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Sample records for sporadic schizophrenia patients

  1. Geographical and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to sporadic schizophrenia

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    Fritzsche Markus

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusters by season and locality reveal a striking epidemiological overlap between sporadic schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS. As the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodid ticks, a meta analysis has been performed between all neuropsychiatric birth excesses including MS and the epidemiology of spirochaetal infectious diseases. Results The prevalence of MS and schizophrenic birth excesses entirely spares the tropical belt where human treponematoses are endemic, whereas in more temperate climates infection rates of Borrelia garinii in ticks collected from seabirds match the global geographic distribution of MS. If the seasonal fluctuations of Lyme borreliosis in Europe are taken into account, the birth excesses of MS and those of schizophrenia are nine months apart, reflecting the activity of Ixodes ricinus at the time of embryonic implantation and birth. In America, this nine months' shift between MS and schizophrenic births is also reflected by the periodicity of Borrelia burgdorferi transmitting Ixodes pacificus ticks along the West Coast and the periodicity of Ixodes scapularis along the East Coast. With respect to Ixodid tick activity, amongst the neuropsychiatric birth excesses only amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS shows a similar seasonal trend. Conclusion It cannot be excluded at present that maternal infection by Borrelia burgdorferi poses a risk to the unborn. The seasonal and geographical overlap between schizophrenia, MS and neuroborreliosis rather emphasises a causal relation that derives from exposure to a flagellar virulence factor at conception and delivery. It is hoped that the pathogenic correlation of spirochaetal virulence to temperature and heat shock proteins (HSP might encourage a new direction of research in molecular epidemiology.

  2. Seasonal correlation of sporadic schizophrenia to Ixodes ticks and Lyme borreliosis

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    Fritzsche Markus

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born in winter and spring is considered one of the most robust epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia. The aetiology and exact timing of this birth excess, however, has remained elusive so far. Since during phylogeny, Borrelia DNA has led to multiple germ-line mutations within the CB1 candidate gene for schizophrenia, a meta analysis has been performed of all papers on schizophrenic birth excesses with no less than 3000 cases each. All published numerical data were then plotted against the seasonal distributions of Ixodes ticks worldwide. Results In the United States, Europe and Japan the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodes ticks nine months earlier at the time of conception. South of the Wallace Line, which limits the spread of Ixodes ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi into Australia, seasonal trends are less significant, and in Singapore, being non-endemic for Ixodes ticks and Lyme disease, schizophrenic birth excesses are absent. Conclusion At present, it cannot be excluded that prenatal infection by B. burgdorferi is harmful to the implanting human blastocyst. The epidemiological clustering of sporadic schizophrenia by season and locality rather emphasises the risk to the unborn of developing a congenital, yet preventable brain disorder later in life.

  3. Caregivers of Schizophrenia Patients

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    Kerime Bademli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most schizophrenia patients live with their families and therefore the mental illnesses adversely affects family members as well as the patients. Family members often experience a number of challenges in providing care. They have been reported to have certain emotional difficulties such as anxiety, depression, shame, sense of guilt, fear, helplessness, uneasiness, distress, despair, anger and sense of loss. Family members have to cope with such complications on their own in most cases. However, in some cases, family members may fail to deal with such emotional strains and experience psychological problems. It is considered to be highly important to identify challenges anddifficulties that family members may encounter and implement effective measures.

  4. Next generation sequencing in sporadic retinoblastoma patients reveals somatic mosaicism.

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    Amitrano, Sara; Marozza, Annabella; Somma, Serena; Imperatore, Valentina; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; De Francesco, Sonia; Toti, Paolo; Galimberti, Daniela; Meloni, Ilaria; Cetta, Francesco; Piu, Pietro; Di Marco, Chiara; Dosa, Laura; Lo Rizzo, Caterina; Carignani, Giulia; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    In about 50% of sporadic cases of retinoblastoma, no constitutive RB1 mutations are detected by conventional methods. However, recent research suggests that, at least in some of these cases, there is somatic mosaicism with respect to RB1 normal and mutant alleles. The increased availability of next generation sequencing improves our ability to detect the exact percentage of patients with mosaicism. Using this technology, we re-tested a series of 40 patients with sporadic retinoblastoma: 10 of them had been previously classified as constitutional heterozygotes, whereas in 30 no RB1 mutations had been found in lymphocytes. In 3 of these 30 patients, we have now identified low-level mosaic variants, varying in frequency between 8 and 24%. In 7 out of the 10 cases previously classified as heterozygous from testing blood cells, we were able to test additional tissues (ocular tissues, urine and/or oral mucosa): in three of them, next generation sequencing has revealed mosaicism. Present results thus confirm that a significant fraction (6/40; 15%) of sporadic retinoblastoma cases are due to postzygotic events and that deep sequencing is an efficient method to unambiguously distinguish mosaics. Re-testing of retinoblastoma patients through next generation sequencing can thus provide new information that may have important implications with respect to genetic counseling and family care.

  5. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  6. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients.

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    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben; Kramp, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated with data from the Danish National Crime Register. One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.

  7. Cardiovascular diseases among patients with schizophrenia.

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    Azad, Muhammad Chanchal; Shoesmith, Wendy Diana; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Abdullah, Ahmad Faris; Naing, Daw Khin Saw; Phanindranath, Mahadasa; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2016-02-01

    The presence of comorbid physical illnesses especially, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in schizophrenia is a growing area of concern in recent years. In order to reduce disease burden, to improve quality of life and to provide holistic care, it is important to know about the relationship between schizophrenia and CVD. The objective of this review is to explore the extent of CVD problems, relevant risk factors and potential measures for early diagnosis and prevention of CVD among patients with schizophrenia. Worldwide studies show that patients with schizophrenia have a higher mortality and lower life expectancy than the general population. CVD is the leading cause of increased mortality in schizophrenia. Common CVD risk factors in schizophrenia include metabolic syndrome, sedentary behaviour, tobacco smoking, effects of antipsychotics, long chain omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and shared genetics between CVD and schizophrenia. The potential methods for early detection and prevention of CVD in schizophrenia are also discussed. Though the patients with schizophrenia form a high risk group for CVD, consensus guidelines for early detection and prevention of CVD in schizophrenia are lacking. Comorbidity of CVD in schizophrenia needs more serious attention by clinicians and researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genotype and phenotype analysis of patients with sporadic periodic paralysis.

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    Sung, Chih-Chien; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Lo, Yi-Fen; Lin, Mei-Shan; Yang, Sung-Sen; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2012-04-01

    Sporadic periodic paralysis (SPP), the second leading cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) in Asia, has a presentation similar to that of familial periodic paralysis (FPP) and is caused by gene mutations in the calcium (Ca(2+)) (CACNA1S) and sodium (Na(+)) (SCN4A) channels of skeletal muscle. The authors determined whether SPP shares similar genotype and phenotype with FPP. Sixty SPP patients who did not have a family history of paralysis, abnormal thyroid function tests and other identifiable causes of HPP, and 8 FPP patients were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes of all SPP and FPP patients. Genetic analysis of whole S4 segment in CACNA1S and SCN4A was performed. Phenotypic analysis included clinical presentations, laboratory data and precipitating events. All FPP patients had mutations in either CACNA1S or SCN4A, but only 4 SPP patients had de novo mutations in CACNA1S (R1239H) and SCN4A (R669×2, R1135H). SPP patients with de novo mutations manifested a phenotype indistinguishable from that of FPP patients except a later age of onset. SPP patients without mutations also had a later age of onset, significantly fewer attacks of paralysis than FPP patients, and unidentifiable precipitating factors. A minority of SPP patients had de novo CACNA1S or SCN4A mutations and may have a variant of FPP. The majority of SPP patients, those without mutations in CACNA1S and SCN4A, represent a unique subgroup of HPP patients, and this form of SPP usually manifests at a later age, is associated with fewer attacks and lacks apparent triggering factors.

  9. Hoarding behaviour in Xhosa patients with schizophrenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it has also been observed in other clinical syndromes including schizophrenia. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical presentation of hoarding behaviour in schizophrenia among Xhosa patients. Method. The sample consisted of 102 patients, recruited as.

  10. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  11. Vergence Eye Movements in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Bolding, MS; Lahti, AC; White, D; Moore, C; Gurler, D; Gawne, TJ; Gamlin, PD

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that smooth pursuit eye movements are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. However, under normal viewing conditions, targets move not only in the frontoparallel plane but also in depth, and tracking them requires both smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. Although previous studies in humans and non-human primates suggest that these two eye movement subsystems are relatively independent of one another, to our knowledge, there have been no prior studies of vergence tracking behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, we have investigated these eye movements in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. We found that patients with schizophrenia exhibited substantially lower gains compared to healthy controls during vergence tracking at all tested speeds (e.g. 0.25 Hz vergence tracking mean gain of 0.59 vs. 0.86). Further, consistent with previous reports, patients with schizophrenia exhibited significantly lower gains than healthy controls during smooth pursuit at higher target speeds (e.g. 0.5 Hz smooth pursuit mean gain of 0.64 vs. 0.73). In addition, there was a modest (r≈0.5), but significant, correlation between smooth pursuit and vergence tracking performance in patients with schizophrenia. Our observations clearly demonstrate substantial vergence tracking deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In these patients, deficits for smooth pursuit and vergence tracking are partially correlated suggesting overlap in the central control of smooth pursuit and vergence eye movements. PMID:25088242

  12. Suicidal ideation in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Hocaoglu, Cicek; Babuc, Zeynep Tekin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the factors affecting suicidal ideas in patients with schizophrenia in terms of some socio-demographic and clinical properties. The sample of the study consisted of 120 patients with schizophrenia selected from among patients receiving treatment at Trabzon Atakoy Psychiatry Hospital. All patients were evaluated using a Socio-demographic Data Collection Form, Reasons for Living Inventory (RLI), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale (PANSS), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Of the patients, 31.6% had suicide ideation. Negative symptoms are found to be significantly higher. The group with suicidal ideation had fewer reasons for living than the group without. Evaluations of the history of suicide attempts, depression and hopelessness in patients with schizophrenia are thought to be important in the prevention of suicidal behavior in these patients.

  13. SPIRITUALITY NURSING AMONG PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    Sri Padma Sari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spirituality has been reported to have benefits for recovery and quality of life for people with mental disorders including patients with schizophrenia. Spiritual can also be a coping strategy for patients with schizophrenia. This study aims to explore the importance of spirituality among patients with schizophrenia. Method: This study uses descriptive phenomenological approach. There are 9 participants in this study, 7 participants are patients who diagnosed of schizophrenia and 2 participants are the caregivers. The data were analyzed by phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Results: Two main themes emerge from this study are 1 the meaning of spirituality is closed with Allah and the improvement of the spiritual practice and 2 the benefits of spirituality is recovery from the illness, symptoms management, behavioral change, emotional change and hope. Discussion: Spirituality has an important role for patients with schizophrenia including helping the recovery process and hope. The results of this study are expected to give an overview of the spiritual need among patients with schizophrenia so that the nurses can give religion and or spiritual activity in the nursing intervention. Key words: schizophrenia, spirituality, recovery

  14. Managing suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Kasckow, John; Felmet, Kandi; Zisook, Sidney

    2011-02-01

    The management of suicide risk in patients with schizophrenia poses many challenges for clinicians. Compared with the general population, these patients have an 8.5-fold greater risk of suicide. This article reviews the literature dealing with the treatment of at-risk patients with schizophrenia. An integrated psychosocial and pharmacological approach to managing this population of patients is recommended. Although there is at least modest evidence suggesting that antipsychotic medications protect against suicidal risk, the evidence appears to be most favourable for second-generation antipsychotics, particularly clozapine, which is the only medication approved by the US FDA for preventing suicide in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, treating depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia is an important component of suicide risk reduction. While selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) ameliorate depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, they also appear to attenuate suicidal thoughts. Further research is needed to more effectively personalize the treatment of suicidal thoughts and behaviours and the prevention of suicide in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Emotion regulation strategies in Patients with schizophrenia

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    van der Meer, Lisette; van't Wout, Mascha; Aleman, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients might experience difficulties in applying two widely used emotion regulation strategies, reappraisal and suppression. We investigated the relationships among emotion regulation strategies, alexithymia (i.e. inability to identify and verbalize feelings) and the role of

  16. Psychosis among "healthy" siblings of schizophrenia patients

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    Partonen Timo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia aggregates in families and accurate diagnoses are essential for genetic studies of schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated whether siblings of patients with schizophrenia can be identified as free of any psychotic disorder using only register information. We also analyzed the emergence of psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia during seven to eleven years of follow-up. Methods A genetically homogenous population isolate in north-eastern Finland having 365 families with 446 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia was initially identified in 1991 using four nationwide registers. Between 1998 and 2002, 124 patients and 183 siblings in 110 families were contacted and interviewed using SCID-I, SCID-II and SANS. We also compared the frequency of mental disorders between siblings and a random population comparison group sample. Results Thirty (16% siblings received a diagnosis of psychotic disorder in the interview. 14 siblings had had psychotic symptoms already before 1991, while 16 developed psychotic symptoms during the follow-up. Over half of the siblings (n = 99, 54% had a lifetime diagnosis of any mental disorder in the interview. Conclusion Register information cannot be used to exclude psychotic disorders among siblings of patients with schizophrenia. The high rate of emergence of new psychotic disorders among initially healthy siblings should be taken into account in genetic analysis.

  17. Biosocial characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia

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    Gergana K. Panayotova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is known as a complex disorder that combines both genetic and environmental factors. Different genes have been tested as candidates for association with schizophrenia and different environmental factors have been examined in many studies on epidemiology of schizophrenia. Specific environmental factors, such as nonspecific stress, mental and physical abuse, maternal diet during pregnancy, drug use, living in an urban setting, migration, seasonal effects on birth and exposure to infections, have been discussed as possible risk for schizophrenia. The present preliminary study is focused on the relations between biological and social characteristics of patients with paranoid schizophrenia with different cognitive levels, emotional and creative styles. Descriptive statistics, the Student's t-test and SPSS software, were used to analyse the relations mentioned. Differences between sexes and these concerning age of individuals (risk level of inheritance, ABO blood group distribution, triggering factors, aggressive behavior, single or multiple suicide attempts, levels of education and creative talents were indicated and discussed. The study identifies important trends and discuses essential biosocial relations in context of the knowledge for schizophrenia in Bulgaria. Future comparative investigations, including genetic markers and psychogenetic approaches, should be used in complex, in order to characterize the reasons for developing paranoid schizophrenia and the possible relations between biological, psychological and social factors better.

  18. Unrecognised myocardial infarction in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Juel, Jacob; Alzuhairi, Karam

    2015-01-01

    MI in patients with schizophrenia have only been sparsely investigated. METHOD: Electrocardiograms (ECG) from three psychiatric hospitals in Denmark were manually interpreted for signs of previous MI. Subsequently, ECGs were linked to the National Patient Registry in order to determine whether...... with unrecognised MI in a stepwise multiple logistic regression model compared with patients with no history of MI, OR: 1.03 per year of age, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06, p=0.021. CONCLUSION: Unrecognised MI is common among patients with schizophrenia and may contribute to the increased mortality found in this patient group....

  19. Pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia

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    Schjerning, Ole; Damkier, Per; Lykkegaard, Signe Engelhardt

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is frequent in patients with schizophrenia and poses a major impact on patients perceived quality of life, daily functioning and risk of suicide. Pregabalin has shown effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and has been suggested for the treatment of anxiety...... in patients with schizophrenia. As evidence is sparse regarding treatment of anxiety in this patient group, we aimed to investigate the use of pregabalin for anxiety in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind placebo controlled study was used. Patients were randomized to either...... placebo or pregabalin (≤600mg/d) as add-on treatment. Primary analyses were intention-to-treat based with change in Hamilton Anxiety Scale after 4 and 8weeks of treatment as primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were change in psychopathology, quality-of-life, cognitive functioning and sleep. The study used...

  20. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

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    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  1. Should patients with schizophrenia receive antidepressants?

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    Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Joffe, Grigori

    Antipsychotics play a key role in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, and monotherapy is effective for most patients. Achieving an optimal treatment response is, however, often difficult. Combining an antidepressant drug to the antipsychotic regimen could potentially improve treatment outcomes, although the evidence supporting the use of such combinations is limited and contradictory. Positive evidence has mostly been obtained from the efficacy of antidepressants acting on monoamine receptors on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. These receptor-active drugs may also improve cognition in schizophrenic patients. In the light of current knowledge, antidepressants do not appear to potentiate the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenic patients. However, there is no robust evidence of the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of schizophrenia-related depression, and thus monotherapy with an antipsychotic drug is recommended for treating it. If using antidepressants in addition to antipsychotics is deemed necessary, the risk of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions should be kept in mind.

  2. A mentally retarded patient with schizophrenia.

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    Rabia, K; Khoo, Em

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient's family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  3. Influence of contact with schizophrenia on implicit attitudes towards schizophrenia patients held by clinical residents

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    Omori Ataru

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with schizophrenia and their families have suffered greatly from stigmatizing effects. Although many efforts have been made to eradicate both prejudice and stigma, they still prevail even among medical professionals, and little is known about how contact with schizophrenia patients affects their attitudes towards schizophrenia. Methods We assessed the impact of the renaming of the Japanese term for schizophrenia on clinical residents and also evaluated the influence of contact with schizophrenia patients on attitudes toward schizophrenia by comparing the attitudes toward schizophrenia before and after a one-month clinical training period in psychiatry. Fifty-one clinical residents participated. Their attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed twice, before and one month after clinical training in psychiatry using the Implicit Association Test (IAT as well as Link’s devaluation-discrimination scale. Results The old term for schizophrenia, “Seishin-Bunretsu-Byo”, was more congruent with criminal than the new term for schizophrenia, “Togo-Shitcho-Sho”, before clinical training. However, quite opposite to our expectation, after clinical training the new term had become even more congruent with criminal than the old term. There was no significant correlation between Link's scale and IAT effect. Conclusions Renaming the Japanese term for schizophrenia still reduced the negative images of schizophrenia among clinical residents. However, contact with schizophrenia patients unexpectedly changed clinical residents’ attitudes towards schizophrenia negatively. Our results might contribute to an understanding of the formation of negative attitudes about schizophrenia and assist in developing appropriate clinical training in psychiatry that could reduce prejudice and stigma concerning schizophrenia.

  4. Osteomyelitis of zygoma in a schizophrenia patient.

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    Tomonori, Mizutani; Hiroki, Adachi; Masayuki, Hojo

    2012-07-03

    A 43-year-old man with schizophrenia presented to our hospital with appetite loss and general fatigue lasting 1-2 months. His face was flared and swollen, and he shed tears of pus. He could answer any questions, but never complained of pain. We found dacryocystitis with subcutaneous abscess with contiguous osteomyelitis with culture-proven Stapylococcus aureus, and diabetes mellitus (DM). Although DM neuropathy was mild, he did not complain of pain. We searched thoroughly for other abscesses since S aureus grew in all four of his blood cultures. We re-examined his whole body by CT, which revealed multiple muscle abscesses in both legs. It is reviewed that schizophrenia patients are relatively insensitive to physical pain. Thus, we should keep in mind that they may have multiple, unpredictable and rare underlying diseases, such as our case. Careful and thorough examinations are essential for treatment in schizophrenia patients.

  5. A MENTALLY RETARDED PATIENT WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

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    KHOO EM

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is one of the most incapacitating forms of mental disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. It typically starts in adolescence or early adulthood and can be life-long. It is more common in people with learning disabilities than in the general population. Its prodromal features include depression, anxiety, suspiciousness, social isolation and bizarre behaviour. It may result in significant functional, social and economic impairments. The care of patients with schizophrenia places a considerable burden on all carers including patient’s family, health and social services. Treatment includes pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions. In this case report we describe a thirteen-year-old patient with schizophrenia who has a background history of mental retardation.

  6. (The Alliance Programme) for patients suffering from schizophrenia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    educational material (The Alliance Programme) for patients suffering from schizophrenia in the South African context. Method: A qualitative research approach was used. Fifteen Setswana speaking participants, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia ...

  7. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  8. Treating Sleep Problems in Patients with Schizophrenia.

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    Waite, Felicity; Myers, Elissa; Harvey, Allison G; Espie, Colin A; Startup, Helen; Sheaves, Bryony; Freeman, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Sleep disturbance is increasingly recognized as a major problem for patients with schizophrenia but it is rarely the direct focus of treatment. The main recommended treatment for insomnia is cognitive behavioural therapy, which we have been evaluating for patients with current delusions and hallucinations in the context of non-affective psychosis. In this article we describe the lessons we have learned about clinical presentations of sleep problems in schizophrenia and the adaptations to intervention that we recommend for patients with current delusions and hallucinations. Twelve factors that may particularly contribute to sleep problems in schizophrenia are identified. These include delusions and hallucinations interfering with sleep, attempts to use sleep as an escape from voices, circadian rhythm disruption, insufficient daytime activity, and fear of the bed, based upon past adverse experiences. Specific adaptations for psychological treatment related to each factor are described. Our experience is that patients want help to improve their sleep; sleep problems in schizophrenia should be treated with evidence-based interventions, and that the interventions may have the added benefit of lessening the psychotic experiences. A treatment technique hierarchy is proposed for ease of translation to clinical practice.

  9. Ophthalmoscopy for congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in patients with sporadic colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, A; Myrhøj, T; Bülow, Steffen

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the frequency of congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in sporadic colorectal cancer, ophthalmoscopy was carried out in 34 patients with colorectal carcinoma without known familial disposition. CHRPE is one of the most frequent extracolonic...

  10. Interrelationships between age, thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid function in patients with sporadic nontoxic goiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Smits, N. J.; Touber, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that during the natural history of sporadic nontoxic goiter (SNG), a diffuse goiter precedes a multinodular goiter with gradual development of autonomous thyroid function. A cross-sectional survey of 102 consecutive patients with SNG (seven male, 95 female) was performed.

  11. CHCH10 mutations in an Italian cohort of familial and sporadic ALS patients

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    Chiò, Adriano; Mora, Gabriele; Sabatelli, Mario; Caponnetto, Claudia; Traynor, Bryan J.; Johnson, Janel O.; Nalls, Mike A.; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Borghero, Giuseppe; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; La Bella, Vincenzo; Volanti, Paolo; Simone, Isabella; Salvi, Fabrizio; Logullo, Francesco O.; Nilo, Riva; Battistini, Stefania; Mandrioli, Jessica; Tanel, Raffaella; Murru, Maria Rita; Mandich, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Conforti, Francesca L.; Brunetti, Maura; Barberis, Marco; Restagno, Gabriella; Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in CHCHD10 have recently been described as a cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) co-morbid with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and clinical characteristics of CHCHD10 mutations in Italian patients diagnosed with familial (n = 64) and apparently sporadic ALS (n = 224). Three apparently sporadic patients were found to carry c.100C>T (p.Pro34Ser) heterozygous variant in the exon 2 of CHCHD10. This mutation had been previously described in two unrelated French patients with FTD-ALS. However, our patients had a typical ALS, without evidence of FTD, cerebellar or extrapyramidal signs, or sensorineural deficits. We confirm that CHCHD10 mutations account for ∼1% of Italian ALS patients and are a cause of disease in subject without dementia or other atypical clinical signs. PMID:25726362

  12. Risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy: population based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping; Xu, Huylan; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2005-01-01

    .20) in people with a history of epilepsy. The effect of epilepsy was the same in men and in women and increased with age. Family history of psychosis and a family history of epilepsy were significant risk factors for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis, and the effect of epilepsy, both in cases...... first admitted for epilepsy at later ages. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong association between epilepsy and schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis. The two conditions may share common genetic or environmental causes.......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether age at onset of epilepsy, type of epilepsy, family history of psychosis, or family history of epilepsy affect the risk of schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like psychosis among patients with epilepsy. DESIGN: Comparison of population based data. SETTING: Danish...

  13. A genome-wide investigation of copy number variation in patients with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrine Bendjilali

    Full Text Available Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM are clusters of abnormal blood vessels, with shunting of blood from the arterial to venous circulation and a high risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage. Most BAVMs are sporadic, but also occur in patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a Mendelian disorder caused by mutations in genes in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling pathway.To investigate whether copy number variations (CNVs contribute to risk of sporadic BAVM, we performed a genome-wide association study in 371 sporadic BAVM cases and 563 healthy controls, all Caucasian. Cases and controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. CNVs were called using the PennCNV and Birdsuite algorithms and analyzed via segment-based and gene-based approaches. Common and rare CNVs were evaluated for association with BAVM.A CNV region on 1p36.13, containing the neuroblastoma breakpoint family, member 1 gene (NBPF1, was significantly enriched with duplications in BAVM cases compared to controls (P = 2.2×10(-9; NBPF1 was also significantly associated with BAVM in gene-based analysis using both PennCNV and Birdsuite. We experimentally validated the 1p36.13 duplication; however, the association did not replicate in an independent cohort of 184 sporadic BAVM cases and 182 controls (OR = 0.81, P = 0.8. Rare CNV analysis did not identify genes significantly associated with BAVM.We did not identify common CNVs associated with sporadic BAVM that replicated in an independent cohort. Replication in larger cohorts is required to elucidate the possible role of common or rare CNVs in BAVM pathogenesis.

  14. Predictors of treatment resistance in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimberley, Theresa; Støvring, Henrik; Sørensen, Holger J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of patients at high risk of treatment-resistant schizophrenia at the time of schizophrenia diagnosis would be of great clinical benefit in minimising the delay to clozapine treatment in patients unlikely to respond to non-clozapine antipsychotics. However, little is known...... about predictors of treatment resistance in this patient population. We used a treatment-based proxy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia to identify candidate predictors of treatment resistance at first hospital contact with a schizophrenia diagnosis. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we...... obtained Danish national registry data for all adult patients (≥18 years) with incident schizophrenia diagnosed between Jan 1, 1996, and Dec 31, 2006, and followed up until Dec 31, 2010. Our main proxy definition of treatment-resistant schizophrenia was the earliest instance of either clozapine initiation...

  15. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local NAMI About NAMI + x IN THIS SECTION Esquizofrenia Share NAMI Share Home Learn More Mental Health Conditions Schizophrenia IN THIS SECTION Esquizofrenia Schizophrenia Overview Treatment Support Discuss Schizophrenia is a ...

  16. The care needs of elderly patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, P.D.; Comijs, H.C.; Dröes, R.M.; de Haan, L.; Smit, J.H.; Eikelenboom, P.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Elderly patients constitute the fastest growing segment of the schizophrenia population. Still, their needs for care are poorly understood. This study aimed to gain insight into the care needs of older patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Setting and Participants: Patients,

  17. Novel multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variations in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Birla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation.

  18. Pleasure Experience and Emotion Expression in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Min-Yi; Li, Xu; Lv, Qin-Yu; Yl, Zheng-Hui; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2017-10-25

    Impairments in emotional experience and expression have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have been limited to either emotional experience (especially anhedonia) or expression. Few studies have examined both the experience and expression of emotion in schizophrenia patients at the same time. The present study aimed to examine pleasure experience and emotion expression in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, we specifically examined the relationship between emotion impairments (both pleasure experience and expression) and negative symptoms. One hundred and fifty patients completed the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale and Emotional Expressivity Scale. Schizophrenia patients exhibited deficits in experiencing pleasure, but showed intact reported emotion expression. Patients with prominent negative symptoms showed reduced anticipatory pleasure, especially in abstract anticipatory pleasure. The present findings suggest that patients with schizophrenia have deficits in pleasure experience, while their abilities to express emotion appear intact. Such deficits are more severe in patients with prominent negative symptoms.

  19. Neuropsychological profile in patients with schizotypal personality disorder or schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mié; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kato, Kanade; Yoneyama, Eiichi; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2004-04-01

    Neuropsychological impairments have been consistently reported in patients with schizophrenia. As little is known whether subjects with schizotypal personality disorder exhibit neurocognitive dysfunction similar to that in schizophrenia, we assessed the neuropsychological profile of 15 subjects with schizotypal personality disorder and compared it with that for 15 patients with schizophrenia and for 15 psychiatrically normal volunteers. All participants were administered a standard neuropsychological battery assessing language ability, spatial ability, visuomotor function, verbal memory, visual memory, auditory attention, visual attention, and executive function. Performance on most of the cognitive domains was impaired in patients with schizotypal personality disorder but less than patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, impairment in verbal memory and visuomotor ability in patients with schizotypal personality disorder and patients with schizophrenia were comparable, while patients with schizophrenia performed worse on the test of executive function than did patients with schizotypal personality disorder. As a whole, cognitive deficits in patients with schizotypal personality disorder were qualitatively similar to, but quantitatively milder than, those for patients with schizophrenia. The results suggest that cognitive abilities related to frontotemporal lobe function are disturbed across these schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  20. Prion-Seeding Activity Is widely Distributed in Tissues of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki, PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormally folded prion proteins in the central nervous system. These proteins can be detected using the quaking-induced conversion assay. Compared with other bioassays, this assay is extremely sensitive and was used in the present study to determine prion distribution in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients at autopsy. Although infectivity of the sporadic form is thought to be restricted within the central nervous system, results showed that prion-seeding activities reach 106/g from a 50% seeding dose in non-neuronal tissues, suggesting that prion-seeding activity exists in non-neural organs, and we suggested that non-neural tissues of 106/g SD50 did not exist the infectivity.

  1. Prion-Seeding Activity Is widely Distributed in Tissues of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, Hanae; Fuse, Takayuki; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Mihara, Ban; Takao, Masaki; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Murayama, Shigeo; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Nishida, Noriyuki; Satoh, Katsuya

    2016-10-01

    Human prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormally folded prion proteins in the central nervous system. These proteins can be detected using the quaking-induced conversion assay. Compared with other bioassays, this assay is extremely sensitive and was used in the present study to determine prion distribution in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients at autopsy. Although infectivity of the sporadic form is thought to be restricted within the central nervous system, results showed that prion-seeding activities reach 10 6 /g from a 50% seeding dose in non-neuronal tissues, suggesting that prion-seeding activity exists in non-neural organs, and we suggested that non-neural tissues of 10 6 /g SD50 did not exist the infectivity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Investigation of VSX1 sequence variants in South Indian patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anshuman; Das, Manoranjan; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V; Sundaresan, Periasamy

    2013-03-18

    The involvement of VSX1 gene for the genetic basis of keratoconus is unclear and controversial. The genetic screening of VSX1 from different ethnic populations can enlighten this subject. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of VSX1 gene in patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus from South India. The VSX1 gene coding regions, including exon-intron boundaries were screened by direct sequencing analysis in 117 sporadic cases of keratoconus. The identified variations were also analyzed in 108 ethnic matched healthy blood donors. In the VSX1 gene screening, no pathogenic mutation was identified, whereas we could find the presence of four reported single nucleotide polymorphisms; c.546A>G (rs12480307), c.627+23G>A (rs6138482), c.627+84T>A (rs56157240) and c.504-24C>T (IVS3-24C). These variations were observed in similar frequency between cases and controls. The lack of VSX1 pathogenic variations in a large number of unrelated sporadic keratoconus patients tend to omit its role, and corroborate the involvement of other genetic, environmental or behavioural factors in the development of this complex disorder.

  3. Caregiver burden among relatives of patients with schizophrenia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Caring for patients with schizophrenia places an enormous burden on the caregivers. The magnitude of this problem remains largely unknown in sub-Saharan Africa. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the nature of the burden reported by caregiving relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Facilitating recruitment of patients with schizophrenia to a clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, Bettina Ellen; Aagaard, Jørgen; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    People with severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia have higher rates of mortality especially due to cardiovascular disease. We have established a clinical trial named “Coronary artery disease and schizophrenia”. However, patients with schizophrenia have cognitive disturbances, which make re...... recruitment of patients challenging. The purpose of this study is to understand which type of recruitment strategy is needed in clinical trials....

  5. Criterion and construct validity of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Yoshida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSB, a computerized cognitive battery, covers all the same cognitive domains as the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery but is briefer to conduct. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the criterion and construct validity of the Japanese language version of the CSB (CSB-J in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Forty Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 40 Japanese healthy controls with matching age, gender, and premorbid intelligence quotient were enrolled. The CSB-J and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, Japanese-language version (BACS-J were performed once. The structure of the CSB-J was also evaluated by a factor analysis. Similar to the BACS-J, the CSB-J was sensitive to cognitive impairment in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between the CSB-J composite score and the BACS-J composite score. A factor analysis showed a three-factor model consisting of memory, speed, and social cognition factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that the CSB-J is a useful and rapid automatically administered computerized battery for assessing broad cognitive domains in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Systematic Suicide Risk Assessment for Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Wallenstein Jensen, Signe Olrik; Gradus, Jaimie

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic suicide risk assessment is recommended for patients with schizophrenia; however, little is known about the implementation of suicide risk assessment in routine clinical practice. The study aimed to determine the use of systematic suicide risk assessment at discharge...... and predictors of suicide attempt among hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. Methods: A one-year follow-up study was conducted of 9,745 patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from psychiatric wards and registered in a national population-based schizophrenia registry between 2005 and 2009...... died by suicide and 8% had attempted suicide. One out of three patients who died by suicide had no documented suicide risk assessment before discharge. Conclusions: The use of systematic suicide risk assessment at discharge among patients with schizophrenia increased in Denmark between 2005 and 2009...

  7. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Gene Mutations Screening In Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients In Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur R. Akilzhanova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of distinct mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been reported worldwide, but little is known regarding the role of these inherited susceptibility genes in breast cancer risk among Kazakhstan women. Aim: To evaluate the role of BRCA1/2 mutations in Kazakhstan women presenting with sporadic breast cancer. Methods: We investigated the distribution and nature of polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2 entire coding regions in 156 Kazakhstan sporadic breast cancer cases and 112 age-matched controls using automatic direct sequencing. Results: We identified 22 distinct variants, including 16 missense mutations and 6 polymorphisms in BRCA1/2 genes. In BRCA1, 9 missense mutations and 3 synonymous polymorphisms were observed. In BRCA2, 7 missense mutations and 3 polymorphisms were detected. There was a higher prevalence of observed mutations in Caucasian breast cancer cases compared to Asian cases (p<0.05; higher frequencies of sequence variants were observed in Asian controls. No recurrent or founder mutations were observed in BRCA1/2 genes. There were no statistically significant differences in age at diagnosis, tumor histology, size of tumor, and lymph node involvement between women with breast cancer with or without the BRCA sequence alterations. Conclusions: Considering the majority of breast cancer cases are sporadic, the present study will be helpful in the evaluation of the need for the genetic screening of BRCA1/2 mutations and reliable genetic counseling for Kazakhstan sporadic breast cancer patients. Evaluation of common polymorphisms and mutations and breast cancer risk in families with genetic predisposition to breast cancer is ongoing in another current investigation. 

  8. Evidence for regional hippocampal damage in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sadhana; Khushu, Subash; Kumar, Pawan; Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2018-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients show cognitive and mood impairments, including memory loss and depression, suggesting damage in the brain regions. The hippocampus is a brain structure that is significantly involved in memory and mood function and shows impairment in schizophrenia. In the present study, we examined the regional hippocampal changes in schizophrenia patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), Freesurfer, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) procedures. 1 H MRS and high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging were collected in both healthy control subjects (N = 28) and schizophrenia patients (N = 28) using 3-Tesla whole body MRI system. Regional hippocampal volume was analyzed using VBM and Freesufer procedures. The relative ratios of the neurometabolites were calculated using linear combination model (LCModel). Compared to controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly decreased gray matter volume in the hippocampus. Schizophrenia patients also showed significantly reduced glutamate (Glu) and myo-inositol (mI) ratios in the hippocampus. Additionally, significant positive correlation between gray matter volume and Glu/tCr was also observed in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Our findings provide an evidence for a possible association between structural deficits and metabolic alterations in schizophrenia patients. (orig.)

  9. Prevalence of mitochondrial DNA mutations in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Chen, Jia; Li, Ying; Lin, Peng-Fang; He, Jian-Guo; Yang, Bei-Bei

    2016-01-01

    Several mitochondrial DNA mutations have been reported to be associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss in several families. However, little is known about the prevalence of these mutations in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of our study was to investigate the incidence of these mitochondrial DNA mutations in such population. A total of 178 sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood sample. We employed the SNaPshot(®) sequencing method to detect five mitochondrial DNA mutations, including A1555G and A827G in 12S rRNA gene and A7445G, 7472insC, and T7511C in tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene. Meanwhile, we used polymerase chain reaction and sequenced the products to screen GJB2 gene mutations in patients carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations. We failed to detect the presence of A1555G mutation in 12S rRNA gene, and of A7445G, 7472insC, T7511C mutations in tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene in our population. However, we found that 6 patients (3.37%) were carriers of a homozygous A827G mutation and one of them also carried homozygous GJB2 235delC mutation. Our findings in the present study indicate that even in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss, mitochondrial DNA mutations might also contribute to the clinical phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Odor hedonic capacity and anhedonia in schizophrenia and unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Moberg, Paul J; Kohler, Christian G; Gur, Raquel E; Turetsky, Bruce I

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that schizophrenia patients have difficulties in the hedonic appraisal of odors. In a prior study, we assessed olfactory hedonic perception birhinally and found that males with schizophrenia failed to attach the appropriate hedonic valence to a pleasant odor, despite correctly perceiving changes in odor intensity. Female patients, in contrast, exhibited normal responses. The current study extends this work by examining odor valence processing in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, to determine the extent to which this abnormality may be genetically mediated. We also examine odor valence processing unirhinally, rather than birhinally, to probe possible lateralized differences in patients' hedonic processing deficits. Individuals with schizophrenia (n = 54), first-degree unaffected family members (n = 22), and demographically matched controls (n = 45) were administered the Suprathreshold Amyl Acetate Odor Intensity and Odor Pleasantness Rating Test. In contrast to family members and controls, both male and female schizophrenia probands underevaluated the hedonic characteristics of amyl acetate at lower concentrations and overevaluated its pleasantness at concentrations perceived as unpleasant by both controls and relatives. These patient-specific differences could not be explained by differences in smoking habit, medication use, or subjective ratings of odor intensity. However, they were associated with increased levels of anhedonia/asociality and negative symptomatology. Our findings suggest that both male and female schizophrenia patients have difficulties in the unirhinal appraisal of hedonic valence. Normal responses in unaffected first-degree relatives suggest that this is an environmentally, rather than genetically, mediated abnormality denoting negative symptomatology.

  11. Genomic variants in the FTO gene are associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Greek patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Merkouri Papadima, Eleni; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Balasopoulou, Angeliki; Charalampidou, Kyriaki; Galani, Vasiliki; Zafeiri, Krystallia-Vassiliki; Dardiotis, Efthymios; Ralli, Styliani; Deretzi, Georgia; John, Anne; Kydonopoulou, Kyriaki; Papadopoulou, Elpida; di Pardo, Alba; Akcimen, Fulya; Loizedda, Annalisa; Dobričić, Valerija; Novaković, Ivana; Kostić, Vladimir S; Mizzi, Clint; Peters, Brock A; Basak, Nazli; Orrù, Sandro; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Cooper, David N; Gerou, Spyridon; Drmanac, Radoje; Bartsakoulia, Marina; Tsermpini, Evangelia-Eirini; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Ali, Bassam R; Katsila, Theodora; Patrinos, George P

    2017-12-08

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease whose complex pathology has been associated with a strong genetic component in the context of both familial and sporadic disease. Herein, we adopted a next-generation sequencing approach to Greek patients suffering from sporadic ALS (together with their healthy counterparts) in order to explore further the genetic basis of sporadic ALS (sALS). Whole-genome sequencing analysis of Greek sALS patients revealed a positive association between FTO and TBC1D1 gene variants and sALS. Further, linkage disequilibrium analyses were suggestive of a specific disease-associated haplotype for FTO gene variants. Genotyping for these variants was performed in Greek, Sardinian, and Turkish sALS patients. A lack of association between FTO and TBC1D1 variants and sALS in patients of Sardinian and Turkish descent may suggest a founder effect in the Greek population. FTO was found to be highly expressed in motor neurons, while in silico analyses predicted an impact on FTO and TBC1D1 mRNA splicing for the genomic variants in question. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present a possible association between FTO gene variants and the genetic etiology of sALS. In addition, the next-generation sequencing-based genomics approach coupled with the two-step validation strategy described herein has the potential to be applied to other types of human complex genetic disorders in order to identify variants of clinical significance.

  12. Gender differences in coerced patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawka, Alexander; Kalisova, Lucie; Raboch, Jiri; Giacco, Domenico; Cihal, Libor; Onchev, Georgi; Karastergiou, Anastasia; Solomon, Zahava; Fiorillo, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Dembinskas, Algirdas; Kiejna, Andrzej; Nawka, Petr; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Priebe, Stefan; Kjellin, Lars; Kallert, Thomas W

    2013-10-11

    Despite the recent increase of research interest in involuntary treatment and the use of coercive measures, gender differences among coerced schizophrenia patients still remain understudied. It is well recognized that there are gender differences both in biological correlates and clinical presentations in schizophrenia, which is one of the most common diagnoses among patients who are treated against their will. The extent to which these differences may result in a difference in the use of coercive measures for men and women during the acute phase of the disease has not been studied. 291 male and 231 female coerced patients with schizophrenia were included in this study, which utilized data gathered by the EUNOMIA project (European Evaluation of Coercion in Psychiatry and Harmonization of Best Clinical Practice) and was carried out as a multi-centre prospective cohort study at 13 centers in 12 European countries. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, social functioning and aggressive behavior in patients who received any form of coercive measure (seclusion and/or forced medication and/or physical restraint) during their hospital stay were assessed. When compared to the non-coerced inpatient population, there was no difference in sociodemographic or clinical characteristics across either gender. However coerced female patients did show a worse social functioning than their coerced male counterparts, a finding which contrasts with the non-coerced inpatient population. Moreover, patterns of aggressive behavior were different between men and women, such that women exhibited aggressive behavior more frequently, but men committed severe aggressive acts more frequently. Staff used forced medication in women more frequently and physical restraint and seclusion more frequently with men. Results of this study point towards a higher threshold of aggressive behavior the treatment of women with coercive measures. This may be because less serious aggressive actions

  13. CANTAB Explicit Memory Is Less Impaired in Addicted Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Stephane; Briand, Catherine; Prouteau, Antoinette; Bouchard, Roch-Hugo; Lipp, Olivier; Lalonde, Pierre; Nicole, Luc; Lesage, Alain; Stip, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that in order to sustain the lifestyle of substance abuse, addicted schizophrenia patients would have less negative symptoms, better social skills, and less cognitive impairments. Mounting evidence supports the first two assumptions, but data lack regarding cognition in dual diagnosis schizophrenia. Seventy-six schizophrenia…

  14. Overconfidence in incorrect perceptual judgments in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Moritz

    2014-12-01

    Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate overconfidence in errors among individuals with psychosis using a visual perception task. Speaking to the specificity of this abnormality for schizophrenia and its pathogenetic relevance, overconfidence in errors and knowledge corruption were elevated in patients with schizophrenia relative to both control groups and were correlated with paranoia.

  15. The neuroanatomical basis of affective mentalizing in schizophrenia: comparison of patients with schizophrenia and patients with localized prefrontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2007-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia show impaired emotional and social behavior, such as misinterpretation of social situations and lack of Theory of Mind (ToM). However, the neuroanatomical basis of impaired ToM and its nature in schizophrenia is still largely unknown. Based on previous findings, the present study suggests that impaired social cognition observed in schizophrenic patients may be similar to that observed in patients with prefrontal (PFC) damage due to impaired 'affective ToM' abilities, rather than to a general impairment in ToM. We examined the behavioral and neural mechanisms that underlie the social and communicative impairments observed in patients with schizophrenia and with PFC damage, by looking at differential patterns of ToM impairment in these individuals. The performance of 24 patients with schizophrenia was compared to the responses of patients with localized lesions in the ventromedial (VM) or dorsolateral PFC, patients with non-frontal lesions, and healthy control subjects. Patients with schizophrenia and those with VM lesions were impaired on 'affective ToM' tasks but not in cognitive ToM conditions. It was concluded that the pattern of mentalizing impairments in schizophrenia resembled those seen in patients with lesions of the frontal lobe, particularly with VM damage, providing support for the notion of a disturbance of the fronto-limbic circuits in schizophrenia.

  16. High-resolution analysis of DNA copy number alterations in patients with isolated sporadic keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali M; Al Mansouri, Sameer M; Kalantan, Hatem; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman M

    2011-03-30

    To determine whether patients with sporadic, non-familial keratoconus and no pathogenic mutations in the visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) gene have evidence of chromosomal copy number alterations. Twenty Saudi Arabian patients with isolated keratoconus, no family history of the disease and no mutations in VSX1 were recruited. Additionally, 10 ethnically-matched healthy controls were also recruited for this study. We screened patients for chromosomal copy number aberrations using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 244A Oligo Microarray Chip. None of the keratoconus patients screened had evidence of chromosomal copy number alterations when compared to normal ethnically matched controls. Chromosomal deletions and/or duplications were not detected in any of the patients tested here. Other chromosomal imbalances such as translocations, inversions, and some ploidies cannot be detected by current array CGH technology and other nuclear genetic or epigenetic factors cannot be excluded as a possible contributing factor to keratoconus pathogenesis.

  17. Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. People who have it may hear voices that aren't there. ... job or take care of themselves. Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. Men ...

  18. Staff attitudes towards patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendsborg, Per; Bratbo, Johanne; Dannevang, Anders; Hagedorn-Møller, Julie; Kistrup, Kristen; Lindhardt, Anne; Nordentoft, Merete

    2013-10-01

    Stigmatizing attitudes have been reported in international studies among staff in psychiatry. The authors wanted to investigate if this was the case in Denmark. A survey of attitudes among staff at two psychiatric units in Copenhagen was performed using the Mental Illness: Clinicians' Attitudes scales. The scales have 16 questions to which another four questions were added by the authors. A total of 548 staff members answered the questions (61 doctors and 487 other professionals). The majority of the respondents believed in the possibility of recovery for patients and only a minority associated a high degree of dangerousness with schizophrenia. The cause of the illness was mainly regarded as being biological, but all agreed to a bio-psycho-social aetiological approach. The majority of the respondents believed that the illness was chronic and agreed on the need for staff to also be aware of patients' somatic illness. The doctors did not question their role as "real doctors" or the scientific basis for psychiatry. The majority would not mind working with a colleague with schizophrenia, but about half would hesitate to disclose if they themselves were diagnosed with the illness. Being a woman working in community psychiatry with long experience and participation in a recovery educational programme was associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. The survey showed a relatively low level of stigmatizing attitudes. This runs counter to the results from international investigation. This trend could be interpreted both as a result of a shift towards a more recovery-oriented approach to treatment as well as a reflection of political correctness.

  19. The Evaluation of Olfactory Function in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robabeh, Soleimani; Mohammad, Jalali Mir; Reza, Ahmadi; Mahan, Badri

    2015-04-23

    The aim of this study was to compare olfactory threshold, smell identification, intensity and pleasantness ratings between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and (2) to evaluate correlations between ratings of olfactory probes and illness characteristics. Thirty one patients with schizophrenia and 31 control subjects were assessed with the olfactory n-butanol threshold test, the Iran smell identification test (Ir-SIT), and the suprathreshold amyl acetate odor intensity and odor pleasantness rating test. All olfactory tasks were performed unirhinally. Patients with schizophrenia showed disrupted olfaction in all four measures. Longer duration of schizophrenia was associated with a larger impairment of olfactory threshold or microsmic range on the Ir-SIT (P=0.04, P=0.05, respectively). In patients with schizophrenia, female subjects' ratings of pleasantness followed the same trend as control subjects, whereas male patients' ratings showed an opposite trend. Patients exhibiting high positive score on the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) performed better on the olfactory threshold test (r=0.37, P=0.04). The higher odor pleasantness ratings of patients were associated with presence of positive symptoms. The results suggest that both male and female patients with schizophrenia had difficulties on the olfactory threshold and smell identification tests, but appraisal of odor pleasantness was more disrupted in male patients.

  20. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Yasushi; Saito, Manabu; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao

    2012-05-03

    Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. We recruited patients (n = 204), aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD) years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (%) body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  1. Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia

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    Schaub Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding

  2. Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia

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    Smita Hemrom

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.

  3. Factors influencing the survival period in Japanese patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Akagi, Akio; Mimuro, Maya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari

    2015-10-15

    Although Japanese cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) generally involve longer survival periods compared to those from other countries, details regarding the factors influencing survival are unclear. To determine the influence of certain factors on survival, we retrospectively assessed 51 Japanese MM1-type sCJD patients with respect to background, clinical course, and disease management. No significant differences were found between men and women, tracheotomy and nontracheotomy patients, or patients treated in public and other types of hospitals. Although the survival period of tube-fed patients was significantly longer than that of patients who were not tube fed, survival of patients fed via a nasal tube did not differ significantly from that of gastrostomy-fed patients. The proportion of tube-fed patients was 68.6% (35/51). Disease duration was not significantly associated with age or year of onset. However, it was associated with time from onset to first recognition of myoclonus, first recognition of periodic sharp-wave complexes on electroencephalogram, and progression to the akinetic mutism state. Mechanical ventilation was not performed for any patient. Because the total disease duration increased in cases with a slowly progressive clinical course as a natural outcome, we concluded that the most crucial factor contributing to the prolonged survival of Japanese sCJD patients was tube feeding once the akinetic mutism state had been reached. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Motivation and Social Cognition in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Social cognition, referring to one's ability to perceive and process social cues, is an important domain in schizophrenia. Numerous studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia have poorer performance on tests assessing social cognition relative to healthy comparison participants. However, whether variables such as motivation are related to performance on these tests in patients with schizophrenia is unclear. One thousand three-hundred and seventy-eight patients with schizophrenia completed the Facial Emotion Discrimination Task as a measure of emotional processing, a key facet of social cognition. Level of motivation was also evaluated in these patients using a derived measure from the Quality of Life Scale. The relationship between motivation and task performance was examined using bivariate correlations and logistic regression modeling, controlling for the impact of age and overall severity of psychopathology, the latter evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Motivation was positively related to performance on the social cognition test, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for potential confounding variables such as age and illness severity. Social cognition was also related to functioning, and the relationship was mediated by level of motivation. The present study found a significant relationship between motivation and performance on a test of social cognition in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. These findings suggest that amotivation undermines task performance, or alternatively that poor social cognitive ability impedes motivation. Future studies evaluating social cognition in patients with schizophrenia should concurrently assess for variables such as effort and motivation.

  5. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Taro; Matsuda, Yuki; Fujita, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Nakao

    2014-01-01

    Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8. Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia), and 28 (75.7%) completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score (Pblonanserin response at week 4 could predict the later response at week 8.

  6. Mismatch negativity, social cognition, and functioning in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jonathan K; Sugar, Catherine; Horan, William P; Kern, Robert; Green, Michael F

    2010-05-15

    Cognition and social cognition have been found to influence functional outcome in schizophrenia patients. However, little is known about the underlying neural substrates that are associated with social cognition or daily functioning. Prior studies found associations between mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential response indexing early auditory processing, and functioning in schizophrenia patients. In this study, we examined MMN, social cognition (social perception and theory of mind), and four domains of functioning (work, independent living, social networks, and family networks) in 33 schizophrenia patients and 42 demographically comparable healthy control subjects. Schizophrenia patients exhibited reduced MMN activity at frontocentral electrode sites compared with healthy control subjects. Within the schizophrenia sample, greater MMN activity at frontocentral sites correlated with better work and independent living (but not social or family networks) and with better social perception. These results suggest that MMN activity is more closely tied to some outcome domains (work and independent living) than others. Mismatch negativity has been previously shown to be associated with basic cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia, but these findings are the first, to our knowledge, to show MMN associations with social cognition. These results are consistent with cascade models of information processing in which deficits in early perceptual processing have a downstream impact on higher order social cognition and community functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Estimated cognitive decline in patients with schizophrenia: A multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Haruo; Sumiyoshi, Chika; Yasuda, Yuka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Fujimoto, Michiko; Fukunaga, Masaki; Miura, Kenichiro; Takebayashi, Yuto; Okada, Naohiro; Isomura, Shuichi; Kawano, Naoko; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Kuga, Hironori; Isobe, Masanori; Oya, Kazuto; Okahisa, Yuko; Takaki, Manabu; Hashimoto, Naoki; Kato, Masaki; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Ueno, Takefumi; Ohnuma, Tohru; Kasai, Kiyoto; Ozaki, Norio; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Imura, Osamu; Hashimoto, Ryota

    2017-05-01

    Studies have reported that cognitive decline occurs after the onset of schizophrenia despite heterogeneity in cognitive function among patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of estimated cognitive decline in patients with schizophrenia by comparing estimated premorbid intellectual functioning and current intellectual functioning. A total of 446 patients with schizophrenia (228 male, 218 female), consisting of three sample sets obtained from 11 psychiatric facilities, and 686 healthy controls participated in this study. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) was used to measure the participants' current full-scale IQ (FSIQ). The premorbid IQ was estimated using the Japanese Adult Reading Test-25. Estimated cognitive decline (difference score) was defined as the difference between the estimated premorbid IQ and the current FSIQ. Patients with schizophrenia showed greater estimated cognitive decline, a lower FSIQ, and a lower premorbid IQ compared with the healthy controls. The mean difference score, FSIQ, and estimated premorbid IQ were -16.3, 84.2, and 100.5, respectively, in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, 39.7% of the patients had a difference score of 20 points or greater decline. A discriminant analysis showed that the difference score accurately predicted 81.6% of the patients and healthy controls. These results show the distribution of difference score in patients with schizophrenia. These findings may contribute to assessing the severity of estimated cognitive decline and identifying patients with schizophrenia who suffer from cognitive decline. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  8. Prevalence of dental caries in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia

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    Đorđević Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is considered that over 450 million people worldwide suffer from some form of mental disorder. Previous studies in other countries have shown that schizophrenia is among the most frequent. Oral health is significant for general health and should not be separated from mental health. Studies in other countries have shown an increased incidence of carious and extracted teeth, and less incidence of filled teeth in this group of psychiatric patients. The aim of this study was to establish condition of the existing teeth, to determine the prevalence of caries and to consider possible risk factors that contribute to the current oral health status of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Methods. The study comprised 190 patients with schizophrenia, hospitalized at the Clinic for Psychiatric Disorders “Dr. Laza Lazarević” in Belgrade, and 190 mentally healthy patients at the Clinic for Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine in Belgrade. The decayed, missing, filled (DMF index, sociodemographic and economic characteristics were registered in both groups, as well as characteristics of the primary disease of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Results. The value of DMF index (representing the sum of carious, extracted and filled teeth, in the hospitalized patients with schizophrenia was 18.57 ± 7.07 and 12.47 ± 5.64 in the healthy group (p = 0.000. The structure of the DMF index in the study group showed that caries and extracted teeth dominated with 88.1%; in the control group, filled teeth dominated with 55.6%, which was a statistically significant difference for all the three observed variables. Conclusion. Hospitalized patients with schizophrenia had twice as many caries and extracted teeth, and five time less filled teeth than healthy people. The patient’s age and taking antiparkinsonics were established as predictors of the increased DMF index in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

  9. Carotid, aorta and renal arteries intima-media thickness in patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism

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    Deshraj Meena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alteration in homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH predispose to vascular calcification that increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The data on this aspect are scarce in patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (SIH. Objective: The aim was to assess the effect of altered calcium, phosphate and PTH homeostasis in patients with SIH on intima media thickness (IMT, a surrogate marker of increased vascular risk. Methods: In this case-control study, we measured carotid IMT (CIMT, aortic IMT (AIMT and renal arteries IMT (RIMT in 30 consecutive patients with SIH, and compared with healthy subjects. IMT was measured by ultrasound by a single operator blinded to subject′s details. Results: CIMT, AIMT, RIMT values in patients with SIH were significantly more than healthy subjects (0.60 ± 0.08 mm vs. 0.52 ± 0.09 mm, P = 0.001; 0.73 ± 0.09 mm vs. 0.65 ± 0.10, P = 0.004; and 0.34 ± 0.04 mm vs. 0.30 ± 0.05, P = 0.003, respectively. Clinical or biochemical parameters did not correlate with CIMT, AIMT and RIMT in patients with SIH. Conclusion: The vascular risk is increased in patients with SIH as assessed by CIMT, AIMT, and RIMT.

