Sample records for spontaneously constructed spatial

  1. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu


    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  2. Spontaneous Breaking of Spatial and Spin Symmetry in Spinor Condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, M.; Lücke, B.; Gebreyesus, G.


    Parametric amplification of quantum fluctuations constitutes a fundamental mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. In our experiments, a spinor condensate acts as a parametric amplifier of spin modes, resulting in a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry in the amplified...... broken, but phase squeezing prevents spin-symmetry breaking. If, however, nondegenerate spin modes contribute to the amplification, quantum interferences lead to spin-dependent density profiles and hence spontaneously formed patterns in the longitudinal magnetization....... clouds. Our experiments permit a precise analysis of the amplification in specific spatial Bessel-like modes, allowing for the detailed understanding of the double symmetry breaking. On resonances that create vortex-antivortex superpositions, we show that the cylindrical spatial symmetry is spontaneously...

  3. Extinction and spontaneous recovery of spatial behavior in pigeons. (United States)

    Leising, Kenneth J; Wong, Jared; Blaisdell, Aaron P


    We investigated extinction and spontaneous recovery of spatial associations using a landmark-based appetitive search task in a touchscreen preparation with pigeons. Four visual landmarks (A, B, C, and D) were separately established as signals of a hidden reinforced target among an 8 × 7 array of potential target locations. The target was located above landmarks (LM) A and C and below B and D. After conditioning, A and B were extinguished. Responding to A and C was assessed on probe tests 2 days following extinction, whereas, B and D were tested 14 days after extinction. We observed spontaneous recovery from spatial extinction following a 14-day, but not a 2-day, postextinction retention interval. Furthermore, by plotting the spatial distribution of responding across the X and Y axes during testing, we found that spontaneous recovery of responding to the target in our task was due to enhanced spatial control (i.e., a change in the overall distribution of responses) following the long delay to testing. These results add spatial extinction and spontaneous recovery to the list of findings supporting the assertion that extinction involves new learning that attenuates the originally acquired response, and that original learning of the spatial relationship between paired events survives extinction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Partial synchronization and spontaneous spatial ordering in coupled chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Zhang; Gang Hu; Cerdeira, Hilda A.; Shigang Chen; Braun, Thomas; Yugui Yao


    A model of many symmetrically and locally coupled chaotic oscillators is studied. Partial chaotic synchronizations associated with spontaneous spatial ordering are demonstrated. Very rich patterns of the system are revealed, based on partial synchronization analysis. The stabilities of different partially synchronous spatiotemporal structures and some novel dynamical behaviors of these states are discussed both numerically and analytically. (author)

  5. Spatial diversity of spontaneous activity in the cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yong-Yi Tan


    Full Text Available The neocortex is a layered sheet across which a basic organization is thought to widely apply. The variety of spontaneous activity patterns is similar throughout the cortex, consistent with the notion of a basic cortical organization. However, the basic organization is only an outline which needs adjustments and additions to account for the structural and functional diversity across cortical layers and areas. Such diversity suggests that spontaneous activity is spatially diverse in any particular behavioral state. Accordingly, this review summarizes the laminar and areal diversity in cortical activity during fixation and slow oscillations, and the effects of attention, anesthesia and plasticity on the cortical distribution of spontaneous activity. Among questions that remain open, characterizing the spatial diversity in spontaneous membrane potential may help elucidate how differences in circuitry among cortical regions supports their varied functions. More work is also needed to understand whether cortical spontaneous activity not only reflects cortical circuitry, but also contributes to determining the outcome of plasticity, so that it is itself a factor shaping the functional diversity of the cortex.

  6. Spatial analogies pervade complex relational reasoning: Evidence from spontaneous gestures. (United States)

    Cooperrider, Kensy; Gentner, Dedre; Goldin-Meadow, Susan


    How do people think about complex phenomena like the behavior of ecosystems? Here we hypothesize that people reason about such relational systems in part by creating spatial analogies, and we explore this possibility by examining spontaneous gestures. In two studies, participants read a written lesson describing positive and negative feedback systems and then explained the differences between them. Though the lesson was highly abstract and people were not instructed to gesture, people produced spatial gestures in abundance during their explanations. These gestures used space to represent simple abstract relations (e.g., increase ) and sometimes more complex relational structures (e.g., negative feedback ). Moreover, over the course of their explanations, participants' gestures often cohered into larger analogical models of relational structure. Importantly, the spatial ideas evident in the hands were largely unaccompanied by spatial words. Gesture thus suggests that spatial analogies are pervasive in complex relational reasoning, even when language does not.

  7. Spatial distributions of niche-constructing populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhuo Han


    Full Text Available Niche construction theory regards organisms not only as the object of natural selection but also an active subject that can change their own selective pressure through eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Through reviewing the existing works on the theoretical models of niche construction, here we present the progress made on how niche construction influences genetic structure of spatially structured populations and the spatial-temporal dynamics of metapopulations, with special focuses on mathematical models and simulation methods. The majority of results confirmed that niche construction can significantly alter the evolutionary trajectories of structured populations. Organism-environmental interactions induced by niche construction can have profound influence on the dynamics, competition and diversity of metapopulations. It can affect fine-scale spatially distribution of species and spatial heterogeneity of the environment. We further propose a few research directions with potentials, such as applying adaptive dynamics or spatial game theory to explore the effect of niche construction on phenotypic evolution and diversification.

