and germinating spores were often decorated with mAb-nanoloops. These observations were further corroborated by experiments in which B.cereus spores were readily taken up by monocytes and neutrophils, and this uptake was partially inhibited by mAb 60.11, which recognizes the C1q binding site on gC1qR. Taken together, the data suggest a role, for gC1qR at least in the initial stages of spore attachment and/or entry.

  16. Functional characterisation of germinant receptors in Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes presents novel insights into spore germination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Jason; Plowman, June; Gaskin, Duncan J H; Itchner, Manoa; Carter, Andrew T; Peck, Michael W

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a dangerous pathogen that forms the highly potent botulinum toxin, which when ingested causes a deadly neuroparalytic disease. The closely related Clostridium sporogenes is occasionally pathogenic, frequently associated with food spoilage and regarded as the non-toxigenic equivalent of Group I C. botulinum. Both species form highly resistant spores that are ubiquitous in the environment and which, under favourable growth conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is imperative to comprehend the mechanisms by which spores germinate. Germination is initiated following the recognition of small molecules (germinants) by a specific germinant receptor (GR) located in the spore inner membrane. The present study precisely defines clostridial GRs, germinants and co-germinants. Group I C. botulinum ATCC3502 contains two tricistronic and one pentacistronic GR operons, while C. sporogenes ATCC15579 has three tricistronic and one tetracistronic GR operons. Insertional knockout mutants, allied with characterisation of recombinant GRs shows for the first time that amino acid stimulated germination in C. botulinum requires two tri-cistronic encoded GRs which act in synergy and cannot function individually. Spore germination in C. sporogenes requires one tri-cistronic GR. Two other GRs form part of a complex involved in controlling the rate of amino-acid stimulated germination. The suitability of using C. sporogenes as a substitute for C. botulinum in germination studies and food challenge tests is discussed.

  17. Characterization of Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 spores; putative indicator microorganism for optimisation of thermal processes in food sterilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijlen, A.; Periago, P.M.; Amézquita, A.; Palop, A.; Brul, S.; Fernández, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Spore-forming bacteria with high heat resistance increasingly challenge industrial sterilisation processes in foods. To ensure stability of manufactured foods, generally worst case scenarios are applied often leading to unwanted over processing of foods. This means bigger requirements of energy and

  18. Impact of sorbic acid and other mild preservation stresses on germination and outgrowth of Bacillus cereus spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, van C.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Weak organic acids such as sorbic acid, lactate, and acetic acid are widely used by the food industry as preservatives to control growth of micro-organisms. With the current trend towards milder processing of food products, opportunities arise for spore-forming spoilage and pathogenic

  19. Impact of sorbic acid and other mild preservation stresses on germination and outgrowth of Bacillus cereus spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melis, van C.C.J.

    2013-01-01

      Weak organic acids such as sorbic acid, lactate, and acetic acid are widely used by the food industry as preservatives to control growth of micro-organisms. With the current trend towards milder processing of food products, opportunities arise for spore-forming spoilage and pathogenic

  20. Antifungal Activities of Extracts from Selected Lebanese Wild Plants against Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Abou-Jawdah

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of nine plant species growing wild in Lebanon were tested for their efficacy against seven plant pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis, Rhizoctonia solani and Sphaerotheca cucurbitae. Extracts of three of the plants, Origanum syriacum, Micromeria nervosa and Plumbago maritima, showed the highest levels of in vitro activity against spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungi tested. Inula viscosa showed high activity against spore germination but only moderate activity against mycelial growth. The other five plant species tested Calamintha origanifolia, Micromeria juliana, Ruta sp., Sideritis pullulans and Urginea maritima showed only moderate to low activity against these fungi. Preventive sprays with extracts of O. syriacum, M. nervosa, P. maritima and I. viscosa, applied at concentrations ranging between 4 and 8% to squash and cucumber seedlings, gave efficient protection against gray mold caused by B. cinerea and powdery mildew caused by S. cucurbitae. However, these extracts did not control green mold of citrus fruits caused by Penicillium sp. Thin layer chromatography revealed three inhibitory bands in extracts of O. syriacum, two in I. viscosa and only one in each of the other plants tested: M. nervosa, P. maritima, C. origanifolia and Ruta sp.

  1. Fungal secondary metabolites as inhibitors of infection-related morphogenesis in phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thines, Eckhard; Anke, Heidrun; Weber, Roland W S

    2004-01-01

    The life-cycle of many plant-pathogenic fungi, especially those infecting aerial plant organs, contains several specific developmental stages. If these are sufficiently distinct in their physiology from vegetative hyphal growth, they present potential targets for non-fungitoxic plant protectants. The present review identifies such targets especially in the pre-penetration stages of the infection cycle of Magnaporthe grisea and other fungi infecting from air-borne spores. Examples of non-toxic natural products with activity against spore germination, attachment, appressorium formation, appressorium maturation and penetration of the host surface are given. In contrast, no substances selectively active against in planta growth or sporulation appear to be known. The selective activity of numerous secondary metabolites against specific infection stages without accompanying toxicity against vegetatively growing hyphae indicates a direction for the development of future natural product-derived fungicides which are more easily degraded in the environment and possess fewer non-target effects. Such substances are produced by many saprotrophic and endophytic fungi in pure culture. The paucity of data on the production of biologically active substances in natural situations limits the interpretation of their ecophysiological significance for the producer.

  2. Novel Microbial Sources of Tropane Alkaloids: First Report of Production by Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Datura metel L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Tanushree; Vanitha, Shanadrahalli Chandrashekaraiah; Rajvanshi, Pradumn Kumar; Chandrika, Manjegowda; Kamalraj, Subban; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2018-02-01

    Eighteen endophytic fungi were isolated from various tissues of Datura metel and genes encoding for putrescine N-methyltransferase (PMT), tropinone reductase 1 (TR1) and hyoscyamine 6β-hydroxylase (H6H) were used as molecular markers for PCR-based screening approach for tropane alkaloids (TAs) producing endophytic fungi. These fungi were identified taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and also based on morphological characteristics of the fungal spore as Colletotrichum boninense, Phomopsis sp., Fusarium solani, Colletotrichum incarnatum, Colletotrichum siamense and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The production of TAs hyoscyamine and scopolamine by the fungi has been ascertained using chromatography and spectroscopy methods by comparison with the standards. Among the fungi, the highest yields of hyoscyamine (3.9 mg/L) and scopolamine (4.1 mg/L) were found in C. incarnatum culture. This is the first report of endophytic fungi possess the PMT, TR1 and H6H genes and produces TAs. These endophytic fungi have significant potential to be applied in fermentation technology to meet the demands for TAs economically.

  3. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.

  4. Microbiological analysis of coliforms and mesophilic aerobic spore formers in gamma irradiated cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barata, Anderson Demetrio; Mansur Netto, Elias

    1995-01-01

    The presence of coliforms in processed foods is an useful indicator of post-sanitization and post processing contamination, and members of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers have great importance in food spoilage. Spore - forming aerobic bacilli have been observed in fermenting cocoa in Jamaica and West Africa. The results of this work has shown a considerable reduction of the mesophilic aerobic spore formers in irradiated Brazilian Comun Cocoa beans as long as the irradiation dose was increased from 1.05 to 3.99 kGy. The presence of coliforms irradiated has not been found even in the coroa beans with the dose of 1.05 kGy. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  5. Germination Requirements of Bacillus macerans Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, L. E.; Thompson, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    2-Phenylacetamide is an effective germinant for spores of five strains of Bacillus macerans, particularly in the presence of fructose. Benzyl penicillin, the phenyl acetamide derivative of penicillin, and phenylacetic acid are also good germinants. l-Asparagine is an excellent germinant for four strains. α-Amino-butyric acid is moderately effective. Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, adenine, and 2,6-diaminopurine are potent germinants for NCA strain 7X1 only. d-Glucose is a powerful germinant for strain B-70 only. d-Fructose and d-ribose strongly potentiate germination induced by other germinants (except l-asparagine) but have only weak activity by themselves. Niacinamide and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, inactive by themselves, are active in the presence of fructose or ribose. Effects of pH, ion concentration, and temperature are described. PMID:4251279

  6. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  7. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-24

    Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  8. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb. Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  9. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, M.A.; Abas, A.A.; Ibrahium, A.A.; Salem, H.; Gabarty, A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc 50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  10. Germination and inactivation of Bacillus coagulans and Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores by high hydrostatic pressure treatment in buffer and tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercammen, Anne; Vivijs, Bram; Lurquin, Ine; Michiels, Chris W

    2012-01-16

    Acidothermophilic bacteria like Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris and Bacillus coagulans can cause spoilage of heat-processed acidic foods because they form spores with very high heat resistance and can grow at low pH. The objective of this work was to study the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris and B. coagulans spores by high hydrostatic pressure (HP) treatment at temperatures up to 60°C and both at low and neutral pH. In a first experiment, spores suspended in buffers at pH 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0 were processed for 10min at different pressures (100-800MPa) at 40°C. None of these treatments caused any significant inactivation, except perhaps at 800MPa in pH 4.0 buffer where close to 1 log inactivation of B. coagulans was observed. Spore germination up to about 2 log was observed for both bacteria but occurred mainly in a low pressure window (100-300MPa) for A. acidoterrestris and only in a high pressure window (600-800MPa) for B. coagulans. In addition, low pH suppressed germination in A. acidoterrestris, but stimulated it in B. coagulans. In a second series of experiments, spores were treated in tomato sauce of pH 4.2 and 5.0 at 100 - 800MPa at 25, 40 and 60°C for 10min. At 40°C, results for B. coagulans were similar as in buffer. For A. acidoterrestris, germination levels in tomato sauce were generally higher than in buffer, and showed little difference at low and high pressure. Remarkably, the pH dependence of A. acidoterrestris spore germination was reversed in tomato sauce, with more germination at the lowest pH. Furthermore, HP treatments in the pH 4.2 sauce caused between 1 and 1.5 log inactivation of A. acidoterrestris. Germination of spores in the high pressure window was strongly temperature dependent, whereas germination of A. acidoterrestris in the low pressure window showed little temperature dependence. When HP treatment was conducted at 60°C, most of the germinated spores were also inactivated. For the pH 4.2 tomato sauce, this

  11. Dynamic phase microscopy, a new method to detect viable and killed spores and to estimate the heterogeneity of spore populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Mulyukin, Andrey L.; Lisovskii, Vitalii V.; Nikolaev, Yury A.; Kretushev, Aleksander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatyana V.; Suzina, Nataliya E.; Duda, Vitalii I.; El-Registan, Galina I.

    One of the challenging tasks in monitoring studies is to estimate heterogeneity of microbial populations by the physiological state and potential viability of individual cells, especially with regard of their ability to withstand various environmental assaults. Previously, we described some approaches based on electron microscopy methods to discriminate vegetative, dormant, and dead cells in both aged microbial cultures and environmental samples, including permafrost. We propose to extend the arsenal of microscopy methods for monitoring studies by a new non-invasive and informative method - dynamic phase microscopy (DPM). The substantial advantage of DPM is that it gives quantitative (digitized) data of undestroyed (living) microscopic objects, exemplified in our work by Bacillus licheniformis spores. Using DPM made it possible to record interference images of objects (spores) and to produce picture of their "phase thickness" (PT) that is the optical path difference in nm. Thus, it was demonstrated the remarkable difference in the PT of spores at different physiological states: dormant, germinating, and heat-killed spores had PT values of 80, 40-50, and 20 nm, respectively. The other found criterion to distinguish between spores was the PT fluctuations. In contrast to dormant and killed spores, the PT of germinating spores oscillated with amplitude of up to 7 nm, with typical frequencies of 1.3 and 3.4 Hz. A combination of the recorded PT values and PT fluctuations gave a key to detect viable and dead cells. Under the conditions that did not support germination (the lack of nutrients), we were able to follow the response of a single dormant spore and a spore population to heating from 25 °C to 70 °C. Thus, a very small temperature change (from 40 °C to 42 °C) under conditions non-favorable for germination, caused a drastic decrease in the spores' PT; the second drop in the PT values was observed during heating from 60 °C to 70 °C. These changes were

  12. Reduced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds in the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi or their exudates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Louarn

    Full Text Available Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana.

  13. Reduced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds in the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi or their exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana.

  14. Plant Identity Exerts Stronger Effect than Fertilization on Soil Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Sown Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong; Chen, Liang; Luo, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Shi-Ping; Guo, Liang-Dong

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play key roles in plant nutrition and plant productivity. AM fungal responses to either plant identity or fertilization have been investigated. However, the interactive effects of different plant species and fertilizer types on these symbiotic fungi remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of the factorial combinations of plant identity (grasses Avena sativa and Elymus nutans and legume Vicia sativa) and fertilization (urea and sheep manure) on AM fungi following 2-year monocultures in a sown pasture field study. AM fungal extraradical hyphal density was significantly higher in E. nutans than that in A. sativa and V. sativa in the unfertilized control and was significantly increased by urea and manure in A. sativa and by manure only in E. nutans, but not by either fertilizers in V. sativa. AM fungal spore density was not significantly affected by plant identity or fertilization. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of AM fungi were obtained through 454 pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA. The OTU richness and Shannon diversity index of AM fungi were significantly higher in E. nutans than those in V. sativa and/or A. sativa, but not significantly affected by any fertilizer in all of the three plant species. AM fungal community composition was significantly structured directly by plant identity only and indirectly by both urea addition and plant identity through soil total nitrogen content. Our findings highlight that plant identity has stronger influence than fertilization on belowground AM fungal community in this converted pastureland from an alpine meadow.

  15. Perspectives on the potential of entomopathogenic fungi in biological control of ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P; Roberts, Donald W

    2012-03-01

    Ticks are serious health threats for humans, and both domestic and wild animals. Ticks are controlled mostly by application of chemical products; but these acaricides have several negative side effects, including toxicity to animals, environmental contamination, and induction of chemical resistance in some tick populations. Entomopathogenic fungi infect arthropods in nature and can occur at enzootic or epizootic levels in their host populations. Laboratory studies clearly demonstrate that these fungi can cause high mortality in all developmental stages of several tick species, and also reduce oviposition of infected engorged females. Tick mortality following application of fungi in the field, however, often is less than that suggested by laboratory tests. This is due to many negative biotic and climatic factors. To increase efficacy of fungal agents for biological control of ticks under natural conditions, several points need consideration: (1) select effective isolates (viz., high virulence; and tolerance to high temperature, ultraviolet radiation and desiccation); (2) understand the main factors that affect virulence of fungal isolates to their target arthropods including the role of toxic metabolites of the fungal isolates; and (3) define with more precision the immune response of ticks to infection by entomopathogenic fungi. The current study reviews recent literature on biological control of ticks, and comments on the relevance of these results to advancing the development of fungal biocontrol agents, including improving formulation of fungal spores for use in tick control, and using entomopathogenic fungi in integrated pest (tick) management programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Water Behavior in Bacterial Spores by Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Dormant bacterial spores are able to survive long periods of time without nutrients, withstand harsh environmental conditions, and germinate into metabolically active bacteria when conditions are favorable. Numerous factors influence this hardiness, including the spore structure and the presence of compounds to protect DNA from damage. It is known that the water content of the spore core plays a role in resistance to degradation, but the exact state of water inside the core is a subject of discussion. Two main theories present themselves: either the water in the spore core is mostly immobile and the core and its components are in a glassy state, or the core is a gel with mobile water around components which themselves have limited mobility. Using deuterium solid-state NMR experiments, we examine the nature of the water in the spore core. Our data show the presence of unbound water, bound water, and deuterated biomolecules that also contain labile deuterons. Deuterium–hydrogen exchange experiments show that most of these deuterons are inaccessible by external water. We believe that these unreachable deuterons are in a chemical bonding state that prevents exchange. Variable-temperature NMR results suggest that the spore core is more rigid than would be expected for a gel-like state. However, our rigid core interpretation may only apply to dried spores whereas a gel core may exist in aqueous suspension. Nonetheless, the gel core, if present, is inaccessible to external water. PMID:24950158

  17. Water behavior in bacterial spores by deuterium NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Anthony W; Zachariah, Malcolm M; Johnson, Karen; Thomas, Kieth J; Middaugh, Amy N; Garimella, Ravindranath; Powell, Douglas R; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rice, Charles V

    2014-07-31

    Dormant bacterial spores are able to survive long periods of time without nutrients, withstand harsh environmental conditions, and germinate into metabolically active bacteria when conditions are favorable. Numerous factors influence this hardiness, including the spore structure and the presence of compounds to protect DNA from damage. It is known that the water content of the spore core plays a role in resistance to degradation, but the exact state of water inside the core is a subject of discussion. Two main theories present themselves: either the water in the spore core is mostly immobile and the core and its components are in a glassy state, or the core is a gel with mobile water around components which themselves have limited mobility. Using deuterium solid-state NMR experiments, we examine the nature of the water in the spore core. Our data show the presence of unbound water, bound water, and deuterated biomolecules that also contain labile deuterons. Deuterium-hydrogen exchange experiments show that most of these deuterons are inaccessible by external water. We believe that these unreachable deuterons are in a chemical bonding state that prevents exchange. Variable-temperature NMR results suggest that the spore core is more rigid than would be expected for a gel-like state. However, our rigid core interpretation may only apply to dried spores whereas a gel core may exist in aqueous suspension. Nonetheless, the gel core, if present, is inaccessible to external water.

