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Sample records for sporanox itraconazole injection

  1. Itraconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tell you to take itraconazole capsules with a cola soft drink if you have certain medical conditions ... of the ingredients in itraconazole oral solution caused cancer in some types of laboratory animals. It is ...

  2. Formulation and characterization of biocompatible and stable I.V. itraconazole nanosuspensions stabilized by a new stabilizer polyethylene glycol-poly(β-Benzyl-l-aspartate) (PEG-PBLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Lanlan; Li, Xiaohua; Wang, Haiyan; Cao, Yanping; Yin, Li; Li, Mengmeng; Wei, Zhihao; Chen, Dongxiao; Pu, Xiaohui; Han, Jihong

    2017-10-05

    Amphiphilic block copolymers, PEG-PBLA with different molecular weights, were synthesized and used as new stabilizers for Itraconazole nannosuspensions (ITZ-PBLA-Nanos). ITZ-PBLA-Nanos were prepared by the microprecipitation-high pressure homogenization method, and the particle size and zeta potential were measured using a ZetaSizer Nano-ZS90. Morphology and crystallinity were studied using TEM, DSC and powder X-ray. The effect of the PEG-to-PBLA ratio, and the drug-to-stabilizer ratio were investigated to obtain the optimal formulation. It was found that the optimal length of hydrophobic block was 25 BLA-NCA molecules and the optimal ratio of drug/stabilizer was 1:1, where the resulted average particle size of ITZ-PBLA-Nanos was 262.1±7.13nm with a PDI value of 0.163±0.011. The images of TEM suggest that ITZ-PBLA-Nanos were rectangular in shape. ITZ existed as crystals in the nanoparticles as suggested by the DSC and XRD results. Compared with the crude drug suspensions, the dissolution rate of ITZ nanocrystals, was significantly increased and was similar to Sporanox ® injection. The ITZ-PBLA-Nanos also demonstrated better dilution stability and storage stability compared with ITZ-F68-Nanos. The particle size of ITZ-PBLA-Nanos did not change significantly after incubated in rat plasma for 24h which is a good attribute for I.V. administration. Acute toxicity tests showed that ITZ-PBLA-Nanos has the highest LD 50 compared with ITZ-F68-Nanos and Sporanox ® injection. ITZ-PBLA-Nanos also showed stronger inhibiting effect on the growth of Candida albicans compared with Sporanox ® injection. Therefore, PEG-PBLA has a promising potential as a biocompatible stabilizer for ITZ nanosuspensions and potentially for other nanosuspensions as well. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Population In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation Model Linking Gastrointestinal Transit Time, pH, and Pharmacokinetics: Itraconazole as a Model Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhelwa, Ahmad Y; Mudge, Stuart; Hayes, David; Upton, Richard N; Foster, David J R

    2016-07-01

    To establish an in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) model for Sporanox and SUBA-itraconazole formulations and to understand the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) pH and transit times on itraconazole dissolution and absorption. IVIVC was developed based on fed/fasted pharmacokinetic data from randomized cross-over trials, in vitro dissolution studies, and prior information about typical and between subject variability of GI pH and transit times. Data were analysed using the population modelling approach as implemented in NONMEM. Dissolution kinetics were described using first order models. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of itraconazole was described with a 2-compartment model with 4-transit absorption compartments. Pharmacokinetic profiles for fasted itraconazole periods were described based on the in vitro dissolution model, in vivo disposition model, and the prior information on GI pH and transit times. The IVIVC model indicated that drug dissolution in the fed state required an additional pH-independent dissolution pathway. The IVIVC models were presented in a 'Shiny' application. An IVIVC model was established and internally evaluated for the two itraconazole formulations. The IVIVC model provides more insight into the observed variability of itraconazole pharmacokinetics and indicated that GI pH and transit times influence in vivo dissolution and exposure.

  4. Intravitreal itraconazole inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in rats.

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    Jeong Hun Bae

    Full Text Available Choroidal neovascularization (CNV is a major cause of severe visual loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Recently, itraconazole has shown potent and dose-dependent inhibition of tumor-associated angiogenesis. We evaluated the anti-angiogenic effect of itraconazole in a rat model of laser-induced CNV. After laser photocoagulation in each eye to cause CNV, right eyes were administered intravitreal injections of itraconazole; left eyes received balanced salt solution (BSS as controls. On day 14 after laser induction, fluorescein angiography (FA was used to assess abnormal vascular leakage. Flattened retinal pigment epithelium (RPE-choroid tissue complex was stained with Alexa Fluor 594-conjugated isolectin B4 to measure the CNV area and volume. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 mRNA and protein expression was determined 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after intravitreal injection by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. VEGF levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Intravitreal itraconazole significantly reduced leakage from CNV as assessed by FA and CNV area and volume on flat mounts compared with intravitreal BSS (p = 0.002 for CNV leakage, p<0.001 for CNV area and volume. Quantitative RT-PCR showed significantly lower expression of VEGFR2 mRNA in the RPE-choroid complexes of itraconazole-injected eyes than those of BSS-injected eyes on days 7 and 14 (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006. Western blots indicated that VEGFR2 was downregulated after itraconazole treatment. ELISA showed a significant difference in VEGF level between itraconazole-injected and BSS-injected eyes on days 7 and 14 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001. Our study demonstrated that intravitreal itraconazole significantly inhibited the development of laser-induced CNV in rats. Itraconazole had anti-angiogenic activity along with the reduction of VEGFR2 and VEGF levels. Itraconazole may prove beneficial for treating CNV as an alternative or

  5. Development of Liposome containing sodium deoxycholate to enhance oral bioavailability of itraconazole

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    Zhenbao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance oral bioavailability of itraconazole (ITZ by developing Liposome containing sodium deoxycholate (ITZ-Lip-NaDC. The liposome, consisting of egg yolk lecithin and sodium deoxycholate, was prepared by thin-film dispersion method. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC results indicated an amorphous state in the liposome. The physicochemical characteristics including particle size, morphology, entrapment efficiency, dissolution properties were also investigated. The performance of single-pass intestinal infusion exhibited that the transport order of intestinal segment was jejunum, duodenum, colon and ileum, and that all the segments participated in the absorption of ITZ in intestinal tract. The bioavailability study in rats showed that the AUC0-72 of the liposome was nearly 1.67-fold higher than that of commercial capsules (SPORANOX in terms of oral administration, and the RSD of AUC0-72 of ITZ-Lip-NaDC was also decreased. Our results indicated that ITZ-Lip-NaDC liposome was facilitated to improve dissolution efficiency, augment transmembrane absorption, and then enhance the oral bioavailability of ITZ, successfully.

  6. Supersaturation induced by Itraconazole/Soluplus® micelles provided high GI absorption in vivo

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    Yue Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of supersaturation induced by micelle formation during dissolution on the bioavailability of itraconazole (ITZ/Soluplus® solid dispersion. Solid dispersions prepared by hot melt extrusion (HME were compressed into tablets directly with other excipients. Dissolution behavior of ITZ tablets was studied by dissolution testing and the morphology of micelles in dissolution media was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Drug transferring from stomach into intestine was simulated to obtain a supersaturated drug solution. Bioavailability studies were performed on the ITZ tablets and Sporanox® in beagle dogs. The morphology of micelles in the dissolution media was observed to be spherical in shape, with an average size smaller than 100 nm. The supersaturated solutions formed by Soluplus® micelles were stable and no precipitation took place over a period of 180 min. Compared with Sporanox®, ITZ tablets exhibited a 2.50-fold increase in the AUC(0–96 of ITZ and a 1.95-fold increase in its active metabolite hydroxyitraconazole (OH-ITZ in the plasma of beagle dogs. The results obtained provided clear evidence that not only the increase in the dissolution rate in the stomach, but also the supersaturation produced by micelles in the small intestine may be of great assistance in the successful development of poorly water-soluble drugs. The micelles formed by Soluplus® enwrapped the molecular ITZ inside the core which promoted the amount of free drug in the intestinal cavity and carried ITZ through the aqueous boundary layer (ABL, resulting in high absorption by passive transportation across biological membranes. The uptake of intact micelles through pinocytosis together with the inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux in intestinal epithelia contributed to the absorption of ITZ in the gastrointestinal tract. These results indicate that HME with Soluplus®, which can induce supersaturation by micelle

  7. Fluconazole and itraconazole in pityriasis versicolor

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    Jaswal Ritu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia species. It has a high incidence and prevalence in tropical climates. Although it responds well to treatment, relapses and recurrences are frequent. In the present study the therapeutic response of single dose fluconazole (400 mg with itraconazole (100mg twice daily ? 7 days was compared in sixty patients of pityriasis versicolor. No significant statistical difference (p>0.05% was observed between efficacy of two drugs. Therapy with fluconazole is preferable in view of single dose administration and lesser cost as compared to itraconazole.

  8. In vitro susceptibility of dermatophytes to itraconazole

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    Venugopal Pankajalakshmi

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of itraconazole was investigated against 88 clinical isolates of dermatophytes. The isolates included Microsporum canis-50, M. audovinii-5, Trichophyton rubrum-6, T. mentagraphytes-5 T.violaceum-12, T.simii-5, T verrucosum-1, T.soundanense-1, T. erinacei-1 and Epidermophyton flooccosum-2 isolates. The results were compared with that of ketoconazole and griseofulvin. Itraconazole was more active, inhibiting 85 of the 88 isolates at a concentration of 0.5 µg/ml (MIC range 0.01-1 µg/ml. Ketoconazole (MIC range 0.1-10 µg/ml required 2.5 µg/ml and 5 µg/ml of the drug respectively for inhibition of all the isolates except one of Microsporum species.

  9. Immunomodulatory activity of itraconazole in lung

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v15i12.10. Original Research Article. Immunomodulatory activity of itraconazole in lung. Tonny W Naranjo1,2*, Damaris Lopera2, Andrés Felipe Zuluaga3 and Luz Elena. Cano4. 1Escuela de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, 2Unidad de Micología Médica y Experimental,.

  10. Efficacy of terbinafine and itraconazole on a experimental model of systemic sporotrichosis Eficiência de terbinafina e itraconazol em um modelo experimental de esporotricose sistêmica

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    Ana Raquel Mano Meinerz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Itraconazole is currently considered the drug of choice to treat the diverse clinical presentation of sporotrichosis. On the other hand terbinafine by virtue of its excellent in vitro activity is under comparative evaluation for its therapeutic potential for a wide range of fungal infections. In this study, our aim was to determine the in vivo efficacy of terbinafine and itraconazole on a experimental model of systemic sporotrichosis. 120 rats Wistar received an injection of 2x10³ S. schenckii cells by via the lateral tail vein. After 3 days the animals were treated with terbinafine (250mg/kg and itraconazole (100 mg/kg and their respective diluents. In our model, terbinafine and itraconazole were effective in reducing the number of clinical lesions and positive organ cultures. There was statistical difference between the groups treated with the antifungals in relation to the control groups (pItraconazol é atualmente considerado a droga de escolha para o tratamento das diferentes formas clínicas da esporotricose. Por outro lado a terbinafina devido a sua excelente atividade in vitro está sendo avaliada quanto ao seu potencial terapêutico frente a diversas infecções fúngicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a eficácia in vivo da terbinafina e itraconazol em um modelo de esporotricose experimental sistêmica. 120 ratos Wistar receberam uma injeção de 2x10³ células de S. schenckii pela veia lateral da cauda. Após 3 dias os animais foram tratados com terbinafina (250mg/kg e itraconazol (100mg/kg e os seus respectivos diluentes. No modelo experimental estudado, a terbinafina e itraconazol se mostraram efetivos reduzindo o número de sintomas clínicos e retroisolamento positivo para o agente. Houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos tratados com os antifúngicos em relação aos grupos controle (p<0,05 nas alterações clínicas, achados anatomopatológicos e no retroisolamento do agente, sendo que os animais tratados

  11. Use of Drawing Lithography-Fabricated Polyglycolic Acid Microneedles for Transdermal Delivery of Itraconazole to a Human Basal Cell Carcinoma Model Regenerated on Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jennifer; Wang, Yan; Jin, Jane Y.; Degan, Simone; Hall, Russell P.; Boehm, Ryan D.; Jaipan, Panupong; Narayan, Roger J.

    2016-04-01

    Itraconazole is a triazole agent that is routinely used for treatment of nail infections and other fungal infections. Recent studies indicate that itraconazole can also inhibit the growth of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) through suppression of the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway. In this study, polyglycolic acid microneedle arrays and stainless steel microneedle arrays were used for transdermal delivery of itraconazole to a human BCC model which was regenerated on mice. One-by-four arrays of 642- μm-long polyglycolic acid microneedles with sharp tips were prepared using injection molding and drawing lithography. Arrays of 85 stainless steel 800- μm-tall microneedles attached to syringes were obtained for comparison purposes. Skin grafts containing devitalized split-thickness human dermis that had been seeded with human keratinocytes transduced to express human SHH protein were sutured to the skin of immunodeficient mice. Mice with this human BCC model were treated daily for 2 weeks with itraconazole dissolved in 60% dimethylsulfoxane and 40% polyethylene glycol-400 solution; transdermal administration of the itraconazole solution was facilitated by either four 1 × 4 polyglycolic acid microneedle arrays or stainless steel microneedle arrays. The epidermal tissues treated with polyglycolic acid microneedles or stainless steel microneedles were markedly thinner than that of the control (untreated) graft tissue. These preliminary results indicate that microneedles may be used to facilitate transdermal delivery of itraconazole for localized treatment of BCC.

  12. Cross-reactivity between voriconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Lash, D; Jolliff, J; Munoz, A; Heidari, A

    2016-10-01

    Hypersensitivity to triazoles is a rare occurrence and cross-reactivity between agents is unknown. We present a successful voriconazole challenge in a patient allergic to fluconazole and itraconazole. A 41-year-old immunocompetent male with coccidioidomycosis developed fever, eosinophilia and maculopapular rash from fluconazole. Switching to itraconazole resulted in worsening of the rash and skin sloughing over 25% of his body. He was given an oral-graded challenge of voriconazole which he tolerated without incident. This is the first report of a lack of cross-reactivity between itraconazole and voriconazole. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cushing's syndrome due to interaction between inhaled corticosteroids and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Bagg, Warwick; Thomas, Mark G; Lucas, Jennifer A; Ticehurst, Rob; Black, Peter N

    2004-01-01

    To report a case of an interaction between inhaled corticosteroids and itraconazole causing iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and provide a review of the relevant literature. A 70-year-old white woman on long-term treatment with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids for asthma was diagnosed as having Scedosporium apiospermum infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. As a result, she was treated with itraconazole for 2 months. She subsequently developed Cushing's syndrome due to a probable cytochrome P450-mediated interaction between itraconazole and budesonide. She also had secondary adrenal insufficiency requiring prolonged treatment with replacement hydrocortisone. Budesonide is a potent glucocorticoid that is metabolized in the liver by the CYP3A4 isoenzyme to inactive metabolites. Itraconazole is a potent cytochrome P450 inhibitor. It can inhibit the metabolism of oral or inhaled corticosteroids, producing cortisol excess leading to Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency. An assessment of causality indicated a possible adverse interaction between itraconazole and budesonide. The combination of itraconazole and inhaled corticosteroids is increasingly being used to treat conditions such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential for an interaction between such a combination.

  14. Itraconazole induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via inhibiting Hedgehog signaling in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiang; Hou, Yi-Chao; Huang, Jiao; Fang, Jing-Yuan; Xiong, Hua

    2017-04-11

    Itraconazole has been proved therapeutically effective against a variety of human cancers. This study assessed the effect of itraconazole on the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway and proliferation of human gastric cancer cells. CCK-8 assay and colony formation assay were used to assess the effects of itraconazole on proliferation of gastric cancer cells. The expression of Hh signaling components in gastric cancer cells treated with itraconazole was evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and dual luciferase assay. Tumor xenograft models were used to assess the inhibitory effect of itraconazole on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells in vivo. Itraconazole could remarkably inhibit the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. When in combination with 5-FU, itraconazole significantly reduced the proliferation rate of cancer cells. Furthermore, itraconazole could regulate the G 1 -S transition and induce apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Hh signaling was abnormally activated in human gastric cancer samples. In vitro, studies showed that the expression of glioma-associated zinc finger transcription factor 1 (Gli1) was decreased at both transcriptional and translational levels after treatment with itraconazole. Dual luciferase assay also indicated that itraconazole could inhibit the transcription of Gli1. In vivo studies demonstrated that monotherapy with itraconazole by oral administration could inhibit the growth of xenografts, and that itraconazole could significantly enhance the antitumor efficacy of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-FU. Hh signaling is activated in gastric tumor and itraconazole can inhibit the growth of gastric cancer cells by inhibiting Gli1 expression.

  15. Oral itraconazole for the treatment of severe seborrhoeic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Seborrheic dermatitis (SD is an inflammatory skin disorder in which colonies of Malassezia furfur have been found in affected areas. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of itraconazole in the treatment of severe SD. Materials and Methods: Itraconazole was given to 30 patients of SD in a dose of 100 mg twice daily for 1 week followed by 200 mg/day for first 2 days of the following 2 months. The response was noted on day 15, 30, 60, and 90. The clinical response was graded as markedly effective, effective, or ineffective. Results: Clinical improvement (evaluated as markedly effective or effective was observed in 83.3% cases. Conclusion : The anti-inflammatory activity of oral itraconazole suggests that it should be the first-line therapy in severe SD.

  16. Formulation and drying of miconazole and itraconazole nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, Ana M; Mazzotti, Marco; Gander, Bruno

    2013-02-25

    Miconazole and itraconazole possess adequate membrane permeability, but only slight water solubility, which limits their bioavailability and antifungal effect. To increase their dissolution rate, the compounds were nanoground by media milling to produce nanosuspensions with mean particle size of approximately 210 nm and stabilized with sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) in combinations with either cellulose ethers (HPC or HPMC) or poloxamers. During storage for 3 months at 25 °C, HPC/SDS stabilized more efficiently miconazole nanoparticles, while poloxamer 407/SDS performed better with itraconazole nanosuspensions. The stabilizing efficiency of the excipients was explained by physical-chemical drug-excipients interactions. The HPC/SDS-stabilized nanosuspensions were spray-dried or freeze-dried with and without the matrix formers mannitol or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). In absence of matrix former, itraconazole particles agglomerated more extensively than miconazole particles, resulting in a low dissolution rate. Dissolution of the spray- or freeze-dried miconazole nanosuspension was enhanced in presence of mannitol or MCC (drug substance:excipient ratio of 1:1, w/w), as compared to the coarse drug suspension (twice the amount dissolved after 10 and 20 min). Spray-drying itraconazole nanosuspension in presence of mannitol or MCC also yielded fast dissolution (60% dissolved in less than 10 min as compared to 30-45 min with the coarse suspension). Freeze-dried itraconazole nanosuspensions did generally not dissolve substantially faster than freeze-dried coarse suspension. In conclusion, we were able to process miconazole and itraconazole successfully and under similar conditions into dry nanoparticulate drug products with enhanced in vitro performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Iatrogenic metrorrhagia after the use of itraconazole for onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Gulin, Sandra Jerkovic; Gulin, Dario; Chiriac, Anca

    2017-01-01

    We present first case report on itraconazole, a drug very commonly used for onychomycosis, used along with simvastatin that caused metrorrhagia. The suggested probable mechanism is the inhibition of steroidogenesis, especially estrogens that resulted in low-estrogen breakthrough bleeding. This article emphasizes the importance of drug interaction check prior the initiation of onychomycosis treatment.

  18. Iatrogenic metrorrhagia after the use of itraconazole for onychomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Gulin, Sandra Jerkovic; Gulin, Dario; Chiriac, Anca

    2017-01-01

    We present first case report on itraconazole, a drug very commonly used for onychomycosis, used along with simvastatin that caused metrorrhagia. The suggested probable mechanism is the inhibition of steroidogenesis, especially estrogens that resulted in low-estrogen breakthrough bleeding. This article emphasizes the importance of drug interaction check prior the initiation of onychomycosis treatment.

  19. Itraconazole formulation studies of the melt-extrusion process with mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambali, B; Verreck, G; Baert, L; Massart, D L

    2003-07-01

    Itraconazole is a poorly water soluble compound. One method to increase the aqueous solubility of itraconazole is through formation of a solid dispersion. The purpose of this study is to develop a 40% w/w itraconazole formulation through solid dispersion formation, using hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and hydroxypropylmethyl-cellulose (HPMC) as mixture components. The solid dispersion was obtained by melt-extrusion using a twin-screw corotating melt extruder. A D-optimal mixture design was applied for the development of the optimal itraconazole formulation. The itraconazole fraction varied between 20% w/w and 50% w/w in the mixture design and the HPMC and HP-beta-CD fractions varied between 10% w/w and 60% w/w. The itraconazole formulation was optimized by producing clear extrudates, minimizing the torque, and maximizing the glass transition temperature and the apparent itraconazole solubility in 0.1 N HCl. Regression models were developed for the torque, glass transition temperature, and apparent solubility of itraconazole. High itraconazole fraction in the mixture promoted a better melt processing (minimizes torque). High HPMC fraction (>33% w/w) resulted in clear extrudates, indicating a solid dispersion and resulted in high glass transition temperature of the melt. High HP-beta-CD fraction resulted in increased apparent itraconazole solubility in 0.1 N HCl. The optimal itraconazole formulation consisted of 45% w/w HPMC and 15% HP-beta-CD w/w.

  20. Development of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous measurement of voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, John M; Milan, Anna M; Anson, James; Davison, Andrew S

    2017-11-01

    Background Azole-based antifungals are the first-line therapy for some of the most common mycoses and are now also being used prophylactically to protect immunocompromised patients. However, due to variability in both their metabolism and bioavailability, therapeutic drug monitoring is essential to avoid toxicity but still gain maximum efficacy. Methods Following protein precipitation of serum with acetonitrile, 20  µL of extract was injected onto a 2.1 × 50 mm Waters Atlantis dC18 3  µm column. Detection was via a Waters Quattro Premier XE tandem mass spectrometer operating in ESI-positive mode. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detected two product ions for each compound and one for each isotopically labelled internal standard. Ion suppression, linearity, stability, matrix effects, recovery, imprecision, lower limits of measuring interval and detection were all assessed. Results Optimal chromatographic separation was achieved using gradient elution over 8 minutes. Voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole eluted at 1.71, 2.73 and 3.41 min, respectively. The lower limits of measuring interval for all three compounds was 0.1 mg/L. The assay was linear to 10 mg/L for voriconazole (R 2  = 0.995) and 5 mg/L for posaconazole (R 2  = 0.990) and itraconazole (R 2  = 0.991). The assay was both highly accurate and precise with % bias of voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole, respectively, when compared with previous NEQAS samples. The intra-assay precision (CV%) was 1.6%, 2.5% and 1.9% for voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole, respectively, across the linear range. Conclusion A simple and robust method has been validated for azole antifungal therapeutic drug monitoring. This new assay will result in a greatly improved sample turnaround time and will therefore vastly increase the clinical utility of azole antifungal drug monitoring.

  1. Phase behavior of itraconazole-phenol mixtures and its pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chun-Woong; Mansour, Heidi M; Oh, Tack-Oon; Kim, Ju-Young; Ha, Jung-Myung; Lee, Beom-Jin; Chi, Sang-Cheol; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Eun-Seok

    2012-10-15

    The aims of this study were to examine the phase behavior of itraconazole-phenol mixtures and assess the feasibility of topical formulations of itraconazole using eutectic mixture systems. Itraconazole-phenol eutectic mixtures were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The skin permeation rates of itraconazole-phenol eutectic formulations were determined using Franz diffusion cells fitted with excised hairless mouse skins. Itraconazole can form eutectic compounds with phenol, and the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyl group in the itraconazole and hydroxyl group in phenol play a major role in itraconazole-phenol eutectic formation. Despite its high molecular weight and hydrophobicity, the drug (i.e., itraconazole) can be permeated through excised hairless mouse skins from itraconazole-phenol eutectic formulations. The findings of this study emphasize the capabilities of the topical application of itraconazole via external preparations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Potent synergistic in vitro interaction between nonantimicrobial membrane-active compounds and itraconazole against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus resistant to itraconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afeltra, J.; Vitale, R.G.; Mouton, J.W.; Verweij, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    To develop new approaches for the treatment of invasive infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, the in vitro interactions between itraconazole (ITZ) and seven different nonantimicrobial membrane-active compounds--amiodarone (AMD), amiloride, lidocaine, lansoprazole (LAN), nifedipine (NIF),

  3. Itraconazole compared with amphotericin B plus flucytosine in AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gans, J.; Portegies, P.; Tiessens, G.; Eeftinck Schattenkerk, J. K.; van Boxtel, C. J.; van Ketel, R. J.; Stam, J.

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a comparison of itraconazole versus amphotericin B plus flucytosine in the initial treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with AIDS and established the efficacy of itraconazole as maintenance treatment. The trial was a prospective, randomized, and non-blinded study. The study

  4. Effects of Cytochrome P 450 Inhibitors on Itraconazole and Fluconazole Induced Cytotoxicity in Hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somchit, N.; Ngee, C.S.; Yaakob, A.; Ahmad, Z.; Zakaria, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    Itraconazole and fluconazole have been reported to induce hepatotoxicity in patients. The present study was designed to investigate the role of cytochrome P450 inhibitors, SKF 525A, and curcumin pretreatment on the cytotoxicity of antifungal drugs fluconazole and itraconazole. For 3 consecutive days, female rats were administered daily SKF 525A or curcumin (5 and 25?mg/kg). Control rats received an equivalent amount of dosed vehicle. The animals were anaesthetised 24 hours after receiving the last dose for liver perfusion. Hepatocytes were then exposed to various concentrations of antifungal drugs. In vitro incubation of hepatocytes with itraconazole revealed significantly lower viability when compared to fluconazole as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities. The cytotoxicity of itraconazole was enhanced when incubated with hepatocytes pretreated with SKF 525A. SKF 525A had no effects on the cytotoxicity of fluconazole. Curcumin failed to either increase or decrease the cytotoxicity of both antifungal drugs. ATP levels also showed significant decrease in both itraconazole and fluconazole incubated hepatocytes. However, SKF 525A pretreated hepatocytes had significantly lower ATP levels after itraconazole incubations. Collectively, these results confirm the involvement of cytochrome P450 in the cytoprotection in itraconazole induced hepatocyte toxicity. Differences of the effects of SKF 525A on the cytotoxicity induced by itraconazole and fluconazole may be due to the differences on the metabolism of each antifungal drug in vivo.

  5. Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency as a side-effect of combined treatment of itraconazole and budesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, M; Main, K M; Sillesen, Ida Blok

    2002-01-01

    assessment of this axis and gonadal function in all patients treated with itraconazole in the authors' CF centre. Itraconazole can inhibit CYP3A, thus interfering with synthesis of gluco- and mineralocorticoids, androgens and oestradiol as well as the metabolism of budesonide. The aim of this study...... was to evaluate adrenal and gonadal function in patients treated with itraconazole with or without budesonide. An adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) test (250 microg tetracosactid) was performed in 25 CF patients treated with both itraconazole and budesonide, and in 12 patients treated with itraconazole alone...... (six patients with CF and six with chronic granulomateous disease). Mineralocorticoid and gonadal steroid function were evaluated by measurements of plasma-renin, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, progesterone, oestradiol, testosterone, serum-inhibin A and B. ACTH tests performed...

  6. Hepatic Failure in a Patient Receiving Itraconazole for Pulmonary Histoplasmosis-Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Natasha N; Pisano, Jennifer; Weber, Stephen; Ridgway, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Severe cases of itraconazole-induced hepatotoxicity have been reported; however, these events are thought to occur very rarely. The available literature is comprised largely of individual case reports and small series that do not report the itraconazole serum concentration at the time of the severe adverse event or apply an objective scale to assess probability of the event being related to drug exposure. We report a case of severe hepatotoxicity after 6 months of itraconazole therapy for histoplasmosis, resulting in acute hepatic failure (aspartate transaminase >20× and alanine transaminase >15× upper limit normal), in the setting of therapeutic serum concentrations (5 mg/mL). Both the Naranjo probability scale and the Roussel Uclaf causality assessment method were used to assess the probability of a causality relationship showing a "probable" and "highly probable" association with itraconazole exposure, respectively. The available literature describing severe hepatotoxicity resulting in hepatic failure associated with itraconazole is also reviewed.

  7. Itraconazole for the treatment of cryptococcosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medleau, L; Jacobs, G J; Marks, M A

    1995-01-01

    Itraconazole was used in 35 cats with cryptococcosis. Treatment response was determined by comparing clinical signs before, during, and after treatment. It could not be evaluated in 7 cats because they died during treatment from causes unrelated to cryptococcosis. Of the remaining 28 cats, treatment response was classified as success in 16 cats (57%), as improvement in 8 cats (29%), and as a failure in 4 (14%). The failures were due to death or euthanasia from drug toxicity (1 cat), progressive fungal disease (2 cats), and relapse 1 year after treatment (1 cat). The cats that improved did not undergo a 1-year posttreatment evaluation because they were lost to follow-up (3 cats), died or were euthanatized for other reasons (4 cats), or had a noncompliant owner (1 cat). For the 16 cats in which treatment was successful, the median itraconazole dose was 13.8 mg/kg body weight daily (range, 10.9 to 26.7 mg/kg/d), and the median duration of treatment was 8.5 months (range, 4 to 16 months). Five of these cats had previously been treated unsuccessfully with ketoconazole.

  8. Preparation and Evaluation of Inhalable Itraconazole Chitosan Based Polymeric Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Moazeni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the potential of chitosan based polymeric micelles as a nanocarrier system for pulmonary delivery of itraconazole (ITRA.Methods: Hydrophobically modified chitosan were synthesized by conjugation of stearic acid to the hydrophilic depolymerized chitosan. FTIR and 1HNMR were used to prove the chemical structure and physical properties of the depolymerized and the stearic acid grafted chitosan. ITRA was entrapped into the micelles and physicochemical properties of the micelles were investigated. Fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic laser light scattering andtransmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the prepared micelles. The in vitro pulmonary profile of polymeric micelles was studied by an air-jet nebulizer connected to a twin stage impinger.Results: The polymeric micelles prepared in this study could entrap up to 43.2±2.27 μg of ITRA per milliliter. All micelles showed mean diameter between 120–200 nm. The critical micelle concentration of the stearic acid grafted chitosan was found to be 1.58×10-2 mg/ml. The nebulization efficiency was up to 89% and the fine particle fraction (FPF varied from 38% to 47%. The micelles had enough stability to remain encapsulation of the drug during nebulization process.Conclusions: In vitro data showed that stearic acid grafted chitosan based polymeric micelles has a potential to be used as nanocarriers for delivery of itraconazole through inhalation.

  9. Successful Long-Term Use of Itraconazole for the Treatment of Aspergillus Diskospondylitis in a Dog

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    Emiko Van Wie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year-old spayed female German shepherd dog was admitted with a history of generalized stiffness. Neurologic examination revealed mild paraparesis with multifocal spinal pain. Spinal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging revealed diskospondylitis at L6-7 and multiple sites throughout the thoracolumbar spine. Biopsy of the intervertebral disk at L6-7 revealed a positive culture for Aspergillus species, and the dog was placed on itraconazole indefinitely. Clinical signs were significantly improved after two weeks of itraconazole. The dog was reevaluated 8 years later for unrelated reasons. No spinal pain was detected. Spinal radiographs revealed a fused L6-7 disk space and collapsed and sclerotic disk spaces at multiple sites. Itraconazole was tolerated by the dog with normal yearly liver enzyme values. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful long-term use of itraconazole for the treatment of Aspergillus diskospondylitis in a dog.

  10. Comparison of Itraconazole and Fluconazole Treatments in a Murine Model of Coccidioidal Meningitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamberi, Perparim; Sobel, Raymond A.; Clemons, Karl V.; Waldvogel, Andreas; Striebel, Joan M.; Williams, Paul L.; Stevens, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Coccidioidal meningitis (CM) is a devastating disease that requires long-term therapy and for which there is little hope of a cure. A model was used to compare the efficacies of itraconazole and fluconazole. CD-1 mice were infected intrathecally with 30 to 36 viable arthroconidia of Coccidioides. Oral therapy with cyclodextrin (control) or itraconazole or fluconazole at 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg of body weight twice daily (BID) was given for 12 days, from day 3 of infection. Treatment with both antifungals at all doses prolonged survival compared with that of the control treatment (P < 0.01 to 0.0001). At 50 mg/kg, itraconazole and fluconazole were equivalent, whereas itraconazole at 10 or 25 mg/kg prolonged survival compared to that achieved with fluconazole at these dosages (P < 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). Early histologic analysis (10 days of treatment) with 50 mg/kg BID itraconazole or fluconazole showed suppression of CM in all five animals per group; in quantitative cultures, three of three animals from each group had no detectable infection in the brain, spinal cord, or a site of secondary infection, the lungs. In contrast, four of seven controls showed mild to severe meningitis, with arteritis detected in three animals. In a short-term organ clearance study, 5 days of treatment with 10 or 50 mg/kg BID itraconazole or fluconazole reduced the tissue burdens in the brain and spinal cord compared to the tissue burdens in the controls (P < 0.02 to 0.0003). Fluconazole at 10 mg/kg did not reduce the fungal burden in secondary sites, the lungs and kidneys, whereas this itraconazole dose was more effective in clearing the fungi from both organs (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). At 50 mg/kg, itraconazole and fluconazole were equivalent in clearing the fungi from the brain and kidney, but itraconazole was superior to fluconazole in clearing the fungi from the spinal cord and lungs (P < 0.05). Thus, both itraconazole and fluconazole were effective at controlling CM

  11. Effect of Itraconazole on the Pharmacokinetics of Diclofenac in Beagle Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    AL-JENOOBI, Fahad

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac potassium in beagle dogs after oral coadministration. Five male beagle dogs received a single oral 50 mg dose of diclofenac potassium alone in phase I, and along with a single oral 100 mg dose of itraconazole in phase II. Blood samples obtained for 8.0 hours post dose were analysed for diclofenac concentration using a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)...

  12. THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF TOPICAL ITRACONAZOLE IN PANAMANIAN GOLDEN FROGS (ATELOPUS ZETEKI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Amy; Visser, Marike; Barrett, Kevin; Boothe, Dawn; Bronson, Ellen

    2017-06-01

    Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and is one of the primary causes of the global decline in amphibian populations and specifically of the Panamanian golden frog ( Atelopus zeteki ). Itraconazole has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for chytridiomycosis by inhibiting cytochrome P450, a major enzyme important for the structure of B. dendrobatidis zoospores' plasma membranes. However, anecdotal reports of toxicity in this and other amphibian species have been reported at the 0.01% concentration. This study is the first to determine pharmacokinetics of 0.01% and 0.001% itraconazole in the Panamanian golden frog. Frogs were bathed 10 min, euthanized, and skin, liver, and heart were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, and 36 hr. Itraconazole concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of itraconazole (0.032 μg/ml) for B. dendrobatidis was used to determine whether therapeutic concentrations were attained. Itraconazole was detected in all tissues at both concentrations, indicating systemic absorption. At the 0.01% itraconazole bath, itraconazole concentrations in all tissues exceeded the MIC at all time points, and the lack of decline until the end of the study at 36 hr precluded determining a disappearance half-life. With the 0.001% bath, itraconazole exceeded the MIC and declined with a disappearance half-life that markedly varied (14.1-1,244 min). This study augments the growing literature base on chytridiomycosis and seeks to aid in further experimental attempts to find the most-optimal treatment protocol for this disease.

  13. CLINICAL EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF ITRACONAZOLE IN PREOPERATIVE AND REFRACTORY POSTOPERATIVE PATIENTS OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

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    Ch. Venkatasubbaiah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Allergic Fungal Sinusitis (AFS is a noninvasive type of fungal sinusitis, clinically and pathologically a unique entity of chronic rhinosinusitis. The aetiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of AFS are subject to controversy. In spite of aggressive endoscopic surgery, pre- and postoperative steroids and immunotherapy recurrence rates are high. Many additions are made to its original description and management since its early description in 1980. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate clinically. The response to high-dose itraconazole before endoscopic sinus surgery and in refractory postoperative patients. Related literature was reviewed in the light of the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS A 2 year prospective study conducted on 68 AFS patients divided into two groups to clinically evaluate the results after using oral itraconazole preoperatively in one group and in refractory postoperative period in another. RESULTS The mean age of patients with typical AFS was 36±3.9 years. Patients with AFS with an average follow up of 21 months were included. Recurrence was 6/34 (17.64% in itraconazole group and revision FESS done in 3/34 (08.82%. Recurrence in patients without itraconazole was 16/34 (47.05% and refractory to conventional treatment, but responded to itraconazole in 14/16 (87.50%. Revision surgery required in 2/16 (12.50% after starting oral itraconazole. No side effects or reactions were observed in a total of 7920 doses administered. CONCLUSION Itraconazole is well tolerated by patients and effective in shrinking the polyposis preoperatively with low recurrence. Postoperative refractory AFS is amenable in (87.50% of patients avoiding repeat FESS. Overall, low recurrence rate and minimizing revision surgery when compared to patients treated without itraconazole was evident in the study.

  14. Cardiac arrest provoked by itraconazole and amiodarone interaction: a case report

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    Betrosian Alex

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Azoles, and specifically itraconazole, are often prescribed for the treatment of fungal diseases or empirically for persistent sepsis in patients who are neutropenic or in intensive care. Occasional cardiovascular adverse events have been associated with itraconazole use, and are usually attributed to the interaction of itraconazole with cisapride, terfenadine or digoxin. Its interaction with amiodarone has not been previously described. Case presentation A 65-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at our facility for an extensive ischemic stroke associated with atrial fibrillation. Due to rapid ventricular response he was started on intravenous amiodarone and few days later itraconazole was also prescribed for presumed candidemia. After receiving the first dose our patient became profoundly hypotensive but responded rapidly to fluids and adrenaline. Then, two months later, itraconazole was again prescribed for confirmed fungemia. After receiving the first dose via a central venous catheter our patient became hypotensive and subsequently arrested. He was resuscitated successfully, and as no other cause was identified the arrest was attributed to septic shock and his antifungal treatment was changed to caspofungin. When sensitivity test results became available, antifungal treatment was down-staged to itraconazole and immediately after drug administration our patient suffered another arrest and was once again resuscitated successfully. This time the arrest was related to itraconazole, which was discontinued, and from then on our patient remained stable until his discharge to our neurology ward. Conclusions Itraconazole and amiodarone coadministration can lead to serious cardiovascular adverse events in patients who are critically ill. Intensivists, pharmacists and medical physicians should be aware of the interaction of these two commonly used drugs.