  10. The survival of patients with Stage III Colon Cancer is improved in HNPCC compared with sporadic cases. A Danish registry based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Line Merrild; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Bülow, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) seem to have a better prognosis than those with sporadic colon cancer (CC)s. The aim was to compare survival after stage III CC in patients with HNPCC with those having sporadic CC. METHOD: 230 patients with hereditary cancer...... history of cancer. Patient characteristics, geographic differences and survival data were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) was better in HNPCC patients compared to sporadic CC after stratification for sex and age (p=0.02; CI 1.04-1.7). The 5-year survival was 70% in HNPCC patients compared...... from The Danish HNPCC-Register and 3557 patients with sporadic CC from The Danish Colorectal Cancer Database, diagnosed during May 2001-December 2008 were included. HNPCC patients were classified according to Mismatch Repair mutation status and family pedigree. Sporadic cases had no known family...

  11. Psychiatric symptoms in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnianski, Anna; Bohling, Geeske T; Harden, Markus; Zerr, Inga

    2015-09-01

    Psychiatric symptoms in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) are still not sufficiently evaluated. To describe psychiatric symptoms in sCJD with respect to molecular subtype. Patients in this retrospective study were classified according to established diagnostic criteria. 248 sCJD patients with known molecular subtype were recruited from January 1993 to December 2004 and investigated. Psychiatric symptoms were defined according to Möller and colleagues and the AMDP system (Study Group for Methods and Documentation in Psychiatry) and were collected by direct examination by study physicians or extracted from medical documentation. Our data were compared with published data on variant CJD (vCJD). Psychiatric symptoms were common in sCJD patients (90%) and mostly found already at the disease onset (agitation in 64% of the patients, hallucinations in 45%, anxiety in 50%, depression in 37%). All psychiatric symptoms but illusions were found early in the disease course. Psychiatric symptoms in sCJD were less frequent than in vCJD. We provide the first detailed analysis of psychiatric symptoms in a large group of patients with sCJD with respect to differences concerning frequency and time point of occurrence of psychiatric symptoms between molecular subtypes. These data suggest that psychiatric symptoms occurring early in the disease course are common not only in vCJD but also in other CJD types. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Neuropsychological Symptoms in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnianski, Anna; Bohling, Geeske T; Heinemann, Uta; Varges, Daniela; Meissner, Bettina; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Reif, Andreas; Zerr, Inga

    2017-01-01

    The polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) and the PrPSc types 1 and 2 belong to a molecular classification of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) that correlates well with the clinical and neuropathological phenotype of sCJD. The aim of the study was to perform the first detailed evaluation of neuropsychological deficits in a large group of definite sCJD patients with known molecular subtype. We analyzed neuropsychological symptoms in a cohort of 248 sCJD patients with known M129 V polymorphism of PRNP and prion protein type. Neuropsychological symptoms were very frequent in our patients (96%) and occurred as early as in the first third of the disease course. Besides amnesia and impaired attention (89% each), frontal lobe syndrome (75%), aphasia (63%), and apraxia (57%) were the most common neuropsychological deficits. There was no statistically significant difference with regard to frequency of neuropsychological symptoms between the subtypes. In MV2 and VV2 patients, the onset of neuropsychological symptoms was significantly later than in all other subtypes. We provide the first detailed analysis of neuropsychological symptoms in a large group of sCJD patients with known M129 V genotype and prion protein type. We suggest that the rate of progression of neuropsychological symptoms is subtype-specific. These data may improve the diagnosis in atypical sCJD subtypes.

  13. AIP mutations in Brazilian patients with sporadic pituitary adenomas: a single-center evaluation

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    Paula Bruna Araujo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP gene mutations (AIPmut are the most frequent germline mutations found in apparently sporadic pituitary adenomas (SPA. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency of AIPmut among young Brazilian patients with SPA. We performed an observational cohort study between 2013 and 2016 in a single referral center. AIPmut screening was carried out in 132 SPA patients with macroadenomas diagnosed up to 40 years or in adenomas of any size diagnosed until 18 years of age. Twelve tumor samples were also analyzed. Leukocyte DNA and tumor tissue DNA were sequenced for the entire AIP-coding region for evaluation of mutations. Eleven (8.3% of the 132 patients had AIPmut, comprising 9/74 (12% somatotropinomas, 1/38 (2.6% prolactinoma, 1/10 (10% corticotropinoma and no non-functioning adenomas. In pediatric patients (≤18 years, AIPmut frequency was 13.3% (2/15. Out of the 5 patients with gigantism, two had AIPmut, both truncating mutations. The Y268* mutation was described in Brazilian patients and the K273Rfs*30 mutation is a novel mutation in our patient. No somatic AIP mutations were found in the 12 tumor samples. A tumor sample from an acromegaly patient harboring the A299V AIPmut showed loss of heterozygosity. In conclusion, AIPmut frequency in SPA Brazilian patients is similar to other populations. Our study identified two mutations exclusively found in Brazilians and also shows, for the first time, loss of heterozygosity in tumor DNA from an acromegaly patient harboring the A299V AIPmut. Our findings corroborate previous observations that AIPmut screening should be performed in young patients with SPA.

  14. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of suicide in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Durán, Esperanza L; Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Hurtado-Ruíz, Gemma

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death among patients with schizophrenia. Suicide phenomenon's characterization is the best available approach for improved prediction and prevention of suicide. Patients at high risk for suicide need a more intensive monitoring and intervention. The aim of this review is to characterize, from a clinical-epidemiological point of view, the phenomenon of completed suicide in schizophrenia. We performed a systematic review to identify the most relevant studies published between 1994 and 2009, by searching on the international database Medline and among previous reviews references. Patients with schizophrenia experience higher mortality rates than the general population, especially due to the suicide. Most patients with schizophrenia who commit suicide are likely to be young and males, with a higher risk around illness onset and hospitalization periods. Previous suicide attempts are an important risk factor for completed suicide. Suicide risk is associated to psychotic positive symptoms, affective symptoms, depression and substance abuse. Treatment adherence is as protective factor. Patients with schizophrenia are likely to commit suicide by violent means. Suicide prevention should focus on treating affective symptoms and syndromes, improving treatment compliance and providing intensive monitoring to those patients at high risk of suicide, specially around hospitalization periods. Further studies are needed to clarify differential characteristics between suicide behaviour and completed suicide.

  15. Patients with sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis found value in genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karin N; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Allain, Dawn C; Quick, Adam; Kolb, Stephen J; Roggenbuck, Jennifer

    2017-12-20

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is increasingly recognized as a genetic disease. There is no consensus, however, as to the role of genetic testing in the care of the ALS patient. We conducted a survey to study patient access, attitudes, and experience with ALS genetic testing among patients enrolled in a US ALS registry. Among 449 survey respondents, 156 (34.7%) were offered testing and 105 of 156 (67.3%) completed testing. The majority of respondents with familial ALS (fALS) (31/45, 68.9%) were offered testing, while a minority of respondents with sporadic ALS (sALS) (111/404, 27.5%) were offered testing (p = .00001). Comparison of mean test experience scores between groups revealed that respondents with fALS were no more likely to report a favorable experience with genetic testing than those with sALS (p = .51). Respondents who saw a genetic counselor did not have significantly different test experience scores, compared to those who did not (p = .14). In addition, no differences in test experience scores were observed between those who received positive or negative genetic test results (p = .98). These data indicate that patients with ALS found value in clinical genetic testing. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Inbreeding, endogamy and exogamy among relatives of schizophrenia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaskuliev, A A; Skoblo, G V

    1975-01-01

    An increased frequency of consanguineous marriages among the parents of schizophrenic patients in comparison with the control group of exogenous-somatic patients (infections, trauma) was found. Endogamy among the parents of schizophrenic patients and the control group was practically the same. The data obtained indicate a certain, but not the leading, role of inbreeding in the etiology of schizophrenia.

  17. Exploration of somatosensory P50 gating in schizophrenia spectrum patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M; Chen, Andrew C N

    2004-01-01

    , male, schizophrenia spectrum patients (seven schizophrenic and five schizotypal personality disorder patients) and 14 age-matched healthy men participated in recordings of pair-wise presented auditory and median nerve stimuli. The patients had smaller amplitudes of the SEP P50 at the first stimulus...

  18. Treatment decision-making capacity in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilanakis, N; Peritogiannis, V K; Vratsista, Aik

    2017-01-01

    In contemporary medical ethics and clinical practice the autonomy of patients and their right to accept or refuse an offered treatment is acknowledged and respected. Prerequisite for the right of a patient to consent to any medical act is the capacity to make valid decisions regarding his/ her treatment. The objective of our study was to assess -for the first time in our country- treatment decision-making capacity of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia; to explore any possible association with demographic and clinical variables; and to compare treatment decision-making capacity of patients with schizophrenia with medical patients' capacity. The sample of patients comprised of 21 patients with schizophrenia who were hospitalized in the psychiatric ward of the General Hospital of Arta, north-west Greece. Those patients' capacity was compared with treatment decision-making capacity of 78 patients hospitalized in the internal medicine ward of the same hospital. All patients' capacity was assessed within 72 hours of admission with the use of the Greek version of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T), a valid and reliable tool for capacity assessment. The performance of patients with schizophrenia on the MacCAT-T was significantly worse than medical patients' performance, suggesting that patients with schizophrenia, as a group had poorer decision-making capacity compared to medical patients. Both negative symptomatology (anergia) and positive symptoms (hostility and suspiciousness), as measured with the use of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were associated with poor performance on the MacCAT-T. Although medical patients as a group scored better in the MacCAT-T, there were several cases that lacked decision-making capacity. In conclusion, patients with schizophrenia had higher incapacity rates than medical patients during the first days of hospitalization. Lack of treatment decision-making capacity is not necessarily the rule

  19. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  20. Regulation of human cerebrospinal fluid malate dehydrogenase 1 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Llorens, Franc; Pracht, Alexander; Thom, Tobias; Correia, Ângela; Zafar, Saima; Ferrer, Isidre; Zerr, Inga

    2016-11-14

    The identification of reliable diagnostic biomarkers in differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases is an ongoing topic. A previous two-dimensional proteomic study on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed an elevated level of an enzyme, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1), in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Here, we could demonstrate the expression of MDH1 in neurons as well as in the neuropil. Its levels are lower in sCJD brains than in control brains. An examination of CSF-MDH1 in sCJD patients by ELISA revealed a significant elevation of CSF-MDH1 levels in sCJD patients (independently from the PRNP codon 129 MV genotype or the prion protein scrapie (PrP Sc ) type) in comparison to controls. In combination with total tau (tau), CSF-MDH1 detection exhibited a high diagnostic accuracy for sCJD diagnosis with a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 95.6%. A correlation study of MDH1 level in CSF with other neurodegenerative marker proteins revealed a significant positive correlation between MDH1 concentration with tau, 14-3-3 and neuron specific enolase level. In conclusion, our study indicated the potential of MDH1 in combination with tau as an additional biomarker in sCJD improving diagnostic accuracy of tau markedly.

  1. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a native Puerto Rican patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cali, Ignazio; Chapas, Javier; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Puoti, Gianfranco; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Nobo, Ulises

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is often a challenge for most physicians given its extremely low incidence and different clinico-pathological presentations. We report the case of a 56-year old patient native to Puerto Rico suspected of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCD). The symptoms at onset were notorious for bilateral cortical blindness followed by rapidly progressive cognitive decline, visual deficit, increased levels of CSF 14-3-3 and tau along with positive brain MRI and EEG, are highly indicative of CJD. The definite diagnosis was confirmed by the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Lack of genetic mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene, widespread histopathological changes and the accumulation of scrapie PrP (PrPSc) in the brain confirmed the diagnosis of sCJD. The patient, admitted to our institution in 2011, represents the first detailed report of sCJD in a native Puerto Rican patient living in Puerto Rico.

  2. Regulation of human cerebrospinal fluid malate dehydrogenase 1 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Llorens, Franc; Pracht, Alexander; Thom, Tobias; Correia, Ângela; Zafar, Saima; Ferrer, Isidre; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The identification of reliable diagnostic biomarkers in differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases is an ongoing topic. A previous two-dimensional proteomic study on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed an elevated level of an enzyme, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1), in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Here, we could demonstrate the expression of MDH1 in neurons as well as in the neuropil. Its levels are lower in sCJD brains than in control brains. An examination of CSF-MDH1 in sCJD patients by ELISA revealed a significant elevation of CSF-MDH1 levels in sCJD patients (independently from the PRNP codon 129 MV genotype or the prion protein scrapie (PrPSc) type) in comparison to controls. In combination with total tau (tau), CSF-MDH1 detection exhibited a high diagnostic accuracy for sCJD diagnosis with a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 95.6%. A correlation study of MDH1 level in CSF with other neurodegenerative marker proteins revealed a significant positive correlation between MDH1 concentration with tau, 14-3-3 and neuron specific enolase level. In conclusion, our study indicated the potential of MDH1 in combination with tau as an additional biomarker in sCJD improving diagnostic accuracy of tau markedly. PMID:27852982

  3. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia in five European countries: the EPSILON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaite, L.; Vázquez-Barquero, J. L.; Borra, C.; Ballesteros, J.; Schene, A.; Welcher, B.; Thornicroft, G.; Becker, T.; Ruggeri, M.; Herrán, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare subjective quality of life (QOL) and objective, QOL indicators in patients with schizophrenia from five European sites: Amsterdam, Copenhagen, London, Santander and Verona. Method: A representative sample of 404 patients with schizophrenia, in contact with mental health

  4. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in untreated schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcuoglu, Canan; Bakirhan, Abdurrahim; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric; Neselioglu, Salim; Erel, Ozcan; Sahiner, Safak Yalcin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate dynamic thiol/disulfide (SH/SS) homeostasis in untreated schizophrenia. Blood thiol/disulfide homeostasis status, which reflects native thiol-disulfide exchanges, was investigated in 87 untreated patients (52 males, 35 females), and the obtained results were compared with 86 healthy controls. Blood serum native thiol and total thiol (ToSH) concentrations were measured in a paired test. The half value of the difference between native thiol and ToSH concentrations was calculated as the disulfide bond amount. SH and ToSH concentrations were found to be significantly lower (pschizophrenia compared with the control group, whereas disulfide levels were significantly higher (pSchizophrenia patients had significantly higher SS/ToSH and SS/SH ratios and a significantly lower SH/ToSH ratio compared to those of healthy individuals. SH and ToSH amounts were found to be insufficient in untreated schizophrenia patients. Additionally, according to the results of the study, thiol/disulfide homeostasis was also disturbed by a shift to the disulfide bond formation side. This might affect the neurotransmission processes, which are known to be related with many symptoms observed in schizophrenia. The replacement of the thiol gap and the reduction of excess SS amounts might have a positive effect in supporting therapy for schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neurocognitive Vulnerability: Suicidal and Homicidal Behaviours in Patients With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Orsat, Manuel; Dumais, Alexandre; Turecki, Gustavo; Jollant, Fabrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with an increase in the risk of both homicide and suicide. The objectives of this study were to systematically review all published articles that examined the relation between neurocognitive deficits and suicidal or homicidal behaviours in schizophrenia, and to identify vulnerabilities in suicidal and homicidal behaviour that may share a common pathway in schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE to include all studies published up to August 31, 2012. Results: Among the 1760 studies, 7 neuropsychological and 12 brain imaging studies met the selection criteria and were included in the final analysis. The neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies were inconclusive. The structural imaging studies reported various alterations in patients with schizophrenia and a history of homicidal behaviour, including: reduced inferior frontal and temporal cortices, increased mediodorsal white matter, and increased amygdala volumes. Patients with a history of suicidal acts showed volumetric reductions in left orbitofrontal and superior temporal cortices, while right amygdala volume was increased, though, these findings have rarely been replicated. Finally, no study has directly compared neurocognitive markers of suicidal and homicidal risk. Conclusion: These results suggest that brain alterations, in addition to those associated with schizophrenia, may predispose some patients to a higher risk of homicide or suicide in particular circumstances. Moreover, some of these alterations may be shared between homicidal and suicidal patients. However, owing to several limitations, including the small number of available studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn and further investigations are necessary. PMID:24444320

  6. Redefining periodic patterns on electroencephalograms of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Won; Yim, Byeongsoo; Oh, Seung Hun; Kim, Nam Keun; Lee, Sang Kun; Kim, Ok-Joon

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to redefine various periodic patterns (PPs) observed on electroencephalography (EEG) in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) using the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's (ACNS) Criteria. We analyzed EEG data of 23 patients with sCJD were admitted to two university hospitals between August 2005 and September 2015. We classified PPs on EEG data into three types: irregular periodic discharges (PDs) with superimposed rhythmic activities, appearing at a median of 8weeks after onset (w.a.o.); rhythmic sharp-and-wave, at a median of 11w.a.o.; and PDs with biphasic or triphasic morphology, at a median of 17w.a.o. Of 16 patients presenting with PPs, 14 had widespread lesions in both cortical and subcortical areas with clinical stage III at admission, and shorter time intervals for admission to hospital from disease onset than patients without PPs (Patients with PP, 11.6±12.2weeks; without PP, 18.2±8.3weeks; p=0.033). PPs largely presented as three types at different stages of disease progression, and patients who had PPs had more wide spread lesions and rapid disease progression. Our redefinition of PPs demonstrated on EEG using the ACNS criteria may contribute to further understanding of the pathological mechanisms of sCJD, and PPs might be a predictive factor of a rapid sCJD progression. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coping strategies in Aymara caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Ferrer-García, Marta; Miranda-Castillo, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Deinstitutionalization has forced families of patients with schizophrenia to take responsibility of informal care, without having the tools to exert their role properly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the coping strategies of caregivers of patients with schizophrenia, belonging to the Aymara ethnic group, (aborigines who are located on the highlands of Northern Chile). The studied sample comprised 45 caregivers of patients with schizophrenia users of the Mental Health Service of Arica, Chile. The results from the Family Coping Questionnaire (FCQ) show that both, Aymara and non-Aymara caregivers use the same coping strategies except for spiritual help which is more likely to be used by Aymara. This strategy might be related with the worldview they possess, thus the relation with the deities has a meaningful importance in the way of explaining and coping with different phenomena.

  8. Approaches to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuler KM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly M Shuler Shuler Counseling and Consulting, Fayetteville, AR, USA Purpose: In patients with schizophrenia, nonadherence to prescribed medications increases the risk of patient relapse and hospitalization, key contributors to the costs associated with treatment. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the impact of nonadherence to pharmacotherapy in patients with schizophrenia as it relates to health care professionals, particularly social workers, and to identify effective team approaches to supporting patients based on studies assessing implementation of assertive community treatment teams. Materials and methods: A systematic review of the medical literature was conducted by searching the Scopus database to identify articles associated with treatment adherence in patients with schizophrenia. Articles included were published from January 1, 2003, through July 15, 2013, were written in English, and reported findings concerning any and all aspects of nonadherence to prescribed treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Results: Of 92 unique articles identified and formally screened, 47 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The burden of nonadherence in schizophrenia is significant. Factors with the potential to affect adherence include antipsychotic drug class and formulation, patient-specific factors, and family/social support system. There is inconclusive evidence suggesting superior adherence with an atypical versus typical antipsychotic or with a long-acting injectable versus an oral formulation. Patient-specific factors that contribute to adherence include awareness/denial of illness, cognitive issues, stigma associated with taking medication, substance abuse, access to health care, employment/poverty, and insurance status. Lack of social or family support may adversely affect adherence, necessitating the assistance of health care professionals, such as social workers. Evidence supports the concept that an

  9. Mosaic Turner syndrome associated with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook Young; Park, Joo Won; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jun, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Seop; Lee, Ji Eun

    2014-03-01

    Turner syndrome is a sex-chromosome disorder; occurring in 1 in 2,500 female births. There are sporadic few case reports of concomitant Turner syndrome with schizophrenia worldwide. Most Turner females had a 45,X monosomy, whereas the majority of comorbidity between Turner syndrome and schizophrenia had a mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX). We present a case of a 21-year-old woman with Turner syndrome, mosaic karyotype (45,X/46,XX), showing mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. HOPA gene within Xq13 is related to mental retardation, hypothyroidism, and schizophrenia. Our case may be a potential clue which supports the hypothesis for involvement of genes on X chromosome in development of schizophrenia. Further studies including comorbid cases reports are need in order to discern the cause of schizophrenia in patients having Turner syndrome.

  10. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup...

  11. Epidemiological trends and clinicopathological features of cutaneous melanoma in sporadic and xeroderma pigmentosum Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naouali, Chokri; Jones, Meriem; Nabouli, Imen; Jerbi, Manel; Tounsi, Haifa; Ben Rekaya, Mariem; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Messaoud, Olfa; Khaled, Aida; Zghal, Mohamed; Abdelhak, Sonia; Boubaker, Samir; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological features and trends of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in North-African populations remain unclear. Those populations are of particular interest as they belong to a mosaic of various other origins (sub-Saharan, European Ancestry, and North-African Berbers). The aim of this study is to draw epidemiological profile and clinicopathological features of CM in the Tunisian population. Incidence analyses were based on data from regional cancer registries. Clinical data were collected from dermatological departments and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) referral centers and provided CM clinicopathological characteristics and progression. Statistical analyses were achieved using R packages and SPSS 20.0. The incidence of CM in Tunisia is relatively low (0.5-0.7 per 100,000 inhabitants per year). Gender differences were observed regarding anatomical distribution (P = 0.004). Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most frequent histological subtype (32.3%); however, nodular melanoma (NM) was the most aggressive and responsible for 54.8% of deaths. CM in XP patients develops at a median age that is 42 years earlier than sporadic cases, with preferential localization on the head and neck (P melanoma features in Tunisia are closer to those of non-Caucasians, even though gender differences that are similar to those observed in Caucasians were uncovered. This study also emphasizes the aggressiveness of NM and its effect on melanoma patient deaths. Xeroderma pigmentosum stands as the major predisposing host factor. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Impaired coherence of life narratives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allé, Mélissa C; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice

    2015-08-10

    Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients' subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients' executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills.

  13. Schizophrenia and personality disorder patients' adherence to music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Niels Jørgensen; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Hestbæk, Trine Lundsfryd

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a random sample of patients receiving music therapy for variables predicting drop out from music therapy treatment. Method: All 27 pt with the diagnosis F 20 and F 60 were included. As explanatory variables were used 3 groups: Sociodemographic variables, psychiatric vari...... that patients with schizophrenia and personality disorder complete the music therapy treatment....

  14. Is dietary pattern of schizophrenia patients different from healthy subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani Reza

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited findings about dietary patterns and food preferences among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The main objective of this study was therefore to compare the nutritional pattern of schizophrenia patients with that of matched healthy subjects. Methods The dietary pattern of 30 hospitalized 16–67 years old schizophrenic patients (11 female was compared with that of 30 healthy age and sex matched individuals as control group. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height and body mass index (BMI, semi-quantitative food frequency (FFQ, medical and food history questionnaires were also collected and FFQs were then scored using Food Guide Pyramid to obtain the dietary scores. Percent body fat (%BF was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Results Female patients had more %BF and lower dietary pattern scores than that of their controls (32 ± 3.6 vs 27.7 ± 4.6 percent and 43.2 ± 11.9 vs 54.5 ± 10.7 points; respectively, p Conclusion Schizophrenia patients have poor nutritional patterns. In particular, female patients have more percent body fat and lower dietary pattern scores compared with their healthy controls. All patients used to consume more fats and sweet drinks frequently. The findings of this study suggest that schizophrenia patients need specific medical nutrition therapies through limiting dietary fats and sugars intakes and weight control. Whether obesity is the consequence of disease, dietary preference or medications used remains to be cleared.

  15. Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masatoshi; Kishida, Ikuko; Suda, Akira; Shiraishi, Yohko; Fujibayashi, Mami; Taguri, Masataka; Ishii, Chie; Ishii, Norio; Moritani, Toshio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-03-07

    The prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population and is an important medical issue. Short-term smoking cessation tends to worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia but decreases sympathetic nervous system activity and improves plasma cholesterol levels in healthy people. Few studies have assessed the long-term effects of smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were 70 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (38 smokers, 32 non-smokers). We compared the following clinical parameters between the two groups at baseline (before smoking cessation) and in each group separately between baseline and at three years after smoking cessation: autonomic nervous system activity, plasma cholesterol levels, body weight, drug therapy, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. We also compared the mean changes in clinical parameters throughout this study between the groups at both time points. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and the doses of antiparkinsonian drugs in smokers were significantly higher than those in non-smokers at baseline. Smoking cessation was associated with significantly decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased doses of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs at three years after smoking cessation. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in clinical factors scores, except for Global Assessment of Functioning scores, between smokers and non-smokers at three years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that smoking reduces both autonomic nervous system activity and the effectiveness of drug therapy with antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs in patients with schizophrenia, but that both factors could be ameliorated over the long term by smoking cessation. Taken together with the findings of previous studies, smoking

  16. Quality of Care and Outcomes of Heart Failure Among Patients With Schizophrenia in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Egstrup, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    care among patients with schizophrenia included patient-specific factors (age, gender, Global Assessment of Functioning [GAF] score, alcohol or drug abuse, duration of schizophrenia); provider-specific factors (quality of schizophrenia care); and system-specific factors (patient-volume defined...

  17. Oxytocin administration enhances controlled social cognition in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, J D; Chuang, B; Lam, O; Lai, W; O'Donovan, A; Rankin, K P; Mathalon, D H; Vinogradov, S

    2014-09-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have functionally significant deficits in automatic and controlled social cognition, but no currently available pharmacologic treatments reduce these deficits. The neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally in humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. We administered 40 IU of oxytocin and saline placebo intranasally to 29 male subjects with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched, healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Social cognition was assessed with The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on automatic social cognition (the ability to rapidly interpret and understand emotional cues from the voice, face, and body); controlled social cognition (the ability to comprehend indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, and intentions through complex deliberations over longer time periods); and a control task (the ability to comprehend truthful dialog and perform general task procedures) in individuals with and without schizophrenia using mixed factorial analysis of variance models. Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in automatic and controlled social cognition compared to healthy controls, and administration of oxytocin significantly improved their controlled, but not automatic, social cognition, F(1, 58)=8.75; p=0.004. Conversely, oxytocin administration had limited effects on social cognition in healthy participants. Patients and controls performed equally well and there were no effects of oxytocin administration on the control task. Intact social cognitive abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. Our data highlight the potentially complex effects of oxytocin on some but not all aspects of social cognition, and support the exploration of

  18. Improving quality of care among patients hospitalised with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette; Mainz, Jan; Svendsen, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    .27-1.62), psychoeducation (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.48), psychiatric aftercare (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and suicide risk assessment (RR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.21-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: Quality of care improved from 2004 to 2011 among patients hospitalised with schizophrenia in Denmark. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None. COPYRIGHT......-based cohort study, we identified 14 228 patients admitted to psychiatric departments between 2004 and 2011 from The Danish Schizophrenia Registry. The registry systematically monitors the adherence to guideline recommended processes of care. RESULTS: The overall proportion of all relevant recommended...

  19. Risk factors for violence among patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey Toftkjær

    2011-01-01

    with one of the following areas: psychotic symptoms, personality disorders (in particular psychopathy), mentalizing abilities, substance abuse and demographic factors. The aim of the current review is to evaluate the predictive role of these risk factors in the occurrence of violence among patients...... with schizophrenia. We identified two different trajectories for violent behavior in schizophrenia: one pertains to patients with no prior history of violence or criminal behavior and for whom positive symptoms appear to explain violent behavior, and another where personality pathology, including psychopathy...

  20. Kidney transplant in a patient with Schizophrenia. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejo F. Agranatti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a female patient, aged 42, with long-term schizophrenia and end-stage chronic kidney disease. After approximately two years undergoing replacement therapy, she is put on the waiting list for deceased donor kidney transplant. She receives a transplant from a deceased donor with good progress and favorable adaptation to the intercurrent diseases occurring during the course of the process. This case represents a possibility for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia; they may receive a kidney transplant with good progress, highlighting different aspects to be considered in order to guarantee the success of the procedure.

  1. Relationship Suicide, Cognitive Functions, and Depression in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocatürk, Bülent Kenan; Eşsizoğlu, Altan; Aksaray, Gökay; Akarsu, Ferdane Özlem; Musmul, Ahmet

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare schizophrenic patients with and without a suicide attempt history in terms of sociodemographic and clinical features and cognitive functions and to determine the predictive factors for suicide attempt history. In this study, we assessed and compared 70 patients with schizophrenia, 27 patients with a suicide attempt history, and 43 patients without a suicide attempt history. The cognitive functions of patients were assessed by the Stroop test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. In order to evaluate clinical symptoms, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) were used. In this study, the number of hospitalizations, PANSS general psychopathology subscale score, CDSS total score, suicide item score, and WCST total number of responses (WCST1) were significantly higher among the patients with a suicide attempt history. The WCST1 and CDSS total scores were predicted using the suicide attempt history. Revealing the factors related to suicidal behavior in patients with schizophrenia contributes to the prevention of suicide. Studies with long-term follow-up and with a larger sample group are required for the investigation of relationship suicide, cognitive impairment, which is one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia, and depression.

  2. Heart rate variability response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with schizophrenia Autonomic response to stress in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, Mariana N.; Vigo, Daniel E.; Weidema, Hylke; Fahrer, Rodolfo D.; Chu, Elvina M.; De Achaval, Delfina; Nogues, Martin; Leiguarda, Ramon C.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Guinjoan, Salvador N.

    Background: The vulnerability-stress hypothesis is an established model of schizophrenia symptom formation. We sought to characterise the pattern of the cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in patients with stable schizophrenia. Methods: We performed heart rate variability (HRV)

  3. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent

  4. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, Andre

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced

  5. Multiple primary cutaneous melanomas in patients with FAMMM syndrome and sporadic atypical mole syndrome (AMS): what's worse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernev, Georgi; Ananiev, Julian; Cardoso, José-Carlos; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Philipov, Stanislav; Penev, Plamen Kolev; Lotti, Torello; Wollina, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Atypical Mole Syndrome is the most important phenotypic risk factor for cutaneous melanoma, a malignancy that accounts for about 80% of deaths from skin cancer. Since early diagnosis of melanoma is of great prognostic relevance, the identification of Atypical Mole Syndrome carriers (sporadic and familial) is essential, as well as the recommendation of preventative measures that must be undertaken by these patients.We report two rare cases concerning patients with multiple primary skin melanomas in the setting of a familial and a sporadic syndrome of dysplastic nevi: the first patient is a 67-year-old patient with a history of multiple superficial spreading melanomas localized on his back. The second patient presented with multiple primary melanomas in advanced stage in the context of the so-called sporadic form of the syndrome of dysplastic nevi-AMS (atypical mole syndrome). In the first case, excision of the melanomas was carried out with an uneventful post-operative period. In the second case, disseminated metastases were detected, involving the right fibula, the abdominal cavity as well as multiple lesions in the brain. The patient declined BRAF mutation tests as well as chemotherapy or targeted therapies, and suffered a rapid deterioration in his general condition leading to death. We classified the second case as a sporadic form of the atypical mole syndrome, associated with one nodular and two superficial spreading melanomas.There are no data in the literature to allow us to understand if, in patients with multiple primary melanomas, there is any difference in terms of prognosis between those with and without a family history of a similar phenotype. To answer this and other questions related to these rare cases, further studies with a significant number of patients should be carried out.

  6. Dementia in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaël; Beherec, Laurène; Hannequin, Didier; Opolczynski, Gaëlle; Rothärmel, Maud; Wallon, David; Véra, Pierre; Martinaud, Olivier; Guillin, Olivier; Campion, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have assessed cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, very few have focused on the diagnosis of dementia. Our objectives were to accurately diagnose dementia in a cohort of middle-aged patients with schizophrenia and to assess the type of dementia. 96 patients with schizophrenia (46 inpatients and 50 outpatients), aged 50 to 70 years, underwent a psychiatric, neurological, and neuropsychological evaluation at baseline and after a 20-month follow-up. We established a 3-step procedure: 1) diagnose dementia according to the DSM-IV criteria, using the Mattis Dementia Rating and Activities of Daily Living scales; 2) characterize dementia using brain imaging, perfusion by 99mTc-ECD-SPECT and laboratory tests including Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; and 3) search for genetic determinants. Fourteen patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of dementia. Four were diagnosed with possible or probable behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), two with probable Alzheimer's disease, two with probable vascular dementia (including one due to CADASIL), one with CNS inflammatory disease, and six could not be fully characterized. The diagnosis of dementia in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia is challenging but possible, using a multistep procedure. The most frequent condition, bvFTD, could reflect the presence of an evolutive neurodegenerative process in some patients.

  7. Attitudes of patients with schizophrenia and depression towards psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlinger, Monika; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Fiala, Michaela; Hofer, Alex; Kemmler, Georg; Strauss, Robert; Widschwendter, Christian G; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang

    2010-05-15

    The success of clinical research depends heavily on patients' willingness to participate in studies. In recent years much work has been dedicated to studying the problems of conducting research in psychiatry, mainly in schizophrenia patients. In an attempt to replicate previous findings and extend results beyond schizophrenia, we interviewed patients suffering from schizophrenia or depression in a large academic centre concerning their attitudes towards psychiatric research. Ninety-five patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (48) or depression (47) completed the "Hamburg General Attitudes to Psychiatric Research Questionnaire" self-report instrument. Furthermore, demographic and clinical data were collected. Illness severity was evaluated using Clinical Global Impression and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. In general, patients approved of psychiatric research, and attitudes towards specific areas of research and research methods were rather positive. There were no significant differences between the two diagnostic groups regarding reasons for participation or non-participation in a clinical trial. The theoretical willingness to participate in studies was highest for studies using a questionnaire. Receiving sufficient information about a study before taking part was stated to be highly important. Our findings confirm and extend those of other groups. This should encourage psychiatrists at least in academic settings where most of this research has been done to approach patients to take part in clinical research. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective clinicopathologic studies of schizophrenia: accrual and assessment of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S E; Gur, R E; Shapiro, R M; Fisher, K R; Moberg, P J; Gibney, M R; Gur, R C; Blackwell, P; Trojanowski, J Q

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the neuropsychiatric profile of elderly patients with schizophrenia and establish a patient registry for prospective ante-mortem and post-mortem studies. Medical records of all chronically institutionalized patients in eight state hospitals who were over the age of 65 and had a chart diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 528) were reviewed. Of the potential subjects, 192 were excluded because of clinical histories inconsistent with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, 56 because of insufficient information to establish a psychiatric diagnosis, and 122 because of family members' refusal to give consent for autopsy in the event of death. To date, 81 of the remaining 158 patients have undergone neuropsychiatric evaluation with standard assessment instruments. Mini-Mental State scores of the 81 patients indicated severe dementia, and Functional Assessment Scale scores showed that patients required assistance with activities of daily living. All patients were rated as severely ill on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Ratings on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms indicated a predominance of negative symptoms over positive. Of 30 patients who have died to date, research autopsies have been conducted on 26. Establishing a well characterized, prospective patient registry for clinicopathologic studies of schizophrenia is feasible but labor intensive. Diagnosis of schizophrenia with a high degree of confidence can be achieved by means of detailed chart review and assessment of current neuropsychiatric functioning with standard rating instruments. These data provide a basis for correlations of clinicopathologic factors.

  9. Schizophrenia patients with a history of severe violence differ from nonviolent schizophrenia patients in perception of emotions but not cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Goodman, Craig; Knoll, Gabriella; Isakov, Victoria; Modai, Ilan

    2005-03-01

    Impaired processing of emotions may relate to violent behavior in schizophrenia patients. We compared emotional function in schizophrenia patients with and without a history of severe violent behavior. Tests of identification and differentiation of facial emotions were performed to compare 35 patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV criteria) and a history of severe violent behavior with 35 non-violent schizophrenia patients and 46 healthy controls. Tests of executive function, attention, visual orientation, working memory, memory for faces and objects, and motor function were also administered. Violent and nonviolent schizophrenia patients showed impaired emotional and cognitive function compared with controls. Violent patients showed a significantly better ability to identify facial emotional expressions but a poorer ability to discriminate between intensity of emotions than nonviolent schizophrenia patients. There was no difference in cognitive performance between the 2 patient groups. Violent schizophrenia patients may have a better ability to identify facial emotional cues than nonviolent schizophrenia patients but may be less able to assess the intensity of these cues. This trait may contribute to conflict generation and failure to recognize resolution signals, leading to conflict escalation and violence in violence-prone schizophrenia patients.

  10. Potential drug-drug interaction in Mexican patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Zurita, María Conchita; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; Genis, Alma; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Lilia López-Narváez, María; de la O de la O, María Elena; Nicolini, Humberto

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to observe potential drug-drug interactions in the medication of Mexican schizophrenic patients. We performed a retrospective and cross-sectional study that was carried out in a psychiatric clinic. Only the prescriptions of patients with schizophrenia whose diagnoses were based on the DSM-IV instrument were included in this study. The Drug Interactions Checker software ( http://www.drugs.com/drug_interactions.html ) was used in this study to analyse potential drug-drug interactions. In total, 86 of 126 patients were at risk of potential drug-drug interactions. Haloperidol and biperiden was the most common drug pair of 232 pairs evaluated. In our study, 13.8% of drug-drug interaction showed a major level of severity, whereas in 83.2%, the interaction was moderate. Finally, central nervous system (CNS) depression and anticholinergic effect were the main possible effects of drug-drug interaction. Our results revealed a high number of patients with schizophrenia receiving two or more drugs. The potential drug-drug interactions observed in the Mexican population are consistent with the concomitant use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, and antidepressants prescribed in schizophrenia that could cause central nervous system (CNS) depression and anticholinergic effect. Drug-drug interaction must be considered when the patient with schizophrenia is medicated.

  11. Reduced reward-related probability learning in schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpaslan Yilmaz1,2, Fatma Simsek2, Ali Saffet Gonul2,31Department of Sport and Health, Physical Education and Sports College, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey; 2Department of Psychiatry, SoCAT Lab, Ege University School of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USAAbstract: Although it is known that individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate marked impairment in reinforcement learning, the details of this impairment are not known. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that reward-related probability learning is altered in schizophrenia patients. Twenty-five clinically stable schizophrenia patients and 25 age- and gender-matched controls participated in the study. A simple gambling paradigm was used in which five different cues were associated with different reward probabilities (50%, 67%, and 100%. Participants were asked to make their best guess about the reward probability of each cue. Compared with controls, patients had significant impairment in learning contingencies on the basis of reward-related feedback. The correlation analyses revealed that the impairment of patients partially correlated with the severity of negative symptoms as measured on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale but that it was not related to antipsychotic dose. In conclusion, the present study showed that the schizophrenia patients had impaired reward-based learning and that this was independent from their medication status.Keywords: reinforcement learning, reward, punishment, motivation

  12. Symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence among patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Waberg, J.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Treatment non-adherence is a common problem in patients suffering from schizophrenia and depression. This study investigated the possible relationships between symptom severity, quality of sleep, and treatment adherence. Methods: Thirty outpatients with schizophrenia and 58 outpatients with

  13. The relationship between alexithymia and frontal lobe function in patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Usta

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: It is observed that the alexithymia has effects on the frontal functions of patients with schizophrenia. This mediated effect is related with the clinic of schizophrenia. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 80-85

  14. Attenuation of beta and gamma oscillations in schizophrenia spectrum patients following hand posture perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse M.; Mørup, Morten; Thalbitzer, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Several electroencephalographic (EEG) studies in schizophrenia report that the patients have reduced evoked gamma activity following visual and auditory stimulation. Somatosensory gamma activity has not previously been examined. It has been suggested that a dysfunction basic to schizophrenia spec...

  15. The clinical utility of lurasidone in schizophrenia: patient considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey PD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Philip D Harvey1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Bruce W Carter VA Medical Center, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent approved for the treatment of schizophrenia in a number of countries including the United Kingdom, other European countries, the United States, and Canada. In addition to full antagonist activity at the dopamine D2 (Ki, 1 nM and serotonin 5-HT2A (Ki, 0.5 nM receptors, the pharmacodynamic profile of lurasidone is notable for its high affinity for serotonin 5-HT7 receptors (0.5 nM and its partial agonist activity at 5-HT1A receptors (Ki, 6.4 nM. Long-term treatment of schizophrenia with lurasidone has been shown to reduce the risk of relapse in patients with schizophrenia. Lurasidone appears to be associated with minimal effects on body weight, and low risk for clinically meaningful alterations in glucose, lipids, or electrocardiography parameters. Evidence from two randomized trials also suggests improvement in functional capacity and cognitive functioning in people with schizophrenia. A significant evidence base supports the use of lurasidone as a promising agent for the treatment of schizophrenia. Keywords: long-term treatment, antagonist, pharmacodynamic profile

  16. Molecular characteristics of mismatch repair genes in sporadic colorectal tumors in Czech patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymetalkova, Veronika Polakova; Slyskova, Jana; Korenkova, Vlasta; Bielik, Ludovit; Langerova, Lucie; Prochazka, Pavel; Rejhova, Alexandra; Schwarzova, Lucie; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodicka, Pavel

    2014-01-31

    Mismatch repair (MMR) genes are known to be frequently altered in colorectal cancer (CRC). Both genetics and epigenetics modifications seems to be relevant in this phenomenon, however it is still not clear how these two aspects are interconnected. The present study aimed at characterizing of epigenetic and gene expression profiles of MMR genes in sporadic CRC patients from the Czech Republic, a country with one of the highest incidences of this cancer all over Europe. Expression levels and CpG promoter methylation status of all MMR genes were evaluated in DNA from tumor and adjacent mucosal samples of 53 incident CRC patients. We have found significantly increased transcription levels in EXO1 gene in tumor tissues (P = 0.05) and significant over-expression of MSH3 gene in colon tumors when compared to adjacent mucosal tissues (P = 0.02). Interestingly, almost all MMR genes were differently expressed when localization of tumors was compared. In particular, colon tumors showed an up-regulation of EXO1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, and PMS2 genes in comparison to rectal tumors (P = 0.02). Expression levels of all MMR genes positively correlated between each other. The promoter methylation of MLH1 gene was observed in 9% of CRC tissues only. In our study, we have observed different pattern of MMR genes expression according to tumor localization. However, a lack of association between methylation in MMR genes and their corresponding expressions was noticed in this study, the relationship between these two aspects is worthy to be analyzed in larger population studies and in pre-malignant stages.

  17. Progressive Stroke-Like Symptoms in a Patient with Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Lyytinen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD is a rare neurodegenerative disorder in which accumulation of a pathogenic isoform of prion protein (PrPSc induces neuronal damage with distinct pathologic features. The prognosis of sCJD is devastating: rapid clinical decline is followed by death generally within months after onset of symptoms. The classic clinical manifestations of sCJD are rapidly progressing dementia, myoclonus, and ataxia. However, the spectrum of clinical features can vary considerably. We describe a definite, neuropathologically verified sCJD in a 67-year-old woman who initially presented with progressive stroke-like symptoms: left-sided hemiparesis and ataxia within a few days. The initial brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed bilateral cortical hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted sequences (DWI resembling multiple ischemic lesions. Despite anticoagulation with low-molecular-weight heparin, the patient deteriorated rapidly, became dysphagic and bedridden with myoclonic jerks on her left side extremities correlating with intermittent high-amplitude epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography (EEG. Basal ganglia hyperintense signal changes in addition to cortical ribboning were seen in DWI images of a follow-up MRI. Repeated EEG recordings showed an evolution to periodic sharp wave complexes. Protein 14-3-3 was positive in her cerebrospinal fluid specimen, in addition to an abnormally high total tau level. In the terminal stage the patient was in an akinetic, mutistic state with deteriorating consciousness. She died 19 days after admission to the hospital. Neuropathologic investigation corroborated the clinical diagnosis of sCJD with spongiform degeneration and immunohistochemical demonstration of the deposition of pathologic PrPSc.

  18. Coprophagia in a Nigerian patient with paranoid schizophrenia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coprophagia is the ingestion of one's own faeces. It is associated with severe psychiatric disorders and in certain medical conditions. Both electronic and manual search on this rare disorder yielded no positive findings among Nigerian or African literature. We here report a patient with paranoid schizophrenia who smeared ...

  19. Anaesthesia for a morbidly obese patient with schizophrenia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a morbidly obese woman with schizophrenia and intellectual disability who underwent dental treatment using general anaesthesia. The 38-year-old patient was 156 cm tall and weighed 140 kg, with a body mass index of 57.5 kg.m-2. Her developmental age was less than five or six years. She had ...

  20. Relapse prevention in patients with schizophrenia : A nursing intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijel, Berno van

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes a study into the development and testing of a nursing intervention with a view to preventing psychotic relapses in patients suffering from schizophrenia or a related disorder. The purpose of the intervention is to recognise the early signs of an oncoming psychotic relapse. If

  1. Impulsivity, aggression and suicide risk among male schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Roitman, Suzana; Piccone Sapir, Anna; Poreh, Amir; Kotler, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity has been shown to be a major variable in the etiology of suicide and aggression, but has not been researched as much in the schizophrenic population, which is characterized by serious suicide and aggression risks. 68 male schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures including the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale (IS), the Suicide Risk Scale (SRS) and the Overt Aggression Scale. We divided our subjects into those who received scores above and below the median on the IS. The high-impulsivity group had higher present and past rates of suicidal ideation and showed a trend for more lifetime suicidal attempts than the low-impulsivity group. The impulsivity score correlated positively with the SRS score and with some of the scores of the PANSS (the positive symptoms score, the general psychopathology score and the total score). A multiple regression analysis revealed that an older age, higher levels of aggression, high impulsivity and an elevated score on the general psychopathology subscale of the PANSS contributed positively and significantly to the explained variance of the SRS. Our study supports the contention that high impulsivity in schizophrenia patients is significant in the etiology of suicide in schizophrenia. However, the relationship between impulsivity and aggression in schizophrenia patients, and also the amelioration of impulsivity by pharmacological interventions, require further study. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Victimization of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul B; de Castella, A R; Filia, K M; Filia, S L; Benitez, J; Kulkarni, J

    2005-03-01

    Previous research has predominately focused on patients with mental illness as the instigators, rather than the victims, of violence and criminal activity. However, patients with schizophrenia appear to experience a higher degree of victimization compared to general community samples. We aimed to establish the 1-month prevalence of violent and non-violent victimization in a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and to investigate the determinants of victimization. Reports of violent and non-violent victimization were recorded in 348 patients in Dandenong, an outer metropolitan suburb of Melbourne, Australia along with the subjective perception of patients as to their degree of protection from being robbed or attacked. Patients reporting victimization were compared with those who did not, across a range of clinical and psychosocial variables. 11.2% of the sample reported being the victim of non-violent crime and 4.3% the victim of violent crime in the 1-month period. 23.2% reported dissatisfaction with their protection against being attacked or robbed. The major determinant of victimization was the lack of any meaningful daily activity. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders are at increased risk of victimization, both of the violent and non-violent type. Further research is required to understand the pathways through which victimization occurs and to understand whether psychosocial interventions can reduce victimization in this patient population.

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces cigarette consumption in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Radovan; Ustohal, Libor; Kucerova, Hana Prikrylova; Kasparek, Tomas; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Hublova, Veronika; Vrzalova, Michaela; Ceskova, Eva

    2014-03-03

    High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seemed to decrease tobacco consumption and craving in nicotine-dependent people without psychiatric disorder or otherwise healthy people. Even if the prevalence of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia patients is high and estimated to be between 45% and 88%, this technique has not been systematically studied in this indication in schizophrenia yet. The aim of this study was to test the ability of high-frequency (10Hz) rTMS over the left DLPFC to decrease cigarette consumption in schizophrenia patients. The study included 35 male schizophrenia patients on stable antipsychotic medication. The patients were divided into two groups: the first (18 patients) were actively stimulated and the second (17 patients) underwent sham (placebo) stimulation. The sham rTMS was administered using a purpose-built sham coil that was identical in appearance to the real coil and made the same noise but did not deliver a substantial stimulus. The rTMS was administered at the stimulation parameters: location (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: DLPFC), intensity of magnetic stimulation in % of motor threshold (110%), stimulation frequency (10Hz), number of trains (20), single train duration (10s), inter-train interval (30s), and total number of stimulation sessions (21). In each stimulation session, 2000TMSpulses were given, with a total of 42,000pulses per treatment course. Patients noted the number of cigarettes smoked in the 7days before treatment, during the whole stimulation treatment (21days), and again for a 7-day period after treatment. Cigarette consumption was statistically significantly lower in the actively stimulated patients than in the sham rTMS group as early as the first week of stimulation. No statistically relevant correlations were found in the changes of ongoing negative or depressive schizophrenia symptoms and the number of cigarettes smoked. High

  4. Risk factors for sudden cardiac death among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ping-Yi; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Jhong, Jia-Rong; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from excessive premature mortality, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is receiving growing attention as a potential cause. The present study investigated the incidence of SCD and its risk factors in a large schizophrenia cohort. We enrolled a consecutive series of 8264 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in northern Taiwan from January 1, 1985 through December 31, 2008. By linking with national mortality database, 64 cases of SCD were identified. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for SCD was estimated. The cases were matched with controls randomly selected using risk-set sampling in a 1:2 ratio. A standardized chart review process was used to collect socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the prescribed drugs for each study subject. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of SCD at the index admission and the latest admission. The SMR for SCD was 4.5. For the clinical profiles at the index admission, physical disease (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]=2.91, Paggressive behaviors (aRR=3.99, Paggressive behaviors (aRR=3.26, Paggression is a crucial risk factor that deserves ongoing work for clarifying the mechanisms mediating SCD in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychosocial correlates of suicidal intent among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R C; Cohen, B N

    2001-01-01

    Suicidal intent is common among patients with schizophrenia, resulting in extreme personal distress, increased hospitalizations and healthcare expenditures, and early mortality. However, the psychosocial correlates of current suicidality among schizophrenic patients are not fully understood. This study attempted to identify psychosocial correlates of current suicidal intent in a sample of 267 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between suicidality and current symptomatology, psychosocial problems, global functioning, and demographic characteristics. Results showed that depressive symptomatology as a single variable accounted for approximately 50% of the variance in ratings of suicidal intent. In addition, female gender, younger age, recent traumatic stress, and less severe psychotic symptoms each significantly predicted current suicidality independent of depressive symptoms. The combination of depression among younger female schizophrenic patients whose psychotic symptoms have abated and who are experiencing current traumatic stress may indicate extreme suicidal intent. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  6. P50 suppression deficits and psychopathology in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Lin; Tan, Shu Ping; Wang, Zhi Ren; Zhang, Jin Guo; Li, Dong; Fan, Feng Mei; Zhao, Yan Li; Zou, Yi Zhuang; Tan, Yun Long; Yang, Fu De; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-07-13

    Numerous studies have reported P50 gating deficits in schizophrenia, though with mixed results. Moreover, few studies have explored the association between P50 gating deficits and psychopathology in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the P50 auditory sensory gating patterns and their correlations with clinical symptoms in a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. We assessed P50 sensory gating with a 64-channel electroencephalography system in 133 patients with schizophrenia and 148 healthy controls. The schizophrenia symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Patients with schizophrenia had a significantly higher P50 gating ratio (pschizophrenia. These findings suggest that the P50 sensory gating deficits identified in Chinese patients with schizophrenia may not be involved in the psychopathology of the illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Are psychiatrist characteristics associated with postdischarge suicide of schizophrenia patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Chien; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2009-07-01

    Information on the relationship between characteristics of mental healthcare providers, including hospitals and psychiatrists, and postdischarge suicide is scanty. This study aims to identify the risk factors for suicide among schizophrenia patients in the 3-month postdischarge period. The study cohort comprised all patients with a principal diagnosis of schizophrenia discharged from psychiatric inpatient care from 2002 to 2004 who committed suicide within 90 days of discharge. The control cohort consisted of all surviving schizophrenia patients discharged from psychiatric inpatient care in the same period and were matched to cases for age, gender, and date of discharge. There were 87 and 348 cases in the study and control cohorts, respectively. For suicide cases, death most frequently occurred on the first day after leaving the hospital (16.1%). The adjusted hazard ratios for committing suicide during the 90-day postdischarge period were 2.639 times greater for patients without previous psychiatric admission than for those hospitalized more than 3 times in the year preceding the index hospitalization. The adjusted suicide hazard for schizophrenia patients treated by male psychiatrists was significantly higher than for patients treated by female psychiatrists, by a multiple of 5.117 (P = .032). The adjusted suicide hazard among patients treated by psychiatrists over age 44 years was 2.378 times (P = .043) that for patients treated by psychiatrists aged younger than 35 years. Risk factors related to psychiatric hospitalization, including number of psychiatric admissions in the previous year and length of stay, together with gender and age of the psychiatrist providing inpatient care, are identified.