  18. Practical aspects of temperature intervention in germination and post-germination development of bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastna, J.; Vinter, V.; Babicka, J.

    1974-01-01

    Temperature dependence of germination and post-germination growth was studied in the spores of B a c i l l u s c e r e u s NCIB 8122. It was found that a temperature of 5 0 C slowed down germination, with the cells showing the capacity of synthetizing only a limited amount of proteins. The synthesis of the cellular wall, however, went on for another few hours. Thick-walled, less permeable and less metabolically active cells formed having an altered ultrastructure. A prolonged cultivation at 30 0 C resulted in the reduction of living cells while the low cultivation temperature (5 0 C) was found to have a protective effect. Pre-irradiation with 30g krad of gamma radiation increased the sensitivity of surviving cells to the cultivation conditions. Spores in the post-germination period were found to be much more resistent and alternating use of low and higher temperatures had little effect on growth

  19. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on antimony phyto-uptake and compartmentation in vegetables cultivated in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierart, Antoine; Dumat, Camille; Maes, Arthur QuyManh; Sejalon-Delmas, Nathalie

    2018-01-01

    1. Urban areas are often contaminated with various forms of persistent metal (loid) and emerging contaminants such as antimony (Sb). Thus, in the context of urban agriculture where sustainable practices such as biofertilizers application (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) could improve nutrient transfer from the soil to the vegetables, the effect of AMF on metal (loid) mobility and human bioaccessibility is still poorly known. 2. The role of AMF in Sb uptake by lettuce and carrot grown in artificial substrate spiked with different Sb chemical species was investigated. Plants were grown under hydroponic conditions and half of the treatments received a concentrated spore solution to obtain mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants. Three weeks before harvest, plants were exposed to 10 mg.L -1 of either Sb 2 O 3 or KSbO-tartrate (KSb). 3. The presence of AMF significantly increased its accumulation in carrots (all organs) with higher accumulation in roots. In lettuce, accumulation appeared to be dependent on the Sb chemical species. Moreover, it was observed for the first time that AMF changed the human bioaccessible fraction of Sb in edible organs. 4. The present results highlight a possible risk of Sb transfer from soil to edible plants cultivated in soil naturally containing AMF propagules, or when AMF are added as biofertilizers. After validating the influence of soil environment and AMF on Sb behavior in the field, these results should be considered in health risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Ganoderma extracts on HL60, K562 and SGC-7901 cells for 24 h were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.90 mg/ml, respectively; for Ganoderma spores oil, the IC50 values were 1.13, 2.27 and 6.29 mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, the inhibitory rates of Ganoderma extracts (4 g/kg/d, intragastrically) on S180 and H22 cells were 39.1 and 44.6%, respectively, and for Ganoderma spores oil (1.2 g/kg/d, intragastrically) the inhibitory rates were 30.9 and 44.9%, respectively. Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the activities of topoisomerase I and II. Ganoderma spores oil was shown block the cell cycle at the transition between the G1 and S phases and induce a marked decrease in cyclin D1 levels in K562 cells, with no significant change in cyclin E level. These results suggest that the Ganoderma extracts and spores oil possessed antitumor effects in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The antitumor mechanisms of the extracts and spores oil were associated with inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I and II activities, and for Ganoderma spores oil, the antitumor effects may also be associated with decreased cyclin D1 levels, thus inducing G1 arrest in the cell cycle. PMID:27900038

  1. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEgan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural, approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable

  2. Sterilization Resistance of Bacterial Spores Explained with Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Anthony W; Zachariah, Malcolm M; Middaugh, Amy N; Garimella, Ravindranath; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rice, Charles V

    2015-11-05

    Bacterial spores can survive for long periods without nutrients and in harsh environmental conditions. This survival is influenced by the structure of the spore, the presence of protective compounds, and water retention. These compounds, and the physical state of water in particular, allow some species of bacterial spores to survive sterilization schemes with hydrogen peroxide and UV light. The chemical nature of the spore core and its water has been a subject of some contention and the chemical environment of the water impacts resistance paradigms. Either the spore has a glassy core, where water is immobilized along with other core components, or the core is gel-like with mobile water diffusion. These properties affect the movement of peroxide and radical species, and hence resistance. Deuterium solid-state NMR experiments are useful for examining the nature of the water inside the spore. Previous work in our lab with spores of Bacillus subtilis indicate that, for spores, the core water is in a more immobilized state than expected for the gel-like core theory, suggesting a glassy core environment. Here, we report deuterium solid-state NMR observations of the water within UV- and peroxide-resistant spores from Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. Variable-temperature NMR experiments indicate no change in the line shape after heating to 50 °C, but an overall decrease in signal after heating to 100 °C. These results show glass-like core dynamics within B. pumilus SAFR-032 that may be the potential source of its known UV-resistance properties. The observed NMR traits can be attributed to the presence of an exosporium containing additional labile deuterons that can aid in the deactivation of sterilizing agents.

  3. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable spores to be more

  4. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable spores to be more

  5. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of Ganoderma extracts on HL60, K562 and SGC-7901 cells for 24 h were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.90 mg/ml, respectively; for Ganoderma spores oil, the IC 50 values were 1.13, 2.27 and 6.29 mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, the inhibitory rates of Ganoderma extracts (4 g/kg/d, intragastrically) on S180 and H22 cells were 39.1 and 44.6%, respectively, and for Ganoderma spores oil (1.2 g/kg/d, intragastrically) the inhibitory rates were 30.9 and 44.9%, respectively. Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the activities of topoisomerase I and II. Ganoderma spores oil was shown block the cell cycle at the transition between the G1 and S phases and induce a marked decrease in cyclin D1 levels in K562 cells, with no significant change in cyclin E level. These results suggest that the Ganoderma extracts and spores oil possessed antitumor effects in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The antitumor mechanisms of the extracts and spores oil were associated with inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I and II activities, and for Ganoderma spores oil, the antitumor effects may also be associated with decreased cyclin D1 levels, thus inducing G1 arrest in the cell cycle.

  6. Some mycogenous fungi from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of earlier studies on mycogenous fungi which were gathered occasionally are summarized. Fifieen specres. previously Pyrenomycetes s.l., have been found growing on other fungi Immothia hypoxylon and Lophiostoma polyporicola are new species to the Polish mycoflora. Sphaeronaemella Kulczyńskiana described by K. R o u p p e r t (1912 is considered to be Eleuteromyces subultus. Relatively high number of fungi inhabiting stromata of Diatrypella favacea is probably connected with its early colonization of the Polish area.

  7. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathys, A; Knorr, D; Heinz, V

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122 deg. C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80 deg. C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa

  8. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, A.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D.