  15. Itraconazole versus griseofulvine in the treatment of tinea corporis and tinea cruris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available 126 patients (82 males and 44 females aged above 12 years, suffering from tinea corporis and/or tinea cruris, were treated with either itraconazole (100 mg once a day for 2 weeks and then plecebo for 2 weeks (63 patients, or griseofulvin (250 mg twice a day for 4 weeks. 90.47% of the patients treated with itraconzole improved whereas griseofulvin imporved 76.19% of patients, clinically. Mycological response was 72% with itraconazole and 57% with griseofulvin

  16. Thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamics in supercooled liquid state of pharmaceuticals: Itraconazole and ketoconazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnacka, M., E-mail: mtarnacka@us.edu.pl; Madejczyk, O.; Kamiński, K.; Paluch, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Silesian Center of Education and Interdisciplinary Research, University of Silesia, ul. 75 Pulku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzow (Poland); Adrjanowicz, K. [NanoBioMedical Centre, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Pionteck, J. [Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Kaminska, E. [Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmacy and Division of Laboratory Medicine in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jagiellonska 4, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2015-06-14

    Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) measurements and broadband dielectric spectroscopy were carried out to investigate molecular dynamics and to test the validity of thermodynamic scaling of two homologous compounds of pharmaceutical activity: itraconazole and ketoconazole in the wide range of thermodynamic conditions. The pressure coefficients of the glass transition temperature (dT{sub g}/dp) for itraconazole and ketoconazole were determined to be equal to 183 and 228 K/GPa, respectively. However, for itraconazole, the additional transition to the nematic phase was observed and characterized by the pressure coefficient dT{sub n}/dp = 258 K/GPa. From PVT and dielectric data, we obtained that the liquid-nematic phase transition is governed by the relaxation time since it occurred at constant τ {sub α} = 10{sup −5} s. Furthermore, we plotted the obtained relaxation times as a function of T{sup −1}v{sup −γ}, which has revealed that the validity of thermodynamic scaling with the γ exponent equals to 3.69 ± 0.04 and 3.64 ± 0.03 for itraconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Further analysis of the scaling parameter in itraconazole revealed that it unexpectedly decreases with increasing relaxation time, which resulted in dramatic change of the shape of the thermodynamic scaling master curve. While in the case of ketoconazole, it remained the same within entire range of data (within experimental uncertainty). We suppose that in case of itraconazole, this peculiar behavior is related to the liquid crystals’ properties of itraconazole molecule.

  17. Influence of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on the absorption of itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, S; Kleepkaew, A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Coca-Cola in enhancing the absorption of itraconazole. Eight healthy volunteers were randomized to receive two treatment sequences in a two-way crossover design with a 1-week wash-out period separating each study treatment. Treatment 1, the control, consisted of 100 mg itraconazole with 325 ml water. Treatment II was identical to treatment I, except that itraconazole was administered with 325 ml of Coca-Cola (pH 2.5). Serum itraconazole concentrations, after administration with Coca-Cola (treatment II), were higher than after administration with water (treatment I). The mean AUC was 1.12 vs 2.02 micrograms.h.m1-1, the mean Cmax was 0.14 vs 0.31 micrograms.m1-1 and the mean tmax was 2.56 vs 3.38 h in treatments I and II, respectively. The absorption of itraconazole can be enhanced by Coca-Cola.

  18. Comparative Hepatotoxicity of Fluconazole, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole, Terbinafine, and Griseofulvin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Star Khoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral ketoconazole was recently the subject of regulatory safety warnings because of its association with increased risk of inducing hepatic injury. However, the relative hepatotoxicity of antifungal agents has not been clearly established. The aim of this study was to compare the hepatotoxicity induced by five commonly prescribed oral antifungal agents. Rats were treated with therapeutic oral doses of griseofulvin, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and terbinafine. After 14 days, only ketoconazole had significantly higher ALT levels (p=0.0017 and AST levels (p=0.0008 than the control group. After 28 days, ALT levels were highest in the rats treated with ketoconazole followed by itraconazole, fluconazole, griseofulvin, and terbinafine, respectively. The AST levels were highest in the rats treated with ketoconazole followed by itraconazole, fluconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin, respectively. All drugs significantly elevated ALP levels after 14 days and 28 days of treatment (p<0.0001. The liver enzyme levels suggested that ketoconazole had the highest risk in causing liver injury followed by itraconazole, fluconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin. However, histopathological changes revealed that fluconazole was the most hepatotoxic, followed by ketoconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin, respectively. Given the poor correlation between liver enzymes and the extent of liver injury, it is important to confirm liver injury through histological examination.

  19. Esporotricose cutânea experimental: Avaliação in vivo do itraconazol e terbinafina Experimental cutaneous sporotrichosis: in vivo evaluation of itraconazole and terbinafine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Ávila Antunes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a atividade in vivo do itraconazol e terbinafina no tratamento da esporotricose cutânea experimental. Foram utilizados 80 ratos Wistar divididos em quatro grupos (TERB20, TERB30, ITRA e CONT inoculados no coxim plantar esquerdo com 0,2ml de solução contendo 2x103 células de Sporothrix schenckii/ml e tratados com terbinafina (20 e 30mg/kg, itraconazol (10mg/kg e placebo durante 13 semanas. As lesões do sítio de inoculação foram avaliadas e mensuradas semanalmente, assim como a disseminação das mesmas. Após foi realizada análise micológica e histopatológica. Os resultados demonstraram que os animais do grupo ITRA diferiram estatisticamente em todos os parâmetros avaliados em relação ao CONT. Em relação à terbinafina, não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos tratados e controle. Pode-se confirmar a boa atividade do itraconazol no tratamento da esporotricose e a pouca eficácia da terbinafina nas doses utilizadas, sendo necessários mais estudos com este antifúngico.The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of itraconazole and terbinafine for treating experimental cutaneous sporotrichosis. Eighty Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups (TERB20, TERB30, ITRA and CONT. They were inoculated in the left plantar pad with 0.2 ml of solution containing 2x10³ cell/ml of Sporothrix schenckii and treated with terbinafine (20 and 30 mg/kg, itraconazole (10 mg/kg or placebo for 13 weeks. The lesions at the inoculation site were evaluated and measured weekly, along with their dissemination. Mycological and histopathological analyses were performed subsequently. The results showed that the animals in the ITRA group differed statistically in all parameters evaluated, in relation to CONT. For terbinafine, there were no statistical differences between the treated and control groups. It could be confirmed that itraconazole presented good activity for treating sporotrichosis, while

  20. Antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole vs. fluconazole or itraconazole in pediatric patients with neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, M; Eikemeier, M; Cabanillas Stanchi, K M; Hartmann, U; Ebinger, M; Schwarze, C-P; Schulz, A; Handgretinger, R; Müller, I

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric patients with hemato-oncological malignancies and neutropenia resulting from chemotherapy have a high risk of acquiring invasive fungal infections. Oral antifungal prophylaxis with azoles, such as fluconazole or itraconazole, is preferentially used in pediatric patients after chemotherapy. During this retrospective analysis, posaconazole was administered based on favorable results from studies in adult patients with neutropenia and after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Retrospectively, safety, feasibility, and initial data on the efficacy of posaconazole were compared to fluconazole and itraconazole in pediatric and adolescent patients during neutropenia. Ninety-three pediatric patients with hemato-oncological malignancies with a median age of 12 years (range 9 months to 17.7 years) that had prolonged neutropenia (>5 days) after chemotherapy or due to their underlying disease, and who received fluconazole, itraconazole, or posaconazole as antifungal prophylaxis, were analyzed in this retrospective single-center survey. The incidence of invasive fungal infections in pediatric patients was low under each of the azoles. One case of proven aspergillosis occurred in each group. In addition, there were a few cases of possible invasive fungal infection under fluconazole (n = 1) and itraconazole (n = 2). However, no such cases were observed under posaconazole. The rates of potentially clinical drug-related adverse events were higher in the fluconazole (n = 4) and itraconazole (n = 5) groups compared to patients receiving posaconazole (n = 3). Posaconazole, fluconazole, and itraconazole are comparably effective in preventing invasive fungal infections in pediatric patients. Defining dose recommendations in these patients requires larger studies.

  1. Relative bioavailability of itraconazole from an extemporaneously prepared suspension and from the marketed capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, K J; Gubbins, P O; Gurley, B J; Bowman, J L; Buice, R G

    1998-02-01

    The bioavailability of itraconazole from an extemporaneously prepared suspension was compared with its bioavailability from the commercially available capsules. Ten healthy volunteers were fed breakfast and were then randomly assigned to receive either 400 mg of itraconazole 40-mg/mL oral suspension or four 100-mg itraconazole capsules with 240 mL of water. They were not allowed to rest in a supine position for six hours, eat for four hours, or take any beverages for two hours post-dose. Blood samples were taken immediately after the subjects had eaten and at intervals up to 72 hours post-dose. Serum was separated and stored at -70 degrees C. Serum itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. After 14 days, each subject was given the dosage form that he or she did not previously receive, and testing was repeated. Maximum concentration (Cmax) and time to reach maximum concentration (tmax) were determined, and the area under the serum concentration-versus-time curve from 0 to 72 hours (AUC0-72) was estimated. The suspension:capsule ratios of least-squares means for Cmax, tmax, and AUC0-72 for itraconazole were 0.15 (90% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.21), 0.95 (90% CI, 0.75-1.20), and 0.12 (9% CI, 0.06-0.23), respectively. The results for hydroxyitraconazole were similar: 0.19 (0.13-0.28), 0.95 (0.81-1.12), and 0.13 (0.07-0.23), respectively. The bioavailability of itraconazole from the extemporaneously prepared suspension is much lower than that from capsules.

  2. Comparison between itraconazole and cotrimoxazole in the treatment of paracoccidiodomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Souza Cavalcante

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no published reports on studies comparing itraconazole (ITC, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (cotrimoxazole, CMX, and ITC followed by CMX (ITC/CMX in the treatment of paracoccidiodomycosis. This study aimed to compare the efficacy, effectiveness, safety and time to clinical and serologic cure in paracoccidioidomycosis patients treated with ITC or CMX, the antifungal agents most widely used. METHODOLOGY: A quasi-experimental study was performed in 177 patients with a confirmed or probable diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. Treatment was divided into two stages: 1 initial, which was continued until clinical cure was achieved and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate decreased to normal values; 2 complementary, which was continued until serologic cure was achieved. Medians were compared via the Mann-Whitney test, and frequencies were compared via the chi-squared test. The assessment of variables as a function of time was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression. The significance level was established as p≤0.05. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: No difference was found in the efficacy and effectiveness of the initial treatment of 47 individuals given ITC and 130 individuals given CMX; however, the time to clinical cure was shorter in the former compared with the latter group (105 vs. 159 days; p = 0.001, specifically in patients with the chronic form. Efficacy and effectiveness of the three regimens were similar in the complementary treatment; however, the time to serologic cure was shorter when ITC (161 days or CMX (495 days was used compared with ITC/CMX (881 days [p = 0.02]. The independent predictors of a shorter time to serologic cure were treatment with ITC [risk ratio = 6.61 (2.01-21.75] or with CMX [risk ratio = 5.11 (1.91-13.67]. The prevalence of side effects was lower with ITC (6.4% than with CMX (20.0%; p = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Since ITC induced earlier clinical cure and was better tolerated than

  3. Statin-associated rhabdomyolysis triggered by drug-drug interaction with itraconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybro, Anne Mette; Damkier, Per; Rasmussen, Torsten Bloch

    2016-01-01

    -associated rhabdomyolysis, probably caused by a drug-drug interaction between simvastatin and itraconazole. The patient made full recovery. Three commonly used statins-simvastatin, atorvastatin and lovastatin-are metabolised by the liver enzyme CYP3A4. Several potent inhibitors of this enzyme are known, for example, azole...... antifungal agents such as itraconazole and posaconazole. If antifungal treatment is indicated in a patient using a CYP3A4-metabolised statin, we recommend (1) topical administration of the antifungal agent if possible, (2) the use of a non-CYP3A4-inhibiting antifungal drug such as terbinafine or (3...

  4. Itraconazole vs. trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: A comparative cohort study of 200 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sheila Rocha Conceição; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da; Chambela, Mayara da Costa; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos C de; Costa, Regina Lana Braga; Wanke, Bodo; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do

    2014-04-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis endemic to Latin America. Brazil accounts for approximately 80% of cases, where it represents a major public health issue due to its disabling impact and the number of premature deaths it causes. We present a retrospective cohort study that was conducted in order to better understand factors that relate to cure of the infection in the treatment of 200 patients with PCM. We evaluated the influence of sociodemographic and clinical factors as well as therapeutic regimen (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole [TMP-SMX] and itraconazole) on the progress of PCM (cure and noncure). There was a higher incidence of cure (83%) among patients who regularly received treatment for their infections and completed the treatment protocol. Moreover, itraconazole (86.4%) was significantly superior to TMP-SMX (51.3%) in terms of cure rate and had a median treatment period that was significantly shorter (12 months) than that for TMP-SMX (23 months). A Cox proportional hazard regression model showed that use of itraconazole increased the hazard of cure, regardless of sex, age, education, clinical form, completion of treatment, and regularity. Although the results of this study show that itraconazole was the best treatment option for PCM patients, a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial is necessary to confirm this conclusion.

  5. Itraconazol, an Antifungal and a Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor for Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    PCa cells implanted orthotopically and subcutaneously in male athymic nude mice. PC-3 cells labeled with luciferase and green fluorescent protein ...combination on the progression of PCa in the PTEN knockout mouse model that recapitulates features of advanced human PCa. The data obtained will be...trials. 2. KEYWORDS: Prostate cancer, itraconazole, cyclopamine, combination, hedgehog, signaling, antifungal, PTEN , metastasis, cell growth

  6. Development and optimization of solid dispersion containing pellets of itraconazole prepared by high shear pelletization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Guanhao; Wang, Siling; Heng, Paul Wan Sia; Chen, Ling; Wang, Chao

    2007-06-07

    This study investigated the solid dispersion containing pellets of itraconazole for enhanced drug dissolution rate. The influence of process parameters used during high shear pelletization on the pellet properties including pellet size and dissolution rate was also studied. Solid dispersions of itraconazole were prepared with Eudragit E100, a hydrophilic polymer, by a simple fusion method followed by powdered and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. Solid dispersions containing pellets were consequently prepared using a lab-scale high shear mixer. In order to improve the product quality, a central composite design was applied to optimize the critical process variables, such as impeller speed and kneading time, and the results were modeled statistically. Itraconazole was presented as an amorphous state in the solid dispersion prepared at a drug to polymer ratio of 1:2. Both studied parameters had great effect on the responses. Powdered solid dispersion and pellets prepared using the optimal parameter settings showed approximately 30- and 70-fold increases in dissolution rate over the pure drug, respectively. Solid dispersion prepared by simple fusion method could be an option for itraconazole solubility enhancement. Pelletization process in high shear mixer can be optimized effectively by central composite design.

  7. Formulation and optimization of itraconazole polymeric lipid hybrid nanoparticles (Lipomer) using Box Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajra, Balaram; Dalwadi, Chintan; Patel, Ravi

    2015-01-21

    The objective of the study was to formulate and to investigate the combined influence of 3 independent variables in the optimization of Polymeric lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLHNs) (Lipomer) containing hydrophobic antifungal drug Itraconazole and to improve intestinal permeability. The Polymeric lipid hybrid nanoparticle formulation was prepared by the emulsification solvent evaporation method and 3 factor 3 level Box Behnken statistical design was used to optimize and derive a second order polynomial equation and construct contour plots to predict responses. Biodegradable Polycaprolactone, soya lecithin and Poly vinyl alcohol were used to prepare PLHNs. The independent variables selected were lipid to polymer ratio (X1) Concentration of surfactant (X2) Concentration of the drug (X3). The Box-Behnken design demonstrated the role of the derived equation and contour plots in predicting the values of dependent variables for the preparation and optimization of Itraconazole PLHNs. Itraconazole PLHNs revealed nano size (210 ± 1.8 nm) with an entrapment efficiency of 83 ± 0.6% and negative zeta potential of -11.7 mV and also enhance the permeability of itraconazole as the permeability coefficient (Papp) and the absorption enhancement ratio was higher. The tunable particle size, surface charge, and favourable encapsulation efficiency with a sustained drug release profile of PLHNs suggesting that it could be promising system envisioned to increase the bioavailability by improving intestinal permeability through lymphatic uptake, M cell of payer's patch or paracellular pathway which was proven by confocal microscopy.

  8. High prevalence of azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus in adults with cystic fibrosis exposed to itraconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgel, P.R.; Baixench, M.T.; Amsellem, M.; Audureau, E.; Chapron, J.; Kanaan, R.; Honore, I.; Dupouy-Camet, J.; Dusser, D.; Klaassen, C.H.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hubert, D.; Paugam, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent fungus found in the sputum of cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects. Itraconazole is prescribed for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) or Aspergillus bronchitis in CF subjects. We hypothesized that A. fumigatus isolates in the sputum of CF subjects with

  9. Benznidazole/Itraconazole Combination Treatment Enhances Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity in Experimental Chagas Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassiane Assíria Fontes Martins

    Full Text Available The nitroheterocyclic drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole are first-line drugs available to treat Chagas disease; however, they have limitations, including long treatment courses and toxicity. Strategies to overcome these limitations include the identification of new drugs with specific target profiles, re-dosing regimens for the current drugs, drug repositioning and combination therapy. In this work, we evaluated combination therapy as an approach for optimization of the current therapeutic regimen for Chagas disease. The curative action of benznidazole/itraconazole combinations was explored in an established infection of the mice model with the T. cruzi Y strain. The activities of the benznidazole/itraconazole combinations were compared with the results from those receiving the same dosage of each individual drug. The administration of benznidazole/itraconazole in combination eliminated parasites from the blood more efficiently than each drug alone. Here, there was a significant reduction of the number of treatment days (number of doses necessary to induce parasitemia suppression with the benznidazole/itraconazole combination, as compared to each compound administered alone. These results clearly indicate the enhanced effects of these drugs in combination, particularly at the dose of 75 mg/kg, as the effects observed with the drug combinations were four times more effective than those of each drug used alone. Moreover, benznidazole/itraconazole treatment was shown to prevent or decrease the typical lesions associated with chronic experimental Chagas disease, as illustrated by similar levels of inflammatory cells and fibrosis in the cardiac muscle tissue of healthy and treated mice. These results emphasize the importance of exploring the potential of combination treatments with currently available compounds to specifically treat Chagas disease.

  10. Benznidazole/Itraconazole Combination Treatment Enhances Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activity in Experimental Chagas Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assíria Fontes Martins, Tassiane; de Figueiredo Diniz, Lívia; Mazzeti, Ana Lia; da Silva do Nascimento, Álvaro Fernando; Caldas, Sérgio; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Andrade, Isabel Mayer; Ribeiro, Isabela; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2015-01-01

    The nitroheterocyclic drugs nifurtimox and benznidazole are first-line drugs available to treat Chagas disease; however, they have limitations, including long treatment courses and toxicity. Strategies to overcome these limitations include the identification of new drugs with specific target profiles, re-dosing regimens for the current drugs, drug repositioning and combination therapy. In this work, we evaluated combination therapy as an approach for optimization of the current therapeutic regimen for Chagas disease. The curative action of benznidazole/itraconazole combinations was explored in an established infection of the mice model with the T. cruzi Y strain. The activities of the benznidazole/itraconazole combinations were compared with the results from those receiving the same dosage of each individual drug. The administration of benznidazole/itraconazole in combination eliminated parasites from the blood more efficiently than each drug alone. Here, there was a significant reduction of the number of treatment days (number of doses) necessary to induce parasitemia suppression with the benznidazole/itraconazole combination, as compared to each compound administered alone. These results clearly indicate the enhanced effects of these drugs in combination, particularly at the dose of 75 mg/kg, as the effects observed with the drug combinations were four times more effective than those of each drug used alone. Moreover, benznidazole/itraconazole treatment was shown to prevent or decrease the typical lesions associated with chronic experimental Chagas disease, as illustrated by similar levels of inflammatory cells and fibrosis in the cardiac muscle tissue of healthy and treated mice. These results emphasize the importance of exploring the potential of combination treatments with currently available compounds to specifically treat Chagas disease.

  11. lnteracciones medicamentosas en pacientes bajo tratamiento con itraconazol para diferentes tipos de micosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L. Fernández

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos estudios han reportado un aumento en la frecuencia e importancia de las interacciones del itraconazol en pacientes bajo polifarmacia con fármacos que afectan el sistema enzimático de la citocromo P450 y modifican el metabolismo del azol. Con el propósito de determinar las características epidemiológicas, farmacológicas y clínicas de las interacciones medicamentosas en pacientes bajo tratamiento con itraconazol para diferentes tipos de micosis, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo en el que se analizaron 21 historias clínicas de pacientes atendidos en la Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas durante el período 1994-1997. Entre la población estudiada, seis pacientes presentaron paracoccidioidomicosis; cinco, cromoblastomicosis; cuatro, histoplasmosis; cuatro, criptococosis, y dos, aspergilosis. En promedio, la dosis de itraconazol, la duración y el número de fármacos recibidos concomitantes fueron 223,8 mgldia, 44,3 semanas y 2,7 fármacos, respectivamente. En 10 individuos, se presentaron enfermedades de base y en 15, enfermedades concomitantes. Se documentó interacción medicamentosa (niveles no detectables o no terapéuticos de itraconazol en 18 pacientes, de los cuales 17 presentaban sospecha clínica y 14 sospecha paraclínica de interacción. El medicamento más frecuentemente involucrado con interacción fue la rifampicina, seguido de los inhibidores H, antiácidos y fenitoina. Similar a lo encontrado en otros estudios, la administración concomitante de estos fármacos con el itraconazol, reduce los niveles séricos de este último y altera la respuesta clínica al tratamiento. Este estudio es una aproximación inicial, aún no realizada en nuestra población, que permitirá establecer protocolos para el manejo y prevención de interacciones medicamentosas en pacientes en tratamiento con itraconazol y otros fármacos.

  12. Suscetibilidade in vitro de isolados de Sporothrix schenckii frente à terbinafina e itraconazol In vitro susceptibility of isolates of Sporothrix schenckii to terbinafine and itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Mano Meinerz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetiva determinar a atividade in vitro da terbinafina e itraconazol através da técnica de microdiluição em caldo (NCCLSM27-A2 adaptado para um fungo dimórfico frente a 12 isolados de Sporothrix schenckii, sendo seis de esporotricose felina, três de esporotricose humana, um isolado de cão e dois isolados humanos provenientes do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC. O inóculo e as concentrações antifúngicas foram distribuídas em microplacas, as quais foram incubadas a 35°C por cinco dias, quando foi realizada a leitura da concentração inibitória mínima. A concentração inibitória mínima para a terbinafina variou de 0,055µg/ml a 0,109µg/ml e para o itraconazol de 0,219µg/ml a 1,75µg/ml, sendo que para ambos os fármacos as CIMs entre os isolados do IOC foi de 0,875µg/ml. O estudo demonstrou uma alta suscetibilidade do Sporothrix schenckii frente à terbinafina, necessitando mais estudos que correlacionem os testes in vitro frente ao fármaco com a resposta clínica em pacientes com esporotricose.The study objective was to determine the in vitro activity of terbinafine and itraconazole through the microdilution technique in broth (NCCLSM27-A2, adapted for dimorphic fungus, in relation to 12 isolates of Sporothrix schenckii. Six were from feline sporotrichosis, three from human sporotrichosis, one from a dog and two from human isolates originating from Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. The inoculum and antifungal concentrates were distributed on microplates that were incubated at 35°C for five days. Minimum inhibitory concentration readings were made at the end of this period. The MIC for terbinafine ranged from 0.055µg/ml to 0.109µg/ml, and the MIC for itraconazole ranged from 0.219µg/ml to 1.75µg/ml. For both drugs, the MIC from the isolates from IOC was 0.875µg/ml. The present study demonstrates the high susceptibility of Sporothrix schenckii to terbinafine. Further studies to correlate the in vitro susceptibility tests with

  13. Efficacy of topical and systemic itraconazole as a broad-spectrum antifungal agent in mycotic corneal ulcer. A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pankaj

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of topical (1% and systemic itraconazole against common fungi such as Aspergillus and other filamentous fungi that cause mycotic corneal ulcer. Methods: A prospective randomised, controlled study was done in 54 clinically suspected cases of fungal keratitis of which 44 were culture proven. Half the cases (n=27 with superficial involvement were treated with only topical itraconazole (1% and the other half were treated with both topical and systemic itraconazole. Results:Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium were the most common fungi isolated. The ulcer resolved in 42 eyes (77% and 12 eyes (23% did not respond well to treatment. Four of 12 non-responding eyes were caused by Fusarium species. Conclusion: Itraconazole, given either topically or systemically, is effective in treating mycotic corneal ulcers.

  14. Sporotrichosis by Sporothrix schenckii senso stricto with itraconazole resistance and terbinafine sensitivity observed in vitro and in vivo: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Vettorato; Daiane Heidrich; Fernanda Fraga; Amanda Carvalho Ribeiro; Danielle Machado Pagani; Carina Timotheo; Tais Guarienti Amaro; Gerson Vettorato; Maria Lúcia Scroferneker

    2018-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in the right upper limb. The fungus was identified as Sporothrix schenckii senso stricto by calmodulin gene sequencing. The initial treatment was itraconazole (200 mg/day), but in vitro antifungal susceptibility demonstrated high resistant to this and another six antifungals, with exception to terbinafine. The lesions did not regress with itraconazole treatment. Thus, 500 mg/day of terbinafine was prescribed and clinical cure w...

  15. Effect of Itraconazole and Rifampin on the Pharmacokinetics of Olaparib in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirix, Luc; Swaisland, Helen; Verheul, Henk M W

    2016-01-01

    ) and inducer (rifampin) to alter the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of olaparib following single oral tablet doses. METHODS: Two Phase I, open-label, non-randomized trials were conducted in patients with advanced solid tumors. In Study 7, patients received olaparib alone and co-administered with itraconazole......; in Study 8, a separate group of patients received olaparib alone and co-administered with rifampin. No interaction between itraconazole and olaparib was concluded if two-sided 90% CIs for the treatment ratios of AUC and/or AUC0-t and Cmax fell within the bioequivalence range of 0.80-1.25. An interaction...... between rifampin and olaparib was concluded if the lower limit of the 90% CI for the treatment ratios was 50% decrease in olaparib AUC or Cmax in the presence of rifampin compared with olaparib alone). FINDINGS: In Study 7 (N = 59; 17 male, 42 female), 56 and 53 patients were evaluable for PK...

  16. Itraconazole treatment reduces Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and increases overwinter field survival in juvenile Cascades frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Bennett M; Pope, Karen L; Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Brown, Richard N; Foley, Janet E

    2015-01-15

    The global spread of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has led to widespread extirpation of amphibian populations. During an intervention aimed at stabilizing at-risk populations, we treated wild-caught Cascades frogs Rana cascadae with the antifungal drug itraconazole. In fall 2012, we collected 60 recently metamorphosed R. cascadae from 1 of the 11 remnant populations in the Cascades Mountains (CA, USA). Of these, 30 randomly selected frogs were treated with itraconazole and the other 30 frogs served as experimental controls; all were released at the capture site. Bd prevalence was low at the time of treatment and did not differ between treated frogs and controls immediately following treatment. Following release, Bd prevalence gradually increased in controls but not in treated frogs, with noticeable (but still non-significant) differences 3 wk after treatment (27% [4/15] vs. 0% [0/13]) and strong differences 5 wk after treatment (67% [8/12] vs. 13% [1/8]). We did not detect any differences in Bd prevalence and load between experimental controls and untreated wild frogs during this time period. In spring 2013, we recaptured 7 treated frogs but none of the experimental control frogs, suggesting that over-winter survival was higher for treated frogs. The itraconazole treatment did appear to reduce growth rates: treated frogs weighed 22% less than control frogs 3 wk after treatment (0.7 vs. 0.9 g) and were 9% shorter than control frogs 5 wk after treatment (18.4 vs. 20.2 mm). However, for critically small populations, increased survival of the most at-risk life stage could prevent or delay extinction. Our results show that itraconazole treatment can be effective against Bd infection in wild amphibians, and therefore the beneficial effects on survivorship may outweigh the detrimental effects on growth.

  17. Prophylactic strategies in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a 2-year study testing a phytonutrient vs itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, V; Marotta, F; Kumari, A; Bishier, M P; He, F; Zerbinati, N; Agarwal, C; Naito, Y; Tomella, C; Sharma, A; Solimene, U

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical efficacy of a one week/month treatment with a phytocompound with antimycotic properties (K-712, with following 100 mg composition: 10 mg of oleoresin from Pseudowintera colorata at 30 percent concentration in Polygodial together with trace amounts of Olea europea) in recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (RVVC), as compared to once a week treatment with an azole drug for 24 months follow up. This prospective randomized study involving 122 women (19 to 63 years old) with a history of proven episodes of RVVC in the prior 12 months. Patients were allocated in two treatment groups of 61 patients each and given A) Itraconazole 200 mg orally once a week or B) 1 tab twice a day of K-712 for one week/month. Each treatment schedule was well tolerated with 19 patients in the azole group complaining of transient mild symptoms (nausea, abdominal discomfort, unpleasant taste), while only 3 patients on K-712 reported slight dyspepsia. The number of relapses was significantly lower in the K-712-treated group as compared to the itraconazole-group (22 vs 39, p less than 0.05). Moreover, the former group showed a significantly decreased number of cases resistant or dose-dependent susceptible as compared to group A (p less than 0.05 vs itraconazole) and the same occurred for the occurrence of non-albicans species (group A 64.1 percent vs group B 31.8 percent, p less than 0.05). The overall mycological cure at the end of the 2-year study showed a comparable benefit between the two groups. From these data it appears that the present antifungal phytonutrient is equally effective as itraconazole in the overall treatment of RVVC over a 2-year follow-up, but yielding a significantly better prophylactic effect and also maintenance benefit with lower relapse rate, antifungal susceptibility and growth of azole-resistant species.

  18. African histoplasmosis: report of the first case in Brazil and treatment with itraconazole Histoplasmose africana: relato do primeiro caso no Brasil e tratado pelo itraconazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Abrucio Neto

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of African histoplasmosis diagnosed in Brazil. The patient was an immigrant from Angola who had come to Brazil six months after the appearance of the skin lesion. The skin of the right retroauricular area was the only site of involvement. The diagnosis was established by direct mycologic examination, culture and by histopathologic examination of the lesion. The patient was successfully treated with Itraconazole 100mg a day for 52 days. No recurrent skin lesions were observed during the ten month follow-up period.Relata-se o primeiro caso de histoplasmose africana diagnosticado em nosso meio, em indivíduo angolano que imigrou para o Brasil seis meses após o início das lesões. Quadro clínico de forma localizada exclusivamente na pele na região retro auricular direita. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido através do exame micológico direto, cultura e exame anátomo-patológico. Houve sucesso terapêutico com a administração de itraconazol, na dose de 100mg/dia durante 52 dias. Não houve recidiva do quadro cutâneo no seguimento clínico do doente após 10 meses de interrupção do tratamento.

  19. Treatment of moderate to severe facial seborrheic dermatitis with itraconazole: an open non-comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Avner; Kaplan, Baruch; Nathansohn, Nir; Grunwald, Marcelo H; Amichai, Boaz; Trau, Henri

    2008-06-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic disease. Malassezia yeasts have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. Antifungal agents are known to be effective in the treatment of Malassezia yeast infections. To evaluate the efficacy of itraconazole in the treatment of mild to severe facial seborrheic dermatitis. Sixty patients with moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis were evaluated in an open non-comparative study. Patients were treated with oral itraconazole, initially 200 mg/day for a week, followed by a maintenance therapy of a single dose of 200 mg every 2 weeks. Four clinical parameters (erythema, scaling, burning, itching) were assessed using a 0-3 score. Mycological evaluation determined the presence of Malassezia spores in the scales using a direct smear. At the end of the initial treatment significant improvement was reported in three clinical parameters: erythema, scaling, itching. Maintenance therapy led to only slight further improvement. Burning sensation was only mildly improved during the treatment. The quantity of Malassezia spores present in the direct smear decreased throughout the treatment period. No blood test abnormalities were found during the treatment. In this study initial treatment with itraconazole was beneficial in patients with moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis.

  20. Continuous production of itraconazole-based solid dispersions by hot melt extrusion: Preformulation, optimization and design space determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Justine; Lebrun, Pierre; Vinassa, Chloe; Adam, Marine; Netchacovitch, Lauranne; Ziemons, Eric; Hubert, Philippe; Krier, Fabrice; Evrard, Brigitte

    2016-12-30

    The purpose of this work was to increase the solubility and the dissolution rate of itraconazole, which was chosen as the model drug, by obtaining an amorphous solid dispersion by hot melt extrusion. Therefore, an initial preformulation study was conducted using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and Hansen's solubility parameters in order to find polymers which would have the ability to form amorphous solid dispersions with itraconazole. Afterwards, the four polymers namely Kollidon ® VA64, Kollidon ® 12PF, Affinisol ® HPMC and Soluplus ® , that met the set criteria were used in hot melt extrusion along with 25wt.% of itraconazole. Differential scanning confirmed that all four polymers were able to amorphize itraconazole. A stability study was then conducted in order to see which polymer would keep itraconazole amorphous as long as possible. Soluplus ® was chosen and, the formulation was fine-tuned by adding some excipients (AcDiSol ® , sodium bicarbonate and poloxamer) during the hot melt extrusion process in order to increase the release rate of itraconazole. In parallel, the range limits of the hot melt extrusion process parameters were determined. A design of experiment was performed within the previously defined ranges in order to optimize simultaneously the formulation and the process parameters. The optimal formulation was the one containing 2.5wt.% of AcDiSol ® produced at 155°C and 100rpm. When tested with a biphasic dissolution test, more than 80% of itraconazole was released in the organic phase after 8h. Moreover, this formulation showed the desired thermoformability value. From these results, the design space around the optimum was determined. It corresponds to the limits within which the process would give the optimized product. It was observed that a temperature between 155 and 170°C allowed a high flexibility on the screw speed, from about 75 to 130rpm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleischhacker, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.

  2. Role of itraconazole in the management of aspergillosis in treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sputum/ bronchial washings of 445 patients with residual tubercular cavitation were subjected to smear and culture examination to isolate fungi. Patients suffering from aspergillosis were put on oral itraconazole daily for 6 months and monitored clinicoradiologically during and after therapy. About half of the patients of aspergilloma and 85% of the patients of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis improved by 3 months of therapy. Nausea and headache observed during therapy in 8 and 4 patients respectively were mild and self limiting. Relapses were seen in 8 out of the 37 patients who had completed 6 months therapy and available for follow-up.

  3. Oral terbinafine and itraconazole treatments against dermatophytes appear not to favor the establishment of Fusarium spp. in nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, Julie; Bontems, Olympia; Baudraz-Rosselet, Florence; Monod, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium onychomycoses are weakly responsive or unresponsive to standard onychomycosis treatments with oral terbinafine and itraconazole. To examine whether the use of terbinafine and itraconazole, which are highly effective in fighting Trichophyton onychomycoses, could be a cause of the high incidence of Fusarium nail infections. Polymerase chain reaction methods were used to detect both Fusarium spp. and Trichophyton spp. in nails of patients who had either received treatment previously or not. No significant microbiological differences were found between treated and untreated patients. In 24 of 79 cases (30%), Fusarium spp. was detected in samples of patients having had no previous antifungal therapy and when Trichophyton spp. grew in culture. Oral terbinafine and itraconazole treatments do not appear to favor the establishment of Fusarium spp. in onychomycosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Synergistic anticandidal activity of menthol in combination with itraconazole and nystatin against clinical Candida glabrata and Candida krusei isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Tari, Paria Samadi

    2017-06-01

    Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) and C. krusei are now emerging as serious hospital acquired infections in immunocompromised patients. Menthol, a terpenic compound, has been reported to have antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates. The effects of menthol along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was determined for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations using the checkerboard method. The mean of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of menthol, nystatin and itraconazole were 53.2, 2.30 and 1.50 μg/ml for C. glabrata isolates and 121, 1.08 and 0.38 μg/ml for C. krusei isolates, respectively. Menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin exhibited the synergistic effects against all species of Candida tested. FICI values for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations ranged from 0.250 to 0.561 and 0.139 to 0.623 for C. glabrata isolates, and 0.182 to 0.750 and 0.188 to 0.760 for C. krusei, respectively. These results support the potential use of menthol as an anticandidal agent, and it can be used complementarily with other conventional antifungal agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Successful empirical antifungal therapy of intravenous itraconazole with pharmacokinetic evidence in pediatric cancer patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyery; Shin, Donghoon; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Sung Jin; Kim, Min Sun; Song, Eun Sun; Jang, Mi Kyoung; Park, June Dong; Jang, In-Jin; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2015-07-01

    Empirical antifungal therapy prevents invasive fungal infections in patients with cancer. This study assessed the empirical efficacy of intravenous itraconazole in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and investigated the pharmacokinetics and clinical implications. Oral itraconazole syrup was started (2.5 mg/kg twice daily) for prophylaxis, and patients with persistent neutropenic fever for more than 2 days were switched to intravenous itraconazole (5 mg/kg twice daily for 2 days for induction and 5 mg/kg daily for maintenance) as empirical treatment. Empirical antifungal efficacy was assessed retrospectively in 159 transplantations, and a full pharmacokinetic study was prospectively conducted in six of these patients. Successful antifungal efficacy was defined as the fulfillment of all components of a five-part composite end point. The overall empirical antifungal success rate fulfilling all criteria was 42.1 %. No death or drug-related serious adverse events occurred during the study. Mean trough plasma concentration of itraconazole after oral prophylaxis and intravenous induction were 577.2 and 1659.7 μg/L, respectively. Mean area under the concentration-time curve of itraconazole and its metabolite at steady state were 42,837 ± 24,746 μg·h/L and 63,094 ± 19,255 μg·h/L. Intravenous itraconazole was effective and safe as an empirical antifungal agent in pediatric patients; this was due to the fast and satisfactory increase in drug concentration by switching from oral to intravenous therapy.