  8. Early prediction of blonanserin response in Japanese patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishi T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Taro Kishi,1 Yuki Matsuda,1 Kiyoshi Fujita,2,3 Nakao Iwata1 1Department of Psychiatry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Okehazama Hospital, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan; 3The Neuroscience Research Center, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan Background: Blonanserin is a second-generation antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia in Japan and Korea. The present study aimed to examine early prediction of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: An 8-week, prospective, single-arm, flexible-dose clinical trial of blonanserin in patients with schizophrenia was conducted under real-world conditions. The inclusion criteria were antipsychotic naïve, and first-episode schizophrenia patients or schizophrenia patients with no consumption of any antipsychotic medication for more than 4 weeks before enrollment in this study. The positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive power were calculated for the response status at week 4 to predict the subsequent response at week 8.Results: Thirty-seven patients were recruited (56.8% of them had first-episode schizophrenia, and 28 (75.7% completed the trial. At week 8, blonanserin was associated with a significant improvement in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score (P<0.0001 and in positive (P<0.0001, negative (P<0.0001, and general subscale scores (P<0.0001. In terms of percentage improvement of PANSS total scores from baseline to week 8, 64.9% of patients showed a ≥20% reduction in the PANSS total score and 48.6% showed a ≥30% reduction. However, 8.1% of patients experienced at least one adverse event. Using the 20% reduction in the PANSS total score at week 4 as a definition of an early response, the negative predictive values for later responses (ie, reductions of ≥30 and ≥40 in the PANSS total scores were 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. The specificities were 80.0% and

  9. Treatment with Ziprasidone for schizophrenia patients with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juven-Wetzler, Alzbeta; Fostick, Leah; Cwikel-Hamzany, Shlomit; Balaban, Evgenya; Zohar, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Comorbidity of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been observed in about 15% of schizophrenic patients and has been associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, there is a need for specific treatment options for these patients (schizo-obsessive, ScOCD). This is an open, prospective study, aiming to test the efficacy of Ziprasidone (80-200mg/d) in ScOCD patients and comparing the response to the treatment between stable schizophrenic (N=16) and stable ScOCD (N=29) patients. Treatment effect with Ziprasidone was different in schizophrenic patients when stratified based on OCD comorbidity. Overall, the effect on OCD symptoms (as measured by the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, YBOCS) was found to be bimodal-either no response or exacerbation (for 45% of the patients, n=13) or significant improvement of symptoms (55%, n=16). Those who improved in OCD symptoms, improved also in negative and general schizophrenia symptoms, while ScOCD-unimproved group worsened in all symptoms. Whereas schizophrenic patients without OCD responded in a modest Gaussian distribution, they improved in schizophrenia negative symptoms and in general anxiety. This data suggests that schizo-obsessive disorder is a distinct and complex condition with more than one underlying pathogenesis. Definition of these ScOCD subgroups defined by their response to Ziprasidone might contribute to personalized medicine within the OCD-schizophrenia spectrum. Moreover, this finding suggests that ScOCD may be considered as a special schizophrenic subtype and its inclusion in schizophrenia treatment studies need to be further explored due to its divergent response. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. [Integrated management of patients with schizophrenia: beyond psychotropic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborda Zapata, Eliana; Montoya Gonzalez, Laura Elisa; Gómez Sierra, Natalia María; Arteaga Morales, Laura María; Correa Rico, Oscar Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disease with severe functional repercussions; therefore it merits treatment which goes beyond drugs. It requires an approach that considers a diathesis-stress process that includes rehabilitation, psychotherapeutic strategies for persistent cognitive, negative and psychotic symptoms, psychoeducation of patient and communities, community adaptation strategies, such as the introduction to the work force, and the community model, such as a change in the asylum paradigm. It is necessary to establish private and public initiatives for the integrated care of schizophrenia in the country, advocating the well-being of those with the disease. The integrated management of schizophrenic patients requires a global view of the patient and his/her disease, and its development is essential. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Schizophrenia and personality disorder patients' adherence to music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Niels; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Hestbæk, Trine; Sørensen, Torben Egelund; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2012-12-01

    Music therapy is used in psychiatric treatment of severe psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, depression and personality disorder. To investigate adherence and predictors for adherence to music therapy treatment in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or personality disorder. Demographic, psychiatric and therapeutic data were collected for 27 patients receiving music therapy treatment over a 1-year observation period and a 1-year follow-up period. Predictors for adherence to music therapeutic treatment were determined by means of regression analysis. Drop-out from treatment was low (11.5%) and none of the variables significantly predicted adherence. Lack of significance may be because of type 2 error. Patients with severe mental disorder may adhere to music therapy treatment.

  12. INSIGHT AND SELF-STIGMA IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Domagoj; Brecić, Petrana; Vilibić, Maja; Jukić, Vlado

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight and high level of self-stigma are often present among patients with schizophrenia and are related to poorer treatment adherence, poorer social function and rehabilitation, aggressive behavior, higher level of depression, social anxiety, lower quality of life and self-esteem. Reports on a relationship between insight and stigma are controversial. We examined the relationship of the level of insight and self-stigma in a sample of 149 patients with schizophrenia. Insight was measured with the Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and self-stigma with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness. Results showed 88.6% of the patients to have high or moderate insight, with a mean value of 2.73. General insight showed the highest level (2.58) and insight in positive symptoms the lowest level (2.9). The self-stigma score in general was 2.13, with stereotype endorsement being lowest (1.98). According to study results, 77.1% of patients felt minimal or low self-stigma across all subscales, except for stigma resistance subscale. Statistically significant correlation was found between insight and four subscales of self-stigma, while no correlation was found for the stigma resistance subscale only. These results imply the need of individually tailored antistigma and insight promoting programs for patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Data on inflammasome gene polymorphisms of patients with sporadic malignant melanoma in a Brazilian cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Cardoso da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data related to our another article entitled, Genotyping and differential expression analysis of inflammasome genes in sporadic malignant melanoma reveal novel contribution of CARD8, IL1B and IL18 in melanoma susceptibility and progression (W.C. Silva, T.M. Oshiro, D.C. Sá, D.D.G.S. Franco, C. Festa Neto, A. Pontillo, 2016 [2]. Data presented here refers to the distribution of selected inflammasome SNPs in a Brazilian case/control cohort. We have identified 4 inflammasome related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for CARD8 (rs6509365; IL1B (rs1143643 and IL18 (rs5744256 and rs1834481 related to melanoma susceptibility/protection. This data can serve as a potential prognostic marker in sporadic malignant melanoma.

  14. Virtual reality assessment of medication compliance in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth K; Kurtz, Matthew M; Astur, Robert S

    2006-04-01

    Medication compliance is essential to treating the symptoms of schizophrenia effectively. This study utilized a virtual reality (VR) apartment paradigm to assess medication compliance behaviors in 25 patients with schizophrenia and in 16 healthy control subjects. Participants were assigned a prescription consisting of three medications and were asked to self-administer this regimen in 15 min. Results demonstrate that patients had considerably more difficulty in complying with the medication regimen than did controls. They manifested significantly more quantitative errors, and were much less accurate in consuming the medications at the assigned time. Significant differences in performance between these groups were also evidenced by a variety of validated neuropsychological measures. Correlations between the data may suggest a convergent validity for this new VR task. Future research will investigate the validity of this task in predicting additional measures of psychosocial functioning.

  15. Bleomycin sensitivity in patients with familial and sporadic polyposis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly M. Sales

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Human peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP showed a significantly higher incidence of chromatid breaks when compared to cells from 10 normal individuals, after exposure to bleomycin (BLM during the G2 phase. However, no significant increase in bleomycin sensitivity was observed in lymphocytes from 10 patients with sporadic adenomatous polyps (AP vs. 10 normal individuals (P = 0.67. Individuals that exhibited an average number of chromatid breaks per cell higher than 0.80 were considered sensitive to the drug. No control showed susceptibility to BLM, as compared to 3 out of 20 patients.Inúmeros estudos têm mostrado que fibroblastos de pacientes com adenomatose hereditária de cólon e reto, que inclui polipose adenomatosa familial (FAP e a síndrome de Gardner, apresentam uma freqüência aumentada de aberrações cromossômicas após exposição a agentes físicos ou químicos, quando comparados aos controles normais. Para determinar a sensibilidade de linfócitos de pacientes com FAP e também com pólipos adenomatosos esporádicos (AP usou-se o radiomimético bleomicina (BLM. Foram estudados citogeneticamente 10 indivíduos com AP, 10 com FAP e 20 controles normais, pareados por sexo e idade. Indivíduos que apresentaram valores médios de quebras cromatídicas por célula superiores a 0,80 foram considerados sensíveis à droga. Observou-se uma diferença significativa entre pacientes com FAP e controles quanto às freqüências de quebras cromatídicas nos linfócitos tratados na fase G2. Entretanto, nenhuma diferença significativa foi observada entre pacientes com AP e controles quanto às freqüências de quebras cromatídicas nos linfócitos tratados. Nenhum indivíduo do grupo controle foi sensível à BLM e, entre os 20 pacientes, três mostraram suscetibilidade à droga. Não foi encontrada diferença significativa quanto a resposta à bleomicina entre indivíduos do sexo masculino e

  16. Expression of schizophrenia biomarkers in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus: an explanation for the link between exotropia and schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Agarwal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have implicated exotropia as a risk factor for schizophrenia. We determined whether schizophrenia biomarkers have abnormal levels of expression in extraocular muscles from patients with strabismus and explored whether differences in gene expression between medial and lateral rectus muscles may explain the specific association of schizophrenia with exotropia but not esotropia. Samples from horizontal extraocular muscles were obtained during strabismus surgery and compared with age- and muscle type-matched normal muscles from organ donors. We used PCR arrays to identify differences in gene expression among 417 signaling molecules. We then focused on established schizophrenia-related growth factors, cytokines, and regulators of the extracellular matrix. Among 36 genes with significantly altered gene expression in dysfunctional horizontal rectus muscles, over one third were schizophrenia-related: CTGF, CXCR4, IL1B, IL10RA, MIF, MMP2, NPY1R, NRG1, NTRK2, SERPINA3, TIMP1, TIMP2, and TNF (adjusted p value ≤ 0.016667. By PCR array, expression of three of these genes was significantly different in medial rectus muscles, while eleven were significantly altered in lateral rectus muscles. Comparing baseline levels between muscle types, three schizophrenia-related genes (NPY1R, NTRK2, TIMP2 had lower levels of expression in medial rectus muscles. Despite the surprisingly large number of schizophrenia-related genes with altered gene expression levels in dysfunctional muscles, the lack of specificity for medial rectus muscles undermines a model of shared, region-specific gene expression abnormalities between exotropia and schizophrenia, but rather suggests consideration of the alternative model: that exotropia-induced aberrant early visual experiences may enable and/or contribute as a causative factor to the development of schizophrenia.

  17. An updated review on burden on caregivers of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Miranda-Castillo, Claudia; Lemos Giráldez, Serafín; Lee Maturana, Sau-Lyn; Ramírez Pérez, Mauricio; Mascayano Tapia, Franco

    2014-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental illness that has a significant impact not only in the patient but also in the entire family as well. Caregivers assume almost the totality of the patient care. This responsibility exposes caregivers to an intense burden with negative consequences for them and the rest of the family system. This is an updated review of existing literature about burden on families with schizophrenia patients. An electronic search of articles from MEDLINE, EMBASE, APA, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases was conducted for articles published between 2008 and 2013. A systematization of information and frequency analysis revealed the existence of eight factors related to burden that were present in almost all the reviewed literature: Programs of family treatment, Ethnic group, Expressed Emotion, Stress and Burden, Preoccupations of the caregiver, Kind of caregiver, Social networks, Social support, Finances and Coping Strategies. This study supports the statements of different theories reflecting the complexity of schizophrenia caregivers' burden and these, in turn, may be related to the above factors.

  18. Study of Attention Deficit in Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kafi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Attention deficit has significant effect on the life of patients suffering from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess the attention deficit in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: In the present post-hoc study, 132 patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected via non-randomized sampling at Shafa Hospital (Rasht, Iran and then divided into four equal groups: chronic schizophrenia patients, first-episode patients, chronic bipolar patients, and first-episode bipolar patients. Thirty-three healthy individuals were selected as the control group. Subjects were evaluated by Stroop color-word test. The gathered Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Attention deficit among chronic schizophrenics and patients suffering from bipolar disease was higher than the control group (p <1. Chronic schizophrenic patients compared with schizophrenia bipolar disease and first round schizophrenia showed more attention deficit. There was no significant difference among the first bipolar disease and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, as well as the first round schizophrenia (p<0.05. Conclusion: Attention deficit is more severe in schizophrenic patients than bipolar disorder, and chronicity is more effective in schizophrenic patients. Key words: Attention, Schizophrenia, Chronicity

  19. [A multicenter study regarding schizophrenia patients' notification of the diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Yuki; Okubo, Ryo; Shimizu, Yusuke; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Teruaki; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Over 10 years have passed since the Japanese term for "schizophrenia" was changed from "seishin-bunretsu-byo" to "togo-shiccho-sho" in 2002. An awareness survey targeting doctors suggested that notification of the diagnosis has been encouraged since the Japanese name for schizophrenia was changed. However, no heuristic surveys targeting patients themselves have clarified an increased notification rate, and no multicenter studies of the notification rates have been conducted in recent years. This study targeted schizophrenia patients and their attending physicians to investigate the status of notification of the diagnosis at five medical facilities in Hokkaido, Japan. Questionnaires were distributed to the attending physicians of a total of 869 patients; in addition, the patients themselves filled out questionnaires. Questionnaires were collected from 858 physicians, and valid responses were recovered from 529 patients. This study investigated the status of notification of the diagnosis and compared the attributes of patients who were notified (notified group) with those of patients who were not notified (un-notified group). The results of the survey of attending physicians regarding notification of the diagnosis of schizophrenia indicated that a total of 65.0% patients had been notified, with 63.1% of patients being notified that they had "togo-shiccho-sho" and 2.0% of patients being notified that they had "seishin-bunretsu-byo." Physicians were unsure whether patients had been notified in 18.4% of cases. On excluding these cases, the results indicated that over 79.6% of patients had been notified that they had either "togo-shiccho-sho" or "seishin-bunretsu-byo." The patient questionnaire results regarding patients' awareness of the name of their disease showed that 55.2% answered "togo-shiccho-sho," 3.2% answered "seishin-bunretsu-byo," 9.5% answered the name of another disease, 17.4% answered that they did not know the name of their disease, and 14.7% answered

  20. Generation of an integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-43 from a patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marote

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line was generated from a 36-year-old patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line (CSC-43 exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into three germ layers and normal karyotype. This iPSC line can be used to study the mechanisms underlying the development of PD.

  1. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-42 from a patient with sporadic form of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Savchenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin fibroblasts were collected from a 44-year-old patient with sporadic case of Parkinson's disease (PD. The non-integrating Sendai virus vector encoding OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 was used to reprogram fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Generated iPSCs had normal karyotypes, expressed common stem cell markers, and were capable of differentiating into all three germ layers. Generated line could be used for PD modeling to understand the mechanisms that influence the disorder.

  2. Are There Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Suicidal Activity among Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kalman J.; Harrow, Martin; Faull, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Are there gender-specific risk factors for suicidal activity among patients with schizophrenia and depression? A total of 74 schizophrenia patients (51 men, 23 women) and 77 unipolar nonpsychotic depressed patients (26 men, 51 women) from the Chicago Follow-up Study were studied prospectively at 2 years posthospitalization and again at 7.5 years.…

  3. The Basis of Feeling-of-Knowing Judgments in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Elisabeth; Pillot, Mathieu; Izaute, Marie; Schwartz, Bennett L.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the basis of feeling-of-knowing judgments (FOK) in patients with schizophrenia. Such patients typically have impaired memory and awareness, but not metamemory-accuracy deficits. The magnitude of FOKs are lower for patients with schizophrenia than for healthy participants, but judgments equally predict memory performance. In healthy…

  4. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice : their prevalence and health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, Marian J. T.; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their

  5. Obsessive compulsive disorder--prevalence in Xhosa-speaking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Dana J H; Koen, Liezl; Muller, Jacqueline; Laurent, Claudine; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine; Seedat, Soraya; Mbanga, Irene; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Mallet, Jacques; Emsley, Robin A

    2005-02-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) has been reported in up to 31% of schizophrenia sufferers. This study evaluated the presence of OCD in a Xhosa-speaking schizophrenia group. Xhosa patients (N = 509, including 100 sibships) with schizophrenia were recruited from hospital and community settings. The patients underwent a structured clinical interview for the presence of lifetime co-morbid schizophrenia and OCD. Only 3 patients (0.5%) fulfilled criteria for OCD. No concordance for OCD was noted in the sibship group. Our findings differ from those in other parts of the world, and if replicated, might suggest unique protective environmental or genetic factors for OCD in certain ethnic groups.

  6. Generating personalized advice for schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emerencia, A.; van der Krieke, Lian; Sytema, S.; Petkov, N.; Aiello, M.

    The results of routine patient assessments in psychiatric healthcare in the Northern Netherlands are primarily used to support clinicians. We developed Wegweis, a web-based advice platform, to make this data accessible and understandable for patients. Objective: We show that a fully automated

  7. Attitudes of patients with schizophrenia to psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingo; Gschwend, Christine; Karow, Anne; Naber, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To examine how patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders view psychiatric research and what influences their readiness to participate. Methods. A sample of 83 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders was examined using a specific self-report questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study. Results. Most patients (97%) approved at least "a little" of psychiatric research in general. There was a tendency to approve of psychosocial rather than biological research subjects (e.g., research on the role of traumatic life events was approved by 95% of patients as compared to 72% in the case of genetics and 76% in the case of medication studies). Reasons to participate were mainly altruistic, only a minority found that monetary incentives were important. Another important reason was to improve individual chances of recovery. A large majority (95%) found it important to get sufficient information prior to the start but also to receive the results of the study. Conclusion. Patients' capability of critically appraising psychiatric research as well as their role in the research process should inform future research to ensure a more cooperative practice.

  8. [Maintenance Treatment With Antipsychotics for Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness and security of the antipsychotics available for the management of adult patients with schizophrenia in the maintenance phase. To develop recommendations of treatment for the maintenance phase of the disease. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. 18 studies were included to evaluate the effectiveness and / or safety of different antipsychotic drugs first and second generation. Overall, antipsychotics (AP) showed superiority over placebo in relapse rate over 12 months (RR 0.59 95% CI 0.42, 0.82) and hospitalization rate over 24 months of follow-up (RR 0.38 95% 0.27, 0.55); its use is associated with increased risk of treatment dropout (RR 0.53 95% CI 0.46, 0.61) and adverse events such as weight gain, dystonia, extrapyramidal symptoms and sedation. There was no difference in the outcome of re hospitalizations, comparisons on quality of life, negative symptoms or weight gain between AP first and second generation. Continuous or standard dose regimens appear to be superior to intermittent or low doses in reducing the risk of abandonment of treatment regimes. Adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia should receive maintenance treatment with antipsychotics. The medication of choice will depend on the management of the acute phase, the patient's tolerance to it and the presentation of adverse events. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Inverse association between 18-carbon trans fatty acids and intelligence quotients in smoking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Szimonetta; Vágási, Judit; Marosvölgyi, Tamás; Tényi, Tamás; Decsi, Tamás

    2014-01-30

    This study aimed to investigate polyunsaturated (PUFA) and trans isomeric fatty acid status in schizophrenia patients. Fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids (PL) and triacylglycerols (TG) was analyzed by gas chromatography in 29 schizophrenia patients and 15 healthy controls. We found no difference in PL n-3 fatty acid status between the two groups, while the values of 22:5n-6 were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia than in controls. In TG, values of docosatrienoic acid (20:3n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. We found no difference in the trans fatty acid status between patients and controls. In smoking schizophrenia patients significant negative correlations were detected between Wechsler adult full-scale intelligence quotients and values of total trans fatty acids in PL lipids, whereas no such correlation was seen either in non-smoking schizophrenia patients, or in healthy controls. While data obtained in the present study fail to furnish evidence for n-3 PUFA supplementation to the diet of patients with schizophrenia, they indicate that in smoking schizophrenia patients high dietary exposure to trans fatty acids is associated with lower intelligence quotients. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. CAREGIVER BURDEN AMONG PEOPLE CARING FOR PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Bansal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Caregivers of patients suffering from mental illness report burden in different areas including effects on family functioning, psychological problems, financial problems and health. The aim of the study is to determine the sociodemographic profile and caregiver burden among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia and to study the effect of patients’ psychopathology on caregiver burden scale. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Psychiatry Department, Government Medical College, Amritsar. A sample size of 34 was taken who were primary caregivers (preferably parents or spouse of schizophrenia patients diagnosed using ICD10. Measures included caregiver’s demographic variables and caregiver’s burden using the Zarit burden interview and PANSS scale in patients. Statistical Analysis- Data was analysed using SPSS software version 21. RESULTS The mean age of the caregiver was 42 SD (12.16 years. The majority of the caregivers were parents, married and employed. The mean average score of the responses to Zarit burden interview was (SD=59.52 ± 20.92. Majority of the caregivers experienced severe burden (52.9%, 9 (26.4% caregivers had reported moderate burden and 6 (17.6% had reported mild burden. The mean duration of illness was 6.89 (SD=5.03 years. The level of burden experienced was significantly associated with total PANSS score, negative symptoms, positive symptoms, general psychopathology score and duration of schizophrenia illness (p=0.00. CONCLUSION There is need for psychological assistance and social support for the vulnerable caregivers to help them reduce the burden levels and employ positive coping strategies.

  11. Prevalence of 22q11.2 deletions in 311 Dutch patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Vorstman, Jacob A S; Jalali, Gholam R; Selten, Jean-Paul; Sinke, Richard J; Emanuel, Beverly S; Kahn, René S

    UNLABELLED: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine whether the prevalence of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) in schizophrenia patients with the Deficit syndrome is higher than the reported approximately 2% for the population of schizophrenia patients as a whole, and 2) to estimate the

  12. Electroconvulsive therapy for treating schizophrenia: a chart review of patients from two catchment areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Diana; Bauer, Jeanett; Pedersen, Ida Hageman

    2011-01-01

    To examine disease and treatment characteristics of patients with schizophrenia treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We examined charts from 79 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 55), persistent delusional disorders (n = 7), and schizoaffective disorders (n = 17) between 2003...

  13. Predictors of poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quach, Phuong Le; Mors, Ole; Christensen, Torben Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to identify predictors for poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder.......This study sought to identify predictors for poor adherence to medication among patients with first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorder....

  14. Genetic analysis of VCP and WASH complex genes in a German cohort of sporadic ALS-FTD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Matthias; Schröder, Rolf; Khuller, Katharina; Hofmann, Andreas; Berwanger, Carolin; Ludolph, Albert C; Dekomien, Gabriele; Müller, Kathrin; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Thiel, Christian T; Clemen, Christoph S

    2017-08-01

    Mutations of the human valosin-containing protein, p97 (VCP) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homolog (WASH) complex genes cause motor neuron and cognitive impairment disorders. Here, we analyzed a cohort of German patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration comorbidity (ALS/FTD) for VCP and WASH complex gene mutations. Next-generation panel sequencing of VCP, WASH1, FAM21C, CCDC53, SWIP, strumpellin, F-actin capping protein of muscle Z-line alfa 1 (CAPZA1), and CAPZB genes was performed in 43 sporadic ALS/FTD patients. Subsequent analyses included Sanger sequencing, in silico analyses, real-time PCR, and CCDC53 immunoblotting. We identified 1 patient with the heterozygous variant c.26C>T in CAPZA1, predicted to result in p.Ser9Leu, and a second with the heterozygous start codon variant c.2T>C in CCDC53. In silico analysis predicted structural changes in the N-terminus of CAPZα1, which may interfere with CAPZα:CAPZβ dimerization. Though the translation initiation codon of CCDC53 is mutated, real-time PCR and immunoblotting did neither reveal any evidence for a CCDC53 haploinsufficiency nor for aberrant CCDC53 protein species. Moreover, a disease-causing C9orf72 repeat expansion mutation was later on identified in this patient. Thus, with the exception of a putatively pathogenic heterozygous c.26C>T CAPZA1 variant, our genetic analysis did not reveal mutations in VCP and the remaining WASH complex subunits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surrogate decision making in patients with schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos Pozón, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the process of the surrogate decision making in schizophrenic patients. First, we rely on a number of ethical principles that will guide the surrogate decision making. Second, we analyze which are the legal rules about guardianship and conservatorship. Third, we expose some action rules for the trial for substitution. Fourth, we develop some norms for the intervention that impose limit to substitutes. Finally, we make a proposal about who is best trained to represent ...

  16. Toxoplasma Infection in Schizophrenia Patients: A Comparative Study with Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, A; Shojaee, S; Mohebali, M; Tehranidoost, M; Abdi Masoleh, F; Keshavarz, H

    2011-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a serious, chronic, and often debilitating neuropsychiatric disor­der. Its causes are still poorly understood. Besides genetic and non-genetic (environmental) fac­tors are thought to be important as the cause of the structural and functional deficits that character­ize schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare Toxoplasma gondii infection between schizo­phrenia patients and non-schizophrenia individuals as control group.Methods: A case-control study was designed i...

  17. Coping among the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coping is understood as the process of managing external or internal demands that are considered as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person. There is no formal classification of coping strategies, and these are understood as adaptive versus maladaptive and problem focuses versus emotion-focused. Understanding the commonly used coping strategies in a particular group of subjects can provide valuable insights for designing interventions to reduce the stress. In this review, we look at the literature which is available with regards to the coping strategies used by the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Findings suggest that caregivers of patients with schizophrenia use mixed type of coping mechanisms to deal with the stress of caregiving. The coping strategies are shown to have association with variables such as caregiver burden, caregiving experience, expressed emotions, social support, psychological morbidity in the caregivers, quality of life of caregivers and psychopathology in patients. One of the major limitations of the literature is that there is a lot of variability in the assessment instruments used across different studies to assess coping.

  18. Coping among the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Pradyumna; Chakrabarti, Subho

    2015-01-01

    Coping is understood as the process of managing external or internal demands that are considered as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person. There is no formal classification of coping strategies, and these are understood as adaptive versus maladaptive and problem focuses versus emotion-focused. Understanding the commonly used coping strategies in a particular group of subjects can provide valuable insights for designing interventions to reduce the stress. In this review, we look at the literature which is available with regards to the coping strategies used by the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Findings suggest that caregivers of patients with schizophrenia use mixed type of coping mechanisms to deal with the stress of caregiving. The coping strategies are shown to have association with variables such as caregiver burden, caregiving experience, expressed emotions, social support, psychological morbidity in the caregivers, quality of life of caregivers and psychopathology in patients. One of the major limitations of the literature is that there is a lot of variability in the assessment instruments used across different studies to assess coping. PMID:26257476

  19. Calorimetric monitoring of the serum proteome in schizophrenia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumova, Sashka; Rukova, Blaga; Todinova, Svetla; Gartcheva, Lidia; Milanova, Vihra; Toncheva, Draga; Taneva, Stefka G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • DSC reveals modified thermal behavior of blood serum from schizophrenic patients. • The high-abundance portion of the serum proteome is thermally stabilized in Sz. • The Sz plasma thermograms are classified in four distinct calorimetric groups. • The effectiveness of drug treatment correlates with the plasma thermodynamic behavior. - Abstract: Schizophrenia (Sz) is a multifactorial mental disorder with high frequency. Due to its chronic and relapsing nature there is a strong need for biomarkers for early psychosis detection and objective evaluation of drug (usually antipsychotics) treatment effect. Here differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is applied to thermodynamically characterize the blood serum proteome of paranoid schizophrenia patients on routine antipsychotic treatment in comparison to healthy controls. DSC revealed significant modifications in the thermodynamic behavior of blood sera from Sz patients, the overall thermal profile being changed in all Sz cases under study. The calorimetric profiles were classified in four distinct groups, reflecting different thermal stabilization of the high-abundance portion of the serum proteome. The observed positive (thermograms becoming closer to the healthy profile) or negative (thermograms deviating stronger from the healthy profile) proteome thermal stability switches and the Sz thermograms persistence in patients’ follow-up corresponded well with the effect of drug treatment

  20. Calorimetric monitoring of the serum proteome in schizophrenia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumova, Sashka [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Rukova, Blaga [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Zdrave Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Todinova, Svetla [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Gartcheva, Lidia [National Specialized Hospital for Active Treating of Haematological Diseases, 6 Plovdivsko pole Str., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Milanova, Vihra [Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Sofia, 1 Sv. Georgi Sofiiski Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Toncheva, Draga [Department of Medical Genetics, Medical University of Sofia, 2 Zdrave Str., Sofia 1431 (Bulgaria); Taneva, Stefka G., E-mail: stefka.germanova@ehu.es [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 21, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • DSC reveals modified thermal behavior of blood serum from schizophrenic patients. • The high-abundance portion of the serum proteome is thermally stabilized in Sz. • The Sz plasma thermograms are classified in four distinct calorimetric groups. • The effectiveness of drug treatment correlates with the plasma thermodynamic behavior. - Abstract: Schizophrenia (Sz) is a multifactorial mental disorder with high frequency. Due to its chronic and relapsing nature there is a strong need for biomarkers for early psychosis detection and objective evaluation of drug (usually antipsychotics) treatment effect. Here differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is applied to thermodynamically characterize the blood serum proteome of paranoid schizophrenia patients on routine antipsychotic treatment in comparison to healthy controls. DSC revealed significant modifications in the thermodynamic behavior of blood sera from Sz patients, the overall thermal profile being changed in all Sz cases under study. The calorimetric profiles were classified in four distinct groups, reflecting different thermal stabilization of the high-abundance portion of the serum proteome. The observed positive (thermograms becoming closer to the healthy profile) or negative (thermograms deviating stronger from the healthy profile) proteome thermal stability switches and the Sz thermograms persistence in patients’ follow-up corresponded well with the effect of drug treatment.

  1. Deficient inhibition of return in chronic but not first-episode patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dengtang; Fan, Xiaoduo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Zhiliang; Zhuo, Kaiming; Song, Zhenhua; Wu, Yan; Li, Chunbo; Wang, Jijun; Xu, Yifeng

    2010-08-16

    Inhibition of return (IOR) has been tested in patients with schizophrenia with contradictory results. Some studies indicated that patients with schizophrenia have normal levels of IOR; however, other studies reported delayed or blunted IOR. Inconsistency in findings might be due to differences across studies in relevant aspects associated with disease, such as heterogeneity of the disorder, different medications, onset and severity of the illness. The present study was to explore different patterns of IOR in antipsychotic medication free first-episode schizophrenia and chronic schizophrenia. Forty two patients with first-episode schizophrenia, 44 patients with chronic schizophrenia, and 38 healthy controls were included in the study. All subjects went through a covert orienting of attention task with seven stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) intervals (400 ms, 500 ms, 600 ms, 700 ms, 800 ms, 1200 ms and 1500 ms). Compared with healthy controls, the magnitude and onset of IOR in first-episode patients with schizophrenia were intact. However, in patients with chronic schizophrenia, there was an attenuated cuing effect especially at SOA 700 ms; in addition, there was a robust IOR until at SOAs 800 ms or above. Moreover, the illness duration and the number of psychotic episodes were significantly correlated with the validity effect at SOAs 400 ms and 600 ms. Our study suggests that deficient IOR presents in chronic but not in first-episode patients with schizophrenia. IOR deficit in schizophrenia may begin during the course of illness and deteriorate over the course of illness. Our findings are consistent with the neurodegenerative model of schizophrenia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cure or curse? Ambivalent attitudes towards neuroleptic medication in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Naber

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroleptic non-compliance remains a serious challenge for the treatment of psychosis. Non-compliance is predominantly attributed to side effects, lack of illness insight, reduced well-being or poor therapeutic alliance. However, other still neglected factors may also play a role. Further, little is known about whether psychiatric patients without psychosis who are increasingly prescribed neuroleptics differ in terms of medication compliance or about reasons for non-compliance by psychosis patients. As direct questioning is notoriously prone to social desirability biases, we conducted an anonymous survey. After a strict selection process blind to results, 95 psychiatric patients were retained for the final analyses (69 participants with a presumed diagnosis of schizophrenia psychosis, 26 without psychosis. Self-reported neuroleptic non-compliance was more prevalent in psychosis patients than non-psychosis patients. Apart from side effects and illness insight, main reasons for non-compliance in both groups were forgetfulness, distrust in therapist, and no subjective need for treatment. Other notable reasons were stigma and advice of relatives/acquaintances against neuroleptic medication. Gain from illness was a reason for non-compliance in 11-18% of the psychosis patients. Only 9% of all patients reported no side effects and full compliance and at the same time acknowledged that neuroleptics worked well for them. While pills were preferred over depot injections by the majority of patients, depot was judged as an alternative by a substantial subgroup. Although many patients acknowledge the need and benefits of neuroleptic medication, non-compliance was the norm rather than the exception in our samples.

  3. Gene expression profiling for human iPS-derived motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients reveals a strong association between mitochondrial functions and neurodegeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Chrystian J.; Dariolli, Rafael; Jorge, Frederico M.; Monteiro, Matheus R.; Maximino, Jessica R.; Martins, Roberto S.; Strauss, Bryan E.; Krieger, José E.; Callegaro, Dagoberto; Chadi, Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to widespread motor neuron death, general palsy and respiratory failure. The most prevalent sporadic ALS form is not genetically inherited. Attempts to translate therapeutic strategies have failed because the described mechanisms of disease are based on animal models carrying specific gene mutations and thus do not address sporadic ALS. In order to achieve a better approach to study the human disease, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-differentiated motor neurons were obtained from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS and non-ALS subjects using the STEMCCA Cre-Excisable Constitutive Polycistronic Lentivirus system and submitted to microarray analyses using a whole human genome platform. DAVID analyses of differentially expressed genes identified molecular function and biological process-related genes through Gene Ontology. REVIGO highlighted the related functions mRNA and DNA binding, GTP binding, transcription (co)-repressor activity, lipoprotein receptor binding, synapse organization, intracellular transport, mitotic cell cycle and cell death. KEGG showed pathways associated with Parkinson's disease and oxidative phosphorylation, highlighting iron homeostasis, neurotrophic functions, endosomal trafficking and ERK signaling. The analysis of most dysregulated genes and those representative of the majority of categorized genes indicates a strong association between mitochondrial function and cellular processes possibly related to motor neuron degeneration. In conclusion, iPSC-derived motor neurons from motor nerve fibroblasts of sporadic ALS patients may recapitulate key mechanisms of neurodegeneration and may offer an opportunity for translational investigation of sporadic ALS. Large gene profiling of differentiated motor neurons from sporadic ALS patients highlights mitochondrial participation in the establishment of autonomous mechanisms associated with sporadic ALS

  4. Change in Prolactin Levels in Pediatric Patients Given Antipsychotics for Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Network Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrapani Balijepalli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of schizophrenia with first- and second-generation antipsychotics has been associated with elevated prolactin levels, which may increase the risk for prolactin-related adverse events. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs included in a recent systematic review were considered for this analysis. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was used to compare changes in prolactin levels in pediatric patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizophrenia spectrum disorders treated with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs. Results. Five RCTs, including 989 patients combined, have evaluated the changes in prolactin for pediatric patients after 6 weeks of treatment with risperidone, quetiapine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and paliperidone. In the overall study population, treatment with risperidone was associated with the highest increase in mean prolactin levels compared to other SGAs. Patients treated with risperidone 4–6 mg/day were found to experience the greatest increases (55.06 ng/ml [95% CrI: 40.53–69.58] in prolactin levels, followed by risperidone 1–3 mg/day, paliperidone 3–6 mg/day, and paliperidone 6–12 mg/day. Conclusions. This study shows that there are differences in SGAs ability to cause hyperprolactinemia. Further, there is clear evidence of safety concerns with risperidone and paliperidone treatment in adolescent schizophrenia patients. Registration. PROSPERO CRD42014009506.

  5. Mass spectrum analysis of serum biomarker proteins from patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yaqin; Shi, Jieping; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Bin; Yu, Qiong

    2014-05-01

    Diagnosis of schizophrenia does not have a clear objective test at present, so we aimed to identify the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of schizophrenia by comparison of serum protein profiling between first-episode schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. The combination of a magnetic bead separation system with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) was used to analyze the serum protein spectra of 286 first-episode patients with schizophrenia, 41 chronic disease patients and 304 healthy controls. FlexAnlysis 3.0 and ClinProTools(TM) 2.1 software was used to establish a diagnostic model for schizophrenia. The results demonstrated that 10 fragmented peptides demonstrated an optimal discriminatory performance. Among these fragmented peptides, the peptide with m/z 1206.58 was identified as a fragment of fibrinopeptide A. Receiver operating characteristic analysis for m/z 1206.58 showed that the area under the curve was 0.981 for schizophrenia vs healthy controls, and 0.999 for schizophrenia vs other chronic disease controls. From our result, we consider that the analysis of serum protein spectrum using the magnetic bead separation system and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS is an objective diagnostic tool. We conclude that fibrinopeptide A has the potential to be a biomarker for diagnosis of schizophrenia. This protein may also help to elucidate schizophrenia disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Memory deficit in patients with schizophrenia and posttraumatic stress disorder: relational vs item-specific memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung W

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wookyoung Jung,1 Seung-Hwan Lee1,2 1Clinical Emotions and Cognition Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Inje University, Ilsan-Paik Hospital, Goyang, Korea Abstract: It has been well established that patients with schizophrenia have impairments in cognitive functioning and also that patients who experienced traumatic events suffer from cognitive deficits. Of the cognitive deficits revealed in schizophrenia or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients, the current article provides a brief review of deficit in episodic memory, which is highly predictive of patients’ quality of life and global functioning. In particular, we have focused on studies that compared relational and item-specific memory performance in schizophrenia and PTSD, because measures of relational and item-specific memory are considered the most promising constructs for immediate tangible development of clinical trial paradigm. The behavioral findings of schizophrenia are based on the tasks developed by the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS initiative and the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical Applications for Schizophrenia (CNTRACS Consortium. The findings we reviewed consistently showed that schizophrenia and PTSD are closely associated with more severe impairments in relational memory compared to item-specific memory. Candidate brain regions involved in relational memory impairment in schizophrenia and PTSD are also discussed. Keywords: schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, episodic memory deficit, relational memory, item-specific memory, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus

  7. Combined visual and motor disorganization in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eGiersch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairments are difficult to relate to clinical symptoms in schizophrenia, partly due to insufficient knowledge on how cognitive impairments interact with one another. Here, we devised a new sequential pointing task requiring both visual organization and motor sequencing. Six circles were presented simultaneously on a touch screen around a fixation point. Participants pointed with the finger each circle one after the other, in synchrony with auditory tones. We used an alternating rhythmic 300/600 ms pattern so that participants performed pairs of taps separated by short intervals of 300 ms. Visual organization was manipulated by using line-segments that grouped the circles two by two, yielding three pairs of connected circles, and three pairs of unconnected circles that belonged to different pairs. This led to 3 experimental conditions. In the ‘congruent condition’, the pairs of taps had to be executed on circles grouped by connecters. In the ‘non congruent condition’, they were to be executed on the unconnected circles that belonged to different pairs. In a neutral condition, there were no connecters. 22 patients with schizophrenia with mild symptoms and 22 control participants performed a series of 30 taps in each condition.Tap pairs were counted as errors when the produced rhythm was inverted (expected rhythm 600/300=2; inversed rhythm<1. Error rates in patients with a high level of clinical disorganization were significantly higher in the non-congruent condition than in the two other conditions, contrary to controls and the remaining patients. The tap-tone asynchrony increased in the presence of connecters in both patient groups, but not in the controls. Patients appeared not to integrate the visual organization during the planning phase of action, leading to a large difficulty during motor execution, especially in those patients revealing difficulties in visual organization. Visual motor tapping tasks may help detect those

  8. Respiratory variability during different auditory stimulation periods in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, S A; Kara, S; Bilgiç, V

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenic patients are known to have difficulty processing emotions and to exhibit impairment in stimuli discrimination. However, there is limited knowledge regarding their physiological responsivity to auditory stimuli. The purpose of this study was to compare the respiratory effects of two types of auditory stimuli with emotional content, classical Turkish music (CTM) and white noise (WN), on schizophrenia patients and healthy control subjects. Forty-six individuals participated in the experiment, and respiratory signals derived from a strain-gauge were recorded. Two important respiratory patterns, respiration rate and depth, were analyzed. The results indicated that the patients presented a significantly higher respiration rate than control subjects during the initial baseline and WN exposure periods. Although CTM evoked an increase in respiration rates and a decrease in respiration depths in the control group, no significant differences were found during the stimulation periods in the patient group. The respiration rate was lower in the post-stimulation period than during the initial baseline period, and no respiration depth differences were found for the WN, music or post-stimulation periods in the schizophrenia group. Patients exhibited a greater respiration depth than the control subjects over all periods; however, a significant difference between the patient and control groups was obtained in the second resting condition and CTM exposure period. Furthermore, to analyze the effect of symptom severity on respiratory patterns, patients were divided into two classes according to their Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score. Further studies are needed to correlate respiratory differences with emotionally evocative stimuli and to refine our understanding of the dynamics of these types of stimuli in relation to clinical state and medication effects.

  9. Relationship between lifetime suicide attempts and schizotypal traits in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Ishida, Ikki; Nagashima, Anna; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk for suicide. Various risk factors for suicide have been reported in schizophrenia; however, few studies have examined the association between personality traits and suicidal behavior. We administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) to 87 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (49 males; mean age 38.1 ± 10.6 years) with and without a history of suicide attempts (SA and nSA groups, respectively), and 322 controls (158 males; mean age 40.8 ± 13.9 years). As expected, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) controlling for age and sex showed that all SPQ indices (total SPQ score and all three factors, i.e., cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized) were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia (SA+nSA groups), than controls (psuicide attempts, and that the total SPQ score might be useful to assess the risk of suicide attempt in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Lateralization Pattern in Patients with Schizophrenia and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Rajneesh Gupta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to see the incidence of peripheral laterality in schizophrenics and depressed patients. A total of 147 male subjects (29 schizophrenics, 38 depressed, 80 non-patient controls were asked to indicate their preferences for hand, foot, eye, and ear on the Sidedness Bias Schedule. The correlations among the laterality quotients (LQ in all the three groups were positive and highly significant except the foot-eye correlation in the non-patient controls. The left and mixed-handed schizophrenics and depressed subjects exhibited extreme left and mixed preference for foot, eye, and ear, respectively. Hand and ear preferences emerged as the predictors of schizophrenia and depression in the logistic regression analysis. The findings indicate a possible relationship between psychopathology and extreme left-mixed dominance.

  11. Normal cognitive conflict resolution in psychosis patients with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Henderikus G O M; Bruggeman, Richard; Martens, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is thought to be associated with impairments of executive functions, among which conflict control functions play an important role. The available evidence, however, suggests that conflict control is intact in schizophrenia, despite being based on methods that have successfully unveiled conflict control problems in other disorders. Differences between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls in stimulus perception, selective attention, alertness, processing speed and reaction time variability may have been previously overlooked. By controlling for these potential confounders, the present experiments were aimed to be more rigorous tests of the hypothesis that psychosis and schizophrenia are associated with impairments of conflict control. To that end, 27 healthy controls and 53 recent-onset psychosis patients with (n = 27) and without schizophrenia (n = 26) with comparable age, intelligence, and education level, performed three iconic conflict control tasks: the Simon task, the Eriksen flanker task, and the Stroop task, all equipped with neutral trials, and analyzed for various potential confounders. They further performed a battery of standard neuropsychological tests. Schizophrenia patients showed no increased conflict effects in any of the 3 tasks for any alternative measures used. Nonschizophrenia patients only showed abnormally increased response competition in the Simon task. All patients nevertheless demonstrated impaired control of attention and verbal memory. These findings indicate that the type of conflict control engaged by conflict tasks is intact in recent-onset schizophrenia, suggesting that a major component of executive function is spared in schizophrenia. We discuss these findings in terms of proactive and reactive control. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Differential diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis and schizophrenia in patients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, R N; Miner, C R

    1997-01-01

    We derived a statistical model that discriminates between substance-induced psychosis (i.e., DSM-III-R organic delusional disorder or organic hallucinosis; ODD-OH) and DSM-III-R schizophrenia in patients who have both DSM-III-R psychoactive substance use disorders (PSUD) and prominent delusions or hallucinations. A sample of 211 PSUD inpatients was divided by year of admission into data sets A and B, each of which was divided between those with concurrent schizophrenia and those with concurrent ODD-OH. A six-predictor discriminant function correctly classified 76.2 percent of all set A patients, including 83.1 percent with schizophrenia. Formal thought disorder and bizarre delusions significantly predict a diagnosis of schizophrenia, with odds ratios (OR) of 3.55:1 and 6.09:1, respectively. Suicidal ideation (OR = 0.32:1), intravenous cocaine abuse (0.18:1), and a history of drug detoxification (0.26:1) or methadone maintenance (0.18:1) demonstrate inverse relationships with a schizophrenia diagnosis. The model was validated in set B, correctly predicting the diagnostic status of 70.4 percent of patients (72.5% with schizophrenia). The pattern of presenting symptoms and clinical history differs in patients with psychosis due to PSUD and in those whose psychosis is due to schizophrenia. The model presented here contributes to the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and ODD-OH among patients with PSUD.

  13. Long-term outcome of patients with elevated parathyroid hormone levels after successful parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solorzano, Carmen C; Mendez, William; Lew, John I; Rodgers, Steven E; Montano, Raquel; Carneiro-Pla, Denise M; Irvin, George L

    2008-07-01

    Untreated long-term elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels after successful parathyroidectomy may predict recurrent hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Although elevated PTH levels have been reported in eucalcemic patients after parathyroidectomy for sporadic primary HPT, the long-term clinical significance of this finding remains unclear. Retrospective case series. Tertiary referral center. Five hundred seventy-six consecutive patients with HPT. Parathyroidectomy guided by intraoperative monitoring of PTH levels. Overall incidence of elevated PTH levels (measurements of >or= 70 pg/mL at any time during follow-up) and recurrent HPT (hypercalcemia and elevated PTH levels more than 6 months after parathyroidectomy). Of the 505 patients who underwent successful parathyroidectomy in this series and were followed up for more than 6 months, 337 (66.7%) consistently had PTH levels within the reference range, and 168 (33.3%) had elevated PTH levels. Of the 168 patients with elevated PTH levels, only 8 (4.8%) developed recurrent disease. The earliest recurrence occurred 2 years postoperatively. Factors associated with elevated PTH levels included advanced age, higher preoperative PTH levels, and mild postoperative renal insufficiency. Although one-third of the patients had elevated PTH levels after successful parathyroidectomy, most of these patients with elevated PTH levels (95%) will achieve long-term eucalcemia.

  14. The Distribution of Prion Protein Allotypes Differs Between Sporadic and Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roger A; Head, Mark W; Ironside, James W; Ritchie, Diane L; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Choi, Young Pyo; Pyo Choi, Young; Priola, Suzette A

    2016-02-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the most prevalent of the human prion diseases, which are fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases caused by the infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc)). The origin of sCJD is unknown, although the initiating event is thought to be the stochastic misfolding of endogenous prion protein (PrP(C)) into infectious PrP(Sc). By contrast, human growth hormone-associated cases of iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) in the United Kingdom (UK) are associated with exposure to an exogenous source of PrP(Sc). In both forms of CJD, heterozygosity at residue 129 for methionine (M) or valine (V) in the prion protein gene may affect disease phenotype, onset and progression. However, the relative contribution of each PrP(C) allotype to PrP(Sc) in heterozygous cases of CJD is unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we determined that the relative abundance of PrP(Sc) with M or V at residue 129 in brain specimens from MV cases of sCJD was highly variable. This result is consistent with PrP(C) containing an M or V at residue 129 having a similar propensity to misfold into PrP(Sc) thus causing sCJD. By contrast, PrP(Sc) with V at residue 129 predominated in the majority of the UK human growth hormone associated iCJD cases, consistent with exposure to infectious PrP(Sc) containing V at residue 129. In both types of CJD, the PrP(Sc) allotype ratio had no correlation with CJD type, age at clinical onset, or disease duration. Therefore, factors other than PrP(Sc) allotype abundance must influence the clinical progression and phenotype of heterozygous cases of CJD.

  15. The Distribution of Prion Protein Allotypes Differs Between Sporadic and Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A Moore

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD is the most prevalent of the human prion diseases, which are fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases caused by the infectious prion protein (PrP(Sc. The origin of sCJD is unknown, although the initiating event is thought to be the stochastic misfolding of endogenous prion protein (PrP(C into infectious PrP(Sc. By contrast, human growth hormone-associated cases of iatrogenic CJD (iCJD in the United Kingdom (UK are associated with exposure to an exogenous source of PrP(Sc. In both forms of CJD, heterozygosity at residue 129 for methionine (M or valine (V in the prion protein gene may affect disease phenotype, onset and progression. However, the relative contribution of each PrP(C allotype to PrP(Sc in heterozygous cases of CJD is unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we determined that the relative abundance of PrP(Sc with M or V at residue 129 in brain specimens from MV cases of sCJD was highly variable. This result is consistent with PrP(C containing an M or V at residue 129 having a similar propensity to misfold into PrP(Sc thus causing sCJD. By contrast, PrP(Sc with V at residue 129 predominated in the majority of the UK human growth hormone associated iCJD cases, consistent with exposure to infectious PrP(Sc containing V at residue 129. In both types of CJD, the PrP(Sc allotype ratio had no correlation with CJD type, age at clinical onset, or disease duration. Therefore, factors other than PrP(Sc allotype abundance must influence the clinical progression and phenotype of heterozygous cases of CJD.

  16. The Distribution of Prion Protein Allotypes Differs Between Sporadic and Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Roger A.; Head, Mark W.; Ironside, James W.; Ritchie, Diane L.; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Pyo Choi, Young; Priola, Suzette A.

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the most prevalent of the human prion diseases, which are fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases caused by the infectious prion protein (PrPSc). The origin of sCJD is unknown, although the initiating event is thought to be the stochastic misfolding of endogenous prion protein (PrPC) into infectious PrPSc. By contrast, human growth hormone-associated cases of iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) in the United Kingdom (UK) are associated with exposure to an exogenous source of PrPSc. In both forms of CJD, heterozygosity at residue 129 for methionine (M) or valine (V) in the prion protein gene may affect disease phenotype, onset and progression. However, the relative contribution of each PrPC allotype to PrPSc in heterozygous cases of CJD is unknown. Using mass spectrometry, we determined that the relative abundance of PrPSc with M or V at residue 129 in brain specimens from MV cases of sCJD was highly variable. This result is consistent with PrPC containing an M or V at residue 129 having a similar propensity to misfold into PrPSc thus causing sCJD. By contrast, PrPSc with V at residue 129 predominated in the majority of the UK human growth hormone associated iCJD cases, consistent with exposure to infectious PrPSc containing V at residue 129. In both types of CJD, the PrPSc allotype ratio had no correlation with CJD type, age at clinical onset, or disease duration. Therefore, factors other than PrPSc allotype abundance must influence the clinical progression and phenotype of heterozygous cases of CJD. PMID:26840342

  17. Association between insight, cognitive insight, positive symptoms and violence in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Okan; Ekinci, Asli

    2013-04-01

    Violence is a significant clinical and public concern and is a frequent occurrence in patients with schizophrenia. The relationship between insight and violence remains controversial. In addition, there is a lack of research on insight, cognitive insight, demographic and psychopathologic variables in violent versus nonviolent schizophrenia patients. We aimed to compare insight, cognitive insight, psychopathological and demographic variables in violent and nonviolent subjects suffering from schizophrenia. In addition, we aimed to determine the demographic and clinical predictors of violent behaviour in patients with schizophrenia. We recruited 133 schizophrenic patients without concomitant substance abuse or axis II disorder. Diagnoses were based on the SCID-I and SCID-II. Violent behaviours were assessed using the Overt Aggression Scale. Insight and cognitive insight were assessed with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, respectively. We compared 47 patients with violent schizophrenia with 86 nonviolent patients. Non-violent patients had more severe depression, lower scores on positive symptoms, better clinical insight, more self-reflectivity and higher R-C index scores than did violent patients. In addition, history of violence, lower self-reflectiveness, worse clinical insight and delusion severity were significant predictors of violence in schizophrenia. The present study suggests that the inclusion of insight and cognitive insight may increase the prediction of violence in this population. In addition, clinicians should consider using non-pharmacological techniques that are based on cognitive behaviour therapy and enhance insight, particularly cognitive insight, among patients with schizophrenia who exhibit violent behaviour.

  18. Validation of the Persian version of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Shahrzad; Ghafaree-Nejad, Ali R; Soleymani-Zade, Somayeh; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-06-01

    The Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) is an interview-based assessment of cognition that involves interviews with patients and informants. The SCoRS has shown good reliability, validity, and sensitivity to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, with the advantage of brief administration and scoring time. The present study aimed to test the concurrent validity of the Persian version of the SCoRS. A group of 35 patients with schizophrenia and a group of 35 healthy controls received the Persian-SCoRS in the first session, and a standardized performance-based cognitive battery, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), in the second session.Our results indicated that the Persian version of the SCoRS was sensitive to cognitive impairment in the patients. The Persian SCoRS global rating was significantly associated with the composite score generated from the Persian version of the BACS and predicted functional outcomes as measured by Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHO QOL). A Persian version of the SCoRS, an interview based measure of cognition that included informants, is related to cognitive performance and global functioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.; Derks, E.M.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R.; Krabbendam, L.; Linzen, D.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background:The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of

  20. The association between intelligence scores and family history of psychiatric disorder in schizophrenia patients, their siblings and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Kim H. W.; Derks, Eske M.; Kahn, René S.; Linszen, Don; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2013-01-01

    The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of family

  1. Serum Growth Arrest Specific Protein 6 (Gas-6 Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethullah Gerin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We have investigated serum growth ar­rest-specific protein 6 (GAS-6 levels from patients with schizophrenia divided into acute phase remission phases as well as control group. Methods: This study was conducted in Psychiatry De­partment of Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Fac­ulty. The patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia after regular psychiatric examination according to DSM-IV criteria (n=22 as well as control subjects were includ­ed in the study. Schizophrenia patients with acute phase and remission phase were evaluated by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and Clinical global Impression Scale (CGI-S. The serum GAS-6 levels of schizophrenia patients during acute phase and remission phase were compared with the serum GAS-6 levels of healthy controls. Serum GAS-6 levels were measured by commercial ELISA kits. Results: No difference was found in serum GAS-6 levels among the three groups; schizophrenia with acute phase, schizophrenia with remission phase, and controls. There were no correlations between serum GAS-6 levels and PANSS and CGI scores. Conclusion: To reach a definitive data and better in­terpretation about the relationship between GAS-6 and schizophrenia, future studies with larger groups of pa­tients with schizophrenia subdivided by drug naïve and treated with antipsychotics/other treatment modalities and controls are needed.

  2. Acupuncture in the treatment of a female patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and sleep disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Lee, S.H.; Staudte, H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2016-01-01

    Background. The use of acupuncture in the treatment of sleep disorders in patients with chronic schizophrenia is investigated. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 44-year-old female outpatient of German origin who had been suffering from long-term schizophrenia and sleep disorders. The

  3. Views of schizophrenia patients on the effects of cannabis on their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic disorder with a high level of disability, increased mortality from natural and unnatural causes, and a low rate of remission over the long term.[1] Cannabis is second only to tobacco as the most widely used addictive substance,[2] and is more often used in schizophrenia patients than.

  4. Specificity of facial emotion recognition impairments in patients with multi-episode schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Barkhof, MD, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Compared to controls patients with schizophrenia displayed more difficulties in processing of social information compared to non-social information. These results support the hypothesis that facial emotion recognition impairment is a relatively distinct entity within the domain of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  5. Serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yong Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze serum cytokine contents in schizophrenia patient with metabolic syndrome (MS and their correlation with nerve electrophysiology. Methods: A total of 90 chizophrenia patient with MS, including 41 cases with simple schizophrenia and 39 cases with simple metabolic syndrome were included for study. The values of nerve electrophysiology indexes and serum illness-related indexes were compared among included patients, and the correlation between the two was further analyzed. Results: Compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, P300 latency of schizophrenia with MS group was longer, and the amplitude was shorter; N2-P3 latency and amplitude were shorter (P<0.05; serum SOD, S100b, BDNF, ABAb, PAI-1, 毩-HBDH, AST, cystatin c, TG, FBG and 2hPG values of schizophrenia with MS group were higher, IGF1, HMW-APN and HDL-C levels were lower, and compared with simple schizophrenia group and simple MS group, differences were significant (P<0.05; P300 latency, P300 amplitude, N2-P3 latency and N2- P3 amplitude of schizophrenia with MS group were directly correlated with serum cytokine contents (P<0.05. Conclusions: There are significantly abnormal serum cytokines and nerve electrophysiology indexes in schizophrenia patient with MS, and nerve electrophysiology detection can be used as the means to judge disease and guide treatment.

  6. Cessation of cannabis use by patients with recent-onset schizophrenia and related disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nienke; de Haan, Lieuwe; van den Berg, Sake; de Gier, Martin; Becker, Hiske; Linzen, Don H.