    2008-07-01

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122°C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80°C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa with 37

  9. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathys, A; Knorr, D [Berlin University of Technology, Department of Food Biotechnology and Food Process Engineering, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 22, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Heinz, V [German Institute of Food Technology, p. o. box 1165, D-49601, Quackenbrueck (Germany)], E-mail: alexander.mathys@tu-berlin.de

    2008-07-15

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122 deg. C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80 deg. C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa

  10. Spores, sporodochia and fomites in onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, Gérald E

    2006-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a frequent infection. Contagion rarely depends on direct contamination, but rather on environmental propagule dispersion including the intervention of fomites. The potential release of fungal cells in the environment from the affected nails has not been thoroughly studied. Observations made by histomycology suggest that arthroconidia and chlamydoconidia issued from invading fungi can be involved. In addition, the sporodochium, which is an exophytic fungal ball, may be attached underneath the distal free edge of some onychomycoses. It might represent an important source of fungal propagules in patients with poor nail trimming. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Sea salts as a potential source of food spoilage fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biango-Daniels, Megan N; Hodge, Kathie T

    2018-02-01

    Production of sea salt begins with evaporation of sea water in shallow pools called salterns, and ends with the harvest and packing of salts. This process provides many opportunities for fungal contamination. This study aimed to determine whether finished salts contain viable fungi that have the potential to cause spoilage when sea salt is used as a food ingredient by isolating fungi on a medium that simulated salted food with a lowered water activity (0.95 a w ). The viable filamentous fungi from seven commercial salts were quantified and identified by DNA sequencing, and the fungal communities in different salts were compared. Every sea salt tested contained viable fungi, in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.71 colony-forming units per gram of salt. In total, 85 fungi were isolated representing seven genera. One or more species of the most abundant genera, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium was found in every salt. Many species found in this study have been previously isolated from low water activity environments, including salterns and foods. We conclude that sea salts contain many fungi that have potential to cause food spoilage as well as some that may be mycotoxigenic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant-derived bioactive compounds produced by endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Shan, T; Mou, Y; Zhou, L

    2011-02-01

    Plant endophytic fungi are an important and novel resource of natural bioactive compounds with their potential applications in agriculture, medicine and food industry. In the past two decades, many valuable bioactive compounds with antimicrobial, insecticidal, cytotoxic, and anticancer activities have been successfully discovered from endophytic fungi. During the long period of co-evolution, a friendly relationship was formed between each endophyte and its host plant. Some endophytes have the ability to produce the same or similar bioactive compounds as those originated from their host plants. This review mainly deals with the research progress on endophytic fungi for producing plant-derived bioactive compounds such as paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin, camptothecine, vinblastine, hypericin, and diosgenin. The relations between endophytic fungi and their host plants, biological activities and action mechanisms of these compounds from endophytic fungi, some available strategies for efficiently promoting production of these bioactive compounds, as well as their potential applications in the future will also be discussed. It is beneficial for us to better understand and take advantage of plant endophytic fungi.

  13. Disease symptoms occurring in caterpillars of Malacosoma neustria L. (Lepidoptera infected by some fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The infection of M. neustria caterpillars by Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill., Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok., Paecilomyces farinosus (Dicks. ex Fr. Brown et Smith, Verticillium lecanii (Zimm. Viegas causes the decrease of their viability, paralysis and mummification of the body. Only in the case of B. bassiana the character distinguishing infection by this fungus are black spots on the surface of the cuticle. The easy development and aboundant spore formation of the above-mentioned hyphomycetous fungi on M. neustria facilitate the determination of the causes of the disease.

  14. Compatibility and incompatibility in hyphal anastomosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candido Barreto de Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, which live in symbiosis with 80 % of plants, are not able to grow when separated from their hosts. Spore germination is not host-regulated and germling growth is shortly arrested in the absence of host roots. Germling survival chances may be increased by hyphal fusions (anastomoses, which allow access to nutrients flowing in the extraradical mycelium (ERM. Perfect anastomoses, occurring with high frequency among germlings and the ERM of the same isolate, show protoplasm continuity and disappearance of hyphal walls. A low frequency of perfect fusions has been detected among co-specific genetically different isolates, although fungal nuclei have been consistently detected in all perfect fusions, suggesting active nuclear migration. When plants of different taxa establish symbioses with the same AMF species, anastomoses between ERM spreading from single root systems establish a common mycelium, which is an essential element to plant nutrition and communication. The interaction among mycelia produced by different isolates may also lead to pre-fusion incompatibility which hinders anastomosis formation, or to incompatibility after fusion, which separates the hyphal compartments. Results reported here, obtained by analyses of hyphal compatibility/incompatibility in AMF, suggest that anastomosis formation and establishment of protoplasm flow, fundamental to the maintenance of mycelial physiological and genetic continuity, may affect the fitness of these ecologically important biotrophic fungi.

  15. [Ecological distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alpine grasslands of Tibet Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-bu; Peng, Yue-lin; Gai, Jing-ping

    2010-10-01

    Seventy soil samples with the roots of 37 dominant or common plant species on the grasslands in south and north Tibet Plateau were collected to study the ecological distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the investigation area. A total of 35 AM fungi species belonging to 5 genera were isolated, among which, 18 species belonged to Glomus, 9 species belonged to Acaulospora, 6 species belonged to Scutellospora, 1 species belonged to Entrophospora, and 1 species belonged to Paraglomus. There were 23 AM fungi species belonging to 4 genera isolated from south Tibet, and 22 species belonging to 4 genera from north Tibet. The Shannon diversity index of AM fungi in south and north Tibet Plateau was 2.31 and 2.75, respectively, and the spore density and species richness were significantly higher in north Tibet than in south Tibet. In different ecological zones, lesser AM fungi common species were found, species distribution was more site-specific, and different dominant species were observed. In alpine grassland, mountain meadow, and alpine meadow, the Shannon index of AM fungi was 1.91, 1.83, and 1.80, respectively; while in severely degraded temperate grassland, this index was only 1.64. The highest species richness of AM fungi occurred at the altitude of 4000-4600 m, but the highest Shannon index and species evenness occurred at the altitude of 4600-5220 m, with the values being 2.42 and 0.79, respectively. At all altitudes, Glomus was the dominant genus, and its relative abundance was higher when the altitude was below 4000 m. Acaulospora was mainly observed at the altitudes higher than 4000 m, Scutellospora was mainly distributed at the altitude 3500-5220 m, Paraglomus mainly occurred in the north alpine meadow with an altitude of 4000-5220 m and occasionally in the alpine steppe, whereas Entrophospora was only found in the south temperate grassland with an altitude of 3500-3700 m.

  16. Methyl Halide Production by Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, G. D.; Varner, R. K.; Blanchard, R. O.; Sive, B. C.; Crill, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    Methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl iodide (CH3I) are methyl halide gases that contribute significant amounts of halogen radicals to the atmosphere. In an effort to better understand the global budget of methyl halides and their impact on the atmosphere, we need to identify the natural sources in addition to the known anthropogenic sources of these compounds. We are investigating the role of fungi in the production of methyl halides in the soils and wetlands in southern New Hampshire, USA. Previous research has shown that wood decay fungi and ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are within a group of fungi called basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. In our study, measurements of headspace gas extracted from flasks containing fungi grown in culture demonstrate that a variety of fungi, including basidiomycetes and non-basidiomycetes, emit methyl halides. Our research sites include four ecosystems: an agricultural field, a temperate forest, a fresh water wetland, and coastal salt marshes. We have collected and isolated fungi at each site by culturing tissue samples of fruiting bodies and plant material, by using wood baits, and from the direct culture of soil. We compared the rates of methyl halide emissions from the fungi in the four ecosystems. In addition, we measured emissions from previously assayed fungal isolates after reintroducing them to sterilized soils that were collected from their original environments. Fungal biomass was determined by substrate-induced respiration (SIR). The emission rate by the fungus was determined by a linear regression of the concentration of methyl halide in the sample headspace over time divided by the fungal biomass.

  17. [Chitinolytic activity of filamentous fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubakov, A A; Kucheriavykh, P S

    2004-01-01

    The chitinolytic activity of nine species of filamentous fungi, classified with seven genera (specifically, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Paecilomyces, Sporotrichum, Beaueria, and Mucor), was studied. When cultured in liquid medium containing 1% crystalline chitin, all fungi produced extracellular chitosans with activity varying from 0.2 U/mg protein (Sporotrichum olivaceum, Mucor sp., etc.) to 4.0-4.2 U/mg protein (Trichoderma lignorum, Aspergillus niger).