  6. Effect of itraconazole on the quality of life in patients with moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Zaheer; Ghodsi, Seyedeh Z; Abedeni, Robabeh

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of seborrheic dermatitis (SD) and/or its consequent therapy on a patient's quality of life. Itraconazole has been suggested as an effective therapy for severe SD but its impact on Quality of Life (QoL) in these patients has never been studied before. The study aimed to verify the efficacy of the itraconazole on the quality of life in patients with moderate to severe SD. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial was planned to describe the effect of SD per se on QoL and to determine the impact of oral itraconazole or placebo on QoL of SD patients. Sixty-eight patients with moderate to severe SD participated in the study to receive either itraconazole or placebo. Dermatology Life Quality Index was used to evaluate their quality of life before and after treatment. Itraconazole 200 mg/daily or placebo was prescribed for one week and then the first two days of every month for the following three months. Fifty-seven patients completed the study. Significant improvement was observed in QoL of both itraconazole and placebo groups, but itraconazole group showed significantly higher improvement as compared to placebo (p=0.001). QoL was impaired significantly with high disease severity (p=0.002) and facial involvement (p=0.017). Itraconazole significantly improves the QoL in patients with moderate to severe SD.

  7. Sporotrichosis by Sporothrix schenckii senso stricto with itraconazole resistance and terbinafine sensitivity observed in vitro and in vivo: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vettorato

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a patient with lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in the right upper limb. The fungus was identified as Sporothrix schenckii senso stricto by calmodulin gene sequencing. The initial treatment was itraconazole (200 mg/day, but in vitro antifungal susceptibility demonstrated high resistant to this and another six antifungals, with exception to terbinafine. The lesions did not regress with itraconazole treatment. Thus, 500 mg/day of terbinafine was prescribed and clinical cure was obtained after four months

  8. Atypical Clinical Presentation of Sporotrichosis Caused by Sporothrix globosa Resistant to Itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman Gompertz, Olga; Rodrigues, Anderson M; Fernandes, Geisa F; Bentubo, Henri D L; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Petri, Valéria

    2016-06-01

    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of humans and animals, which is acquired via traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules into cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue. The etiological agents are in a clinical complex, which includes Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Sporothrix globosa, and Sporothrix luriei, each of which has specific epidemiological and virulence characteristics. Classical manifestation in humans includes a fixed localized lesion at the site of trauma plus lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis with fungal spreading along the lymphatic channels. Atypical sporotrichosis is a challenge to diagnosis because it can mimic many other dermatological diseases. We report an unusual, itraconazole-resistant cutaneous lesion of sporotrichosis in a 66-year-old Brazilian man. Histopathological examination of the skin revealed vascular and fibroblastic proliferation with chronic granulomatous infiltrate composed of multinucleated giant cells. Sporothrix were isolated from the skin lesion, and phylogenetic analyses confirmed it to be sporotrichosis due to S. globosa, a widespread pathogen. Immunoblotting analysis showed several IgG-reactive molecules in autochthonous preparations of the whole cellular proteins (160, 80, 60, 55, 46, 38, 35, and 30 kDa) and exoantigen (35 and 33 kDa). The patient was first unsuccessfully treated with daily itraconazole, and then successfully treated with potassium iodide. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Efficacy of Oral Itraconazole in the Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Moderate to Severe Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyedeh Zahra; Abbas, Zaheer; Abedeni, Robabeh

    2015-10-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic and relapsing disease and topical therapy may be associated with failure, particularly in severe disease. Itraconazole has been suggested as an effective treatment for severe SD. Previous studies have been open clinical trials with variable results. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral itraconazole in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe SD. Sixty-eight patients with moderate to severe SD were randomly assigned to the itraconazole (n = 35) or placebo (n = 33) groups. The trial was undertaken in Razi Hospital, Tehran. An internet-generated table was used to allocate treatments. Patients and investigator were blinded to treatments. Itraconazole 200 mg/daily or placebo was prescribed for 1 week and then for the first 2 days of every month for the following 3 months. Patients were followed for 4 months and the Seborrheic Dermatitis Area Severity Index (SDASI) was measured on nine anatomical sites. Fifty-seven patients (29 in the itraconazole group and 28 in the placebo group) completed the study. Statistically significant improvement was observed in SDASI of both itraconazole and placebo groups (p = 0.000) but the itraconazole group showed significantly higher efficacy compared with placebo (p = 0.023). We observed clinical improvements of 93.8, 87.5, and 93.1% at the end of 2 weeks, 1 month, and 4 months, respectively, in the itraconazole group, and 82.1, 64.3, and 53.6% in the placebo group. Furthermore, recurrence rate in the itraconazole group was significantly lower than in the placebo group (p = 0.003). No blood test abnormality was seen in any patient. Itraconazole is not only an effective and safe therapy for controlling exacerbations of SD but may also be used as maintenance therapy to prevent disease recurrence.

  10. A new cocrystal and salts of itraconazole: comparison of solid-state properties, stability and dissolution behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Anna; Bimbo, Luis M; Miroshnyk, Inna; Haarala, Jorma; Jelínková, Kristýna; Syrjänen, Kaisa; van Veen, Bert; Kiesvaara, Juha; Santos, Hélder A; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2012-10-15

    Cocrystallization and salt formation have been shown to entail substantial promise in tailoring the physicochemical properties of drug compounds, in particular, their dissolution and hygroscopicity. In this work, we report on the preparation and comparative evaluation of a new cocrystal of itraconazole and malonic acid and two new hydrochloric salts (dihydrochloride and trihydrochloride) of itraconazole. The intrinsic dissolution rate, hygroscopicity, and thermodynamic stability were determined for the obtained solid-state forms and compared to itraconazole-succinic acid (2:1) cocrystal. The results show that the solid-state forms with higher intrinsic dissolution rate are less stable. Both itraconazole salts exhibited the highest dissolution rate, but also demonstrated high hygroscopicity at relative humidity above 70%. The new cocrystal, in contrast, were found to increase the dissolution rate of the parent drug by about 5-fold without compromising the hygroscopicity and the stability. This study demonstrates that, for dissolution rate enhancement of poorly water-soluble weak bases, cocrystallization is a more suitable approach than hydrochloric salt formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma Concentrations of Itraconazole, Voriconazole, and Terbinafine When Delivered by an Impregnated, Subcutaneous Implant in Japanese Quail ( Coturnix japonica ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Redig, Patrick; Cox, Sherry K

    2017-06-01

    Aspergillosis is a common fungal infection in both wild and pet birds. Although effective antifungal medications are available, treatment of aspergillosis can require months of medication administration, which entails stressful handling one or more times per day. This study examined the delivery of the antifungal drugs itraconazole, voriconazole, and terbinafine to Japanese quail ( Coturnix japonica ) via an impregnated implant. Implants contained 0.5, 3, 8, or 24 mg of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine. The implants were administered subcutaneously over the dorsum and between the scapulae. Blood was collected from birds before and 2, 7, 21, 42, and 56 days after implant placement. Plasma was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for concentrations of itraconazole, voriconazole, or terbinafine, as appropriate. During the course of the study, targeted terbinafine concentrations were achieved in some birds at various time points, but concentrations were inconsistent. Itraconazole and voriconazole concentrations were also inconsistent and did not reach targeted concentrations. Currently, the implant examined in this study cannot be recommended for treatment of aspergillosis in avian species.

  12. [Improvement of patient adherence by mixing oral itraconazole solution with a beverage (orange juice)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yoko; Sumikuma, Toshiya; Kagami, Ryogo; Nishio, Akira; Akasaka, Koji; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kodaka, Taiichi; Hiramatsu, Yasushi; Tada, Hiroshi

    2010-05-01

    There have been some reports on the efficacy and tolerability of an oral itraconazole (ITCZ) solution as prophylaxis for fungal infection in patients with hematological malignancies. However, there are some cases where the bitter taste of oral ITCZ solution leads to an interruption of administration because the patient refuses to take this medicine. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the pharmacokinetics and promotion of treatment adherence in patients taking oral ITCZ solution mixed with a beverage. Compared with the responses of patients taking oral ITCZ solution with water, the taste of the agent was improved significantly when mixed with orange juice, although the plasma concentration of the agent did not differ between the two groups. Using this method, we can expect an improvement in treatment adherence and this method can easily be applied in clinical practice. This method is highly useful and should become common knowledge.

  13. Effects of Membrane PEGylation on Entry and Location of Antifungal Drug Itraconazole and Their Pharmacological Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dzieciuch-Rojek, Monika; Poojari, Chetan; Bednar, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Itraconazole (ITZ) is an antifungal agent used clinically to treat mycotic infections. However, its therapeutic effects are limited by low solubility in aqueous media. Liposome-based delivery systems (LDS) have been proposed as a delivery mechanism for ITZ to alleviate this problem. Furthermore...... of ITZ incorporation into liposomes both with and without PEGylation because it can provide a potential foundation for the rational design of LDS-based systems for delivery of ITZ, using alternate protective polymers or formulations. Here we have combined atomistic simulations, cryo-TEM, Langmuir film...... to its protective properties, PEGylation significantly increases the stability of liposomes that host ITZ. In a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer without PEGylation, ITZ was found to reside inside the lipid bilayer between the glycerol and the double-bond regions of POPC...

  14. Aggregated Nanotransfersomal Dry Powder Inhalation of Itraconazole for Pulmonary Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour Aghdam, Mehdi; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    Local therapy is a valuable and strategic approach in the treatment of lung associated diseases and dry powder inhalation (DPI) formulations play the key role in this plan. Transfersome has been introduced as a novel biocompatible vesicular system with potential for administration in pulmonary drug delivery. The present study was designed to prepare Itraconazole-loaded nanotrantransfersomal DPI formulation. Itraconazole-loaded nanotransfersomes with three different types of surfactant in varying concentrations were prepared and characterized in the point of particle size distribution and morphology by laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. The optimized transferosomal formulations were co-spray dried with mannitol and the aerosolization efficiency and aerodynamic properties of dry powders were determined by next generation impactor using a validated HPLC technique. The volume mean diameter of optimized nanotransfersomal formulation with lecithin:Span® 60 in the ratio of 90:10 was 171 nm with narrow size distribution pattern which increased up to 518 nm after drug loading. Different types of surfactant did not influence the particle size significantly. SEM images confirmed the formation of aggregated nanoparticles in the suitable range (1-5 µm) for the pulmonary drug delivery. Aerosolization evaluation of co-spray dried formulations with different amounts of mannitol indicated that 2:1 ratio of mannitol:transfersome (w:w) showed the best aerosolization efficiency (fine particle fraction (FPF)=37%). Increasing of mannitol significantly decreased the FPF of the optimized formulations. The results of this study was introduced the potential application of nanotransfersomes in the formulation of DPIs for lung delivery of various drugs.

  15. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacev, Benjamin A; Liu, Jun O

    2011-01-01

    Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50) dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  16. Synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and sprouting by cyclosporin A and itraconazole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Nacev

    Full Text Available Pathological angiogenesis contributes to a number of diseases including cancer and macular degeneration. Although angiogenesis inhibitors are available in the clinic, their efficacy against most cancers is modest due in part to the existence of alternative and compensatory signaling pathways. Given that angiogenesis is dependent on multiple growth factors and a broad signaling network in vivo, we sought to explore the potential of multidrug cocktails for angiogenesis inhibition. We have screened 741 clinical drug combinations for the synergistic inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation. We focused specifically on existing clinical drugs since the re-purposing of clinical drugs allows for a more rapid and cost effective transition to clinical studies when compared to new drug entities. Our screen identified cyclosporin A (CsA, an immunosuppressant, and itraconazole, an antifungal drug, as a synergistic pair of inhibitors of endothelial cell proliferation. In combination, the IC(50 dose of each drug is reduced by 3 to 9 fold. We also tested the ability of the combination to inhibit endothelial cell tube formation and sprouting, which are dependent on two essential processes in angiogenesis, endothelial cell migration and differentiation. We found that CsA and itraconazole synergistically inhibit tube network size and sprout formation. Lastly, we tested the combination on human foreskin fibroblast viability as well as Jurkat T cell and HeLa cell proliferation, and found that endothelial cells are selectively targeted. Thus, it is possible to combine existing clinical drugs to synergistically inhibit in vitro models of angiogenesis. This strategy may be useful in pursuing the next generation of antiangiogenesis therapy.

  17. Association of systolic blood pressure drop with intravenous administration of itraconazole in children with hemato-oncologic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee HJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyeong Jin Lee,1,* Bongjin Lee,2,* June Dong Park,2 Hyung Joo Jeong,2 Yu Hyeon Choi,2 Hee Young Ju,1 Che Ry Hong,1 Ji Won Lee,1 Hyery Kim,1 Dong In Suh,3 Kyung Duk Park,1 Hyoung Jin Kang,1 Hee Young Shin,1 Hyo Seop Ahn1 1Department of Pediatrics, Cancer Research Institute, 2Division of Pediatric Intensive Care, Department of Pediatrics, 3Division of Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Although few adverse effects have been reported for itraconazole, a widely used antifungal therapy for febrile neutropenia, we found intravenous (IV itraconazole to be associated with serious cases of blood pressure (BP drop. We therefore evaluated the incidence and risk factors for BP drop during IV administration of the drug.Materials and methods: We reviewed the medical records of children with hemato-oncologic disease who were treated with IV itraconazole from January 2012 to December 2013. By analyzing systolic BP (SBP measurements made from 4 hours before through to 4 hours after itraconazole administration, we evaluated the changes in SBP and the risk factors for an SBP drop, especially clinically meaningful (≥20% drops.Results: Itraconazole was administered 2,627 times to 180 patients. The SBP during the 4 hours following itraconazole administration was lower than during the 4 hours before administration (104 [53.0–160.33 mmHg] versus 105 [59.8–148.3 mmHg]; P<0.001. The decrease in SBP was associated with the application of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT (P=0.012 and the use of inotropic (P=0.005 and hypotensive drugs (P=0.021. A clinically meaningful SBP drop was seen in 5.37% (141 out of 2,627 of the administrations, and the use of inotropics (odds ratio [OR] 6.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.22–13.92; P<0.001, reducing the dose of inotropics (OR 8.08; 95% CI 1.39–46.94; P=0

  18. ACUTE EFFECT OF FLUCONAZOLE, ITRACONAZOLE AND VORICONAZOLE ON BLOOD GLUCOSE IN NORMOGLYCEAMIC & DIABETIC RATS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav Amol, Nayak BB, Vakade Kiran P, Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Vijay Kumar AN, Vrushali Nibrad, Raul AR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fungal and antimicrobials are frequently co-prescribed either to manage or treat either the secondary complications or other diseases. Among antifungal drugs Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriconazole are most commonly used. The present study was undertaken to further confirm the effect of Voriconazole as well as other antifungal drugs on blood Glucose level. Aim & Objectives: 1. To Study the effect of Fluconazole, Itraconazole & Voriaconazole in Normoglycemic & Diabetic Rats on Blood Glucose. 2. To compare the effects between all drugs. Material & Methodology: Grouping: Animals divided into 8 groups in each group 6 animals. Group 1- 4: Normoglycemic rats, Group 5-8 Diabetic rats (alloxan induced Group 1,5: received vehicle (Normal saline Group 2,6: received Fluconazole (18mg/kg BW, Group 3,7 received Itraconazole (18mg/kg BW Group 4,8 received Voriconazole (18mg/kg BW. The glucose levels were estimated by Glucometer method (Accu-check active at the interval of 0, ½ hr, 1hrs, 2hrs & 4hrs after drug administration. Results: Effect on blood glucose in Normoglycemic Rats: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value= 0.0102 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.0001. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in normoglycemic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole. Effect on blood glucose in Diabetic Rats: (Table 2: Voriconazole had a significant hypoglycaemic effect which appeared after 1 hr (‘p’ value=0.013 of administration & persisted up to 2 hrs (‘p’ value=0.001 in acute studies. However effect of Voriconzole was found to be declined after 2 hrs. There was no significant change in blood glucose in diabetic rats with Fluconazole & Itraconazole treated. Conclusion: Itraconazole, Fluconazole can be safely used in diabetic with fungal infections. Voriconazole should be avoided in diabetics to

  19. Effect of diclofenac, disulfiram, itraconazole, grapefruit juice and erythromycin on the pharmacokinetics of quinidine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkier, Per; Hansen, Lone L; Brøsen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Aims In vitro studies suggest that the oxidation of quinidine to 3-hydroxyquinidine is a specific marker reaction for CYP3A4 activity. To assess the possible use of this reaction as an in vivo marker of CYP3A4 activity, we studied the involvement of cytochromes CYP2C9, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in the in vivo oxidative metabolism of quinidine. Methods An open study of 30 healthy young male volunteers was performed. The pharmacokinetics of a 200 mg single oral dose of quinidine was studied before and during daily administration of 100 mg diclofenac, a CYP2C9 substrate (n=6); 200 mg disulfiram, an inhibitor of CYP2E1 (n=6); 100 mg itraconazole, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 (n=6); 250 ml single strength grapefruit juice twice daily, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 (n=6); 250 mg of erythromycin 4 times daily, an inhibitor of CYP3A4 (n=6). Probes of other enzyme activities, caffeine (CYP1A2), sparteine (CYP2D6), mephenytoin (CYP2C19), tolbutamide (CYP2C9) and cortisol (CYP3A4) were also studied. Results Concomitant administration of diclofenac reduced the partial clearance of quinidine by N-oxidation by 27%, while no effect was found for other pharmacokinetic parameters of quinidine. Concomitant administration of disulfiram did not alter any of the pharmacokinetic parameters of quinidine. Concomitant administration of itraconazole reduced quinidine total clearance, partial clearance by 3-hydroxylation and partial clearance by N-oxidation by 61, 84 and 73%, respectively. The renal clerance was reduced by 60% and the elimination half-life increased by 35%. Concomitant administration of grapefruit juice reduced the total clearance of quinidine and its partial clearance by 3-hydroxylation and N-oxidation by 15, 19 and 27%, respectively. The elimination half-life of quinidine was increased by 19%. The caffeine metabolic index was reduced by 25%. Concomitant administration of erythromycin reduced the total clearance of quinidine and its partial clearance by 3-hydroxylation and N-oxidation by 34, 50

  20. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in patients receiving inhaled budesonide and itraconazole or ritonavir: two cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Marie-Christine; Beauregard, Hugues; Serri, Omar

    2013-01-01

    To present two cases of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome caused by the interaction of budesonide, an inhaled glucocorticoid, with ritonavir and itraconazole. We present the clinical and biochemical data of two patients in whom diagnosis of Cushing syndrome was caused by this interaction. We also reviewed the pertinent literature and management options. A 71-year-old man was treated with inhaled budesonide for a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and itraconazole for a pulmonary aspergillosis. The patient rapidly developed a typical Cushing syndrome complicated by bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral heads. Serum 8:00 AM cortisol concentrations were suppressed at 0.76 and 0.83 μg/dL on two occasions. The patient died 4 days later of a massive myocardial infarction. The second case is a 46-year-old woman who was treated for several years with inhaled budesonide for asthma. She was put on ritonavir, a retroviral protease inhibitor, for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the following months, she developed typical signs of Cushing syndrome. Her morning serum cortisol concentration was 1.92 μg/dL. A cosyntropin stimulation test showed values of serum cortisol of Cushing syndrome and secondary adrenal insufficiency due to the association of inhaled corticosteroids with itraconazole or ritonavir.

  1. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae potentiates activity of posaconazole and itraconazole via apoptosis.

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    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA and benzohydroxamate (BHAM, inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ and itraconazole (ICZ against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents.

  2. Investigation of itraconazole ternary amorphous solid dispersions based on povidone and Carbopol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Meckel, Jordan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-30

    We investigate a ternary system that consists of itraconazole (ITZ) and two polymers: povidone K12 and Carbopol 907. The interactions between these two polymers and their effects on the properties of ternary ITZ amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are studied. These two polymers can form a water-insoluble complex in acidic aqueous media. The critical pH is determined to be 4.17. The weight percentage of Carbopol 907 in the interpolymer complex range from 59 to 70%, depending on the initial ratios between these two polymers in the starting solutions. This complexation is driven by a negative enthalpy change from the H-bonding between the two polymers and a positive entropy change from the freed water molecules. Due to the slow precipitation of the interpolymer complex in aqueous media, the attempt to prepare ternary ASD using solvent-controlled coprecipitation is not successful. Melt extrusion is identified to be the only viable method to prepare this ternary ASD. We find that interpolymer complex-based ASDs are physically less stable and demonstrate the poorest drug-release properties when compared to individual polymer-based binary ASDs. This study illustrates that the too strong interaction between polymers in ternary ASDs is detrimental to their performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathways Inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae Potentiates Activity of Posaconazole and Itraconazole via Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA) and benzohydroxamate (BHAM), inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS), phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents. PMID:23696824

  4. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  5. Antifungal efficacy of itraconazole-loaded TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu L

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lixin Qiu,1,2,* Bicheng Hu,1,4,* Hongbo Chen,2,3 Shanshan Li,5 Yuqian Hu,2,3 Yi Zheng,2,3 Xinxing Wu1 1Institute of Virology, School of Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 2The Shenzhen Key Lab of Gene and Antibody Therapy, Center for Biotech and Biomedicine, Division of Life and Health Sciences, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China; 3School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4The Clinical Laboratory, Wuhan No 1 Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This research was conducted to formulate biodegradable itraconazole (ITZ-loaded d-a-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-b-poly(e-caprolactone-ran-glycolide (TPGS-b-(PCL-ran-PGA; TPP nanoparticles (NPs (designed as ITZ-loaded TPP NPs to improve antifungal efficacy. ITZ-loaded TPP NPs were prepared by a modified double-emulsion method, and their size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficiency, drug-release profile, and antifungal effects were characterized. The cytotoxicity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs on HeLa cells and fibroblasts was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method. The in vivo antifungal activity of ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs was examined in mice by administrating 5×105 colony forming units of Candida albicans through the tail vein. The survival rate and survival time of the mice was observed. The fungal count and pathology of lung tissue was analyzed. The data showed that ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs have size of 265±5.8 nm, zeta potential of -31±0.5 mV, high encapsulation efficiency (95%, and extended drug-release profile. ITZ-loaded-TPP NPs at a high concentration of 25 mg/mL had no

  6. In vitro activity of the antifungal azoles itraconazole and posaconazole against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Teixeira de Macedo-Silva

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus, is one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases. It is endemic in 98 countries, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Pentavalent antimonials are the first line of treatment for leishmaniasis except in India. In resistant cases, miltefosine, amphotericin B and pentamidine are used. These treatments are unsatisfactory due to toxicity, limited efficacy, high cost and difficult administration. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop drugs that are efficacious, safe, and more accessible to patients. Trypanosomatids, including Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, have an essential requirement for ergosterol and other 24-alkyl sterols, which are absent in mammalian cells. Inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis is increasingly recognized as a promising target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. The aim of this work was to investigate the antiproliferative, physiological and ultrastructural effects against Leishmania amazonensis of itraconazole (ITZ and posaconazole (POSA, two azole antifungal agents that inhibit sterol C14α-demethylase (CYP51. Antiproliferative studies demonstrated potent activity of POSA and ITZ: for promastigotes, the IC50 values were 2.74 µM and 0.44 µM for POSA and ITZ, respectively, and for intracellular amastigotes, the corresponding values were 1.63 µM and 0.08 µM, for both stages after 72 h of treatment. Physiological studies revealed that both inhibitors induced a collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, which was consistent with ultrastructural alterations in the mitochondrion. Intense mitochondrial swelling, disorganization and rupture of mitochondrial membranes were observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, accumulation of lipid bodies, appearance of autophagosome-like structures and alterations in the kinetoplast were also observed. In conclusion, our results indicate that ITZ and

  7. Hyperthermia sensitizes Rhizopus oryzae to posaconazole and itraconazole action through apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Fazal; Pontikos, Michael A; Walsh, Thomas J; Albert, Nathaniel; Lewis, Russell E; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-09-01

    The high mortality rate of mucormycosis with currently available monotherapy has created interest in studying novel strategies for antifungal agents. With the exception of amphotericin B (AMB), the triazoles (posaconazole [PCZ] and itraconazole [ICZ]) are fungistatic in vitro against Rhizopus oryzae . We hypothesized that growth at a high temperature (42°C) results in fungicidal activity of PCZ and ICZ that is mediated through apoptosis. R. oryzae had high MIC values for PCZ and ICZ (16 to 64 μg/ml) at 25°C; in contrast, the MICs for PCZ and ICZ were significantly lower at 37°C (8 to 16 μg/ml) and 42°C (0.25 to 1 μg/ml). Furthermore, PCZ and ICZ dose-dependent inhibition of germination was more pronounced at 42°C than at 37°C. In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased significantly when fungi were exposed to antifungals at 42°C. Characteristic cellular changes of apoptosis in R. oryzae were induced by the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with hyperthermia (42°C) exhibited characteristic markers of early apoptosis: phosphatidylserine externalization visualized by annexin V staining, membrane depolarization visualized by bis-[1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid] trimethine oxonol (DiBAC) staining, and increased metacaspase activity. Moreover, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining demonstrated DNA fragmentation and condensation, respectively. The addition of N-acetylcysteine increased fungal survival, prevented apoptosis, reduced ROS accumulation, and decreased metacaspase activation. We concluded that hyperthermia, either alone or in the presence of PCZ or ICZ, induces apoptosis in R. oryzae. Local thermal delivery could be a therapeutically useful adjunct strategy for these refractory infections.

  8. A prospective case series evaluating efficacy and safety of combination of itraconazole and potassium iodide in rhinofacial conidiobolomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manish; Narang, Tarun; Kaur, Rupinder Jeet; Manhas, Ashwani; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Dogra, Sunil

    2016-02-01

    Rhinofacial conidiobolomycosis (RFC) is an uncommon subcutaneous fungal infection producing painless swelling with grotesque deformity of the face. Although there are case reports and small case series; there are very few prospective studies evaluating treatment outcome and long-term follow-up. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combination of itraconazole (200 mg twice daily) and saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI) in patients with RFC. Ten patients of RFC were studied over a period of 5 years. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical, histopathological, and microbiological evaluation. Conidiobolus was cultured in four cases and in the rest of the cases, the histopathology was suggestive of RFC. They were treated with itraconazole (200 mg twice daily) and SSKI and followed up for a minimum of 1 year after stopping treatment. The mean age was 38.7 years and the mean duration of symptoms was 22.4 months. Males were predominantly involved (9 : 1). Seven patients responded to the combination treatment, five had complete resolution and two had good improvement (50-75%); however, in two patients the response was minimal (<25% regression of the swelling) and one patient did not show any improvement after 6 months of treatment. Combination of itraconazole and SSKI is an effective treatment modality for RFC with relatively faster onset of action, low relapse rates, and minimal adverse effects. It can be considered as first-line treatment in patients with RFC. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  9. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; and urinary tract, abdominal (stomach area), female reproductive organs, blood, ... by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  10. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damaged, and do not use an auto-injection device if the security seal is broken. Look through the viewing window on the prefilled syringe or auto-injection device. The liquid inside should be clear and colorless ...

  11. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have been exposed to anthrax in the air. Doxycycline injection is in a class of medications ... decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, or injections). Talk to your doctor ...

  12. Abaloparatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection may cause osteosarcoma (bone cancer) in laboratory rats. It is not known whether abaloparatide injection increases ... too have too much calcium in the blood, hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much ...

  13. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliperidone extended-release injections (Invega Sustenna, Invega Trinza) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Paliperidone extended-release injection (Invega Sustenna) is also used ...

  14. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  15. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceftriaxone injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted ... skin, urinary tract, blood, bones, joints, and abdomen. Ceftriaxone injection is also sometimes given before certain types ...

  16. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  17. Naltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Drugs, Herbs and Supplements → Naltrexone Injection URL of this page: ... become depressed and sometimes try to harm or kill themselves. Receiving naltrexone injection does not decrease the ...

  18. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions of the selective androgen receptor modulator GTx-024(Enobosarm) with itraconazole, rifampin, probenecid, celecoxib and rosuvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coss, Christopher C; Jones, Amanda; Dalton, James T

    2016-08-01

    GTx-024 (also known as enobosarm) is a first in class selective androgen receptor modulator being developed for diverse indications in oncology. Preclinical studies of GTx-024 supported the evaluation of several potential drug-drug interactions in a clinical setting. A series of open-label Phase I GTx-024 drug-drug interaction studies were designed to interrogate potential interactions with CYP3A4 inhibitor (itraconazole), a CYP3A4 inducer (rifampin), a pan-UGT inhibitor (probenecid), a CYP2C9 substrate (celecoxib) and a BCRP substrate (rosuvastatin). The plasma pharmacokinetics of GTx-024, its major metabolite (GTx-024 glucuronide), and each substrate were characterized in detail. Itraconazole administration had no effect on GTx-024 pharmacokinetics. Likewise, GTx-024 administration did not significantly change the pharmacokinetics of celecoxib or rosuvastatin. Rifampin administration had the largest impact on GTx-024 pharmacokinetics of any co-administered agent and reduced the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) by 23 % and the area under the curve (AUC∞) by 43 %. Probenecid had a complex interaction with GTx-024 whereby both GTx-024 plasma levels and GTx-024 glucuronide plasma levels (AUC∞) were increased by co-administration of the UGT inhibitor (50 and 112 %, respectively). Overall, GTx-024 was well tolerated and poses very little risk of generating clinically relevant drug-drug interactions.

  19. First itraconazole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolate harbouring a G54E substitution in Cyp51Ap in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardelli, Florencia; Theill, Laura; Nardin, María Elena; Macedo, Daiana; Dudiuk, Catiana; Mendez, Emilce; Gamarra, Soledad; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    A 27-year-old male rural worker was admitted with a fungal keratitis due to an injury involving plant detritus. Specimens were collected for microscopy examination and culture. The isolate was identified by morphological and molecular criteria. Susceptibility testing was performed using CLSI methods. CYP51A gene was PCR amplified and sequenced. An Aspergillus fumigatus strain resistant to itraconazole (MIC>8μg/ml) was isolated. The isolate was susceptible to amphotericin B, posaconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. CYP51A sequencing showed two mutations leading on the G54E substitution. The patient received natamycin as treatment. This is the first report in South America of a clinical A. fumigatus strain carrying the substitution G54E at Cyp51Ap associated with itraconazole resistance. Considering the patient was azole-naive, this resistant isolate may have been acquired from the environment. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis. Report of a case successfully treated with Itraconazol Paracoccidioidomicose do sistema nervoso central. Apresentação de um caso tratado com êxito com itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. VILLA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a primary pulmonary infection that often disseminates to other organs and systems. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS is rare and due to the fact that both clinical alertness and establishment of the diagnosis are delayed, the disease progresses causing serious problems. We report here a case of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPCM, observed in a 55 year-old male, who consulted due to neurological symptoms (left hemiparesis, paresthesias, right palpebral ptosis, headache, vomiting and tonic clonic seizures of a month duration. Upon physical examination, an ulcerated granulomatous lesion was observed in the abdomen. To confirm the diagnosis a stereotactic biopsy was taken; additionally, mycological tests from the ulcerated lesion and a bronchoalveolar lavage were performed. In the latter specimens, P. brasiliensis yeast cells were visualized and later on, the brain biopsy revealed the presence of the fungus. Treatment with itraconazole (ITZ was initiated but clinical improvement was unremarkable; due to the fact that the patient was taking sodium valproate for seizure control, drug interactions were suspected and confirmed by absence of ITZ plasma levels. The latter medication was changed to clonazepam and after several weeks, clinical improvement began to be noticed and was accompanied by diminishing P. brasiliensis antigen and antibody titers. In the PCM endemic areas, CNS involvement should be considered more often and the efficacy of itraconazole therapy should also be taken into consideration.A paracoccidioidomicose (PCM é infecção pulmonar primária que algumas vezes pode se disseminar a outros órgãos e sistemas. O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central (SNC é raro e devido ao fato que a alerta clínica e o estabelecimento do diagnóstico são tardios, a doença progride e o paciente piora. Aquí apresentamos caso de neuroparacoccidioidomicose (NPCM observada em homem de 55 anos de idade que

  1. Efficacy of treatment and long-term follow-up of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis PCR-positive anurans following itraconazole bath treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georoff, Timothy A; Moore, Robert P; Rodriguez, Carlos; Pessier, Allan P; Newton, Alisa L; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P

    2013-06-01

    All anuran specimens in the Wildlife Conservation Society's collections testing positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) were treated with itraconazole and then studied after treatment to assess the long-term effects of itraconazole and the drug's effectiveness in eliminating Bd carriers. Twenty-four individuals and eight colonies of 11 different species (75 total specimens) tested positive for Bd via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on multicollection survey. All positive individuals and colonies were treated with a 0.01% itraconazole bath solution and retested for Bd via one of two PCR methodologies within 14 days of treatment completion, and all were negative for Bd. A total of 64 animals received secondary follow-up PCR testing at the time of death, 6-8 mo, or 12-15 mo post-treatment. Fourteen animals (14/64, 21.9%) were PCR positive for Bd on second follow-up. The highest percentage positive at second recheck were green-and-black poison dart frogs (Dendrobates auratus; 5/5 specimens, 100%), followed by red-eyed tree frogs (Agalychnis callidryas; 4/11, 36.4%), grey tree frogs (Hyla versicolor; 1/3, 33.3%), and green tree frogs (Hyla cinera; 3/11, 27.3%). Re-testing by PCR performed on 26/28 individuals that died during the study indicated 11/26 (42.3%) were positive (all via DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded skin sections). However, there was no histologic evidence of chytridiomycosis in any of 27/28 individuals. The small number of deceased animals and effects of postmortem autolysis limited the ability to determine statistical trends in the pathology data, but none of the necropsied specimens showed evidence of itraconazole toxicity. Problems with itraconazole may be species dependent, and this report expands the list of species that can tolerate treatment. Although itraconazole is effective for clearance of most individuals infected with Bd, results of the study suggest that repeat itraconazole treatment and follow-up diagnostics may

  2. Chemical and cytotoxic analyses of brown Brazilian propolis (Apis mellifera) and its in vitro activity against itraconazole-resistant Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Stefanie B; Peter, Cristina M; Hoffmann, Jéssica F; Picoli, Tony; Osório, Luiza da G; Chaves, Fábio; Zani, João L; de Faria, Renata O; de Mello, João R B; Meireles, Mário C A

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of brown Brazilian propolis and its in vitro activity against itraconazole-resistant Sporothrix brasiliensis from animal sporotrichosis. Propolis was acquired commercially and prepared as a hydroalcoholic extract. Chemical analysis was evaluated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry of ultra-efficiency. The cell viability was evaluated by MTT test in MDBK cells of 50 to 0.09 μg/mL. For antifungal tests, twenty isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis from dogs (n = 11) and cats (n = 9) with sporotrichosis were tested to itraconazole (16-0.0313 μg/mL) and to propolis (3.125-0.09 mg/mL) by broth microdilution technique (CLSI M38-A2), adapted to natural products. The results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC). Itraconazole showed activity between MIC values of 0.25 to greater than 16 μg/mL, and 88.9% (08/09) and 72.7% (08/11) of S. brasiliensis from cats and dogs, respectively, were considered itraconazole-resistant. All Sporothrix brasiliensis were sensitive to brown propolis between MIC values of 0.19-1.56 mg/mL, including the itraconazole-resistant isolates, whereas the MFC values of propolis were from 0.78 to greater than 3.125 mg/mL. Propolis maintained a medium to high cell viability between concentration of 0.78 to 0.09 μg/mL, and p-coumaric acid was the major compound. Brown Brazilian propolis is a promising antifungal candidate against sporotrichosis and more studies need to be undertaken to evaluate its safe use to understand its efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparative study of itraconazole in various dose schedules in the treatment of pulmonary aspergilloma in treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prahlad Rai Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The optimal dose, duration, and efficacy of itraconazole in Indian patients of pulmonary aspergilloma (PA are not clearly defined. Therefore, a study was carried out, to resolve these issues in diagnosed cases of PA complicating old treated patients of pulmonary tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: The study patients randomly received itraconazole either in a fixed dose schedule of 200 mg (group I, 200 mg twice daily (group II or a variable dose schedule (group III, for 12 months. All the patients were followed up for the entire duration of the study for clinical, radiological, and immunological response. The side effects were recorded as and when reported by the patients and managed symptomatically. Results: A total of 60 patients were enrolled, 20, in each group. There were no intergroup differences with regard to age, sex, body weight, smoking status, alcohol intake, symptoms, Potassium hydroxide (KOH mount, fungal culture, pattern of radiological lesions or anti-aspergillus antibodies (anti-Asp-Ab titers. The radiological response was poor in group I patients, as compared to the other groups, at two months (P < 0.05. The dose of itraconazole was increased in five of the patients in group I due to poor response. A higher number of group II patients suffered side effects and the dose of itraconazole had to be decreased in three of these patients, but none of the patients on a variable dose schedule required a change in dose schedule. Conclusion: Thus, a weight-based variable dose schedule of itraconazole was found to be a more effective and safer modality in the management of PA than a fixed dose schedule.

  4. Candida tropicalis arthritis of the elbow in a patient with Ewing’s sarcoma that successfully responded to itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Youn Kim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are rarely responsible for arthritis. Few cases of fungal arthritis have been reported, even in immunocompromised hosts susceptible to low-virulence organisms. Herein, the authors report the first case of Candida tropicalis arthritis in a child with a solid tumor. A 13-year-old boy with Ewing’s sarcoma developed arthritis in his elbow during the neutropenic period after chemotherapy. Despite treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics, his condition did not improve and serial blood cultures failed to reveal any causative organisms. After surgical drainage, culture of the joint fluid revealed the presence of C. tropicalis . Itraconazole treatment was started and after 3 months of therapy, the patient completely recovered full elbow function.