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis abuse has been found to be a component risk factor for the onset and poor outcome during the early course of schizophrenia and related disorders. Cannabis use has become a target for prevention and treatment of schizophrenia patients. Therefore, knowledge of factors that influence

  7. A systematic review of instruments to measure depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lako, Irene M.; Bruggeman, R.; Knegtering, H.; Wiersma, D.; Schoevers, R. A.; Slooff, C. J.; Taxis, K.

    Background: Depressive symptoms require accurate recognition and monitoring in clinical practice of patients with schizophrenia. Depression instruments developed for use in depressed patients may not discriminate depressive symptoms from negative psychotic symptoms. Objective: We reviewed depression

  8. Aripiprazole-associated tic in a schizophrenia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo X

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Xieli Guo,1,2,* Dali Lu,3,* Yugang Jiang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurosurgery, Jinjiang Hospital of Quanzhou Medical College, Jinjiang, Fujian, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychiatry, Xiamen Xianyue Hospital, Xiamen, Fujian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Tic disorder, characterized by the presence of both motor and vocal tics is common in adolescents and adults. Antipsychotics including typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics are generally recognized by experts as the most effective pharmacological treatment for tics. However, previous studies suggest that tic-like symptoms might manifest during treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as clo­zapine, quetiapine, but not aripiprazole. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an adult schizophrenia patient who developed tics during treatment with aripiprazole. Keywords: aripiprazole, antipsychotics, tic, schizophrenia, side effect

  9. Can antipsychotics improve social cognition in patients with schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska-Pietura, Katarzyna; Mortimer, Ann

    2013-05-01

    Social cognition is described as the higher mental processes that are engaged while people store, process, and use social information to make sense of themselves and others. Aspects of social cognition include emotion perception, social cue interpretation, attribution style, and theory of mind, all of which appear disordered in schizophrenia. Such social cognitive deficits are believed to be important predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia, therefore they may represent a crucial treatment target. Few studies have evaluated the influence of antipsychotic treatment on these deficits. The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between antipsychotic treatment and social cognition, whether antipsychotics improve social cognitive function, and if so to explore differential medication effects. Comprehensive searches of PsycINFO and MEDLINE/PUBMED were conducted to identify relevant published manuscripts. Fifteen relevant papers published in English were found, describing original studies. On the basis of this review, we have drawn the following conclusions: first, the results do not engender optimism for the possibility that antipsychotic drugs can specifically facilitate social recovery. Second, the actions of antipsychotics on social cognition are inconclusive, due to lack of standardization across research groups, leading to inconsistencies between study designs, methods used, and medication dosages. Third, large-scale longitudinal investigations are needed to explore the unclear relationships between social cognition, symptoms, and functional outcome. Other non-pharmacological treatments focusing on training patients in the social cognitive areas may hold more promise.

  10. General and social cognition in remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldiroli, Alice; Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke; Altamura, A Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether both neurocognitive and social cognitive performances were different between remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients, non-remitters and healthy controls (HC). We assessed social cognition (Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task-DFAR and Emotional Mentalizing Task-EMT) and neurocognition (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Word Learning Test-WLT) in 174 remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients, 110 non-remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients and 320 HC. Multivariate analyses of variance with age, gender and IQ as covariates (MANCOVA) were performed to compare mean cognitive test scores between the three groups. Remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients performed significantly worse than HC only in one verbal memory task (WLT immediate recall; p = 0.004); in the same test, they were significantly better than non-remitters (p = 0.027). Non-remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients, differently from remitters, performed significantly worse than HC in terms of social cognition (EMT-p schizophrenia patients presented worse cognitive performance than HC in verbal memory tasks, but not in facial affect recognition and in ToM, while non-remitters did; these results suggest that neurocognitive deficits are the core hallmark of schizophrenia and that social cognition is relatively unaffected in remitted patients after their first episode.

  11. A validation of wrist actigraphy against polysomnography in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Sleep disturbances are frequent in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Actigraphy has been established as a generally reliable method to examine these disturbances across varying time spans, but the validity against polysomnography (PSG) is not well investigated...... for the number of awakenings, and low or zero for the other examined sleep variables. These findings were reproduced in the subgroup analyses that compared men and women, as well as patients with bipolar versus schizophrenia spectrum disorders. When excluding patients with extensive periods of wakefulness after...... for this population. We validated wrist-worn actigraphy against PSG in a population of chronic, medicated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From a clinical trial, we derived data from 37 patients with schizophrenia and five patients with bipolar disorder who were examined with one...

  12. Absence of activating mutations in ras and gsp oncogenes in a cohort of nine patients with sporadic pediatric thyroid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauws, E; Tummers, R F; Ris-Stalpers, C; de Vijlder, J J; Voûte, T

    2001-06-01

    Characterization of the genetic background of pediatric thyroid carcinomas could aid in distinguishing between differently staged tumors with respect to treatment and prognosis. Two known genetic factors associated with thyroid carcinoma, the proto-oncogenes gsp and ras were investigated. DNA was extracted from paraffin sections from both tumor and normal thyroid tissue of nine patients (ages 9-16 years). Of these patients, eight were diagnosed with papillary carcinoma and one with follicular adenoma. The coding exons of gsp and the three known ras genes (H, K, and N-ras) were screened for mutations using SSCP-analysis. There were no mutations present in the ras and gsp proto-oncogenes hot spots, however, LOH of H-ras (chromosome location 11p15.5) was found in tumor tissue from one patient and a homozygous mutation in exon 12 of gsp causing a Pro-->Ser conversion was present in the thyroid tumor tissue from another patient. Two silent polymorphisms were detected, H-ras exon1, 86T-->C and gsp exon 5, 81T-->C. Our results indicate that the ras/gsp mutations found are probably late events in the tumorigenesis representing general oncogenic stress. In conclusion, it seems that ras/gsp activation is not a factor in the mechanism causing sporadic thyroid carcinoma in children. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Communication of a schizophrenia diagnosis: A qualitative study of patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughland, Carmel; Cheng, Kylie; Harris, Gillian; Kelly, Brian; Cohen, Martin; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Varmos, Marina; Levin, Tomer T; Bylund, Carma; Landa, Yulia; Outram, Sue

    2015-12-01

    Transparent diagnostic communication is considered best practice for clinicians. However, while patients expect to receive a schizophrenia diagnosis from their psychiatrist, research suggests mental health clinicians are often reluctant to provide this information to patients. This study examines the perceptions of people with schizophrenia surrounding the communication of this diagnosis. A generic qualitative methodological approach was used. A total of 14 patients with schizophrenia were recruited through community mental health services (n = 10) and the Australia Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB; n = 4) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the experiences and perceptions of people with schizophrenia about the way a schizophrenia diagnosis was communicated by mental health clinicians. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, codes generated and thematic analysis undertaken aided by NVivo. The majority of participants felt it was beneficial to receive a diagnosis despite acknowledging the distress this information sometimes caused, with many reporting this knowledge gave a sense of relief. It helped to understand their experiences and behaviours, improved their trust in the psychiatric system and increased treatment adherence. However, many reported difficulty in obtaining information about their condition, its treatment and prognosis, and expressed dissatisfaction with the way a diagnosis of schizophrenia was communicated. Insight into the perceptions and experiences of patients with schizophrenia about how a diagnosis of schizophrenia is communicated is a key outcome of this research. This knowledge will inform the development of future training programmes for mental health clinicians, and influence the clinical practice of health professionals treating patients with schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The denial of aggression in violent patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowski, Menahem I; Czobor, Pal

    2012-11-01

    There is no literature investigating denial of aggression in schizophrenia. Our goal was to study this phenomenon and to determine what deficits are associated with it. 102 inpatients with schizophrenia were divided into three groups: (1) patients with a documented history of violent crime who denied it on extensive interviews ("deniers"); (2) those with such a history who admitted to it; and (3) those without violent crime. Patients were administered a psychometrically validated self-report scale of aggression, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. They were followed for twelve weeks during which all violent incidents were recorded. The deniers were significantly more impaired in executive function, but not in any other cognitive domain. They did not evidence more severe psychotic symptoms or greater lack of insight in their psychosis, but this lack of insight was strongly related to hostility and suspiciousness. Their denial of aggression was also evidenced in a significantly lower self-reported BPAQ aggression score. In the patients who admitted to violent crimes, baseline BPAQ aggression score predicted subsequent aggression; in the deniers, it was negatively related to subsequent aggression. Denial of aggression is associated with executive dysfunction which facilitates a misappraisal of the surrounding world as threatening and hostile. For those who admit to crimes, self-reported aggression predicts future aggression. In contrast, in the deniers, the extent of denial is related to future aggression. The denial itself is a marker of greater aggressive tendencies. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Clonidine Normalizes Sensorimotor Gating Deficits in Patients With Schizophrenia on Stable Medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oranje, Bob; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2013-01-01

    Background : Cognitive deficits form core features in schizophrenia. Several studies have shown improvements in prefrontal cognitive function by α ( 2 ) -agonists in schizophrenia. In the present study, it was investigated whether clonidine (an α ( 2 ) -adrenoceptor agonist) could normalize...... sensorimotor gating deficits in schizophrenia. Methods : In a double blind, placebo controlled, randomized, yet balanced, cross-over experiment, 20 male schizophrenia patients on stable medication were assessed in an auditory prepulse inhibition (PPI), sensitization, and habituation of the startle reflex...... increased sensitization or influenced habituation. Conclusions : This is the first study to show that even a single low dose of clonidine added to the medical treatment of patients with schizophrenia who are clinically stable on their antipsychotic medication not only significantly ameliorates their PPI...

  16. An association between autumn birth and clozapine treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Foldager, Leslie; Røge, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    in patients with schizophrenia with a history of clozapine treatment. METHOD: Using record linkage with Danish registers, we examined patients with schizophrenia born between 1950 and 1970, and between 1995 and 2009 and Cox regression analysis was used to examine season of birth in relation to history......BACKGROUND: Numerous studies on seasonality of birth and schizophrenia risk have been published but it is uncertain whether, among those with schizophrenia, refractory illness exhibits any predilection for birth month. We hypothesized and examined whether a season of birth effect was present...... of clozapine treatment. RESULTS: In a study population corresponding to 60,062 person-years from 5328 individuals with schizophrenia of which 1223 (23%) received at least one clozapine prescription, birth in the autumn (September-November) was associated with clozapine treatment (HR = 1.24; 95% CI 1...

  17. Suicide attempt, clinical correlates, and BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in chronic patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haisen; Zhang, Guangya; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Dai, Jing; He, Man-Xi; Soares, Jair C; Li, Xiaosi; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recent evidence suggests the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. Because schizophrenia patients usually have high suicide rates and numerous studies have suggested that BDNF may contribute to the psychopathology of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that the functional polymorphism of BDNF (Val66Met) was associated with suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia in a Chinese Han population. This polymorphism was genotyped in 825 chronic schizophrenia patients with (n = 123) and without (n = 702) suicide attempts and 445 healthy controls without a history of suicide attempts using a case-control design. The schizophrenia symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. There were no significant differences in BDNF Val66Met genotype and allele distributions between the patients and healthy controls. However, we found the Val allele (p = .023) and the Val/Val genotypes (p = .058) to be associated with a history of suicide attempts. Moreover, some clinical characteristics, including age and cigarettes smoked each day, interacted with the BDNF gene variant and appeared to play an important role in suicide attempts among schizophrenia patients. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism itself and its interaction with some clinical variables may influence suicide attempts among schizophrenia patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Multisensory stimuli elicit altered oscillatory brain responses at gamma frequencies in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Stone

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in auditory and visual unisensory responses are well documented in patients with schizophrenia; however, potential abnormalities elicited from multisensory audio-visual stimuli are less understood. Further, schizophrenia patients have shown abnormal patterns in task-related and task-independent oscillatory brain activity, particularly in the gamma frequency band. We examined oscillatory responses to basic unisensory and multisensory stimuli in schizophrenia patients (N = 46 and healthy controls (N = 57 using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Time-frequency decomposition was performed to determine regions of significant changes in gamma band power by group in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli relative to baseline levels. Results showed significant behavioral differences between groups in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. In addition, time-frequency analysis revealed significant decreases and increases in gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls, which emerged both early and late over both sensory and frontal regions in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Unisensory gamma-band power predicted multisensory gamma-band power differently by group. Furthermore, gamma-band power in these regions predicted performance in select measures of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS test battery differently by group. These results reveal a unique pattern of task-related gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to controls that may indicate reduced inhibition in combination with impaired oscillatory mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Association of Toxoplasma gondii infection with schizophrenia and its relationship with suicide attempts in these patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Lari, Maryam; Farashbandi, Hassan; Mohammadi, Fahimeh

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between schizophrenia and Toxoplasma gondii, and to assess the association of infection with suicide attempts and age of onset of schizophrenia in these patients. Case-control study Fars Province, southern Iran. Cases were individuals with psychiatric diagnosis of schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. Controls were healthy blood donors, frequency-matched with patients according to age and sex. For the detection of IgG antibodies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. Data about demographic information in all subjects and duration of illness and history of suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia were collected using a brief questionnaire and hospital records. Chi-square test and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Among 99 cases, 42 individuals (42%) were positive for T. gondii antibody, vs. 41 (27%) among 152 controls (OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.4, P = 0.012). We compared the suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia based on their T. gondii serologic status. There was a lower rate of suicide attempts in seropositive male patients than seronegative ones (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.97, P = 0.04). Age of onset of schizophrenia did not differ between T. gondii-infected and non-infected patients. These findings may have implications for schizophrenia and suicide prevention programmes. However, clearly further studies are required to confirm them. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Schizophrenia patients differentiation based on MR vascular perfusion and volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, A. B.; Joskowicz, L.; Moshel, S.; Israeli, D.

    2015-03-01

    Candecomp/Parafac Decomposition (CPD) has emerged as a framework for modeling N-way arrays (higher-order matrices). CPD is naturally well suited for the analysis of data sets comprised of observations of a function of multiple discrete indices. In this study we evaluate the prospects of using CPD for modeling MRI brain properties (i.e. brain volume and gray-level) for schizophrenia diagnosis. Taking into account that 3D imaging data consists of millions of pixels per patient, the diagnosis of a schizophrenia patient based on pixel analysis constitutes a methodological challenge (e.g. multiple comparison problem). We show that the CPD could potentially be used as a dimensionality redaction method and as a discriminator between schizophrenia patients and match control, using the gradient of pre- and post Gd-T1-weighted MRI data, which is strongly correlated with cerebral blood perfusion. Our approach was tested on 68 MRI scans: 40 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 28 matched controls. The CPD subject's scores exhibit statistically significant result (P schizophrenia with MRI, the results suggest that the CPD could potentially be used to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and matched control. In addition, the CPD model suggests for brain regions that might exhibit abnormalities in schizophrenia patients for future research.

  1. Attitudes and beliefs about mental illness among relatives of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajak Manguak Agau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a mental disease with inability to differentiate real from unreal. In many African cultures a traditional view on mental disease results in stigma, negative attitudes, and ignorance of the patient and their symptoms. Objective: To explore the different attitudes and beliefs amongst relatives of patients having schizophrenia. Method: Cross-sectional survey among relatives of patients with schizophrenia treated at Butabika Mental Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Results: A total of 44 were included. 30% believed schizophrenia to be a brain disease, 32% thought the cause was supernatural. The majority (80% thought that schizophrenia can be treated and preferably in hospitals (91%; 66% felt the best way to reduce schizophrenia was to pray to God, and many stated that being with the patients (73% or letting them be part of the community (80% was good ways of helping the patients. Conclusion: Beliefs about supernatural causes of schizophrenia and stigmatizing are still present in Uganda. However among participants many had positive attitude towards letting the patients be part of community. Education of the communities could be a way of improving the awareness of mental disorders and the role that the community play in recovery from mental illness.

  2. The efficacy and safety of treating hepatitis C in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, M Z; Schofield, J; Mills, P R; Priest, M; Fox, R; Datta, S; Morris, J; Forrest, E H; Gillespie, R; Stanley, A J; Barclay, S T

    2014-07-01

    Treating chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon alpha may induce or exacerbate psychiatric illness including depression, mania and aggressive behaviour. There is limited data regarding treatment in the context of chronic schizophrenia. We sought to establish the safety and efficacy of treating patients with schizophrenia. Patient and treatment data, prospectively collected on the Scottish hepatitis C database, were analysed according to the presence or absence of a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Time from referral to treatment, and the proportion of patients commencing treatment in each group, was calculated. Outcomes including sustained viral response rates, reasons for treatment termination and adverse events were compared. Of 5497 patients, 64 (1.2%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia (PWS) were as likely to receive treatment as those without [28/61(46%) vs 1639/4415 (37%) P = 0.19]. Sustained viral response (SVR) rates were higher in PWS [21/25 (84%) vs 788/1453 (54%) P schizophrenia are good candidates for hepatitis C treatment, with equivalent SVR and treatment discontinuation rates to patients without schizophrenia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [The structure of aggression of the patients with paranoid schizophrenia and compensatory behavioral trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchuk, I V; Khudyakova, Yu Yu

    To study the structure of aggression of the patients with paranoid schizophrenia depending on sex and illness duration. 102 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 101 healthy people, aged from 18 to 64 years, were examined. Quantitative indicators of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components of aggression were measured using the Buss-Perry questionnaire. The projective Hand-test was administered to assess aggressive behavioral tendencies and inclinations to aggressive behavior. The authors identified the dissociated structure of aggressiveness in patients with paranoid schizophrenia that manifested with dissociated cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. The specifics of the structure of aggression and compensatory behavioral trends are described.

  4. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Nørgaard, Hans Christian Brix

    2014-01-01

    in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness......, strength, and weight. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions. RESULTS: We identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia (n = 94) and found little...... on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression, exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting, little...

  5. Homelessness among patients with schizophrenia in rural China: a 10-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, M S; Chan, C L W; Chen, E Y H; Xiang, M Z; Caine, E D; Conwell, Y

    2006-08-01

    To explore the frequency and risk factors of homelessness among a previously identified cohort of patients with schizophrenia in rural China. A 10-year follow-up investigation among a 1994 cohort (n = 510) of patients with schizophrenia was conducted in Xinjin County, Chengdu, China. Thirty-nine patients (7.8%) experienced homelessness during the follow-up period. The rate of homelessness was 0.9 per 100 person-years during the 10-year follow-up period. Four significant predictors of homelessness remained in the final logistic regression model: living in shabby or unstable house or shelter, positive family history of mental disorders, without income of the patient, and unmarried, divorced, or separated. Risk of homelessness increased substantially with exposure to multiple risk factors. Substantial numbers of homeless patients with schizophrenia are challenges for mental health care and public health. Appropriate community-based services, especially housing services, should be crucial for prevention of homelessness in patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Sporadic Colorectal Cancer and Primary Cancers of Other Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yu Kan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer patients often neglect the possibility of secondary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third leading cause of cancer death in Taiwan. It is important to be aware of the clinical characteristics of double cancer in CRC patients for early diagnosis and treatment. We retrospectively analyzed 1,031 CRC patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Department of Surgery of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between January 1998 and December 2004. Among these patients, CRC was accompanied by cancer of other organs in 17 patients (1.65%, either synchronously or metachronously. Therefore, we describe our experience regarding the location of CRC, the clinical symptoms and signs of these patients, the TNM stage, histology, phase, association with other malignancies, interval between cancers and clinical outcomes. Of the 17 patients in whom CRC was accompanied by primary cancer of other organs, there were four synchronous and 13 metachronous multiple cancer patients. Our patient group comprised six men and 11 women with ages ranging from 47 to 88 years (median age, 66 years. The most common location of CRC was the sigmoid colon. Six gastric cancers (35.2% and six breast cancers (35.2% were associated with primary CRC. The remaining six second primary cancers were one lung cancer, one thyroid cancer, one cervical cancer, one ovarian cancer, one skin cancer, and one urinary bladder cancer. Of the 13 metachronous multiple cancer patients, eight patients developed subsequent CRC after primary cancers of other organs, whereas two patients developed a subsequent second primary cancer after CRC. The intervals between the development of metachronous multiple cancers ranged from 2 to 19 years. In this retrospective analysis, breast and gastric cancer patients were at increased risk of developing subsequent secondary CRC. Careful attention should always be paid to the possibility of secondary CRC in treating these cancer patients. Cancer

  7. Telehealth Monitoring of Patients with Schizophrenia and Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasckow, John; Gao, Shasha; Hanusa, Barbara; Rotondi, Armando; Chinman, Matthew; Zickmund, Susan; Gurklis, John; Fox, Lauren; Cornelius, Jack; Richmond, Ira; Haas, Gretchen L

    2015-02-17

    A telehealth system was developed to monitor risk following hospitalization for suicidal ideation. We hypothesized that 3 months of telehealth monitoring will result in a greater reduction in suicidal ideation. Veterans with schizophrenia admitted with recent suicidal ideation and/or a suicidal attempt were recruited into a discharge program of VA Usual Care with daily Health Buddy© monitoring (HB) or Usual Care (UC) alone. Fifteen of 25 were randomized to HB and 10 received UC. Daily adherence in the use of the HB system during months 1-3 was, respectively, 86.9%, 86.3%, and 84.1%. There were significant improvements in Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation scores in HB participants. There were no changes in depressive symptoms. Telehealth monitoring for this population of patients appears to be feasible. © Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Agraphia of Kanji (Chinese characters): an early symptom of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a Japanese patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiko; Sakai, Kenji; Samuraki, Miharu; Nozaki, Ichiro; Notoya, Masako; Yamada, Masahito

    2014-08-06

    Slowly progressive cognitive decline is the most frequent initial manifestation in MM2-cortical-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Agraphia has never been noted in patients with this type of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, however, we report the case of a Japanese patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in whom agraphia of Kanji was an initial cardinal symptom. A 59-year-old right-handed Japanese woman complained of agraphia of Kanji (Chinese characters) as an initial symptom. A neurological examination revealed mild word-finding difficulty, constructive disturbance, hyperreflexia in her jaw and lower limbs, and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes. An examination of her cerebrospinal fluid revealed increased levels of 14-3-3 and total tau proteins, and abnormal conformation of the proteinase K-resistant prion protein. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in bilateral cerebral cortices. Single-photon emission computed tomography scans revealed hypoperfusion in the left temporal lobe, bilateral parietal and occipital lobes. An analysis of the prion protein gene demonstrated no mutation with homozygous for methionine at the codon 129. We diagnosed our patient with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Although a histological examination was not performed, it was assumed that our patient could be the MM2-cortical type according to the clinical findings and the elevated levels of 14-3-3 protein in her cerebrospinal fluid. The left posterior inferior temporal area, which was affected in our patient as a hypoperfusion area, is associated with selecting and recalling Kanji characters. Focal signs as an early symptom and hypoperfusion areas in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are critical to recognize initial brain lesions damaged by the proteinase K-resistant prion protein accumulation.

  9. Inflammation and elevation of interleukin-12p40 in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora eBedrossian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness with chronic symptoms and significant impairment in psychosocial functioning, which suggests that it likely has neurodegenerative characteristics. Inflammatory markers such as pro-inflammatory cytokines are well-known etiological contributors for psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Although the role of inflammation in schizophrenia is becoming evident, the number of studies in this area is relatively scarce, especially in Lebanon, and increased procedural thoroughness is needed. Cytokines play a key role in the activation of the immune system and strongly influence neurotransmission. Previous investigation of plasma levels showed dysregulation of interleukin (IL-12. However, genotypical variations of this interleukin have not been investigated for patients with schizophrenia yet. Thus, in this paper, we aimed to compute and assess IL-12p40 levels in the sera of individuals with schizophrenia from different provinces in Lebanon and compare it to controls. Healthy subjects comprised 60 individuals with a male/female (M/F ratio of 31/29, whereas patients with schizophrenia consisted of 63 subjects with an M/F ratio of 30/33. The mean age for healthy controls was 30 years, whereas that for patients with schizophrenia was 35 years. A standardized ELISA technique was used to measure the concentration of IL-12p40 in all collected sera (n=123. The mean IL-12p40 levels in patients with schizophrenia were significantly higher than in healthy controls (p=0.002. Healthy females had a significantly higher concentration of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p=0.009. Female patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than their male counterparts (p<0.001, healthy females (p=0.018 and healthy males (p<0.001, respectively. Male patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher concentrations of IL-12p40 than healthy males (p=0.023. The study’s results suggest that IL-12p40

  10. Cortical gray and white matter volume in unmedicated schizotypal and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett, Erin A; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Newmark, Randall; Goldstein, Kim E; Zelmanova, Yuliya; Glanton, Cathryn F; Torosjan, Yuliya; New, Antonia S; Lo, Jennifer N; Mitropoulou, Vivian; Siever, Larry J

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed fronto-temporal cortical gray matter volume reductions in schizophrenia. However, to date studies have not examined whether age- and sex-matched unmedicated schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) patients share some or all of the structural brain-imaging characteristics of schizophrenia patients. We examined cortical gray/white matter volumes in a large sample of unmedicated schizophrenia-spectrum patients (n=79 SPD, n=57 schizophrenia) and 148 healthy controls. MRI images were reoriented to standard position parallel to the anterior-posterior commissure line, segmented into gray and white matter tissue types, and assigned to Brodmann areas (BAs) using a postmortem-histological atlas. Group differences in regional volume of gray and white matter in the BAs were examined with MANOVA. Schizophrenia patients had significantly reduced gray matter volume widely across the cortex but more marked in frontal and temporal lobes. SPD patients had reductions in the same regions but only about half that observed in schizophrenia and sparing in key regions including BA10. In schizophrenia, greater fronto-temporal volume loss was associated with greater negative symptom severity and in SPD, greater interpersonal and cognitive impairment. Overall, our findings suggest that increased prefrontal volume in BA10 and sparing of volume loss in temporal cortex (BAs 22 and 20) may be a protective factor in SPD which reduces vulnerability to psychosis.

  11. Medications Used for Cognitive Enhancement in Patients With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer's Disease, and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, which frequently occurs in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, has a significant impact on the daily lives of both patients and their family. Furthermore, since the medications used for cognitive enhancement have limited efficacy, the issue of cognitive enhancement still remains a clinically unsolved challenge. We reviewed the clinical studies (published between 2007 and 2017) that focused on the efficacy of medications used for enhancing cognition in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the standard treatments for Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Some studies have reported selective cognitive improvement in patients with schizophrenia following galantamine treatment. Newer antipsychotics, including paliperidone, lurasidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and BL-1020, have also been reported to exert cognitive benefits in patients with schizophrenia. Dopaminergic medications were found to improve language function in patients with Parkinson's disease. However, no beneficial effects on cognitive function were observed with dopamine agonists in patients with schizophrenia. The efficacies of nicotine and its receptor modulators in cognitive improvement remain controversial, with the majority of studies showing that varenicline significantly improved the cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. Several studies have reported that N -methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) enhancers improved the cognitive function in patients with chronic schizophrenia. NMDAR enhancers might also have cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on attention, processing speed, and memory in female patients with schizophrenia. Clinical trials with

  12. Reducing Restraint With Clozapine in Involuntarily Admitted Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifteni, Petru; Szalontay, Andreea S; Teodorescu, Andreea

    In the entire world, restraint and seclusion are common interventions in psychiatric inpatient settings because of aggressive behavior. Our objective was to test for the immediate antiaggressive property of clozapine compared with other antipsychotic treatments in an enriched cohort with high rates of restraint during early hospitalization. We present a retrospective chart review in all involuntary admissions with schizophrenia during 2011-2014 in Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital, Brasov, Romania. Timing and number of restraints in addition to clinical, demographic, and treatment characteristics were extracted. Based on our earlier observation of clinical efficacy of early, fast titration of clozapine, we tested the hypothesis that clozapine treatment was associated with reduced use of restraint and with longer restraint-free periods. In 115 consecutive patients with schizophrenia (age = 39.7 ± 11.1 years; male = 59%) involuntarily admitted because of externalized (74.7%) or self-directed violence (25.2%), restraint was used in 89.6%; with a median duration of 3 hours until restraint past admission. Antipsychotics used immediately after hospitalization included haloperidol (70.4%), clozapine (11.3%), olanzapine (10.4%), and other second-generation antipsychotics (7.9%). Comparison of restraint characteristics favored immediate clozapine use with highly reduced rates of restraint (23% vs. 95.6%; P < 0.001) and significantly extended hours until restraint [(118, 24, 426 hours) vs. (3, 0.25, 48 hours); median; 25th, 75th percentile; P < 0.001] relative to the remaining cohort. These effects remained highly significant after controlling for potential moderators of restraint use in multivariate models. These retrospective data suggest an early antiaggressive effect of clozapine during the immediate use of clozapine in highly problematic patients.

  13. Processes of In-Hospital Psychiatric Care and Subsequent Criminal Behaviour Among Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Olrik Wallenstein Jensen, Signe; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: It is unknown whether evidence-based, in-hospital processes of care may influence the risk of criminal behaviour among patients with schizophrenia. Our study aimed to examine the association between guideline recommended in-hospital psychiatric care and criminal behaviour among patients...... with schizophrenia. Methods: Danish patients with schizophrenia (18 years or older) discharged from a psychiatric ward between January 2004 and March 2009 were identified using a national population-based schizophrenia registry (n = 10 757). Data for in-hospital care and patient characteristics were linked with data...... on criminal charges obtained from the Danish Crime Registry until November 2010. Results: Twenty per cent (n = 2175) of patients were charged with a crime during follow-up (median = 428 days). Violent crimes accounted for 59% (n = 1282) of the criminal offences. The lowest risk of crime was found among...

  14. Cognitive performance of long-term institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paim Diaz

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive impairment is inherent to the ageing process. Several studies suggest that patients with late-life schizophrenia have more marked cognitive impairment. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive performance of elderly institutionalized patients with schizophrenia and institutionalized elderly control patients without neurological or psychiatric diseases, matched for age, educational level and institutionalization time. Methods: The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly (CAMCOG was used to test 10 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. Results were compared with those of 10 institutionalized control patients with history of Hansen's disease. Results: Patients with schizophrenia showed a worse performance in terms of total CAMCOG score and on its subtests of orientation, language, abstraction, and memory (p≤0.05. Patients with schizophrenia also disclosed a non-significant trend toward lower scores on the MMSE and on calculus. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated that schizophrenia was associated to worse cognitive impairment in long-term institutionalized elderly patients compared with institutionalized patients without neurological or psychiatric diseases.

  15. The Clinical Stages of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease with Met/Met Genotype in Korean Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Wang, Min Jeong; Jang, Jae-Won; Park, Young Ho; Lim, Jae-Sung; Youn, Young Chul; Kim, Jungeun; Kim, SangYun

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is currently based on changes occurring in the late disease stages, which limits early-stage detection. Therefore, we investigated the disease course from the vague symptomatic to the terminal phase. We retrospectively reviewed 36 sCJD patient records, classifying the disease progression into 4 stages based on clinical manifestations: vague symptomatic, possible CJD, probable CJD and chronic vegetative state. We analyzed findings from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), electroencephalography (EEG) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 14-3-3 protein testing performed at each stage. In stage 1, the most distinctive feature was DWI hyperintensities in the neocortex, even with negative CSF 14-3-3 protein and EEG results. In stage 2, DWI hyperintensities in the limbic cortex were more remarkable. CSF 14-3-3 protein testing yielded positive results in >80% of patients; EEG showed sensitivity in disease stage-dependent differences in clinical symptoms and laboratory test results will facilitate early and accurate diagnosis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Perioperative considerations for performing a brain biopsy on a patient with subtype VV2 sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Domínguez, R; Rubio-Romero, R; González-González, G; Jiménez, I

    2015-04-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most common transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. It is an infectious, progressive, degenerative neurological disorder, with a presumably long incubation period, but a rapid fatal course. CJD is transmitted by a proteinaceous infectious agent, or «prion». Because the prions are difficult to eradicate and are resistant to the currently used sterilization methods, special precautions must be taken with all surgical instruments. It is recommended the single-use equipment, destruction of contaminated equipment, decontamination of reusable instruments, use of protective clothing, and storing and quarantining surgical instruments. The single-use equipment and some tissues and body fluids from the patient with CJD are highly infectious and must be incinerated. We report a case of a patient who had undergone brain biopsy for suspected of CJD, being confirmed to have sporadic CJD. Specific preventive measures were taken to reduce the risk of transmission to healthcare workers. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Inverted formin 2 mutations with variable expression in patients with sporadic and hereditary focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gbadegesin, Rasheed A

    2012-01-01

    Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a major cause of end-stage kidney disease. Recent advances in molecular genetics show that defects in the podocyte play a major role in its pathogenesis and mutations in inverted formin 2 (INF2) cause autosomal dominant FSGS. In order to delineate the role of INF2 mutations in familial and sporadic FSGS, we sought to identify variants in a large cohort of patients with FSGS. A secondary objective was to define an approach for genetic screening in families with autosomal dominant disease. A total of 248 individuals were identified with FSGS, of whom 31 had idiopathic disease. The remaining patients clustered into 64 families encompassing 15 from autosomal recessive and 49 from autosomal dominant kindreds. There were missense mutations in 8 of the 49 families with autosomal dominant disease. Three of the detected variants were novel and all mutations were confined to exon 4 of INF2, a regulatory region responsible for 90% of all changes reported in FSGS due to INF2 mutations. Thus, in our series, INF2 mutations were responsible for 16% of all cases of autosomal dominant FSGS, with these mutations clustered in exon 4. Hence, screening for these mutations may represent a rapid, non-invasive and cost-effective method for the diagnosis of autosomal dominant FSGS.

  18. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Riahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder.

  19. Does Contrast-Enhanced Cervical Ultrasonography Improve Preoperative Localization Results in Patients With Sporadic Primary Hyperparathyroidism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Karakas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pre-operative localization studies are inevitable in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT, who are eligible for focused or minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP. High-resolution ultrasonography (US in combination with planar 99m Tc-Sestamibi-scintigraphy (MIBI and additional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT are the standard procedures to localize enlarged parathyroid glands. Our aim was to evaluate the practicability and significance of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS in patients with pHPT. Materials and Methods: All investigations were performed at the University Hospital Marburg. Totally, 25 patients with biochemical proven pHPT underwent preoperative US, MIBI/SPECT, and CEUS. For CEUS, a suspension of phospholipid-stabilized sulfur-hexafluoride (SF6 microbubbles in combination with a special 12 MHz linear US probe was used. All patients were investigated by two sonographers, who did not get to view the findings noted by the other. Finally, surgery was performed and histopathological results were obtained from 24 patients. Results: In 17 (68% patients, US and MIBI/SPECT already raised suspicion of parathyroid lesions and all suspected lesions were reassessed by CEUS. However, no additional information was obtained using CEUS. Especially in eight patients with negative or inconsistent US and MIBI/SPECT results, CEUS did not provide additional information regarding the site of the suspected parathyroid adenoma. Overall, no side effects were observed using CEUS. Surgical cure was achieved in all patients. Conclusion: In this limited cohort of patients, no additional information could be obtained using the costly CEUS compared to results of US and MIBI/SPECT.

  20. Anti-phospholipid syndrome associated with schizophrenia description of five patients and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, Pikman; Pnina, Rotman; Natur, Aiman; Yair, Levy

    2017-04-01

    Anti-phospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by anti-phospholipid antibodies, arterial and venous thrombosis, pregnancy morbidity, and various neurological manifestations including psychiatric disorders. Higher incidence of various autoimmune disorders was found in schizophrenia. In addition, an association between the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies and schizophrenia or psychosis was previously described, mainly as case reports. Although initially believed to be a result of neuroleptic treatment, the reasons for this association remain obscure. Several theories on the etiologic basis of schizophrenia that may explain this association were proposed including an immune basis of schizophrenia and a genetic locus of the disease in the human leukocyte antigens area. Herein, we present a series of five patients diagnosed with both schizophrenia and anti-phospholipid syndrome and their characteristics along with a comprehensive review of the current available literature on the subject in an attempt to deepen our understanding of these disorders and their pathogenesis.

  1. Sporadic occurrence of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative patients: Uncommon etiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shukla; Datt, Shyama; Roy, Priyamvada; Saha, Rumpa; Xess, Immaculata

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcosis in HIV-seronegative patients is rarely reported from India. This prospective study was conducted to look for cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seronegative individuals and compare their laboratory features to cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-seropositive patients. Cerebrospinal fluid was collected from 153 suspected cases of meningitis and subjected to India ink preparation, antigen detection, and culture. Nineteen samples tested positive for Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Seventeen and two patients were HIV reactive and nonreactive, respectively. In vitro susceptibility of C. neoformans isolates to fluconazole and amphotericin B was performed using standard broth microdilution method and E-test. Eighteen strains were susceptible to amphotericin B, while fluconazole was reported susceptible in 15 strains. Hence, index of suspicion of C. neoformans infection as possible cause of meningitis must be maintained even in HIV-negative patients. Use of amphotericin B for treating C. neoformans meningitis should be restricted to prevent any increase in resistance.

  2. Paliperidone Palmitate Improves and Maintains Functioning in Asia-Pacific Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Zhuo, Jianmin; Mathews, Maju; Tan, Wilson; Feng, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Post hoc analyses (two single-arm studies) were conducted to determine the impact of once-monthly injection of paliperidone palmitate on functioning in adult patients with schizophrenia in the Asia-Pacific region. Study 1 enrolled hospitalized patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, and study 2 enrolled patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia unsatisfactorily treated with oral antipsychotics. Patients received paliperidone palmitate, 150 mg eq. on day 1, 100 mg eq. on day 8, then once monthly (50-150 mg eq.) (study 1, days 36 and 64; study 2, 18 months). Functional status was evaluated by Personal and Social Performance score in both studies and employment only in study 2. In study 1, 54 of 184 patients (29.4%) with an unfavorable level of functioning at the baseline improved to a favorable level (Personal and Social Performance score greater than 70) at day 92. This improvement was significantly greater among patients with recently diagnosed schizophrenia (5 years or less) compared with patients with chronic schizophrenia (more than 5 years): 40% versus 22% (p paliperidone palmitate injection, and was sustained to 18 months in Asia-Pacific patients with schizophrenia. Janssen-Cilag Asia-Pacific Medical Affairs.

  3. Increased Frontal Gyrification Negatively Correlates with Executive Function in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasabayashi, Daiki; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishiyama, Shimako; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-04-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of gyrification, a possible marker of early neurodevelopment, in schizophrenia patients have reported inconsistent results. In addition, it remains unclear whether aberrant gyrification in schizophrenia patients, if present, is associated with cognitive impairment, which is one of the core features of schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance images were obtained from 62 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 57 healthy control subjects. Using FreeSurfer software, local gyrification index (LGI) of the entire cortex was compared between the groups. The relationship between LGI and performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) was also examined in a subgroup of patients (n= 28). Compared with the controls, the patients showed a significantly higher LGI in a wide range of bilateral frontal regions as well as in the right inferior parietal and bilateral occipital regions. The number of WCST categories archived in patients was negatively correlated with the LGI mainly in the rostral middle frontal and anterior cingulate regions in the right hemisphere. Our findings suggested a widespread hypergyrification pattern in schizophrenia patients, which supported early neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Our results also suggested that executive dysfunction in schizophrenia patients may be at least partly related to aberrant neurodevelopment, especially in the right frontal regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Neural correlates of planning performance in patients with schizophrenia--relationship with apathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemburg, Edith J; Dlabac-De Lange, Jozarni J L A S; Bais, Leonie; Knegtering, Henderikus; van Osch, Matthias J P; Renken, Remco J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often suffer from apathy: a quantitative reduction of voluntary, goal-directed behaviors that impairs daily functioning. We hypothesized that schizophrenia patients with high levels of apathy would show decreased activation in brain regions involved in planning and goal-directed behavior. Patients with schizophrenia or psychotic spectrum disorder (n=47) and healthy controls (n=20) performed the Tower of London (ToL) task during fMRI scanning using arterial spin labeling. To investigate the relationship between apathy and planning in patients, a proxy measure of apathy based on the Positive and Negative syndrome Scale was regressed against the task-related brain activation. Brain activation was also compared between patients and healthy controls. Higher levels of apathy were associated with less task-related activation within the inferior parietal lobule precuneus and thalamus. Compared to controls, patients showed lower activation in lateral prefrontal regions, parietal and motor areas, and a higher activation of medial frontal areas. Apathy was related to abnormal activation in thalamus and parietal regions during the ToL task. This supports the hypothesis that impaired function of brain regions involved in planning and goal-directed behavior may underlie apathy in schizophrenia. Moreover, impaired lateral prefrontal activation in schizophrenia patients compared to controls is consistent with the hypofrontality model of schizophrenia. In contrast, stronger medial frontal activation in patients may be related to increased effort to perform a task with conflicting task solutions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Decoding emotion of the other differs among schizophrenia patients and schizoaffective patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagar Tadmor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures. Our results show that overall, individuals with schizophrenia performed worse in the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (eyes test, a simple well-defined task to infer the mental state of others than healthy individuals. Within the schizophrenia group, schizoaffective scored significantly higher than FE-SZ, SZ-CR, and healthy individuals. No difference was observed in performance between FE-SZ and SZ-CR subjects. Interestingly, FE-SZ and SZ-CR, but not schizoaffective individuals, performed worse in decoding negative and neutral emotional valance than the healthy control group. At the genetic level, we observed a significant effect of the DAT genotype, but not D4R genotype, on the eyes test performance. Our data suggest that understanding the mental state of another person is a trait marker of the illness, and might serve as an intermediate phenotype in the diagnostic process of schizophrenia disorders, and raise the possibility that DA-related DAT gene might have a role in decoding the mental state of another person.

  6. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in a patient with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kawasaki, Kenta; Miyaji, Kotaro; Kodera, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Kanda, Junji; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message People with schizophrenia are at greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than the general population. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a recognized cause of sudden cardiac death in young people. This report discusses the necessity for close cardiac evaluation to reduce incidence of sudden death in people with schizophrenia.

  7. Marital adjustment of patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital S Muke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marital adjustment is considered as a part of social well-being. Disturbed marital relationship can directly affect the disease adjustment and the way they face disease outcomes and complications. It may adversely affect physical health, mental health, the quality-of-life and even economic status of individuals. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of each 30 patients with substance dependence, bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia, diagnosed as per international classification of diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research with a minimum duration of illness of 1 year were evaluated using marital adjustment questionnaire. The data was analyzed using parametric and non-parametric statistics. Results: Prevalence of poor marital adjustment in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder and substance dependence was 60%, 70% and 50% respectively. There was a significant difference on overall marital adjustment among substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder patients. There was no significant difference on overall marital adjustment among patients with substance dependence and schizophrenia as well as among patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. On marital adjustment domains, schizophrenia patients had significantly poor sexual adjustment than substance dependence patients while bipolar affective disorder patients had significantly poor sexual and social adjustment compared with substance dependence patients. Conclusion: Patients with substance dependence have significant better overall marital adjustment compared with bipolar affective disorder patients. Patients with substance dependence have significantly better social and sexual adjustment than patients with bipolar affective disorder as well as significantly better sexual

  8. Sleep disorders in patients with depression or schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial using acupuncture treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Staudte, H.; Lim, S.; Yeo, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this preliminary clinical trial was to investigate whether acupuncture has a positive influence on sleep and symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia or depression. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was used. One hundred participants were recruited: 40

  9. Left globus pallidus abnormality in never-medicated patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early, T.S.; Reiman, E.M.; Raichle, M.E.; Spitznagel, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by onset in young adulthood, the occurrence of hallucinations and delusions, and the development of enduring psychosocial disability. The pathophysiology of this disorder remains unknown. Studies of cerebral blood flow and metabolism designed to identify brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been limited by inadequate methods of anatomical localization and the possibility of persistent medication effects. The authors have now used positron emission tomography and a validated method of anatomical localization in an attempt to identify abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow in newly diagnosed never-medicated patients with schizophrenia. An exploratory study of 5 patients and 10 normal control subjects identified abnormally high blood flow in the left globus pallidus of patients with schizophrenia. A replication study of 5 additional patients and 10 additional control subjects confirmed this finding. No other abnormalities were found

  10. NURSING STUDENTS’ BARRIERS IN CARING FOR SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENTS WITH VIOLENCE RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Erawati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a general consensus that schizophrenia patients have a greater risk to become violent. Caring for schizophrenia patients with risk of violence presents difficult clinical challenges, and it complicates the efforts of nursing student. Analysis of nursing student' barriers may lead to improve nursing management of risk of violence. Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the nursing student barriers in for caring schizophrenia patients with violence risk. Method: A total sample of 22 nursing students completed their experience through reflective diary during clinical placements. The qualitative data were explored by thematic content analysis method using NVivo. Results: Three themes were emerged from the data included: emotions, personal experience, and inadequate communication skills. Conclusion: These themes reflected the barrier of the nursing students when they applied nursing care toward schizophrenia patient with violence risk. Knowing the barriers is very important for successful violence risk management for nursing student.

  11. The predictive validity of subjective adherence measures in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Martijn J.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Dekker, Jack J. M.; Burti, Lorenzo; Robson, Debbie; Puschner, Bernd; Schene, Aart H.

    2011-01-01

    Despite frequent use of subjective adherence measures in patients with schizophrenia as well as other chronic conditions, there are several reports that question the validity of these instruments. Three well known, representative subjective measures are the Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ),

  12. Mitochondrial Bioenergetics Is Altered in Fibroblasts from Patients with Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María J.; Ponce, Daniela P.; Osorio-Fuentealba, Cesar; Behrens, Maria I.; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.

    2017-01-01

    The identification of an early biomarker to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a challenge. Neuropathological studies in animal and AD patients have shown that mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of the development of the disease. Current studies suggest the use of peripheral tissues, like skin fibroblasts as a possibility to detect the early pathological alterations present in the AD brain. In this context, we studied mitochondrial function properties (bioenergetics and morphology) in cultured fibroblasts obtained from AD, aged-match and young healthy patients. We observed that AD fibroblasts presented a significant reduction in mitochondrial length with important changes in the expression of proteins that control mitochondrial fusion. Moreover, AD fibroblasts showed a distinct alteration in proteolytic processing of OPA1, a master regulator of mitochondrial fusion, compared to control fibroblasts. Complementary to these changes AD fibroblasts showed a dysfunctional mitochondrial bioenergetics profile that differentiates these cells from aged-matched and young patient fibroblasts. Our findings suggest that the human skin fibroblasts obtained from AD patients could replicate mitochondrial impairment observed in the AD brain. These promising observations suggest that the analysis of mitochondrial bioenergetics could represent a promising strategy to develop new diagnostic methods in peripheral tissues of AD patients. PMID:29056898

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging study of corpus callosum abnormalities in patients with different subtypes of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Unlu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reductions in the size of the corpus callosum (CC have been described for schizophrenia patients, but little is known about the possible regional differences in schizophrenia subtypes (paranoid, disorganised, undifferentiated, residual.  Methods. We recruited 58 chronically schizophrenic patients with different subtypes, and 31 age-and-gender matched healthy controls. The callosum was extracted from a midsagittal slice from T1 weighted magnetic resonance images, and areas of the total CC, its five subregions, CC length and total brain volume were compared between schizophrenia subtypes and controls. Five subregions were approximately matched to fibre pathways from cortical regions.  Results. Schizophrenia patients had reduced CC total area and length when compared with controls. Disorganised and undifferentiated schizophrenics had a smaller prefrontal area, while there was no significant difference for the paranoid and residual groups. The premotor/supplementary motor area was smaller in all schizophrenia subtypes. The motor area was smaller only in the disorganised group. A smaller sensory area was found in all subtypes except the residual group. Parietal, temporal and occipital areas were smaller in the paranoid and undifferentiated groups. Total brain volume was smaller in all schizophrenia subtypes compared with controls, but did not reach statistical significance.  Conclusion. These findings suggest that the heterogeneity of symptoms may lead to the different CC morphological characteristics in schizophrenia subtypes.

  14. Failure to detect the 22q11.2 duplication syndrome rearrangement among patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallès Vicenç

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chromosome aberrations have long been studied in an effort to identify susceptibility genes for schizophrenia. Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion is associated with DiGeorge and Velocardiofacial syndromes (DG/VCF and provides the most convincing evidence of an association between molecular cytogenetic abnormality and schizophrenia. In addition, this region is one of the best replicated linkage findings for schizophrenia. Recently, the reciprocal microduplication on 22q11.2 has been reported as a new syndrome. Preliminary data indicates that individuals with these duplications also suffer from neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study we have investigated the appropriateness of testing schizophrenia patients for the 22q11.2 microduplication. We used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA to measure copy number changes on the 22q11.2 region in a sample of 190 patients with schizophrenia. Our results corroborate the prevalence of the 22q11.2 microdeletion in patients with schizophrenia and clinical features of DG/VCFS and do not suggest an association between 22q11.2 microduplication and schizophrenia.

  15. Intrinsic motivation and metacognition as predictors of learning potential in patients with remitted schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Cumhur; Brown, Elliot C; Esen-Danaci, Aysen; Lysaker, Paul H; Brüne, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that neurocognitive functioning predicts best the potential of patients with schizophrenia to acquire newly learned material, which, in turn may impact patients' social functioning. Recent studies have also shown that intrinsic motivation and metacognitive abilities play a decisive role in social functioning in schizophrenia. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the relationship between intelligence, motivation, metacognition, and learning during a cognitive remediation experimental training. We hypothesized that metacognition and intrinsic motivation would have a strong relationship and independently predict learning potential. Thirty-two patients with schizophrenia who fulfilled the criteria of functional remission were recruited. In a pre-training-post experimental design, patients' learning potential was assessed using previously defined cognitive remediation training for WCST. Intrinsic motivation was examined using Intrinsic Motivation Inventory for schizophrenia; mastery, a domain of metacognition, was measured using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale. Metacognition significantly correlated with subdomains of intrinsic motivation. Patients with higher intrinsic motivation and preserved metacognition improved more in the learning paradigm compared to poorly motivated patients and patients with reduced metacognitive abilities. In particular, "mastery" was determined as an independent predictor of learning potential. Motivation and metacognition are important predictors of learning in schizophrenia. Psychological interventions in schizophrenia may therefore consider incorporating techniques to stimulate metacognitive and motivational abilities as well as developing individualized training programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. "Theory of mind" and executive functioning in forensic patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorek, Karina; Wolfkühler, Wiebke; Küper, Christian; Saimeh, Nahlah; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies in forensic patients with schizophrenia have shown that delinquent patients may outperform nondelinquent patients with regards to "theory of mind" (ToM). Findings were, however, confounded by a lack of control for executive functioning. We examined 33 forensic patients with schizophrenia regarding ToM, intelligence, executive functioning, and psychopathology. Results were compared with a nonforensic schizophrenia sample and a group of healthy controls. Both patient groups performed more poorly on most measures compared with controls. Forensic and nonforensic patients did not differ in task performance. In the forensic group ToM correlated inversely with "excitement" and cognitive symptoms. When "excitement" was covaried out, forensic patients outperformed nonforensic patients with regards to ToM. This study supports the hypothesis that schizophrenic patients with a criminal record are equally impaired in their ability to infer mental states compared with nonforensic patients, but for different reasons associated with a divergent psychopathological profile.

  17. Psychosocial Factors Contributing to Suicidal Ideation in Hospitalized Schizophrenia Patients in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Su-Jung; Mun, Ji-Woong; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Seon-Young; Yang, Su-Jin; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate psychosocial risk factors associated with suicidality in patients with schizophrenia in Korea. Methods The study sample consisted of 84 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Suicidal thoughts and a clear desire to be dead within 2 weeks were defined as a current suicidal ideation. Socio-demographic and clinical variables, including family history of completed suicides and psychiatric illnesses, were collected, and the Positive and Neg...

  18. Association of gliadin antibodies, HLA alleles, and schizophrenia in Cuban population patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Galván

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several lines of evidence have suggested an interesting link between gluten ingestion and schizophrenia. For example, increased levels of gliadin and transglutaminase antibodies have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: To verify these observations we compared the prevalence of gliadin and transglutaminse antibodies, as well as the presence of the HLA alleles, HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*02 (DQ2 and HLA-DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (DQ8, among patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. A total of 108 patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy controls were evaluated. Gliadin antibodies were determined by a visual semiquantitative assay and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were determined both by one-step immunochromatografic assay and ELISA. HLA typing was performed by PCR amplification using sequence-specific primers for each allele. Results: We found a strong association between the presence of gliadin antibodies and schizophrenia (OR 3.488; 95% CI, 1.43-8.44. However, tissue transglutaminase antibodies were not detected in either group neither by immunochromatograpic or ELISA. No significant association was found for the DQ2 or DQ8 heterodimer and the disease, but a significant positive association between schizophrenia and HLA alleles DQA1*0301 and DQB1*02 was present (OR = 2.80; 95% CI, 1.27-6.17, and OR = 2.37, 95% CI, 1.24-4.53, respectively. Conclusions: The present study showed that the presence of gliadin antibodies was not correlated with the presence of HLA DQA1*0301 or DQB1*02 alleles within the group of patients with schizophrenia. Our study replicates the findings that anti-gliadin antibodies are associated with schizophrenia but also suggests that the presence of these antibodies and the HLA alleles DQB1*02 and DQA1*0301 are independently associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia.

  19. Germline LEMD3 mutations are rare in sporadic patients with isolated melorheostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellemans, Jan; Debeer, Philippe; Wright, Michael

    2006-01-01

    To further explore the allelic heterogeneity within the group of LEMD3-related disorders, we have screened a larger series of patients including 5 probands with osteopoikilosis or Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome (BOS), 2 families with the co-occurrence of melorheostosis and BOS, and 12 unrelated pati...

  20. Patterns of spontaneous magnetoencephalographic activity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmeier, Peter J; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2010-06-01

    Magnetoencephalography noninvasively measures the magnetic fields produced by the brain. Pertinent research articles from 1993 to 2009 that measured spontaneous, whole-head magnetoencephalography activity in patients with schizophrenia were reviewed. Data on localization of oscillatory activity and correlation of these findings with psychotic symptoms are summarized. Although the variety of measures used by different research groups makes a quantitative meta-analysis difficult, it appears that magnetoencephalography activity in patients may exhibit identifiable patterns, defined by topographic organization and frequency band. Specifically, 11 of the 12 studies showed increased theta (4-8 Hz) and delta (1-4 Hz) band oscillations in the temporal lobes of patients; of the 10 studies that examined the relationship between oscillatory activity and symptomatology, 8 found a positive correlation between temporal lobe theta activity and positive schizophrenic symptoms. Abnormally high frontal delta activity was not seen. These findings are analyzed in comparison with the electroencephalogram literature on schizophrenics, and possible confounds (e.g., medication effects) are discussed. In the future, magnetoencephalography might be used to assist in diagnosis or might be fruitfully used in conjunction with new neuroscience research approaches such as computational modeling, which may be able to link oscillatory activity and cellular-level pathology.

  1. Rate of Family Violence Among Patients With Schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masako; Yokoyama, Keiko; Nagata, Satoko; Kita, Sachiko; Nakamura, Yukako; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Solomon, Phyllis

    2015-09-01

    Family violence is a serious concern in the era of deinstitutionalization in Japan. Consequently, we aimed to clarify the rate of family violence among patients with schizophrenia, and differences by sex and relationship to the patient. We asked households belonging to a family group association to complete a self-administered mail survey. Of 350 households that responded, data for 302 were analyzed. The rate of violence toward any family member was 60.9% over the lifetime and 27.2% in the past year. Order of lifetime rates for family members from highest to lowest was 51.0% for mothers, 47.0% for fathers, 30.7% for younger sisters, 23.8% for spouses, 19.5% for younger brothers, 18.2% for older sisters, 17.1% for older brothers, and none for children. Younger sisters were more likely to be victims compared to other siblings. Fathers and older brothers were likely to be victims when patients were male. © 2015 APJPH.