  18. Inactivation Strategies for Clostridium perfringens Spores and Vegetative Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Prabhat K; Udompijitkul, Pathima; Hossain, Ashfaque; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen to human and animals and causes a wide array of diseases, including histotoxic and gastrointestinal illnesses. C. perfringens spores are crucial in terms of the pathogenicity of this bacterium because they can survive in a dormant state in the environment and return to being live bacteria when they come in contact with nutrients in food or the human body. Although the strategies to inactivate C. perfringens vegetative cells are effective, the inactivation of C. perfringens spores is still a great challenge. A number of studies have been conducted in the past decade or so toward developing efficient inactivation strategies for C. perfringens spores and vegetative cells, which include physical approaches and the use of chemical preservatives and naturally derived antimicrobial agents. In this review, different inactivation strategies applied to control C. perfringens cells and spores are summarized, and the potential limitations and challenges of these strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Analysis of Bacillus Globigii Spores Using the BioDetector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, William

    1999-01-01

    .... An automated immunoassay instrument capable of providing rapid identification of biological agents was used to analyses laboratory and field trial samples containing the field trial simulants Bacillus globigii (BG) spores...

  20. Small Probes for Orbital Return of Experiments (SPORE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analogous to the CubeSat standardization of micro-satellites, the SPORE flight system architecture will utilize a modular design approach to provide low-cost...

  1. Waterline ATS B. globigii spore water disinfection data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Disinfection of B. globigii spores (a non-pathogenic surrogate for B. anthracis) in clean and dirty water using the ATS-Waterline system, which uses ultraviolet...

  2. Networks Depicting the Fine-Scale Co-Occurrences of Fungi in Soil Horizons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Toju

    Full Text Available Fungi in soil play pivotal roles in nutrient cycling, pest controls, and plant community succession in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the ecosystem functions provided by soil fungi, our knowledge of the assembly processes of belowground fungi has been limited. In particular, we still have limited knowledge of how diverse functional groups of fungi interact with each other in facilitative and competitive ways in soil. Based on the high-throughput sequencing data of fungi in a cool-temperate forest in northern Japan, we analyzed how taxonomically and functionally diverse fungi showed correlated fine-scale distributions in soil. By uncovering pairs of fungi that frequently co-occurred in the same soil samples, networks depicting fine-scale co-occurrences of fungi were inferred at the O (organic matter and A (surface soil horizons. The results then led to the working hypothesis that mycorrhizal, endophytic, saprotrophic, and pathogenic fungi could form compartmentalized (modular networks of facilitative, antagonistic, and/or competitive interactions in belowground ecosystems. Overall, this study provides a research basis for further understanding how interspecific interactions, along with sharing of niches among fungi, drive the dynamics of poorly explored biospheres in soil.

  3. Detection of Bacillus anthracis spores by super-paramagnetic lateral-flow immunoassays based on "Road Closure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dian-Bing; Tian, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Xu-Ying; Fleming, Joy; Bi, Li-Jun; Yang, Rui-Fu; Zhang, Xian-En

    2015-05-15

    Detection of Bacillus anthracis in the field, whether as a natural infection or as a biothreat remains challenging. Here we have developed a new lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) for B. anthracis spore detection based on the fact that conjugates of B. anthracis spores and super-paramagnetic particles labeled with antibodies will block the pores of chromatographic strips and form retention lines on the strips, instead of the conventionally reported test lines and control lines in classic LFIA. As a result, this new LFIA can simultaneously realize optical, magnetic and naked-eye detection by analyzing signals from the retention lines. As few as 500-700 pure B. anthracis spores can be recognized with CV values less than 8.31% within 5 min of chromatography and a total time of 20 min. For powdery sample tests, this LFIA can endure interference from 25% (w/v) milk, 10% (w/v) baking soda and 10% (w/v) starch without any sample pre-treatment, and has a corresponding detection limit of 6×10(4) spores/g milk powder, 2×10(5) spores/g starch and 5×10(5) spores/g baking soda. Compared with existing methods, this new approach is very competitive in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost and ease of operation. This proof-of-concept study can also be extended for detection of many other large-sized analytes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of “nanodot” particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  5. Architecture and assembly of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of "nanodot" particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  6. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

    2012-07-01

    The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice.

  7. Purification and Properties of Clostridium perfringens Spore Lytic Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    reaction mixture at 550C gave the opti- mum response although the activity of initiation protein remained high at 65"C and 75"C. Denaturation of the...CASSIER M. and Sebald M. 1969. Germination Iysozyme-ddpendente des spores de aCnerilim perfringeno ATCC 3624 sprks tralitment thermique . Ann. Inst. Pasteur...activity upon prolonged extraction -of spores in GME was not surprising, since this compound is an active protein denaturant . Urea acts in the same

  8. Morpho-structural variations of bacterial spores after treatment in steam vacuum assisted autoclave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonzi, M; Montomoli, E; Gasparini, R; Devanna, D; Fonzi, L

    1999-01-01

    This study intended to verify, through microbiological techniques and TEM investigations, the killing of bacterial spores after treatment in steam autoclave, and to propose strictly morphological considerations about the target of this sterilisation process. Autoclave is the most common device for sterilising instruments in order to prevent cross infections in dental offices. The autoclave efficiency has been improved in the last years and part of this improvement is related to both a better and more correct use of the autoclave system and to the technological innovations introduced in the last generation of devices. However, associations as ADA or CDC suggest to regularly verify the process of 'autoclaving' through biological indicators (BI). The most commonly used BI are made of spores strips or suspensions of Bacillus Subtilis (pb 168) and Bacillus Stearothermophilus (ATCC 10149). They visually prove, changing colours on enzymatic base, the death of micro-organism and if the physical parameters, necessary for sterilisation, have been achieved. These two strains of endospore-forming bacteria were processed and prepared following two different techniques: Karnovsky fixed and epon embedded--phosphotungstic acid fixed for direct observation. The kind and the extent of analysed modifications are extremely various: from deep lacerations, which changed the spore structure, to little clefts which let the cytoplasm go out.

  9. Small acid soluble proteins for rapid spore identification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven S.; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2006-12-01

    This one year LDRD addressed the problem of rapid characterization of bacterial spores such as those from the genus Bacillus, the group that contains pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis. In this effort we addressed the feasibility of using a proteomics based approach to spore characterization using a subset of conserved spore proteins known as the small acid soluble proteins or SASPs. We proposed developing techniques that built on our previous expertise in microseparations to rapidly characterize or identify spores. An alternative SASP extraction method was developed that was amenable to both the subsequent fluorescent labeling required for laser-induced fluorescence detection and the low ionic strength requirements for isoelectric focusing. For the microseparations, both capillary isoelectric focusing and chip gel electrophoresis were employed. A variety of methods were evaluated to improve the molecular weight resolution for the SASPs, which are in a molecular weight range that is not well resolved by the current methods. Isoelectric focusing was optimized and employed to resolve the SASPs using UV absorbance detection. Proteomic signatures of native wild type Bacillus spores and clones genetically engineered to produce altered SASP patterns were assessed by slab gel electrophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing with absorbance detection as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection.

  10. Tip-enhanced Raman scattering of bacillus subtilis spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusciano, G.; Zito, G.; Pesce, G.; Sasso, A.; Isticato, R.; Ricca, E.

    2015-07-01

    Understanding of the complex interactions of molecules at biological interfaces is a fundamental issue in biochemistry, biotechnology as well as biomedicine. A plethora of biological processes are ruled by the molecular texture of cellular membrane: cellular communications, drug transportations and cellular recognition are just a few examples of such chemically-mediated processes. Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering (TERS) is a novel, Raman-based technique which is ideally suited for this purpose. TERS relies on the combination of scanning probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The basic idea is the use of a metalled tip as a sort of optical nano-antenna, which gives place to SERS effect close to the tip end. Herein, we present the application of TERS to analyze the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores. The choice of this biological systems is related to the fact that a number of reasons support the use of spores as a mucosal delivery system. The remarkable and well-documented resistance of spores to various environmental and toxic effects make them clear potentials as a novel, surface-display system. Our experimental outcomes demonstrate that TERS is able to provide a nano-scale chemical imaging of spore surface. Moreover, we demonstrate that TERS allows differentiation between wilde-type spore and genetically modified strains. These results hold promise for the characterization and optimization of spore surface for drug-delivery applications.