  5. Miltefosine is active against Sporothrix brasiliensis isolates with in vitro low susceptibility to amphotericin B or itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Gagini, Thalita; Ishida, Kelly; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-04-01

    Sporotrichosis is a common mycosis caused by dimorphic fungi from the Sporothrix schenckii complex. In recent years, sporotrichosis incidence rates have increased in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, where Sporothrix brasiliensis is the species more frequently isolated from patients. The standard antifungals itraconazole and amphotericin B are recommended as first-line therapy for cutaneous/lymphocutaneous and disseminated sporotrichosis, respectively, although decreased sensitivity to these drugs in vitro was reported for clinical isolates of S. brasiliensis. Here, we evaluated the activity of the phospholipid analogue miltefosine - already in clinical use against leishmaniasis - towards the pathogenic yeast form of S. brasiliensis isolates with low sensitivity to itraconazole or amphotericin B in vitro. Miltefosine had fungicidal activity, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 1-2 µg ml(-1). Miltefosine exposure led to loss of plasma membrane integrity, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a decrease in cytoplasmic electron density, alterations in the thickness of cell wall layers and accumulation of an electron-dense material in the cell wall. Flow cytometry analysis using an anti-melanin antibody revealed an increase in cell wall melanin in yeasts treated with miltefosine, when compared with control cells. The cytotoxicity of miltefosine was comparable to those of amphotericin B, but miltefosine showed a higher selectivity index towards the fungus. Our results suggest that miltefosine could be an effective alternative for the treatment of S. brasiliensis sporotrichosis, when standard treatment fails. Nevertheless, in vivo studies are required to confirm the antifungal potential of miltefosine for the treatment of sporotrichosis. © 2015 The Authors.

  6. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection ...

  7. Atezolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the action of a ... infection breath that smells fruity slowed, fast or irregular heartbeat Atezolizumab injection may cause other side effects. ...

  8. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people ... body's response to the medication.You must take probenecid tablets by mouth with each dose of cidofovir. ...

  9. Acyclovir Injection

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    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  10. Alirocumab Injection

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    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  11. Pegloticase Injection

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    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  12. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Risperidone extended-release injection is used alone or ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...

  13. Olanzapine Injection

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    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...

  14. Tacrolimus Injection

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    ... in people who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people ... or nurse will watch you closely during the first 30 minutes of your treatment and then will ...

  15. Omalizumab Injection

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    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  16. Daclizumab Injection

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    ... neck, armpits, or groin; diarrhea; bloody stools; stomach pain; or any new, unexplained symptom affecting any part of your body.Because of the risks with this medication, daclizumab injection is available only through a special ...

  17. Temozolomide Injection

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    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  18. Moxifloxacin Injection

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    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  19. Delafloxacin Injection

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    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  20. Levofloxacin Injection

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    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  1. Ciprofloxacin Injection

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    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  2. Butorphanol Injection

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    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  3. Haloperidol Injection

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    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to haloperidol ...

  4. Ketorolac Injection

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    ... of ketorolac by intravenous (into a vein) or intramuscular (into a muscle) injection in a hospital or ... You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ ...

  5. Ceftazidime Injection

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    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) and ... killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  6. Teduglutide Injection

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    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  7. Dexrazoxane Injection

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    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  8. Dulaglutide Injection

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    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given dulaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use dulaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  9. Albiglutide Injection

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    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given medications similar to albiglutide developed ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use albiglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  10. Semaglutide Injection

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    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given semaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use semaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  11. Liraglutide Injection

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    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given liraglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use liraglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  12. Exenatide Injection

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    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given exenatide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use exenatide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  13. Etoposide Injection

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    ... used in combination with other medications to treat cancer of the testicles that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications or radiation therapy. Etoposide injection ... type of lung cancer (small cell lung cancer; SCLC). Etoposide is in ...

  14. Cefepime Injection

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    ... infection because they have a low number of white blood cells. Cefepime injection is in a class ... In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at 1-800-222-1222. Information is also available online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. If the victim has ...

  15. Triptorelin Injection

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    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  16. In vitro/in vivo performance of different complexes of itraconazole used in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aamir Mirza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A large majority of new chemical entities and many existing drug molecules exhibit poor aqueous solubility, which may limit their potential use in developing drug formulations, with optimum bioavailability. One of the approaches to improve the solubility of a poorly water soluble drug and eventually its bioavailability is complexation with agents like humic acid (HA, fulvic acid (FA, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD and caffeine (Caff. The current work emphasized at employing these agents to prepare different complexes and their in vitro/in vivo assessment. All the complexes evaluated for their complexation efficiency and authenticated by molecular modeling; conformational analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectroscopy. Furthermore, the complexes were assessed in an in vivo, rat vaginal model for their efficacy in treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Amongst the five tested complexes, fulvic acid-itraconazole complex yielded better solubility as well as in vivo efficacy and therefore may further be explored for developing a commercial formulation for treating vaginal candidiasis.A maioria das novas entidades químicas e muitas moléculas de fármacos existentes apresenta fraca solubilidade em água, o que pode limitar seu uso potencial no desenvolvimento de formulações com biodisponibilidade ideal. Uma das abordagens para melhorar a solubilidade de um fármaco pouco solúvel em água e, eventualmente, a sua biodisponibilidade é a complexação com agentes como o ácido húmico (HA, ácido fúlvico (FA, β-ciclodextrina (β-CD, 2-hidroxipropil-β-ciclodextrina (HP-β-CD e cafeína (Caff. O presente trabalho baseia-se no uso desses agentes para preparar diferentes complexos e suas avaliações in vitro/in vivo. Todos os complexos foram avaliados quanto à eficiência de complexação por modelação molecular, análise conformacional

  17. Amphotericin B, alone or followed by itraconazole therapy, is effective in the control of experimental disseminated sporotrichosis by Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kelly; de Castro, Rafaela Alves; Borba Dos Santos, Luana Pereira; Quintella, Leonardo Pereira; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is a highly virulent member of the S. schenckii complex, which is responsible for the emergence of the epidemic sporotrichosis in southeastern Brazil over the last two decades. There are no in vivo studies on the sensitivity of S. brasiliensis to the therapeutic regimens used to treat sporotrichosis. Here, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of antifungal treatments against S. brasiliensis using a murine model of disseminated sporotrichosis. In vitro, S. brasiliensis yeasts were sensitive to low concentrations of amphotericin B-deoxycholate (AMB-d) and itraconazole (ITZ), the latter having greater selectivity toward the fungus. The following treatment regimens were tested in vivo: intravenous AMB-d for 7 days post-infection (p.i.), oral ITZ for up to 30 days p.i., and AMB-d followed by ITZ (AMB-d/ITZ). AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ led to 100% survival of infected mice at the end of the 45-day experimental period. Although all treatments extended mice survival, only AMB-d and AMB-d/ITZ significantly reduced fungal load in all organs, but AMB-d/ITZ led to a more consistent decrease in overall fungal burden. No treatment increased the levels of serum toxicity biomarkers. Taken together, our results indicate that AMB-d/ITZ is the best therapeutic option for controlling disseminated sporotrichosis caused by S. brasiliensis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. D-optimal experimental approach for designing topical microemulsion of itraconazole: Characterization and evaluation of antifungal efficacy against a standardized Tinea pedis infection model in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Shishu

    2015-01-25

    The study aims to statistically develop a microemulsion system of an antifungal agent, itraconazole for overcoming the shortcomings and adverse effects of currently used therapies. Following preformulation studies like solubility determination, component selection and pseudoternary phase diagram construction, a 3-factor D-optimal mixture design was used for optimizing a microemulsion having desirable formulation characteristics. The factors studied for sixteen experimental trials were percent contents (w/w) of water, oil and surfactant, whereas the responses investigated were globule size, transmittance, drug skin retention and drug skin permeation in 6h. Optimized microemulsion (OPT-ME) was incorporated in Carbopol based hydrogel to improve topical applicability. Physical characterization of the formulations was performed using particle size analysis, transmission electron microscopy, texture analysis and rheology behavior. Ex vivo studies carried out in Wistar rat skin depicted that the optimized formulation enhanced drug skin retention and permeation in 6h in comparison to conventional cream and Capmul 908P oil solution of itraconazole. The in vivo evaluation of optimized formulation was performed using a standardized Tinea pedis model in Wistar rats and the results of the pharmacodynamic study, obtained in terms of physical manifestations, fungal-burden score, histopathological profiles and oxidative stress. Rapid remission of Tinea pedis from rats treated with OPT-ME formulation was observed in comparison to commercially available therapies (ketoconazole cream and oral itraconazole solution), thereby indicating the superiority of microemulsion hydrogel formulation over conventional approaches for treating superficial fungal infections. The formulation was stable for a period of twelve months under refrigeration and ambient temperature conditions. All results, therefore, suggest that the OPT-ME can prove to be a promising and rapid alternative to conventional

  19. Investigations of seborrheic dermatitis. Part II. Influence of itraconazole on the clinical condition and the level of selected cytokines in seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trznadel-Grodzka, Ewa; Błaszkowski, Marcin; Rotsztejn, Helena

    2012-11-14

    The pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis has not been fully elucidated. A number of anascogenic yeasts of Malassezia spp. appear to be involved in the intensity of the symptoms. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the levels of selected inflammatory cytokines, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α, in the serum after treatment with itraconazole. Sixty-six subjects were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 30 participants (23 females and 7 males) without any clinical disorders, aged 24-65 (37.41±6.08 years). Thirty-six patients with seborrheic dermatitis (16 females and 20 males), aged 19-76 (38.61±13.77), constituted the study group. The measurement of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α levels was performed by ELISA using a Human High Sensitivity kit (Diaclone, France). After six-week treatment with itraconazole administered daily at a dose of 200 mg using pulse therapy, there was remission of the disease or at least substantial clinical improvement in the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. The levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ cytokines in the study group were higher than in the control group. After the treatment the level of IFN-γ secretion in the male patients with seborrheic dermatitis significantly increased. The levels of the other studied cytokines did not significantly differ. The treatment with itraconazole had a beneficial effect on the clinical condition of the skin of the patients. IFN-γ is a cytokine whose secretion might affect the condition of the skin in seborrheic dermatitis.

  20. Investigations of seborrheic dermatitis. Part II. Influenceof itraconazole on the clinical condition and the level of selected cytokinesin seborrheic dermatitis 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trznadel-Grodzka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis has not been fully elucidated. A number of anascogenic yeasts of Malassezia spp. appear to be involved in the intensity of the symptoms. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the levels of selected inflammatory cytokines, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α, in the serum after treatment with itraconazole.Material/Methods:Sixty-six subjects were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 30 participants (23 females and 7 males without any clinical disorders, aged 24–65 (37.41±6.08 years. Thirty-six patients with seborrheic dermatitis (16 females and 20 males, aged 19–76 (38.61±13.77, constituted the study group. The measurement of IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α levels was performed by ELISA using a Human High Sensitivity kit (Diaclone, France.Results:After six-week treatment with itraconazole administered daily at a dose of 200 mg using pulse therapy, there was remission of the disease or at least substantial clinical improvement in the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. The levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ cytokines in the study group were higher than in the control group. After the treatment the level of IFN-γ secretion in the male patients with seborrheic dermatitis significantly increased. The levels of the other studied cytokines did not significantly differ.Conclusions:The treatment with itraconazole had a beneficial effect on the clinical condition of the skin of the patients. IFN-γ is a cytokine whose secretion might affect the condition of the skin in seborrheic dermatitis. 

  1. Efficacy and safety of itraconazole as empirical antifungal therapy in febrile neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies: an open-lable, multicenter, observational trial in a Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu; Zhou, Jian-Feng; Zou, Ping; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Jin, Jie; Shen, Zhi-Xiang

    2011-11-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a common and fatal complication in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancy. Empirical antifungal therapy is widely used in practice due to the difficulty of pathogens determination and illness of the hosts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of itraconazole as empirical antifungal therapy for persistent fever in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies. Two hundred and seventy-four patients with hematologic malignancies who had suspected fungal infections were enrolled in 18 centers across China between April 2008 and April 2009. Empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous itraconazole 200 mg twice daily was given for the first two days, followed by 200 mg once daily for the next 12 days. Oral itraconazole solution was sequential for follow-up therapy if necessary. Five composite end points were evaluated for the response, which was more restrictive and adopted for the first time in such study in China. The intent-to-treat analysis included data from 274 patients (full analysis set, FAS), of whom 248 were included as the per-protocol population (PPS). As the composite end point of five indices was concerned, the overall response rate was 43.4%. Seperately, defervescence was achieved in 90% of patients in which 55.5% occured during neutropenia. The mean time to defervescence was 2.71 days. Absence of breakthrough IFI during drug administration or within the first 7 days after study completion was observed in 71.5% of patients. Fifty-five point five percent patients with IFI at baseline was successfully treated. Ninety point five percent patients survived for at least 7 days after completing the study. PPS analysis revealed that the duration of neutropenia ≥ 10 days was a statistically significant negative predictor for the response. The withdrawal rate due to drug-related toxicity or lack of efficacy was 11.0%. The incidence of adverse events was 22.6%, in which 11.6% was study

  2. Rheological analysis of itraconazole-polymer mixtures to determine optimal melt extrusion temperature for development of amorphous solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Nayan; Gupta, Simerdeep Singh; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop a systematic method for the determination of optimal processing temperatures of drug-polymer mixtures for the development of amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) by melt extrusion. Since melt extrusion is performed at high temperature, it is essential that the processing temperature should be as low as possible to minimize degradation of drug and polymer, and yet the temperature should be high enough that the drug-polymer mixture attains certain viscosity that is extrudable and the drug dissolves in the molten polymer. By using itraconazole (ITZ) and polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft co-polymer (Soluplus®, BASF) as, respectively, the model drug and the polymeric carrier, melt viscosities of drug-polymer mixtures with 5, 10, 20 and 30% ITZ were studied as functions of temperature and angular frequency. All these concentrations were below the miscibility limit as it was shown separately by film casting that ITZ was miscible with the polymer up to 40%. Since the angular frequency of a rheometer may not be high enough to simulate the shear rate within an extruder, torque analysis as a function of temperature during melt extrusion of selected drug-polymer mixtures was also conducted. The presence of dissolved ITZ had a plasticizing effect on the polymer used, and an intersection point around 150-155°C was observed, above which viscosities of drug-polymer mixtures were lower than that of polymer itself. Drug-polymer mixtures with 5 to 30% ITZ were extrudable at 150°C, and torque analysis showed that the mixture with 20% ITZ can be extruded even at 145°C. These temperatures were 17 to 22°C below the melting point of ITZ (167°C). ITZ dissolved due to the drug-polymer miscibility, the viscosity attained, and the shear rate generated. It was confirmed by PXRD and DSC that the extrudates were amorphous. Viscosity and miscibility of drug-polymer mixtures during melt extrusion were identified

  3. Characterization of Solid Dispersion of Itraconazole Prepared by Solubilization in Concentrated Aqueous Solutions of Weak Organic Acids and Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Tapan; Sandhu, Harpreet K; Talele, Tanaji T; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an amorphous solid dispersion (SD) of an extremely water-insoluble and very weakly basic drug, itraconazole (ITZ), by interaction with weak organic acids and then drying that would enhance dissolution rate of drug and physical stability of formulation. Aqueous solubility of ITZ in concentrated solutions of weak organic acids, such as glutaric, tartaric, malic and citric acid, was determined. Solutions with high drug solubility were dried using vacuum oven and the resulting SDs having 2 to 20% drug load were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The dissolution of SDs was initially studied in 250 mL of 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.1), and any undissolved solids were collected and analyzed by PXRD. The pH of the dissolution medium was then changed from 1.1 to 5.5, particle size of precipitates were measured, and drug concentrations in solution were determined by filtration through membrane filters of varying pore sizes. The aqueous solubility of ITZ was greatly enhanced in presence of weak acids. While the solubility of ITZ in water was ~4 ng/ mL, it increased to 25-40 mg per g of solution at 25°C and 200 mg per g of solution at 65°C at a high acid concentration leading to extremely high solubilization. PXRD of SDs indicated that ITZ was present in the amorphous form, wherein the acid formed a partially crystalline matrix. ATR-FTIR results showed possible weak interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, between drug and acid but there was no salt formation. SDs formed highly supersaturated solutions at pH 1.1 and had superior dissolution rate as compared to amorphous drug and physical mixtures of drug and acids. Following the change in pH from 1.1 to 5.5, ITZ precipitated as mostly nanoparticles, providing high surface area for relatively rapid redissolution. A method of highly solubilizing an

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DOS MÉTODOS DE ETEST E MICRODILUIÇÃO EM CALDO PARA O ESTUDO DA SUSCETIBILIDADE DO Sporothrix schenckii COM O ITRACONAZOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raquel Mano Meinerz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequent occurrence of resistant isolated fungi againstantifungal drugs stimulated advances in the antifungigram techniques,which were standardized by CLSI. However, the methods have been inefficient and impractical to be executed in clinical laboratories. Within this context, commercial techniques have been developed, being ETEST one of them. ETEST has proved to be easier to execute when compared to the techniques approved by the CLSI. This study used the ETEST and the microdilution method, performed according to CLSI, for determining the in vitro susceptibility of isolates of Sporothrix schenckii against itraconazole. The CLSI uses RPMI 1640 medium and the reading of MIC after the period of incubation of 72h at 35ºC. MIC was determined by the ETEST, being Sabouraud dextrose agar used as medium, and the reading performed after 72 hours of incubation at 35ºC. The variance analysis, analyzed by T-paired test, did not demonstrate statistical differences among the CIM values obtained by the microdilution technique in broth (MIC among 0.219 and 0.875 μg/mL and ETEST (MIC among 0.032 and 2.0 μg/mL. However, the correlation coefficient (R was negative, probably because ofthe small number of samples. These results show the necessity offurther studies to assess the application of ETEST to evaluate thesusceptibility of S. schenckii against the itraconazol.

  5. Serological follow-up of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis treated with itraconazole using Dot-blot, ELISA and Western-blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana MARTINS

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven mycologically proven cases of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM were treated with itraconazole (100-200 mg/day in month 1 and 100 mg/day until month 6-8 and evaluated clinically and serologically, up to 3.5 years post-therapy, using Dot-blot and ELISA for measuring the titers of IgG, IgA and IgM anti-P. brasiliensis antibodies and Western-blot for determining IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies against the antigen components of the fungus. Before treatment, 81.5% (Dot-blot and 84% (ELISA of the patients presented elevated IgG anti-P. brasiliensis antibody titers which dropped slightly with treatment. On the other hand, the percentages of pre-treatment high-titered sera for IgA and IgM anti-P.brasiliensis were lower (5l.9% and 5l.8%: Dot-blot; 16.5 and 36%: ELISA, respectively but the titers tended to become negative more frequently with treatment. Prior to treatment, the percentages of positivity for IgG, IgA and IgM anti-P.brasiliensis antibodies in Western-blot were 96%, 20.8% and 41.6%, respectively. Antigens with molecular weights varying from 16-78 kDa, from 21-76 kDa and from 27-78 kDa were reactive for IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies, respectively. The most frequently reactive antigenic components had molecular weights of 27, 33 and 43 kDa for IgG, and 70 for IgA and IgM antibodies. During the period of study, the patients responded well to treatment. The present data confirm the diversity and complexity of the humoral response in PCM, and the importance of utilizing different serological tests to detect IgG, IgA and IgM anti-P. brasiliensis antibodiesVinte e sete pacientes portadores de paracoccidioidomicose (PCM foram tratados com itraconazole (100-200 mg/dia no primeiro mês e 100 mg/dia até 6-8 meses e avaliados sob o ponto de vista clínico e sorológico, até 3 e meio anos após o início do tratamento, utilizando-se os testes de Dot-blot e ELISA para medir os títulos de anticorpos IgG, IgA e IgM anti-P. brasiliensis, e Western

  6. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick injuries among health care workers in operating rooms. Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda, Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer, Yasmine Hussein Mohamed Sultan ...

  7. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... tionnaire was administered to HCWs (n = 318) at the Alexandria Main University Hospital. Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while mea- sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices ...

  8. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  9. Simultaneous determination of benznidazole and itraconazole using spectrophotometry applied to the analysis of mixture: A tool for quality control in the development of formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ludmila A. G.; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C. L.; Infante, Carlos M. C.; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S. S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was the development of an analytical procedure using spectrophotometry for simultaneous determination of benznidazole (BNZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) in a medicine used for the treatment of Chagas disease. In order to achieve this goal, the analysis of mixtures was performed applying the Lambert-Beer law through the absorbances of BNZ and ITZ in the wavelengths 259 and 321 nm, respectively. Diverse tests were carried out for development and validation of the method, which proved to be selective, robust, linear, and precise. The lower limits of detection and quantification demonstrate its sensitivity to quantify small amounts of analytes, enabling its application for various analytical purposes, such as dissolution test and routine assays. In short, the quantification of BNZ and ITZ by analysis of mixtures had shown to be efficient and cost-effective alternative for determination of these drugs in a pharmaceutical dosage form.

  10. Simultaneous determination of benznidazole and itraconazole using spectrophotometry applied to the analysis of mixture: A tool for quality control in the development of formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ludmila A G; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Infante, Carlos M C; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this work was the development of an analytical procedure using spectrophotometry for simultaneous determination of benznidazole (BNZ) and itraconazole (ITZ) in a medicine used for the treatment of Chagas disease. In order to achieve this goal, the analysis of mixtures was performed applying the Lambert-Beer law through the absorbances of BNZ and ITZ in the wavelengths 259 and 321 nm, respectively. Diverse tests were carried out for development and validation of the method, which proved to be selective, robust, linear, and precise. The lower limits of detection and quantification demonstrate its sensitivity to quantify small amounts of analytes, enabling its application for various analytical purposes, such as dissolution test and routine assays. In short, the quantification of BNZ and ITZ by analysis of mixtures had shown to be efficient and cost-effective alternative for determination of these drugs in a pharmaceutical dosage form. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cost-effectiveness of posaconazole versus fluconazole or itraconazole in the prevention of invasive fungal infections among high-risk neutropenic patients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grau Santiago

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of posaconazole compared with standard azole therapy (SAT; fluconazole or itraconazole for the prevention of invasive fungal infections (IFI and the reduction of overall mortality in high-risk neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML or myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. The perspective was that of the Spanish National Health Service (NHS. Methods A decision-analytic model, based on a randomised phase III trial, was used to predict IFI avoided, life-years saved (LYS, total costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; incremental cost per LYS over patients' lifetime horizon. Data for the analyses included life expectancy, procedures, and costs associated with IFI and the drugs (in euros at November 2009 values which were obtained from the published literature and opinions of an expert committee. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PAS was performed. Results Posaconazole was associated with fewer IFI (0.05 versus 0.11, increased LYS (2.52 versus 2.43, and significantly lower costs excluding costs of the underlying condition (€6,121 versus €7,928 per patient relative to SAT. There is an 85% probability that posaconazole is a cost-saving strategy compared to SAT and a 97% probability that the ICER for posaconazole relative to SAT is below the cost per LYS threshold of €30,000 currently accepted in Spain. Conclusions Posaconazole is a cost-saving prophylactic strategy (lower costs and greater efficacy compared with fluconazole or itraconazole in high-risk neutropenic patients.

  12. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1977-11-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  13. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  14. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  15. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  16. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to treat the following conditions:infantile spasms (seizures that usually begin during the first year ... tell how corticotropin repository injection works to treat infantile spasms.

  18. Geothermal injection monitoring project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, L.

    1981-04-01

    Background information is provided on the geothermal brine injection problem and each of the project tasks is outlined in detail. These tasks are: evaluation of methods of monitoring the movement of injected fluid, preparation for an eventual field experiment, and a review of groundwater regulations and injection programs. (MHR)

  19. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  20. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  1. Effect of Compression on the Molecular Arrangement of Itraconazole-Soluplus Solid Dispersions: Induction of Liquid Crystals or Exacerbation of Phase Separation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Bharati, Avanish; Frederiks, Pauline; Verkinderen, Olivier; Goderis, Bart; Cardinaels, Ruth; Moldenaers, Paula; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-06-06

    Predensification and compression are unit operations imperative to the manufacture of tablets and capsules. Such stress-inducing steps can cause destabilization of solid dispersions which can alter their molecular arrangement and ultimately affect dissolution rate and bioavailability. In this study, itraconazole-Soluplus solid dispersions with 50% (w/w) drug loading prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) were investigated. Compression was performed at both pharmaceutically relevant and extreme compression pressures and dwell times. The starting materials, powder, and compressed solid dispersions were analyzed using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS). MDSC analysis revealed that compression promotes phase separation of solid dispersions as indicated by an increase in glass transition width, occurrence of a peak in the nonreversing heat flow signal, and an increase in the net heat of fusion indicating crystallinity in the systems. SWAXS analysis ruled out the presence of mesophases. BDS measurements elucidated an increase in the Soluplus-rich regions of the solid dispersion upon compression. FTIR indicated changes in the spatiotemporal architecture of the solid dispersions mediated via disruption in hydrogen bonding and ultimately altered dynamics. These changes can have significant consequences on the final stability and performance of the solid dispersions.

  2. CUSP9* treatment protocol for recurrent glioblastoma: aprepitant, artesunate, auranofin, captopril, celecoxib, disulfiram, itraconazole, ritonavir, sertraline augmenting continuous low dose temozolomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Richard E.; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Halatsch, Marc-Eric

    2014-01-01

    CUSP9 treatment protocol for recurrent glioblastoma was published one year ago. We now present a slight modification, designated CUSP9*. CUSP9* drugs- aprepitant, artesunate, auranofin, captopril, celecoxib, disulfiram, itraconazole, sertraline, ritonavir, are all widely approved by regulatory authorities, marketed for non-cancer indications. Each drug inhibits one or more important growth-enhancing pathways used by glioblastoma. By blocking survival paths, the aim is to render temozolomide, the current standard cytotoxic drug used in primary glioblastoma treatment, more effective. Although esthetically unpleasing to use so many drugs at once, the closely similar drugs of the original CUSP9 used together have been well-tolerated when given on a compassionate-use basis in the cases that have come to our attention so far. We expect similarly good tolerability for CUSP9*. The combined action of this suite of drugs blocks signaling at, or the activity of, AKT phosphorylation, aldehyde dehydrogenase, angiotensin converting enzyme, carbonic anhydrase -2,- 9, -12, cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, cathepsin B, Hedgehog, interleukin-6, 5-lipoxygenase, matrix metalloproteinase -2 and -9, mammalian target of rapamycin, neurokinin-1, p-gp efflux pump, thioredoxin reductase, tissue factor, 20 kDa translationally controlled tumor protein, and vascular endothelial growth factor. We believe that given the current prognosis after a glioblastoma has recurred, a trial of CUSP9* is warranted. PMID:25211298

  3. Surface area normalized dissolution to study differences in itraconazole-copovidone solid dispersions prepared by spray-drying and hot melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vivekanand; Trasi, Niraj S; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y; Taylor, Lynne S

    2018-04-05

    Amorphous solid dispersions of itraconazole (ITZ) and copovidone (PVPVA 64) at 1:1 to 1:9 drug-polymer ratios were prepared using spray-drying (SD) and hot melt (HM) extrusion for comparative evaluation. Surface area normalized dissolution studies were carried out using a modified intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) assembly and rate of release of drug as well as polymer were quantified using ultraviolet spectroscopy. The melt quenched amorphous form of ITZ provided an 18-fold dissolution advantage over the crystalline form. In general, dispersions prepared by either SD or HM showed similar dissolution profiles in terms of drug release. Both drug-controlled and polymer-controlled ITZ dissolution rates were observed, depending on the drug loading, where a switch from a drug-controlled to a polymer-controlled regime was observed when the drug loading was approximately 20% or lower. The impact of the spray drying solvent composition was studied and found to have a large effect on the drug release rate for dispersions containing a drug loading of 20%. Electron microscopy showed differences in surface morphology (scanning) and internal structure (transmission) in these dispersions as a function of solvent system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed differences in the surface composition of drug and polymer whereby poorly dissolving systems showed drug enrichment. This study provides insight into the complex interplay between formulation, processing and performance of amorphous solid dispersion systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  5. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...... in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  6. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  7. Joint and Soft Tissue Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injections Joint and Soft Tissue Injections Share Print What is a joint and soft tissue injection? Joint and soft tissue injections are shots ... many injections do I need and how often? What restrictions do I have after an ... tissue injection, treatment April 1, 2004 Copyright © American Academy ...

  8. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  9. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  10. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  11. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  13. Parathyroid Hormone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood in people with certain types of hypoparathyroidism (condition in which the body does not produce ... are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue to use ...

  14. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  15. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  16. Endoscopic injection therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux, endoscopic injection therapy using Deflux has become a popular alternative to open surgery and continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Endoscopic correction with Deflux is minimally invasive, well tolerated, and provides cure rates approaching those of open surgery (i.e., approximately 80% in several studies. However, in recent years a less stringent approach to evaluating urinary tract infections (UTIs and concerns about long-term efficacy and complications associated with endoscopic injection have limited the use of this therapy. In addition, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of endoscopic injection therapy in preventing UTIs and vesicoureteral reflux-related renal scarring. In this report, we reviewed the current literature regarding endoscopic injection therapy and provided an updated overview of this topic.

  17. Endoscopic injection therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woon; Lee, Yong Seung

    2017-01-01

    Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux, endoscopic injection therapy using Deflux has become a popular alternative to open surgery and continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Endoscopic correction with Deflux is minimally invasive, well tolerated, and provides cure rates approaching those of open surgery (i.e., approximately 80% in several studies). However, in recent years a less stringent approach to evaluating urinary tract infections (UTIs) and concerns about long-term efficacy and complications associated with endoscopic injection have limited the use of this therapy. In addition, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of endoscopic injection therapy in preventing UTIs and vesicoureteral reflux-related renal scarring. In this report, we reviewed the current literature regarding endoscopic injection therapy and provided an updated overview of this topic. PMID:28612059

  18. Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause infection. Tazobactam is in a class called beta-lactamase inhibitor. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying piperacillin.Antibiotics such as piperacillin and tazobactam injection will ... your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.

  19. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  20. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...... well with the experimentally observed combustion rates during the mixing controlled portions of the combustion in a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine.......A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump...... injection equipment. It was shown that the penetration of the DME spray can be predicted with the methods developed for diesel fuel by Hiroyasu and co-workers. Some anomalies in spray shape, such as rapid lateral spreading at the base of the spray and spray bifurcation have been observed.The compressibility...

  1. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  2. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  3. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  4. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  5. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  6. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic trioxide comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in a medical office or clinic. Arsenic trioxide is ... high blood sugar): extreme thirst frequent urination extreme hunger weakness blurred vision If high blood sugar is ...

  7. Meropenem and Vaborbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaborbactam is in a class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying meropenem.Antibiotics such as meropenem and vaborbactam injection will not ... your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.

  8. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  9. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe or do not go away: constipation arm, leg, or back pain muscle cramps loss of energy changes in taste ear pain fever pain, redness, or swelling in the joints, especially the big toe soreness, redness, or burning at the injection ...

  10. More than just someone to inject drugs with: Injecting within primary injection partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiotracer injections through microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Maschek, G.; Pichler, R.; Giesen, I.; Hatzl-Griesenhofer, M.; Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers ( 99m Tc-HAMS, 99m Tc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 μm micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 μm. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

  12. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated...... to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 500 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet...

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Diclofenac and Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin (HPβCD) Following Administration of Injectable HPβCD-Diclofenac in Subjects With Mild to Moderate Renal Insufficiency or Mild Hepatic Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas A; Ernst, Cynthia C; Kramer, William G; Madden, Donna; Lang, Eric; Liao, Edward; Lacouture, Peter G; Ramaiya, Atulkumar; Carr, Daniel B

    2018-02-01

    Given their established analgesic properties, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent an important postoperative pain management option. This study investigated: (1) the effects of mild or moderate renal insufficiency and mild hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of diclofenac and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) following administration of the injectable NSAID HPβCD-diclofenac; and (2) the PK of HPβCD following administration of HPβCD-diclofenac and intravenous itraconazole formulated with HPβCD in healthy adults. Diclofenac clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V z ) tended to increase with decreasing renal function (moderate insufficiency versus mild insufficiency or healthy controls). Regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between V z (but not CL or elimination half-life, t ½ ) and renal function. HPβCD CL was significantly decreased in subjects with renal insufficiency, with a corresponding increase in t ½ . There were no significant differences in diclofenac or HPβCD PK in subjects with mild hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects. Exposure to HPβCD in healthy subjects following HPβCD-diclofenac administration was ∼12% of that with intravenous itraconazole, after adjusting for dosing schedule and predicted accumulation (diclofenac might be administered to patients with mild or moderate renal insufficiency or mild hepatic impairment without dose adjustment (NCT00805090). © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  14. Pharmacokinetics of Diclofenac and Hydroxypropyl‐β‐Cyclodextrin (HPβCD) Following Administration of Injectable HPβCD‐Diclofenac in Subjects With Mild to Moderate Renal Insufficiency or Mild Hepatic Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas A.; Ernst, Cynthia C.; Kramer, William G.; Madden, Donna; Lang, Eric; Liao, Edward; Lacouture, Peter G.; Ramaiya, Atulkumar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Given their established analgesic properties, nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent an important postoperative pain management option. This study investigated: (1) the effects of mild or moderate renal insufficiency and mild hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of diclofenac and hydroxypropyl‐β‐cyclodextrin (HPβCD) following administration of the injectable NSAID HPβCD‐diclofenac; and (2) the PK of HPβCD following administration of HPβCD‐diclofenac and intravenous itraconazole formulated with HPβCD in healthy adults. Diclofenac clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vz) tended to increase with decreasing renal function (moderate insufficiency versus mild insufficiency or healthy controls). Regression analysis demonstrated a significant relationship between Vz (but not CL or elimination half‐life, t½) and renal function. HPβCD CL was significantly decreased in subjects with renal insufficiency, with a corresponding increase in t½. There were no significant differences in diclofenac or HPβCD PK in subjects with mild hepatic impairment versus healthy subjects. Exposure to HPβCD in healthy subjects following HPβCD‐diclofenac administration was ∼12% of that with intravenous itraconazole, after adjusting for dosing schedule and predicted accumulation (diclofenac might be administered to patients with mild or moderate renal insufficiency or mild hepatic impairment without dose adjustment (NCT00805090). PMID:29197175

  15. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  16. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  17. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline,

  18. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A steroid injection is a shot of medicine used to ...

  19. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peginterferon beta-1a injection is used to treat people who have relapsing-remitting forms (course of disease where symptoms ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Peginterferon beta-1a injection is in a class of medications ...

  20. Injection locking of excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigio, I.J.; Slatkine, M.

    1981-01-01

    Reliable injection locking of high-power unstable resonator excimer lasers can be achieved with extremely low reference oscillator power. The criteria for injection locking are discussed and experimental results are given

  1. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  2. Characterization of Injection Molded Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    and limitations. Therefore, it would be difficult to characterize complex, especially hierarchical structures by using only one method. Here we present a combined optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning probe microscopy study on injection molded structures. These structures are used......-properties relationship of the injection molded polymer samples. These results are very important in optimizing injection molding parameters....

  3. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  4. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  5. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  6. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  7. Supercritical fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, C. J.; Cooper, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    a fuel injection system for gas turbines is described including a pair of high pressure pumps. The pumps provide fuel and a carrier fluid such as air at pressures above the critical pressure of the fuel. A supercritical mixing chamber mixes the fuel and carrier fluid and the mixture is sprayed into a combustion chamber. The use of fuel and a carrier fluid at supercritical pressures promotes rapid mixing of the fuel in the combustion chamber so as to reduce the formation of pollutants and promote cleaner burning.

  8. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures,......, but it permits thr execution of novel and unique analytical procedures which are difficult or even impossible by conventional means. The performance and applicability of FIA, SI and LOV are illustrated by a series of practical examples....... FIA is based on the creation of a concentration gradient of the injected sample solution and on reproducible and precise timing of all events, it allows exploitation of a transient read-out. This in turn implies that not only does FIA allow the augmentation of existing analytical techniques...

  9. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  10. Diesel fuel injection system simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kiijärvi, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    The injection process of a medium-speed diesel engine was studied in detail, using a computer program developed for this purpose. In the program, the injection pump was replaced with the measured pressure at the junction between the pump and high-pressure pipe. The results were calculated with a full and approximately a half load. The calculated and measured results corresponded moderately well with each other. In the calculation, special interest was paid to the flow of the injection valve h...

  11. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  12. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  13. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  14. Injection and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, C.; Barnes, M.J.; Bartmann, W.; Cornelis, K.; Drosdal, L.N.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

  15. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  16. Injection and lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

  17. Injectable foams for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Edna M; Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable CPCs, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and noncytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  19. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  20. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  1. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  2. Diagnostic Injections About the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Edward; Bernard, Johnathan; Dein, Eric; Johnson, Alex

    2017-12-01

    Injections about the shoulder serve diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. Diagnosis of shoulder conditions, such as rotator cuff tears, acromioclavicular joint pathology, subacromial impingement or anterolateral pain syndrome, glenohumeral joint pathology, suprascapular nerve entrapment, and biceps tendon pathologies, is often complicated by concomitant conditions with overlapping symptoms and by inconclusive physical examination and imaging results. Injections of anesthetic agents can often help clinicians locate the source of pain. However, technique and accuracy of needle placement can vary by route. Accuracy is often improved with the use of ultrasonography guidance, although studies differ on the benefits of guided versus unguided injection.