  2. Heart rate variability and metabolic syndrome in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghee; Park, Jeongeon; Choi, Jeongim; Park, Chang Gi

    2011-12-01

    Reduced heart rate variability significantly increases cardiovascular mortality. Metabolic syndrome increases the cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Recently, increasing cardiovascular mortality has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. This study was done to compare heart rate variability between adults with and without schizophrenia and to compare the relationship of heart rate variability to metabolic syndrome in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. This was a descriptive and correlational study in which 719 adults without schizophrenia and 308 adults with schizophrenia took part between May and June 2008. We measured the following: five-minute heart rate variability; high-frequency, low-frequency, the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency, and the Standard Deviation of all the normal RR intervals. Data was also collected on metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting glucose. The Standard Deviation of all the normal RR intervals values of heart rate variability indices were 1.53±0.18. The low-frequency and high-frequency values of heart rate variability indices were significantly higher in hospitalized patients with schizophrenia (3.89±1.36; 3.80±1.20) than those in the healthy participants (2.20±0.46; 2.10±0.46). There were no significant differences between the schizophrenic patients with and without metabolic syndrome. The results of this study indicate that schizophrenia patients have significantly lower cardiac autonomic control, but they have significantly higher low-frequency and high-frequency values than those of healthy adults. Use of antipsychotic drug may affect the autonomic nervous system in schizophrenic patients. Metabolic syndrome was not associated with cardiac autonomic control in schizophrenia patients.

  3. Effectiveness of Prescription-Based CNS Stimulants on Hospitalization in Patients With Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Christopher; Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Asztalos, Marton

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are main features of schizophrenia but with limited treatment options. Earlier studies have suggested that central nervous system (CNS) stimulants have a small effect on these domains, but with inconclusive results. As the first study to date, we...... aimed to investigate whether CNS stimulants improve naturalistic outcomes (psychiatric admissions and antipsychotic use) in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: By using extensive health registers all patients with schizophrenia and their use of CNS stimulants in Denmark were identified. Two models...... were used to investigate the effectiveness of CNS stimulants in patients with schizophrenia between 1995 and 2014; a mirror-image model with 605 individuals, using paired t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests, and a follow-up study with 789 individuals, using a conditional risk-set model. RESULTS: CNS...

  4. The relationship between depressive syndrome and suicidal risk in patients with acute schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaric, Dario; Brecic, Petrana; Ostojic, Drazenka; Jukic, Vlado; Goles, Ana

    2013-10-28

    To determine the relationship between scores on five factors of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) and scores on the InterSePT Scale for Suicidal Thinking (ISST) in patients with acute schizophrenia. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 180 drug-treated in-patients with acute schizophrenia. Their symptoms were assessed with PANSS, CDSS, and ISST and correlations between the scores were calculated. Statistically significant correlations were included in the logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of suicidal risk. CDSS (Psuicidal risk. Our results suggested a considerable association between depressive syndrome as assessed by the PANSS emotional factor and CDSS score and suicidal risk in patients with acute schizophrenia.

  5. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice: their prevalence and health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyboom-de Jong Betty

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. Results The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Conclusion Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.

  6. Somatic diseases in patients with schizophrenia in general practice: their prevalence and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Marian J T; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty

    2009-05-09

    Schizophrenia patients frequently develop somatic co-morbidity. Core tasks for GPs are the prevention and diagnosis of somatic diseases and the provision of care for patients with chronic diseases. Schizophrenia patients experience difficulties in recognizing and coping with their physical problems; however GPs have neither specific management policies nor guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients. This paper systematically reviews the prevalence and treatment of somatic co-morbidity in schizophrenia patients in general practice. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO data-bases and the Cochrane Library were searched and original research articles on somatic diseases of schizophrenia patients and their treatment in the primary care setting were selected. The results of this search show that the incidence of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, coronary heart diseases, and COPD is significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in the normal population. The health of schizophrenic patients is less than optimal in several areas, partly due to their inadequate help-seeking behaviour. Current GP management of such patients appears not to take this fact into account. However, when schizophrenic patients seek the GP's help, they value the care provided. Schizophrenia patients are at risk of undetected somatic co-morbidity. They present physical complaints at a late, more serious stage. GPs should take this into account by adopting proactive behaviour. The development of a set of guidelines with a clear description of the GP's responsibilities would facilitate the desired changes in the management of somatic diseases in these patients.

  7. Sporadic incidence of Fascioliasis detected during Hepatobiliary procedures: A study of 18 patients from Sulaimaniyah governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawramy Tahir Abdullah Hussein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fascioliasis is an often-neglected zoonotic disease and currently is an emerging infection in Iraq. Fascioliasis has two distinct phases, an acute phase, exhibiting the hepatic migratory stage of the fluke’s life cycle, and a chronic biliary phase manifested with the presence of the parasite in the bile ducts through hepatic tissue. The incidence of Fascioliasis in Sulaimaniyah governorate was unexpected observation. We believe that shedding light on this disease in our locality will increase our physician awareness and experience in early detection, treatment in order to avoid unnecessary surgeries. Findings We retrospectively evaluated this disease in terms of the demographic features, clinical presentations, and managements by reviewing the medical records of 18 patients, who were admitted to the Sulaimani Teaching Hospital and Kurdistan Centre for Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Patients were complained from hepatobiliary and/or upper gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosed accidentally with Fascioliasis during hepatobiliary surgeries and ERCP by direct visualization of the flukes and stone analysis. Elevated liver enzymes, white blood cells count and eosinophilia were notable laboratory indices. The dilated CBD, gallstones, liver cysts and abscess were found common in radiological images. Fascioliasis diagnosed during conventional surgical CBD exploration and choledochodoudenostomy, open cholecystectomy, surgical drainage of liver abscess, ERCP and during gallstone analysis. Conclusion Fascioliasis is indeed an emerging disease in our locality, but it is often underestimated and ignored. We recommend the differential diagnosis of patients suffering from Rt. Hypochondrial pain, fever and eosinophilia. The watercress ingestion was a common factor in patient’s history.

  8. Complicated Sporadic Cardiac Myxomas: A Second Recurrence and Myxomatous Cerebral Aneurysms in One Patient

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    Mazen E. Iskandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A second recurrence of an excised nonfamilial cardiac myxoma is rare. Myxomatous cerebral aneurysms as a complication of cardiac myxomas are equally rare. A unique case of a patient with a total of 4 myxomas over a 20-year interval is presented. Her most recent presentation was a second recurrence of a left atrial myxoma, a de novo right atrial myxoma, and multiple cerebral myxomatous aneurysms. The challenging reconstruction of the normal anatomy was achieved with the use of porcine extracellular matrix patches. A diagnostic cerebral angiogram was later performed, and the aneurysms will be monitored for growth and possible intervention.

  9. Sporadic Carney complex without PRKAR1A mutation in a young patient with ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar de Sousa, Diana; Gouveia, Ana Isabel; Wessling, Ana; Geraldes, Ruth; Canhão, Patrícia

    2015-03-01

    We describe a 29-year-old male, with a previous history of testicular tumor, who presented with a posterior circulation ischemic stroke associated to an atrial myxoma. Dermatologic observation disclosed spotty skin and mucosal pigmentation (lentigines), and a cutaneous myxoma was histopathologically confirmed. Although there was no family history of any of the Carney complex (CNC) features and no mutations in the PRKAR1A gene were found, these findings lead to the diagnosis of CNC. We emphasize the importance of recognizing this entity in young patients with stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult onset sporadic ataxias: a diagnostic challenge

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    Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with adult onset non-familial progressive ataxia are classified in sporadic ataxia group. There are several disease categories that may manifest with sporadic ataxia: toxic causes, immune-mediated ataxias, vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases, degenerative disorders and even genetic conditions. Considering heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of sporadic ataxias, the correct diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. In this review, the different disease categories that lead to sporadic ataxia with adult onset are discussed with special emphasis on their clinical and neuroimaging features, and diagnostic criteria.

  11. Is cerebrovascular disease a silent condition in patients with chronic schizophrenia-related disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal-Izquierdo, Nuria; Bioque, Miquel; Bernardo, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Patients with chronic schizophrenia-related disorders are at a heightened risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The presence and interpretation of cerebral vascular lesions in neuroimaging tests in these patients represents a common clinical challenge. Nevertheless, the literature on cerebrovascular disease in this population is scarce and contradictory. The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between schizophrenia-related disorders and cerebrovascular morbidity. A case-control study compared cerebrovascular morbidity in a group of patients with schizophrenia-related disorder versus a group of patients with another severe mental illness. The risk of presenting cerebrovascular morbidity was four times higher and statistically significant in patients with schizophrenia-related disorders compared with controls, paired by age and sex. However, both groups were homogeneous in terms of cardiovascular risk factors. There were significant differences between the two groups only in the time using first-generation antipsychotic drugs and taking two or more antipsychotic medications simultaneously. The relationship between chronic schizophrenia-related disorders and cerebrovascular disease may be beyond the classic cardiovascular risk factors and related to certain medications. This is one of the first studies to focus on the relation among cerebrovascular morbidity, antipsychotic drugs and disorders related to schizophrenia in middle-aged and elderly adults.

  12. The use of electroconvulsive therapy in a cohort of forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Diana; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Ockelmann, Hans Henrik

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, over 2500 people are in psychiatric treatment in forensic mental health services at any one time, most suffering from schizophrenia. Many of them have illnesses that are resistant to medication. There is evidence of the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT......) for schizophrenia, but not explicitly for this complex forensic group. AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the outcome of using ECT as augmentation therapy in a cohort of forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia who were failing to respond to antipsychotic medication. METHODS: In one university...

  13. [Hematological Evaluation and Monitoring in Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Ávila, Mauricio J; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Arenas González, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    To guide the clinician in taking decisions on the best strategies for assessing and monitoring the risk of blood disorders in adults diagnosed with schizophrenia in pharmacological treatment. A clinical practice guideline was developed following the guidelines of the Methodological Guide of the Ministry of Social Protection to collect evidence and grade recommendations. De novoliterature researchwas performed. With the use of antipsychotics there isriskofreducción in the leukocyte count and the risk of agranulocytosis,the later associated with the use of clozapine, although it is a rare event(0.8%) can be fatal; this effect occurs most frequently in the first twelve weeks of treatment and the risk is maintained aroundthe first year of it. The recommendations were considered strongin all hematologic related monitoring.A blood count should be taken at the start of pharmacological treatment. If the patient is started on clozapine one shouldbe taken weekly during the first three months, monthly until completing one year and every six months thereafter. If there is a decrease in white blood cell count the patient should be monitored regularly, stopping if is a less than 3,500 cells/mm(3) and consider referral if is less than 2,000 cells/mm(3). Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Krishnadas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits.

  15. Social motor coordination in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients: a potential intermediate phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Capdevielle, Delphine; Varlet, Manuel; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Salesse, Robin N; Bardy, Benoît G; Boulenger, Jean Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie Christine; Attal, Jérôme; Raffard, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Intermediate endophenotypes emerge as an important concept in the study of schizophrenia. Although research on phenotypes mainly investigated cognitive, metabolic or neurophysiological markers so far, some authors also examined the motor behavior anomalies as a potential trait-marker of the disease. However, no research has investigated social motor coordination despite the possible importance of its anomalies in schizophrenia. The aim of this study was thus to determine whether coordination modifications previously demonstrated in schizophrenia are trait-markers that might be associated with the risk for this pathology. Interpersonal motor coordination in 27 unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and 27 healthy controls was assessed using a hand-held pendulum task to examine the presence of interpersonal coordination impairments in individuals at risk for the disorder. Measures of neurologic soft signs, clinical variables and neurocognitive functions were collected to assess the cognitive and clinical correlates of social coordination impairments in at-risk relatives. After controlling for potential confounding variables, unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients had impaired intentional interpersonal coordination compared to healthy controls while unintentional interpersonal coordination was preserved. More specifically, in intentional coordination, the unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients exhibited coordination patterns that had greater variability and in which relatives did not lead the coordination. These results show that unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients, like the patients themselves, also present deficits in intentional interpersonal coordination. For the first time, these results suggest that intentional interpersonal coordination impairments might be a potential motor intermediate endophenotype of schizophrenia opening new perspectives for early diagnosis.

  16. High-functioning autism patients share similar but more severe impairments in verbal theory of mind than schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, L N W; Lui, S S Y; Ho, K K Y; Hung, K S Y; Wang, Y; Yeung, H K H; Wong, T Y; Lam, S M; Chan, R C K; Cheung, E F C

    2017-09-18

    Evidence suggests that autism and schizophrenia share similarities in genetic, neuropsychological and behavioural aspects. Although both disorders are associated with theory of mind (ToM) impairments, a few studies have directly compared ToM between autism patients and schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to investigate to what extent high-functioning autism patients and schizophrenia patients share and differ in ToM performance. Thirty high-functioning autism patients, 30 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. Participants were matched in age, gender and estimated intelligence quotient. The verbal-based Faux Pas Task and the visual-based Yoni Task were utilised to examine first- and higher-order, affective and cognitive ToM. The task/item difficulty of two paradigms was examined using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Multiple ANOVAs and mixed model ANOVAs were used to examine group differences in ToM. The Faux Pas Task was more difficult than the Yoni Task. High-functioning autism patients showed more severely impaired verbal-based ToM in the Faux Pas Task, but shared similar visual-based ToM impairments in the Yoni Task with schizophrenia patients. The findings that individuals with high-functioning autism shared similar but more severe impairments in verbal ToM than individuals with schizophrenia support the autism-schizophrenia continuum. The finding that verbal-based but not visual-based ToM was more impaired in high-functioning autism patients than schizophrenia patients could be attributable to the varied task/item difficulty between the two paradigms.

  17. Clinicopathological variables of sporadic schwannomas of peripheral nerve in 291 patients and expression of biologically relevant markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D; Ingram, Davis; Metcalf-Doetsch, William; Khan, Dilshad; Al Sannaa, Ghadah; Le Loarer, Francois; Lazar, Alexander J F; Slopis, John; Torres, Keila E; Lev, Dina; Pollock, Raphael E; McCutcheon, Ian E

    2017-09-08

    OBJECTIVE While sporadic peripheral schwannomas (SPSs) are generally well treated with surgery, their biology is not well understood. Consequently, treatment options are limited. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of SPS. The authors describe clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of patients harboring these tumors, and they assess expression of biomarkers using a clinically annotated tissue microarray. Together, these data give new insight into the biology and management of SPS. METHODS Patients presenting with a primary SPS between 1993 and 2011 (n = 291) were selected from an institutional registry to construct a clinical database. All patients underwent follow-up, and short- and long-term outcomes were assessed. Expression of relevant biomarkers was assessed using a new tissue microarray (n = 121). RESULTS SPSs were generally large (mean 5.5 cm) and frequently painful at presentation (55%). Most patients were treated with surgery (80%), the majority of whom experienced complete resolution (52%) or improvement (18%) of their symptoms. Tumors that were completely resected (85%) did not recur. Some patients experienced short-term (16%) and long-term (4%) complications postoperatively. Schwannomas expressed higher levels of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (2.1) than malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) (1.5, p = 0.004) and neurofibromas (1.33, p = 0.007). Expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 was greater in SPSs (0.91) than in MPNSTs (0.33, p = 0.002) and neurofibromas (0.33, p = 0.026). Epidermal growth factor receptor was expressed in far fewer SPS cells (10%) than in MPNSTs (58%, p SPSs more frequently expressed cytoplasmic survivin (66% of tumor cells) than normal nerve (46% of cells), but SPS expressed nuclear survivin in fewer tumor cells than in MPNSTs (24% and 50%, respectively; p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Complete resection is curative for SPS. Left untreated, however, these

  18. Cognitive behaviour therapy in patients with schizophrenia who are not prescribed antipsychotic medication: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulides, T; Dudley, R; Brown, S; Turkington, D; Beck, Aaron T

    2008-06-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) as an adjunct to medication has been shown to improve symptom management in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is understood about the value of CBT for people who are not prescribed antipsychotic medication. A post hoc case series design was used to examine the outcome data of three participants selected from a randomized controlled trial for CBT for schizophrenia. The participants were included if they had received CBT and were not prescribed antipsychotic medication during active treatment. The three patients improved on outcome measures of psychopathology, depression, or negative symptoms, some to a clinically significant degree. CBT is a feasible treatment for people with schizophrenia who are not prescribed antipsychotic medication. It may be a valuable alternative to medication in treating symptoms of schizophrenia.

  19. [The Relationship of Deficit Syndrome with Clinical Symptoms, Summer Births and Heritability in Patients with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Levent; Sarıkaya, Özyıl; Erol, Almıla

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare deficit schizophrenia patients with non-deficit schizophrenia patients for negative and positive symptome scores, rate of summer births, and rate of familial history of psychosis. 110 patients with schizophrenia diagnosed via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) aged between 18-65 were included in the study. All the patients were evaluated using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and The Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS), and sociodemographic information was obtained. The deficit syndrome group had higher negative and positive scores compared to the non-deficit group. The rate of summer births were higher in the deficit group. Although the rate of positive family history for psychosis was higher in deficit group compared with the non-deficit group, the difference did not achieve statistical significance. Our results that depict higher severity of negative and positive symptom scores and higher rate of summer births with deficit schizophrenia, provides more evidence that deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia are different subtypes having different pathophysiologies. But statistically nonsignificant difference of positive familial history between two groups suggests that the thesis of deficit schizophrenia may be related to genetic factors more than enviromental factors needs to be invesigated further.

  20. The prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiongzhen; Du, Xiangdong; Zhang, Yingyang; Yin, Guangzhong; Zhang, Guangya; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Quevedo, João; Soares, Jair C; Xia, Haishen; Li, Xiaosi; Zheng, Yingjun; Ning, Yuping; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a common comorbidity in schizophrenia. Few studies have addressed obesity in Chinese schizophrenia patients. The aims of this current study were to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. A total of 206 patients were recruited from a hospital in Beijing. Their clinical and anthropometric data together with plasma glucose and lipid parameters were collected. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was rated for all patients. Overall, 43 (20.9%) patients were obese and 67 (32.5%) were overweight. The obese patients had significantly higher glucose levels, triglyceride levels than non-obese patients. Females and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had increased risk for obesity. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was associated with sex, education levels, negative symptoms, total PANSS score, triglyceride levels and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Further stepwise regression analysis showed that sex, type 2 diabetes, education level, triglyceride and amount of smoking/day were significant predictors for obesity. Our study showed that the prevalence of obesity in Chinese patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population. Some demographic and clinical variables are risk factors for obesity in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interpersonal distances, coping strategies and psychopathology in patients with depression and schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Finkelstein, Irena; Poliakova, Inna; Mostovoy, Dimitry; Goldberger, Nehama; Rosca, Paula

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore (1) intergroup differences in comfortable interpersonal distances (CIDs) and the use of coping strategies; (2) the association of these parameters with individual symptomatology; and (3) the interplay between CIDs and coping styles in patients with depression and schizophrenia. METHODS: The parameters of interest were assessed by means of standardized questionnaires: CID and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory and Positive and Negative Syndromes Scale. ANOVA, Pearson’s correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships among the variables. RESULTS: Compared with controls, depressed patients were more distanced from family members, significant others and self-images, whereas patients with schizophrenia were less distanced from neutral and threat-related stimuli. Distancing from self-images was mostly associated with depression severity in depressed patients, whereas distancing from hostile and threat-related stimuli with the severity of psychotic and affective symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Both patient groups used more emotion-oriented than task-oriented and avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Self-distancing among patients with schizophrenia was positively associated with the use of the social diversion coping, implying social support seeking. CONCLUSION: Patients with depression and schizophrenia use different maladaptive emotion - regulation strategies to cope with their symptoms and related distress. Training in stress management might provide these patients with skills for more effective emotion regulation. PMID:24255879

  2. Dermatoglyphics in patients with schizophrenia--findings in the Macedonian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadikovska, Elizabeta; Lazarova, Dobrila; Zafirova, Biljana; Trpkovska, Biljana; Zhivadinovik, Julija

    2013-01-01

    The human palms and soles are textured with skin different to that of the other body surface. Instead of sebaceous glands or hairs, there are sweat glands opening into epidermal ridges. They are variously oriented, thus forming different patterns. The aim of the study was to assess some dermatoglyphic patterns, the TRC and the a-b ridge count in a sample of patients and a control group of healthy examinees. 59 male and 50 female patients with schizophrenia and 60 healthy male and 50 female individuals as a control group were included in the study. Hand prints were taken using the method of Cummins and Midlo; pattern types were determined and classified using the Henry classification. An analysis of pattern frequency in schizophrenia compared to the normal controls was conducted. The patterns most frequently present are loops (ulnar) with greater incidence and whorls with smaller incidence in patients with schizophrenia compared to the healthy individuals. The number of arches is higher in male patients and lower in female patients. Complex patterns are rare. TRC in females has lower values found in patients. The a-b ridge count has significant difference in male and female patients; higher values in male and lower in female patients. There is some association between the frequency of certain dermatoglyphic characteristicss and schizophrenia. Our findings form a useful database for the dermatoglyphic marks present in patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects of Macedonian nationality.

  3. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Hospitalized Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedeh Samiei

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: OCD was found among a considerable proportion of the study sample. OCD may be associated with exacerbating schizophrenic symptoms. Therefore, psychiatrists should consider the simultaneous treatment of OCD and schizophrenia. Further studies are suggested in this issue.

  4. The association between psychopathology of first-episode psychosis patients within the schizophrenia spectrum and previous offending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality. The aim was to describe possible psychopathological differences between schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis. In a multi-centre study, 16 psychiatric ...... schizophrenia spectrum patients with and without a criminal career before first-episode psychosis, and a better screening procedure in the judicial system could detect these individuals earlier and make adequate treatment possible....

  5. Deficits in eye gaze during negative social interactions in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Hee; Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Kim, Eosu; Kim, Sun I; Park, Junyoung; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2010-11-01

    Impaired social functioning has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to examine characteristics of interpersonal behaviors in patients with schizophrenia during various social interactions using the virtual reality system. Twenty-six patients and 26 controls engaged in the virtual conversation tasks, including 3 positive and 3 negative emotion-laden conversations. Eye gaze and other behavioral parameters were recorded during the listening and answering phases. The amount of eye gaze was assessed as smaller in the patients than in the controls. A significant interaction effect of group status and emotional type was found for the listening phase. The amount of eye gaze in the patients inversely correlated with self-rated scores of assertiveness for the listening phase. These results suggest that the patients displayed inadequate levels of augmentations in eye gaze during negative emotional situations. These deficits should be considered in the treatment and social skills training for patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Schizophrenia Referred to Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Jalal; Karimi, Kamyar; Farnia, Vahid; Golshani, Senobar; Alikhani, Mostafa

    2016-07-01

    Our study was conducted to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. The study population included all patients with schizophrenia who were referred to Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, between March 2014 and March 2015. A total of 280 subjects who met the study criteria were selected according to the census sampling method. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 30.4% (20.7% in men and 51.5% in women). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was greater in patients > 40 years than patients aged 20-40 years. There was a significant relationship between marital status and number of hospitalizations with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia, healthcare professionals should take measures to identify the risk factors and timely treatment of affected patients, thereby improving the patient's quality of life and reducing health costs.

  7. Relationship between Suicidality and Low Self-esteem in Patients with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Taeyoung; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kang, Hee-Ju; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low self-esteem is associated with suicide risk in the general psychiatric population. The aim of this study was to examine associations between suicidality and self-esteem in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Subjects meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical variables, including previous suicide attempt history, were assessed. Psychopathology, self-es...

  8. Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a 57-year old patient with sporadic Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ochalek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were collected from a clinically characterised 57-year old woman with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. The PMBCs were reprogrammed with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus delivery system. The transgene-free iPSC showed pluripotency verified by immunocytochemistry for pluripotency markers and differentiated spontaneously towards the 3 germ layers in vitro. Furthermore, the iPSC line showed normal karyotype. Our model might offer a good platform to further study the pathomechanism of sporadic AD, to identify early biomarkers and also for drug testing and gene therapy studies.

  9. Characteristics and predictors of long-term institutionalization in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggerby, Peter; Nielsen, René Ernst; Correll, Christoph U; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2011-09-01

    Patients with schizophrenia requiring long-term institutionalization represent those with the worst outcome, leading to personal costs for patients and relatives and constituting a large economical burden for society. To identify characteristics and predictors of outcome of institutionalized patients with schizophrenia. One-year follow-up cohort study, utilizing the Danish national registers, of all institutionalized and non-institutionalized patients with schizophrenia in Denmark with an ICD-10 lifetime diagnosis of schizophrenia (F20.0-F20.9) since 1969 and alive at the index date of January 1st 2006 (total number 22,395). Compared with non-institutionalized patients, institutionalized patients (n=2188; 9.8%) had earlier onset of schizophrenia and lower scholastic achievements, were more often diagnosed with a hebephrenic subtype (odds ratio (OR), 2.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.95-2.80; pinstitutionalized patients with schizophrenia had an increased risk of type II diabetes (AOR, 1.22; CI, 1.01-1.42; pinstitutionalized group (62.7 vs. 58.7 years; p=0.027), which was mainly driven by absence of death from suicide in the institutionalized group. Multivariate predictors of institutionalization included hebephrenic subtype, a diagnosis of epilepsy, early retirement pension, male sex, a greater proportion of prior hospitalization, and substance misuse. Institutionalized patients with schizophrenia had a more complex and worse outcome of the disorder, except for less suicide, illustrated by lower scholastic achievement, receiving higher dosages of antipsychotic medications, more concomitant medications and more prior bed-days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detecting allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Hesami, Ehsan; Kargar, Mahmoud; Shams, Jamal

    2018-04-01

    Present evidence suggests that the use of virtual reality has great advantages in evaluating visuospatial navigation and memory for the diagnosis of psychiatric or other neurological disorders. There are a few virtual reality studies on allocentric and egocentric memories in schizophrenia, but studies on both memories in bipolar disorder are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of allocentric and egocentric memories in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For this resolve, an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) was presented to distinguish the navigational performances of these patients. Twenty subjects with schizophrenia and 20 bipolar disorder patients were compared with 20 healthy-matched controls on the newly developed VRNT consisting of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and a virtual maze (egocentric memory). The results demonstrated that schizophrenia patients were significantly impaired on all allocentric, egocentric, visual, and verbal memory tasks compared with patients with bipolar disorder and normal subjects. Dissimilarly, the performance of patients with bipolar disorder was slightly lower than that of control subjects in all these abilities, but no significant differences were observed. It was concluded that allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits are detectable in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using VRNT, and this task along with RAVLT and ROCFT can be used as a valid clinical tool for distinguishing these patients from normal subjects.

  11. Analysis of gut microbiota diversity and auxiliary diagnosis as a biomarker in patients with schizophrenia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Xu, Jintian; Li, Zhiyong; Huang, Yichen; Yuan, Ye; Wang, Jixiang; Zhang, Meng; Hu, Songnian; Liang, Ying

    2018-01-15

    With the advent of sequencing technology, characterization of schizophrenia with underlying probing of gut microbiome can provide abundant clues for diagnosis and prognosis of schizophrenia. In this study, we first compared the difference of gut microbiota between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls by 16S rRNA sequencing. We further explored whether gut microbiota can be used as a biomarker to assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We restricted inclusion criteria strictly to control confounding bias. Finally, we investigated differences in fecal microbiota between 64 schizophrenia patients and 53 healthy controls. At the phylum level, we found that the abundance of Proteobacteria in the schizophrenia patients was significantly increased. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Succinivibrio, Megasphaera, Collinsella, Clostridium, Klebsiella and Methanobrevibacter was significantly higher whereas the abundance of Blautia, Coprococcus, Roseburia was decreased compared to health controls. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that 12 significant microbiota biomarkers were capable of being used as diagnostic factors for distinguishing the schizophrenia cohort from those in the control cohort (AUC = 0.837). We performed PICRUSt analysis and found that several metabolic pathways differed significantly between healthy controls and schizophrenia patients, including vitamin B6 and fatty acid. In conclusion, there are some difference of gut microbiota between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls and the insights from this study could be used to develop microbiota-based diagnosis for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Aberrant interference of auditory negative words on attention in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norichika Iwashiro

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that deficits in attention-emotion interaction are implicated in schizophrenia symptoms. Although disruption in auditory processing is crucial in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, deficits in interaction between emotional processing of auditorily presented language stimuli and auditory attention have not yet been clarified. To address this issue, the current study used a dichotic listening task to examine 22 patients with schizophrenia and 24 age-, sex-, parental socioeconomic background-, handedness-, dexterous ear-, and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls. The participants completed a word recognition task on the attended side in which a word with emotionally valenced content (negative/positive/neutral was presented to one ear and a different neutral word was presented to the other ear. Participants selectively attended to either ear. In the control subjects, presentation of negative but not positive word stimuli provoked a significantly prolonged reaction time compared with presentation of neutral word stimuli. This interference effect for negative words existed whether or not subjects directed attention to the negative words. This interference effect was significantly smaller in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls. Furthermore, the smaller interference effect was significantly correlated with severe positive symptoms and delusional behavior in the patients with schizophrenia. The present findings suggest that aberrant interaction between semantic processing of negative emotional content and auditory attention plays a role in production of positive symptoms in schizophrenia. (224 words.

  13. Enhanced temporal variability of amygdala-frontal functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jing-Li; Li, Peng; Shi, Le; Lin, Xiao; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2018-01-01

    The "dysconnectivity hypothesis" was proposed 20 years ago. It characterized schizophrenia as a disorder with dysfunctional connectivity across a large range of distributed brain areas. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data have supported this theory. Previous studies revealed that the amygdala might be responsible for the emotion regulation-related symptoms of schizophrenia. However, conventional methods oversimplified brain activities by assuming that it remained static throughout the entire scan duration, which may explain why inconsistent results have been reported for the same brain region. An emerging technique is sliding time window analysis, which is used to describe functional connectivity based on the temporal variability of regions of interest (e.g., amygdala) in patients with schizophrenia. Conventional analysis of the static functional connectivity between the amygdala and whole brain was also conducted. Static functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal region was impaired in patients with schizophrenia. The variability of connectivity between the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex was enhanced (i.e., greater dynamics) in patients with schizophrenia. A negative relationship was found between the variability of connectivity and information processing efficiency. A positive correlation was found between the variability of connectivity and symptom severity. The findings suggest that schizophrenia was related to abnormal patterns of fluctuating communication among brain areas that are involved in emotion regulations. Unveiling the temporal properties of functional connectivity could disentangle the inconsistent results of previous functional connectivity studies.

  14. Genetic underpinnings of left superior temporal gyrus thickness in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolthusen, Rick P F; Hass, Johanna; Walton, Esther; Turner, Jessica A; Rössner, Veit; Sponheim, Scott R; Ho, Beng-Choon; Holt, Daphne J; Gollub, Randy L; Calhoun, Vince; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-08-07

    Schizophrenia is a highly disabling psychiatric disorder with a heterogeneous phenotypic appearance. We aimed to further the understanding of some of the underlying genetics of schizophrenia, using left superior temporal gyrus (STG) grey matter thickness reduction as an endophenoptype in a genome-wide association (GWA) study. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic data of the Mind Clinical Imaging Consortium (MCIC) study of schizophrenia were used to analyse the interaction effects between 1,067,955 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease status on left STG thickness in 126 healthy controls and 113 patients with schizophrenia. We next used a pathway approach to detect underlying pathophysiological pathways that may be related to schizophrenia. No SNP by diagnosis interaction effect reached genome-wide significance (5 × 10 -8 ) in our GWA study, but 10 SNPs reached P-values less than 10 -6 . The most prominent pathways included those involved in insulin, calcium, PI3K-Akt and MAPK signalling. Our strongest findings in the GWA study and pathway analysis point towards an involvement of glucose metabolism in left STG thickness reduction in patients with schizophrenia only. These results are in line with recently published studies, which showed an increased prevalence of psychosis among patients with metabolic syndrome-related illnesses including diabetes.

  15. Improving quality of life and physical health in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Peter; Medici, Clara Reece; Juel, Anette

    2017-01-01

    circumferences, intake of fast food and soft drinks, and light physical activity level. Newly diagnosed patients improved their QoL ( p = .056), and the psychological domain improved by 8.0 points ( p = .003). The number of interventions was positively associated with QoL. CONCLUSION: Patients with schizophrenia......BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia experience low quality of life (QoL) and poor physical health, which is explained, in part, by unhealthy lifestyle, tobacco smoking, poor diet and sedentary behavior. AIM: To measure QoL and physical health in patients with schizophrenia and to quantify...... associations between QoL and physical health. METHODS: This was a naturalistic longitudinal 30-month follow-up study including individual guidance, group sessions and treatment as usual. RESULTS: We included 190 patients. QoL was low among newly diagnosed patients. Higher body mass index was significantly...

  16. Clozapine prescription and quality of life in Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, C-L; Cai, M-Y; Ma, X-R; Zang, Y; Jia, F-J; Lin, Y-Q; Chiu, H F K; Ungvari, G S; Ng, C H; Zhong, B-L; Cao, X-L; Li, Y; Shinfuku, N; Xiang, Y-T

    2015-09-01

    Clozapine is frequently used to treat schizophrenia in China. Maintenance treatment for clinically stable patients with schizophrenia is usually provided by Chinese primary care physicians, but no study has investigated the frequency of its use prescribed by primary care physicians. This study described the frequency, demographic and clinical characteristics of clozapine treatment and its impact on insight and quality of life (QOL) of patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care in China. A total of 623 patients with schizophrenia treated in 22 primary care services in Guangzhou, China in 2013 formed the study sample. Patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including psychopathology, medication side effects and QOL were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection. The frequency of clozapine prescription was 35.6% with a mean daily dose of 127.7±88.2 mg. There were no significant differences between the patients with and without clozapine in either of the QOL domains after controlling the confounding factors. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that patients on clozapine had younger age of onset, more hospitalizations, more severe extrapyramidal side effects, but better insight and fewer prescriptions of first generation antipsychotics. Clozapine use was found to be common and associated with better insight in patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care in China. Further examination of the rationale and appropriateness of clozapine in primary care in China is warranted. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Systematic suicide risk assessment for patients with schizophrenia: a national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Charlotte Gjørup; Jensen, Signe Olrik Wallenstein; Gradus, Jaimie; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Mainz, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Systematic suicide risk assessment is recommended for patients with schizophrenia; however, little is known about the implementation of suicide risk assessment in routine clinical practice. The study aimed to determine the use of systematic suicide risk assessment at discharge and predictors of suicide attempt among hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. A one-year follow-up study was conducted of 9,745 patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from psychiatric wards and registered in a national population-based schizophrenia registry between 2005 and 2009. The proportion of patients receiving suicide risk assessment at discharge from a psychiatric ward increased from 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]=71%-74%) in 2005, when the national monitoring began, to 89% (CI=89%-90%) in 2009. Within one year after discharge, 1% of all registered patients had died by suicide and 8% had attempted suicide. One out of three patients who died by suicide had no documented suicide risk assessment before discharge. The use of systematic suicide risk assessment at discharge among patients with schizophrenia increased in Denmark between 2005 and 2009, in accordance with recommendations in national clinical guidelines and monitoring in a national clinical registry. Additional efforts are warranted to ensure a lower risk of suicidal behavior after hospital discharge.

  18. Nonlinear analysis of electroencephalogram at rest and during cognitive tasks in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlino, Elisa; Sigaudo, Monica; Pollo, Antonella; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Mongini, Tullia; Castagna, Filomena; Vighetti, Sergio; Rocca, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Background In spite of the large number of studies on schizophrenia, a full understanding of its core pathology still eludes us. The application of the nonlinear theory of electroencephalography (EEG) analysis provides an interesting tool to differentiate between physiologic conditions (e.g., resting state and mathematical task) and normal and pathologic brain activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate nonlinear EEG activity in patients with schizophrenia. Methods We recorded 19-lead EEGs in patients with stable schizophrenia and healthy controls under 4 different conditions: eyes closed, eyes open, forward counting and backward counting. A nonlinear measure of complexity was calculated by means of correlation dimension (D2). Results We included 17 patients and 17 controls in our analysis. Comparing the 2 populations, we observed greater D2 values in the patient group. In controls, increased D2 values were observed during active states (eyes open and the 2 cognitive tasks) compared with baseline conditions. This increase of brain complexity, which can be interpreted as an increase of information processing and integration, was not preserved in the patient population. Limitations Patients with schizophrenia were taking antipsychotic medications, so the presence of medication effects cannot be excluded. Conclusion Our results suggest that patients with schizophrenia present changes in brain activity compared with healthy controls, and this pathologic alteration can be successfully studied with nonlinear EEG analysis. PMID:22353633

  19. Frequent germ-line succinate dehydrogenase subunit D gene mutations in patients with apparently sporadic parasympathetic paraganglioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dannenberg (Hilde); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); M. Abbou; H. van Urk (Hero); B.K. Pauw; D. Mouwen; W.J. Mooi (Wolter); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: Recently, familial paraganglioma (PGL) was shown to be caused bymutations in the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD). However, the prevalence of SDHD mutations in apparently sporadic PGL is unknown. We studied the frequency and spectrum of

  20. Genetic determinants for cadmium and arsenic resistance among Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates from sporadic human listeriosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis, heavy metal resistance was primarily encountered in certain clonal groups (ECI, ECII, ECIa). All arsenic-resistant isolates harbored the arsenic resistance cassette previously identified in pLI100; ECIa harbored additional arsenic resi...

  1. Abnormal neural hierarchy in processing of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Yulia; Bleich-Cohen, Maya; Solnik-Knirsh, Shimrit; Yogev-Seligmann, Galit; Eisenstein, Tamir; Madah, Waheed; Shamir, Alon; Hendler, Talma; Kremer, Ilana

    2018-01-01

    Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story. Specifically, patients with first episode schizophrenia ( N  = 15), their non-manifesting siblings ( N  = 14) and healthy controls ( N  = 15) listened to a narrated story and randomly scrambled versions of it. To quantify the degree of dissimilarity between the groups, we adopted an inter-subject correlation (inter-SC) approach, which estimates differences in synchronization of neural responses within and between groups. The temporal topography found in healthy and siblings groups were consistent with our previous findings - high synchronization in responses from early sensory toward high order perceptual and cognitive areas. In patients with schizophrenia, stimuli with short and intermediate temporal scales evoked a typical pattern of reliable responses, whereas story condition (long temporal scale) revealed robust and widespread disruption of the inter-SCs. In addition, the more similar the neural activity of patients with schizophrenia was to the average response in the healthy group, the less severe the positive symptoms of the patients. Our findings suggest that system-level neural indication of abnormal verbal information processing in schizophrenia reflects disease manifestations.

  2. Characteristics of motivation and their impacts on the functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobe, Miki; Nemoto, Takahiro; Tsujino, Naohisa; Yamaguchi, Taiju; Katagiri, Naoyuki; Fujii, Chiyo; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2016-02-01

    Deficits of motivation have been considered to be a core feature of schizophrenia, and recent studies have begun to reveal the biological and psychological characteristics and mechanisms underlying the deficits in motivation in schizophrenia patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate the characteristics of motivation in schizophrenia patients using the General Causality Orientations Scale (GCOS), and the impacts of motivational orientations on the functional outcomes in schizophrenia patients. A total of 53 outpatients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls were recruited for this study. The GCOS was used to assess individual tendencies in respect of three different motivational orientations: the autonomy, controlled, and impersonal orientations, corresponding to intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation, respectively. The cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, social functioning, and quality of life of the subjects were also assessed. The score for autonomy orientation was significantly lower in the patient group than that in the control group, while no significant differences were found between the two groups in respect of the scores for the other two orientations. The autonomy orientation was associated with various clinical variables, and regression analysis identified as one of the variables with the highest predictive accuracy for social functioning. Intrinsic motivation measured by the GCOS in schizophrenia patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls. The deficits of intrinsic motivation were broadly associated with the clinical features and were a determinant of social functioning. Development of treatments for enhancing intrinsic motivation would be essential for functional recovery in schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Abnormal neural hierarchy in processing of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Lerner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates abnormal comprehension of verbal information in patients with schizophrenia. Yet the neural mechanism underlying the breakdown of verbal information processing in schizophrenia is poorly understood. Imaging studies in healthy populations have shown a network of brain areas involved in hierarchical processing of verbal information over time. Here, we identified critical aspects of this hierarchy, examining patients with schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined various levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented verbal stimuli; from a set of randomly shuffled words to an intact story. Specifically, patients with first episode schizophrenia (N = 15, their non-manifesting siblings (N = 14 and healthy controls (N = 15 listened to a narrated story and randomly scrambled versions of it. To quantify the degree of dissimilarity between the groups, we adopted an inter-subject correlation (inter-SC approach, which estimates differences in synchronization of neural responses within and between groups. The temporal topography found in healthy and siblings groups were consistent with our previous findings – high synchronization in responses from early sensory toward high order perceptual and cognitive areas. In patients with schizophrenia, stimuli with short and intermediate temporal scales evoked a typical pattern of reliable responses, whereas story condition (long temporal scale revealed robust and widespread disruption of the inter-SCs. In addition, the more similar the neural activity of patients with schizophrenia was to the average response in the healthy group, the less severe the positive symptoms of the patients. Our findings suggest that system-level neural indication of abnormal verbal information processing in schizophrenia reflects disease manifestations.

  4. Higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases and longer spells of vertigo in patients affected with familial Ménière's disease: A clinical comparison of familial and sporadic Ménière's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietikko, Elina; Sorri, Martti; Männikkö, Minna; Kotimäki, Jouko

    2014-06-01

    PURPOSE This study compared clinical features, predisposing factors, and concomitant diseases between sporadic and familial Ménière's disease (MD). METHOD Retrospective chart review and postal questionnaire were used. Participants were 250 definite patients with MD (sporadic, n =149; familial, n = 101) who fulfilled the American Academy of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (1995) criteria. RESULTS On average, familial patients were affected 5.6 years earlier than sporadic patients, and they suffered from significantly longer spells of vertigo (p = .007). The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (p = .002) and other autoimmune diseases (p = .046) was higher among the familial patients, who also had more migraine (p = .036) and hearing impairment (p = .002) in their families. CONCLUSION The clinical features of familial and sporadic MD are very similar in general, but some differences do exist. Familial MD patients are affected earlier and suffer from longer spells of vertigo.

  5. The distortion of reality perception in schizophrenia patients, as measured in Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Anna; Weinshall, Daphna; Peled, Avi

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Reality is an interactive three-dimensional computer generated environment. Providing a complex and multi-modal environment, VR can be particularly useful for the study of complex cognitive functions and brain disorders. Here we used a VR world to measure the distortion in reality perception in schizophrenia patients. 43 schizophrenia patients and 29 healthy controls navigated in a VR environment and were asked to detect incoherencies, such as a cat barking or a tree with red leaves. Whereas the healthy participants reliably detected incoherencies in the virtual experience, 88% of the patients failed in this task. The patients group had specific difficulty in the detection of audio-visual incoherencies; this was significantly correlated with the hallucinations score of the PANSS. By measuring the distortion in reality perception in schizophrenia patients, we demonstrated that Virtual Reality can serve as a powerful experimental tool to study complex cognitive processes.

  6. [Spontaneous speech prosody and discourse analysis in schizophrenia and Fronto Temporal Dementia (FTD) patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Angela; Felizzola Donado, Carlos Alberto; Matallana Eslava, Diana Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) in their linguistic variants share some language characteristics such as the lexical access difficulties, disordered speech with disruptions, many pauses, interruptions and reformulations. For the schizophrenia patients it reflects a difficulty of affect expression, while for the FTD patients it reflects a linguistic issue. This study, through an analysis of a series of cases assessed Clinic both in memory and on the Mental Health Unit of HUSI-PUJ (Hospital Universitario San Ignacio), with additional language assessment (analysis speech and acoustic analysis), present distinctive features of the DFT in its linguistic variants and schizophrenia that will guide the specialist in finding early markers of a differential diagnosis. In patients with FTD language variants, in 100% of cases there is a difficulty understanding linguistic structure of complex type; and important speech fluency problems. In patients with schizophrenia, there are significant alterations in the expression of the suprasegmental elements of speech, as well as disruptions in discourse. We present how depth language assessment allows to reassess some of the rules for the speech and prosody analysis of patients with dementia and schizophrenia; we suggest how elements of speech are useful in guiding the diagnosis and correlate functional compromise in everyday psychiatrist's practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Caregiver burden and coping strategies for patients with schizophrenia: comparison between Japan and Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Setsuko; Bae, Jeong-Kyu; Tanaka, Hideki; Bae, Yong Jun; Tanaka, Goro; Inadomi, Hiroyuki; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Ohta, Yasuyuki

    2010-08-01

    With the current shift to community-centered mental health services, considerable research on the family burden of caring for patients with schizophrenia has been conducted in developed countries. However, there has been no investigation of families with Japanese or Korean sociocultural backgrounds. Therefore, the present study compared the caregiver burden and coping strategies of families of patients with schizophrenia in Japan and Korea in order to elucidate similarities and differences in the sociocultural factors that affect the care experience of families in Northeast Asia. A total of 99 Japanese (Nagasaki) and 92 Korean (Seoul, Daegu) family members of patients with schizophrenia were surveyed in regards to caregiver burden, coping strategies, and nursing awareness of the caregiver role regarding the patient with schizophrenia. Analysis revealed the following: (i) although no difference in caregiver burden and coping strategy was observed between the countries, the nursing awareness of families' caregiver role was significantly higher in Japan than in Korea; (ii) caregiver burden was significantly associated with the patient's social functioning and care needs in both countries; and (iii) caregiver burden was significantly associated with reduction of social interests, coercion, avoidance, resignation, and nursing awareness of caregiver role in both countries. Although the nursing awareness of families' roles in caring for patients with schizophrenia differed between Japan and Korea, similar trends were observed for the causes of caregiver burden. These findings suggest that in order to provide effective support for reducing caregiver burden, the necessity of such support must be emphasized in both countries.

  8. Selenium, zinc, and copper plasma levels in patients with schizophrenia: relationship with metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Dorđević, Brižita; Milovanović, Srđan; Škrivanj, Sandra; Pavlović, Zoran; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the plasma selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) levels and to evaluate their possible association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) components in patients with schizophrenia. The study group consisted of 60 patients with schizophrenia and 60 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and biochemical analysis of fasting blood were performed in all subjects. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly higher plasma Cu concentrations compared with controls (0.97 ± 0.31 vs. 0.77 ± 0.32 mg/L, p = 0.001). The plasma Cu concentration showed a positive correlation with plasma glucose and diastolic blood pressure in the patient groups (r s = 0.263, p < 0.05 and r s = 0.272, p < 0.05, respectively). The plasma Se level correlated positive with MetS score (r s = 0.385, p < 0.01), waist circumference (r s = 0.344, p < 0.05), plasma glucose (r s = 0.319, p < 0.05), and triglyceride concentrations (r s = 0.462, p < 0.001) in patients with schizophrenia. Plasma Zn did not correlate with any of the MetS components. These results suggest that alterations in plasma Cu and Se levels in medicated patients with schizophrenia could be associated with metabolic risk factors.

  9. Social judgement in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and healthy relatives : behavioural evidence of social brain dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, D.; van't Wout, M.; Aleman, A.; Kahn, R. S.

    Background. Patients with schizophrenia have been found to display abnormalities in social cognition. The aim of the study was to test whether patients with schizophrenia and unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenic patients display behavioural signs of social brain dysfunction when making

  10. Comparison of catatonia presentation in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afe Taiwo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: To compare the clinical profile and pattern of catatonic symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder. "n "nMethod: Records of 13,968 patients seen between 1983-1985 and 2003- 2005 were reviewed for symptoms of catatonia by resident doctors in psychiatry. Cases in which the diagnosis were schizophrenia or mood disorder were then noted. Socio-demographic and clinical features were described for each diagnosis. "nResults: There were a total of 98 cases with catatonia out of the 13,968 case notes reviewed. Schizophrenia accounted for 82.5% and 53.4% in the two periods, while the proportion associated with mood disorders increased from 10% to 20.7%. Male to female  ratio was 1.2:1 in schizophrenia and 1:3 in mood disorder. Those with schizophrenia were younger and with an earlier age of onset of symptoms than those with mood disorders. "nConclusion:Catatonia associated with mood disorder was found to be increasing over the years when compared with schizophrenia. Differences were observed in socio-demographic characteristics and number of predominant catatonic symptoms. Having a separate category for catatonia due to the mood disorders in the current diagnostic guidelines (10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases and the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual will help in better diagnosis of catatonia.

  11. Comparison of catatonia presentation in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders in lagos, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Dada Mobolaji; Olubunmi, Okewole Adeniran; Taiwo, Oduguwa; Taiwo, Afe; Rahman, Lawal; Oladipo, Adepoju

    2011-01-01

    To compare the clinical profile and pattern of catatonic symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and mood disorder. Records of 13,968 patients seen between 1983-1985 and 2003-2005 were reviewed for symptoms of catatonia by resident doctors in psychiatry. Cases in which the diagnosis were schizophrenia or mood disorder were then noted. Socio-demographic and clinical features were described for each diagnosis. There were a total of 98 cases with catatonia out of the 13,968 case notes reviewed. Schizophrenia accounted for 82.5% and 53.4% in the two periods, while the proportion associated with mood disorders increased from 10% to 20.7%. Male to female ratio was 1.2:1 in schizophrenia and 1:3 in mood disorder. Those with schizophrenia were younger and with an earlier age of onset of symptoms than those with mood disorders. Catatonia associated with mood disorder was found to be increasing over the years when compared with schizophrenia. Differences were observed in socio-demographic characteristics and number of predominant catatonic symptoms. Having a separate category for catatonia due to the mood disorders in the current diagnostic guidelines (10(th) edition of the International Classification of Diseases and the 4(th) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) will help in better diagnosis of catatonia.

  12. How to diagnose the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Nakatani, Noriko; Kamino, Kouzin; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is caused by a microdeletion of chromosome 22. One third of all patients with 22q11.2 deletion develop schizophrenia-like symptoms. In general, the prevalence of 22q11.2 deletion in patients with schizophrenia is 1%?2%. The 22q11.2 deletion is one of the major known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. However, clinical differences in the phenotypes between patients with schizophrenia who are 22q11.2 deletion carriers and those who are not are still unknown. T...

  13. Deficits in facial affect recognition in unaffected siblings of Xhosa schizophrenia patients: evidence for a neurocognitive endophenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Niehaus, Dana J H; Koen, Liezl; Du Toit, Elsa; Schoeman, Renata; Emsley, Robin

    2008-02-01

    The present study in an African Xhosa sample examined whether familial vulnerability to schizophrenia is associated with deficits in facial affect recognition. Healthy comparison subjects, unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients, and schizophrenia patients were tested with a task requiring rapid recognition of matched positive (happy), negative (angry), and neutral facial expressions. Siblings and patients demonstrated impaired recognition of negative relative to positive facial expressions whereas comparison subjects recognized negative and positive expressions at an equal level of accuracy. These results suggest that deficits in the processing negative affect from social cues are transmitted in families and may represent a heritable endophenotype of schizophrenia.

  14. [Pharmacological management of anxiety in patients suffering from schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylé, F-J; Blanc, O; De Chazeron, I; Lesturgeon, J; Lançon, C; Caci, H; Garay, R-P; Llorca, P-M

    2011-05-01

    Anxiety is a major and frequent symptom of schizophrenia, which is associated with an increased risk of relapse, impaired functioning, lower quality of life and increased incidence of suicide attempts. Despite its clinical relevance, anxiety in schizophrenia remains poorly understood. In the prodromic phase, anxiety indicates a progression towards psychotic decompensation. After a first episode, it is an indicator of relapse. Two approaches have been used to investigate anxiety in schizophrenia: (i) categorical approach (comorbidity of schizophrenia and anxiety disorders) and (ii) dimensional approach (anxiety as a major symptom of the "dysphoric" dimension). Clinical categorical studies reported an increased frequency of comorbidity between schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, and specific phobia. The dimensional approach proposes that five different factors contribute to the structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), with anxiety as a major symptom of the "dysphoria" dimension. Concerning diagnosis, it is unclear whether psychotic and neurotic anxiety differs in nature or intensity. Nevertheless, both are frequently opposed. Psychotic anxiety is intense, profound and hermetic. In contrast to neurotic anxiety, it is associated with psychomotor disturbances, such as agitation and sideration. There is no specific tool to evaluate anxiety in schizophrenia. The dimensional approach usually runs an evaluation using items or factors extracted from the most widely-used scales, i.e. PANSS or Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or from anxiety scales developed in non-schizophrenic populations, such as the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). Recently, we developed a specific scale for hetero-evaluation (Échelle Anxiété Schizophrénie [EAS scale]). The EAS scale was recently validated and the study of its sensitivity is ongoing

  15. [Metabolic Control, Evaluation and Follow-up Interventions in Patients With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Gabriel Fernando; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana; García Valencia, Jenny; Jaramillo, Luis Eduardo; Tamayo, Nathalie; Arenas, María Luisa; Vélez Fernández, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    To determine the laboratory tests, related to metabolic risk that should be practiced to adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. To assist the clinician decision-making process about complementary diagnostic evaluation strategies in adult diagnosed with schizophrenia. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The risk of overall mortality in schizophrenia is higher than in the general population excluding suicide. Results related with mortality associated to antipsychotics showed contradictory results. Metabolic outcomes showed a higher incidence and association with schizophrenia and treatment with antipsychotics (AP). The diagnosis of dyslipidemia in men with schizophrenia appears to be lower in comparison with the general population. However, changes in weight, blood sugar levels, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by the use of antipsychotics in general there is a higher risk of developing diabetes mellitus in adults with schizophrenia. Based on the evidence found a plan was formulated for the evaluation of physiological and paraclinical variables during and before the management with AP in adult diagnosed with schizophrenia. The overall quality of evidence is low considering that most of the reports come from observational studies that have risk of bias and some designs have methodological limitations. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Coping strategies and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Hruby, Radovan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Marackova, Marketa; Slepecky, Milos; Gubova, Terezia

    2016-01-01

    Maladaptive coping strategies may adversely disturb the overall functioning of people with mental disorders. Also, self-stigma is considered a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patient life. It has a negative impact on self-image, and may lead to dysphoria, social isolation, reduced adherence, using of negative coping strategies, and lower quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. A total of 104 clinically stable outpatients with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were examined by psychiatrists with the Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were performed to discover contributing factors to self-stigma. Positive coping strategies were used by patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders to the same extent as in the healthy population. Negative coping strategies were overused by these patients. There were significant associations between self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in schizophrenia. The ability to use positive coping strategies was connected with lower self-stigma. Use of negative coping strategies predominantly increased the self-stigma of patients with schizophrenia. This study revealed a significant association among self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in individuals suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Thinking about coping strategies and self-stigma in practice may play a significant role in understanding people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, especially for mental health professionals.