  11. Reversible Hydrolysis Reaction with the Spore Photoproduct under Alkaline Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Surya; Lin, Gengjie; Li, Lei

    2016-09-16

    DNA lesions may reduce the electron density at the nucleobases, making them prone to further modifications upon the alkaline treatment. The dominant DNA photolesion found in UV-irradiated bacterial endospores is a thymine dimer, 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine, i.e., the spore photoproduct (SP). Here we report a stepwise addition/elimination reaction in the SP hydrolysis product under strong basic conditions where a ureido group is added to the carboxyl moiety to form a cyclic amide, regenerating SP after eliminating a hydroxide ion. Direct amidation of carboxylic acids by reaction with amines in the presence of a catalyst is well documented; however, it is very rare for an amidation reaction to occur without activation. This uncatalyzed SP reverse reaction in aqueous solution is even more surprising because the carboxyl moiety is not a good electrophile due to the negative charge it carries. Examination of the base-catalyzed hydrolyses of two other saturated pyrimidine lesions, 5,6-dihydro-2'-deoxyuridine and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproduct, reveals that neither reaction is reversible even though all three hydrolysis reactions may share the same gem-diol intermediate. Therefore, the SP structure where the two thymine residues maintain a stacked conformation likely provides the needed framework enabling this highly unusual carboxyl addition/elimination reaction.

  12. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and pesticides on Cynara cardunculus growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MARIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. is a promising crop for biomass production. A nursery trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of mycorrhizal inoculation on the biomass yield of wild cardoon seedlings and the effect of the pesticides fosetyl-Al, folpet and propamocarb, as fungicides, and isofenphos, phoxim and oxamyl, as insecticides, on cardoon plant growth and the mycorrhization. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi inocula were: commercial inoculum with Glomus mosseae spores, and an inoculum of a Glomus sp. strain (AMF-i isolated locally. Mycorrhizal inoculation with either inoculum increased cardoon shoot biomass compared to non-inoculated control plants. The pesticide applications had a neutral or positive effect on cardoon seedling growth. However, the AM fungi colonisation did not decrease except for plants colonised by G. mosseae and treated with the insecticides isofenphos and oxamyl. Thus, the mycorrhiza can survive to pesticide concentrations employed in commercial nursery, and enhance cardoon plant productivity.

  13. Maternal parentage influences spore production but not spore pigmentation in the anisogamous and hermaphroditic fungus Neurospora crassa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Kolea; Levitis, Daniel; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    , and various ascospore characteristics. Mixed effects models of these data show that the female parent accounts for the majority of variation in perithecial production, number of spores produced, and spore germination. Surprisingly, both sexes equally influence the percentage of spores that are pigmented......In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal effects on offspring production and quality are greater than paternal effects in both offspring number (fertility) and offspring viability (mortality). We used the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. This fungus is anisogamous......, Hall, & Kowbel 2011). Precise genetic distances between mating pairs were calculated to control for the effects of crossing distance on offspring production. We performed reciprocal crosses of all 121 strain pairings and collected data on perithecial production, ascospore (sexual spore) production...

  14. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  15. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  16. The effect of Mirabilis jalapa leaves biopesticide treatment on the mycelium growth of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana inside the larvae body Crocidolomia binotalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramita, Mia; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2015-09-01

    Pest control with biological method (biopesticide and entomopathogenic fungi) is an alternative program to reduce application of chemical insecticide. Biopesticide of Mirabilis jalapa leaves has been discovered rich in secondary metabolites which has antifeedant activity that can provide physiological interference in insect larvae and the generation numbers[1]. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana has potential to control pest populations[2]. The growth of mycelium B. bassiana may interfere metabolism process inside the host body. Otherwise, B. bassiana produce toxins such as beauvericin that can increase mortality of pest. Combination of M. jalapa and B. bassiana reduce LT50 on C. binotalis larvae[3]. Thus, this study aims to determine influence of provision of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside larvae body C. binotalis and to detect the presence of beauvericin in vivo. Third instar larvae of C. binotalis were divided into a control, fungal and combination group. The combination group was given biopesticide and fungi. The concentration of biopesticide was 0.8% (w/v) and concentration of fungi spores was 107 spores/ml. Spores (vol. 5µl) done topically to larvae in interval 6 hours after treatment of biopesticide on non-pesticide cabbage leaves. Afterwards, histological observations performed at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours after treatment. The result show of emergence hyphae and mycelium growth inside lumen of larvae midgut on combination group faster than fungal group. This is thought to be caused by the influence of secondary metabolites of biopesticide M. jalapa leaves. In addition, beauviricin is detectable both of fungal and combination group. Thus, it can be concluded that treatment of biopesticide from M. jalapa leaves can accelerate on growth of mycelium entomopathogenic fungi B. bassiana inside the larvae body C. binotalis and toxic of B. bassiana such as beauvericin was detected on fungal and

  17. Variation of volatile terpenes in the edible fungi mycelia Flammulina velutipes and communications in fungus-mite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Ping; Yang, Wen-Jian; Qu, Shao-Xuan; Pei, Fei; Luo, Xin; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Ma, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Many mites rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, or nutrient resources. The interactions among mites and fungi are still not clear in most cases. This study analyzed volatile natural products from the liquid and solid cultures of the edible fungi, Flammulina velutipes (Fr.) Sing, and the solid mycelia induced by the storage mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Schrank, using HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS. Five new monoterpenes and 30 new sesquiterpenes were isolated from the two cultures of F. velutipes and a newly monoterpene and 14 newly sesquiterpenes found in the solid mycelia induced by the storage mite. Sesquiterpenes were abundant in the mycelial stage of F. velutipe. The mite was attracted by some volatiles from host fungi, dihydrocarveol, cedrol, β-caryophyllene, α-terpilene, β-pinene and benzaldehyde, analyzed by four-arm olfactometer. Some terpenes induced by T. putrescentiae, such as caryophyllene oxide, bicyclogermacrene, and (-)-spathulenol, would have potential biological function. These results suggest that some volatile sesquiterpenes play an important role in enabling the mite to recognize host fungi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endophytic fungi colonize agricultural and non-agricultural plants in Bedugul, bali and their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciatmih Suciatmih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of endophytic fungi was done to find alternative microorganisms as antifungal agent against Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, a soil borne pathogen on many agricultural plants. The research objectives were 1 to isolate and identify endophytic fungi colonize agricultural and non-agricultural plants growing in Bedugul, Bali; and 2 to detect for their antifungal activity against R. solani under in-vitro conditions. The results indicated that 114 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from flowers, fruits, leaves, petioles, and stems of agricultural and non-agricultural plants. Ten isolates (8.8 % were identified to species, 91 isolates (79.8 % to genus, and 13 isolates (11,4 % did not have spores that could not be identified morphological characters and classified as unidentified isolates. Endophytic fungi isolated including in group of Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Corynesporopsis, Curvularia, Diplodia, Fusarium, Guignardia, Nigrospora, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis and Xylaria. Of the 114 fungal isolates tested, only 13 isolates (11.4 % inhibited the growth of R. solani from 10.3 % to 62.2 % with a percent inhibition. The highest growth inhibition of R. solani was shown by Aspergillus niger isolated from Solanum licopersicum L. var cerasiforme (62.2 %. It could be concluded that the agricultural and non-agricultural plants growing in Bedugul, Bali were colonized by endophytic fungi. Aspergillus niger will be further examined on a field scale. Key words: antifungal; endophytic fungi; Rhizoctonia solani

  19. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  20. Inactivation of Spores of Bacillus Species by Wet Heat: Studies on Single Spores Using Laser Tweezers Taman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    13/2011 22.00 Keren K. Griffiths, Jingqiao Zhang, Ann E. Cowan, Ji Yu, Peter Setlow. Germination proteins in the inner membrane of dormant Bacillus...that this technique can be used to rapidly identify single airborne particles or bacteria collected on a slide and to monitor germination dynamics of...the environment of dipicolinic acid in the core of superdormant spores is different from that in dormant spores [J. Bacteriol., 191, 5584 (2009

  1. Fungi and macroaggregation in deep-sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    , possibly of humic nature. Humic material in terrestrial soil is known to combine with soil particles to form microaggregates [8]. Fungal hyphae further act on these as binding agents to form macroaggregates by trapping fine particles into the micro... act as binding agents themselves to form macroaggregates by trapping fine particles of microaggregates [22]. Whereas polysaccha- ride-mediated binding by fungi is an effective process for aggregate formation [2, 11], several studies have concluded...