  3. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  4. Microcellular Injection Molding Using Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byung Joo; Kim, Hak Bin; Cha, Sung Woon

    2007-01-01

    In comparison with conventional foaming process microcellular injection molding process has advantages such as small bubble size, the removal of sink mark, scale reliability, and weight lightening. So microcellular injection molded parts are applied to electrical product and automobile part. Conventional microcellular foaming process used carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a foaming agent. And it has been never researched and applied about microcellular injection molding process using helium. In this paper, we did a microcellular injection molding process using helium based on previous research result and made samples. From this we can certificate the possibility of microcellular continuous process using helium. Helium is lighter and faster in diffusion than carbon dioxide or nitrogen so through this technique, it can be solved the problem such as spray or labeling

  5. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course of disease ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  6. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  7. Injectable gels for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowska, A; Jeong, B; Jasionowski, M

    2001-08-01

    Recently, tissue engineering approaches using injectable, in situ gel forming systems have been reported. In this review, the gelation processes and several injectable systems that exhibit in situ gel formation at physiological conditions are discussed. Applications of selected injectable systems (alginate, chitosan, hyaluronan, polyethylene oxide/polypropylene oxide) in tissue engineering are also described. Injectable polymer formulation can gel in vivo in response to temperature change (thermal gelation), pH change, ionic cross-linking, or solvent exchange. Kinetics of gelation is directly affected by its mechanism. Injectable formulations offer specific advantages over preformed scaffolds such as: possibility of a minimally invasive implantation, an ability to fill a desired shape, and easy incorporation of various therapeutic agents. Several factors need to be considered before an injectable gel can be selected as a candidate for tissue engineering applications. Apart from tissue-specific cell-matrix interactions, the following gel properties need to be considered: gelation kinetics, matrix resorption rate, possible toxicity of degradation products and their elimination routes, and finally possible interference of the gel matrix with histogenesis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  9. SNS Injection and Extraction Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Raparia, Deepak

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a second generation pulsed neutron source (1.5 MW) and is presently in the sixth year of a seven-year construction cycle at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The operation of the facility will begin in 2006. The most stringent requirement for the SNS accelerator complex is to allow hands-on maintenance. Operational experiences show that the most losses occur in the injection and extraction. SNS accumulator ring injection and extraction has been design with grate care to reduce uncontrolled losses. Injection systems consist of fast programmable kicker magnets and DC dump magnets to paint the beam in transverse phase space. Extraction systems consist of fast kicker magnets and a Lamberton magnet to extract beam in single turn. Paper will discuss design, construction and testing of these devices.

  10. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    injection schemes have been compared: vertical pi- n junction through a current post structure as in1 and lateral p-i-n junction with either uniform material as in2 or with a buried heterostructure (BH) as in3. To allow a direct comparison of the three schemes the same active material composition consisting......The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations...

  11. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the feasibility study on the utilization of biodiesel ester of Honge oil (EHO) in common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Biodiesel of EHO has been obtained by transesterification process and characterization has been done. Existing single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical ...

  12. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the feasibility study on the utilization of biodiesel ester of Honge oil (EHO) in common rail direct injection. (CRDI) engine. Biodiesel of EHO has been obtained by transesterification process and characterization has been done. Existing single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical ...

  13. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  14. Self-injection is a success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonna Gintberg; Høi, Henriette Brahe

    (transport, fatigue) Freedom to plan Feel confident in yourself to take injections Experiences after repeatedly self-injection: Evening injection - you will sleep from nausea When I inject, it makes less evil, I know when spotted coming and it does not bleed. Opinion: "I can only recommend others to learn...

  15. ENDOSCOPIC MACROPLASTIQUETM INJECTION FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucosally 1 cm distal to the bladder neck at 3, 6 and 9 o' clock positions. In 26 cases the 12 o' clock position was chosen to ensure a good occlusion of the bladder neck. The mean volume of Macroplastique injected was 3 ml. Results At a mean ...

  16. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  17. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 249 Cf, or 252 Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  18. Microcellular nanocomposite injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingjun Yuan; Lih-Sheng Turng; Rick Spindler; Daniel Caulfield; Chris Hunt

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to explore the processing benefits and property improvements of combining nanocomposites with microcellular injection molding. The molded parts produced based on the Design of Experiments (DOE) matrices were subjected to tensile testing, impact testing, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Dynamic Mechanical...

  19. Cyclofem shoots into injectable market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Cyclofem is a combination of progestin and estrogen, which when injected monthly into reproductive-aged women, confers contraceptive protection. The product was originally developed by the Upjohn Company in the 1970s as a version of the injectable Depo-Provera with estrogen added to regulate bleeding. Upjohn, however, discontinued research upon new contraceptives in 1985, and Cyclofem fell into the hands of the World Health Organization (WHO). Unable to find another pharmaceutical company to help market and distribute the product, WHO enlisted the assistance of the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), a Seattle-based nonprofit group which develops and introduces health products in the developing world. PATH established the Concept Foundation, a private nonprofit organization headquartered in Thailand, to identify and license developing country pharmaceutical manufacturers to produce Cyclofem. Manufacturers plan Cyclofem to be available in Mexico from July 1992. Following its introduction in Mexico, Cyclofem should arrive in Indonesia and Thailand by 1993 with plans to expand to Chile, Jamaica, and Tunisia soon after. Cyclofem reduces menstrual bleeding among users, women who discontinue use of Cyclofem return to previous fertility levels faster than users of other injectables, Cyclofem contains half the progestin dose of Depo-Provera, manufacturers claim a 0% failure rate among test subjects compared to a 0.1% first-year failure rate for Depo-Provera, and Cyclofem costs less per injection than Depo-Provera. Depo-Provera users will, however, pay less for their contraception since they require only four shots per year. Use of Cyclofem may also prove inconvenient for women in developing countries who have to travel long distances for health services. Manufacturers nonetheless hope that Cyclofem's seven-day window will allow users to adjust to clinic schedules. Cyclofem should find its biggest market in the developing world, but is not likely to

  20. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  1. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injections of insulin in children. Are we injecting where we think we are?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, M; Beregszaszi, M; Belarbi, N; Benali, K; Hassan, M; Czernichow, P; Tubiana-Rufi, N

    1996-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the insulin injection location in a group of children who had their injection according to their daily practice, thought to lead to subcutaneous injections. The location of the insulin deposit at the injection site was visualized using an ultrasound device. The exact insulin injection location could be localized, and 18 of 59 injections (30.5%) (one injection for each child) were in the intramuscular tissue. Of the children who had intramuscular injection, 15 of 18 were boys. The children who had an intramuscular injection had a significantly lower percentile of BMI (mean +/- SE: 47 +/- 8 vs. 72 +/- 4, P = 0.004), lower distance from skin surface to muscle fascia without a skinfold (5.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 11 +/- 0.7 mm, P insulin injection. We identified a group of children at risk for intramuscular insulin injections and that may deserve specific injection technique and advice.

  2. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  3. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  4. TORE SUPRA neutral injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayetti, P.; Becherer, R.; Bottiglioni, F.; Jacquot, C.; Jequier, F.; Fumelli, M.; Lotte, P.; Pamela, J.; Sledziewski, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The Neutral Beam Injection on TS consists of three boxes, each housing two injectors. Each of them is designed to accelerate 40 A at 100 kV in D 2 ar 40A at 80 kV in H 2 , in shots of 30 s. The power on the plasma is expected to be 7.5 MW (full energy) and 9 MW (total) for the D-beams; 2.5 MW and 3.8 MW for H-beams. This for a species mix of 0.85 19 m -2 and a transmission efficiency of 0.7. Four injectors are in co and two through another one, and they are tilted of 20 deg from the radial direction. Injectors are designed for the energy recovery of the full energy ions. A prototype line, operated in 1987-88, has given the imput for the demensioning of the present system.First injectors are expected to be operational by the end of 1988. The present contribution describes the injection boxes, injection line, magnetic shielding, electrical circuity and power supplies, control and data acquisition systems, and the Fast Interlock Safety System (FISS). 7 refs.; 6 figs

  5. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  6. Insulin Glulisine (rDNA origin) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the syringe and inject the solution immediately after mixing.You can inject your insulin glulisine in your ... you have high blood sugar, the pump alarm sounds, or the insulin flow is blocked. If the ...

  7. Teriparatide (rDNA origin) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teriparatide injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... medication that may cause osteoporosis in some patients). Teriparatide injection contains a synthetic form of natural human ...

  8. Depo-Provera: An Injectable Contraceptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control: How to Use Your DiaphragmIntrauterine Device (IUD)Emergency Contraception Home Prevention and Wellness Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Depo-Provera: An Injectable Contraceptive Depo-Provera: An Injectable Contraceptive Share Print Depo- ...

  9. A new look at trigger point injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Clara S M; Wong, Steven H S

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection.

  10. Injectivity errors in simulation of foam EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, T.N.; Latooij, C.A.; Rossen, W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Injectivity is a key factor in the economics of foam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Poor injectivity of low-mobility foam slows the production of oil and allows more time for gravity segregation of injected gas. The conventional Peaceman equation (1978), when applied in a large grid block,

  11. The Heavy Ion Injection Scheme for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoades-Brown, M. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1989-03-20

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven has a multi-component injection system. In order to achieve the injection requirements for RHIC, the partially stripped ions are accelerated in the Booster and pass through a stripping foil on their way to the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are further accelerated before injection into RHIC.

  12. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... repeated in 14 to 21 days. (ii) For the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency, administer an...

  13. ultrasound-guided shoulder arthrogram injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Anterior approach ultrasound-guided arthrogram injections are a quick and reliable way of injecting contrast medium prior to a shoulder. MRI scan. A retrospective study on patients who we had previously injected and scanned at our clinic was undertaken, to compare the more documented posterior ...

  14. Fatal injection: a survey of modern code injection attack countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Mitropoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With a code injection attack (CIA an attacker can introduce malicious code into a computer program or system that fails to properly encode data that comes from an untrusted source. A CIA can have different forms depending on the execution context of the application and the location of the programming flaw that leads to the attack. Currently, CIAs are considered one of the most damaging classes of application attacks since they can severely affect an organisation’s infrastructure and cause financial and reputational damage to it. In this paper we examine and categorize the countermeasures developed to detect the various attack forms. In particular, we identify two distinct categories. The first incorporates static program analysis tools used to eliminate flaws that can lead to such attacks during the development of the system. The second involves the use of dynamic detection safeguards that prevent code injection attacks while the system is in production mode. Our analysis is based on nonfunctional characteristics that are considered critical when creating security mechanisms. Such characteristics involve usability, overhead, implementation dependencies, false positives and false negatives. Our categorization and analysis can help both researchers and practitioners either to develop novel approaches, or use the appropriate mechanisms according to their needs.

  15. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  16. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment of... against unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium thiosulfate labeled for the treatment of...

  17. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  18. Shoulder pain: the role of diagnostic injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H M; O'Connor, F G; Nirschl, R P

    1996-04-01

    Many different shoulder disorders cause similar symptoms and pain patterns. An accurate diagnosis can generally be made by obtaining a detailed history, performing a comprehensive, directed physical examination and obtaining selected radiographs. Occasionally, shoulder injections can be of great assistance in establishing a clear diagnosis and providing relief of symptoms. Subacromial space injection, acromioclavicular joint injection, intra-articular injection and injection of the biceps tendon are helpful in identifying such disorders as subacromial bursitis, acromioclavicular arthritis, injury to the glenohumeral joint and bicipital tendinitis.

  19. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  20. The LHC injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, Laurent; Barnes, M J; Wait, G D

    2003-01-01

    Proton beams will be injected into LHC at 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 900 ns rise time and up to 7.86 s flat top duration. One of the stringent design requirements of these systems is a flat top ripple of less than ± 0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.7 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's). To achieve the required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, a low characteristic impedance has been chosen and ceramic plate capacitors are used to obtain 5 Omega. Conductive stripes in the aperture of the magnets limit the beam impedance and screen the ferrite. The electrical circuit has been designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. A full size magnet prototype has been built and tested up to 60 kV with the magnet under ultra high vacuum (UHV). The pulse shape has been precision measured at a voltage of 15 kV. After reviewing the performance requirements the paper presents the magnet...

  1. Injection into electron plasma traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgadze, Vladimir; Pasquini, Thomas A.; Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Computational studies and experimental measurements of plasma injection into a Malmberg-Penning trap reveal that the number of trapped particles can be an order of magnitude higher than predicted by a simple estimates based on a ballistic trapping model. Enhanced trapping is associated with a rich nonlinear dynamics generated by the space-charge forces of the evolving trapped electron density. A particle-in-cell simulation is used to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to the increase in trapped electrons. The simulations initially show strong two-stream interactions between the electrons emitted from the cathode and those reflected off the end plug of the trap. This is followed by virtual cathode oscillations near the injection region. As electrons are trapped, the initially hollow longitudinal phase-space is filled, and the transverse radial density profile evolves so that the plasma potential matches that of the cathode. Simple theoretical arguments are given that describe the different dynamical regimes. Good agreement is found between simulation and theory

  2. Groin injecting among a community-recruited sample of people who inject drugs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lianping; Hayashi, Kanna; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-16

    Use of the femoral vein for the injection of illicit drugs (i.e. groin injecting) has been linked to various health-related harms, including deep vein thrombosis. However, little is known about the prevalence of groin injecting and factors that predict this practice among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. We sought to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with groin injecting in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok between July and October 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with groin injecting in the last six months. Among 437 participants, 34.3% reported groin injecting in the last six months. In multivariate analyses, factors positively associated with groin injecting included: having higher than secondary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 - 2.56), weekly midazolam injection (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI: 5.04 - 14.06), and reports of having had drugs planted on oneself by police (AOR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.37 - 3.36). Over one-third of our sample of Thai PWID reported recent groin injecting. Frequent midazolam injection and higher education were found to be associated with groin injecting. That high intensity PWID were more likely to inject in the groin is concerning given the known negative consequences associated with the groin as a site of injection. Additionally, PWID who reported drug planting by police were more likely to inject in the groin, suggesting that reliance on law enforcement approaches may undermine safe injection practices in this setting. These findings highlight the need for evidence-based interventions to address the harms associated with groin injecting, including efforts to alert PWID to risks of groin injecting, the distribution of appropriate injecting equipment, and efforts to encourage use of other injecting sites.

  3. Fuel Injection Pressure Effect on Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Based on Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli A. Bakar; Semin; Abdul R.  Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Fuel injection pressures in diesel engine plays an important role for engine performance obtaining treatment of combustion. The present diesel engines such as fuel direct injection, the pressures can be increased about 100 200 Mpa bar in fuel pump injection system. The experimental investigated effects of fuel injection pressure on engine performance. Experiments have been performed on a diesel engine with four-cylinder, two-stroke, direct injection. Engine performance values such as indicat...

  4. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  5. Injection molding and debinding of micro gears fabricated by micro powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xin-lei; Yin, Hai-qing; Liu, Lin; Yi, Shan-jie; Qu, Xuan-hui

    2013-01-01

    Micro powder injection molding (μPIM) was investigated for possible mass production of micro-components at relatively low cost. However, scaling down to such a level produces challenges in injection molding and debinding. Micro gears were fabricated by μPIM from in-house feedstock. The effect of injection speed and injection pressure on the replication of the micro gear cavity was investigated. Solvent debinding and thermal debinding processes were discussed. The results show that micro gears can be successfully fabricated under the injection pressure of 70 MPa and the 60% injection speed. Either too low or too high injection speed can cause incomplete filling of micro gears. The same is the case with too low injection pressure. Too high injection pressure can bring cracks. Solvent debinding of micro gears was performed in a mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol. Subsequently, micro gears were successfully debound by a multistep heating schedule.

  6. Forum for injection techniques, India: The first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients′ and health-care providers′ perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice.

  7. Forum for injection techniques, India: the first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kumar, K M Prasanna; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G; Wangnoo, Subhash K

    2012-11-01

    Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients' and health-care providers' perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT) India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice.

  8. Deltoid injections of risperidone long-acting injectable in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge A; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Palumbo, Joseph M; Kushner, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites.

  9. Resin injection in clays with high plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowamooz, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Regarding the injection process of polyurethane resins in clays with high plasticity, this paper presents the experimental results of the pressuremeter and cone penetration tests before and after injection. A very important increase in pressure limit or in soil resistance can be observed for all the studied depths close to the injection points. An analytical analysis for cylindrical pore cavity expansion in cohesive frictional soils obeying the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was then used to reproduce the pressuremeter tests before and after injection. The model parameters were calibrated by maintaining constant the elasticity parameters as well as the friction angel before and after injection. A significant increase in cohesion was observed because of soil densification after resin expansion. The estimated undrained cohesions, derived from the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, were also compared with the cone penetration tests. Globally, the model predictions show the efficiency of resin injection in clay soils with high plasticity.

  10. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.

  11. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

    OpenAIRE

    German, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and im...

  12. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and ...

  13. Cellulitis Developing After Intramuscular Metamizole Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozturk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If the suitable technique is not used in intramuscular injection applications and the injection area is not detected correctly, complications may be observed. Our patient was given intramuscular Metamizole in his house and then he had cellulitis with necrosis area. Following an antibiotic treatment, tissue defect was primarily covered with gluteal muscle skin flap. Cellulitis development after metamizole injection is not common still potential side effects should be considered before prescription.

  14. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope...

  15. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  16. Medicines, injections, and supplements for arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthritis - medications; Arthritis - steroid injections; Arthritis - supplements; Arthritis - hyaluronic acid ... in your joints. These two substances come in supplement form and can be bought over-the-counter. ...

  17. Corticosteroid Injections for Adhesive Capsulitis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ryan C; Walley, Kempland C; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J

    2017-05-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a self-limiting condition in a majority of patients and is often treated nonoperatively. However, symptoms may take 2 to 3 years to resolve fully. A small, but significant, portion of patients require surgical intervention. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis (AC). A review of articles indexed by the United States National Library of Medicine was conducted by querying the PubMed database for studies involving participants with AC, frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, or painful shoulder. Articles that included corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, steroids, and injections were included. Corticosteroid injections provide significant symptom relief for 2 to 24 weeks. Injections can be performed intra-articularly or into the subacromial space. Evidence suggests that a 20 mg dose of triamcinolone may be as effective as a 40 mg injection. It remains unclear whether image-guided injections produce a clinically significant difference in outcomes when compared with landmark-guided (blind) injections. Corticosteroids may be less beneficial for diabetic patients. Patients using protease inhibitors (antiretroviral therapy) should not receive triamcinolone because the drug-drug interaction may result in iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. Corticosteroid injections for AC demonstrate short-term efficacy, but may not provide a long-term benefit. More high quality, prospective studies are needed to determine whether corticosteroid injections using ultrasound guidance significantly improve outcomes.

  18. Subdural injection: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid-Puentes, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two cases are reported of accidental subdural injection during epidural procedures for pain control. The first one was a man with chronic lumbar pain who suffered such complication during an epidural injection of steroids using the interlaminar approach. The second one was a woman with intracranial hypotension syndrome who required the application of an epidural blood patch in order to control multiple CSF fistulae. The procedure had to be aborted twice due to the subdural pattern observed after injection of the contrast medium. Accidental subdural block is a rare complication of epidural injection for analgesic or anesthetic procedures.

  19. Administration of Injectable Vitamin K Orally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasjeva, Janna

    2017-10-01

    Background: Vitamin K, or phytonadione, is available in both injectable and oral formulations. Oral vitamin K is available as 5-mg tablets, but the key drawbacks for using vitamin K tablets consist of availability of only 1 dose strength and recent tripling of the product's cost over a 2-year period. An interest exists for utilization of injectable vitamin K via oral route. Method: A literature search was performed on April 26, 2017, to identify any studies describing the use of injectable vitamin K for oral administration. The search involved PubMed and Embase and utilized various combinations of keywords vitamin K , phytonadione , IV , intravenous , injectable , and oral . The results were limited to studies that discussed oral administration of injectable vitamin K. The efficacy of the injectable preparation of vitamin K administered orally was explored in 6 studies and one cost-savings project. Results: Based on the available literature, the administration of injectable vitamin K via oral route is effective and safe. Injectable vitamin K for oral administration can be prepared as an undiluted solution or as a compounded solution. These 2 formulations have different beyond-use dates depending on ingredients used. Conclusion: Information on efficacy and stability of injectable vitamin K formulations prepared for oral administration provides an additional option for health care systems when vitamin K tablets are unavailable or cost-prohibitive to use.

  20. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  1. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at an... when caused by Streptococci, Staphylococci, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, or Shigella...

  2. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  3. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemic necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristic pattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitis patch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients were injected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine for pain relief. Three patients complained of pain, and a skin lesion was observed, after which necrosis developed on their buttocks. Each patient underwent debridement and coverage. The wound healed uneventfully. We report three cases of Nicolau syndrome in the buttocks following diclofenac intramuscular injection.

  4. Injection of Fluids into Supercritical Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oschwald, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes and compares the results of systematic research programs at two independent laboratories regarding the injection of cryogenic liquids at subcritical and supercritical pressures...

  5. Hydrogen injection device in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the increasing ratio of main steam system dose rate due to N-16 activity due to excess hydrogen injection in the hydrogen injection operation of BWR type reactors. Constitution: There are provided a hydrogen injection mechanism for injecting hydrogen into primary coolants of a BWR type reactor, and a chemical injection device for injecting chemicals such as methanol, which makes nitrogen radioisotopes resulted in the reactor water upon hydrogen injection non-volatile, into the pressure vessel separately from hydrogen. Injected hydrogen and the chemicals are not reacted in the feedwater system, but the reaction proceeds due to the presence of radioactive rays after the injection into the pressure vessel. Then, hydrogen causes re-combination in the downcomer portion to reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration. Meanwhile, about 70 % of the chemicals is supplied by means of a jet pump directly to the reactor core, thereby converting the chemical form of N-16 in the reactor core more oxidative (non-volatile). (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml Standard Subcutaneous Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Nikola; Goyal, Pragun; Lou, Cheryl Hamer; Corwin, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments' innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20-30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24-48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI -10.5, -2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.

  7. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... from the injection zone for as long as the waste remains hazardous. This final decision allows the... Class I hazardous waste injection wells WDW-51 and WDW- 99 and WDW-408 until December 31, 2028, unless...

  8. Forum for Injection Techniques, India: The First Indian Recommendations for Best Practice in Insulin Injection Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kumar, K. M. Prasanna; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Wangnoo, Subhash K.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients′ and health-care providers′ perspective, it is essential to have guideline...

  9. Rings with finite Gorenstein injective dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we prove that for any associative ring R, and for any left R-module M with nite projective dimension, the Gorenstein injective dimension GidRM equals the usual injective dimension idRM. In particular, if GidRR is nite, then also idRR is nite, and thus R is Gorenstein (provided that ...

  10. The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Rikke; Just, Søren Andreas; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated. Volume 73, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, the EULAR Journal,, June 2014 volume 73, supplement 2, p. 286-87......The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated. Volume 73, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, the EULAR Journal,, June 2014 volume 73, supplement 2, p. 286-87...

  11. Charge Injection and Transport in Organic Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Bøggild, Peter; Rubahn, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the carrier injection and transport in individual para-hexaphenylene nanofibers by electrical transport measurements at different temperatures. The injected current shows much weaker temperature dependence than what would be anticipated from a simplistic model that considers the in...

  12. Polyamide 6-long glass fiber injection mouldings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, H.; Gaymans, R.J.; Bijsterbosch, H.

    1995-01-01

    The injection molding ability of long glass fiber reinforced polyamide pellets was studied. The injection moldable materials were produced by a melt impregnation process of continuous fiber rovings. The rovings were chopped to pellets of 9 mm length. Chopped pellets with a variation in the degree of

  13. Ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nayera Saber

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... injection;. Plantar fascia thickness;. Mayo clinic scoring system. Abstract Objective: This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the therapeutic effects of ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus medium frequency shock wave therapy in plantar fasciitis treatment among Egyptian population.

  14. Nursing Students and Gluteal Intramuscular Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornwall J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNurses are required to perform gluteal intramuscular (IM injections in practice. There are dangers associated with erroneous performance of this task, particularly with dorsogluteal injections. Knowledge regarding safe injection practice is therefore vital for nursing students.Method Fifty-eight second year students at a New Zealand Nursing School were given schematic drawings of the posterior and lateral aspects of the gluteal region. They were asked to mark and justify the safest location for gluteal IM injections.ResultsFifty-seven students marked the dorsal schematic and one the lateral, with 38 (66.7% marking in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ. Twenty indicating the UOQ (52.6% wrote ‘sciatic’ or ‘nerve’ in justifying their location.Nineteen (33.3% marked a location outside the UOQ; nine (47.4% of these mentioned ‘sciatic’ or ‘nerve’ as reasons for injection safety. Overall, 50% of students mentioned ‘sciatic’ or ‘nerve’ in justifying the safety of their chosen injection location.ConclusionResults suggest some second year nursing students do not understand safe gluteal IM injection locations and rationale. Current teaching practices and IM injection techniques could be revisited to prepare students more effectively; this may help prevent pathologies arising from this procedure.

  15. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  16. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  17. RESEARCH Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH. 884 November 2012, Vol. 102, No. 11 SAMJ. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices in children with intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal venous ... Progress has been made in developing newer endoscopic techniques ... a sclerosant, usually 0.5 - 0.75 ml per injection, at multiple (up to.

  18. Intentional intravenous mercury injection | Yudelowitz | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases, although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presented following self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury.

  19. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    , the topography itself, and other factors were also investigated. The experimental work is based on a multi-purpose experimental injection mould with a collection of test surface inserts manufactured by EDM (electrical discharge machining). Experimental production took place with an injection moulding machine...

  20. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  1. The energetic ion substorm injection boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The substorm injection boundary model has enjoyed considerable success in explaining plasma signatures in the near-geosynchronous region. However, the injection boundary has remained primarily a phenomenological model. In this paper the authors examine 167 dispersionless energetic ion injections which were observed by AMPTE CCE. The radial and local time distribution of the events as a function of Kp is qualitatively similar to that envisioned in the injection boundary model of Mauk and McIlwain (1974). They argue that particles observed during dispersionless injections are locally energized during the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet. Therefore they identify the injection boundary, as derived from the spatial distribution of dispersionless injections, with the earthward edge of the region of the magnetotail which undergoes current sheet disruption during the substorm expansion phase. The authors show that this qualitative model for the generation of the injection boundary can provide an explanation for the dispersionless nature, the double spiral shape, and the Kp dependence of the boundary

  2. 21 CFR 522.1150 - Hydrochlorothiazide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrochlorothiazide injection. 522.1150 Section... § 522.1150 Hydrochlorothiazide injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 25 milligrams of hydrochlorothiazide. (b) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 5...

  3. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...

  4. Complications of penile self-injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensøy, Johannes Nordsteien; Travers, Valentine; Osther, Palle Jörn Sloth

    2018-01-01

    treated conservatively. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that penile self-injections with mineral oil are more prevalent in certain areas than previously acknowledged. In 5 years, more than 680 patients presented with complications to penile self-injections, of which 75% needed surgical intervention, mainly...

  5. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. METHOD: Leakage ...

  6. Optical Injection into Laser Wake Field Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cary, John R; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G R; Giacone, Rodolfo; Leemans, Wim; Nieter, Chet

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating gradient of laser-generated wake fields in plasmas can be orders of magnitude greater than the gradients obtainable in traditional, rf structures. One of the hurdles to overcome on the road to practical utilization of said plasma wake fields for production of high energy particles is the creation of quality beams having significant charge, low emittance, and narrow energy spread. To generate appropriate beams, various injection methods have been proposed. Injection by conventional means of beam prepartion using conventional technology is very difficult, as the accelerating buckets are only tens of microns long. Therefore, the field has turned to all-optical injection schemes, which include injection by colliding pulses, plasma ramps, wave breaking, and self-trapping through pulse evolution. This talk will review the various concepts proposed for injection, including plasma ramps, colliding pulses, and self trapping. The results of simulations and experiments will be discussed along with propo...

  7. Surface Microstructure Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    2005-01-01

    topography is transcribed onto the plastic part through complex mechanisms. This replication however, is not perfect, and the replication quality depends on the plastic material properties, the topography itself, and the process conditions. This paper describes and discusses an investigation of injection......In recent years polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection moulding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection moulding the mould surface...... moulding of surface microstructures. Emphasis is put on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection moulding conditions, notably with low cost materials at low mould temperatures. The replication of surface microstructures in injection moulding has been explored...

  8. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...... used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper...

  9. Deuterium pellet injection in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazare, O.

    1985-07-01

    Injecting fresh fuel deep inside the plasma of a thermonuclear reactor appears to be necessary; the only way to do that is to inject fast solid deuterium pellets. The existing theoretical, technical and experimental aspects of this method are presented. The experiments on TFR have confirmed that injecting pellets is technically feasible; a new kind of injector is presented. The injection does not degrade stability nor confinement of the plasma. The study of the transient phenomena occuring during the injection has proved to be an efficient way to investigate particles and energy transport in the discharge; in particular, a fast transport phenomenon, similar to those occuring during disruptions, has been studied in details. Conclusions about disruptions are drawn. (Ref 101) [fr

  10. Assessment of complications due to intratympanic injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuan Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study is to report and to analyze the complications following intratympanic injections (ITI of steroids. The occurrence rate of complications at different ITI sites, four quadrants of eardrum, was also compared. Methods: A retrospective clinical review in a medical center. Each patient received ITI twice in a week for 2–3 consecutive weeks as a salvage therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Post-injection complications, especially transient dizziness and vertigo, were recorded. Patients with acute or chronic vertigo episodes in 1 month were excluded. Results: A total of 59 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss and a total of 278 times of ITI were performed in 1 year. The post-injection complications included pain, tongue numbness, transient dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, and a small persistent perforation. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of these complications between the injections sites on the 4 quadrants of the tympanic membrane. However, there was statistical significance in the post-injection vertiginous episode after IT injections to posterior-inferior quadrant (Q3 and posterior-superior quadrant (Q4 compared to anterior-superior quadrant (Q1 and anterior-inferior quadrant (Q2 (P = 0.0113. Conclusion: IT injection is recommended to be applied to the Q2 since the Q1 and Q4 injections are more likely to induce the adverse effect of tongue numbness, while the Q3 and Q4 areas are more likely to induce post-injection vertigo. Keywords: Intratympanic injection, Sudden deafness, Complications, Vertigo

  11. Construction of tangential injection NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga, Tokumichi; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru

    1995-09-01

    In the Upgrading of the JT-60, the vacuum vessel has been modified to a larger bore. This larger bore vacuum vessel yields a larger toroidal field ripple in the vicinity of a plasma surface because of closing the toroidal field coils and plasmas. A ripple loss of injected neutral beams, then, estimated to be 30-40% through ripple field in the beam injection with the present NBI system that injects the beam perpendicularly to the plasma. An effective way to decrease the ripple loss in the plasma is to inject the beam tangentially. Meanwhile, it has been determined possible with the JT-60 upgrading to use a horizontal port as a tangential beam injection, because of eliminating a group of outer horizontal poloidal coils which are used as a divertor coil in the former JT-60. The modification from perpendicular beamline to tangential one has been executed in four beamlines out of 14 units. Four tangential beamlines are installed in two beamline tanks which are newly fabricated and positioned co- and counter-injection, respectively. Most of the beamline components are reused except a couple of cancellation coils. The modification to the tangential beamline completed in 1993, and the beam injection experiments with the tangential have been conducted successfully since 1993. (author)

  12. Bolus injections of measured amounts of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, C.A.; Hogendoorn, P.; Vandierendonck, R.; Driedger, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Many time-based radionuclide techniques, such as glomerular filtration rate measurement (GFR), require prompt intravenous delivery of and accurately measured tracer bolus with minimal residual tracer retention at the injection site. The quality assurance aspects of two antecubital vein, quantitative injection techniques were investigated. A flush bolus technique using a tuberculin syringe piggybacked onto a 10-ml saline flush was compared to a single blood pressure cuff injection technique. Scintillation camera data for each technique were compared for bolus duration in the abdominal aorta and for residual activity at the injection site at 5 min. Bolus times were measured as the FWHM of the gamma variate fit to the abdominal aortic regional time-activity curves. Relatively little focal activity was seen in the antecubital injection site following the flush bolus: marked residual activity was seen following the blood pressure cuff injections. The injection site/arm background ratios averaged 1.3 for the flush bolus and 30.1 for the cuff technique. Although both methods allowed accurate in vitro determination of administered radioactivity, only the tuberculin syringe flush bolus technique was acceptable for time-based quantitation because of its superior in vivo characteristics

  13. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, A; Hirsch, L; Gaspar, R; Hicks, D; Kreugel, G; Liersch, J; Letondeur, C; Sauvanet, J P; Tubiana-Rufi, N; Strauss, K

    2010-09-01

    Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal guidelines have been published summarizing all that is known about best practice. We propose new injection guidelines which are thoroughly evidence-based, written and vetted by a large group of international injection experts. A systematic literature study was conducted for all peer-reviewed studies and publications which bear on injections in diabetes. An international group of experts met regularly over a two-year period to review this literature and draft the recommendations. These were then presented for review and revision to 127 experts from 27 countries at the TITAN workshop in September, 2009. Of 292 articles reviewed, 157 were found to meet the criteria of relevance to the recommendations. Each recommendation was graded by the weight it should have in daily practice and by its degree of support in the medical literature. The topics covered include The Role of the Professional, Psychological Challenges, Education, Site Care, Storage, Suspension and Priming, Injecting Process, Proper Use of Pens and Syringes, Insulin analogues, Human and Pre-mixed Insulins, GLP-1 analogs, Needle Length, Skin Folds, Lipohypertrophy, Rotation, Bleeding and Bruising, Pregnancy, Safety and Disposal. These injecting recommendations provide practical guidance and fill an important gap in diabetes management. If followed, they should help ensure comfortable, effective and largely complication-free injections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  15. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  16. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattrelos, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification test under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out test in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident. (author)

  17. Dependency injection with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Knol, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.

  18. Massive Preperitoneal Hematoma after a Subcutaneous Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Katagiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preperitoneal hematomas are rare and can develop after surgery or trauma. A 74-year-old woman, receiving systemic anticoagulation, developed a massive preperitoneal hematoma after a subcutaneous injection of teriparatide using a 32-gauge, 4 mm needle. In this patient, there were two factors, the subcutaneous injection of teriparatide and systemic anticoagulation, associated with development of the hematoma. These two factors are especially significant, because they are widely used clinically. Although extremely rare, physicians must consider this potentially life-threatening complication after subcutaneous injections, especially in patients receiving anticoagulation.

  19. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  20. Production of polymer injection molding machine

    OpenAIRE

    Zdaniauskis, Ernestas

    2016-01-01

    Production of Polymer Injection Molding Machine The aim of this work is to build a polymer injection molding machine which would match the set criteria: • Small dimensions of the machine. • Low electricity expenditure. • Automatized production process. • Inexpensive molds. In the process of work double two-stage screw-plunger polymer machine was designed and built. The working of the machine is unique: the mold is being heated, therefore, the cycle of polymer injection can consist of a few sm...

  1. J-regular rings with injectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  2. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with intramuscular quinine injections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, in children, gluteal injection of quinine dihydrochloride (QDH) may result in damage to the sciatic nerve. Forty-six children were seen with foot drop following intramuscular injections in the same limb. They were analyzed for the type of injection, injection site, route of injection, the ...

  3. Injection site reactions after subcutaneous oligonucleotide therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, L. (Leonie); M. Moerland (Matthijs); Gallagher, J. (Jolie); M.B.A. van Doorn (Martijn); E.P. Prens (Errol); A.F. Cohen; Rissmann, R. (Robert); J. Burggraaf (Jacobus)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOligonucleotides (ONs) are short fragments of nucleic acids, currently being investigated as therapeutic agents. When administered subcutaneously (sc), ONs cause a specific local reaction originating around the injection site, such as erythema, itching, discomfort and pain, including

  4. Pellet injection requirements for TORE SUPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferranderie, J.

    1986-01-01

    The main parameters of TORE SUPRA are outlined and pellet injection requirements to meet plasma density goals are discussed. Topics considered include plasma buildup, plasma refueling and penetration depth

  5. Nanostructuring steel for injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azawi, A.; Smistrup, Kristian; Kristensen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The production of nanostructured plastic items by injection molding with ridges down to 400 nm in width, which is the smallest line width replicated from nanostructured steel shims, is presented. Here we detail a micro-fabrication method where electron beam lithography, nano-imprint lithography...... and ion beam etching are combined to nanostructure the planar surface of a steel wafer. Injection molded plastic parts with enhanced surface properties, like anti-reflective, superhydrophobic and structural colors can be achieved by micro-and nanostructuring the surface of the steel molds. We investigate...... has been produced by injection molding with good structure transfer fidelity. Thus we have demonstrated that by utilizing well-established fabrication techniques, nanostructured steel shims that are used in injection molding, a technique that allows low cost mass fabrication of plastic items...

  6. Injection molded self-cleaning surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Emil

    This PhD thesis concerns the development of superhydrophobic surfaces fabricated by injection molding. Today, injection molding is the prevalent production method for consumer plastic products. However, concerns regarding the environmental impact of a plastic production are increasing, especially...... because the use of potentially toxic self-cleaning coatings is used worldwide in a larger and larger scale. In this context, the work in this PhD project could be seen as a scientific effort towards reducing toxic compounds in manufactured plastic parts by developing injecting molded surfaces......° for structured surfaces with a drop roll-off angle of less than 2°. Thereby, it is shown that an extremely water repellant surface can be injection molded directly with clear perspectives for more environmental and healthier plastic consumer products....

  7. Eczematous dermatitis due to subcutaneous teriparatide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Howard; Kim, Dae Suk

    2016-05-01

    Teriparatide, or recombinant human parathyroid hormone, is approved for the treatment of osteoporosis. Possible cutaneous adverse events of teriparatide are urticaria, injection site pain, swelling, bruising, and pruritus. However, there have been no reports of widespread eczematous reactions caused by teriparatide. A 47-year-old male was recently diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta and prior to teeth extractions, he was subcutaneously injected with teriparatide. The patient developed multiple pruritic erythematous papules and plaques on his abdomen, around the site of the injection. A skin biopsy was done, which showed mild spongiosis and superficial perivenular lymphocytic infiltration with a few eosinophils. Drug-related eczematous changes were most likely suspected and in addition to the discontinuation of the injection, topical steroid was prescribed, in which dramatic improvements were observed. We report the eczematous hypersensitivity reaction caused by teriparatide, which is an adverse reaction that has not been reported before.