  17. Influence of patient characteristics on care time in patients hospitalized with schizophrenia

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    Sugibayashi Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Sugibayashi,1 Kimio Yoshimura,1 Keita Yamauchi,1,2 Ataru Inagaki,3 Naoki Ikegami1 1Department of Health Policy and Management, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Keio University Graduate School of Health Management, Kanagawa, 3Aoyama Gakuin University, School of International Politics, Economics and Communication, Tokyo, Japan Background: In the current Japanese payment system for the treatment of psychiatric inpatients, the length of hospital stay and nurse staffing levels are key determinants of the amount of payment. These factors do not fully reflect the costs of care for each patient. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between patient characteristics and their care costs as measured by “care time” for patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Patient characteristics and care time were investigated in 14,557 inpatients in 102 psychiatric hospitals in Japan. Of these 14,557 inpatients, data for 8,379 with schizophrenia were analyzed using a tree-based model.Results: The factor exerting the greatest influence on care time was ”length of stay”, so subjects were divided into 2 groups, a “short stay group” with length of stay ≦104 days, and “long stay group” ≧105 days. Each group was further subdivided according to dependence with regard to “activities of daily living”, “psychomotor agitation”, “verbal abuse”, and “frequent demands/repetitive complaints”, which were critical variables affecting care time. The mean care time was shorter in the long-stay group; however, in some long-stay patients, the mean care time was considerably longer than that in patients in the short-stay group.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that it is necessary to construct a new payment system reflecting not only length of stay and nurse staffing levels, but also individual patient characteristics. Keywords: psychiatric hospital, schizophrenia, care time, case mix, tree-based model

  18. Predictors of schizophrenia in patients with a first episode of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Nicolas; Arranz, Belen; Salavert, Jose; Alvarez, Enrique; Corripio, Iluminada; Dueñas, Rosa Maria; Perez, Victor; San, Luis

    2010-01-30

    Early identification of schizophrenia in patients with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) may help to avoid inappropriate treatment and may enhance long-term outcome by addressing issues such as family network, treatment adherence and functional and symptomatic outcome. It was the aim of the study to determine baseline variables that significantly predicted a diagnosis of schizophrenia in patients with FEP. The sample consisted of 133 FEP patients hospitalized for at least 6 weeks, in whom a DSM-IV diagnosis was confirmed after 1 year follow-up. Patients were divided into two groups, those with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (Schizophrenia group, n=63; 47.8%), and those with other psychosis, who were grouped under Non-Schizophrenic Psychosis (NSP, n=70; 52.2%). Sociodemographic (marital status, educational level) and clinical variables were recorded for each patient. Substance use (alcohol, cannabis and cocaine) did not statistically differ between the two groups. Absence of characteristics defined as criteria for good prognosis, lack of > or = 20% improvement in the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score at 6 weeks, and a poor premorbid adjustment as determined by the Premorbid Adjustment Scale score significantly predicted the presence of schizophrenia. The regression model including these three variables achieved a predictive value of 76.3%, with a sensitivity of 74.6% and a specificity of 77.9%.

  19. Decreased Left Putamen and Thalamus Volume Correlates with Delusions in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients

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    Xiaojun Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelusional thinking is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. However, the underlying neural substrate for delusions in schizophrenia remains unknown. In an attempt to further our understanding of the neural basis of delusions, we explored gray matter deficits and their clinical associations in first-episode schizophrenia patients with and without delusions.MethodsTwenty-four first-episode schizophrenia patients with delusions and 18 without delusions as well as 26 healthy controls (HC underwent clinical assessment and whole-brain structural imaging which were acquired a 3.0 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry was used to explore inter-group differences in gray matter volume using analysis of covariance, and Spearman correlation coefficients (rho between the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS-delusion scores and mean regional brain volumes was obtained.ResultsPatients with delusions showed decreased brain gray matter volumes in the left putamen, thalamus, and caudate regions compared with HC. Patients with delusions also showed decreased regional volume in the left putamen and thalamus compared with patients without delusions. SAPS-delusion scores were negatively correlated with the gray matter volumes of the left putamen and thalamus.DiscussionLeft putamen and thalamus volume loss may be biological correlates of delusions in schizophrenia.

  20. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for treatment of growing vestibular schwannomas in patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2: a matched cohort study with sporadic vestibular schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyt, Ivo J; Verheul, Jeroen B; Hanssens, Patrick E J; Kunst, Henricus P M

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) is a tumor syndrome characterized by an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. The hallmark of NF2 is the development of bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs), generally by 30 years of age. One of the first-line treatment options for small to medium-large VSs is radiosurgery. Although radiosurgery shows excellent results in sporadic VS, its use in NF2-related VS is still a topic of dispute. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term tumor control, hearing preservation rates, and factors influencing outcome of optimally dosed, contemporary Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for growing VSs in patients with NF2 and compare the findings to data obtained in patients with sporadic VS also treated by means of GKRS. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 47 growing VSs in 34 NF2 patients who underwent GKRS treatment performed with either the Model C or Perfexion Leksell Gamma Knife, with a median margin dose of 11 Gy. Actuarial tumor control rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. For patient- and treatment-related factors, a Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify predictors of outcome. Trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerve function were assessed before and after treatment. NF2-related VS patients were matched 1:1 with sporadic VS patients who were treated in the same institute, and the same indications for treatment, definitions, and dosimetry were used in order to compare outcomes. RESULTS Actuarial tumor control rates in NF2 patients after 1, 3, 5, and 8 years were 98%, 89%, 87%, and 87%, respectively. Phenotype and tumor volume had significant hazard rates of 0.086 and 22.99, respectively, showing that Feiling-Gardner phenotype and a tumor volume not exceeding 6 cm 3 both were associated with significantly better outcome. Actuarial rates of serviceable hearing preservation after 1, 3, 5, and 7 years were 95%, 82%, 59%, and 33%, respectively. None of the patients

  1. On the broad applicability of the affective circumplex: representations of affective knowledge among schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Gard, David E

    2003-05-01

    Studies of affective experience are guided by the assumption that the structure of affect generalizes across people. Yet this assumption has not been tested among educationally and economically diverse community residents or among individuals with psychopathology. This study explicitly examined the broad applicability of the valence-arousal circumplex and whether schizophrenia patients and nonpatients have comparable knowledge structures of affective phenomena. Patients and nonpatients completed similarity ratings of 120 pairs of affect words. Similarity judgments were analyzed separately for each group using a multidimensional scaling procedure, and solutions were compared. Results revealed the same two-dimensional valence-arousal solution for schizophrenia patients and nonpatients, although there were subtle differences between the groups. These findings provide additional evidence that the circumplex model is a useful formalism for representing affective phenomena across diverse populations, and they bolster confidence in existing interpretations of schizophrenia patients' reports of affective experience.

  2. Mindfulness, Quality of Life, and Severity of Depressive Symptoms Among Patients With Schizophrenia and Patients With Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmad Hussien Rateb

    2017-05-01

    The current study used a descriptive correlational design to examine the relationship between mindfulness and quality of life (QOL) among patients with schizophrenia (n = 160) and patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (n = 161), controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires regarding demographic variables, severity of depression, QOL, and mindfulness. Patients diagnosed with MDD had higher mindfulness scores than patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Mindfulness scores were significantly associated with the severity of depression among participants. After controlling for the demographic variables and severity of depressive symptoms, mindfulness had a unique variance in QOL among patients with schizophrenia, but not among patients with MDD. The current study provides preliminary evidence regarding the role of mindfulness in improving depressive symptoms and the overall QOL among patients diagnosed with mental illness. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(5), 40-50.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Possible drug-drug interaction between pregabalin and clozapine in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, O; Lykkegaard, S; Damkier, P

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pregabalin is an antiepileptic drug with anti-anxiety properties and is approved for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Anxiety is common in patients with schizophrenia and pregabalin has been suggested as an off-label add-on treatment. METHODS: Pregabalin was added to cloza......INTRODUCTION: Pregabalin is an antiepileptic drug with anti-anxiety properties and is approved for treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Anxiety is common in patients with schizophrenia and pregabalin has been suggested as an off-label add-on treatment. METHODS: Pregabalin was added...... patient was less clear. DISCUSSION: This short report discusses the possible mechanism of a pregabalin-clozapine interaction....

  4. Predictors of treatment resistance in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberley, Theresa; Støvring, Henrik; Sørensen, Holger J; Horsdal, Henriette T; MacCabe, James H; Gasse, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    Identification of patients at high risk of treatment-resistant schizophrenia at the time of schizophrenia diagnosis would be of great clinical benefit in minimising the delay to clozapine treatment in patients unlikely to respond to non-clozapine antipsychotics. However, little is known about predictors of treatment resistance in this patient population. We used a treatment-based proxy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia to identify candidate predictors of treatment resistance at first hospital contact with a schizophrenia diagnosis. In this population-based cohort study, we obtained Danish national registry data for all adult patients (≥18 years) with incident schizophrenia diagnosed between Jan 1, 1996, and Dec 31, 2006, and followed up until Dec 31, 2010. Our main proxy definition of treatment-resistant schizophrenia was the earliest instance of either clozapine initiation or hospital admission for schizophrenia after having had two periods of different antipsychotic monotherapy. We did multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to estimate the association between baseline candidate predictors and treatment resistance. 8624 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. In multivariable complete-case analyses, 1703 (21%) of 8044 patients fulfilled the main proxy definition of treatment-resistant schizophrenia during a median follow-up of 9·1 years (IQR 6·3-11·9). Younger age (hazard ratio 0·96 [95% CI 0·95-0·97]), living in a less urban area (provincial 1·38 [1·23-1·56], rural 1·44 [1·25-1·65]), primary education level (0·88 [0·79-0·98]), more than 30 bed-days in psychiatric hospital in the year before first schizophrenia diagnosis (1·54 [1·35-1·75]), inpatient at first schizophrenia diagnosis (2·07 [1·87-2·29]), paranoid subtype (1·24 [1·13-1·37]), comorbid personality disorder (1·24 [1·11-1·39]), psychotropic drug use (antipsychotics 1·51 [1·35-1·69], antidepressants 1·15 [1·03-1·29], and benzodiazepines 1

  5. Proteome analysis of schizophrenia patients Wernicke's area reveals an energy metabolism dysregulation

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    Marangoni Sérgio

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is likely to be a consequence of DNA alterations that, together with environmental factors, will lead to protein expression differences and the ultimate establishment of the illness. The superior temporal gyrus is implicated in schizophrenia and executes functions such as the processing of speech, language skills and sound processing. Methods We performed an individual comparative proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 9 schizophrenia and 6 healthy control patients' left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area – BA22p identifying by mass spectrometry several protein expression alterations that could be related to the disease. Results Our analysis revealed 11 downregulated and 14 upregulated proteins, most of them related to energy metabolism. Whereas many of the identified proteins have been previously implicated in schizophrenia, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C, creatine kinase and neuron-specific enolase, new putative disease markers were also identified such as dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, tropomyosin 3, breast cancer metastasis-suppressor 1, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 and phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial precursor. Besides, the differential expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP were confirmed by western blot in schizophrenia prefrontal cortex. Conclusion Our data supports a dysregulation of energy metabolism in schizophrenia as well as suggests new markers that may contribute to a better understanding of this complex disease.

  6. Polymorphisms of XRCC4 are involved in reduced colorectal cancer risk in Chinese schizophrenia patients

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    Li Tao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors related to the regulation of apoptosis in schizophrenia patients may be involved in a reduced vulnerability to cancer. XRCC4 is one of the potential candidate genes associated with schizophrenia which might induce colorectal cancer resistance. Methods To examine the genetic association between colorectal cancer and schizophrenia, we analyzed five SNPs (rs6452526, rs2662238, rs963248, rs35268, rs2386275 covering ~205.7 kb in the region of XRCC4. Results We observed that two of the five genetic polymorphisms showed statistically significant differences between 312 colorectal cancer subjects without schizophrenia and 270 schizophrenia subjects (rs6452536, p = 0.004, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44-0.86; rs35268, p = 0.028, OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.26. Moreover, the haplotype which combined all five markers was the most significant, giving a global p = 0.0005. Conclusions Our data firstly indicate that XRCC4 may be a potential protective gene towards schizophrenia, conferring reduced susceptibility to colorectal cancer in the Han Chinese population.

  7. Psychosocial factors contributing to suicidal ideation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Su-Jung; Mun, Ji-Woong; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Seon-Young; Yang, Su-Jin; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to comprehensively evaluate psychosocial risk factors associated with suicidality in patients with schizophrenia in Korea. The study sample consisted of 84 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Suicidal thoughts and a clear desire to be dead within 2 weeks were defined as a current suicidal ideation. Socio-demographic and clinical variables, including family history of completed suicides and psychiatric illnesses, were collected, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS), Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were administered to identify factors associated with a current suicidal ideation. Forty-three subjects (51.2%) reported clear suicidal ideation. Multivariate analysis revealed that later age of illness onset, previous suicide attempt, family history of completed suicide, depression, or substance abuse, fewer than one family visitation to the hospital per month, and score on the CDSS were independently related to current suicidal ideation in these subjects. Age, education level, and scores on the SUMD were not significantly associated with current suicidal ideation in the multivariate analysis, but were associated with suicidal ideation in a univariate analysis on the level of psuicidal risk in patients with schizophrenia. In particular, modifiable factors such as depression should be managed to reduce suicidality of hospitalized patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids related to cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia

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    Kazumi Satogami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is strongly associated with functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear. Involvement of omega-3 fatty acids in the cognitive function of healthy individuals and patients with neuropsychiatric disease has received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive function, social function, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The subjects included 30 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and social function were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS, and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS, respectively. Blood serum omega-3 fatty acids were assessed using gas chromatography. The BACS composite score was significantly correlated with blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels. In addition, a daily dose of antipsychotic medication was negatively and significantly correlated with the blood DHA level and with the BACS composite score. Step-wise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the SFS score was significantly associated with the BACS composite score. Our results indicate that reduced blood omega-3 fatty acids are associated with cognitive impairment, which then impacts social functioning outcomes in schizophrenia.

  9. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 100 Schizophrenia Patients to 48 Patients with Major Depression

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    Andy R. Eugene

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective of electroencephalograms were to identify a surrogate biomarker for the Dopamine D2 receptors in the brain by comparing patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia taking Atypical Antipsychotics to Depressive patients medicated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. To achieve this, thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in sLORETA. Three-dimensional statistical non-paramentric maps (SnPM for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were then computed. Our results illustrated that the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus (t=2.049, p=0.007, along the dopamine mesolimbic pathway, had higher neuronal oscillations in the delta frequency band in the 100 Schizophrenia patients as compared to the 32-depressive female patients. The comparisons with both the 48 depressive patient cohort or the sixteen male depressive patient cohort did not yield any statistically significant findings. We conclude that the Superior Frontal Gyrus should be investigated as a possible surrogate biomarker for preclinical and clinical drug discovery in neuropharmacology.

  10. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 100 Schizophrenia Patients to 48 Patients with Major Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective analysis of electroencephalograms were to identify a surrogate biomarker for the Dopamine D2 receptors in the brain by comparing patients diagnosed with Schizophrenia taking Atypical Antipsychotics to Depressive patients medicated with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. To achieve this, thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in sLORETA. Three-dimensional statistical non-paramentric maps (SnPM) for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were then computed. Our results illustrated that the Right Superior Frontal Gyrus (t=2.049, p=0.007), along the dopamine mesolimbic pathway, had higher neuronal oscillations in the delta frequency band in the 100 Schizophrenia patients as compared to the 32-depressive female patients. The comparisons with both the 48 depressive patient cohort or the sixteen male depressive patient cohort did not yield any statistically significant findings. We conclude that the Superior Frontal Gyrus should be investigated as a possible surrogate biomarker for preclinical and clinical drug discovery in neuropharmacology. PMID:26609423

  11. Psychopathological and pathopsychological features of depressive disorders in patients with schizophrenia

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    Наталія Олександрівна Марута

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the modern literature on the problem of depressive disorders in schizophrenia structure demonstrated that despite the acceptance of the important role of depressive disorders at schizophrenia there are no single opinion about its place, clinical assessment, therapy, prognostic value for today and the conclusions of different authors on this problem are ambiguous and contradictory that proves that the researches of this direction are timely.Aim of research – to study the clinical-psychopathological and pathopsychological features of depressive disorders in patients with schizophrenia for improvement of diagnostics of this pathology.Materials and methods. 120 patients with schizophrenia and depressive symptomatology in the clinical picture took part in research. They were divided into 3 groups according to the aim of research: 38 patients with schizophrenia with the duration of disease less than 5 years (I group, 39 patients with the duration of disease 7-8 years (II group and 43 patients with duration of disease more than 13 years (III group.For realization of the aim were used the following methods: clinical-psychopathological that included the assessment of psychic state of patient (collection of complaints, anamnesis, its psychopathological interpretation; Calgary depression scale schizophrenia (CDSS; WHO brief questionnaire of the quality of life (WHOQOL- BREF; questionnaire of the social isolation “The method of evaluation of the suicide risk”, “Self-actualization test” and method of statistical processing of the received data.Results of research. At the research was studied and described the syndrome structure of depression at schizophrenia and pathopsychological features of demonstration of depression at schizophrenia. There was shown that at the different stages of disease depression undergo the significant changes: anxious and obsessive syndrome complexes with time lose its emotional specificity and transform into

  12. Relationship between xerostomia and psychotropic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: evaluation using an oral moisture meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, A; Miyachi, H; Tanaka, K; Chikazu, D; Miyaoka, H

    2016-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are most commonly treated with antipsychotic medications, often with the addition of anxiolytics. This study used an oral moisture meter to evaluate xerostomia in patients with schizophrenia taking typical and atypical antipsychotics, anxiolytics and non-psychotropic medications. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria in the Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University East, and affiliated hospitals were studied. All patients were on psychotropic medications. Patients with diseases associated with xerostomia, such as Sjögren's syndrome I, were excluded. A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Mean oral moisture was 27·81 ± 2·27% (normal, ≥30·0%). A significant association was observed between objective oral moisture and the subjective sense of dry mouth. Multivariate analysis revealed a negative correlation between the number of antipsychotics and, especially, anxiolytics, and the degree of oral moisture. Drug dosages themselves were not significantly correlated with dry mouth. These findings suggest that objective oral moisture measurements show decreased moisture in patients on these medications and that the degree of moisture shows a greater negative correlation with the number, as opposed to the dosages, of psychotropic drugs administered. When patients with schizophrenia visit a dental clinic, it is important for the dentist to accurately assess the degree of oral moisture and to determine the medications being taken. Based on these findings of the association of polypharmacy with xerostomia, dentists are encouraged to inform the psychiatrist of the need to actively manage patients' xerostomia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia

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    Bentolhoda Mousavi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Saffron is the stigma of Crocus sativus L., which has the potentials to play a role in the treatment of many diseases. Although many researches are now going on this precious spice, there are few data on saffron safety in human, especially in patients with chronic mental illnesses. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and tolerability of both saffron and crocin (its major constituent in adult patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: The capsules of saffron aqueous extract (SAE and crocin were used to evaluate short-term safety and tolerability in patients with schizophrenia. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed on patients with schizophrenia. The patients were all male and were divided into three 22-patient groups. While receiving their normal treatment, they also received a 12 week treatment with SAE (15 mg twice daily, crocin (15 mg twice daily or placebo. Results: A total of 61 patients completed the trial; none of them reported a serious side effect. WBC count increased significantly in patients receiving saffron aqua extract (SAE, but it was within the normal range and had no clinical significance. Other hematologic components, markers of thyroid, liver and kidney or inflammation markers had no statistically significant difference among the groups. Conclusions: This study showed that SAE and crocin in doses of 15 mg twice daily were safely tolerated in patients with schizophrenia.

  14. The effect of quetiapine on aggression and hostility in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Celso; Bernardo, Miguel

    2005-06-01

    A post hoc analysis of data from three placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trials was carried out to determine the efficacy of quetiapine in aggression and hostility in patients with schizophrenia. Quetiapine treatment induced statistically significantly greater improvements in BPRS positive symptom cluster scores and three measures of hostility derived from the BPRS, compared with placebo, in patients symptomatic at baseline. A path analysis showed that the improvements in hostility were highly correlated with improvements in positive symptoms and there was no consistent relationship between sedation and hostility. Aggressive behaviour appears to be related to positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Quetiapine may be a suitable option for patients with schizophrenia and aggressive behaviour. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Metaphor Processing in Schizophrenia Patients: A Study of Comprehension and Explanation of Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawełczyk Agnieszka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the quantity and quality of errors made by schizophrenia patients in understanding and interpretation of the same metaphors, to evaluate metaphor understanding and explanation depending on the type of presentation material, and to analyze the correlation of illness symptoms with metaphor comprehension and explanation. Two groups of participants were examined: a schizophrenia sample (40 participants and a control group (39 participants. Metaphor processing was assessed by the subtests of the Polish version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (RHLB-PL. The patients were also evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Schizophrenia patients scored significantly lower in explanation of metaphors, making more incorrect literal and abstract mistakes or providing no answer more frequently. No differences were observed in understanding metaphors; no correlation between symptoms and metaphor processing was obtained. In both groups, picture metaphors were easier to comprehend and written metaphors were easier to comprehend than to explain.

  16. Effect of Psychosocial Skills Training on Functional Remission of Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdil, Nurcan; Tanrıverdi, Derya

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted as a two-group pretest-posttest design to determine the effect of psychosocial skills training on functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia. A total of 100 patients were divided into the training group (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50). The data were collected using a Personal Information Form and Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale. The 13-session training program was given in the form of face-to-face group training and 45- to 60-min sessions twice a week. Training was completed by five groups. Every group comprised of 9 to 12 individuals on average. The training group had higher scores significantly on functional remission levels compared with the control group after psychosocial skills training (p training has become considerably effective in increasing the functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Well-being in clozapine-treated schizophrenia patients: The significance of positive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julia E H; Mezquida, Gisela; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2016-07-01

    Well-being perception is seldom explored in schizophrenia patients. Recurrent limitations, such as the questionable applicability of gold standard definitions of health and well-being, and fewer tools available to assess well-being, are pronounced in this subpopulation. This cross-sectional study sought to explore potential clinical factors that may predict subjective well-being scores in chronic schizophrenia patients (N=142) receiving clozapine treatment. The Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (SWEMWBS) was used to measure well-being. We correlated SWEMWBS scores and 27 clinically recognized factors, spanning socio-demographics, symptom severity scores, physical health diagnosis, clozapine side effects, habits and prescribed medication. Factors with a pwell-being, during biomedical treatment for chronic schizophrenia, may partially explain the finding that only positive symptoms significantly predicted patient perceptions of low well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impaired temporoparietal deactivation with working memory load in antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejad, Ayna B; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. Neuroimaging studies have shown abnormal task-related deactivations during working memory (WM) in schizophrenia patients with recent emphasis on brain regions within the default mode network. Using fMRI, we tested whether antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients were impaired...

  19. Mismatch negativity is a stronger indicator of functional outcomes than neurocognition or theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Sung, Kyongae; Lee, Kyong-Sang; Moon, Eunok; Kim, Chang-Gyu

    2014-01-03

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is known to be associated with neurocognition, social cognition, and functional outcomes. The present study explored the relationships of MMN with neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and healthy controls. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia, 21 first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls were recruited. We examined symptom severity, neurocognition, theory of mind, functional outcomes, and MMN. MMN amplitudes decreased in order of patients with schizophrenia, then first-degree relatives, then healthy controls. MMN amplitude was significantly correlated with measures of neurocognition, theory of mind, and functional outcome measurements in patients with schizophrenia. However, the most powerful correlations were those between MMN in the frontal region and measures of functional outcomes. The power and frequency of the correlations were weaker in first-degree relatives and healthy controls than in patients with schizophrenia. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that functional outcomes (relative to measures of neurocognition and theory of mind) constituted the most powerful predictor of MMN. Our results suggest that MMN reflects functional outcomes more efficiently than do measures of neurocognition and theory of mind in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013.

  20. EEG Phase Synchronization In Patients With Paranoid Schizophrenia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bob, P.; Paluš, Milan; Šusta, M.; Glaslová, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 447, č. 1 (2008), s. 73-77 ISSN 0304-3940 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06039 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : EEG * phase synchronization * coherence * schizophrenia * feature binding Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2008

  1. Neurotrophic factors in the peripheral blood of male schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico)

    2010-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The term schizophrenia denotes a psychiatric syndrome of which the delineation is historically attributed to the work ofEmil Kraepelin (Kraepelin, 1971), who lived from 1856 to 1926. Kraepelin described a disorder that starts at a young age and is characterized by

  2. Treatment of premenstrual mood changes in a patient with schizophrenia using dienogest: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yasuhiko; Sakamoto, Ai; Kotani, Sayoko; Masuyama, Hisashi

    2018-01-23

    Dienogest is a fourth-generation progestin that is used for the treatment of endometriosis. We report a case of premenstrual mood changes in a patient with schizophrenia who was unresponsive to conventional treatment but successfully managed with dienogest. A 37-year-old Japanese woman with schizophrenia was referred to our hospital and diagnosed with premenstrual exacerbation of schizophrenia or coexisting premenstrual dysphoric disorder with schizophrenia. She had already taken maximal doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and combined oral contraceptives produced intolerable side effects. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist treatment was effective but was not suitable for long-term use. Dienogest was initiated to treat pelvic endometriosis and produced subsequent improvements in mental status. The patient was able to return to work and did not indicate any adverse effects. This case suggests that dienogest may be useful for managing premenstrual mood changes in patients with schizophrenia, that it can be safely administered over long periods of time. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Prolonged reaction to mental arithmetic stress in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishekh, Hulegar A; Kumar, Naveen C; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Chandrashekar, H; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have reported abnormal heart rate variability (HRV) in schizophrenia patients, suggesting a pathophysiological link between central autonomic dysfunction and symptoms of schizophrenia and that these could be heritable. This study aimed at evaluating cardiac autonomic response to mental arithmetic stress in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (FDRS) employing HRV analysis. HRV measures were computed for 25 healthy FDRS and 25 age- and gender-matched controls during rest, mental arithmetic stress task and recovery period. Subtracting serial sevens from 700 for five minutes formed the stress task. Recovery period lasted five minutes starting from the termination of the stress task. Both groups showed similar alterations during the stress task. After stress termination, recovery to the basal values was observed in controls but not in patients' relatives, maintaining a pattern similar to that during the stress task. Poor recovery from cardiac autonomic functions (CAF) alterations induced by arithmetic stress may be a heritable trait marker of schizophrenia. Our report supports endophenotypic potential of HRV in schizophrenia research.

  4. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Yeo, S.; Lim, S.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In patients with depression, as well as in patients with schizophrenia, both mood and working memory performance are often impaired. Both issues can only be addressed and improved with medication to some extent. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the mood and the working memory

  5. Simultaneous resting-state functional MRI and electroencephalography recordings of functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji; Fukuta, Mayuko; Inami, Rie; Arai, Heii; Inoue, Reiichi; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-04-01

    It remains unclear how functional connectivity (FC) may be related to specific cognitive domains in neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we used simultaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) recording in patients with schizophrenia, to evaluate FC within and outside the default mode network (DMN). Our study population included 14 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy control participants. From all participants, we acquired rsfMRI data, and simultaneously recorded EEG data using an MR-compatible amplifier. We analyzed the rsfMRI-EEG data, and used the CONN toolbox to calculate the FC between regions of interest. We also performed between-group comparisons of standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography-based intracortical lagged coherence for each EEG frequency band. FC within the DMN, as measured by rsfMRI and EEG, did not significantly differ between groups. Analysis of rsfMRI data showed that FC between the right posterior inferior temporal gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex was stronger among patients with schizophrenia compared to control participants. Analysis of FC within the DMN using rsfMRI and EEG data revealed no significant differences between patients with schizophrenia and control participants. However, rsfMRI data revealed over-modulated FC between the medial prefrontal cortex and right posterior inferior temporal gyrus in patients with schizophrenia compared to control participants, suggesting that the patients had altered FC, with higher correlations across nodes within and outside of the DMN. Further studies using simultaneous rsfMRI and EEG are required to determine whether altered FC within the DMN is associated with schizophrenia. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. EEG correlates of a mental arithmetic task in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garakh, Zhanna; Zaytseva, Yuliya; Kapranova, Alexandra; Fiala, Ondrej; Horacek, Jiri; Shmukler, Alexander; Gurovich, Isaac Ya; Strelets, Valeria B

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the spectral power of the cortical bands in patients with first episode schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder at rest and during the performance of a mental arithmetic task. We analyzed EEG spectral power (SP) in the resting state and subsequently while counting down from 200 in steps of 7, in 32 first episode schizophrenia patients (SZ), 32 patients with first episode schizoaffective disorder (SA) and healthy controls (HC, n=40). Behavioral parameters such as accuracy and counting speed were also evaluated. Both SZ and SA patients were slower in counting than HC, no difference was obtained in the accuracy and counting speed in the patient groups. In the resting state patients showed elevated midline theta power, off-midline anterior beta 2 power and decreased central/posterior alpha power. The SA group occupied an intermediate position between the schizophrenia patients and controls. In task performance patients lacked a typical increase of midline theta, left anterior beta 2, and anterior gamma power; however, schizoaffective patients demonstrated a growing trend of power in the gamma band in left anterior off-midline sites similar to HC. Moreover, alpha power was less inhibited in schizoaffective patients and more pronounced in schizophrenia patients indicating distinct inhibitory mechanisms in these psychotic disorders. Patients with SA demonstrate less alteration in the spectral power of bands at rest than SZ, and present spectral power changes during cognitive task performance close to the controls. Our study contributes to the present evidence on the neurophysiological distinction between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Schizophrenia patients and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome adolescents at risk express the same deviant patterns of resting state EEG microstates: A candidate endophenotype of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miralena I. Tomescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder and many of the factors contributing to its pathogenesis are poorly understood. In addition, identifying reliable neurophysiological markers would improve diagnosis and early identification of this disease. The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS is one major risk factor for schizophrenia. Here, we show further evidence that deviant temporal dynamics of EEG microstates are a potential neurophysiological marker by showing that the resting state patterns of 22q11DS are similar to those found in schizophrenia patients. The EEG microstates are recurrent topographic distributions of the ongoing scalp potential fields with temporal stability of around 80 ms that are mapping the fast reconfiguration of resting state networks. Five minutes of high-density EEG recordings was analysed from 27 adult chronic schizophrenia patients, 27 adult controls, 30 adolescents with 22q11DS, and 28 adolescent controls. In both patient groups we found increased class C, but decreased class D presence and high transition probabilities towards the class C microstates. Moreover, these aberrant temporal dynamics in the two patient groups were also expressed by perturbations of the long-range dependency of the EEG microstates. These findings point to a deficient function of the salience and attention resting state networks in schizophrenia and 22q11DS as class C and class D microstates were previously associated with these networks, respectively. These findings elucidate similarities between individuals at risk and schizophrenia patients and support the notion that abnormal temporal patterns of EEG microstates might constitute a marker for developing schizophrenia.

  8. Default Mode Network Aberrant Connectivity Associated with Neurological Soft Signs in Schizophrenia Patients and Unaffected Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Liliana; Bergé, Daniel; Murray, Graham K; Mané, Anna; Bulbena, Antonio; Pérez, Victor; Vilarroya, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Brain connectivity and neurological soft signs (NSS) are reportedly abnormal in schizophrenia and unaffected relatives, suggesting they might be useful neurobiological markers of the illness. NSS are discrete sensorimotor impairments thought to correspond to deviant brain development. Although NSS support the hypothesis that schizophrenia involves disruption in functional circuits involving several hetero modal association areas, little is known about the relationship between NSS and brain connectivity. We explored functional connectivity abnormalities of the default mode network (DMN) related to NSS in schizophrenia. A cross-sectional study was performed with 27 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, 23 unaffected relatives who were unrelated to the schizophrenia subjects included in the study, and 35 healthy controls. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans including a functional resting-state acquisition and NSS evaluation. Seed-to-voxel and independent component analyses were used to study brain connectivity. NSS scores were significantly different between groups, ranging from a higher to lower scores for patients, unaffected relatives, and healthy controls, respectively (analysis of variance effect of group F  = 56.51, p  hyperconnectivity in the fusiform gyrus, insular and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, inferior and middle frontal gyri, middle and superior temporal gyri, and posterior cingulate cortex [minimum p-family wise error (FWE) hyperconnectivity in relation to controls in the supramarginal association and dorsal posterior cingulate cortices (p-FWE hyperconnectivity in relation to controls in the supramarginal association and dorsal posterior cingulate cortices (p-FWE = 0.001) and in the anterior prefrontal cortex (42 voxels, p-FWE = 0.047). A negative correlation was found between left caudate connectivity and NSS [p-FWE = 0.044, cluster size ( k ) = 110 voxels]. These findings support the theory of widespread

  9. The epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients in China: surveillance data from 2006 to 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare, rapidly progressive fatal central nervous system disorder, which consists of three main catalogues: sporadic, familial, and iatrogenic CJD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In China, the surveillance for CJD started in 2006, covering 12 provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs and 15 hospitals. From 2006 to 2010, 624 suspected patients were referred to China CJD surveillance. The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of sporadic CJD (sCJD were analysed. Both groups of probable and possible sCJD showed highest incidences in the population of 60 to 69 year-olds. The most common presenting symptoms were progressive dementia and mental-related symptoms (neurological symptoms including sleeping turbulence, depression, anxiety and stress. Among the four main clinical manifestations, myoclonus was more frequently observed in the probable sCJD patients. About 2/3 of probable sCJD cases showed positive 14-3-3 in CSF and/or periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWC in electroencephalography (EEG. The presence of myoclonus was significantly closely related with the appearance of PSWC in EEG. Polymorphisms of codon 129 in PRNP of the notified cases revealed a highly predominant M129M genotype in Han Chinese. Among 23 genetic human prion diseases, ten were D178N/M129M Fatal familial insomnia (FFI and five were T188K genetic CJD (gCJD, possibly indicating a special distribution of gCJD-related mutations in Han Chinese. CONCLUSION: From the period of 2006 to 2010, 261 patients were diagnosed as sCJD and 23 patients were diagnosed as genetic human prion diseases in China. The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory analysis data were consistent with the characteristics of sporadic CJD, which provide insight into the features of CJD in China.

  10. Default Mode Network Aberrant Connectivity Associated with Neurological Soft Signs in Schizophrenia Patients and Unaffected Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Galindo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain connectivity and neurological soft signs (NSS are reportedly abnormal in schizophrenia and unaffected relatives, suggesting they might be useful neurobiological markers of the illness. NSS are discrete sensorimotor impairments thought to correspond to deviant brain development. Although NSS support the hypothesis that schizophrenia involves disruption in functional circuits involving several hetero modal association areas, little is known about the relationship between NSS and brain connectivity. We explored functional connectivity abnormalities of the default mode network (DMN related to NSS in schizophrenia. A cross-sectional study was performed with 27 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, 23 unaffected relatives who were unrelated to the schizophrenia subjects included in the study, and 35 healthy controls. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans including a functional resting-state acquisition and NSS evaluation. Seed-to-voxel and independent component analyses were used to study brain connectivity. NSS scores were significantly different between groups, ranging from a higher to lower scores for patients, unaffected relatives, and healthy controls, respectively (analysis of variance effect of group F = 56.51, p < 0.001. The connectivity analysis revealed significant hyperconnectivity in the fusiform gyrus, insular and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, inferior and middle frontal gyri, middle and superior temporal gyri, and posterior cingulate cortex [minimum p-family wise error (FWE < 0.05 for all clusters] in patients with schizophrenia as compared with in controls. Also, unaffected relatives showed hyperconnectivity in relation to controls in the supramarginal association and dorsal posterior cingulate cortices (p-FWE < 0.05 for all clusters in patients with schizophrenia as compared with in controls. Also, unaffected relatives showed hyperconnectivity in relation to controls in the supramarginal

  11. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Zeno; Ramseyer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Holger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning. Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia. Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced. Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  12. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno Kupper

    Full Text Available Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning.Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia.Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced.Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  13. The lipid profiles in Japanese patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junzo; Suzuki, Yutaro; Sugai, Takuro; Fukui, Naoki; Ono, Shin; Tsuneyama, Nobuto; Saito, Mami; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    Antipsychotic-treated schizophrenia patients are susceptible to dyslipidemia. However, the results of previous studies of North American and UK populations including various races have been contradictory with regard to which lipid measure was the most affected in patients with schizophrenia taking antipsychotic agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotic agents on each lipid measure in a Japanese population. The samples included 136 control individuals and 157 patients with schizophrenia treated with antipsychotic agents. Age, gender distribution and body mass index (BMI) of the controls were matched with the patients. The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) levels were significantly lower in patients than in the control subjects (Pantipsychotics was an independent predictor of decreased HDL-cholesterol. An increased BMI, male gender and cigarette smoking were also major predictors of a decreased HDL-cholesterol level (r(2)=0.42, Pantipsychotic agents, the HDL-cholesterol levels should be closely monitored in all patients, even those who are not obese or do not smoke, to decrease their risk of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated urine levels of bufotenine in patients with autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuele, Enzo; Colombo, Roberto; Martinelli, Valentina; Brondino, Natascia; Marini, Mara; Boso, Marianna; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the endogeneous psychotomimetic molecule bufotenine (N-N-dimethyl-5-idroxytryptamine) may play a role in the pathogenesis of severe mental disorders. The potential association of bufotenine with the clinical features of autism and schizophrenia is not entirely understood. In this study, we measured urinary levels of bufotenine in subjects with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects free of psychiatric symptoms. We also sought to assess whether urine concentrations of this molecule may be associated with the clinical characteristics of psychiatric patients. Urine bufotenine levels were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) assay in young adults with severe ASD (n=15), patients with schizophrenia (n=15), and healthy control subjects (n=18). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale was used to measure adaptive behaviors in ASD individuals. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was used for patients with schizophrenia. Urine bufotenine levels were significantly higher in ASD subjects (3.30 +/- 0.49 microg/L, p<0.05) and patients with schizophrenia (4.39 +/- 0.43 microg/L, p<0.001) compared with controls (1.53 +/- 0.30 microg/L). Among patients with ASD, there was a significant positive correlation between urine bufotenine and hyperactivity scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (r=0.479, p<0.05). No other associations were detected. Our results indicate that elevated urine levels of the endogeneous psychotomimetic molecule bufotenine may play a role in ASD and schizophrenia, and can be correlated with hyperactivity scores in autism.

  15. Decreased DNA Methylation in the Shati/Nat8l Promoter in Both Patients with Schizophrenia and a Methamphetamine-Induced Murine Model of Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Uno

    Full Text Available The number of patients with schizophrenia has increased over the past decade. Previously, many studies have been performed to establish its diagnostic criteria, prophylactic methods, and effective therapies. In this study, we analyzed whether the ratios of DNA methylation in CpG islands of the Shati/Nat8l is decreased in model mice of schizophrenia-like phenotype using genomic DNA collected from brain regions and peripheral blood, since the mouse model of schizophrenia-like phenotype, mice treated repeatedly with methamphetamine showed increase of Shati/Nat8l mRNA expression in our previous experiment. The ratios of Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation were significantly decreased in both the nucleus accumbens and the peripheral blood of model mice compared with those of control mice. We also investigated Shati/Nat8l methylation in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. We found that Shati/Nat8l CpG island methylation ratios were lower in the patients with schizophrenia than in the healthy controls, which is consistent with our findings in the mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show similar alterations in methylation status of a particular genomic DNA site in both the brain and peripheral blood of mice. Furthermore, the same phenomenon was observed in corresponding human genomic sequences of the DNA extracted from the peripheral blood of patients with schizophrenia. Based on our findings, DNA methylation profiles of the CpG island of Shati/Nat8l might be a diagnostic biomarker of schizophrenia.

  16. Association of IQ Changes and Progressive Brain Changes in Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Manabu; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Haijma, Sander V; Schnack, Hugo G; Cahn, Wiepke; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2015-08-01

    Although schizophrenia is characterized by impairments in intelligence and the loss of brain volume, the relationship between changes in IQ and brain measures is not clear. To investigate the association between IQ and brain measures in patients with schizophrenia across time. Case-control longitudinal study at the Department of Psychiatry at the University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, comparing patients with schizophrenia and healthy control participants between September 22, 2004, and April 17, 2008. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and IQ scores were obtained at baseline and the 3-year follow-up. Participants included 84 patients with schizophrenia (mean illness duration, 4.35 years) and 116 age-matched healthy control participants. Associations between changes in IQ and the total brain, cerebral gray matter, cerebral white matter, lateral ventricular, third ventricles, cortical, and subcortical volumes; cortical thickness; and cortical surface area. Cerebral gray matter volume (P = .006) and cortical volume (P = .03) and thickness (P = .02) decreased more in patients with schizophrenia across time compared with control participants. Patients showed additional loss in cortical volume and thickness of the right supramarginal, posterior superior temporal, left supramarginal, left postcentral, and occipital regions (P values were between IQ increased similarly in patients with schizophrenia and control participants, changes in IQ were negatively correlated with changes in lateral ventricular volume (P = .05) and positively correlated with changes in cortical volume (P = .007) and thickness (P = .004) only in patients with schizophrenia. Positive correlations between changes in IQ and cortical volume and thickness were found globally and in widespread regions across frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices (P values were between <.001 and .03 after clusterwise correction). These findings were independent of symptom

  17. Differing correlates for suicide attempts among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in India and USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Triptish; Thomas, Pramod; Semwal, Prachi; Thelma, B.K.; Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Deshpande, Smita N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicide is one of the most common causes of death among persons with schizophrenia. Differing risk factors have been identified in published studies. The differences may have arisen because a uniform set of variables was not analyzed. Alternatively, the nature and effect of risk factors may vary in different settings. To test these possibilities, we investigated the same set of variables in two independent cross-national samples ascertained using identical protocols. Methods Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM IV criteria) were recruited in India (n=460) and the USA (n=424). Results Consistent with earlier publications, a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder, history of depression, pattern of symptoms and educational status were significantly associated with suicide attempts in the US sample. None of these variables were significantly associated in the Indian sample. Conclusions The impact of known risk factors for suicide attempts among patients with schizophrenia differs across ethnic groups. PMID:16781121

  18. VR-based conversation training program for patients with schizophrenia: a preliminary clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Lee, Hyung Rae; Jang, Hee Jeong; Kim, Kwang Uk; Park, Sung Hyouk; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, Chan Hyung; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

    2007-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating mental illness and is characterized by hallucinations and delusions as well as social skills deficits. Generally, social skills training designed to help patients develop social skills includes role-playing, but this form of training has typical shortcomings, which are largely due to a trainer's difficulties to project emotion. Virtual reality (VR)-based techniques have the potential to solve these difficulties, because they provide a computer-generated but realistic three-dimensional world and humanlike avatars that can provide emotional stimuli. In this paper, we report on a method of implementing virtual environments (VEs) in order to train people with schizophrenia to develop conversational skills in specific situations, which could overcome the shortcomings of or complement conventional role-playing techniques. The paper reports the efficacy of the proposed approach in a preliminary clinical trial with 10 patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Rivastigmine treatment for the prevention of electroconvulsive therapy-induced memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjer, Rafael; Ophir, Dana; Bar, Faina; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Strous, Rael D

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective strategy in some treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia. However, ECT is associated with cognitive adverse effects, most notably, memory loss. This study examined the effects of rivastigmine, a selective central nervous system acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, with benefits on cognition in Alzheimer disease, on memory performance in patients with schizophrenia treated with ECT. Thirty inpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision schizophrenia treated with ECT were coadministered rivastigmine (3-4.5 mg/d) or placebo in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (maximum period of 4 weeks). Over the ECT course, scores on the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment in subjects receiving placebo showed no significant change, whereas subjects receiving rivastigmine displayed decreased cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment scores, indicating cognitive improvement (P ECT and indicate possible beneficial effects of rivastigmine coadministration in minimizing some of these ECT-induced cognitive impairments.

  20. A study to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychotic disorders are some of the most severe, chronic, and intractable psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is a common and unsolved mental health problem in the world today. Negative symptoms are those symptoms that tend to reflect diminution or loss of normal functions like apathy, anhedonia, alogia, avolition, affective flattening, or social isolation. Exercise is useful for the reduction of some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety, and also to reduce auditory hallucinations and improve sleep patterns, self-esteem, and general behaviour in people living with schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in negative symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used for this study. Total 60 samples were assigned into two groups with 30 in control group and 30 in experimental group. The data was collected by using structured socio-demographic proforma, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Scale for Assessment of Negative symptoms. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in pre and post test scores in both control and experimental groups. But statistically significant difference in post test mean scores on negative symptoms between control and experimental groups indicated effectiveness of planned exercise programme along with medical and nursing care. Conclusion: The findings concluded that planned exercise programme with routine medical and nursing care was effective in reduction of negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

  1. Early-course unmedicated schizophrenia patients exhibit elevated prefrontal connectivity associated with longitudinal change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Hu, Xinyu; Xiao, Yuan; Hu, Junmei; Li, Fei; Bi, Feng; Cole, Michael W; Savic, Aleksandar; Yang, Genevieve J; Repovs, Grega; Murray, John D; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Krystal, John H; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-01-07

    Strong evidence implicates prefrontal cortex (PFC) as a major source of functional impairment in severe mental illness such as schizophrenia. Numerous schizophrenia studies report deficits in PFC structure, activation, and functional connectivity in patients with chronic illness, suggesting that deficient PFC functional connectivity occurs in this disorder. However, the PFC functional connectivity patterns during illness onset and its longitudinal progression remain uncharacterized. Emerging evidence suggests that early-course schizophrenia involves increased PFC glutamate, which might elevate PFC functional connectivity. To test this hypothesis, we examined 129 non-medicated, human subjects diagnosed with early-course schizophrenia and 106 matched healthy human subjects using both whole-brain data-driven and hypothesis-driven PFC analyses of resting-state fMRI. We identified increased PFC connectivity in early-course patients, predictive of symptoms and diagnostic classification, but less evidence for "hypoconnectivity." At the whole-brain level, we observed "hyperconnectivity" around areas centered on the default system, with modest overlap with PFC-specific effects. The PFC hyperconnectivity normalized for a subset of the sample followed longitudinally (n = 25), which also predicted immediate symptom improvement. Biologically informed computational modeling implicates altered overall connection strength in schizophrenia. The initial hyperconnectivity, which may decrease longitudinally, could have prognostic and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/350267-20$15.00/0.

  2. Are patients with schizophrenia rational maximizers? Evidence from an ultimatum game study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csukly, Gábor; Polgár, Patrícia; Tombor, László; Réthelyi, János; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2011-05-15

    Schizophrenia is associated with impaired social cognition and community functioning. Social decision-making strategies of healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia were compared by using the ultimatum game (UG). In this game two players have to split a sum of money. The proposer offers a portion to the responder, who decides to either accept or reject the offer. Rejection results in no income to either of the parties. Unfair proposals are frequently rejected by nonclinical individuals, a phenomenon described as altruistic punishment. Patients and controls participated in a series of UG interactions as responders in a computerized test setting. We also tested the effect of the proposer's facial expression on decision-making. Our results indicate that patients with schizophrenia accepted unfair offers at a significantly higher rate than did healthy controls. In contrast, at fair proposals, the acceptance rate was lower in patients compared with controls. At higher offers, the proposer's facial expression (positive/negative) significantly influenced the acceptance rate (positive facial expression increased the likelihood of acceptance) in the control group. This effect was not observed in the patient group. These results suggest that schizophrenia patients are impaired in socioeconomic interactions requiring emotion recognition and decision-making, which may result in unstable behavioral strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Karolinska Scales of Personality, cognition and psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

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    Nilsson, Björn Mikael; Holm, Gunnar; Ekselius, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Studies on both personality dimensions and cognition in schizophrenia are scarce. The objective of the present study was to examine personality traits and the relation to cognitive function and psychotic symptoms in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In total 23 patients with schizophrenia and 14 controls were assessed with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). A broad cognitive test programme was used, including the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales, the Finger-Tapping Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Benton Visual Retention Test, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test . Compared with controls, the patients exhibited prominent elevations on KSP scales measuring anxiety proneness and neuroticism (P = 0.000005-0.0001), on the Detachment scale (P controls. KSP anxiety-related scales correlated with the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) general psychopathology subscale. Cognitive test results were uniformly lower in the patient group and correlated with PANSS negative symptoms subscale. There was no association between KSP scale scores and PANSS positive or negative symptoms. The patients revealed a highly discriminative KSP test profile with elevated scores in neuroticism- and psychoticism-related scales as compared to controls. Results support previous findings utilizing other personality inventories in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive test performance correlated inversely with negative symptoms.

  4. The Effect of Cognitive Remediation Therapy on Social Skills in Institutionalized Elderly Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Motallebi, Seyedeh Ameneh; Boosepasi, Shahnaz

    2017-01-01

    There are limited scientific investigations on cognitive remediation in elderly patients with schizophrenia. The present study was aimed to examine the efficacy of cognitive remediation therapy on social skills in institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia. The study employed a randomized clinical trial. A total of 60 institutionalized elderly patients with schizophrenia from Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran were selected and randomly allocated into two equal groups (control and intervention). The intervention group attended to cognitive remediation therapy for 8 weeks. The Evaluation of Living Skills Scale for psychiatric patients was used for data collection. The Chi Square, independent and paired t-tests using SPSS, version 22, were employed to analyze the data. The mean age of 60 elderly patients participated in the study was 65.25 ± 4.19 years. No significant differences were found between two groups at baseline. However, independent t-tests showed significant differences between the intervention and the control group in social skills after implementation of intervention. Additionally, the results of paired t-tests revealed significant improvements in intervention group on communication skills (t=5.50, psocial skills of elderly patients with schizophrenia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Effect of perceived intimacy on social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunyoung ePark

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Social dysfunctions including emotional perception and social decision-making are common in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the level of intimacy formation and the effect of intimacy on social decision in patients with schizophrenia using virtual reality tasks which simulate complicated social situations. Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls performed the two virtual social tasks: the intimacy task and the social decision task. The first one was to estimate repeatedly how intimate participants felt with each avatar after listening to what avatars said. The second one was to decide whether or not participants accepted the requests of easy, medium or hard difficulty by the intimate or distant avatars. During the intimacy task, the intimacy rating scores for intimate avatars were not significantly different between groups, but those for distant avatars were significantly higher in patients than in controls. During the social decision task, the difference in the acceptance rate between intimate and distant avatars was significantly smaller in patients than in controls. In detail, a significant group difference in the acceptance rate was found only for the hard requests, but not for the easy and medium difficulty requests. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in emotional perception and social decision-making. Various factors such as a peculiarity of emotional deficits, motivational deficits, concreteness, and paranoid tendency may contribute to these abnormalities.

  6. Naltrexone and Bupropion Combination Treatment for Smoking Cessation and Weight Loss in Patients With Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechan Lyu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rates of obesity and cigarette smoking are much higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the general population. This study was to examine whether naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment can help weight loss and smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Obese male schizophrenia patients with current cigarette smoking were randomized to receive adjunctive naltrexone (25 mg/day and bupropion (300 mg/day combination or placebo for 24 weeks. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study, and 21 patients completed the study (11 in the treatment group, and 10 in the placebo group. Body weight, body mass index (BMI, fasting lipids, smoking urge, expired carbon monoxide (CO level and cigarettes smoked per week were measured at baseline and week 24.Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in changes in weight, BMI, fasting lipids, or cigarette smoking measures (p's > 0.05Conclusion: Naltrexone and bupropion combination treatment didn't show weight loss or smoking cessation effect in patients with schizophrenia in this pilot study.Implications for future studies were discussed.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02736474.

  7. Effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Hazari, Nandita; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) among patients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS). Records of patients who had received ECT were reviewed to identify patients with TRS who were administered ECT in combination with clozapine. Socio-demographic, clinical data and ECT details were extracted. The most common diagnosis was of paranoid schizophrenia (49%) followed by undifferentiated schizophrenia (36%). A-fifth (22%) of the patients were judged to have poor response to clozapine. The mean number of ECTs given were 13.97 (SD-7.67) and mean clozapine dose was 287.5mgs/day (SD-100.1). About two-thirds (63%) of the patients showed >30% reduction in scores on different symptom-rating scales with combined use of clozapine and ECT. Among clozapine non-responders, approximately 69% responded to the combination. Post-ECT rise in blood pressure was the most common side effect (16.9%) followed by prolonged seizures (7%). Long-term follow-up data was available for 47 out of the 59 patients. More than two-third (N=34; 72%) followed-up for an average of 30 months (SD 32.3; range: 1-120), maintained well with continued clozapine treatment. To conclude, results of this study further endorse the effectiveness, safety and long-term benefits of the clozapine-ECT combination in TRS and clozapine-refractory schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence of some strategic preservation of episodic learning in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuaire, Flavien; Izaute, Marie; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2012-01-30

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of schizophrenia patients' strategic use of learning time allocation during encoding, and determine whether they are able to use their monitoring and previous performances to adapt their learning behavior efficiently. Schizophrenia is considered to be a pathology of consciousness as well as being associated with impaired awareness of cognitive processes. In this study, after a learning session, individuals may express a Judgment of Learning (JOL), which reflects their sense of being able to retrieve the information later and which forms the basis for their decision whether or not to carry on learning. The introspective abilities of schizophrenia patients and subsequent strategic control of study time during the encoding of easy or difficult word pairs were investigated in 23 patients and 23 healthy comparison subjects. In spite of their memory impairment, patients were able to judge the difficulty of the word pairs with accuracy and adapt their learning time accordingly. Schizophrenia patients are sensitive to difficulty when rating JOLs and afterwards controlling study time. Monitoring their knowledge at the start helped patients to adapt their learning efficiently. These findings may be of value for cognitive remediation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of perceived intimacy on social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Shin, Jung Eun; Han, Kiwan; Shin, Yu-Bin; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Social dysfunctions including emotional perception and social decision-making are common in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine the level of intimacy formation and the effect of intimacy on social decision in patients with schizophrenia using virtual reality tasks, which simulate complicated social situations. Twenty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls performed the 2 virtual social tasks: the intimacy task and the social decision task. The first one was to estimate repeatedly how intimate participants felt with each avatar after listening to what avatars said. The second one was to decide whether or not participants accepted the requests of easy, medium, or hard difficulty by the intimate or distant avatars. During the intimacy task, the intimacy rating scores for intimate avatars were not significantly different between groups, but those for distant avatars were significantly higher in patients than in controls. During the social decision task, the difference in the acceptance rate between intimate and distant avatars was significantly smaller in patients than in controls. In detail, a significant group difference in the acceptance rate was found only for the hard requests, but not for the easy and medium difficulty requests. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit in emotional perception and social decision-making. Various factors such as a peculiarity of emotional deficits, motivational deficits, concreteness, and paranoid tendency may contribute to these abnormalities.

  10. Memantine enhances the effect of olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia: A randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fakhri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate dysregulation may be involved in the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Memantine, a drug approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, acts as a partial uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of memantine as an adjunctive treatment to olanzapine in patients with schizophrenia. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, patients with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV clinical criteria were selected. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either memantine (week 1:10 mg/day; weeks 2-6:20 mg/day plus olanzapine (15-20 mg/day or olanzapine plus placebo. At baseline, no statistically significant difference regarding the mean total PANSS scores between treatment groups was found. Results showed that memantine significantly improved the positive and negative PANSS score in patients maintained on olanzapine after six weeks compared to olanzapine alone (P<0.001. Furthermore, female patients showed significantly better response than males, especially in positive PANSS score. No significant changes in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed.These findings indicate that olanzapine efficacy might be augmented with memantine. Furthermore, this effect is more remarkable in female patients with schizophrenia.