  2. Improvement of Biological Indicators by Uniformly Distributing Bacillus subtilis Spores in Monolayers To Evaluate Enhanced Spore Decontamination Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguse, Marina; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Stapelmann, Katharina; Madela, Kazimierz; Laue, Michael; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Thwaite, Joanne E; Setlow, Peter; Awakowicz, Peter; Moeller, Ralf

    2016-01-22

    Novel decontamination technologies, including cold low-pressure plasma and blue light (400 nm), are promising alternatives to conventional surface decontamination methods. However, the standardization of the assessment of such sterilization processes remains to be accomplished. Bacterial endospores of the genera Bacillus and Geobacillus are frequently used as biological indicators (BIs) of sterility. Ensuring standardized and reproducible BIs for reliable testing procedures is a significant problem in industrial settings. In this study, an electrically driven spray deposition device was developed, allowing fast, reproducible, and homogeneous preparation of Bacillus subtilis 168 spore monolayers on glass surfaces. A detailed description of the structural design as well as the operating principle of the spraying device is given. The reproducible formation of spore monolayers of up to 5 × 10(7) spores per sample was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Surface inactivation studies revealed that monolayered spores were inactivated by UV-C (254 nm), low-pressure argon plasma (500 W, 10 Pa, 100 standard cubic cm per min), and blue light (400 nm) significantly faster than multilayered spores were. We have thus succeeded in the uniform preparation of reproducible, highly concentrated spore monolayers with the potential to generate BIs for a variety of nonpenetrating surface decontamination techniques. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Quality of rooting environments and patterns of root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in strangler figs in a Mexican palmetto woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Roger; López, Juan C

    2007-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in strangler figs, spore richness, and abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were quantified in epiphytic and ground-rooted trees in a Sabal palmetto woodland that had marked heterogeneity in rooting environments for hemiepiphytic plants. An inoculation experiment was performed to assess whether low spore density could limit mycorrhizal colonization. There was no significant difference in mycorrhizal colonization among Ficus species, but epiphytic plants in nutrient-rich rooting environments had less mycorrhizal colonization than ground-rooted plants in low-nutrient soils. However, richness and abundance of spores was low, and to some extent, this limited the mycorrhizal colonization of strangler figs. Nevertheless, our results suggest intraindividual adjusting levels of root colonization in strangler figs in accordance with mineral availability. Such responses could maximize the cost-benefit balance of arbuscular mycorrhizal interactions throughout the development of strangler figs from epiphytic young plants to ground-rooted trees.

  4. The occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil and root of medicinal plants in Bu-Ali Sina garden in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Safari Sinegani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study of symbiotic relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and medicinal plants is very important. Information about the symbiosis of medicinal plant species with AMF in the semi-arid regions of Iran is rare. This information allows increasing knowledge of the biology and ecology of these plant species. Materials and methods: The existence of AM symbiosis in 48 medicinal plant species (belonging to 9 families was studied by root staining. Soil around the root of each species was sampled and analyzed for all soil properties which may be interrelated to AM symbiosis. The importance of different soil properties in AMF and plant biological relationship and the dependency of root colonization and spore formation by AMF on soil properties were statistically analyzed. Results: Among them Lepidium sativum, Brassica oleracea, Cheiranthus cheiri, Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Malva sylvestris, Zygophyllum fabago, Arctium Lappa have not been colonized by AM fungi. Colonization and spore density of perennial plants were slightly higher than those of annual plants and were varied among different plant families. Soil texture and available phosphorous were the most important soil properties affecting fungal root colonization and spore numbers. Discussion and conclusion: Although in accordance with other researches, most of the medicinal plants from Brassicaceae family had no mycorrhizal symbiosis, a few of them had this type of symbiosis. Dependency of spore formation by AM fungi on soil properties was higher than dependency of root colonization percentage on soil properties. Increasing root colonization and spore numbers with increasing the percentage of sand and decreasing the percentage of clay and available phosphorous in soils show that plants are more depended on mycorrhizal symbiosis in hard environments and less productive soils.

  5. Melanized fungi in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Sanjay G; Sutton, Deanna A

    2010-10-01

    Melanized or dematiaceous fungi are associated with a wide variety of infectious syndromes, including chromoblastomycosis, mycetoma, and phaeohyphomycosis. [corrected]. Many are soil organisms and are generally distributed worldwide, though certain species appear to have restricted geographic ranges. Though they are uncommon causes of disease, melanized fungi have been increasingly recognized as important pathogens, with most reports occurring in the past 20 years. The spectrum of diseases with which they are associated has also broadened and includes allergic disease, superficial and deep local infections, pneumonia, brain abscess, and disseminated infection. For some infections in immunocompetent individuals, such as allergic fungal sinusitis and brain abscess, they are among the most common etiologic fungi. Melanin is a likely virulence factor for these fungi. Diagnosis relies on careful microscopic and pathological examination, as well as clinical assessment of the patient, as these fungi are often considered contaminants. Therapy varies depending upon the clinical syndrome. Local infection may be cured with excision alone, while systemic disease is often refractory to therapy. Triazoles such as voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole have the most consistent in vitro activity. Further studies are needed to better understand the pathogenesis and optimal treatment of these uncommon infections.

  6. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Kari Kulvik; Madsø, Lene; Eduard, Wijnand

    2015-01-01

    To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20) and five reactor plants (n=27). Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR). The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m(3), range 0-730 EU/m(3)) and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10(6) spores/m(3), range 0-590 × 10(6) spores/m(3)) were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1-16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5-25, respectively, pactinomycetes spores/m3, and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=-3.2, SE=1.5%, pactinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work-shift lung function decrease.

  7. bryophyte extracts with activity against plant pathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: The effects of extracts from 17 different bryophyte species were investigated against economically important plant pathogenic fungi ... remedies of diseases in various forms. Similarly, before the discovery of the synthetic ... and divided into the classes Anthocerotae (horn- worts), Hepaticae (liverworts) and Musci ...

  8. Fungi and their role in corals and coral reef ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Ravindran, J.

    which are exclusive as endoliths (endemic) in corals or ubiquitous forms seem to play a role in coral reef system. Fungi associated with sponges and their role in production or induction of secondary metabolites in their host is of primary interest...

  9. Relations between wood-inhabiting insects and fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina P. Krivosheina

    1991-01-01

    It is widely known that xylophagous insects do not usually attack healthy, resistant trees. In order to overcome these defenses, inner-bark feeding insects have developed symbiotic interrelationships with various organisms, fungi in particular. In this paper, using our own data together with that available in the literature, we analyze the forms of relationships...

  10. In vitro screening of soil bacteria for inhibiting phytopathogenic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present, the greatest interest resides with the development and application of specific biocontrol agent for the control of diseases on plant and this form the focus of this work. Several soil bacteria were evaluated in vitro for their effectiveness on the basis of their ability to suppress fungi in plate inhibition assays. 51 strains ...

  11. Interactive effects of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legumes form a tripartite symbiosis with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobia. Chickpea plants were inoculated with six strains of Mesorhizobium ciceri and three AMF species, Glomus intraradices (GI), G. mosseae (GM) and G. etunicatum (GE). The plants inoculated with a number of AMF species and bacterial ...

  12. Variability in the production of extracellular enzymes by entomopathogenic fungi grown on different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Gomes Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi are important controllers of pest-insects populations in agricultural production systems and in natural environment. These fungi have enzymatic machinery which involve since the recognition and adherence of spores in their hosts culminating with infection and death of these insects. The main objective of this study was to analyzed extracellular enzyme production of the fungi strains Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces sp when cultured on substrates. These fungi were grown in minimal media containing specific substrates for the analysis of different enzymes such as amylases, cellulases, esterases, lipases, proteases (gelatin and caseinase, pectinases and cuticles of Musca domestica larvae and adults. All the assays were performed with and without the presence of dextrose in the culture media. The quantification of enzyme activity was performed by the ratio of halo / colony (H/C and the results subjected to variance analysis level of 5% (ANOVA followed by post-Tukey test. All strains were positive for lipase and also they showed a high significant enzyme production for gelatin at concentrations of 4 and 1%. B. bassiana and Paecilomyces sp. were positive for amylase, pectinase and caseinase, and only Paecilomyces sp. showed cellulase activity.