  8. AA injection kicker in its tank

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    For single-turn injection of the antiprotons, a septum at the end of the injection line made the beam parallel to the injection orbit, and a quarter of a betatron-wavelength downstream a fast kicker corrected the angle. Kicker type: lumped delay line. PFN voltage 56 kV. Bending angle 7.5 mrad; kick-strength 0.9 Tm; fall-time 95%-5% in 150 ns. The injection orbit is to the left, the stack orbit to the far right. A fast shutter near the central orbit had to be closed before the kicker fired, so as to protect the stack core from being shaken by the kicker's fringe field. The shutter is shown in closed position.

  9. Interferon Beta-1a Subcutaneous Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a subcutaneous injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms and slow the development of disability in ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1a intramuscular injection is used to reduce the number of episodes of symptoms and slow the development ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1a is in a class of medications called ...

  11. LHC injection optics measurements at commissioning (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Garcia-Bonilla, Alba-Carolina; Langner, Andy Sven; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Malina, Lukas; Mcateer, Meghan Jill; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the measurement and correction process followed during the 2015 LHC injection optics commissioning which extended into Machine Developments (MDs). Results have been analyzed and compared to the 2012 measurements.

  12. IMAGE ANALYSIS DEDICATED TO POLYMER INJECTION MOLDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garcia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work follows the general framework of polymer injection moulding simulation whose objectives are the mastering of the injection moulding process. The models of numerical simulation make it possible to predict the propagation of the molten polymer during the filling phase from the positioning of one point of injection or more. The objective of this paper is to propose a particular way to optimize the geometry of mold cavity in accordance with physical laws. A direct correlation is pointed out between geometric parameters issued from skeleton transformation and Hausdorff's distance and results provided by implementation of a classical model based on the Hele-Shaw equations which are currently used in the main computer codes of polymer injection.

  13. The longitudinal association between homelessness, injection drug use, and injection-related risk behavior among persons with a history of injection drug use in Baltimore, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Sabriya L; Celentano, David D; Kirk, Gregory D; Mehta, Shruti H

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have assessed the temporal association between homelessness and injection drug use, and injection-related risk behavior. Among a cohort of 1405 current and former injection drug users in follow-up from 2005 to 2009, we used random intercept models to assess the temporal association between homelessness and subsequent injection drug use, and to determine whether the association between homelessness and sustained injection drug use among active injectors differed from the association between homelessness and relapse among those who stopped injecting. We also assessed the association between homelessness and subsequent injection-related risk behavior among participants who injected drugs consecutively across two visits. Homelessness was categorized by duration: none, Homelessness was reported on at least one occasion by 532 (38%) participants. The relationship between homelessness and subsequent injection drug use was different for active injectors and those who stopped injecting. Among those who stopped injecting, homelessness was associated with relapse [homelessness was not associated with sustained injection drug use [drugs across two consecutive visits, homelessness ≥1 month was associated with subsequent injection-related risk behavior [AOR=1.61, 95% CI (1.06, 2.45)]. Homelessness appears to be associated with relapse and injection-related risk behavior. Strengthening policies and interventions that prevent homelessness may reduce injection drug use and injection-related risk behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. STRESS SENSITIVITY OF MERCURY INJECTION MEASUREMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Guise, P; Grattoni, C; Allshorn, S; Fisher, QJ; Schiffer, A

    2017-01-01

    Many petrophysical properties (e.g. permeability, electrical resistivity etc.) of tight rocks are very stress sensitive. However, most mercury injection measurements are made using an instrument that does not apply a confining pressure to the samples. Here we further explore the implications of the use and analysis of data from mercury injection porosimetry or mercury capillary pressure measurements (MICP). Two particular aspects will be discussed. First, the effective stress acting on sample...

  15. Image-guided facet joint injection

    OpenAIRE

    Peh, WCG

    2011-01-01

    Chronic spine pain poses a peculiar diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to multiple pain sources, overlapping clinical features and nonspecific radiological findings. Facet joint injection is an interventional pain management tool for facet-related spinal pain that can be effectively administered by a radiologist. This technique is the gold standard for identifying facet joints as the source of spinal pain. The major indications for facet injections include strong clinical suspicion of t...

  16. Menangkal Serangan SQL Injection Dengan Parameterized Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianingsih Yulianingsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Semakin meningkat pertumbuhan layanan informasi maka semakin tinggi pula tingkat kerentanan keamanan dari suatu sumber informasi. Melalui tulisan ini disajikan penelitian yang dilakukan secara eksperimen yang membahas tentang kejahatan penyerangan database secara SQL Injection. Penyerangan dilakukan melalui halaman autentikasi dikarenakan halaman ini merupakan pintu pertama akses yang seharusnya memiliki pertahanan yang cukup. Kemudian dilakukan eksperimen terhadap metode Parameterized Query untuk mendapatkan solusi terhadap permasalahan tersebut.   Kata kunci— Layanan Informasi, Serangan, eksperimen, SQL Injection, Parameterized Query.

  17. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  18. Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A.; Vacchi, A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process

  19. Optimizing reversible simulation of injective functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Bennett showed that a clean reversible simulation of injective programs is possible without returning the input of a program as additional output. His method involves two computation and two uncomputation phases. This paper proposes an optimization of Bennett’s simulation that requires only half ......-coding program is further optimized by conserving the model over the text-generation phase. This paper may thus provide a newviewon developing efficient reversible simulations for a certain class of injective functions....

  20. Diesel Effect Problem Solving During Injection Moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košík Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study describes principles of diesel effect creation during thermoplastic injection moulding as a consequence of wrong injection conditions and poor venting system design. On real example, study shows sequence of all steps to eliminate this sort of material degradation with minimal costs in phase when mould is already made. As a first, process parameters were optimized by CAE simulation to minimize cavity internal gasses creation. Finally the specific mould modifications were suggested to improve the effectiveness of venting system.

  1. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system.

  2. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection for chalazion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavicić-Astalos, Jasna; Iveković, Renata; Knezević, Tamara; Krolo, Iva; Novak-Laus, Katia; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Rotim, Kresimir; Mandić, Kresimir; Susić, Nikola

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide injection in primary and recurrent chalazion. The study included 30 patients with primary and recurrent chalazion (37 cases) and 24 patients as a control group. Patients with primary and recurrent chalazion received intralesional injection of 0.1 to 0.2 mL triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg/mL). Control group received intralesional injection of 0.1 to 0.2 mL 0.9% NaCl. Data on the lesion size, including digital color photography, lesion regression or recurrence, and complete ophthalmic examination were recorded at the time of injection and after a week or two until resolution or surgical excision. Success was defined as at least 80% decrease in size with no recurrence. Resolution of the lesion was found in 35 cases after one or two injections, with a mean time to resolution of 15.27 +/- 6.12 days. Subcutaneous injection of the steroid triamcinolone acetonide in primary and recurrent chalazion appears to be a simple and efficacious therapeutic option for chalazion.

  3. Magnetic detection of ferrofluid injection zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, S.; Moridis, G.; Becker, A.

    1998-03-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles that can be stabilized in various carrier liquids. In this study the authors investigate the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. An ability to track and monitor the movement and position of injected liquids is essential in assessing the effectiveness of the delivery system and the success of the process. Ferrofluids can also provide a significant detection and verification tool in containment technologies, where they can be injected with the barrier liquids to provide a strong signature allowing determination of the barrier geometry, extent, continuity and integrity. Finally, ferrofluids may have unique properties as tracers for detecting preferential flow features (such as fractures) in the subsurface, and thus allow the design of more effective remediation systems. In this report the authors review the results of the investigation of the potential of ferrofluids to trace the movement and position of liquids injected in the subsurface using geophysical methods. They demonstrate the feasibility of using conventional magnetometry for detecting subsurface zones of injected ferrofluids used to trace liquids injected for remediation or barrier formation. The geometrical shapes considered were a sphere, a thin disk, a rectangular horizontal slab, and a cylinder. Simple calculations based on the principles of magnetometry are made to determine the detection depths of FTs. Experiments involving spherical, cylindrical and horizontal slabs show a very good agreement between predictions and measurements.

  4. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

  5. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  6. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  7. Distribution and regularity of injection from a multicylinder fuel-injection pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M; Marsh, E T

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of performance test conducted on a six-cylinder commercial fuel-injection pump that was adjusted to give uniform fuel distribution among the cylinders at a throttle setting of 0.00038 pound per injection and a pump speed of 750 revolutions per minute. The throttle setting and pump speed were then varied through the operating range to determine the uniformity of distribution and regularity of injection.

  8. Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in lateral epicondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger Persson; Bartels, Else Marie; Ellingsen, Torkell Juulsgaad

    2013-01-01

    Injection therapy with glucocorticoids has been used since the 1950s as a treatment strategy for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Lately, several novel injection therapies have become available....

  9. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khatkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions for achieving the desirable result during botulinum toxin therapy for muscular dystonia, spasticity, and other diseases accompanied by spasm, pain, and autonomic dysfunction (dystonias, spasticity, etc. is the proper administration of the agent into the muscles directly involved in the pathological process. The exact entry of botulinum toxin into the target muscles is essential for successful and safe treatment because its injection into a normal muscle may cause side effects. The most common errors are the incorrect depth and incorrect direction of a needle on insertion. Therefore, the exact injection of the agent particularly into the shallow and deep muscles is a difficult task even for an experienced specialist and requires the use of controlling methods.The European Consensus on Botulinum Toxin Therapy points out that various injection techniques are needed for the better identification of necessary muscles. However, there are currently no reports on the clear advantage of any technique. In our country, injections using palpation and anatomical landmarks have been widely used in routine practice so far; electromyographic monitoring and electrostimulation have been less frequently applied. In recent years, the new method ultrasound-guided injection has continued to grow more popular. This effective, accessible, and easy-to-use method makes it possible to manage a real-time injection process and to ensure the exact entry of the agent into the muscle. This paper is dedicated to a comparative analysis of different injection methods and to a description of the ultrasound-guided technique and its advantages over others. 

  10. Decreased injecting is associated with increased alcohol consumption among injecting drug users in northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Vivian F; Minh, Nguyen Le; Frangakis, Constantine; Ha, Tran Viet; Latkin, Carl A; Sripaipan, Teerada; Davis, Wendy; Zelaya, Carla; Ngoc, Nguyen Phuong; Quan, Vu Minh

    2013-07-01

    Reducing injecting frequency may reduce the risk of HIV infection and improve health outcomes among injection drug users (IDUs). However, the reduction of one risk behavior may be associated with an increase in other risk behaviors, including the use of other risk-associated substances. Our objective was to determine if an association exists between a reduction in injecting and level of alcohol use among IDU. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of data collected for a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of a peer education intervention in reducing HIV risk among IDU and their network members in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. Our analysis included active male injectors (n = 629) who were study participants and attended both baseline and 3-month visits. Frequency of alcohol consumption was assessed as the number of alcoholic drinks in the past 30 days. Change in risk and outcome behaviors was calculated as the difference in frequencies of behaviors between baseline and 3-month follow-up visits. The outcome of interest was concurrent decreased drug injection and increased alcohol consumption. The mean difference between baseline and 3-month follow-up of alcohol consumption and injection frequency in the past 30 days was 19.03 drinks (93.68 SD) and 20.22 injections (35.66 SD), respectively. Participants who reported reduced injection frequency were almost three times as likely to report increased alcohol consumption (OR 2.8; 95% CI, 2.0, 4.0). The proportion that both decreased injecting and increased alcohol by any amount in the past 30 days was 35.6%. In multivariate analysis higher education was significantly associated with an increase in alcohol and decrease in injecting of any amount. Male IDU may be at risk for increasing alcohol consumption when they reduce injection frequency. Interventions with male IDU that encourage reduction of injection may need to review specific strategies to limit alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF CELLULAR INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Garbacz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a study of cellular injection, molding process uses polyvinylchloride PVC. Polymers modified with introducing blowing agents into them in the Laboratory of the Department of Technologies and Materiase of Technical University of Kosice. For technological reasons, blowing agents have a form of granules. In the experiment, the content of the blowing agent (0–2,0 % by mass fed into the processed polymer was adopted as a variable factor. In the studies presented in the article, the chemical blowing agents occurring in the granulated form with a diameter of 1.2 to 1.4 mm were used. The view of the technological line for cellular injection molding and injection mold cavity with injection moldings are shown in Figure 1. The results of the determination of selected properties of injection molded parts for various polymeric materials, obtained with different content of blowing agents, are shown in Figures 4-7. Microscopic examination of cross-sectional structure of the moldings were obtained using the author's position image analysis of porous structure. Based on analysis of photographs taken (Figures 7, 8, 9 it was found that the coating containing 1.0% of blowing agents is a clearly visible solid outer layer and uniform distribution of pores and their sizes are similar.

  13. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope may occur in these children on mentioning about blood, needles or any injury. Vasovagal fainting with diphasic response pattern occurs in about twenty percent of children on exposure to the phobic stimulus. Other anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder also occur co-morbidly in children with blood-injection-injury phobia which makes the prognosis poor. Avoidance of health care due to phobia causes significant negative impact on health outcomes. Hence early diagnosis and urgent management of blood-injection-injury phobia in children is essential.

  14. Some characteristics of early-onset injection drug users prior to and at the time of their first injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Jeanne; Treloar, Carla; Crawford, June; Kippax, Susan; van Beek, Ingrid; Howard, John

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines differences between early- and late-onset injection drug users (12-16 years versus 17-24 years) in terms of the antecedents and circumstances of first injection. Cross-sectional retrospective design, using logistic regression. Setting Australia: Sydney, Brisbane, rural New South Wales. A total of 336 injection drug users aged 16-25 years at the time of interview. Independent variables included family injection drug use, homelessness and other demographic variables, drugs used prior to the first injection, length of pre-injection drug career, behaviours at time of first injection (e.g. drug injected, reasons/motives for the first injection, risk behaviours). Early-onset injection was associated independently with: having a family who injected drugs, having left school early, an unreliable source of income, a short pre-injection drug career, planning of the first injection, reliance on others for administration of the first injection and denial that experimentation was the motive for the first injection. In bivariate analysis, early-onset injection was associated further with: homelessness, being an Indigenous Australian, omission of use of certain pre-injection drugs, group presence at first injection, reliance on others for acquisition of the first needle and syringe and having injected the first time because an injection was offered. The research shows that early-onset, compared with late-onset injectors, are more likely to have an immediate family who inject drugs and other problematic beginnings in early life. They have an accelerated transition to injection, and differences in autonomy and motivation at first injection. These characteristics may make them more vulnerable to risk taking.

  15. Sequential injection lab-on-valve: the third generation of flow injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2003-01-01

    Termed the third generation of flow injection analysis, sequential injection (SI)-lab-on-valve (LOV) has specific advantages and allows novel, unique applications - not least as a versatile front end to a variety of detection techniques. This review presents snd discusses progress to date of the ...

  16. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  17. Intraurethral Injection of Autologous Minced Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, Søren; Klarskov, Niels; Lose, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Intraurethral injection of in vitro expanded autologous skeletal muscle derived cells is a new regenerative therapy for stress urinary incontinence. We examined the efficacy and safety of a simpler alternative strategy using freshly harvested, minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue...... noted. CONCLUSIONS: Intraurethral injection of minced autologous muscle tissue is a simple surgical procedure that appears safe and moderately effective in women with uncomplicated stress urinary incontinence. It compares well to a more complicated regenerative strategy using in vitro expanded muscle...... with its inherent content of regenerative cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 and 15 women with uncomplicated and complicated stress urinary incontinence, respectively, received intraurethral injections of minced autologous skeletal muscle tissue and were followed for 1 year. Efficacy was assessed...

  18. Targeting the Plantar Fascia for Corticosteroid Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Andrea Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is often a difficult condition to treat. It is related to repetitive strain of the fascia at its attachment to the heel bone. This condition quite often appears with the concomitant presence of a plantar calcaneal heel spur. Corticosteroid injection is a popular treatment choice for plantar fasciitis, and accurate localization of the injected medication is essential for successful resolution of symptoms after the injection. In the present brief technical communication, a method for targeting the attachment of the plantar fascia to the medial tubercle of the tuberosity of the calcaneus is described. The targeting method uses the lateral radiograph of the foot to aid in localization of the proximal attachment of the plantar fascia to the calcaneus. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid Organic Deposition During Gas Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandekar, Abhijit Y.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2000-01-01

    was also evident as oil fractions expelled from the top to bottom of the PVT cell were observed to vary in density, molecular weight, as well as darkness of color. The change in stability of the oil samples before and after the contact with gas was analyzed using flocculation threshold titration......Recently a series of first contact miscibility (swelling) experiments have been performed on undersaturated light and heavy oils using LPG rich and methane rich injection gases, in which solid organic deposition was observed. A compositional gradient in the oils during the gas injection process...... during the gas injection process in comparison with the standard asphaltenes in order to understand the mechanisms involved in asphaltene deposition....

  20. High risk injecting behaviour among people who inject pharmaceutical opioids in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Jenny; Dertadian, George; Geddes, Louise; Maher, Lisa

    2017-04-01

    Use of opioid analgesic medicines has doubled globally over the past decade, with a concomitant increase in prevalence of injection of pharmaceutical opioids (PO), including in Australia. This study investigates types of PO injected, methods used to prepare PO for injection and correlates of recent (last 6 months) PO injection among a large national sample of people who inject drugs (PWID). The Australian NSP Survey (ANSPS), conducted annually at ∼50 NSP services across Australia, consists of a brief self-administered questionnaire and provision of a capillary dried blood spot for HIV and hepatitis C antibody testing. Data from 2014 were used to conduct univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis to determine factors independently associated with recent injection of PO. Among 1488 ANSPS respondents who were identified as opioid injectors, 57% (n=848) reported injection of PO in the previous six months. The majority of PO injectors (85%) reported filtering PO prior to injection, although use of efficacious wheel filters was relatively rare (11%). Correlates of POs injection included daily injection (AOR=1.65, 95% CI 1.31-2.08), receptive sharing of syringes (AOR=2.00, 95% CI 1.43-2.78), receptive sharing of drug preparation equipment (AOR=1.55, 95% CI 1.19-2.01), drug overdose in the previous year (AOR=1.81, 95% CI 1.36-2.42) and residence in inner regional (AOR=3.27, 95% CI 2.21-5.23) or outer regional/remote (AOR=5.50, 95% CI 3.42-8.84) areas of Australia. PO injection is geographically widespread among Australian PWID and takes place in the context of poly-drug use. People who inject POs are at high risk of overdose, injection related injury and disease and blood borne viral infections. Harm reduction services that target this group, including in non-urban areas, should deliver health education regarding PO-specific overdose risks, the requirement to adequately filter PO before injection and to ensure that both naloxone and specialist pill

  1. Echocardiographic Findings Suggestive of Infective Endocarditis in Asymptomatic Danish Injection Drug Users Attending Urban Injection Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna; Søholm, Helle; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    attending a supervised injection facility. We performed transthoracic echocardiographic examinations on-site in the injection facilities. A total of 206 IDUs (mean age 43 ± 9 years, 23% women) with a median injection drug abuse of 18 years (interquartile range 10 to 26) were included. Fourteen IDUs (14......Injection drug users (IDUs) account for a considerable number of the hospitalizations for infective endocarditis (IE), but the prevalence of diagnosed and unrecognized IE in IDUs is unknown. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of valvular abnormalities suggestive of IE in IDUs...... of 206, 7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4% to 11%) had a previous history of IE. IDUs with a history of IE were significantly older than IDUs without a history of IE (48 ± 8 vs 42 ± 9 years, respectively, p = 0.03) and had a longer duration of injection drug use (27 [18 to 36] vs 17 years [10 to 25], p...

  2. An injectable method for noninvasive spine fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Ronke M; Lazard, ZaWaunyka; Heggeness, Michael H; Moran, Kevin M; Hipp, John A; Dewan, Ashvin K; Davis, Alan R; West, Jennifer L; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A

    2011-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce bone formation but are difficult to localize, and subsequent diffusion from the site of interest and short half-life reduce the efficacy of the protein. Currently, spine fusion requires stripping, decortications of the transverse processes, and an autograft harvest procedure. Even in combination with BMPs, clinical spinal fusion has a high failure rate, presumably because of difficulties in localizing sufficient levels of BMP. The goal was to achieve reliable spine fusion through a single injection of a cell-based gene therapy system without the need for any surgical intervention. Eighty-seven immunodeficient (n=44) and immune-competent (n=43) mice were injected along the paraspinous musculature to achieve rapid induction of heterotopic ossification (HO) and ultimately spinal arthrodesis. Immunodeficient and immune-competent mice were injected with fibroblasts, transduced with an adenoviral vector to express BMP2, along the paraspinous musculature. Bone formation was evaluated via radiographs, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical analysis. ew bridging bone between the vertebrae and the fusion to adjacent skeletal bone was obtained as early as 2 weeks. Reduction in spine flexion-extension also occurred as early as 2 weeks after injection of the gene therapy system, with greater than 90% fusion by 4 weeks in all animals regardless of their genetic background. Injection of our cell-based system into the paraspinous musculature induces spinal fusion that is dependent neither on the cell type nor on the immune status. These studies are the first to harness HO in an immune-competent model as a noninvasive injectable system for clinically relevant spinal fusion and may one day impact human spinal arthrodesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  4. Effect of Doll Injection Display on Pain Intensity due to Intramuscular Injection in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Irani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Pains caused by the invasive actions such as intramuscular injection lead to the physical and mental tensions in the children. Therefore, such pains should be given relief. One of the main priorities in the nursing is to notice methods that reduce pains due to the invasive actions in the children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of injection displayed on a doll on the pain intensity due to the intramuscular injection in the preschool children. Materials & Methods: In the randomized controlled clinical trial, 62 kids aged between 4 and 6 years with pharyngitis were studied in the clinic of the health network of Khalil-abad Township in 2015. The intramuscular injection of penicillin 6.3.3 was administrated for the kids. The subjects, selected by simple lottery, were divided into two groups including experimental and control groups (n=31 per group. Data was collected using a demographic characteristic collecting form and Oucher standard pain assessment tool. In experimental group, the kid watching, one intramuscular injection was displayed on a doll by a nurse; then, the kid underwent an intramuscular injection. In control group, the routine injection method was done. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Mann-Whitney, independent T, and Chi-square tests. Findings: Mean pain intensity after injection in experimental group (3.22±0.90 was significantly lower than control group (4.19±0.83; p<0.001. Conclusion: The injection displayed on a doll before the intramuscular injection might lead to pain reduction in the preschool kids.

  5. Influence of fuel injection pressures on Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanthagopal, K.; Ashok, B.; Karuppa Raj, R. Thundil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection pressure of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel is investigated. • Engine characteristics of 100% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been performed. • Calophyllum inophyllum is a non-edible source for biodiesel production. • Increase in injection pressure of biodiesel, improves the fuel economy. • Incylinder pressure characteristics of biodiesel follows similar trend as of diesel. - Abstract: The trend of using biodiesels in compression ignition engines have been the focus in recent decades due to the promising environmental factors and depletion of fossil fuel reserves. This work presents the effect of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics at different injection pressures. Experimental investigations with varying injection pressures of 200 bar, 220 bar and 240 bar have been carried out to analyse the parameters like brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, heat release rate and engine emissions of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 100% biodiesel and compared with neat diesel. The experimental results revealed that brake specific fuel consumption of C. inophyllum methyl ester fuelled engine has been reduced to a great extent with higher injection pressure. Significant reduction in emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity have been observed during fuel injection of biodiesel at 220 bar compared to other fuel injection pressures. However oxides of nitrogen increased with increase in injection pressures of C. inophyllum methyl ester and are always higher than that of neat diesel. In addition the combustion characteristics of biodiesel at all injection pressures followed a similar trend to that of conventional diesel.

  6. Recent development in PWR zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocken, H.; Fruzzetti, K.; Frattini, P.; Wood, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Zinc injection to the reactor coolant system (RCS) of PWRs holds the promise to alleviate two key challenges facing PWR plant operators: (1) reducing degradation of coolant system materials, including nickel-base alloy tubing and lower alloy penetrations due to stress corrosion cracking, and (2) lowering shutdown dose rates. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is a dominant tube failure mode at many plants. This paper summarizes recent observations from U. S. and international PWRs that have implemented zinc injection, focusing primarily on coolant chemistry and dose rate issues. It also provides a look at the future direction of EPRI-sponsored projects on this topic. (authors)

  7. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable...... agents may induce severe complications, but they will normally disappear spontaneously in a few months. Slowly biodegradable or nonresorbable fillers may give rise to severe reactions that show little or no tendency to spontaneous improvement. They may appear several years after the injection, when...

  8. LHC MD 2042: Persistent Injection Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Karpov, Ivan; Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Baudrenghien, Philippe; Chapochnikova, Elena; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    This MD note summarizes the measurements performed to study persistent longitudinal oscillations after injection into the LHC. It was found that they build up due to mismatch, and can lead to particle losses and uncontrolled bunch lengthening. For the first time, profile measurements and ObsBox data acquisitions were triggered at injection to obtain first-turn data. The measurements took place on 16th September 2017 between 14:30 and 19:30, and between 27th November 2017 20:00 and 28th November 2017 04:00.

  9. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Spence, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  10. Demoulding force in micro-injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports an experimental study that investigates part demoulding behavior in micro injection moulding (MIM) with a focus on the effects of pressure (P) and temperature (T) on the demoulding forces. Demoulding of a microfluidics part is conducted and the four processing parameters of melt...... temperature (Tb), mould temperature (Tm), holding pressure (Ph) and injection speed (Vi) are analysed. The result using different combinations of process parameters were used to identify the best processing conditions in regards to demoulding forces when moulding micro parts....

  11. Injection profiles with radiation induced copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    The injectivity profile of a heterogeneous formation and/or vertical conformance is improved by injecting an aqueous solution into the formation, the solution containing a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in a 10 to 60 percent aqueous solution with gamma radiation; the aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25 to 99 percent acrylamide and 1 to 75 percent sodium acrylate. Immiscible, miscible, or miscible-like displacing processes can be used in conjunction with this invention. 20 claims

  12. Cavity Pressure Behaviour in Micro Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2010-01-01

    Process monitoring of micro injection moulding (µIM) is of crusial importance to analyse the effect of different parameter settings on the process and to assess its quality. Quality factors related to cavity pressure can provide useful information directly connected with the dyanmics of the process...... as well as with the filling of the cavity by the polymer melt. In this paper, two parameters derived from cavity pressure over time (i.e. pressure work). The influence of four µIM parameters (melt temperature, mould temperature, injection speed, aand packing pressure) on the two pressure-related outputs...

  13. Neutral beam injection in 2XIIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Integrated into the operation of the 2XIIB controlled fusion experiment is a 600-A, 20-keV neutral injection system: the highest neutral-beam current capacity of any existing fusion machine. This paper outlines the requirements of the injection system and the design features to which they led. Both mechanical and electrical aspects are discussed. Also included is a brief description of some operational aspects of the system and some of the things we have learned along the way, as well as a short history of the most significant developments

  14. Helicity injection experiment in the SINP tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Krishnendu; Ray, Nihar Ranjan

    2000-01-01

    The current drive or sustainment in magnetized toroidal resistive plasmas can be though of as a 'balance' between helicity injection and dissipation. In the present work, the mechanisms of the 'balance' in the fluctuating magnetized resistive plasmas of the SINP tokamak, have been studied experimentally. The result shows that the oscillatory vertical magnetic field and oscillatory plasmas' velocity in a definite phase relationship causes the balancing effect between helicity injection and dissipation and thus sustainment of plasma current for a longer period of time has been observed in the resistive plasmas of the SINP tokamak. (author)

  15. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrey, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    de Vos RJ, van Veldhoven PLJ, Moen MH, Weir A, Tol JL. Autologous growth factor injections in chronic tendinopathy: a systematic review. Br Med Bull. 2010;95:63-77. The authors of this systematic review evaluated the literature to critically consider the effects of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections in managing wrist-flexor and -extensor tendinopathies, plantar fasciopathy, and patellar tendinopathy. The primary question was, according to the published literature, is there sufficient evidence to support the use of growth factors delivered through autologous whole-blood and PRP injections for chronic tendinopathy? The authors performed a comprehensive, systematic literature search in October 2009 using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library without time limits. The following key words were used in different combinations: tendinopathy, tendinosis, tendinitis, tendons, tennis elbow, plantar fasciitis, platelet rich plasma, platelet transfusion, and autologous blood or injection. The search was limited to human studies in English. All bibliographies from the initial literature search were also viewed to identify additional relevant studies. Studies were eligible based on the following criteria: (1) Articles were suitable (inclusion criteria) if the participants had been clinically diagnosed as having chronic tendinopathy; (2) the design had to be a prospective clinical study, randomized controlled trial, nonrandomized clinical trial, or prospective case series; (3) a well-described intervention in the form of a growth factor injection with either PRP or autologous whole blood was used; and (4) the outcome was reported in terms of pain or function (or both). All titles and abstracts were assessed by 2 researchers, and all relevant articles were obtained. Two researchers independently read the full text of each article to determine if it met the inclusion criteria. If opinions differed on

  16. Testing the LIGO inspiral analysis with hardware injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D A

    2004-01-01

    Injection of simulated binary inspiral signals into detector hardware provides an excellent test of the inspiral detection pipeline. By recovering the physical parameters of an injected signal, we test our understanding of both instrumental calibration and the data analysis pipeline. We describe an inspiral search code and results from hardware injection tests and demonstrate that injected signals can be recovered by the data analysis pipeline. The parameters of the recovered signals match those of the injected signals

  17. Experimental analysis of injection characteristics using biodiesel fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Hribernik, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with injection characteristics using different fuels at different fuel temperatures. The fuels under consideration are neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil and some blends with diesel as well as neat mineral diesel D2. The fuel and fuel temperature influences are investigated experimentally in the mechanically controlled diesel fuel injection M system. At first, attention is focused on the injection characteristics, especially on fuelling, mean injection rate, mean injection pres...

  18. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, KC Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the earl...

  19. Process and part filling control in micro injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Schoth, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The influence of process parameters on μ-injection molding (μIM) and on μ-injection molded parts has been investigated using Design of Experiments. A mold with a sensor applied at injection location was used to monitor actual injection pressure and to determine the cavity filling time. Flow markers...... that the injection speed in one of the most influencing process parameters on the μIM process and on the μ-parts filling....

  20. Subcutaneous injection technique: an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston-Tuck, Sherri

    2014-09-23

    Injections are routinely administered by nurses in acute care settings and in the community. Nurses require a thorough understanding of anatomy and physiology, pharmacological principles and equipment, and potential risks to the patient of injections. Nurses should also take an active approach to patient assessment before injecting medicines. This article, the first of two, provides an evidence-based review of injection administration, with particular reference to subcutaneous injections, and suggests a framework for best practice.

  1. Plasma Injection Schemes for Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, J.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma injection schemes are crucial for producing high-quality electron beams in laser-plasma accelerators. This article introduces the general concepts of plasma injection. First, a Hamiltonian model for particle trapping and acceleration in plasma waves is introduced; ionization injection and colliding-pulse injection are described in the framework of this Hamiltonian model. We then proceed to consider injection in plasma density gradients.

  2. Characterization of the injection funnel during intracytoplasmic sperm injection reflects cytoplasmic maturity of the oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Iris; Pohler, Uwe; Grosse, Stefan; Shebl, Omar; Petek, Erwin; Chandra, Arvind; Ebner, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    To quantify cytoplasmic maturity on the basis of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) injection funnel manifestation and to evaluate influence factors of the latter. Prospective study. Private fertility center. A total of 31 patients with good ovarian response. Mature and immature oocytes were injected intracytoplasmatically. Formation and persistence of an injection funnel was documented and measured. ICSI funnel size, persistence of injection funnel, rates of degeneration and fertilization, embryo quality. Funnel volume in germinal vesicle stage oocytes (prophase I [PI]) was significantly smaller than that of metaphase I (MI) and MII oocytes. Immature eggs (PI, MI) almost never showed a persistent funnel 2-4 minutes after ICSI, whereas in MII eggs the funnel was still observable in 35% (117/334) of the cases. Uni- and multivariate analysis revealed that pipette type and stimulation protocol significantly influenced appearance of injection funnel. Funnel volume in oocytes that fertilized regularly was significantly higher compared with three-polar body and degenerated oocytes. Oocyte maturation within the follicle is closely associated with a remarkable change in cytoplasm viscosity from an aqueous to a more viscous subtype. Precise evaluation of the injection funnel may help to explain deviations from expected ICSI outcome and could also assist in optimizing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Discharge characteristics of a double injection-valve single-pump injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dana W; Marsh, E T

    1937-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of two similar injection valves operated by a single-cylinder fuel-injection pump were determined with an apparatus that measured the quantity of fuel discharged from each valve during every 0.5 degrees of pump rotation. It was found that similar discharges took place from the two valves at all pump speeds when the valve-opening pressures, the nozzle-orifice diameters, and the injection-tube lengths were the same for both valves. Under these conditions, the effects of changing the pump speed, the pump throttle setting, or the nozzle orifice diameter were very similar to those occurring with a single-injection valve. By a proper selection of discharge-orifice areas and valve-opening pressures it was possible to obtain a great many combinations of discharge quantities, discharge rates, and injection timings for the two valves. A series of tests using injection tubes of unequal lengths for the two valves showed that under these conditions the injection timing and the fuel quantity discharged from each valve varies widely and erratically with changes in the pump speed.

  4. Cat fertilization by mouse sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong-Xun; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Yu, Xian-Feng; Lee, Sung-Hyun; Wang, Qing-Ling; Gao, Wei-Wei; Xu, Yong-Nan; Sun, Shao-Chen; Kong, Il-Keun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2012-11-01

    Interspecies intracytoplasmic sperm injection has been carried out to understand species-specific differences in oocyte environments and sperm components during fertilization. While sperm aster organization during cat fertilization requires a paternally derived centriole, mouse and hamster fertilization occur within the maternal centrosomal components. To address the questions of where sperm aster assembly occurs and whether complete fertilization is achieved in cat oocytes by interspecies sperm, we studied the fertilization processes of cat oocytes following the injection of cat, mouse, or hamster sperm. Male and female pronuclear formations were not different in the cat oocytes at 6 h following cat, mouse or hamster sperm injection. Microtubule asters were seen in all oocytes following intracytoplasmic injection of cat, mouse or hamster sperm. Immunocytochemical staining with a histone H3-m2K9 antibody revealed that mouse sperm chromatin is incorporated normally with cat egg chromatin, and that the cat eggs fertilized with mouse sperm enter metaphase and become normal 2-cell stage embryos. These results suggest that sperm aster formation is maternally dependent, and that fertilization processes and cleavage occur in a non-species specific manner in cat oocytes.

  5. Corticosteroid injection for de Quervain's tenosynovitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters-Veluthamaningal, Cyriac; van der Windt, Danielle A. W. M.; Winters, Jan C.; Jong, Betty Meyboom-de

    2009-01-01

    Back ground De Quervain's tenosynovitis is a disorder characterised by pain on the radial (thumb) side of the wrist and functional disability of the hand. It can be treated by corticosteroid injection, splinting and surgery. Objectives To summarise evidence on the efficacy and safety of

  6. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Randall M

    2013-08-20

    Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM) that must be simultaneously satisfied-density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  7. Functional nanostructures on injection molded plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Alicia Charlotte; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    Nanotechnology can be used to make inexpensive plastic parts with functional surfaces. The plastic parts can be molded using a standard injection molding process. The nanostructures are directly transferred from the surface of the molding tool to the surface of the molded plastic part during...

  8. Treatment of the Infection after Fat Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For recent years, use of autologous fat injection has increased significantly in facial contouring surgery. Along with such increase in use, complications like atypical mycoplasma infection have been also on the increasing trend. The authors report two cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infection that occurred after autologous fat injection. Patients were treated as infection that resistant to common antibiotics and results were negative to routine culture and Gram staining. Acid-fast bacillus stain, polymerase chain reaction (PCR test and mycobacterial cultures were conducted for diagnosis under suspicion of atypical mycoplasma infection. Then, combination antibiotics therapy, surgical treatment, and steroid injection were performed for treatment. Both patients were diagnosed with Mycobacterium chelonae in PCR test. They were positive to mycobacterial cultures. Combination antibiotics therapy was repeated to improvement of symptom. However, they could not be free from side effects such as deformation in facial contour, scar and pigmentation even after full recovery. When chronic wound infections after autologous fat injection, we must suspect atypical or mycobacterial infection and conduct examinations for a early diagnosis and proper antibiotic therapy that is effective to the nontuberculous mycobacteria.

  9. Modelling of injection processes in ladle metallurgy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, H.

    2016-01-01

    Ladle metallurgical processes constitute a portion of the total production chain of steel from iron ore. With these batch processes, the hot metal or steel transfer ladle is being used as a reactor vessel and a reagent is often injected in order to bring the composition of the hot metal or steel to

  10. Gas injection pilot in the Hochleiten field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potsch, K.; Ramberger, R.; Glantschnig, J.; Baumgarthuber, S.; Goessnitzer, F. [OMV AG, Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    The Hochleiten field, located in the north of Vienna, is small in extension and highly compartmentalized. The main reservoir horizons are at a depth of approximately 1000 m. The oil quality shows high density and viscosity. Waterflood was initiated, but worked only in a part of the reservoir. Compartmentalization and lateral facies changes result in poor comunication and big pressure differences across the field. Some of the oil in place is not reached by primary or secondary recovery processes, and a solution was sought for accessing the bypassed oil. The screening process suggested gas injection as the most promising method. This contribution presents the first results of a field pilot project. Information will be given on the geology, additional lab work, and the realization in the field. The injection and production profiles of this pilot are presented. CO{sub 2} improved the inflow capacity of the injector, but the oil rates of the effected wells increased only slightly. In order to match the actual response of the reservoir, we had to adjust our reservoir model. Meanwhile N{sub 2} was injected as a tracer in one of the wells, to find out the preferred communication paths, before we proceeded with further gas injection. (orig.)

  11. Variceal recurrence, rebleeding and survival after injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study tested the validity of the hypothesis that eradication of oesophageal varices by repeated injection sclerotherapy would reduce recurrent variceal bleeding and death from bleeding oesophageal varices in a high risk cohort of patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: 306 alcoholic ...