  11. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial of individualized occupational therapy for patients with schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Ohori, Manami; Inagaki, Yusuke; Shimooka, Yuko; Sugimura, Naoya; Ishihara, Ikuyo; Yoshida, Tomotaka; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    The individualized occupational therapy (IOT) program is a psychosocial program that we developed to facilitate proactive participation in treatment and improve cognitive functioning and other outcomes for inpatients with acute schizophrenia. The program consists of motivational interviewing, self-monitoring, individualized visits, handicraft activities, individualized psychoeducation, and discharge planning. This multicenter, open-labeled, blinded-endpoint, randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of adding IOT to a group OT (GOT) program as usual for outcomes in recently hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Japanese psychiatric hospitals setting compared with GOT alone. Patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to the GOT+IOT group or the GOT alone group. Among 136 randomized patients, 129 were included in the intent-to-treat population: 66 in the GOT+IOT and 63 in the GOT alone groups. Outcomes were administered at baseline and discharge or 3 months following hospitalization including the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J), the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale Japanese version, the Social Functioning Scale Japanese version, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory Japanese version (IMI-J), the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Japanese version of Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8J). Results of linear mixed effects models indicated that the IOT+GOT showed significant improvements in verbal memory (p IOT demonstrated significant improvements on the CSQ-8J compared with the GOT alone (p IOT program and its effectiveness for improving cognitive impairment and other outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.

  12. The effects of assertiveness training in patients with schizophrenia: a randomized, single-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tso-Ying; Chang, Shih-Chin; Chu, Hsin; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chung, Min-Huey; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of group assertiveness training on assertiveness, social anxiety and satisfaction with interpersonal communication among patients with chronic schizophrenia. Only limited studies highlighted the effectiveness of group assertiveness training among inpatients with schizophrenia. Given the lack of group assertiveness training among patients with schizophrenia, further development of programmes focusing on facilitating assertiveness, self-confidence and social skills among inpatients with chronic schizophrenia is needed. This study used a prospective, randomized, single-blinded, parallel-group design. This study employed a prospective, randomized, parallel-group design. Seventy-four patients were randomly assigned to experimental group receiving 12 sessions of assertiveness training, or a supportive control group. Data collection took place for the period of June 2009-July 2010. Among patients with chronic schizophrenia, assertiveness, levels of social anxiety and satisfaction with interpersonal communication significantly improved immediately after the intervention and at the 3-month follow-up in the intervention group. The results of a generalized estimating equation (GEE) indicated that: (1) assertiveness significantly improved from pre- to postintervention and was maintained until the follow-up; (2) anxiety regarding social interactions significantly decreased after assertiveness training; and (3) satisfaction with interpersonal communication slightly improved after the 12-session intervention and at the 3-month follow-up. Assertivenss training is a non-invasive and inexpensive therapy that appears to improve assertiveness, social anxiety and interpersonal communication among inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. These findings may provide a reference guide to clinical nurses for developing assertiveness-training protocols. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A Cross-sectional, Comparative Study of Insight in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Patients in Remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Arul Saravanan; Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Kanradi, Haridas; Sharma, Podila Satya Venkata Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    To study insight correlates in schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission among out-patients attending the Psychiatry Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital. In a cross-sectional, naturalistic study, adult patients with schizophrenia and bipolar mood disorder in remission (n = 80; schizophrenia-40, mania-20, bipolar depression-20) were compared on insight measures and clinical correlates. Scale to Assess the Unawareness of Mental Disorders (SUMD) was used as the main tool to assess current and past measures of insight. Hogan's Drug Attitude Inventory was used to assess the drug attitude and compliance. Positive and Negative Symptom Scale for Schizophrenia, Young's Mania Rating Scale, and HAMD were used to rate psychopathology. Clinical Global Improvement was used as a screening tool for remission. For comparison of the three clinical groups, analysis of variance and Chi-square test were used. In the post-hoc analysis, the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch test was used to find the group difference. About 40% in the schizophrenia group were unaware of their mental illness as against none in the bipolar group. The awareness of mental disorder for the current period, the awareness of the achieved effects of medications, and the awareness of social consequence was better in the bipolar group. The drug attitude (compliant positive attitude) increased as the SUMD item scale decreased or in other words, as the insight improved. Insight, both current and retrospect, showed significant differences between the schizophrenia and bipolar patients. Insight is significantly correlated with the observed compliance and drug attitude of the patient groups.

  14. Effects of VRK2 (rs2312147 on white matter connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoung Sohn

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies of schizophrenia reported a novel risk variant, rs2312147 at vaccinia-related kinase 2 gene (VRK2, in multiple Asian and European samples. However, its effect on the brain structure in schizophrenia is little known. We analyzed the brain structure of 36 schizophrenia patients and 18 healthy subjects with regard to rs2312147 genotype groups. Brain magnetic resonance scans for gray matter (GM and white matter (WM analysis, and genotype analysis for VRK2 rs2312147, were conducted. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Digit Symbol Test were assessed for schizophrenia patients. There was no significant difference in either GM volume or WM connectivity with regard to rs2312147 genotype in healthy subjects. In contrast, we found significant differences in the WM connectivity between rs2312147 CC and CT/TT genotype groups of schizophrenia patients. The related brain areas included the splenium of corpus callosum, the left occipital lobe WM, the internal capsule (left anterior limb and right retrolenticular part, the bilateral temporal lobe WM, the left fornix/stria terminalis, the left cingulate gyrus WM, and the left parietal lobe WM. Voxelwise correlation analysis revealed that the Digit Symbol Test scores (age corrected correlated with the fractional anisotropy in WM tracts that previously showed significant group differences between the CT/TT and CC genotypes in the rs2312147 CT/TT genotype group, while no significant correlation was found in the CC genotype group. Our data may provide evidence for the effect of VRK2 on WM connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.

  15. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial of individualized occupational therapy for patients with schizophrenia in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohori, Manami; Inagaki, Yusuke; Shimooka, Yuko; Sugimura, Naoya; Ishihara, Ikuyo; Yoshida, Tomotaka

    2018-01-01

    The individualized occupational therapy (IOT) program is a psychosocial program that we developed to facilitate proactive participation in treatment and improve cognitive functioning and other outcomes for inpatients with acute schizophrenia. The program consists of motivational interviewing, self-monitoring, individualized visits, handicraft activities, individualized psychoeducation, and discharge planning. This multicenter, open-labeled, blinded-endpoint, randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of adding IOT to a group OT (GOT) program as usual for outcomes in recently hospitalized patients with schizophrenia in Japanese psychiatric hospitals setting compared with GOT alone. Patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to the GOT+IOT group or the GOT alone group. Among 136 randomized patients, 129 were included in the intent-to-treat population: 66 in the GOT+IOT and 63 in the GOT alone groups. Outcomes were administered at baseline and discharge or 3 months following hospitalization including the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J), the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale Japanese version, the Social Functioning Scale Japanese version, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory Japanese version (IMI-J), the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and the Japanese version of Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8 (CSQ-8J). Results of linear mixed effects models indicated that the IOT+GOT showed significant improvements in verbal memory (p IOT demonstrated significant improvements on the CSQ-8J compared with the GOT alone (p IOT program and its effectiveness for improving cognitive impairment and other outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:29621261

  16. Some new approaches for prevention of schizophrenia spectrum disorders in patients exposed to exogenous stressors

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    Nataliya Dzeruzhinska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Environment factors affect to the clinical phenotype of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Aim. To develop recommendations for the prevention schizophrenia spectrum disorders considering the influence of environmental factors on the clinical pathomorphosis of the disease. Methods. It was conducted the psychopathological and psychodiagnostic survey of 186 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders with an assessment of clinical features and level of social functioning. It was identified factors that have the most significant pathological effects on the course of disorders on the basis of the received data: the using of a cannabinoid in a family history, mother`s infectious and somatic diseases during pregnancy, mother's using alcohol during pregnancy, consumption of alcohol in adolescent patients, fetal hypoxia or perinatal trauma of the patient at birth, problems with the group of primary support in the family of a child in childhood, maternal toxicosis, crisis relationships in the family, migration to different cultural environment. Results. Clinical pathomorphism of disorders of the spectrum of schizophrenia under the influence of environmental factors determines the features of psychotherapeutic interventions. In people with cannabinoids, it is important to eliminate the symptoms of anxiety through emotion-supportive measures, as well as to create a motivation to ask help in case of symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In a group with perinatal complications, the emphasis should be put on cognitive methods in order to correct mental disorders and overcome hypochondria. Early measures to form a positive attitude towards themselves and the environment, supporting family relationships, overcoming depressive symptoms, and developing social activity are targets of psychotherapeutic interventions in people with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and psychological traumatic events. Conclusion. Minimization of environmental

  17. Spatial behavior reflects the mental disorder in OCD patients with and without comorbid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershoni, Anat; Hermesh, Haggai; Fineberg, Naomi A; Eilam, David

    2014-02-01

    Resolving the entangled nosological dilemma of whether obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with and without schizophrenia (schizo-OCD and OCD, respectively) are two independent entities or whether schizo-OCD is a combined product of its parent disorders. Studying motor activity in OCD and in schizo-OCD patients. Performance of the patients was compared with the performance of the same motor task by a matching control individual. Behavior in both schizo-OCD and OCD patients differed from controls in the excessive repetition and addition of acts, thus validating an identical OC facet. However, there was a significant difference in spatial behavior. Schizo-OCD patients traveled over a greater area with less focused activity as typical to schizophrenia patients and in contrast to OCD patients, who were more focused and traveled less in a confined area. While schizo-OCD and OCD patients share most of the OC ritualistic attributes, they differ in the greater spread of activity in schizo-OCD, which is related to schizophrenia disorder. It is suggested that the finding on difference in spatial behavior is a reflection of the mental differences between OCD and schizophrenia. In other words, this could be an overt and observable manifestation of the mental state, and therefore may facilitate the nosology of OC spectrum disorders and OCD. It seems as if both the OCD patients' focus on specific thoughts, and the contrasting wandering thoughts of schizophrenia patients, are reflected in the focused activity of the former and wandering from one place to the next of the latter.

  18. Comorbidity of narcolepsy and schizophrenia in an adolescent patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Hong Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old boy suffered from hypersomnia, fragmented nighttime sleep, and cataplexy since age 10 years, and then developed prominent psychotic symptoms (i.e., auditory and visual hallucination, hallucinatory behavior, delusions of reference, and misidentification that occurred persistently during the wakeful and consciously clear period when he was aged 12 years. The child underwent additional medical evaluation and testing, and comorbidity of narcolepsy and schizophrenia was diagnosed. The child's psychotic symptoms and narcolepsy improved significantly upon treatment with methylphenidate 30 mg, olanzapine 25 mg, and haloperidol 10 mg. In this case, the child's symptomology of narcolepsy and schizophrenia and the dilemma of the use of antipsychotics and psychostimulants are representative examples of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in adolescent psychiatry.

  19. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

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    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  20. Stability of prepulse inhibition and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenia: a 6-year follow-up study of initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Trine Bjørg; Oranje, Bob; Fagerlund, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in information processing appear to be core features in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the startle reflex are operational measures of early information processing. Impaired PPI in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies and is re......Deficits in information processing appear to be core features in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and habituation of the startle reflex are operational measures of early information processing. Impaired PPI in schizophrenia has been replicated in many studies...... and is regarded as an endophenotype for schizophrenia. However, reports on the stability of PPI over a longer period of time are lacking, both for patients with schizophrenia and for healthy subjects. The current study examined 25 initially drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 23 healthy matched...

  1. En undersøgelse af livshistorier blandt patienter med skizofreni. (An examination of life stories among patients with schizophrenia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Tine; Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard

    Lack of self-continuity is a defining feature in schizophrenia, which involves the experience that the past self is not meaningfully connected to the present self. Self-continuity may be established through the life story. In this study-in-progress we examine whether patients with schizophrenia...... have less coherent life stories compared to healthy controls. 30 patients and 30 matched controls describe and rate up to 10 life story chapters and 3 self-defining memories (SDMs). We expect that patients will have less chronologically organized chapters and that they will rate degree of self......-continuity and causal coherence lower for both SDMs and life story chapters....

  2. The MAOA and COMT Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Schizophrenia Committed Homicide

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    V.A. Soldatkin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have indicated that aggression and homicide are more frequent among people with schizophrenia than in the general population. There is considerable evidence that schizophrenia involves a dysbalance between subcortical and cortical dopaminergic systems. The major pathways for catecholamine degradation are oxidative deamination through the action of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA and by methylation through the action of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT. Activity of both enzymes is encoded by the corresponding genes—MAOA and COMT. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between the COMT-Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and the risk of committing homicide by patients with schizophrenia. Methods: The study included 50 Caucasian male patients with paranoid schizophrenia (PS. All patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of 26 PS patients who have committed homicide; Group 2 consisted of 24 PS patients who did not have a history of socially violent behavior. The control group comprised 23 apparently healthy Caucasian men of the same age. All patients underwent clinical-psychopathological and clinical-anamnestic examinations. Molecular genetic studies were performed in the Shared Research Facility Center "High Technologies" at SFedU. Results: Our study revealed no direct correlation between the COMT-Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR polymorphisms and risk of committing homicide by patients with schizophrenia. At the same time, we detected an association between high-activity gene variants, viz., the MAOA-4R allele and the COMT-158Met/158Met genotype, and the schizoid and unstable premorbid accentuation in patients who had committed murder, whereas the schizoid and unstable accentuation correlated with homicide behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion: The obtained findings suggest that genetic variation affects the homicidal behavior indirectly, through the various types of premorbid accentuation and

  3. How to diagnose the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome in patients with schizophrenia: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome is caused by a microdeletion of chromosome 22. One third of all patients with 22q11.2 deletion develop schizophrenia-like symptoms. In general, the prevalence of 22q11.2 deletion in patients with schizophrenia is 1%–2%. The 22q11.2 deletion is one of the major known genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. However, clinical differences in the phenotypes between patients with schizophrenia who are 22q11.2 deletion carriers and those who are not are still unknown. Therefore, it may be difficult to diagnose 22q11.2 deletion in patients with schizophrenia on the basis of clinical symptoms. To date, only two Japanese patients with the deletion have been identified through microdeletion studies of patients with schizophrenia in the Japanese population. Herein, we report the case study of a 48-year-old Japanese woman with 22q11.2 deletion who had a 30-year history of schizophrenia. Based on craniofacial anomalies, unpredictable agitation, hypocalcemia, and brain imaging finding, we suspected the 22q11.2 deletion in clinical populations and diagnosed the deletion using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. To find common phenotypes in Japanese patients with the deletion who have schizophrenia-like symptoms, we compared phenotypes among three Japanese cases. The common phenotypes were an absence of congenital cardiovascular anomalies and the presence of current findings of low intellectual ability, agitation, and hypocalcemia. We propose that hypocalcemia and agitation in patients with schizophrenia may derive from the 22q11.2 deletion, particularly when these phenotypes are coupled with schizophrenia-like symptoms. PMID:24063534

  4. Glucoregulation in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated by first generation antipsychotics

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    Marić Nađa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Schizophrenia patients are at greater risk of obesity, diabetes mellitus (DM, lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular disorders. The metabolic complications in patients are associated with several risk factors: family history of DM, lifestyle, smoking, dietary habits, physical inactivity, but also with antipsychotic medication. In literature, most publications have been focused on the effects of the second generation antipsychotics (SGA on glucose metabolism. However, less attention has been paid to abnormality in glucoregulation, patients with schizophrenia treated with the first generation antipsychotics (FGA. Objective The present study evaluated glucose metabolism in normal weight schizophrenia patients treated with FGA. METHOD The cross-sectional study included 18 patients (FGA treated and 20 healthy controls with neither group differences in sex distribution, age, nor in BMI. Inclusion criteria were normal BMI (20-25 kg/m2. The glucose levels, insulin levels and growth hormone levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT were measured. Results Fasting glucose and insulin levels did not differ significantly between groups. Groups differed in OGTT glucose and insulin peak and area under curve (AUC, level of significance p<0.05 (patients vs. controls: glucose peak 8.3±0.4 vs.6.9±0.5 mmol/l, glucose AUC 758±28 vs. 640±36 mU/l/120 min; insulin peak in patients 92.7±15.6 mU/l; insulin AUC 6060±1016 mU/l/120 min, insulin peak in controls 47.9±6.5 mU/l; insulin AUC 2597±256 mU/l/120 min. Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia, although with normal body mass index, are at high risk of abnormal glucose regulation. Not only SGA increase the risk of impaired glucoregulation and metabolic syndrome, but this may also be due to FGA or schizophrenia per se. .

  5. Coping strategies and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

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    Holubova M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michaela Holubova,1,2 Jan Prasko,1 Radovan Hruby,3 Klara Latalova,1 Dana Kamaradova,1 Marketa Marackova,1 Milos Slepecky,4 Terezia Gubova2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic; 3Private Psychiatric Practice, Martin, Slovak Republic; 4Department of Psychology Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Health Care, Constantine the Philosopher University, Nitra, Slovak Republic Background: Maladaptive coping strategies may adversely disturb the overall functioning of people with mental disorders. Also, self-stigma is considered a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patient life. It has a negative impact on self-image, and may lead to dysphoria, social isolation, reduced adherence, using of negative coping strategies, and lower quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.Subjects and methods: A total of 104 clinically stable outpatients with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were examined by psychiatrists with the Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were performed to discover contributing factors to self-stigma.Results: Positive coping strategies were used by patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders to the same extent as in the healthy population. Negative coping strategies were overused by these patients. There were significant associations between self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in schizophrenia. The ability to use positive coping

  6. [Functional neuroimaging in the study of aggressive behaviour in patients with schizophrenia].

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    Garciá-Martí, Gracián; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Aguilar, Eduardo J; Sanz-Requena, Roberto; Alberich-Bayarri, Ángel; Bonmatí, Ana; Sanjuán, Julio

    2013-02-16

    Although aggressive behaviours are not always very highly prevalent in schizophrenia, their occurrence does represent a significant problem for patients and those around them. Although neuroimaging studies have made it possible to further our knowledge of the biology of these behaviours, there is still a notable degree of clinical heterogeneity in the study samples that makes it difficult to obtain conclusive results that can be compared with each other. To determine whether there are variations in the brain activity, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging, of a homogenous group of patients with schizophrenia and aggressive behaviour. The sample consisted of 32 patients with refractory schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations selected for the study. The subjects were submitted to a functional magnetic resonance imaging examination using an auditory paradigm with emotional stimulation, while the degree of aggressiveness was measured by means of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Significant correlations were found between functional activation and the degree of aggressiveness, which show focal hyperactivations in patients with a greater association to violent behaviours. The areas identified were located in the left hippocampus (p aggressiveness and certain regions in the brain that are responsible for cognitive and emotional processing in a phenotypically very homogenous group of patients with chronic auditory hallucinations and schizophrenia. This alteration of the neuronal circuits can favour loss in the processes involved in empathy and sensitivity, thus favouring the appearance of aggressive behaviours.

  7. Quality of life in Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care.

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    Li, Yan; Hou, Cai-Lan; Ma, Xin-Rong; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Zang, Yu; Jia, Fu-Jun; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Lai, Kelly Y C; Chiu, Helen F K; Ungvari, Gabor S; Hall, Brian J; Cai, Mei-Ying; Ng, Chee H; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-08-01

    In China, maintenance treatment for clinically stable patients with schizophrenia is usually provided by primary care physicians. This study examined the quality of life (QOL) in patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care and explored the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with QOL. Altogether, 612 patients with schizophrenia treated in 22 randomly selected primary care services in China formed the study sample. QOL, psychotic and depressive symptoms, extra-pyramidal symptoms and insight were assessed using standardized instruments. Data analyses were conducted with the one sample t-test and multiple linear regression analyses. Compared with the normative data for the Chinese general population, significantly lower scores in physical and mental QOL domains were found in the patient group. Older age, being unemployed, major medical conditions, no smoking, more severe depressive and negative symptoms, more frequent insomnia, and suicidality were independently associated with poor physical QOL. Male gender, more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, more frequent insomnia, and suicidality were independently associated with poor mental QOL. Patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care had lower level of QOL in comparison with general population. Effective measures need to be implemented to improve their QOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of insight on social functioning in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Almila; Delibas, Hakan; Bora, Ozlem; Mete, Levent

    2015-06-01

    It is still unclear whether insight has a direct association with social functioning in schizophrenia, independent of its association with symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of insight and its dimensions with social functioning in schizophrenia. A total of 170 outpatients with schizophrenia were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). Patients with impaired insight and patients with unimpaired insight were compared for PSP score through independent samples t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to determine the correlations between study variables. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was used in order to determine the variables that predict social performance. The PSP score of patients with impaired insight was significantly lower than that of patients with unimpaired insight. There were significant correlations between insight dimensions and PSP score. PANSS negative scale score, awareness of achieved effects of medication and awareness of anhedonia/asociality were significant predictors of social performance. Insight has a significant impact on social functioning in schizophrenia, and some, but not all, insight dimensions have direct impact on social performance, independent of their association with symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Increased personal space of patients with schizophrenia in a virtual social environment.

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    Park, Sung-Hyouk; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Jang, Hee Jeong; Kim, So Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

    2009-10-30

    Virtual reality may be a good alternative method for measuring personal space and overcoming some limitations in previous studies on the social aspects of schizophrenia. Using this technology, we aimed to investigate the characteristics of personal space in patients with schizophrenia and evaluate the relationship between their social behaviors and schizophrenic symptoms. The distance from a virtual person and the angle of head orientation while talking to a virtual person in a virtual environment were measured in 30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 normal controls. It was found that patients with schizophrenia had longer distances and larger angles than did normal controls. The severity of the negative syndrome had significant inverse correlations with the distance from the angry and neutral virtual persons and with the angle of head orientation toward the happy and angry virtual persons, suggesting that negative symptoms may have a close relationship with personal space, including distancing and eye gaze. The larger personal space of patients may reflect their discomfort in close situations or cognitive deficits. Showing these profiles to patients could help them realize the amount of personal space they need.

  10. Decreased middle temporal gyrus connectivity in the language network in schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Huaning; Li, Liang; Liao, Qimei; Liu, Yang; Bao, Xianghong; Liu, Wenlei; Yin, Hong; Lu, Hongbing; Tan, Qingrong

    2017-07-13

    As the most common symptoms of schizophrenia, the long-term persistence of obstinate auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) brings about great mental pain to patients. Neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia have indicated that AVHs were associated with altered functional and structural connectivity within the language network. However, effective connectivity that could reflect directed information flow within this network and is of great importance to understand the neural mechanisms of the disorder remains largely unknown. In this study, we utilized stochastic dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate directed connections within the language network in schizophrenia patients with and without AVHs. Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia (18 with AVHs and 18 without AVHs), and 37 healthy controls participated in the current resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The results showed that the connection from the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) to left middle temporal gyrus (LMTG) was significantly decreased in patients with AVHs compared to those without AVHs. Meanwhile, the effective connection from the left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) to LMTG was significantly decreased compared to the healthy controls. Our findings suggest aberrant pattern of causal interactions within the language network in patients with AVHs, indicating that the hypoconnectivity or disrupted connection from frontal to temporal speech areas might be critical for the pathological basis of AVHs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  12. Irony and Proverb Comprehension in Schizophrenia: Do Female Patients “Dislike” Ironic Remarks?

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    Alexander M. Rapp

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r=-0.51 and proverb (r=0.56 comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia.

  13. Effect of Olanzapine on Clinical and Polysomnography Profiles in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Mohammad Zia Ul Haq Katshu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute and short-term administration of olanzapine has a favorable effect on sleep in schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to clarify the effect of olanzapine on polysomnographic profiles of schizophrenia patients during the acute phase of illness after controlling for previous drug exposure. Twenty-five drug-naïve or drug-free schizophrenia patients were assessed at baseline and after six weeks of olanzapine treatment on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, and Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser (UKU side-effect rating scale and a whole-night polysomnography; fifteen patients completed the study. There was a significant reduction in all psychopathological variables with maximum reduction in PANSS total, BPRS total, and PANSS positive scores. A significant increase in total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, nonrapid eye movement (NREM stage 1 duration, stage 3 duration, stage 4 duration, and stage 4 percentage of TST, number of rapid eye movement (REM periods, REM duration, and REM percentage of TST was observed. REM latency at baseline inversely predicted the reduction in BPRS total and PANSS total and positive scores. In summary, short-term treatment with olanzapine produced significant improvement in clinical and polysomnography profiles of patients with schizophrenia with shorter REM latency predicting a good clinical response.

  14. Differential Expression of Several miRNAs and the Host Genes AATK and DNM2 in Leukocytes of Sporadic ALS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabec, Katarina; Boštjančič, Emanuela; Koritnik, Blaž; Leonardis, Lea; Dolenc Grošelj, Leja; Zidar, Janez; Rogelj, Boris; Glavač, Damjan; Ravnik-Glavač, Metka

    2018-01-01

    Genetic studies have managed to explain many cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through mutations in several genes. However, the cause of a majority of sporadic cases remains unknown. Recently, epigenetics, especially miRNA studies, show some promising aspects. We aimed to evaluate the differential expression of 10 miRNAs, including miR-9, miR-338, miR-638, miR-663a, miR-124a, miR-143, miR-451a, miR-132, miR-206, and let-7b, for which some connection to ALS was shown previously in ALS culture cells, animal models or patients, and in three miRNA host genes, including C1orf61 (miR-9), AATK (miR-338), and DNM2 (miR-638), in leukocyte samples of 84 patients with sporadic ALS. We observed significant aberrant dysregulation across our patient cohort for miR-124a, miR-206, miR-9, let-7b, and miR-638. Since we did not use neurological controls we cannot rule out that the revealed differences in expression of investigated miRNAs are specific for ALS. Nevertheless, the group of these five miRNAs is worth of additional research in leukocytes of larger cohorts from different populations in order to verify their potential association to ALS disease. We also detected a significant up-regulation of the AAKT gene and down-regulation of the DNM2 gene, and thus, for the first time, we connected these with sporadic ALS cases. These findings open up new research toward miRNAs as diagnostic biomarkers and epigenetic processes involved in ALS. The detected significant deregulation of AAKT and DNM2 in sporadic ALS also represents an interesting finding. The DNM2 gene was previously found to be mutated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy-type CMT2M and centronuclear myopathy (CNM). In addition, as recent studies connected AATK and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and DNM2 and hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), these two genes together with our results genetically connect, at least in part, five diseases, including FTD, HSP, Charcot-Marie-Tooth (type CMT2M), CNM, and ALS

  15. Review: Burden on Family Caregivers Caring for Patients with Schizophrenia and Its Related Factors

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    Imas Rafiyah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Family caregiver is the most important person who cares for patient with schizophrenia. However when care is provided for long time, he/she may experiences the burden.Purpose: The purpose was to review concept and factors related to burden on family caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia.Method: A literatures were searched from databases: Pubmed, CINAHL, and Science Direct. Key words used to retrieve literature include caregiver burden and schizophrenia. Searching was limited in English language, full text, and the year of publication from 2000 to 2009 was used.Results: Twenty two studies were reviewed in this paper. The result showed that the caregivers caring for patients with schizophrenia experience burden. Burden was defined as a negative impact of caring for the impaired person experienced by caregiver on their activity (objective burden or feeling (subjective burden that involves emotional, physical health, social life, and financial status. Factors related to burden on family caregiver were grouped into: 1 caregiver‟s factors included age, gender, educational level, income, health status, and spent time per day, knowledge of schizophrenia, culture, and coping; 2 patient‟s factors included age, clinical symptoms, and disability in daily life; 3 environmental factors included mental health service and social support.Conclusion: Definition of burden have quite same meaning and mostly factors focus on the patient‟s symptoms, demographic factors of caregiver, and time spent per day. Most of studies cannot be generalized due to small sample used in the study and that too conducted in western countries. For further research, the correlation between burden and resources of family caregiver should be investigated particularly in eastern country.Key words: burden on family caregiver, caring, schizophrenia.

  16. A validation of wrist actigraphy against polysomnography in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

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    Baandrup L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lone Baandrup,1,2 Poul Jørgen Jennum3 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR, 2Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Copenhagen University Hospital, Mental Health Center Glostrup, Mental Health Services – Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Center for Healthy Ageing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark Purpose: Sleep disturbances are frequent in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Actigraphy has been established as a generally reliable method to examine these disturbances across varying time spans, but the validity against polysomnography (PSG is not well investigated for this population. We validated wrist-worn actigraphy against PSG in a population of chronic, medicated patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Patients and methods: From a clinical trial, we derived data from 37 patients with schizophrenia and five patients with bipolar disorder who were examined with one-night PSG and concomitant actigraphy. The following sleep variables were compared between the two methods: total sleep time, sleep efficiency, sleep latency, number of awakenings, and time awake after sleep onset. The degree of consistency between the two methods was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman plots. Subgroup analyses included splitting the analyses according to sex, diagnosis, and duration of wakefulness after sleep onset. PSG was considered the gold standard. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient was high for total sleep time, moderate for the number of awakenings, and low or zero for the other examined sleep variables. These findings were reproduced in the subgroup analyses that compared men and women, as well as patients with bipolar versus schizophrenia spectrum disorders. When excluding

  17. Drug-related predictors of readmission for schizophrenia among patients admitted to treatment for drug use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Pedersen, Michael Mulbjerg; Pedersen, Mads Uffe; Simonsen, Erik; Hesse, Morten

    2017-09-28

    Patients with schizophrenia and comorbid drug use disorders (DUD) have a severe course of illness. Despite strong evidence that drug use can exacerbate psychotic symptoms, we have limited knowledge of how specific drugs may increase risk of schizophrenia readmission in this group. This study aimed to assess drug-related predictors of readmission for schizophrenia among a national cohort of patients with a history of schizophrenia admitted to DUD treatment. A record-linkage study was used to assess drug-related factors associated with readmission to mental health treatment for schizophrenia, using a consecutive cohort of 634 patients admitted to DUD treatment between 2000 and 2006 in Danish treatment services and tracked until February 2013 or death, controlling for baseline psychiatric treatment variables. The majority of patients were males (79.8%) and the mean age was 34.7years. Of all patients, 78.7% were readmitted for schizophrenia during follow-up, and 6.8% died without having been readmitted. We found a robust association between use of amphetamine at baseline and elevated risk of readmission, a less robust association between use of cannabis and elevated risk of readmission, and no association with cocaine, opioids, alcohol, benzodiazepines, and MDMA. Furthermore, one or more psychiatric inpatients visit in the year prior to DUD admission was robustly associated with elevated risk of schizophrenia readmission. Use of amphetamine and cannabis are risk markers for schizophrenia readmission among patients with a history of schizophrenia and DUD. Psychiatric history is a predictor of schizophrenia readmission in this patient group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Social cognition in schizophrenia: similarities and differences of emotional perception from patients with focal frontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Ueda, Keita; Namiki, Chihiro; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Takuji; Ohigashi, Yoshitaka; Murai, Toshiya

    2009-06-01

    The structural and functional abnormalities of the frontal lobes, the region implicated in social information processing, have been suspected to underlie social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, multiple structures, including the limbic/paralimbic areas that are also important for social cognition, have been reported to be abnormal in schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate the extent to which the frontal lobe dysfunction accounts for social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia by comparing with patients who have focal frontal lobe injuries. Social cognitive abilities, focusing on affective aspects, were examined by an emotion intensity recognition task, which is sensitive to the amygdala function, and the emotion attribution tasks, which rely mainly on the frontal lobe function. Individuals with schizophrenia were impaired on the emotion intensity recognition task as well as on the emotion attribution tasks as compared with healthy subjects. By contrast, the frontal lobe-damaged group was defective in the emotion attribution tasks but not in the emotion intensity recognition task. Our results indicated that social cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia can be accounted for partly by their frontal lobe pathology. Other aspects of social cognitive impairments could also be associated with the extra-frontal pathology, such as the amygdala.

  19. Resveratrol supplementation did not improves cognition in patients with schizophrenia: results from a randomized clinical trial

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    KARINE ZORTEA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is associated with psychotic experiences and cognitive deficits. Therefore, cognitive function is one of the most critical determinants of quality of life in this pathology. Resveratrol has been related with neuroprotective action but there are no studies evaluating resveratrol in schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of resveratrol supplementation on cognition in individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: This is a 1-month randomized, double-blind controlled trial (NCT 02062190, in which 19 men with diagnosis of schizophrenia, aged 18 to 65 years, were assigned to a resveratrol supplement group (200mg or placebo group (200mg, with a 1-month follow-up. Applying a series of cognitive tests assessed neuropsychology performance (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Color and Word Test, Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale assessed psychopathology severity. Results: There were no significant improvement in neuropsychology performance (episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention and mental flexibility and psychopathology severity after 1-month of resveratrol supplementation (p>0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, we have shown that 1-month of a resveratrol supplementation (200 mg/day did not improve episodic memory, working memory, attention and concentration capacity, inhibitory control, interference measures, selective attention and mental flexibility as compared with placebo in patients with schizophrenia.

  20. Detection of Borna Disease Virus (BDV in Patients with First Episode of Schizophrenia

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    Hasan Soltani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a complex widespread neuropsychiatric disorder. This illness encompasses a complex debilitating mental disorder causing illusion, delusion, disturbed relationship, low motivation and decline of emotion. Viral infection of the brain including Borna Disease Virus (BDV may play a role in transient or permanent neurological and behavioral abnormalities. This role of Borna virus has not been resolved outright yet, and based on published papers investigation examining the role of this virus in schizophrenia is in progress worldwide.Method: In this study, Nested Reverse Transcription–Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested RT-PCR was used for detection of BDV Ribonucleic Acid (RNA in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs of a group of patients experiencing the first episode of schizophrenia. The results were compared with a normal group.Results: In our study, no BDV-positive was found in PBMCs of the case group. Out of 40 participants of control group one was positive for P24 gene of BDV. This result are similar to several published papers about this topic.Conclusion: An etiological relationship between Bornavirus and schizophrenia was not found in this study. More investigations are warranted to illustrate the probable relationship between bornavirus infection and schizophrenia.

  1. The relationship between cognitive insight, clinical insight, and depression in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Okan; Ugurlu, Görkem Karakas; Albayrak, Yakup; Arslan, Murat; Caykoylu, Ali

    2012-02-01

    Despite comorbid depression being relatively common even in subjects with schizophrenia, to the best of our knowledge, there is, to date, no report in the literature specifically and detailed examining the cognitive and clinical insight in subjects with schizophrenia and a comorbid depressive syndrome. Hence, in this study, we sought to compare the cognitive and clinical insight in our subjects with schizophrenia with and without a comorbid depressive syndrome. We found that participants in the depressive group scored significantly higher on self-reflectiveness and the reflectiveness-certainty (R-C) index scores than those in the nondepressive group. There was no significant difference among groups on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and clinical insight scores assessed by the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder. In addition, self-reflectiveness scores significantly correlated with depression, observed depression, hopelessness, and suicidality subscores of the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia. A better understanding of the cognitive component of insight in schizophrenia with comorbid depression may contribute to develop more efficient cognitive strategies, thus improving patient outcome. However, clinicians should be aware of the possibility of exacerbating a sense of hopelessness and suicide risk during the interventions that improve cognitive insight. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma metabonomics study of first-Episode schizophrenia treated with olanzapine in female patients.

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    Qiao, Ying; Zhang, Lei; He, Shen; Wen, Hui; Yu, Yi-Min; Cao, Chun-Hua; Li, Hua-Fang

    2016-03-23

    Schizophrenia is a persistent chronic mental illness with an unknown pathogenic mechanism; no empirical laboratory-based tests are available to support the diagnosis of schizophrenia or to identify biomarkers correlated with the therapeutic effect of olanzapine. For this study, 15 female first-episode, drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy female volunteers were recruited. Tests for blood glucose and lipids were conducted at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine. UPLC-MS based metabonomic analysis was performed on both case and control groups to identify biomarkers of schizophrenia at baseline and to explore which biomarkers correlated with the therapeutic effect of olanzapine after a 4-week treatment. Compared with the control group, the case group showed significant changes in plasma metabolites. Thirteen distinct metabolites were identified. Among all the therapeutically effective cases, levels of these metabolites appeared to shift towards the normal trend; 8 of the identified 13 metabolites changed dramatically. The metabolites that we found are potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with depression in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttajit S

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit, Sutrak PilakantaDepartment of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: To identify the point prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia and to evaluate the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia.Patients and methods: Metabolic syndrome was assessed based on an updated definition derived from the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III and the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17 was used to measure depressive symptoms in 80 patients with schizophrenia. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression for the association between each depressive symptom and metabolic syndrome.Results: The point prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome according to the modified NCEP-ATP III and International Diabetes Federation criteria were 37% and 35%, respectively. The risk of having metabolic syndrome significantly increased in those who were widowed or separated, or had longer duration of illness. Central obesity was the metabolic feature with the highest odds ratios for metabolic syndrome at 19.3. Three out of 17 items of HDRS subscales were found to be significantly associated with metabolic syndrome, including depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation with the odds ratios of 3.0, 3.4, and 3.6, respectively.Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia was higher than the overall rate but was slightly lower than in the general population in the USA. Central obesity, measured by waist circumference, was found to be highly correlated with metabolic syndrome. Depressed mood, middle insomnia, and retardation were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Waist circumference and screening

  4. Acute nicotine improves social decision-making in non-smoking but not in smoking schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quisenaerts, C.; Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Boer, P. de; Timmers, M.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients are characterized by severe social impairments. Recently, social cognition has been put forward as an important mediator in schizophrenia between the often-reported neurocognitive deficits and functional outcome and is thus an important target for treatments. Nicotine has been

  5. Hyperprolactinemia and CYP2D6, DRD2 and HTR2C genes polymorphism in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedorenko, Olga Yu.; Loonen, Anton J. M.; Vyalova, Natalya M.; Boiko, Аnastasiya S.; Pozhidaev, Ivan V.; Osmanova, Diana Z.; Rakhmazova, Lyubov D.; Bokhan, Nikolay А.; Ivanov, Mikhail V.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Ivanova, Svetlana А.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hyperprolactinemia is a common serious side effect of antipsychotic medications that are currently used in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Pharmacogenetic approaches offer the possibility of identifying patient-specific biomarkers for predicting the risk of this side

  6. Schizophrenia symptoms and functioning in patients receiving long-term treatment with olanzapine long-acting injection formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuskens, Joseph; Porsdal, Vibeke; Pecenak, Jan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This analysis of pooled data evaluates maintenance treatment outcomes of patients with schizophrenia receiving maintenance treatment with olanzapine long-acting injection (OLAI) by means of a categorical approach addressing the symptomatic and functional status of patients...

  7. Semantic Memory Organization in Japanese Patients With Schizophrenia Examined With Category Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Sumiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDisorganization of semantic memory in patients with schizophrenia has been studied by referring to their category fluency performance. Recently, data-mining techniques such as singular value decomposition (SVD analysis have been reported to be effective in elucidating the latent semantic memory structure in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to investigate semantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia using a novel method based on data-mining approach.MethodCategory fluency data were collected from 181 patients with schizophrenia and 335 healthy controls at the Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University. The 20 most frequently reported animals were chosen for SVD analysis. In the two-dimensional (2D solution, item vectors (i.e., animal names were plotted in the 2D space of each group. In the six-dimensional (6D solution, inter-item similarities (i.e., cosines were calculated among items. Cosine charts were also created for the six most frequent items to show the similarities to other animal items.ResultsIn the 2D spatial representation, the six most frequent items were grouped in the same clusters (i.e., dog, cat as pet cluster, lion, tiger as wild/carnivorous cluster, and elephant, giraffe as wild/herbivorous cluster for patients and healthy adults. As for 6D spatial cosines, the correlations (Pearson’s r between 17 items commonly generated in the two groups were moderately high. However, cosine charts created for the three pairs from the six most frequent animals (dog–cat, lion–tiger, elephant–giraffe showed that pair-wise similarities between other animals were less salient in patients with schizophrenia.DiscussionSemantic memory organization in patients with schizophrenia, revealed by SVD analysis, did not appear to be seriously impaired in the 2D space representation, maintaining a clustering structure similar to that in healthy controls for common animals. However, the coherence of those

  8. Relationship between first treatment contact and supernatural beliefs in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, S; Nebhinani, N; Chakrabarti, S; Shah, R; Avasthi, A

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To explore the relationship between attribution of symptoms to supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia attending a tertiary care hospital located in North India. METHODS. A total of 122 caregivers (aged ≥ 18 years, staying with patient ≥ 1 year and involved in patients' care) of consecutive patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia (according to the ICD-10) were evaluated for their supernatural beliefs and first treatment contact. RESULTS. The first treatment contact was a government or private psychiatrist in slightly more than half (53.3%) of the patients, while it was faith healers in 23.8% of the patients. Around three quarters (74.6%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to ≥ 1 supernatural belief (like sorcery / witchcraft, ghosts, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary influences, evil spirits, and bad deeds in previous life) and more than half (57.4%) of the caregivers attributed patients' symptoms to > 1 supernatural belief. It was observed that those who contacted faith healers for their patients' treatment had significantly higher attribution of the symptoms to supernatural causes. CONCLUSIONS. Supernatural beliefs were common in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia and the majority attributed their patients' symptoms to these beliefs. It signifies an urgent need for mental health literacy in India.

  9. [Characteristics of Schizophrenia Patients' Homicide Behaviors and Their Correlations with Criminal Capacity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z W; Shi, T T; Fu, P X

    2017-02-01

    To explore the characteristics of schizophrenia patients' homicide behaviors and the influences of the assessments of criminal capacity. Indicators such as demographic and clinical data, characteristics of criminal behaviors and criminal capacity from the suspects whom were diagnosed by forensic psychiatry as schizophrenia ( n =110) and normal mental ( n =70) with homicide behavior, were collected by self-made investigation form and compared. The influences of the assessments of criminal capacity on the suspects diagnosed as schizophrenia were also analyzed using logistic regression analysis. There were no significant statistical differences between the schizophrenic group and the normal mental group concerning age, gender, education and marital status ( P >0.05). There were significant statistical differences between the two groups concerning thought disorder, emotion state and social function before crime ( P homicide behavior. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  10. Prevalence of Insomnia and Clinical and Quality of Life Correlates in Chinese Patients With Schizophrenia Treated in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Cai-Lan; Li, Yan; Cai, Mei-Ying; Ma, Xin-Rong; Zang, Yu; Jia, Fu-Jun; Lin, Yong-Qiang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Chiu, Helen F K; Ng, Chee H; Zhong, Bao-Liang; Cao, Xiao-Lan; Tam, Man-Ian; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and clinical correlates of insomnia in schizophrenia patients treated in primary care. Six hundred and twenty-three schizophrenia patients from 22 primary care services were recruited. The prevalence of at least one type of insomnia was 28.9% (180/623), while those of difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and early morning wakening were 20.5%, 19.6%, and 17.7%, respectively. Only 53.3% of patients suffering from insomnia received treatment. Insomnia is common in Chinese patients with schizophrenia treated in primary care and the rate of treatment appears low. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Association of polymorphism in the dopamine receptors and transporter genes with hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osmanova, Diana Z; Boiko, Anastasia S; Fedorenko, Olga Yu; Pozhidaev, Ivan V; Freidin, Maxim B.; Kornetova, Elena G; Ivanova, Svetlana A.; Wilffert, Berend; Loonen, Antonius

    2017-01-01

    Association of polymorphism in the dopamine receptors and transporter genes with hyperprolactinemia in patients with schizophrenia D. Osmanova(1), A.S. Boiko(1), O.Y. Fedorenko(1), I.V. Pozhidaev(1), M.B. Freidin(2), E.G. Kornetova(3), S.A. Ivanova(1), B. Wilffert(4), A.J.M. Loonen(5) (1)Mental

  12. Asymmetric dimethylarginine in somatically healthy schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen

    2015-01-01

    ratio are positively correlated to measures of oxidative stress. METHODS: We included 40 schizophrenia patients treated with AAP, but without somatic disease or drug abuse, and 40 healthy controls. Plasma concentrations of ADMA and L-arginine were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography...

  13. Normalization of Cortical Gray Matter Deficits in Nonpsychotic Siblings of Patients with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattai, Anand A.; Weisinger, Brian; Greenstein, Deanna; Stidd, Reva; Clasen, Liv; Miller, Rachel; Tossell, Julia W.; Rapoport, Judith L.; Gogtay, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cortical gray matter (GM) abnormalities in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) progress during adolescence ultimately localizing to prefrontal and temporal cortices by early adult age. A previous study of 52 nonpsychotic siblings of COS probands had significant prefrontal and temporal GM deficits that appeared to…

  14. Facial emotion perception impairments in schizophrenia patients with comorbid antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dorothy Y Y; Liu, Amy C Y; Lui, Simon S Y; Lam, Bess Y H; Siu, Bonnie W M; Lee, Tatia M C; Cheung, Eric F C

    2016-02-28

    Impairment in facial emotion perception is believed to be associated with aggression. Schizophrenia patients with antisocial features are more impaired in facial emotion perception than their counterparts without these features. However, previous studies did not define the comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) using stringent criteria. We recruited 30 participants with dual diagnoses of ASPD and schizophrenia, 30 participants with schizophrenia and 30 controls. We employed the Facial Emotional Recognition paradigm to measure facial emotion perception, and administered a battery of neurocognitive tests. The Life History of Aggression scale was used. ANOVAs and ANCOVAs were conducted to examine group differences in facial emotion perception, and control for the effect of other neurocognitive dysfunctions on facial emotion perception. Correlational analyses were conducted to examine the association between facial emotion perception and aggression. Patients with dual diagnoses performed worst in facial emotion perception among the three groups. The group differences in facial emotion perception remained significant, even after other neurocognitive impairments were controlled for. Severity of aggression was correlated with impairment in perceiving negative-valenced facial emotions in patients with dual diagnoses. Our findings support the presence of facial emotion perception impairment and its association with aggression in schizophrenia patients with comorbid ASPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. General and social cognition in remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldiroli, Alice; Buoli, Massimiliano; Serati, Marta; Cahn, Wiepke; Altamura, A Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether both neurocognitive and social cognitive performances were different between remitted first-episode schizophrenia patients, non-remitters and healthy controls (HC). We assessed social cognition (Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task-DFAR and

  16. Co-morbid anxiety disorders in patients with schizophrenia in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anxiety disorders occur commonly in schizophrenia but are often overlooked by psychiatrists. Their presence may compound the challenges faced by these patients and may contribute to poor outcome. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety disorders among the ...

  17. Theory of mind correlates with clinical insight but not cognitive insight in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Xu; Parker, Giverny J; Hong, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Yi; Lui, Simon S Y; Neumann, David L; Cheung, Eric F C; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-03-30

    Research on the relationship between insight and social cognition, in particular Theory of Mind (ToM), in schizophrenia has yielded mixed findings to date. Very few studies, however, have assessed both clinical insight and cognitive insight when examining their relationships with ToM in schizophrenia. The current study thus investigated the relationship between clinical insight, cognitive insight, and ToM in a sample of 56 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. Twenty-seven patients were classified as low in clinical insight according to their scores on the 'insight' item (G12) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Moreover, cognitive insight and ToM were assessed with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) and the Yoni task, respectively. The results indicated that patients with poor clinical insight performed worse on tasks of second-order cognitive and affective ToM, while the ToM performance of patients with high clinical insight was equivalent to that of healthy controls. Furthermore, while clinical insight was correlated with ToM and clinical symptoms, cognitive insight did not correlate with clinical insight, ToM, or clinical symptoms. Clinical insight thus appears to be an important factor related to ToM in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Deficient gaze pattern during virtual multiparty conversation in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kiwan; Shin, Jungeun; Yoon, Sang Young; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Virtual reality has been used to measure abnormal social characteristics, particularly in one-to-one situations. In real life, however, conversations with multiple companions are common and more complicated than two-party conversations. In this study, we explored the features of social behaviors in patients with schizophrenia during virtual multiparty conversations. Twenty-three patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed the virtual three-party conversation task, which included leading and aiding avatars, positive- and negative-emotion-laden situations, and listening and speaking phases. Patients showed a significant negative correlation in the listening phase between the amount of gaze on the between-avatar space and reasoning ability, and demonstrated increased gaze on the between-avatar space in the speaking phase that was uncorrelated with attentional ability. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have active avoidance of eye contact during three-party conversations. Virtual reality may provide a useful way to measure abnormal social characteristics during multiparty conversations in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Autonomous motivation and quality of life as predictors of physical activity in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Raquel; Bastos, Tânia; Probst, Michel; Seabra, André; Vilhena, Estela; Corredeira, Rui

    2018-02-08

    Being physically active is a complex behaviour in patients with schizophrenia. Several factors were identified as barriers to achieving active behaviours in this population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate among a number of barriers what predicts the most on physical activity (PA) in patients with schizophrenia. A total of 114 patients (28♀) with schizophrenia were included. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Autonomous and controlled motivation (Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire - 3), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-esteem scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief version) and functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test - 6MWT) were evaluated. Multiple Regression Analysis was applied to assess the effect of these variables on Total PA per week (International Physical Activity Questionnaire - short version). Autonomous motivation and domains of quality of life were positively correlated with Total PA per week. Stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that of all the candidate factors to predict PA, autonomous motivation and global domain of quality of life were found as significant predictors. Our findings help to understand the importance of autonomous motivation and quality of life for PA in patients with schizophrenia. Knowledge about these predictors may provide guidance to improve PA behaviour in this population.

  20. Blood Biomarkers Predict the Cognitive Effects of Aripiprazole in Patients with Acute Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Hori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aripiprazole has been reported to exert variable effects on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated biological markers, clinical data, and psychiatric symptoms in order to identify factors that influence cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia undergoing aripiprazole treatment. We evaluated cognitive function in 51 patients with schizophrenia using Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS, as well as background information, psychiatric symptoms, plasma catecholamine metabolites—homovanillic acid (HVA, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG—, and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. Multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify factors independently associated with cognitive function. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, number of hospitalizations, and MHPG levels were associated with verbal memory and learning. Total hospitalization period and MHPG levels were associated with working memory. Age at first hospitalization and education were associated with motor speed. The number of hospital admissions, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative subscale scores (PANSS-N, MHPG levels, BDNF levels, and Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS scores were associated with verbal fluency. Homovanillic acid and MHPG levels, duration of illness, and PANSS-N scores were associated with attention and processing speed. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and MHPG levels were associated with executive function. These results suggest that treatment of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive dysfunction may be improved in patients treated with aripiprazole by controlling for these contributing factors.

  1. Missing link in community psychiatry: When a patient with schizophrenia was expelled from her home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Ming Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and disposition of homeless patients with schizophrenia represent a great challenge in clinical practice. We report a case of this special population, and discuss the development of homelessness, the difficulty in disposition, their utilization of health services, and possible applications of mandatory community treatment in this group of patients. A 51-year-old homeless female was brought to an emergency department for left femur fracture caused by an assault. She was diagnosed with schizophrenia about 20 years ago but received little help from mental health services over the decades. During hospitalization, her psychotic symptoms were only partially responsive to treatment. Her family refused to handle caretaking duties. The social welfare system was mobilized for long-term disposition. Homeless patients with schizophrenia are characterized by family disruption, poor adherence to health care, and multiple emergency visits and hospitalization. We hope this article can provide information about the current mental health policy to medical personnel. It is possible that earlier intervention and better outcome can be achieved by utilizing mandatory community treatment in the future, as well as preventing patients with schizophrenia from losing shelters.

  2. Fearful faces in schizophrenia - The relationship between patient characteristics and facial affect recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Wout, Mascha; van Dijke, Annemiek; Aleman, Andre; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Pijpers, Wietske; Kahn, Rene S.

    Although schizophrenia has often been associated with deficits in facial affect recognition, it is debated whether the recognition of specific emotions is affected and if these facial affect-processing deficits are related to symptomatology or other patient characteristics. The purpose of the

  3. The influence of marital status on the social dysfunction of schizophrenia patients in community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-jie Li

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirmed that bad marital status is associated with higher odds of social dysfunction among patients with schizophrenia living in the community. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders.

  4. Methylation patterns in whole blood correlate with symptoms in Schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Liu (Jingyu); J. Chen (Ji); S.M. Ehrlich (Stefan); E. Walton (Esther); T.J.H. White (Tonya); N. Perrone-Bizzozero (Nora); J. Bustillo; J. Turner (Jessica); V.D. Calhoun (Vince)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractDNA methylation, one of the main epigenetic mechanisms to regulate gene expression, appears to be involved in the development of schizophrenia (SZ). In this study, we investigated 7562 DNA methylation markers in blood from 98 SZ patients and 108 healthy controls. A linear regression

  5. Auditory verbal hallucinations in patients with borderline personality disorder are similar to those in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, C. W.; Daalman, K.; Blom, J. D.; Diederen, K. M.; Hoek, H. W.; Sommer, I. E. C.

    Background. Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are frequently claimed to be brief, less severe and qualitatively different from those in schizophrenia, hence the term 'pseudohallucinations'. AVH in BPD may be more similar to those experienced

  6. Fearful faces in schizophrenia: the relationship between patient characteristics and facial affect recognition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, M. van 't; Dijke, A. van; Aleman, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Pijpers, W.; Kahn, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Although schizophrenia has often been associated with deficits in facial affect recognition, it is debated whether the recognition of specific emotions is affected and if these facial affect-processing deficits are related to symptomatology or other patient characteristics. The purpose of the

  7. Deficits in Go and NoGo P3 potentials in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Erhan; Üçok, Alp; Keskin-Ergen, Yasemin; Devrim-Üçok, Müge

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive control processes elicited during a cued continuous performance test were evaluated using event-related potentials in 46 patients who were within the first 5 years of diagnosis of schizophrenia, and 29 healthy controls. Patients had longer reaction times, lower hit rates, and higher false alarm rates compared with controls. Patients had an overall P3 amplitude reduction that was more prominent on NoGo compared with Go trials. This greater P3 reduction on NoGo trials was present in central and parietal regions, but was absent in the frontal region, where the P3 reduction was comparable on NoGo and Go trials. Our findings suggest that the neural activity contributing to Go and NoGo P3s are both deteriorated in schizophrenia, but those contributing to central and parietal NoGo P3s are the most severely affected ones. We conclude that the cognitive control processes engaged during execution, and particularly during inhibition of a prepared motor response were disturbed in the early course of schizophrenia. Our findings might be related to our sample being in relatively early stages of schizophrenia and/or related to the use of atypical antipsychotics by most of our patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dopamine D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine or risperidone in young patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavalaye, J.; Linszen, D. H.; Booij, J.; Reneman, L.; Gersons, B. P.; van Royen, E. A.