  13. Antifungal effect of gaseous nitric oxide on mycelium growth, sporulation and spore germination of the postharvest horticulture pathogens, Aspergillus niger, Monilinia fructicola and Penicillium italicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, E E; Wills, R B H; Ho, B T; Harris, A M; Spohr, L J

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the antifungal activity of nitric oxide (NO) against the growth of the postharvest horticulture pathogens Aspergillus niger, Monilinia fructicola and Penicillium italicum under in vitro conditions. Different volumes of NO gas were injected into the Petri dish headspace to obtain the desired concentrations of 50-500 microl l(-1). The growth of the fungi was measured for 8 days of incubation in air at 25 degrees C. All concentrations of NO were found to produce an antifungal effect on spore germination, sporulation and mycelial growth of the three fungi, with the most effective concentration for A. niger and P. italicum being 100 and 500 microl l(-1) for M. fructicola. Short-term exposure to a low concentration of NO gas was able to inhibit the subsequent growth of A. niger, M. fructicola and P. italicum. NO gas has potential use as a natural fungicide to inhibit microbial growth on postharvest fruit and vegetables.

  14. Spore prevalence and toxigenicity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from U.S. retail spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Upasana; Labbé, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Recent incidents of foodborne illness associated with spices as the vehicle of transmission prompted this examination of U.S. retail spices with regard to Bacillus cereus. This study focused on the levels of aerobic-mesophilic spore-forming bacteria and B cereus spores associated with 247 retail spices purchased from five states in the United States. Samples contained a wide range of aerobic-mesophilic bacterial spore counts ( 10(7) CFU/g). Using a novel chromogenic agar, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores were isolated from 77 (31%) and 11 (4%) samples, respectively. Levels of B. cereus were thuringiensis isolates possessed at least one type of enterotoxin gene: HBL (hemolysin BL) or nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE). None of the 88 isolates obtained in this study possessed the emetic toxin gene (ces). Using commercially available immunological toxin detection kits, the toxigenicity of the isolates was confirmed. The NHE enterotoxin was expressed in 98% of B. cereus and 91% of B. thuringiensis isolates that possessed the responsible gene. HBL enterotoxin was detected in 87% of B. cereus and 100% of B. thuringiensis PCR-positive isolates. Fifty-two percent of B. cereus and 54% of B. thuringiensis isolates produced both enterotoxins. Ninety-seven percent of B. cereus isolates grew at 12°C, although only two isolates grew well at 9°C. The ability of these spice isolates to form spores, produce diarrheal toxins, and grow at moderately abusive temperatures makes retail spices an important potential vehicle for foodborne illness caused by B. cereus strains, in particular those that produce diarrheal toxins.

  15. Comparative analysis of programmed cell death pathways in filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wortman Jennifer R

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungi can undergo autophagic- or apoptotic-type programmed cell death (PCD on exposure to antifungal agents, developmental signals, and stress factors. Filamentous fungi can also exhibit a form of cell death called heterokaryon incompatibility (HI triggered by fusion between two genetically incompatible individuals. With the availability of recently sequenced genomes of Aspergillus fumigatus and several related species, we were able to define putative components of fungi-specific death pathways and the ancestral core apoptotic machinery shared by all fungi and metazoa. Results Phylogenetic profiling of HI-associated proteins from four Aspergilli and seven other fungal species revealed lineage-specific protein families, orphan genes, and core genes conserved across all fungi and metazoa. The Aspergilli-specific domain architectures include NACHT family NTPases, which may function as key integrators of stress and nutrient availability signals. They are often found fused to putative effector domains such as Pfs, SesB/LipA, and a newly identified domain, HET-s/LopB. Many putative HI inducers and mediators are specific to filamentous fungi and not found in unicellular yeasts. In addition to their role in HI, several of them appear to be involved in regulation of cell cycle, development and sexual differentiation. Finally, the Aspergilli possess many putative downstream components of the mammalian apoptotic machinery including several proteins not found in the model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion Our analysis identified more than 100 putative PCD associated genes in the Aspergilli, which may help expand the range of currently available treatments for aspergillosis and other invasive fungal diseases. The list includes species-specific protein families as well as conserved core components of the ancestral PCD machinery shared by fungi and metazoa.

  16. Desulfotomaculum arcticum sp nov., a novel spore-formin, moderately thermophilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold fjord sediment of Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, V.; Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    2006-01-01

    Strain 15 T is a novel spore-forming, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from a permanently cold fjord sediment of Svalbard. Sulfate could be replaced by sulfite or thiosulfate. Hydrogen, formate, lactate, propionate, butyrate, hexanoate, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, pyruvate, malate...... and optimal growth occurred at 44 degrees C. Therefore, strain 15 T apparently cannot grow at in situ temperatures of Arctic sediments from where it was isolated, and it was proposed that it was present in the sediment in the form of spores. The DNA G+C content was 48(.)9 mol%. Strain 15 T was most closely...

  17. Use of the Signature Fatty Acid 16:1ω5 as a Tool to Determine the Distribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ngosong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass estimation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi, widespread plant root symbionts, commonly employs lipid biomarkers, predominantly the fatty acid 16:1ω5. We briefly reviewed the application of this signature fatty acid, followed by a case study comparing biochemical markers with microscopic techniques in an arable soil following a change to AM non-host plants after 27 years of continuous host crops, that is, two successive cropping seasons with wheat followed by amaranth. After switching to the non-host amaranth, spore biomass estimated by the neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA 16:1ω5 decreased to almost nil, whereas microscopic spore counts decreased by about 50% only. In contrast, AM hyphal biomass assessed by the phospholipid (PLFA 16:1ω5 was greater under amaranth than wheat. The application of PLFA 16:1ω5 as biomarker was hampered by background level derived from bacteria, and further enhanced by its incorporation from degrading spores used as microbial resource. Meanwhile, biochemical and morphological assessments showed negative correlation for spores and none for hyphal biomass. In conclusion, the NLFA 16:1ω5 appears to be a feasible indicator for AM fungi of the Glomales group in the complex field soils, whereas the use of PLFA 16:1ω5 for hyphae is unsuitable and should be restricted to controlled laboratory studies.

  18. Comparison of four commercial DNA extraction kits for the recovery of Bacillus spp. spore DNA from spiked powder samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölsä, Markos; Kalin-Mänttäri, Laura; Tonteri, Elina; Hemmilä, Heidi; Nikkari, Simo

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus spp. include human pathogens such as Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax and a biothreat agent. Bacillus spp. form spores that are physically highly resistant and may remain active over sample handling. We tested four commercial DNA extraction kits (QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, RTP Pathogen Kit, ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MiniPrep, and genesig Easy DNA/RNA Extraction kit) for sample inactivation and DNA recovery from two powders (icing sugar and potato flour) spiked with Bacillus thuringiensis spores. The DNA was analysed using a B. thuringiensis-specific real-time PCR assay. The detection limit was 3×10(1)CFU of spiked B. thuringiensis spores with the QIAamp DNA Mini, RTP Pathogen, and genesig Easy DNA/RNA Extraction kits, and 3×10(3)CFU with the ZR Fungal/Bacterial DNA MiniPrep kit. The results showed that manual extraction kits are effective and safe for fast and easy DNA extraction from powder samples even in field conditions. Adding a DNA filtration step to the extraction protocol ensures the removal of Bacillus spp. spores from DNA samples without affecting sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The combined effect of high pressure and nisin or lysozyme on the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, B.; Skąpska, S.; Fonberg-Broczek, M.; Niezgoda, J.; Chotkiewicz, M.; Dekowska, A.; Rzoska, S.

    2012-03-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, a thermoacidophilic and spore-forming bacterium is one of the important target micro-organisms in the quality control of acidic canned foods. High pressure pasteurization (HPP) at 50°C was used for the inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores in apple juice. Pressure applied both in a continuous and oscillatory mode gave the best results when 200 MPa was used. Increasing the pressure to 500 MPa, as well as lowering its value to 100 MPa, had an adverse effect on the effectiveness of the process. The best results were achieved with the use of a combined treatment, invol