  12. RADIOLOGICAL TIPS Percutaneous thrombin injection for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pseudoaneurysm sac has a typical 'yin-yang' sign. The neck is normally seen posteriorly and is usually thin and longitudinal. A large neck diameter (e.g. >10 mm) is a relative contra-indication for thrombin injection because of a slightly higher risk of distal embolisation. There are several thrombin preparations available.

  13. Lake destratification induced by local air injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical and physical modelling makes possible quantitative predictions regarding the destratification process brought about by the local injection of air at the bottom of a thermally stratified lake or reservoir. The mathematical model developed distinguishes between a near field and a far

  14. Injectable technique for direct provisional restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Alvaro; Alnassar, Talal; Chiche, Gerard

    2017-09-20

    New technique describes an alternative treatment modality of making direct provisional restoration. A preoperative wax-up should be fabricated, followed by fabrication of a transparent polyvinyl siloxane (VPS) matrix in a clear plastic prefabricated tray with retentive holes. After the tray is separated from the model, two additional holes will be made through the tray and the VPS for injecting and venting of the temporary resin. After the teeth are prepared and the separating medium applied to them, the resin should be injected into the entrance hole using the provided auto-mix cartilage tip. The flow of the resin around the preparation can be observed through the clear mold and once the resin starts to extrude from the exit hole. It is necessary to block the exit hole with a finger while continuing to inject. This will increase the pressure inside the mold and improve marginal adaptation. Before complete polymerization, the matrix is removed. The provisional restorations are removed from the matrix and contoured, adjusted, and polished. This technique will help the clinicians to enhance the quality of the provisional restorations, to prevent entrapment of bubbles, improve marginal precision and prevent seating error. This study described a novel technique for constructing a direct provisional restoration by injecting bis-acryl temporary resin into a matrix that is already seated over the prepared tooth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pulverized injectability assessment of selected Nigerian coals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria is not endowed with coking coals to produce about 1 million tons of coke annually for its proposed steel plant in Ajaokuta. This work is therefore an effort to predict the useability of some Nigerian coals for injection into the blast furnace to significantly reduce coke consumption. The proximate analysis of Nigerian ...

  16. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall M. German

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM that must be simultaneously satisfied—density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  17. PET radioligand injection for pig neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord; Landau, Anne M.

    2018-01-01

    Pigs are useful models in neuroimaging studies with positron emission tomography. Radiolabeled ligands are injected intravenously at the start of the scan and in pigs, the most easily accessible route of administration is the ear vein. However, in brain studies the short distance between the brai...

  18. An automatic injection system for rapid radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmia, M.J.; Kreek, S.A.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Hoffman, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of the Automated Injection System (AIS), a pneumatically actuated device for automated collection of nuclear reaction products from a He/KCl gas jet transport system. The AIS is used with the Automated Chemical Chromatographic Element Separation System; together these two devices facilitate completely automated separation procedures with improved speed and reproducibility

  19. Optimization of injection scheduling in geothermal fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovekin, J.

    1987-05-01

    This study discusses the application of algorithms developed in Operations Research to the optimization of brine reinjection in geothermal fields. The injection optimization problem is broken into two sub-problems: (1) choosing a configuration of injectors from an existing set of wells, and (2) allocating a total specified injection rate among chosen injectors. The allocation problem is solved first. The reservoir is idealized as a network of channels or arcs directly connecting each pair of wells in the field. Each arc in the network is considered to have some potential for thermal breakthrough. This potential is quantified by an arc-specific break-through index, b/sub ij/, based on user-specified parameters from tracer tests, field geometry, and operating considerations. The sum of b/sub ij/-values for all arcs is defined as the fieldwide breakthrough index, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells and rates so as to minimize B subject to constraints on the number of injectors and the total amount of fluid to be produced and reinjected. The study presents four computer programs which employ linear or quadratic programming to solve the allocation problem. In addition, a program is presented which solves the injector configuration problem by a combination of enumeration and quadratic programming. The use of the various programs is demonstrated with reference both to hypothetical data and an actual data set from the Wairakei Geothermal Field in New Zealand.

  20. Teflon injections in post-prostatectomy incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, P J; Røhl, H F

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five males with post-prostatectomy incontinence due to sphincter damage underwent transperineal or transurethral Teflon injections. The results were classified into three grades: good, moderate, and poor. Good or moderate results were obtained in 24%. No major immediate complications...

  1. Gas injection in PLT: experimental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G. L.; Bretz, N. I.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Hosea, J. C.; Johnson, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Cold gas injection serves both the obvious role of a particle source at the surface of the plasma and a more subtle role as one element in the process by which the relative impurity concentration and the MHD activity of a discharge are determined. Evidence offered by PLT experiments in support of these two widely recognized roles is considered.

  2. Catastrophic complication following injection and extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arthroscopic guided intra-lesional injection of the SCL with corticosteroids and autologous bone marrow concentrate was performed followed by ESWT of the MFC. The mare was discharged walking comfortably 48-hours post-operatively. An acute increase in lameness was noted 14 days post-operatively. Imaging revealed ...

  3. Flow Injection Analysis in Industrial Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald; Miró, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) is an analytical chemical continuous-flow (CF) method which in contrast to traditional CF-procedures does not rely on complete physical mixing (homogenisation) of the sample and the reagent(s) or on attaining chemical equilibria of the chemical reactions involved. Ex...

  4. Cerebellar herniation after cervical transforaminal epidural injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, William A; Mendez, Robert J; Paine, Gregory F; Mazzilli, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to inform readers of potential catastrophic complications associated with performing cervical transforaminal epidural steroid injections. A 31-year-old man presented to the pain clinic with a history of cervical radicular pain and right upper-extremity radicular symptoms. He was referred from the orthopedic spine clinic for evaluation for epidural steroid injection, having failed conservative treatment consisting of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, oral steroids, and physical therapy. After undergoing a transforaminal epidural steroid injection at the right C8 nerve root, he developed a cerebellar infarct and brainstem herniation. He survived but has residual deficits of persistent diplopia on right lateral gaze and difficulties with short-term memory loss and concentration. Although transforaminal epidural steroid injections are an efficacious treatment for radicular syndromes, there can be catastrophic complications. In light of the growing body of similar case reports, further investigation is warranted to establish a safe protocol for the use of this modality.

  5. Contraception With Medroxyprogesterone Injections in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five accidental pregnancies occurred (Pearl Index 0.22 per hundred woman years). Defaults from scheduled injections and discontinuations of use were common with a low continuation rate (7.6%) at the end of the observation period. Secondary amenorrhoea was responsible for 33.3% of discontinuations. Conclusion: ...

  6. Retro-review of flow injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzicka, Jaromir; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2008-01-01

    It is indeed unusual for authors to review their own monograph – J. Ruzicka, E.H. Hansen, Flow Injection Analysis, 2nd Edition, Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, UK, 1988. – and even more so if the book was published 20 years ago. Yet such an exercise might yield a perspective on the progress of an...

  7. Planning an Injection Mold Design Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allyn, Edward P.

    With the increased use of plastics worldwide the shortage of trained personnel in moldmaking and design for plastic injection molds is becoming critical. Local schools and community colleges should provide courses in mold design and mold making, since most workers presently learn while working under experienced designers on the job. Following this…

  8. Mould filling simulations during powder injection moulding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilovol, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    Powder injection moulding (PIM) is a versatile technology capable of producing complex and near net shape parts. Significant help in optimisation of the PIM process can be obtained from the numerical simulation. To obtain realistic numerical results it is necessary to fulfil certain conditions. The

  9. A suicide involving intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, Sarah; Steiner, Jasmin; Dussy, Franz; Moeckli, Regula; Gerlach, Kathrin; Briellmann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present an unusual case of suicide by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital, an overdose of zolpidem and the intake of diazepam, ethanol and other psychoactive substances. The autopsy and specimen collection were conducted in a 10 to 18 h postmortem interval. The toxicological analysis revealed a significantly higher pentobarbital concentration in femoral blood compared to cardiac blood (36 vs. 15 mg/L). On the contrary, zolpidem and diazepam concentrations in cardiac blood (2700 and 590 µg/L) were found to be significantly higher than in femoral blood (1500 and 230 µg/L). These findings point to a postmortem redistribution with a distinct gradient from areas of high drug concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract (zolpidem and diazepam) and the injection site (pentobarbital) to peripheral tissue. Ethanol concentration was 0.95 ‰ which amplified the CNS depression. The choice of this unusual suicide method was associated with the deceased's former job as a veterinarian's assistant. In veterinary medicine, the intraperitoneal injection of a lethal dose of pentobarbital is quite commonly performed to euthanise small animals. Intraperitoneal injection is rare as route of administration in humans.

  10. 21 CFR 522.1077 - Gonadorelin injectable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gonadorelin injectable. 522.1077 Section 522.1077 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...) Limitations. For intramuscular use only. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  11. Heroin and Methamphetamine Injection: An Emerging Drug Use Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tayyib, Alia; Koester, Stephen; Langegger, Sig; Raville, Lisa

    2017-07-03

    We sought to describe an emerging drug use pattern characterized by injection of both methamphetamine and heroin. We examined differences in drug injection patterns by demographics, injection behaviors, HIV and HCV status, and overdose. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) were recruited as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system in Denver, Colorado. We used chi-square statistics to assess differences between those who reported only heroin injection, only methamphetamine injection, and combined heroin and methamphetamine injection. We used generalized linear models to estimate unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios to describe the association between drug injection pattern and reported nonfatal overdose in 2015. We also examined changes in the drug reported as most frequently injected across previous NHBS cycles from 2005, 2009, and 2012. Of 592 participants who completed the survey in 2015, 173 (29.2%) reported only injecting heroin, 123 (20.8%) reported only injecting methamphetamine, and 296 (50.0%) reported injecting both drugs during the past 12 months. Injecting both heroin and methamphetamine was associated with a 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 4.5) fold increase in reported overdose in the past 12 months compared with only injecting heroin. The proportion of those reporting methamphetamine as the most frequently injected drug increased from 2.1% in 2005 to 29.6% in 2015 (p heroin, may have serious public health implications.

  12. Stability of fault submitted to fluid injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; Passelegue, F. X.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). However, this theory is valid only when the entire fault is affected by fluid pressure, which is not the case in nature, and during human induced-seismicity. In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Wave velocity surveys across the fault highlighted that decreasing the injection-rate leads to an increase of size of the fluid pressure perturbation. Our result demonstrate that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure requires to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by local high fluid overpressures. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes

  13. Reduced injection pressures using a compressed air injection technique (CAIT): an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Knezevich, Mark P; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2008-01-01

    High injection pressures have been associated with intraneural injection and persistent neurological injury in animals. Our objective was to test whether a reported simple compressed air injection technique (CAIT) would limit the generation of injection pressures to below a suggested 1,034 mm Hg limit in an in vitro model. After ethics board approval, 30 consenting anesthesiologists injected saline into a semiclosed system. Injection pressures using 30 mL syringes connected to a 22 gauge needle and containing 20 mL of saline were measured for 60 seconds using: (1) a typical "syringe feel" method, and (2) CAIT, thereby drawing 10 mL of air above the saline and compressing this to 5 mL prior to and during injections. All anesthesiologists performed the syringe feel method before introduction and demonstration of CAIT. Using CAIT, no anesthesiologist generated pressures above 1,034 mm Hg, while 29 of 30 produced pressures above this limit at some time using the syringe feel method. The mean pressure using CAIT was lower (636 +/- 71 vs. 1378 +/- 194 mm Hg, P = .025), and the syringe feel method resulted in higher peak pressures (1,875 +/- 206 vs. 715 +/- 104 mm Hg, P = .000). This study demonstrated that CAIT can effectively keep injection pressures under 1,034 mm Hg in this in vitro model. Animal and clinical studies will be needed to determine whether CAIT will allow objective, real-time pressure monitoring. If high pressure injections are proven to contribute to nerve injury in humans, this technique may have the potential to improve the safety of peripheral nerve blocks.

  14. UV-visible digital imaging of split injection in a Gasoline Direct Injection engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever tighter limits on pollutant emissions and the need to improve energy conversion efficiency have made the application of gasoline direct injection (GDI feasible for a much wider scale of spark ignition engines. Changing the way fuel is delivered to the engine has thus provided increased flexibility but also challenges, such as higher particulate emissions. Therefore, alternative injection control strategies need to be investigated in order to obtain optimum performance and reduced environmental impact. In this study, experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder GDI optical engine fuelled with commercial gasoline in lean-burn conditions. The single-cylinder was equipped with the head of a commercial turbocharged engine with similar geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio and wall guided fuel injection. Optical accessibility was ensured through a conventional elongated hollow Bowditch piston and an optical crown, accommodating a fused-silica window. Experimental tests were performed at fixed engine speed and injection pressure, whereas the injection timing and the number of injections were adjusted to investigate their influence on combustion and emissions. UV-visible digital imaging was applied in order to follow the combustion process, from ignition to the late combustion phase. All the optical data were correlated with thermodynamic analysis and measurements of exhaust emissions. Split injection strategies (i.e. two injections per cycle with respect to single injection increased combustion efficiency and stability thanks to an improvement of fuel air mixing. As a consequence, significant reduction in soot formation and exhaust emission with acceptable penalty in terms of HC and NOx were measured.

  15. Pharmacologic injection treatment of comitant strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debert, Iara; Miller, Joel M.; Danh, Kenneth K.; Scott, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the magnitude and stability of corrections in comitant horizontal strabismus achieved by injecting bupivacaine (BPX, optionally with epinephrine) and botulinum A toxin (BTXA) into extraocular muscles of alert adult subjects with electromyographic (EMG) guidance. Subjects & Methods A total of 55 adults with comitant horizontal strabismus participated in a prospective observational clinical series. Of these, 29 previously had undergone 1 or more unsuccessful strabismus surgeries; 4 had undergone other orbital surgeries. Thirty-one patients with esodeviations received BPX injections in a lateral rectus muscle, some with BTXA in the medial rectus; 24 patients with exodeviations received BPX in a medial rectus muscle, some with BTXA in the lateral rectus muscle. A second treatment (BPX, BTXA, or both) was administered to 27 patients who had residual strabismus after the first treatment. Five patients required additional injections. Clinical alignment was measured at 6 months and yearly thereafter through 5 years’ follow-up, with mean follow-up of 28 months. A successful outcome was defined as residual deviation ≤10Δ. Results On average, presenting misalignment of 23.8Δ (13.4°) was reduced at 28 months by 16.0Δ (9.1°), with successful outcomes in 56% of patients. Of patients with initial misalignments ≤25Δ, 66% had successful outcomes, with corrections averaging 13.2Δ (7.5°); of patients with larger misalignments, 40% had successful outcomes, with corrections averaging 20.9Δ (11.8°). Corrected alignments were stable over follow-ups as long as 5 years. Conclusions Injection treatments resulted in stable, clinically significant corrections in comitant horizontal strabismus. Injection provides a low-cost alternative to incisional strabismus surgery, particularly where it is desirable to minimize surgical anesthesia and avoid extraocular scarring. PMID:27079589

  16. Acupoint Injection of Onabotulinumtoxin A for Migraines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Onabotulinumtoxin A (BoNTA has been reported to be effective in the therapy for migraines. Acupuncture has been used worldwide for the treatment of migraine attacks. Injection of a small amount of drug at acupuncture points is an innovation as compared to traditional acupuncture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of fixed (muscle-site and acupoint-site injections of BoNTA for migraine therapy in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial extending over four months. Subjects with both episodic and chronic migraines respectively received a placebo (n = 19 or BoNTA (2.5 U each site, 25 U per subject injection at fixed-sites (n = 41 including occipitofrontalis, corrugator supercilii, temporalis and trapeziue, or at acupoint-sites (n = 42 including Yintang (EX-HN3, Taiyang (EX-HN5, Baihui (GV20, Shuaigu (GB8, Fengchi (GB20 and Tianzhu (BL10. The variations between baseline and BoNTA post-injection for four months were calculated monthly as outcome measures. BoNTA injections at fixed-sites and acupoint-sites significantly reduced the migraine attack frequency, intensity, duration and associated symptoms for four months compared with placebo (p < 0.01. The efficacy of BoNTA for migraines in the acupoint-site group (93% improvement was more significant than that in the fixed-site group (85% improvement (p < 0.01. BoNTA administration for migraines is effective, and at acupoint-sites shows more efficacy than at fixed-sites. Further blinded studies are necessary to establish the efficacy of a low dose toxin (25 U introduced with this methodology in chronic and episodic migraines.

  17. Vibration of safety injection pump motors; Vibrations des moteurs des pompes d`injection de securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattrelos, D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification test under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out test in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident. (author).

  18. Addendum: First injection technique recommendations for patients with diabetes, Forum for Injection Techniques India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forum for injection techniques, India recommendation, the first ever in the country on insulin injcetion techniques, have covered the science and the art of insulin injection technique in an exhaustive manner. However, a few gaps were identified in the document, which are addressed in the current addendum. This article focuses on insulin injection technique in special clinical situations, including geriatric people, women in pregnancy and those with dermatological or surgical disease who live with diabetes. The addendum also covers salient features of administration of insulin using the insulin pump.

  19. Correlates of shared methamphetamine injection among methamphetamine-injecting treatment seekers: the first report from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrjerdi, Zahra Alam; Abarashi, Zohreh; Noroozi, Alireza; Arshad, Leila; Zarghami, Mehran

    2014-05-01

    Shared methamphetamine injection is an emerging route of drug use among Iranian methamphetamine injectors. It is a primary vector for blood-borne infections. The aim of the current study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of shared methamphetamine injection in a sample of Iranian methamphetamine injecting treatment seekers in the south of Tehran. We surveyed male and female methamphetamine injectors at three drop-in centres and 18 drug-use community treatment programmes. Participants reported socio-demographic characteristics, drug use, high-risk behaviours, current status of viral infections and service use for drug treatment. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between participants' characteristics and shared methamphetamine injection. Overall, 209 clients were recruited; 90.9% were male; 52.6% reported current methamphetamine injection without any shared injection behaviour and 47.4% reported current shared methamphetamine injection. Shared methamphetamine injection was found to be primarily associated with living with sex partners (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.13-1.98), reporting ≥3 years of dependence on methamphetamine injection (AOR 1.61, 95% CI 1.27-2.12), injection with pre-filled syringes in the past 12 months (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.47-2.42), homosexual sex without condom use in the past 12 months (AOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.21-2.25), the paucity of NA group participation in the past 12 months (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.41-0.99), the paucity of attending psychotherapeutic sessions in the past 12 months (AOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.96) and positive hepatitis C status (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.67-2.83). Deeper exploration of the relationship between shared methamphetamine injection and sexual risk among Iranian methamphetamine injectors would benefit HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts. In addition, existing psychosocial interventions for methamphetamine-injecting population may need to be adapted to better meet the

  20. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopaedic University Hospital of Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zanetti, Marco [Hirslanden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hodler, Juerg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  1. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg

    2011-01-01

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  2. Intimate injection partnerships are at elevated risk of high-risk injecting: a multi-level longitudinal study of HCV-serodiscordant injection partnerships in San Francisco, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Evans, Jennifer; Montgomery, Martha; Yu, Michelle; Briceno, Alya; Page, Kimberly; Hahn, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that the risk for HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID), such as syringe sharing, occurs in the context of relationships between (at least) two people. Evidence suggests that the risk associated with injection behavior varies with injection partner types. We utilized longitudinal dyad-level data from a study of young PWID from San Francisco (2006 to 2013) to investigate the relationship-level factors influencing high-risk injecting within HCV-serodiscordant injection partners (i.e., individuals who injected together ≥5 times in the prior month). Utilizing data from 70 HCV-serodiscordant injection partnerships, we used generalized linear models to examine relationship-level predictors (i.e., partnership composition, partnership closeness, and partnership dynamics) of: (1) receptive syringe sharing (RSS); and (2) receptive cooker use (RCU), as reported by the HCV-negative injection partner. As reported by the "at-risk" HCV-negative injection partner, receptive syringe sharing (RSS) and receptive cooker use (RCU) were 19% and 33% at enrollment, and 11% and 12% over all visits (total follow-up time 55 person-years) resulting in 13 new HCV-infections (incidence rate: 23.8/100 person-years). Person-level factors, injection partnership composition, and partnership dynamics were not significantly associated with either RSS or RCU. Instead, intimate injection partnerships (those who lived together and were also in a sexual relationship) were independently associated with a 5-times greater risk of both RSS and a 7-times greater risk of RCU when compared to injecting only partnerships. Our findings suggest a positive, and amplified effect of relationship factors on injecting drug risk behaviors among young PWID injection partnerships. The majority of interventions to reduce injection drug use related harms focus on individual-based education to increase drug use knowledge. Our findings support the need to

  3. Existing Evidence on Ultrasound-Guided Injections in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Eldra W; Cole, David; Jacobs, Bret; Phillips, Shawn F

    2018-02-01

    Office-based ultrasonography has become increasingly available in many settings, and its use to guide joint and soft tissue injections has increased. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the use of ultrasound-guided injections over traditional landmark-guided injections, with a rapid growth in the literature over the past few years. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to demonstrate increased accuracy of ultrasound-guided injections regardless of anatomic location. In the upper extremity, ultrasound-guided injections have been shown to provide superior benefit to landmark-guided injections at the glenohumeral joint, the subacromial space, the biceps tendon sheath, and the joints of the hand and wrist. Ultrasound-guided injections of the acromioclavicular and the elbow joints have not been shown to be more efficacious. In the lower extremity, ultrasound-guided injections at the knee, ankle, and foot have superior efficacy to landmark-guided injections. Conclusive evidence is not available regarding improved efficacy of ultrasound-guided injections of the hip, although landmark-guided injection is performed less commonly at the hip joint. Ultrasound-guided injections are overall more accurate than landmark-guided injections. While current studies indicate that ultrasound guidance improves efficacy and cost-effectiveness of many injections, these studies are limited and more research is needed.

  4. CALIOP-derived Smoke Plume Injection Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Winker, D. M.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Westberg, D. J.; Roller, C. M.; Pouliot, G.; Vaughan, M.; Pierce, T. E.; Trepte, C. R.; Rao, V.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning is a dominant natural and anthropogenic disturbance that feeds back to the climate system. Fire regimes, ecosystem fuels, fire severity and intensity vary widely, even within the same system, largely under the control of weather and climate. These strongly influence fire plume injection height and thus the transport of related biomass burning emissions, affecting air quality, human health and the climate system. If our knowledge of plume injection height is incorrect, transport models of those emissions will likewise be incorrect, adversely affecting our ability to analyze and predict climate feedbacks (i.e. black carbon to the Arctic, precipitation, cloud-radiation relationships) and public health (air quality forecast). Historically, plume height was based on the pioneering work of G.A. Briggs [1969; 1971] and verified with limited field campaigns. However, we currently have two satellite instruments, Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard CALIPSO (afternoon overpass) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) onboard TERRA (morning overpass), that can provide the statistics necessary to verify our assumptions and improve fire plume injection height estimates for use in both small- and large-scale models. We have developed a methodology to assess fire plume injection height using the Langley Trajectory Model (LaTM), CALIOP, Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke plume, and MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly data that is capable of generating two distinct types of verification data. A single CALIOP smoke-filled aerosol envelop can be traced back to numerous fire events, and using multiple CALIOP transects from numerous days, a daily smoke plume injection height evolution from a single fire can be defined. Additionally, we have linked the smoke plumes to ecosystems and the meteorological variables that define fire weather. In concert, CALIOP and MISR data can produce the statistical knowledge

  5. Processing strategies for thin wall injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantakom, Patraporn

    1998-12-01

    Thin wall injection molding of a thin wall molding grade of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene were examined in this research. The work investigated the effect of melt and mold temperature on part weight, orientation, tensile strength, flow front profile and flow instability. The HPM H90-V6 injection molding machine, set at its maximum injection velocity was used in the study. A flow simulation was conducted using a commercially available computer program to verify its reliability for thin wall injection molding. Thermal pulse heating systems for heating the mold cavity surfaces prior to injection of the melt were examined. A data acquisition system was designed to record four pressure and four temperature signals inside the mold cavity. Increasing the melt and mold temperatures showed a positive effect on part weight, and tensile strength. However, when the melt temperature was increased beyond the resin's recommended melt temperature, the tensile strength of the part decreased and a change in color to the molded parts were an indication of polymer degradation. As a result, increasing the mold temperature was found to be a better strategy for improving the thin wall molding process. Two systems for thermal pulse heating were examined. One was a high-flow, low-pressure system while the other was a high-flow, high-pressure system. The high-pressure system yielded results that correlated with the calculation, but it required careful design. The low-pressure system showed positive results for heating the cavity surface. The scale-up possibilities of the low pressure system was very appealing. An unexpected melt flow front profile and a melt flow instability for the thin wall part during filling occurred as a result of high shear on the polymer melt in the cavity. The flow front profile was concave and resembled a fishtail curve. At the edge of the part where the shear rate is the highest, the melt viscosity dropped due to the pseudoplastic effects

  6. UV-visible digital imaging of split injection in a Gasoline Direct Injection engine

    OpenAIRE

    Merola Simona Silvia; Irimescu Adrian; Tornatore Cinzia; Valentini Stefano; Kruczek Gregor; Szlęk Andrzej; Adamczyk Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Ever tighter limits on pollutant emissions and the need to improve energy conversion efficiency have made the application of gasoline direct injection (GDI) feasible for a much wider scale of spark ignition engines. Changing the way fuel is delivered to the engine has thus provided increased flexibility but also challenges, such as higher particulate emissions. Therefore, alternative injection control strategies need to be investigated in order to obtain op...

  7. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Injection and Non-Injection Drug Use and Infectious Disease in Baltimore City: Differences by Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Larry; Khan, Maria; Clifford, Lisa; Harrell, Paul T.; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines differences in the prevalence of biologically-confirmed hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, and coinfection between Black and White adult cocaine/heroin users across three drug use subgroups identified in previous research (Harrell et al, 2012): non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users, heroin injectors, and polydrug injectors. Results 59% of the 482 participants in the study were male. Significant race differences emerged between drug use subgroup memberships. Non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users were predominantly Black (75%), while heroin injectors and polydrug injectors were predominantly White (69% and 72%, respectively). Polydrug injectors accounted for nearly three quarters of the HCV positive diagnoses in Whites. Though HIV disease status, stratified by race, did not differ significantly between drug use subgroups, the non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin subgroup contained over half of the HIV positive diagnoses in the sample and was predominantly Black. Despite much lower rates of injection, Blacks (8%) had a higher prevalence of coinfection than Whites (3%; X2 (2) = 6.18, p = .015). Conclusions The current findings are consistent with trends in recent HIV transmission statistics where sexual activity has overtaken injection drug use as a HIV risk factor. The current findings also provide further support to the notion of injection drug use as an exceedingly high-risk behavior for HCV and coinfection, specifically those who are polysubstance injectors. PMID:24837755

  9. Delayed flumazenil injection after endoscopic sedation increases patient satisfaction compared with immediate flumazenil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Jung; Bang, Byoung Wook; Kim, Hyung Gil; Kwon, Kye Sook; Shin, Yong Woon; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Park, Shin Goo

    2014-01-01

    Flumazenil was administered after the completion of endoscopy under sedation to reduce recovery time and increase patient safety. We evaluated patient satisfaction after endoscopy under sedation according to the timing of a postprocedural flumazenil injection. In total, 200 subjects undergoing concurrent colonoscopy and upper endoscopy while sedated with midazolam and meperidine were enrolled in our investigation. We randomly administered 0.3 mg of flumazenil either immediately or 15 minutes after the endoscopic procedure. A postprocedural questionnaire and next day telephone interview were conducted to assess patient satisfaction. Flumazenil injection timing did not affect the time spent in the recovery room when comparing the two groups of patients. However, the subjects in the 15 minutes injection group were more satisfied with undergoing endoscopy under sedation than the patients in the immediate injection group according to the postprocedural survey (p=0.019). However, no difference in overall satisfaction, memory, or willingness to undergo a future endoscopy was observed between the two groups when the telephone survey was conducted on the following day. This study demonstrated that a delayed flumazenil injection after endoscopic sedation increased patient satisfaction without prolonging recovery time, even though the benefit of the delayed flumazenil injection did not persist into the following day.

  10. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  11. Hip Pain: Dry Needling Versus Cortisone Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is chronic, intermittent pain and tenderness on the outside of the hip. The medical community once thought that a swollen hip bursa was the source of such pain, which led to the use of corticosteroid injections to the bursa to help decrease swelling and pain. However, researchers now believe that injuries to the muscles and tendons around the hip are the actual cause of this pain, and that inflammation is often not involved. A study published in the April 2017 issue of JOSPT explores dry needling as an alternative to cortisone injections to reduce pain and improve function in patients with GTPS. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(4):240. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0504.

  12. Steam injection in Colombia under challenging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waghray, J.P. [Mansovar Energy Colombia Ltd (Colombia)

    2011-07-01

    Mansarovar Energy Columbia Ltd. is a company extracting heavy oil from its Colombian fields. In order to enhance the production and at the same time to contribute to the economic recovery, they are using the cyclic steam injection method. The aim of this presentation is to show what are the challenges facing heavy oil extraction in Colombia, what is the state of the art, and what needs to be improved. Heavy oil extraction in Colombia presents two sorts of challenges: operational ones related to sanding problems and diluents and gas availability; and commercial ones, related to low return rates. The use of steam injection in conventional wells can, however, increase both productivity and the rate of return while at the same time enhancing the recovery factor by 10 to 15%. For the future, improvement in drilling and completion, production, and steam efficiency will be necessary as well as the implementation of the appropriate enhanced oil recovery processes.

  13. Intradiscal corticosteroid injections in spondylotic cervical radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayad, Fouad; Rannou, Francois; Rahmani, Lamia; Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Nys, Alain; Poiraudeau, Serge; Ledoux, Michel; Revel, Michel [Hopital Cochin (AP-HP) Universite Paris 5, Service de Reeducation et de Readaptation de l' Appareil Locomoteur et des Pathologies du Rachis, Paris (France); Drape, Jean L.; Chevrot, Alain [Hopital Cochin (AP-HP), Department of Radiology B, Paris (France)

    2007-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate treatment outcomes with intradiscal injection of corticosteroids (IDIC) in cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. Twenty consecutive patients were treated with intradiscal injection of 25 mg of acetate of prednisolone under fluoroscopic control. All patients had previously received a nonsurgical treatment for at least 3 months without success. Outcomes were assessed 1, 3 and 6 months after IDIC. Radicular pain reduction as scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS 100-mm length) was statistically significant at 1 month (19.0{+-}28.0 mm; p=0.008), 3 months (25.2{+-}27.5 mm; p=0.002), and 6 months (24.6{+-}28.4 mm; p=0.001). In all, 40% of treated patients described at least 50% pain improvement 6 months after treatment. Four patients had complete relief of radicular pain. In conclusion, IDIC should be an alternative in the nonsurgical management of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. (orig.)

  14. Residual stress measurement for injection molded components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Adhikari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress induced during manufacturing of injection molded components such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA affects the mechanical and optical properties of these components. These residual stresses can be visualized and quantified by measuring their birefringence. In this paper, a low birefringence polariscope (LBP is used to measure the whole-field residual stress distribution of these injection molded specimens. Detailed analytical and experimental study is conducted to quantify the residual stress measurement in these materials. A commercial birefringence measurement system was used to validate the results obtained to our measurement system. This study can help in material diagnosis for quality and manufacturing purpose and be useful for understanding of residual stress in imaging or other applications.

  15. VLF wave injections from the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments on wave-particle interactions using VLF whistler-mode waves injected into the magnetosphere from Antartica are described. The injected signals are single-frequency coherent waves whose amplitudes and frequencies may be changed slowly with time, or else two or more coherent wave trains transmitted simultaneously to determine the nature of the response to multifrequency excitation. The waves may be amplified 30 dB or more and may trigger intense emissions having bandwidths that vary from a few to several hundred Hertz. In most cases significant growth and triggering occur only when the driving signal is essentially monochromatic (bandwidth 10 Hz). If two frequencies are transmitted simultaneously the signal at the lower frequency tends to be suppressed by 20 dB or more. These results are interpreted in terms of a feedback interaction between the waves and counter-streaming cyclotron resonant electrons in a region several hundred wavelengths long, centered on the magnetic equator.

  16. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  17. Chemiluminescence detection of peroxynitrite with flow injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dai; Evmiridis, Nick P.; Vlessidis, Athanasios; Zhou, Yikai

    2001-09-01

    Peroxynitrite is an important derivative made by nitric oxide in vivo. It can make damages in many kinds of tissue and cells. Its research value in heart disease and cancer is a very high. A sensitive, specific method for analysis of peroxynitrite is described. In this method, chemiluminescence reaction between perodynitrite and luminol was used to detect with flow injection system. The assay has a detection limit of 2 by 10-8 mol L-1, and linear range of 5 by 10-8 mol L-1 to 5 by 10-5 mol L-1. The application o f flow injection system offers the possibility to establish biosensor for real-time detection of perodynitrite.

  18. Charge Injection and Transport in Conjugated Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaras, George

    2007-03-01

    We will overview the state-of-the-art in our understanding of charge injection and transport in conjugated polymers. We start by discussing the identifying characteristics of this class of materials, especially in relation with their structure and morphology. We follow by reviewing the advantages and limitations of experimental techniques that are used to probe charge transport. We then embark on a discussion of the fundamentals of charge transport in organics. We follow a didactic approach, where we start from transport in crystalline semiconductors and gradually introduce corrections for space charge effects, for the influence of disorder on mobility, for high charge densities, and for electric field-dependent charge densities. We compare with experimental data from polyfluorenes. We then shift our attention to charge injection. We review some of the recent theories and compared their predictions to experimental data, again from polyfluorenes. We close by proposing directions for future work.

  19. Method for Converter Synchronization with RF Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua P. Bruckmeyer; Ivica Kostanic

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an injection method for synchronizing analog to digital converters (ADC). This approach can eliminate the need for precision routed discrete synchronization signals of current technologies, such as JESD204. By eliminating the setup and hold time requirements at the conversion (or near conversion) clock rate, higher sample rate systems can be synchronized. Measured data from an existing multiple ADC conversion system was used to evaluate the method. Coherent beams were simu...

  20. Heating of toroidal plasmas by neutral injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, T.H.

    1971-08-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the physics of ion acceleration, charge exchange and ionization, trajectories for fast ions in toroidal magnetic fields, and fast-ion thermalization. The injection of fast atoms is found to be a highly competitive method both for heating present-day experimental toroidal plasmas and for bringing full-scale toroidal CTR plasmas to low-density ignition. 13 refs., 9 figs

  1. PLT neutral injection ignitron accelerating supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashcroft, D.L.; Murray, J.G.; Newman, R.A.; Peterson, F.L.

    1976-03-01

    A phase-controlled rectifier has been designed for the accelerating supply on the PLT Neutral Beam Injection system at PPPL. The rectifier must furnish 70 amperes at up to 50 KV for 300 milliseconds, with a duty cycle of up to 10 percent. Protection of the injectors requires the supply to withstand repeated crowbarring. The rectifying element selected to satisfy these requirements was a commercially-available ignitron, installed in a supporting frame and using firing circuits and controls designed by PPPL

  2. Tennis elbow: role of local steroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gulzar Saeed; Ali, Muhammad; Trago, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a condition, characterised by pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and pain on resisted dorsiflexion of the wrist, middle finger, or both. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the short term efficacy of local steroid injection compared with oral and topical NSAIDs. Sixty patients (45 male and 15 female) were included in the study. The mean age was 42 years for men and 40 years for women. They were placed in group A and B (30 cases each). Group A received local steroid injection (triamcinolone 20 mg mixed with lignocaine 2% 1 cc) and topical NSAID cream application (diclofenac diethylammonium) twice a day, tab. diclofenac sodium 50 mg twice a day for 3 weeks. Group B received tab diclofenac 50 mg twice a day and, topical NSAID cream application twice a day for 3 weeks. Assessment of patients was made 3 times; first at the start of the study, 2nd time after 6 weeks, and 3rd time after 12 weeks. A blinded assessor rated the elbow complaints of the patients at resisted dorsiflexion of wrist using VAS (0 = no severity, 1-3 mild, 4-6 moderate, 7-9 sever, 10 = maximum severity). At six weeks, 22 (73.33%) patient in group A had no pain as compared to 7 (23.33%) patients in group B who were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 38.75). At 12 weeks 27 (90%) patients in group A were pain free compared to group B in which 7 (23.33%) patients were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 27.56). In patients with tennis elbow, the use of local steroid injection in combination with topical and oral NSAIDs is superior to the use of combination of topical and oral NSAIDs. Better results with combination therapy using local steroid injection may be limited to the short term.

  3. Bistability in a laser with injected signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorobantu, I.A.; Vlad, V.I.; Ursu, I.

    1987-04-01

    A unified description of bistability is given in free running lasers, optical bistable devices, ring lasers and lasers with an injected signal (LIS). A general review of laser instabilities is also presented in the frame of the theory of elementary catastrophes, emphasizing the apparence of higher order catastrophes in the case of a LIS suggesting thus a possibility to devise from first principles the whole hierarchy of laser instabilities. Experimental results on the bistability in the polarisation of LIS are also discussed. (authors)

  4. Durability 2007. Injection grout investigations. Background description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orantie, K.; Kuosa, H.