    1999-01-01

    A crucial characteristic of antipsychotic medication is the occupancy of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor. We assessed striatal DA D2 receptor occupancy by olanzapine and risperidone in 36 young patients [31 males, 5 females; mean age 21.1 years (16-28)] with first episode schizophrenia, using

  9. Inefficient preparatory fMRI-BOLD network activations predict working memory dysfunctions in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eBaenninger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia show abnormal dynamics and structure of temporally coherent networks (TCNs assessed using fMRI, which undergo adaptive shifts in preparation for a cognitively demanding task. During working memory (WM tasks, patients with schizophrenia show persistent deficits in TCNs as well as EEG indices of WM. Studying their temporal relationship during WM tasks might provide novel insights into WM performance deficits seen in schizophrenia.Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were acquired during the performance of a verbal Sternberg WM task with two load levels (load 2 & load 5 in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 matched healthy controls. Using covariance mapping, we investigated the relationship of the activity in the TCNs before the memoranda were encoded and EEG spectral power during the retention interval. We assessed four TCNs – default mode network (DMN, dorsal attention network (dAN, left and right working memory networks (WMNs – and three EEG bands – theta, alpha, and beta.In healthy controls, there was a load dependent inverse relation between DMN and frontal-midline theta power and an anti-correlation between DMN and dAN. Both effects were not significantly detectable in patients. In addition, healthy controls showed a left-lateralized load-dependent recruitment of the WMNs. Activation of the WMNs was bilateral in patients, suggesting more resources were recruited for successful performance on the WM task.Our findings support the notion of schizophrenia patients showing deviations in their neurophysiological responses before the retention of relevant information in a verbal WM task. Thus, treatment strategies as neurofeedback targeting pre-states could be beneficial as task performance relies on the preparatory state of the brain.

  10. The Relationship between Symptom Severity and Low Vitamin D Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyla Doğan Bulut

    Full Text Available In recent years, the relationship between schizophrenia and environmental factors has come into prominence. This study investigated the relationship between vitamin D levels and the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia by comparing vitamin D levels between patients with schizophrenia and a healthy control group.The study included 80 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 74 age- and sex-matched controls. The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS and the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS were used to evaluate symptom severity. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD levels of all subjects both patients and healthy controls were analyzed in relation to measurements of symptom severity.There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age, sex, or physical activity. Their mean 25OHD levels were also similar (23.46±13.98ng/mL for the patient group and 23.69±9.61ng/mL for the control group. But when patients with schizophrenia were grouped based on their vitamin D levels, the results indicated a statistically significant differences between their vitamin D levels and their total SANS, affective flattening, and total SAPS, bizarre behavior and positive formal thought disorder scores (p = 0.019, p = 0.004, p = 0.015, p = 0.009 and p = 0.019, respectively. There is a negative correlation between 25OHD levels and SANS total points (r = -0.232, p = 0.038; a negative correlation for attention points (r = -0.227, p = 0.044 and negative correlation with positive formal thoughts (r = -0.257, p = 0.021.The results of this study show a relationship between lower levels of vitamin D and the occurrence of positive and negative symptoms, along with increased severity of symptoms at lower levels of vitamin D, suggesting that treatment for schizophrenia should include assessment of patients' vitamin D levels. We recommend that patients with schizophrenia should be assessed with regard to their vitamin D

  11. Temperament and character personality profile in relation to suicide attempts in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Yakup; Ekinci, Okan; Cayköylü, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with a significant risk of suicide, and suicide still remains one of the main causes of death in schizophrenic patients. Beside classic risk factors for suicidality, temperament and character traits have been researched and considered as risk factors for suicidal behavior in recent years. Subjects were 94 patients with schizophrenia who were under treatment. All patients were in a stable phase of the illness. Patients with lifetime suicide attempt (n = 46) and without suicidal attempt (n = 48) were compared with each other in terms of temperament and character traits by using the Temperament and Character Inventory. Harm avoidance and persistence scores were higher in suicidal schizophrenic patients compared with nonsuicidal schizophrenic patients. The scores of self-directedness and cooperativeness were lower in suicidal schizophrenic patients compared with nonsuicidal schizophrenic patients. These 4 variables remained significant predictors of lifetime suicidal attempts in a logistic regression model. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first that specifically compares schizophrenic patients with and without suicidal behavior by the Cloninger temperament and character model. Our data indicate that schizophrenic patients will show a greater risk for suicide according to certain personality configurations. However, to establish causal relationships between personality and suicidality in schizophrenia, longitudinal studies are warranted within a multifactorial interactive framework of biologic and clinical variables. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Development and Effects of a Cognitive-behavioral Therapy Based Program in Reducing Internalized Stigma in Patients with Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Young; Jun, Seong Sook

    2016-06-01

    This study was done to develop a internalized stigma reducing program based on cognitive-behavioral therapy and appropriate for patients with schizophrenia and to evaluate its effectiveness. The study design was a mixed method research. Qualitative study, 13 patients with schizophrenia who had experience in overcoming stigma were purposively chosen for interviews and data were analyzed using Giorgi method. Quantitative study, 64 patients with schizophrenia (experimental group=32, control group=32) were recruited. The cognitive-behavioral therapy-based program for reducing internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia was provided for 8 weeks (12 sessions). Data were collected from June. 20, 2013 to Feb. 14, 2014. Quantitative data were analyzed using χ²-test, t-test, repeated measures ANOVA with the SPSS program. Qualitative results, from the experience of coping with stigma in patients with schizophrenia seventeen themes and five themes-clusters were drawn up. Quantitative results showed that internalized stigma, self-esteem, mental health recovery and quality of life were significantly better in the experimental group compared to the control group. Study findings indicate that this program for reducing internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia is effective and can be recommended as a rehabilitation program intervention to help patients with schizophrenia to cope with internalized stigma.

  13. Increased expression of interleukin-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and its predicating significance in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guanglin; Yuan, Aping; Zhu, Li; Florholmen, Jon; Goll, Rasmus

    2017-10-01

    The role and significance of interleukin (IL)-21 in the development of sporadic CRC have not been well defined. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the dynamics of the IL-21 along colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence and to evaluate the impact of IL-21 on clinicopathological parameters and CRC prognosis. The real-time PCR results showed that the level of IL-21 in adenomas (n=50) and sporadic CRC (n=50) were significantly higher than that in normal controls (n=18), which were predominately observed in the adenoma/CRC stroma. Analysis revealed that IL-21 level was correlated with the overall survival time in CRC patients. Double immunofluorescence observations confirmed that IL-21 positive cells were mostly natural killer cells and T lymphocytes in the tumor stroma. These results indicate that significant increased IL-21 expression present within the adenoma/CRC microenvironment might have a potential predicating significance for survival time in patients with CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accuracy of diagnosis criteria in patients with suspected diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and detection of 14-3-3 protein, France, 1992 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckeu, Laurene; Delasnerie-Lauprètre, Nicole; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Salomon, Dominique; Sazdovitch, Véronique; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Duyckaerts, Charles; Seilhean, Danielle; Haïk, Stéphane; Hauw, Jean-Jacques

    2017-10-01

    Diagnostic criteria of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), a rare and fatal transmissible nervous system disease with public health implications, are determined by clinical data, electroencephalogram (EEG), detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), brain magnetic resonance imaging and prion protein gene examination. The specificity of protein 14-3-3 has been questioned. We reviewed data from 1,572 autopsied patients collected over an 18-year period (1992-2009) and assessed whether and how 14-3-3 detection impacted the diagnosis of sporadic CJD in France, and whether this led to the misdiagnosis of treatable disorders. 14-3-3 detection was introduced into diagnostic criteria for CJD in 1998. Diagnostic accuracy decreased from 92% for the 1992-1997 period to 85% for the 1998-2009 period. This was associated with positive detections of 14-3-3 in cases with negative EEG and alternative diagnosis at autopsy. Potentially treatable diseases were found in 163 patients (10.5%). This study confirms the usefulness of the recent modification of diagnosis criteria by the addition of the results of CSF real-time quaking-induced conversion, a method based on prion seed-induced misfolding and aggregation of recombinant prion protein substrate that has proven to be a highly specific test for diagnosis of sporadic CJD.

  15. Manic Symptoms during a Switch from Paliperidone ER to Paliperidone Palmitate in a Patient with Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Demirci, Kadir; Kele?, S?leyman; Demirda?, Arif; Korucu, Cafer ?a?r?

    2015-01-01

    Some antipsychotic drugs have treatment efficacy for mania and bipolar disorder. However, these drugs may rarely cause manic symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. We hereby report a 22-year-old female patient with schizophrenia who experienced a manic episode during a switch from paliperidone ER to paliperidone palmitate. This case is an important reminder that an abrupt switch from oral paliperidone to paliperidone palmitate may predispose certain patients to hypomanic or manic symptoms.

  16. Manic Symptoms during a Switch from Paliperidone ER to Paliperidone Palmitate in a Patient with Schizophrenia

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    Kadir Demirci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some antipsychotic drugs have treatment efficacy for mania and bipolar disorder. However, these drugs may rarely cause manic symptoms in some schizophrenic patients. We hereby report a 22-year-old female patient with schizophrenia who experienced a manic episode during a switch from paliperidone ER to paliperidone palmitate. This case is an important reminder that an abrupt switch from oral paliperidone to paliperidone palmitate may predispose certain patients to hypomanic or manic symptoms.

  17. Blood Levels of Monoamine Precursors and Smoking in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Ashwin Jacob Mathai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and exerts a negative impact on cardiovascular mortality in these patients. Smoking has complex interactions with monoamine metabolism through the ability of cigarette smoke to suppress Type 1 T helper cell (Th1 type immunity, the immunophenotype that is implicated in phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH dysfunction and tryptophan breakdown to kynurenine via indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO. Nicotine also induces tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH expression, leading to increased synthesis of catecholamines. Furthermore, there is evidence for PAH dysfunction in schizophrenia. This study aimed to compare the plasma levels of selected monoamine precursors and their metabolites in smokers vs non-smokers in a large sample of patients with schizophrenia. We measured plasma phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and kynurenine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and calculated phenylalanine: tyrosine (Phe: Tyr and kynurenine: tryptophan (Kyn: Trp ratios in 920 patients with schizophrenia. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and linear regression analyses were used to compare these endpoints between 3 groups of patients with schizophrenia; 1 current smokers, 2 past smokers and 3 non-smokers. There were significant differences among the three groups with regards to tyrosine levels [F(2,789=3.77, p=0.02], with current smokers having lower tyrosine levels when compared to non-smokers (p=0.02. Kynurenine levels and Kyn :Trp ratio were different among the 3 groups [F (2,738=3.17, p=0.04, F(2,738=3.61, p=0.03] with current smokers having lower kynurenine levels (p=0.04 and higher Kyn: Trp ratio (p=0.02 when compared to past smokers. These findings need to be replicated with protocols that include healthy controls to further elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of altered tyrosine and kynurenine levels in smokers. Results do suggest potential molecular links between schizophrenia and smoking

  18. Detection of subclinical atherosclerosis and diastolic dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia

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    Ünsal C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cüneyt Ünsal,1 Mustafa Oran,2 Hande Oktay Tureli,3 Seref Alpsoy,4 Sema Yesilyurt,5 Mehtap Arslan,6 Birol Topcu,7 Osman Karakaya,8 Erhan Kurt6 1Department of Psychiatry, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 3Department of Cardiology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 4Department of Cardiology, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 5Department of Psychiatry, Bağcilar Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Psychiatry, Bakirkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatry Neurology and Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey; 7Department of Biostatistics, Namik Kemal University, School of Medicine, Tekirdag, Turkey; 8Department of Social Service, Yalova University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Yalova, Turkey Background: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, which is associated with early mortality compared with the nonschizophrenic population. Early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases in asymptomatic periods in patients with schizophrenia would enhance their quality of life and reduce mortality. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, and ankle brachial index (ABI measurement are known to be beneficial methods of detecting subclinical cardiovascular diseases and of risk stratification. The present study investigated carotid intima media thickness (CIMT and ABI and echocardiographic parameters measured via conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography in patients with schizophrenia in comparison with a control group. Methods: The present case-control study included 116 patients with schizophrenia and 88 healthy patients. Participants with any current comorbid psychiatric disorder, current or lifetime neurological and medical problems, current coronary artery disease, diabetes

  19. Second-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in schizophrenia: patient functioning and quality of life

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    Montemagni C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Montemagni,1,2 Tiziana Frieri,1,2 Paola Rocca1,2 1Department of Neuroscience, Unit of Psychiatry, University of Turin, 2Department of Mental Health, Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL Torino 1 (TO1, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria (AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Turin, Italy Abstract: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs were developed to make treatment easier, improve adherence, and/or signal the clinician when nonadherence occurs. Second-generation antipsychotic LAIs (SGA-LAIs combine the advantages of SGA with a long-acting formulation. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the available literature concerning the impact of SGA-LAIs on patient functioning and quality of life (QOL. Although several studies regarding schizophrenia patients’ functioning and QOL have been performed, the quantity of available data still varies greatly depending on the SGA-LAI under investigation. After reviewing the literature, it seems that SGA-LAIs are effective in ameliorating patient functioning and/or QOL of patients with schizophrenia, as compared with placebo. However, while methodological design controversy exists regarding the superiority of risperidone LAI versus oral antipsychotics, the significant amount of evidence in recently published research demonstrates the beneficial influence of risperidone LAI on patient functioning and QOL in stable patients and no benefit over oral treatment in unstable patients. However, the status of the research on SGA-LAIs is lacking in several aspects that may help physicians in choosing the correct drug therapy. Meaningful differences have been observed between SGA-LAIs in the onset of their clinical efficacy and in the relationships between symptoms and functioning scores. Moreover, head-to-head studies comparing the effects of SGA-LAIs on classical measures of psychopathology and functioning are available mainly on risperidone LAI, while those comparing olanzapine LAI with other

  20. Socio-environmental factors associated with diabetes mellitus among patients hospitalized with schizophrenia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Junya; Kitamura, Tetsuhisa; Noma, Norio; Saito, Makiko; Azuma, Hitoshi; Azuma, Tsukasa; Sobue, Tomotaka; Kitamura, Yuri

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to examine epidemiologically socio-environmental factors associated with diabetes mellitus among patients hospitalized with schizophrenia in Japan. This was a cross-sectional study from a single psychiatric hospital. Study patients were adults aged ≥20 years who were hospitalized with schizophrenia one or more times between January 2013 and December 2014. From electronic medical records or health insurance claims, we extracted schizophrenia patients with an F2 code according to ICD-10, and assessed the association of various factors with diabetes mellitus among these patients in a multivariable analysis. During the 2-year period, there were 1899 patients hospitalized with a psychiatric disorder one or more times. Of them, a total of 770 adults with schizophrenia (285 men and 485 women) were eligible for our analysis. The standardized prevalence ratio of diabetes mellitus was 2.0 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.5] among men and 3.0 (95 % CI 2.5-3.6) among women in this hospital. There were no socio-environmental factors associated with diabetes mellitus among men. Among women, factors such as a 730-day hospitalization [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.82: 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.52-9.64], and a medical protection/compulsory/discrimination hospitalization (adjusted OR 0.60, 95 % CI 0.36-0.99) were associated with diabetes mellitus. Compared with women living alone, those who were unmarried and lived together with someone had a significantly lower adjusted OR (0.41, 95 % CI 0.21-0.81). Socio-environmental factors such as length of hospitalization, type of hospitalization, and marital status and living arrangement were associated with diabetes mellitus among hospitalized women with schizophrenia.

  1. Free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman de Mamani, A; Gurak, K; Maura, J; Martinez de Andino, A; Weintraub, M J; Mejia, M

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Some research suggests that holding a free will perspective may offer mental health and physical health benefits. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study is the first to examine links between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Study results suggest that helping people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia to recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) may assist them in improving their experiences and better managing their symptoms. Introduction Some research indicates that having a strong sense that one possesses free will may be associated with better psychological and physical health. This study is the first to examine the relationship between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Method Thirty-two participants were interviewed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale to assess symptom severity and the Free Will Subscale of the Free Will and Determinism Scale to assess free will perceptions. Results As hypothesized, a negative association was found between free will perceptions and total symptom severity, though it appears that this was mainly accounted for by positive symptoms. A content analysis was also conducted to qualitatively examine how patients conceptualize the construct of free will and its role in coping with their own mental illness. Discussion Study results suggest that holding a free will perspective may mitigate psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Thus, psychiatric nurses and other mental health clinicians may improve current treatments for schizophrenia by helping patients recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) to stressful life events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Association between unmet needs and clinical status in patients with first episode of schizophrenia in Chile

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    Natalia eJorquera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder involving needs in several matters that are often not covered. A need is defined as a gap between the ideal state and the current state of a patient about a specific topic. Aim: To describe needs in patients with first episode of schizophrenia at the start of treatment, and to describe associated clinical factors. Methods: Observational descriptive cross-sectional design. Patients were over fifteen years old, with first episode schizophrenia, and admitted to treatment in the public health system from six district in two cities of Chile, between 2005 and 2006. Sociodemographic data, clinical evaluations of current psychosis based on the PANSS, and the time of untreated psychosis were obtained. A clinical interview, was carried out followed by the Camberwell Assessment of Need. Results: 29 patients were evaluated, 79.3% male, mean age 21.9 years old. The areas with more needs reported were; psychotic symptoms with 65.5% of sample, 21.1% of which reported it unmet; and daytime activities, where 44.8% of patients reported a need, 61.54% of them as unmet. The percentage of unmet needs correlated with PANSS score (r= 0.55; p=0.003, and with time of positive symptoms prior to diagnosis (r= 0.416; p=0.03. Discussion: Needs assessment in schizophrenia is necessary. It may affect its clinical course, be relevant in its management and help monitor recovery. Defining the main needs in people with first episode schizophrenia and associated factors allows for a better design of treatment strategies in order to obtain better therapeutic results and recovery.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China: An observational survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weifeng; Zhang, Suzhen; Liu, Qi; Yang, Fude; Wang, Yong; Li, Tao; Mei, Qiyi; He, Hongbo; Chen, Zhiyu; Su, Zhonghua; Liu, Tiebang; Xie, Shiping; Tan, Qingrong; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Congpei; Sang, Hong; Chen, Wenhao; Shi, Le; Li, Lingzhi; Shi, Ying; Guo, Lihua; Zhang, Hongyan; Lu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    This multi-center observational study investigated the prevalence of agitation in newly hospitalized schizophrenia patients in China and its potential risk factors. It was performed in 2014 and covered 14 hospitals. Newly hospitalized patients with schizophrenia or suspected schizophrenia who met the diagnostic criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision, were recruited. Agitation and related risk factors were evaluated by a questionnaire designed for the survey. General demographic data, disease characteristics, scores on schizophrenia rating scales and agitation rating scales (e.g., Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Excited Component [PANSS-EC] and Behavioral Activity Rating Scale [BARS]) were collected. Among the 1512 patients screened in the study, 1400 (92.59%) were eligible. According to the PANSS-EC and BARS, the prevalence of agitation was 60.92% (853 of 1400) and 59.00% (826 of 1400), respectively. The overall prevalence of agitation was 47.50% (665 of 1400). The most important risk factor of agitation was being aggressive at baseline (Modified Overt Aggression Scale score ≥4, odds ratio=6.54; 95% confidence interval=4.93-8.69). Other risk factors included a history of aggressive behavior, northern region of residence, involuntary hospitalization, disease severity, low level of education, living alone, being unemployed or retired. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Education and employment levels among Jamaican patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Bertilee; Curtis-Downes, Desdemona; Gibson, Roger C

    2013-05-01

    Comparisons between persons with bipolar disorder and those with schizophrenia are not well researched in the Caribbean. To compare the educational and occupational attainments in Jamaicans diagnosed with these two disorders. Data on diagnosis, educational level, type of employment and other basic socio-demographic variables were collected from Jamaican hospital patients who were newly diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Fisher's exact and χ2 tests, as well as binary logistic regression, were used to explore how these characteristics varied according to diagnosis. Statistical significance was taken at p educational attainment than bipolar disorder (p = .022 for educational level attained; p = .026 for completion of secondary school). The majority (87.1%) of the 93 patients included in the analysis had no specific marketable job skills. However, the proportion of persons with bipolar disorder who had such skills was three times the corresponding proportion of persons with schizophrenia. The low educational achievement among persons with schizophrenia makes education a potentially important area for interventions targeted at this group. Because gross deficiencies in job skills were common to both patient groups, improvement in job skill levels is an important goal for persons with either of these disorders.

  5. Thoughts of suicide and stage of recovery in patients with schizophrenia in community mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Christopher; Skegg, Keren; Mullen, Richard; Patterson, Tess; Gray, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Suicidality among patients with schizophrenia remains a major concern. The consumer-oriented concept of recovery has been recognised as important in recent years. We aimed to assess whether there was any relationship between stages of recovery and suicidality among people with schizophrenia in community care. In a community mental health service, 85 patients with schizophrenia consented to an interview during which their stages of recovery were assessed using the Stages of Recovery Instrument. They were asked about suicidality and screened for depression using the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Insight was assessed via the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. Data analysis involved logistic regression. In the past year 14% of the patients reported having wanted to die and 13% had considered suicide. Scores indicating the highest stage of recovery were associated with lower odds of suicidal thoughts. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with depression or stage of insight. The link found between suicidality and stages of recovery has practical implications for suicide prevention among those with schizophrenia in community care. Approaches that facilitate the recovery process may reduce suicidal thoughts in this population.

  6. Impact of cognitive and social cognitive impairment on functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael F

    2016-02-01

    Schizophrenia is a severely disabling disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The notion of recovery from schizophrenia has recently become a topic of both research and clinical focus. With the advent of antipsychotic medications in the 1950s, many more patients achieved symptom remission than ever before. However, less than half of all patients have been able to achieve recovery. With so many drugs available to improve the symptoms of schizophrenia, why is the disorder still associated with such severe disability? In the last couple of decades, researchers and clinicians have begun to realize that a hindrance to widespread recovery is that available antipsychotic medications have been effective in treating the positive symptoms (hallucinations and delusions) of schizophrenia but not other features of illness such as cognitive impairment. Dysfunction in cognition and social cognition has a significant impact on patients' functional status, meaning that impaired cognition and social cognition should be treatment targets to improve the likelihood of recovery. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. Eating habits and nutritional status of patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefańska, Ewa; Lech, Magdalena; Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Konarzewska, Beata; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2017-12-30

    The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional value of the food intake in the group of men and women suffering from recurrent affective disorders and schizophrenia, and also to determine the relation between selected nutritional parameters with anthropometric indices defining the nutritional status of the subjects. 219 persons participated in the study (61 patients with recurrent depressive disorders, 60 patients with schizophrenia and 98 healthy volunteers). A24-hour dietary recall was used in the quantitative assessment of the diet. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements as well as body composition analysis were used to assess the nutritional status. It was shown that women with depression and schizophrenia had a significantly higher content of both visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue as compared with the control group. A diet with a higher content of energy from protein, a higher supply of calcium promoted a lower fat content in the bodies of women suffering from depression (no such relationship was observed in the group of men). In the group of patients with schizophrenia, a diet with a lower supply of energy promoted a lower BMI value, waist circumference, lower waist-hip ratio and a lower fat content in the body. An improper energy structure and an improper content of nutrients can, in the future, contribute to the development of many somatic diseases, thus leading to deterioration of life quality of subjects and preventing the maintenance of mental health.

  8. Attitudes of patients with schizophrenia and depression to psychiatric research: a study in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingo; Burns, Tom; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Galderisi, Silvana; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Libiger, Jan; Rössler, Wulf; Molodynski, Andrew; Edlinger, Monika; Piegari, Giuseppe; Hrnčiarova, Jela; Gorna, Krystyna; Jaeger, Matthias; Fett, Anne-Kathrin; Hissbach, Johanna; Naber, Dieter

    2011-02-01

    Relatively few studies have examined how patients with schizophrenia and depression view psychiatric research and what influences their readiness to participate. A total of 763 patients (48% schizophrenia, 52% depression) from 7 European countries were examined using a specifically designed self-report questionnaire ["Hamburg Attitudes to Psychiatric Research Questionnaire" (HAPRQ)]. Most patients (98%) approved of psychiatric research, in general, at least "a little". There was a tendency to approve psychosocial rather than biological research topics (e.g. research on the role of the family by 91% of patients compared to 79% in genetics). Reasons to participate were mainly altruistic. Only a minority (28%) considered monetary incentives important. Patients wanted extensive background information and a feedback of the results; both were significantly more expressed by schizophrenia as compared to depressive patients, although these findings need to be interpreted with care because of age and gender differences between the diagnostic groups. While patients expressed discerning views of psychiatric research, only few differences were apparent between the two diagnostic groups. Patients' research priorities are not the same as those of many professionals and funding bodies. Their demonstrated critical appraisal should inform future research ensuring an increased patient role in the research process.

  9. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Kate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%, spirit intrusion (28.8% and sorcery (46.6%. Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6% believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6% believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7% admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  10. Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kulhara, Parmanand; Nehra, Ritu

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.

  11. Lack of cardinal symptoms of meningitis in a hospitalized patient with chronic schizophrenia: lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ryuhei; Hirota, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-01-01

    There are prior reports describing a diagnostic delay in medical emergencies in patients with schizophrenia. To our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the risk of diagnostic delay of acute meningitis due to reduced pain perception as well as other factors related to schizophrenia and its treatment. We report a case of meningitis in a patient suffering from chronic schizophrenia and poor treatment response despite high doses of antipsychotics. Potential difficulties and pitfalls when suspecting or diagnosing meningitis as a physical comorbidity in patients with schizophrenia are discussed. A 33-year-old man with chronic and treatment-resistant schizophrenia developed acute meningitis. The definite diagnosis was delayed because the cardinal symptoms other than fever were not clearly elicited by physical examination. The characteristic symptoms of meningitis were concealed by reduced pain perception, rigidity due to the administration of antipsychotics, disorganized thinking and potentially diminished communication with health care professionals as commonly seen in patients with schizophrenia. Meningitis should not be dismissed as a possibility in patients with fever of unknown origin just because a patient with schizophrenia does not present with cardinal features of meningitis other than fever. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effort-Based Reinforcement Processing and Functional Connectivity Underlying Amotivation in Medicated Patients with Depression and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il Ho; Lee, Boung Chul; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Joong Il; Koo, Min-Seung

    2017-04-19

    Amotivation is a common phenotype of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, which are clinically distinct disorders. Effective treatment targets and strategies can be discovered by examining the dopaminergic reward network function underlying amotivation between these disorders. We conducted an fMRI study in healthy human participants and medicated patients with depression and schizophrenia using an effort-based reinforcement task. We examined regional activations related to reward type (positive and negative reinforcement), effort level, and their composite value, as well as resting-state functional connectivities within the meso-striatal-prefrontal pathway. We found that integrated reward and effort values of low effort-positive reinforcement and high effort-negative reinforcement were behaviorally anticipated and represented in the putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex activities. Patients with schizophrenia and depression did not show anticipation-related and work-related reaction time reductions, respectively. Greater amotivation severity correlated with smaller work-related putamen activity changes according to reward type in schizophrenia and effort level in depression. Patients with schizophrenia showed feedback-related putamen hyperactivity of low effort compared with healthy controls and depressed patients. The strength of medial orbitofrontal-striatal functional connectivity predicted work-related reaction time reduction of high effort negative reinforcement in healthy controls and amotivation severity in both patients with schizophrenia and those with depression. Patients with depression showed deficient medial orbitofrontal-striatal functional connectivity compared with healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. These results indicate that amotivation in depression and schizophrenia involves different pathophysiology in the prefrontal-striatal circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Amotivation is present in both depression and schizophrenia

  13. Diagnosing Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in a Patient with a Suspected Status Epilepticus in the Intensive Care Unit

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    Harm J. van der Horn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Several tests are available in the diagnostics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD; however, none of these is conclusive. We review the values of these tests, from an intensive care unit (ICU perspective. Methods. Case report and review of the literature. Results. A 53-year-old woman initially presenting with psychiatric symptoms developed myoclonus and was admitted 1 month later to the ICU with a suspected nonconvulsive status epilepticus and respiratory insufficiency, probably due to extensive antiepileptic drug therapy. Typical MRI and EEG findings and a positive 14-3-3 protein led to the diagnosis of sCJD. All treatments were terminated, and autopsy confirmed sCJD. Conclusions. Clinical signs combined with MRI, EEG, and 14-3-3 and/or tau protein determination might be sufficient to diagnose or exclude sCJD and may therefore prevent the application of unnecessary diagnostic tests.

  14. Language lateralization in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, I.E.C.

    2004-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe chronic psychiatric illness that affects approximately 1-2% of the populations worldwide. Schizophrenia is characterized by episodes of psychosis, in which patients experience hallucinations (false perceptions) and delusions (false beliefs). Apart from the psychotic

  15. Clinical and biochemical study of D-serine metabolism among schizophrenia patients

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    El-Tallawy HN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El-Tallawy,1 Tahia H Saleem,2 Abdallah MAA El-Ebidi,3 Mohammed H Hassan,4 Romany H Gabra,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Nagwa Abo El-Maali,5 Hoda S Sherkawy3 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, 3Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, 4Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, 5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Background: Schizophrenia is a typical N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R hypofunction disorder. Decreased d-serine (d-Ser levels in the periphery occur in schizophrenia and may reflect decreased availability of d-Ser to activate NMDA-R in the brain.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the role of d-Ser metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia via biochemical assays and correlates, the serum level of d-Ser, d-serine racemase (SR (responsible for its formation from l-serine [l-Ser] and d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO (responsible for its catabolism, among different clinical types of schizophrenia patients.Patients and methods: This cross-sectional case–control study was carried out on 100 patients and 50 controls. They were recruited from the outpatients’ psychiatric unit of the Neuropsychiatric Department of Assiut University Hospital, Upper Egypt. The type of schizophrenia was determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV, while the severity of schizophrenia was determined according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5. Serum d-Ser levels were estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, while serum SR and DAAO were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits.Results: There

  16. Quantitative analyses of schizophrenia-associated metabolites in serum: serum D-lactate levels are negatively correlated with gamma-glutamylcysteine in medicated schizophrenia patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Fukushima

    Full Text Available The serum levels of several metabolites are significantly altered in schizophrenia patients. In this study, we performed a targeted analysis of 34 candidate metabolites in schizophrenia patients (n = 25 and compared them with those in age- and gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 27. Orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis revealed that complete separation between controls and patients was achieved based on these metabolites. We found that the levels of γ-glutamylcysteine (γ-GluCys, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, D-serine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, glutathione (GSH, 5-hydroxytryptamine, threonine, and tyrosine were significantly lower, while D-lactate, tryptophan, kynurenine, and glutamate levels were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Using receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under curve of γ-GluCys, a precursor of GSH, and D-lactate, a terminal metabolite of methylglyoxal, were 88.00%, 81.48%, and 0.8874, and 88.00%, 77.78%, and 0.8415, respectively. In addition, serum levels of D-lactate were negatively correlated with γ-GluCys levels in patients, but not in controls. The present results suggest that oxidative stress-induced damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  17. Adherence predicts symptomatic and psychosocial remission in schizophrenia: Naturalistic study of patient integration in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Miguel; Cañas, Fernando; Herrera, Berta; García Dorado, Marta

    Psychosocial functioning in patients with schizophrenia attended in daily practice is an understudied aspect. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between symptomatic and psychosocial remission and adherence to treatment in schizophrenia. This cross-sectional, non-interventional, and multicenter study assessed symptomatic and psychosocial remission and community integration of 1,787 outpatients with schizophrenia attended in Spanish mental health services. Adherence to antipsychotic medication in the previous year was categorized as≥80% vs.<80%. Symptomatic remission was achieved in 28.5% of patients, and psychosocial remission in 26.1%. A total of 60.5% of patients were classified as adherent to antipsychotic treatment and 41% as adherent to non-pharmacological treatment. During the index visit, treatment was changed in 28.4% of patients, in 31.1% of them because of low adherence (8.8% of the total population). Adherent patients showed higher percentages of symptomatic and psychosocial remission than non-adherent patients (30.5 vs. 25.4%, P<.05; and 32 vs. 17%, P<.001, respectively). Only 3.5% of the patients showed an adequate level of community integration, which was also higher among adherent patients (73.0 vs. 60.1%, P<.05). Adherence to antipsychotic medication was associated with symptomatic and psychosocial remission as well as with community integration. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of the Complexity Measures in the EEG of Schizophrenia Patients.

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    Akar, S Akdemir; Kara, S; Latifoğlu, F; Bilgiç, V

    2016-03-01

    Complexity measures have been enormously used in schizophrenia patients to estimate brain dynamics. However, the conflicting results in terms of both increased and reduced complexity values have been reported in these studies depending on the patients' clinical status or symptom severity or medication and age status. The objective of this study is to investigate the nonlinear brain dynamics of chronic and medicated schizophrenia patients using distinct complexity estimators. EEG data were collected from 22 relaxed eyes-closed patients and age-matched healthy controls. A single-trial EEG series of 2 min was partitioned into identical epochs of 20 s intervals. The EEG complexity of participants were investigated and compared using approximate entropy (ApEn), Shannon entropy (ShEn), Kolmogorov complexity (KC) and Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC). Lower complexity values were obtained in schizophrenia patients. The most significant complexity differences between patients and controls were obtained in especially left frontal (F3) and parietal (P3) regions of the brain when all complexity measures were applied individually. Significantly, we found that KC was more sensitive for detecting EEG complexity of patients than other estimators in all investigated brain regions. Moreover, significant inter-hemispheric complexity differences were found in the frontal and parietal areas of schizophrenics' brain. Our findings demonstrate that the utilizing of sensitive complexity estimators to analyze brain dynamics of patients might be a useful discriminative tool for diagnostic purposes. Therefore, we expect that nonlinear analysis will give us deeper understanding of schizophrenics' brain.

  19. The neural basis of a deficit in abstract thinking in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Joon Jo, Hang; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-10-30

    Abnormal abstract thinking is a major cause of social dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about its neural basis. In this study, we aimed to determine the characteristic abstract thinking-related brain responses in patients using a task reflecting social situations. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while 16 patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy controls performed a theme-identification task, in which various emotional pictures depicting social situations were presented. Compared with healthy controls, the patients showed significantly decreased activity in the left frontopolar and right orbitofrontal cortices during theme identification. Activity in these two regions correlated well in the controls, but not in patients. Instead, the patients exhibited a close correlation between activity in both sides of the frontopolar cortex, and a positive correlation between the right orbitofrontal cortex activity and degrees of theme identification. Reduced activity in the left frontopolar and right orbitofrontal cortices and the underlying aberrant connectivity may be implicated in the patients' deficits in abstract thinking. These newly identified features of the neural basis of abnormal abstract thinking are important as they have implications for the impaired social behavior of patients with schizophrenia during real-life situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary habits of patients with schizophrenia: a self-reported questionnaire survey.

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    Simonelli-Muñoz, Agustin J; Fortea, Maria I; Salorio, Pilar; Gallego-Gomez, Juana I; Sánchez-Bautista, Sonia; Balanza, Serafin

    2012-06-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the dietary habits of patients with schizophrenia and the influence of these habits on the degree of obesity. The study was developed in a sample of 159 patients, who were given a self-reported questionnaire, to ascertain the influence of socio-familiar aspects, pharmacological treatment, and dietary habits. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC)) were also taken. Patients with schizophrenia presented unhealthy dietary habits, as indicated by the finding that 51% of the patients took no longer than 15 min to eat, 40.8% did not eat fruit daily, and 63.1% did not eat fish. Women were three times more likely to be obese than men (odds ratio (OR) = 2.91, P = 0.021). Patients classified as having unhealthy dietary habits have a 2.33-fold higher risk of obesity than patients with good dietary habits (OR = 2.33, P = 0.034). In summary, this paper highlights the fact that patients with schizophrenia have a detrimental dietary pattern that is associated with an increase in BMI and WC, with the consequent development of obesity and related metabolic alterations, regardless of the pharmacological treatment being followed. Future research directions will include exploring the need for nutritional education programmes to improve the dietary habits of such patients. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Comparison of metabolic syndrome prevalence in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder.

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    Nayerifard, Razieh; Bureng, Majid Akbari; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Namjoo, Massood; Rajezi, Sepideh

    2017-11-01

    Research has shown that the metabolic syndrome is more prevalent among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder. Given the scarcity of research on the disorders, this paper aims to compare the prevalence of the syndrome among the two groups of patients. A total of 120 individuals participated in this cross sectional study: 60 patients with schizophrenia (26 males and 34 females) and 60 patients with bipolar I disorder (32 males and 28 females). The psychological disorders were diagnosed by some experienced psychiatrists according to the DSM-V. Furthermore, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to ATP III guidelines. Metabolic syndrome prevalence among schizophrenic and bipolar I patients was 28 and 36 percent, respectively; the disparity in prevalence is not significant. According to the results, compared to their male counterparts, females were more prone significant to metabolic syndrome. Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher among bipolar I patients. On the other hand, schizophrenic males were observed to have higher fasting blood sugar levels in comparison to bipolar I males patients. Age, consumption of second generation antipsychotics or antidepressants, and the duration of the disorder were found to be related to metabolic syndrome. This study showed that metabolic syndrome is not more prevalent among bipolar I patients, compared to those with schizophrenia. Also, women are more likely to be affected by the syndrome. A number of factors such as age, consumption of medication, and duration of the disorder are associated with the likelihood of the syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Relationship between lifetime suicide attempts and schizotypal traits in patients with schizophrenia.

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    Toshiya Teraishi

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia are at increased risk for suicide. Various risk factors for suicide have been reported in schizophrenia; however, few studies have examined the association between personality traits and suicidal behavior. We administered the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ to 87 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (49 males; mean age 38.1 ± 10.6 years with and without a history of suicide attempts (SA and nSA groups, respectively, and 322 controls (158 males; mean age 40.8 ± 13.9 years. As expected, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA controlling for age and sex showed that all SPQ indices (total SPQ score and all three factors, i.e., cognitive-perceptual, interpersonal, and disorganized were significantly higher in patients with schizophrenia (SA+nSA groups, than controls (p<0.001 for all comparisons. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the total score and the interpersonal and disorganized factors between the SA and nSA groups (nSApatients with schizophrenia.

  3. Coping patterns as a valid presentation of the diversity of coping responses in schizophrenia patients.

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    Ritsner, Michael S; Gibel, Anatoly; Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Shinkarenko, Evgeny; Ratner, Yael; Kurs, Rena

    2006-11-15

    This study aimed to identify coping patterns used by schizophrenia inpatients in comparison with those used by healthy individuals, and to explore their association with selected clinical and psychosocial variables. The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) was used to assess coping strategies among 237 inpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 175 healthy individuals. Severity of psychopathology and distress, insight into illness, feelings of self-efficacy and self-esteem (self-construct variables), social support, and quality of life were also examined. Factor analysis, analysis of covariance and correlations were used to examine the relationships between the parameters of interest. Using dimensional measures, we found that emotion-oriented coping style and emotional distress were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group, whereas the task-oriented coping style, self-efficacy, perceived social support and satisfaction with quality of life were lower compared with controls. When eight CISS coping patterns were defined, the results revealed that patients used emotion coping patterns 5.5 times more frequently, and task and task-avoidance coping patterns significantly less often than healthy subjects. Coping patterns have different associations with current levels of dysphoric mood and emotional distress, self-construct variables, and satisfaction with quality of life. Thus, the identified coping patterns may be an additional useful presentation of the diversity of coping strategies used by schizophrenia patients. Coping patterns may be considered an important source of knowledge for patients who struggle with the illness and for mental health professionals who work with schizophrenia patients.

  4. Persistent suicide risk in clinically improved schizophrenia patients: challenge of the suicidal dimension

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    Amresh Shrivastava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Amresh Shrivastava1, Megan E Johnston2, Nilesh Shah3, Marco Innamorati4, Larry Stitt5, Meghana Thakar3, David Lester6, Maurizio Pompili4,71Silver Mind Hospital and Mental Health Foundation of India, Mumbai, India; 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Lokmanya Tilak Municipal General Hospital, University of Mumbai, India; 4Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Functions, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 5Department of Biostatistics, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada; 6The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Pomona, NJ, USA; 7McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USABackground: Suicide is a major problem in schizophrenia, estimated to affect 9%–13% of patients. About 25% of schizophrenic patients make at least one suicide attempt in their lifetime. Current outcome measures do not address this problem, even though it affects quality of life and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess suicidality in long-term clinically improved schizophrenia patients who were treated in a nongovernmental psychiatric treatment centre in Mumbai, India.Method: Participants were 61 patients out of 200 consecutive hospitalized first-episode patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders who were much improved on the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Improvement (CGI-I scale at the endpoint of a 10-year follow-up. Clinical assessment tools included the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, CGI-I, Global Assessment of Functioning, and suicidality.Results: Many of the patients, although clinically improved, experienced emerging suicidality during the 10-year follow-up period. All of the patients reported significant suicidality (ie, suicide attempts, suicidal crises, or suicidal ideation at the end of the study, whereas only 83% had

  5. Right Frontotemporal Cortex Mediates the Relationship between Cognitive Insight and Subjective Quality of Life in Patients with Schizophrenia.

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    Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Itakura, Masashi; Ohtachi, Hiroaki; Iwata, Masaaki; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

    2018-01-01

    Although prior studies identified a relationship between cognitive insight and subjective quality of life (QOL) in patients with schizophrenia, the brain regions mediating this relationship remain unknown. Recent studies have shown that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex may be particularly important for cognitive insight in individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we examined whether frontotemporal function mediates the relationship between cognitive insight and QOL in 64 participants, including 32 patients with schizophrenia and 32 healthy controls. Cognitive insight was measured using the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS), while participants' subjective QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-form Health Survey. Frontotemporal function was evaluated during a verbal fluency task using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. Consistent with previous findings, we found that frontotemporal function was impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Interestingly, our data also revealed that the right ventrolateral PFC and the right anterior part of the temporal cortex significantly mediated the relationship between the self-reflectiveness (SR) subscale of the BCIS and subjective QOL. These findings suggest that cognitive insight, particularly SR, is associated with subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia via right frontotemporal function. The findings of this study provide important insight into a QOL model of schizophrenia, which may guide the development of cost-effective interventions that target frontotemporal function in patients with schizophrenia.

  6. Hallucinations in schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease: an analysis of sensory modalities involved and the repercussion on patients

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    Llorca, P. M.; Pereira, B.; Jardri, R.; Chereau-Boudet, I.; Brousse, G.; Misdrahi, D.; Fénelon, G.; Tronche, A.-M.; Schwan, R.; Lançon, C.; Marques, A.; Ulla, M.; Derost, P.; Debilly, B.; Durif, F.; de Chazeron, I.

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations have been described in various clinical populations, but they are neither disorder nor disease specific. In schizophrenia patients, hallucinations are hallmark symptoms and auditory ones are described as the more frequent. In Parkinson’s disease, the descriptions of hallucination modalities are sparse, but the hallucinations do tend to have less negative consequences. Our study aims to explore the phenomenology of hallucinations in both hallucinating schizophrenia patients and Parkinson’s disease patients using the Psycho-Sensory hAllucinations Scale (PSAS). The main objective is to describe the phenomena of these clinical symptoms in those two specific populations. Each hallucinatory sensory modality significantly differed between Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia patients. Auditory, olfactory/gustatory and cœnesthetic hallucinations were more frequent in schizophrenia than visual hallucinations. The guardian angel item, usually not explored in schizophrenia, was described by 46% of these patients. The combination of auditory and visual hallucinations was the most frequent for both Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. The repercussion index summing characteristics of each hallucination (frequency, duration, negative aspects, conviction, impact, control and sound intensity) was always higher for schizophrenia. A broader view including widespread characteristics and interdisciplinary works must be encouraged to better understand the complexity of the process involved in hallucinations. PMID:27905557

  7. Medications Used for Cognitive Enhancement in Patients With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, Alzheimer’s Disease, and Parkinson’s Disease

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    Wen-Yu Hsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/aimsCognitive impairment, which frequently occurs in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease, has a significant impact on the daily lives of both patients and their family. Furthermore, since the medications used for cognitive enhancement have limited efficacy, the issue of cognitive enhancement still remains a clinically unsolved challenge.Sampling and methodsWe reviewed the clinical studies (published between 2007 and 2017 that focused on the efficacy of medications used for enhancing cognition in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease.ResultsAcetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine are the standard treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Some studies have reported selective cognitive improvement in patients with schizophrenia following galantamine treatment. Newer antipsychotics, including paliperidone, lurasidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and BL-1020, have also been reported to exert cognitive benefits in patients with schizophrenia. Dopaminergic medications were found to improve language function in patients with Parkinson’s disease. However, no beneficial effects on cognitive function were observed with dopamine agonists in patients with schizophrenia. The efficacies of nicotine and its receptor modulators in cognitive improvement remain controversial, with the majority of studies showing that varenicline significantly improved the cognitive function in schizophrenic patients. Several studies have reported that N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR enhancers improved the cognitive function in patients with chronic schizophrenia. NMDAR enhancers might also have cognitive benefits in patients with Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has also been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on attention, processing

  8. Can exercise increase fitness and reduce weight in patients with schizophrenia and depression?

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    Jesper eKrogh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPsychiatric patients have a reduced life expectancy of 15 to 20 years compared to the general population. Most years of lost life are due to excess mortality from somatic diseases. Sedentary lifestyle and medication is partly responsible for the high frequency of metabolic syndrome in this patient group and low levels of physical activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and all-cause mortality. This study aimed to review trials allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to exercise interventions for effect on cardiovascular fitness, strength and weight.MethodsWe searched Pubmed, Embase, and Psycinfo including randomized clinical trial allocating patients with either schizophrenia or depression to isolated exercise interventions.ResultsWe identified five trials including patients with schizophrenia and found little evidence that exercise could increase cardiovascular fitness or decrease weight. Nine exercise trials for patients with depression were identified increasing cardiovascular fitness by 11-30% and strength by 33-37%. No evidence in favor of exercise for weight reduction was found.ConclusionBased on the current evidence isolated exercise interventions are unlikely to improve cardiovascular fitness or induce weight loss in patients with schizophrenia. In patients with depression exercise interventions are likely to induce clinically relevant short term effects, however, due to lack of reporting little is known about the effect on cardiovascular fitness beyond the intervention and weight reduction. Future exercise trials regarding patients with mental illness should preferably measure changes in cardiovascular strength, repetition maximum and anthropometric outcomes. Ideally participants should be assessed beyond the intervention

  9. Temporal information processing in short- and long-term memory of patients with schizophrenia.

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    Steffen Landgraf

    Full Text Available Cognitive deficits of patients with schizophrenia have been largely recognized as core symptoms of the disorder. One neglected factor that contributes to these deficits is the comprehension of time. In the present study, we assessed temporal information processing and manipulation from short- and long-term memory in 34 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 34 matched healthy controls. On the short-term memory temporal-order reconstruction task, an incidental or intentional learning strategy was deployed. Patients showed worse overall performance than healthy controls. The intentional learning strategy led to dissociable performance improvement in both groups. Whereas healthy controls improved on a performance measure (serial organization, patients improved on an error measure (inappropriate semantic clustering when using the intentional instead of the incidental learning strategy. On the long-term memory script-generation task, routine and non-routine events of everyday activities (e.g., buying groceries had to be generated in either chronological or inverted temporal order. Patients were slower than controls at generating events in the chronological routine condition only. They also committed more sequencing and boundary errors in the inverted conditions. The number of irrelevant events was higher in patients in the chronological, non-routine condition. These results suggest that patients with schizophrenia imprecisely access temporal information from short- and long-term memory. In short-term memory, processing of temporal information led to a reduction in errors rather than, as was the case in healthy controls, to an improvement in temporal-order recall. When accessing temporal information from long-term memory, patients were slower and committed more sequencing, boundary, and intrusion errors. Together, these results suggest that time information can be accessed and processed only imprecisely by patients who provide evidence for impaired

  10. Electrophysiological Neuroimaging using sLORETA Comparing 22 Age Matched Male and Female Schizophrenia Patients

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    Eugene, Andy R.; Masiak, Jolanta; Kapica, Jacek; Masiak, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this electrophysiological neuroimaging study was to provide a deeper mechanistic understanding of both olanzapine and risperidone pharmacodynamics relative to gender. In doing so, we age-matched 22 men and women and evaluated their resting-state EEG recordings and later used standard low resolution brain Electrotomography to visualize the differences in brain activity amongst the two patient groups. Methods In this investigation, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were analyzed from male and female schizophrenia patients treated with either olanzapine or risperidone, both atypical antipsychotics, during their in-patient stay at the Department of Psychiatry. Twenty-two males and females were age-matched and EEG recordings were analyzed from 19 Ag/AgCl electrodes. Thirty-seconds of resting EEG were spectrally transformed in standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). 3D statistical non-paramentric maps for the sLORETA Global Field Power within each band were finally computed. Results The results indicated that, relative to males patients, females schizophrenia patients had increased neuronal synchronization in delta frequency, slow-wave, EEG band located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, within the middle frontal gyrus (t= -2.881, p < 0.03580). These findings suggest that females experience greater dopamine (D2) receptor and serotonin (5-HT2) receptor neuronal blockade relative to age-matched males. Further, our finding provided insight to the pharmacodynamics of second-generation antipsychotics olanzapine and risperidone. Conclusion When compared to male patients, female patients, suffering from schizophrenia, have D2 and 5-HT2 receptors that are blocked more readily than age-matched male schizophrenia patients. Clinically, this may translate into a quicker time to treatment-response in females as compared to male patients. PMID:26617679

  11. Quality indicators in the treatment of patients with depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Consensus study.

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    Bernardo, Miquel; de Dios, Consuelo; Pérez, Víctor; Ignacio, Emilio; Serrano, Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Mira, José Joaquín; Guilabert, Mercedes; Roca, Miquel

    To define a set of indicators for mental health care, monitoring quality assurance in schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorders in Spain. Qualitative research. Consensus-based study involving 6 psychiatrists on the steering committee and a panel of 43 psychiatrists working in several health services in Spain. An initial proposal of 44 indicators for depression, 42 for schizophrenia and 58 for bipolar disorder was elaborated after reviewing the literature. This proposal was analysed by experts using the Delphi technique. The valuation of these indicators in successive rounds allowed those with less degree of consensus to be discarded. Feasibility, sensitivity and clinical relevance were considered. The study was carried out between July 2015 and March 2016. Seventy indicators were defined by consensus: 17 for major depression, 16 for schizophrenia, 17 for bipolar disorder and 20 common to all three pathologies. These indicators included measures related to adequacy, patient safety, exacerbation, mechanical restraint, suicidal behaviour, psychoeducation, adherence, mortality and physical health. This set of indicators allows quality monitoring in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder. Mental health care authorities and professionals can use this proposal for developing a balanced scorecard adjusted to their priorities and welfare objectives. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. VIRTUAL AVATAR FOR EMOTION RECOGNITION IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA: A PILOT STUDY

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    Samuel Marcos Pablos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Persons who suffer from schizophrenia have difficulties in recognizing emotions in others’ facial expressions, which affects their capabilities for social interaction and hinders their social integration. Photographic images have traditionally been used to explore emotion recognition impairments in schizophrenia patients, which lack of the dynamism that is inherent to face to face social interactions. In order to overcome those inconveniences, in the present work the use of an animated, virtual face is approached. The avatar has the appearance of a highly realistic human face and is able to express different emotions dynamically, introducing some advantages over photograph-based approaches such as its dynamic appearance.We present the results of a pilot study in order to assess the validity of the interface as a tool for clinical psychiatrists. 20 subjects who suffer from schizophrenia of long evolution and 20 control subjects were invited to recognize a set of facial emotions showed by a virtual avatar and images. The objective of the study is to explore the possibilities of using a realistic-looking avatar for the assessment of emotion recognition deficits in patients who suffer schizophrenia. Our results suggest that the proposed avatar may be a suitable tool for the diagnosis and treatment of deficits in the facial recognition of emotions.

  13. Temporomandibular disorders in patients with schizophrenia using antipsychotic agents: a discussion paper

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    de Araújo AN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arão Nogueira de Araújo,1 Marion Alves do Nascimento,1 Eduardo Pondé de Sena,1,2 Abrahão Fontes Baptista3,4 1Postgraduate Program in Interactive Processes of Organs and Systems, 2Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Health Sciences, 3Department of Biomorphology, Institute of Health Sciences, 4Postgraduate Program in Medicine and Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil Abstract: Patients with psychiatric problems show a tendency to develop temporomandibular disorders (TMD. Particularly, patients with schizophrenia are quite likely to have signs and symptoms of TMD due to the impairment of their oral health, the use of antipsychotic drugs, and other general health problems. In nonschizophrenic populations, TMD have been considered as the main cause of nondental pain in the orofacial region, involving mechanisms associated with changes in masticatory activity at the cortical and neuromuscular levels. Individuals with schizophrenia do not usually complain of pain, and TMD is misdiagnosed in this population. In this paper, we aimed to review the clinical aspects of TMD in people with schizophrenia on antipsychotic drug therapy. Keywords: schizophrenia, temporomandibular joint, pain, antipsychotic agents

  14. Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Schizophrenia in Semnan, Iran

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    Jamali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Schizophrenia is one of the most common psychiatric disorders and one of the ten leading causes of mental disability. Level of education, family factors and individual culture affect the patients’ quality of life. Objectives Due to the greater prevalence of this disease and the impact of its symptoms on the one’s quality of life, this study was conducted on the people with chronic schizophrenia to determine in which aspects of their quality of life is more likely affected in Semnan, Iran. Patients and Methods This descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 patients with non-paranoid schizophrenia. To evaluate their quality of life, the short-form of the questionnaire of world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL-26 was used. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results The participants in this study gained the highest quality of life in the domain of physical, environmental and psychological health and social relationships. There was no significant relationship between the different aspects of the quality of life in this study. Conclusions It can be concluded that schizophrenia can have an effect on the quality of life. Some items such as family care, early and on time treatment play an important role in increasing the quality of life.

  15. Violence in male patients with schizophrenia: risk markers in a South African population.

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    Koen, L; Kinnear, C J; Corfield, V A; Emsley, R A; Jordaan, E; Keyter, N; Moolman-Smook, J C; Stein, D J; Niehaus, D J H

    2004-04-01

    We investigate the role of functional variants in the catecholamine-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT) and the monoamine oxidase-A gene (MOA-A), as well as previously identified non-genetic risk factors in the manifestation of violent behaviour in South African male schizophrenia patients. A cohort of 70 acutely relapsed male schizophrenia patients was stratified into violent and non-violent subsets, based on the presence or absence of previous or current violent behaviour. Standardized violence rating scales were also applied and the COMT/NlaIII and MAO-A promoter region variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphisms were genotyped. A multiple logistic regression model based on the clinical, genetic and socio-demographic variables indicated that delusions of control (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.21-11.61) and the combined use of cannabis and alcohol (OR = 6.89, 95% CI = 1.28-37.05) were two significant predictors of violent behaviour in this schizophrenia population. No association was found between the tested polymorphisms and violent behaviour. Although the sample size may have limited power to exclude a minor role for these specific gene variants, such a small contribution would have limited clinical relevance given the strong significance of the non-genetic markers. These findings suggest that currently proactive management of violent behaviour in this schizophrenia population should continue to be based on clinical predictors of violence.

  16. Courtesy stigma--a focus group study of relatives of schizophrenia patients.

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    Angermeyer, Matthias C; Schulze, Beate; Dietrich, Sandra

    2003-10-01

    Stigmatization of people with mental illness has been investigated in numerous studies. Little research, however, has been done to explore how relatives of people with schizophrenia perceive and experience stigmatization and how they can fight such stigmatization. Aiming to explore stigma from the perspective of relatives of people with schizophrenia, focus group interviews were conducted with 122 members of advocacy groups from different parts of Germany. Focus group sessions were tape- and video-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using an inductive method, generating categories (domains) from the material. The analysis of focus group data shows that, contrary to previous research findings, discrimination and disadvantages encountered by relatives of schizophrenia patients reach far beyond the spheres of direct social interaction and access to social roles. Our study revealed two additional domains in which r