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this project was to evaluate the durability risks of injection grouts. The investigations were done with respect to the application conditions, materials and service life requirements at the ONKALO underground research facility. The study encompassed injection grout mixtures made of ultrafine cement with and without silica fume. Some of the mixtures hade a low pH and thus a high silica fume content. The project includes a background description on durability literature, laboratory testing programme, detailed analysis of results and recommendations for selecting of ideal grout mixtures. The background description was made for the experimental study of low-pH and reference rock injection grouts as regards pore- and microstructure, strength, shrinkage/swelling and thus versatile durability properties. A summary of test methods is presented as well as examples, i.e. literature information or former test results, of expected range of results from the tests. Also background information about how the test results correlate to other material properties and mix designs is presented. Besides the report provides basic information on the pore structure of cement based materials. Also the correlation between the pore structure of cement based materials and permeability is shortly discussed. The test methods included in the background description are compressive strength, measurement of bulk drying, autogenous and chemical shrinkage and swelling, hydraulic conductivity / permeability, capillary water uptake test, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and thin section analysis. Three main mixtures with water-binder ratio of 0.8, 1.0 and 1.4 and silica fume content of 0, 15 and 40% were studied in the laboratory. Besides two extra mixtures were studied to provide additional information about the effect of varying water-dry-material ratio and silica fume content on durability. The evaluation of water tightness based on water permeability coefficient and micro cracking was

  5. HIV and Injection Drug Use PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-29

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the December 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Sharing needles, syringes, and other injection equipment puts you at risk for getting HIV and other infections, including hepatitis. Learn how to reduce your HIV risk.  Created: 11/29/2016 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Tuberculosis Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/29/2016.

  6. Yasp for LEIR to PS injection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartosik, H; Huschauer, A; Jacquet, D; Nicosia, D; Pasinelli, S; Wenninger, J

    2017-01-01

    The steering program YASP was introduced in the LEIRinjection as well as the extraction lines in 2016 to correctthe trajectories with well-known model based correctionalgorithms such as MICADO or SVD. In addition a YASPconfiguration was prepared to correct the extraction linetogether with the first turn of the PS. In this way the injectionoscillations can be corrected while keeping the trajectoryreasonable in the PS injection line.

  7. Injective objects and retracts of Fraisse limits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubiś, Wieslaw

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2015), s. 807-842 ISSN 0933-7741 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0290 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : amalgamation * Fraissé limit * injective object Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.823, year: 2015 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/forum.2015.27.issue-2/forum-2012-0081/forum-2012-0081. xml

  8. Injectable pharmacotherapy for opioid use disorders (IPOD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabee, David; Hillhouse, Maureen; Condon, Timothy; McCrady, Barbara; McCollister, Kathryn; Ling, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing prevalence of opioid use among offenders, pharmacotherapy remains an underused treatment approach in correctional settings. The aim of this 4-year trial is to assess the clinical utility, effectiveness, and cost implications of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, Vivitrol®; Alkermes Inc.) alone and in conjunction with patient navigation for jail inmates with opioid use disorder (OUD). Opioid-dependent inmates will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions before being released to the community to include: 1) XR-NTX only; 2) XR-NTX plus patient navigation (PN), and 3) enhanced treatment-as-usual (ETAU) with drug education and a community treatment referral. Before release from jail, participants in the XR-NTX and XR-NTX plus PN conditions will receive their first XR-NTX injection. Those in the XR-NTX plus PN condition also will meet with a patient navigator. Participants in both XR-NTX conditions will be scheduled for medical management sessions twice monthly for months 1-3, monthly medical management sessions for months 4-6, with monthly injections for 5months post-release (which, given the pre-release injection, results in a 6-month medication phase). Follow-up data collection will occur at 1, 3, 6, and 12months post release. We discuss the study's rationale, aims, methods, and anticipated findings. The primary outcome is the presence of a DSM 5 OUD diagnosis 1year after randomization (6months after the end of the active treatment phase). We hypothesize that providing XR-NTX prior to release from jail will be particularly beneficial for this extremely high-risk population by reducing opioid use, associated criminal behavior, and injection-related disease risk. ClinicalTrials.Gov: NCT02110264. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Depot medroxyprogesterone injectable contraception at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-23

    Tous les clients reçus leurs injections dans les sept jours de menstruation. Les effets secondaires plus courantes étaient aménorrhée (12,0%) et spotting. Original Article. [Downloaded from http://www.annalsafrmed.org on Monday, May 23, 2011, IP: 41.185.176.151] || Click here to download free Android application for this ...

  10. Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

  11. The Re-injection Loop concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Fischer, Christian; Malmgren-Hansen, Bjørn; Uellendahl, Hinrich

    per ton. Based on previous studies on using pretreatment for enhancing the biogas yield of these feedstocks, a new concept called Re-Injection Loop was developed by combining separation and recirculation of the digested fiber fraction with pretreatment of the recalcitrant lignocellulosic fiber...... fraction. The EU project BIOMAN is currently investigating different technologies for separation, mechanical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to establish an economically viable concept for manure-based biogas plants....

  12. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Tokamak formation and sustainment by tokamak injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farengo, R.; Jarboe, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose here a new helicity injection method for tokamak formation and sustainment that has high efficiency, conserves toroidal symmetry and is inductively driven. The basic idea is to inject a small tokamak (source tokamak) into a larger tokamak (steady tokamak). This current drive scheme eliminates the need for the ohmic heating transformer in the steady tokamak allowing the formation of very small aspect ratio tokamaks (Spherical Tori). Thus, steady state operation and high beta can be realized simultaneously. The method can also be applied to a larger aspect ratio tokamak and used in conjunction with the standard inductive formation technique. In order to allow for translation the ohmic heating coil used to produce the source tokamaks must be fed from one end (as in the CSS device) and the toroidal field coil must link both tokamaks. After formation the source tokamaks are accelerated towards the steady tokamak by a mirror field and the tension of the field lines that wrap around both tokamaks (producing a doublet type configuration). In a tokamak the helicity is proportional to the current. This indicates that (assuming helicity is conserved during the merging process) a steady state situation will result if the helicity supplied by the source tokamaks is equal to the helicity dissipated by the steady tokamak. Assuming that source tokamaks of helicity K s are injected with frequency f, the steady state condition can be written as: fK s = 2V t Ψ t = K t /τ K where V t , Ψ t , K t and τ K are the ohmic loop voltage, toroidal flux, helicity and helicity decay time of the steady tokamak. A simple calculation shows that the DIII-D tokamak could be sustained by injecting source tokamaks with R = 1.20 m, a = 0.23 m and I = 151 kA at a frequency of 120 Hz. 1 ref

  14. MR neurography of sciatic nerve injection injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mirko; Wessig, Carsten; Brinkhoff, Jörg; Reiners, Karlheinz; Stoll, Guido; Bendszus, Martin

    2011-06-01

    We report on magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) as a supplementary diagnostic tool in sciatic nerve injection injury. The object of the study was to test if T2-weighted (w) contrast within the sciatic nerve serves as an objective criterion for sciatic injection injury. Three patients presented with acute sensory and/or motor complaints in the distribution of the sciatic nerve after dorsogluteal injection and underwent MRN covering gluteal, thigh and knee levels. Native and contrast-enhanced T1-w images were employed to identify the tibial and peroneal division of the sciatic nerve while T2-w images with fat suppression allowed visualization of the site and extent of the nerve lesion. MRN in the two patients with clinically severe sensory and motor impairment correctly depicted sciatic injury: continuity of the T2-w lesion within the nerve at the lesion site and distal to it corresponded well to severe injury confirmed by NCS/EMG as axonotmetic or neurotmetic. Topography of the T2-w lesion on cross-section corresponded to predominant peroneal involvement; moreover, associated denervation patterns of distal target muscles were revealed. One of these patients completely recovered with concomitant complete regression of MRN abnormalities on follow-up. The third patient experienced transient sensory and mild motor impairment with complete recovery after 2 weeks. In this patient, T2-w signal within the nerve and distal target muscles remained normal indicating only mild, non-axonal nerve affliction. Our case series shows that MRN can be very useful in precisely determining the site of sciatic injection injury and may provide diagnostic criteria for the assessment of lesion severity and recovery.

  15. Ultrasound-guided sacroiliac joint injection technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, Dominic

    2008-07-01

    We describe a case report and technique for using a portable ultrasound scanner and a curvilinear transducer (4-5MHz) (SonoSite Micromaxx SonoSite, Inc. 21919 30th Drive SE Bothwell W. A.) to guide sacroiliac joint (SIJ) injection. A 42-year-old male presented with chronic lower back pain centered on his left SIJ. His pain averaged 7 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). For the ultrasound-guided SIJ injection the patient was placed in the prone position. The ultrasound transducer was oriented in a transverse orientation at the level of the sacral hiatus. Here the sacral cornuae were identified. Moving the transducer laterally from here, the lateral edge of the sacrum was identified. This bony edge was followed in a cephalad direction with the transducer maintained in a transverse orientation. A second bony contour, the ileum, was identified. The cleft between both bony contours represented the sacroiliac joint. This was found at 4.5 cm depth. Real-time imaging was used to direct a 22G spinal needle into the SIJ, where solution was injected under direct vision. The patient\\'s pain intensity decreased to a 2 out of 10 (numerical rating scale). Function improved and the patient was able to return to work. These improvements were maintained at 16 weeks. Ultrasound guidance does not expose patients and personnel to radiation and is readily accessible. Ultrasound-guided SIJ injections may have particular applications in the management of chronic lower back pain in certain clinical scenarios (e.g. pregnancy). Future studies to demonstrate efficacy and reproducibility are needed.

  16. Effect of the Ethanol Injection Moment During Compression Stroke on the Combustion of Ethanol - Diesel Dual Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhou, Liying; Huang, Haomin; Xu, Mingfei; Guo, Mei; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    A set of GDI system is installed on a F188 single-cylinder, air-cooled and direct injection diesel engine, which is used for ethanol injection, with the injection time controlled by the crank angle signal collected by AVL angle encoder. The injection of ethanol amounts to half of the thermal equivalent of an original diesel fuel. A 3D combustion model is established for the ethanol - diesel dual direct injection engine. Diesel was injected from the original fuel injection system, with a fuel supply advance angle of 20°CA. The ethanol was injected into the cylinder during compression process. Diesel injection began after the completion of ethanol injection. Ethanol injection starting point of 240°CA, 260°CA, 280°CA, 300°CA and 319.4°CA were simulated and analyzed. Due to the different timing of ethanol injection, the ignition of the ethanol mixture when diesel fires, results in non-uniform ignition distribution and flame propagation rate, since the distribution and concentration gradients of the ethanol mixture in the cylinder are different, thus affecting the combustion process. The results show that, when ethanol is injected at 319.4°CA, the combustion heat release rate and the pressure rise rate during the initial stage are the highest. Also, the maximum combustion pressure, with a relatively advance phase, is the highest. In case of later initial ethanol injection, the average temperature in the cylinder during the initial combustion period will have a faster rise. In case of initial injection at 319.4°CA, the average temperature in the cylinder is the highest, followed by 240°CA ethanol injection. In the post-combustion stage, the earlier ethanol injection will result in higher average temperature in the cylinder and more complete fuel combustion. The injection of ethanol at 319.4°CA produces earlier and highest NOX emissions.

  17. The Advanced Photon Source injection timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source consists of five accelerators. The injection timing system provides the signals required to cause a bunch emitted from the electron gun to navigate through intermediate accelerators to a specific bucket (1 out of 1296) within the storage ring. Two linacs and a positron accumulator ring operate at 60Hz while a booster synchrotron ramps and injects into the storage ring at 2Hz. The distributed, modular VME/VXI-based injection timing system is controlled by two EPICS-based input/output controllers (IOCs). Over 40 VME/VXI cards have been developed to implement the system. Card types range from 352MHz VXI timing modules to VME-based fiber optic fanouts and logic translators/drivers. All timing is distributed with fiber optics. Timing references are derived directly from machine low-level rf of 9.77MHz and 352MHz. The timing references provide triggers to programmable delay generators. Three grades of timing are provided. Precision timing is derived from commercial digital delay generators, intermediate precision timing is obtained from VXI 8-channel digital delay generators which provide timing with 25ns peak-to-peak jitter, and modest precision timing is provided by the APS event system. The timing system is fully integrated into the APS EPICS-based control system

  18. Image-guided facet joint injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, Wcg

    2011-01-01

    Chronic spine pain poses a peculiar diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to multiple pain sources, overlapping clinical features and nonspecific radiological findings. Facet joint injection is an interventional pain management tool for facet-related spinal pain that can be effectively administered by a radiologist. This technique is the gold standard for identifying facet joints as the source of spinal pain. The major indications for facet injections include strong clinical suspicion of the facet syndrome, focal tenderness over the facet joints, low back pain with normal radiological findings, post-laminectomy syndrome with no evidence of arachnoiditis or recurrent disc disease, and persistent low back pain after spinal fusion. The contraindications are more ancillary, with none being absolute. Like any synovial joint degeneration, inflammation and injury can lead to pain on motion, initiating a vicious cycle of physical deconditioning, irritation of facet innervations and muscle spasm. Image-guided injection of local anesthetic and steroid into or around the facet joint aims to break this vicious cycle and thereby provide pain relief. This outpatient procedure has high diagnostic accuracy, safety and reproducibility but the therapeutic outcome is variable.

  19. Injectable, Tough Alginate Cryogels as Cancer Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ting-Yu; Blacklow, Serena O; Li, Aileen W; Freedman, Benjamin R; Bencherif, Sidi; Koshy, Sandeep T; Darnell, Max C; Mooney, David J

    2018-02-14

    A covalently crosslinked methacrylated (MA)-alginate cryogel vaccine has been previously shown to generate a potent response against murine melanoma, but is not mechanically robust and requires a large 16G needle for delivery. Here, covalent and ionic crosslinking of cryogels are combined with the hypothesis that this will result in a tough MA-alginate cryogel with improved injectability. All tough cryogels can be injected through a smaller, 18G needle without sustaining any damage, while covalently crosslinked-only cryogels break after injection. Cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine (CpG)-delivering tough cryogels effectively activate dendritic cells (DCs). Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor releasing tough cryogels recruit four times more DCs than blank gels by day 7 in vivo. The tough cryogel vaccine induces strong antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte and humoral responses. These vaccines prevent tumor formation in 80% of mice inoculated with HER2/neu-overexpressing DD breast cancer cells. The MA-alginate tough cryogels provide a promising minimally invasive delivery platform for cancer vaccinations. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. PEP-II injection timing and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, V.; Browne, M.; Crane, M.; Gromme, T.; Himel, T.; Ross, M.; Stanek, M.; Ronan, M.

    1997-07-01

    Hardware has been built and software written and incorporated in the existing SLC accelerator control system to control injection of beam pulses from the accelerator into the PEP-II storage rings currently under construction. Hardware includes a CAMAC module to delay the machine timing fiducial in order that a beam pulse extracted from a damping ring will be injected into a selected group of four 476 MHz buckets in a PEP-II ring. Further timing control is accomplished by shifting the phase of the bunches stored in the damping rings before extraction while leaving the phase of the PEP-II stored beam unchanged. The software which drives timing devices on a pulse-to-pulse basis relies on a dedicated communication link on which one scheduling microprocessor broadcasts a 128-bit message to all distributed control microprocessors at 360 Hz. PEP-II injection will be driven by the scheduling microprocessor according to lists specifying bucket numbers in arbitrary order, and according to scheduling constraints maximizing the useful beam delivered to the SLC collider currently in operation. These lists will be generated by a microprocessor monitoring the current stored per bucket in each of the PEP-II rings

  1. Shattered Pellet Injection Simulations With NIMROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charlson; Parks, Paul; Lao, Lang; Lehnan, Michael; Loarte, Alberto; Izzo, Valerie; Nimrod Team

    2017-10-01

    Shattered Pellet Injection (SPI) will be the Disruption Mitigation System in ITER. SPI propels a cryo-pellet of high-Z and deuterium into a sharp bend of the flight tube, shattering the pellet into a plume of shards. These shards are injected into the plasma to quench it and mitigate forces and heat loads that may damage in-vessel components. We use NIMROD to perform 3-D nonlinear MHD simulations of SPI to study the thermal quench. This work builds upon prior Massive Gas Injection (MGI) studies by Izzo. A Particle-in-Cell (PIC) model is implemented to mimic the shards, providing a discrete moving source. Observations indicate that the quench proceeds in two phases. Initially, the outer plasma is shed via interchange-like instabilities while preserving the core temperature. This results in a steep gradient and triggers the second phase, an external kink-like event that collapses the core. We report on the radiation efficiency and toroidal peaking as well as fueling efficiency and other metrics that assess the efficacy of the SPI system. Work supported by GA ITER Contract ITER/CT/14/4300001108 and US DOE DE-FG02-95ER54309.

  2. Injectable silk foams for soft tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Lo, Tim J; Fournier, Eric P; Brown, Joseph E; Abbott, Rosalyn D; Gil, Eun S; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Leisk, Gary G; Kaplan, David L

    2015-02-18

    Soft tissue fillers are needed for restoration of a defect or augmentation of existing tissues. Autografts and lipotransfer have been under study for soft tissue reconstruction but yield inconsistent results, often with considerable resorption of the grafted tissue. A minimally invasive procedure would reduce scarring and recovery time as well as allow the implant and/or grafted tissue to be placed closer to existing vasculature. Here, the feasibility of an injectable silk foam for soft tissue regeneration is demonstrated. Adipose-derived stem cells survive and migrate through the foam over a 10-d period in vitro. The silk foams are also successfully injected into the subcutaneous space in a rat and over a 3-month period integrating with the surrounding native tissue. The injected foams are palpable and soft to the touch through the skin and returning to their original dimensions after pressure is applied and then released. The foams readily absorb lipoaspirate making the foams useful as a scaffold or template for existing soft tissue filler technologies, useful either as a biomaterial alone or in combination with the lipoaspirate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. [Treatment of Dupuytren's contracture by collagenase injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foissac, R; Camuzard, O; Dumas, P; Dumontier, C; Chignon-Sicard, B

    2013-09-01

    Dupuytren's disease is a disorder of the palmar aponeurosis responsible for apparition of pathological collagen cords that will gradually lead to a digital retraction. These cords cause functional disability to the hand with a real handicap for the patient. No curative treatment exists currently in this disease. Injections of collagenase from Clostridium histolyticum cause lysis of the collagen present in the cords and cause an interruption of the palmar cord. It is a new treatment in the management of Dupuytren's disease. The use of collagenase injection in the treatment of palmar form of Dupuytren's disease gives good results in the short and medium terms. It is a simple, minimally invasive treatment, several studies have proven its effectiveness and it approximates percutaneous needle fasciotomy in its easy use and its indications. Patients should be well informed about local reactions and transient pain with the injection of C. histolyticum collagenase. Diffusion of this technique is still limited by: the assessment of its cost compared to that of other methods of treatment and particularly the needle fasciotomy, and the evaluation of results over the long-term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Tomography at Injection in the PSB

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The PSB was conceived as an intensity booster for fixed-target physics. Consequently, no attempt was ever made to synchronize the turns injected into each ring with the rf in that ring because as many as a dozen such turns were expected to be superposed longitudinally [1]. When only a small, non-integer number of turns is injected, this asynchronism results in a particle distribution whose initial phase fluctuates wildly from shot to shot with respect to the rf bucket into which it is subsequently captured. This has long been suspected to be an ingredient in the intensity non-reproducibility observed for low-intensity beams, such as pilot beams for the LHC [2]. An MD cycle has been built to pursue this suspicion (in one ring, at least) by introducing, in a fully ppm fashion, distributor timings that are first resynchronized to the rf train of Ring3 and that then count 40 MHz clock ticks to reduce any jitter to just 25 ns (cf., the bucket duration at Booster injection is 1.67 μs). Leaving aside the origin...

  5. Relative injectivity and CS-modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmed Kamal

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that a direct decomposition of modules M⊕N, with N homologically independent to the injective hull of M, is a CS-module if and only if N is injective relative to M and both of M and N are CS-modules. As an application, we prove that a direct sum of a non-singular semisimple module and a quasi-continuous module with zero socle is quasi-continuous. This result is known for quasi-injective modules. But when we confine ourselves to CS-modules we need no conditions on their socles. Then we investigate direct sums of CS-modules which are pairwise relatively inective. We show that every finite direct sum of such modules is a CS-module. This result is known for quasi-continuous modules. For the case of infinite direct sums, one has to add an extra condition. Finally, we briefly discuss modules in which every two direct summands are relatively inective.

  6. Injectable sodium pentobarbital: Stability at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Sydney M; Geisbuhler, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    Sodium pentobarbital (Nembutal) is a barbiturate used in research as an anesthetic in many animal models. The injectable form of this drug has lately become difficult to procure and prohibitively expensive. Due to this lack of availability, researchers have begun to compound injectable sodium pentobarbital from so-called "nonpharmaceutical" pentobarbital. Some oversight agencies have objected to this practice, claiming a lack of quality control and degradation of the drug. We sought with this study to establish both: 1) a protocol for the preparation of injectable sodium pentobarbital, and 2) standard operating procedures to monitor the quality of the preparation and degradation of the drug over time. Our preparation consists of a mixture of sodium pentobarbital in alkaline aqueous solution, propylene glycol, and ethanol. Pentobarbital content in this preparation was assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). We also assayed pentobarbital content over time in preparations of various ages up to 6 years old. We determined that the drug degraded at a maximum of 0.5% per year in our preparation (alkaline water/propylene glycol/ethanol) when stored in the dark at room temperature. A yellow discoloration developed after about 2 years, which we have arbitrarily determined disqualifies the preparation from use as an anesthetic. Attempts to spectroscopically assay this discoloration were not successful. Pentobarbital sodium (CID: 14075609). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections: where does the injectate go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Eugene; Presley, James C; Murthy, Naveen; Pawlina, Wojciech; Smith, Jay

    2013-08-01

    To determine the distribution of sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections in an unembalmed cadaveric model. A single experienced operator completed 10 sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections in 10 unembalmed cadaveric specimens (5 right and 5 left) obtained from 6 donors (2 male and 4 female) aged 49 to 95 years (mean, 77.5 years) with a mean body mass index of 23.2 kg/m(2) (range, 18.4-26.3 kg/m(2)). A 12-3-MHz linear array transducer was used to direct a 22-gauge, 38-mm stainless steel needle deep to the plantar fascia at the anterior aspect of the calcaneus using an in-plane, medial-to-lateral approach. In each case, 1.5 mL of 50% diluted colored latex was injected deep to the plantar fascia. After a minimum of 72 hours, study coinvestigators dissected each specimen to assess injectate placement. All 10 injections accurately placed latex adjacent to the deep side of the plantar fascia at the anterior calcaneus. However, the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) origin from the plantar fascia variably limited direct latex contact with the plantar fascia, and small amounts of latex interdigitated with the FDB origin in 90% (9 of 10). In all 10 specimens, latex also covered the traversing first branch of the lateral plantar nerve (FBLPN, ie, Baxter nerve) between the FDB and quadratus plantae muscles. No latex was found in the plantar fat pad or plantar fascia in any specimen. Sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections reliably deliver latex deep to the plantar fascia while avoiding intrafascial injection. However, the extent of direct plantar fascia contact is variable due to the intervening FDB. On the contrary, the traversing FBLPN is reliably covered by the injection. Deep plantar fascia injections may have a role in the management of refractory plantar fasciitis, particularly following failed superficial perifascial or intrafascial injections, in cases of preferential deep plantar fascia involvement, or when entrapment

  8. Strategies and challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Shankar, P Ravi; Kumar, Kc Vikash

    2013-01-01

    Injection is one of the important health care procedures used globally to administer drugs. Its unsafe use can transmit various blood borne pathogens. This article aims to review the history and status of injection practices, its importance, interventions and the challenges for safe injection practice in developing countries. The history of injections started with the discovery of syringe in the early nineteenth century. Safe injection practice in developed countries was initiated in the early twentieth century but has not received adequate attention in developing countries. The establishment of "Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN)" was an milestone towards safe injection practice globally. In developing countries, people perceive injection as a powerful healing tool and do not hesitate to pay more for injections. Unsafe disposal and reuse of contaminated syringe is common. Ensuring safe injection practice is one of the greatest challenges for healthcare system in developing countries. To address the problem, interventions with active involvement of a number of stakeholders is essential. A combination of educational, managerial and regulatory strategies is found to be effective and economically viable. Rational and safe use of injections can save many lives but unsafe practice threatens life. Safe injection practice is crucial in developing countries. Evidence based interventions, with honest commitment and participation from the service provider, recipient and community with aid of policy makers are required to ensure safe injection practice.

  9. Injectable multiple sclerosis medications: a patient survey of factors associated with injection-site reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Thomas M; Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration-approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation.

  10. 21 CFR 522.468 - Colistimethate sodium powder for injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW... injection in the neck of 1- to 3-day-old chickens. Not for use in laying hens producing eggs for human...

  11. Two component micro injection moulding for moulded interconnect devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    2008-01-01

    is to explore and overcome the challenges associated with MID production by two component injection moulding. Fabrication of micro scale MIDs by two component injection moulding, calls for plastic materials suitable for two component micro injection moulding and requires optimization in injection moulding...... component injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in the sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge at the present state of technology. The scope of the current Ph.D. project...... and selective metallization. Integrated knowledge about the materials, tooling, process conditions and product development is needed. The main issues to be taken into account for two component injection moulded MIDs are: • Two component injection moulding with a sharp interface between the two polymers...

  12. Beam shaping element for compact fiber injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichman, L.S.; Dickey, F.M.; Shagam, R.N.

    2000-01-05

    Injection of high power, multi-mode laser profiles into a fiber optic delivery system requires controlling a number of injection parameters to maximize throughput and minimize concerns for optical damage both at the entrance and exit faces of the fiber optic. A simple method for simultaneously achieving a compact fiber injection geometry and control of these injection parameters, independent of the input source characteristics, is provided by a refractive lenslet array and simple injection lens configuration. Design criteria together with analytical and experimental results for the refractive lenslet array and short focal length injection lens are presented. This arrangement provides a uniform spatial intensity distribution at the fiber injection plane to a large degree independent of the source mode structure, spatial profile, divergence, size, and/or alignment to the injection system. This technique has application to a number of laser systems where uniform illumination of a target or remote delivery of high peak power is desired.

  13. CDC Vital Signs: HIV and Injection Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips HIV and Injection Drug Use Syringe Services Programs for HIV Prevention Language: English ( ... Pages Vital Signs Issue details: HIV and Injection Drug Use, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) Vital Signs – ...

  14. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    Experiences with injecting geothermal fluids have identified technical problems associated with geothermal waste disposal. This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented, including: Raft River, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake and Hatchobaru in Japan, and Ahuachapan in El Salvador. Hydrogeologic and design/operational factors affecting the success of an injection program are identified. Hydrogeologic factors include subsidence, near-surface effects of injected fluids, and seismicity. Design/operational factors include hydrodynamic breakthrough, condition of the injection system and reservoir maintenance. Existing and potential effects of production/injection on these factors are assessed.

  15. Discharge characteristics of a high speed fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Robertson

    1925-01-01

    Discussed here are some discharge characteristics of a fuel injection system intended primarily for high speed service. The system consisted of a cam actuated fuel pump, a spring loaded automatic injection valve, and a connecting tube.

  16. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  17. Geographic Variation in Epidural Steroid Injection Use in Medicare Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Friedly, Janna; Chan, Leighton; Deyo, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Background: The rates of epidural steroid injections have increased dramatically over time, with conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of epidural steroid injections for the treatment of various low-back pain disorders. Given the uncertainty about their role, we sought to evaluate the geographic variation in the use of epidural steroid injections for low back pain within the United States. We also sought to determine whether greater rates of epidural steroid injections are associated wi...

  18. A Study of a Subsea Chemicals Storage & Injection-Station

    OpenAIRE

    Lundal, Vegard; Festøy, Sigurd van Dijk

    2017-01-01

    Total and Doris have announced that they want to challenge the way of thinking of how to supply subsea field developments with chemicals. With a Subsea Chemicals Storage & Injection-station (SCS&I) the chemicals are injected much closer to their injection points compared to a conventional solution, where they are injected from a topside facility. This reduces the response time of hydrate inhibitors which leads to a shorter well shutdown/start-up operation. Also, dosing of production chemicals...

  19. Quasi-stable injection channels in a wakefield accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    Wiltshire-Turkay, Mara; Farmer, John P.; Pukhov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The influence of initial position on the acceleration of externally-injected electrons in a plasma wakefield is investigated. Test-particle simulations show previously unobserved complex structure in the parameter space, with quasi-stable injection channels forming for particles injected in narrow regions away from the wake centre. Particles injected into these channels remain in the wake for a considerable time after dephasing, and as a result achieve significantly higher energy than their n...

  20. 21 CFR 522.800 - Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. 522.800... § 522.800 Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection. (a) Specifications. Droperidol and fentanyl citrate injection is a sterile solution containing 20 milligrams of droperidol and 0.4 milligram of fentanyl citrate...

  1. Minimization of sink mark defects in injection molding process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    molding. 1. Introduction. Injection molding is one of the major net shape forming processes for thermoplastic polymers. Over 30% of all the plastic parts manufactured are by injection molding. Injection molding is ideally suited for manufacturing large quantities of mass produced plastic parts of complex shapes and sizes.

  2. Multi-pulse fuel injection controller design using quadratic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, X.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Jager, A.G. de; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-pulse fuel injection in diesel engines enables a large flexibility in controlling the fueling profile, such that the engine performance can be maintained subject to disturbances, i.e., ambient condition changes and fuel injection deviations. Based on linearized systems, current fuel injection

  3. Injection related anxiety in insulin-treated diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambanini, A; Newson, R B; Maisey, M; Feher, M D

    1999-12-01

    The presence of injection related anxiety and phobia may influence compliance, glycaemic control and quality of life in patients with insulin-treated diabetes. Unselected consecutive, insulin-treated patients attending a diabetes clinic for follow-up, completed a standardised questionnaire providing an injection anxiety score (IAS) and general anxiety score (GAS). A total of 115 insulin-treated (80 Type 1 and 35 Type 2) diabetic patients completed the questionnaire. Injections had been avoided secondary to anxiety in 14% of cases and 42% expressed concern at having to inject more frequently. An IAS > or = 3 was seen in 28% of patients and of these, 66% injected insulin one to two times/day, 45% had avoided injections, and 70% would be bothered by more frequent injections. A significant correlation between IAS and GAS was seen (Kendall's tau-a 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.41, P < 0.001). GAS was significantly associated with both previous injection avoidance and expressed concern at increased injection frequency. No significant correlation was seen with HbA1c and injection or general anxiety scores. Symptoms relating to insulin injection anxiety and phobia have a high prevalence in an unselected group of diabetic patients requiring insulin injections and are associated with higher levels of general anxiety.

  4. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices in children with intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal venous obstruction: Benefit of injection tract embolisation. ... In a previous study at our institution, sclerotherapy was associated with a high re-bleeding rate and oesophageal ulceration. Embolisation of the injection ...

  5. Laboratory animal euthanasia using intra-medullary injection of air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These animals must be euthanised with a minimum of physical and mental suffering. We describe intramedully injection of air as safe, ... Methodology: Thirty six pregnant Wister rats were euthanised by injecting 1ml of air into the medulla through foramen magnum. The time lag between the intramedullary injection of air and ...

  6. Influence of vitamin b-12 complex injection (eldervit-12) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the effect of vitamin B-12 complex injection on the nephrotoxicity of gentamicin. Design: Experimental study using a pre-validated model. Subject: Adult Swiss albino rats weighing 140-214g, Generic gentamicin sulphate injection and Vitamin B-12complex injection containing 2500mcg ...

  7. Buprenorphine diversion and injection in Melbourne, Australia: an emerging issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Rebecca A; Clark, Nicolas C; Fry, Craig L; Dobbin, Malcolm

    2005-02-01

    To examine indicators of buprenorphine diversion and injection among injecting drug users in Melbourne, Australia and to determine the factors associated with buprenorphine injection. Melbourne arm of the 2002 Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) cross-sectional study. Five Needle and Syringe Programme sites in Melbourne, Australia. A total of 156 current injecting drug users (IDU). Study eligibility criteria were at least monthly injection during the previous 6 months, and Melbourne residence for at least the preceding 12 months. Structured questionnaire covering demographic characteristics, drug use history, the price, purity and availability of drugs, criminal activity, risk-taking behaviours, health-related issues and general drug use trends. Over one-third (37%) of the study sample reported injecting buprenorphine in their life-time and 33% reported injecting the drug in the last 6 months. Recent buprenorphine injection was associated with the injection of other drug types (i.e. polydrug injectors), opioid substitution treatment, injection-related health problems and involvement in crime. Almost half (47%) of those who reported recent buprenorphine injection reported obtaining the drug illicitly at least once during that time. Given the significant health harms associated with intravenous buprenorphine use (e.g. vein damage, abscesses and infections, precipitated withdrawal, blood-borne virus transmission, hospitalization and death), routine monitoring of the misuse of buprenorphine in Melbourne is warranted. These results suggest the need for development of effective countermeasures to address diversion and injection of buprenorphine in this setting.

  8. Near-surface groundwater responses to injection of geothermal wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.C.

    1984-06-01

    This report assesses the feasibility of injection as an alternative for geothermal wastewater disposal and analyzes hydrologic controls governing the upward migration of injected fluids. Injection experiences at several geothermal developments are presented including the following: Raft River Valley, Salton Sea, East Mesa, Otake, Hatchobaru, and Ahuachapan geothermal fields.

  9. Ceramic particle injection during laser treatment of Titanium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, A.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Aliabadi, MH; Brebbia, CA

    1997-01-01

    This paper concentrates on the laser particle injection process. Slight changes in the conditions of injection process, substantially influence the microstructure of the modified layer. TiC, TiN and SiC particles were injected into Ti-6Al-4V, which resulted in the formation of a metal matrix

  10. Proper Technique for Administration of ATX-101 (Deoxycholic Acid Injection): Insights From an Injection Practicum and Roundtable Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Derek H; Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Fagien, Steven; Glaser, Dee Anna; Monheit, Gary D; Stauffer, Karen; Sykes, Jonathan M

    2016-11-01

    ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) is the first aesthetic injectable approved for reduction of submental fat. In February 2014, an injection practicum was conducted in the anatomy laboratory at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center to explore the proper injection technique for ATX-101 and the importance of its appropriate, safe anatomical placement within the submental area. Subsequent to the injection practicum, a structured roundtable discussion was conducted in which potential implications of the various injection protocols evaluated during the practicum were reviewed. Furthermore, the faculty had the opportunity to provide additional perspectives based on their clinical experience with facial injectables and ATX-101 specifically. In this article, the findings from the injection practicum and roundtable discussion are reported.

  11. Class I Underground Injection Control Program: Study of the Risks Associated with Class I Underground Injection Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document provides describes the current Class I UIC program, the history of Class I injection, and studies of human health risks associated with Class I injection wells, which were conducted for past regulatory efforts and policy documentation.

  12. Impact of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-rail direct injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudy, Frederic; Seers, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of biodiesel fuel properties on the injection mass flow rate of a diesel common-rail injection system. Simulations are first performed with ISO 4113 diesel fuel on a four-cylinder common-rail system to evaluate a single and triple injection strategies. For each injection strategy, the impact of modifying a single fuel property at a time is evaluated so as to quantify its influence on the injection process. The results show that fuel density is the main property that affects the injection process, such as total mass injected and pressure wave in the common-rail system. The fuel's viscosity and bulk modulus also influence, but to a lessen degree, the mass flow rate of the injector notably during multiple injection strategies as individual properties change the fuel's dampening property and friction coefficient.

  13. Cost-Utility of a Single-Injection Combined Corticosteroid-Hyaluronic Acid Formulation vs a 2-Injection Regimen of Sequential Corticosteroid and Hyaluronic Acid Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Etienne L; Deakon, Robert T; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Bhandari, Mohit; Lamontagne, Martin; McCormack, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown early and sustained relief with a combination therapy of a corticosteroid (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This can be administered via a single injection containing both products or as separate injections. The former may be more expensive when considering only product cost, but the latter incurs the additional costs and time of a second procedure. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the single injection with the 2-injection regimen. The results of this analysis revealed that the single-injection formulation of a CS and HA may be cost-effective, assuming a willingness-to-pay of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained, for symptomatic relief of OA symptoms. This treatment may also be more desirable to patients who find injections to be inconvenient or unpleasant.

  14. Forum for Injection Technique (FIT), India: The Indian recommendations 2.0, for best practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nikhil; Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Jothydev, Kesavadev; Kumar, Prasanna K M; V, Madhu S; Mithal, Ambrish; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Sahay, Rakesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G; Wangnoo, Subhash K

    2015-01-01

    As injectable therapies such as human insulin, insulin analogs, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are used to manage diabetes, correct injection technique is vital for the achievement of glycemic control. The forum for injection technique India acknowledged this need for the first time in India and worked to develop evidence-based recommendations on insulin injection technique, to assist healthcare practitioners in their clinical practice.

  15. Forum for Injection Technique (FIT, India: The Indian recommendations 2.0, for best practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Tandon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As injectable therapies such as human insulin, insulin analogs, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are used to manage diabetes, correct injection technique is vital for the achievement of glycemic control. The forum for injection technique India acknowledged this need for the first time in India and worked to develop evidence-based recommendations on insulin injection technique, to assist healthcare practitioners in their clinical practice.

  16. Forum for Injection Technique (FIT), India: The Indian recommendations 2.0, for best practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Nikhil; Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Jothydev, Kesavadev; Kumar, Prasanna K. M.; V., Madhu S.; Mithal, Ambrish; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Sahay, Rakesh; Shukla, Rishi

    2015-01-01

    As injectable therapies such as human insulin, insulin analogs, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists are used to manage diabetes, correct injection technique is vital for the achievement of glycemic control. The forum for injection technique India acknowledged this need for the first time in India and worked to develop evidence-based recommendations on insulin injection technique, to assist healthcare practitioners in their clinical practice.

  17. Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy Expert Recommendations, India: The Indian Recommendations for Best Practice in Insulin Injection Technique, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Tandon, Nikhil; Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.; Madhu, S. V.; Mithal, Ambrish; Sahay, Rakesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Saboo, Banshi; Gupta, Vandita

    2017-01-01

    Health-care professionals in India frequently manage injection or infusion therapies in persons with diabetes (PWD). Patients taking insulin should know the importance of proper needle size, correct injection process, complication avoidance, and all other aspects of injection technique from the first visit onward. To assist health-care practitioners in their clinical practice, Forum for Injection Technique and Therapy Expert Recommendations, India, has updated the practical advice and made it...

  18. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dave

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite conclusion.

  19. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Dave, Sumit; Bägli, Darius J.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite concl...

  20. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Sumit; Bägli, Darius J.

    2008-01-01

    The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite conclusion. PMID:18827895