  8. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  9. Memory-Scalable GPU Spatial Hierarchy Construction. (United States)

    Qiming Hou; Xin Sun; Kun Zhou; Lauterbach, C; Manocha, D


    Recent GPU algorithms for constructing spatial hierarchies have achieved promising performance for moderately complex models by using the breadth-first search (BFS) construction order. While being able to exploit the massive parallelism on the GPU, the BFS order also consumes excessive GPU memory, which becomes a serious issue for interactive applications involving very complex models with more than a few million triangles. In this paper, we propose to use the partial breadth-first search (PBFS) construction order to control memory consumption while maximizing performance. We apply the PBFS order to two hierarchy construction algorithms. The first algorithm is for kd-trees that automatically balances between the level of parallelism and intermediate memory usage. With PBFS, peak memory consumption during construction can be efficiently controlled without costly CPU-GPU data transfer. We also develop memory allocation strategies to effectively limit memory fragmentation. The resulting algorithm scales well with GPU memory and constructs kd-trees of models with millions of triangles at interactive rates on GPUs with 1 GB memory. Compared with existing algorithms, our algorithm is an order of magnitude more scalable for a given GPU memory bound. The second algorithm is for out-of-core bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) construction for very large scenes based on the PBFS construction order. At each iteration, all constructed nodes are dumped to the CPU memory, and the GPU memory is freed for the next iteration's use. In this way, the algorithm is able to build trees that are too large to be stored in the GPU memory. Experiments show that our algorithm can construct BVHs for scenes with up to 20 M triangles, several times larger than previous GPU algorithms.

  10. Spontaneous Recovery of Human Spatial Memory in a Virtual Water Maze (United States)

    Luna, David; Martínez, Héctor


    The occurrence of spontaneous recovery in human spatial memory was assessed using a virtual environment. In Experiment 1, spatial memory was established by training participants to locate a hidden platform in a virtual water maze using a set of four distal landmarks. In Experiment 2, after learning about the location of a hidden platform, the…

  11. Lack of Awareness for Spatial and Verbal Constructive Apraxia (United States)

    Rinaldi, Maria Cristina; Piras, Federica; Pizzamiglio, Luigi


    It is still a matter of debate whether constructive apraxia (CA) should be considered a form of apraxia or, rather, the motor expression of a more pervasive impairment in visuo-spatial processing. Constructive disorders were linked to visuo-spatial disorders and to deficits in appreciating spatial relations among component sub-parts or problems in…

  12. Measurement of Spatial Ability: Construction and Validation of the Spatial Reasoning Instrument for Middle School Students (United States)

    Ramful, Ajay; Lowrie, Thomas; Logan, Tracy


    This article describes the development and validation of a newly designed instrument for measuring the spatial ability of middle school students (11-13 years old). The design of the Spatial Reasoning Instrument (SRI) is based on three constructs (mental rotation, spatial orientation, and spatial visualization) and is aligned to the type of spatial…

  13. Constructing Spatial Meaning: Spatial Affordances in Museum Design (United States)

    Wineman, Jean D.; Peponis, John


    Informal education in museums is structured through movement in space. This article summarizes a range of research that examines the role of spatial layout in shaping the ways in which visitors explore, engage, and understand museums and museum exhibitions. It is demonstrated that behavior patterns are systematically linked to spatial…

  14. Alpha-Band Activity Reveals Spontaneous Representations of Spatial Position in Visual Working Memory. (United States)

    Foster, Joshua J; Bsales, Emma M; Jaffe, Russell J; Awh, Edward


    An emerging view suggests that spatial position is an integral component of working memory (WM), such that non-spatial features are bound to locations regardless of whether space is relevant [1, 2]. For instance, past work has shown that stimulus position is spontaneously remembered when non-spatial features are stored. Item recognition is enhanced when memoranda appear at the same location where they were encoded [3-5], and accessing non-spatial information elicits shifts of spatial attention to the original position of the stimulus [6, 7]. However, these findings do not establish that a persistent, active representation of stimulus position is maintained in WM because similar effects have also been documented following storage in long-term memory [8, 9]. Here we show that the spatial position of the memorandum is actively coded by persistent neural activity during a non-spatial WM task. We used a spatial encoding model in conjunction with electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements of oscillatory alpha-band (8-12 Hz) activity to track active representations of spatial position. The position of the stimulus varied trial to trial but was wholly irrelevant to the tasks. We nevertheless observed active neural representations of the original stimulus position that persisted throughout the retention interval. Further experiments established that these spatial representations are dependent on the volitional storage of non-spatial features rather than being a lingering effect of sensory energy or initial encoding demands. These findings provide strong evidence that online spatial representations are spontaneously maintained in WM-regardless of task relevance-during the storage of non-spatial features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dentate gyrus mossy cells control spontaneous convulsive seizures and spatial memory. (United States)

    Bui, Anh D; Nguyen, Theresa M; Limouse, Charles; Kim, Hannah K; Szabo, Gergely G; Felong, Sylwia; Maroso, Mattia; Soltesz, Ivan


    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by debilitating, recurring seizures and an increased risk for cognitive deficits. Mossy cells (MCs) are key neurons in the hippocampal excitatory circuit, and the partial loss of MCs is a major hallmark of TLE. We investigated how MCs contribute to spontaneous ictal activity and to spatial contextual memory in a mouse model of TLE with hippocampal sclerosis, using a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches. In chronically epileptic mice, real-time optogenetic modulation of MCs during spontaneous hippocampal seizures controlled the progression of activity from an electrographic to convulsive seizure. Decreased MC activity is sufficient to impede encoding of spatial context, recapitulating observed cognitive deficits in chronically epileptic mice. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. The Spontaneous Ray Log: A New Aid for Constructing Pseudo-Synthetic Seismograms (United States)

    Quadir, Adnan; Lewis, Charles; Rau, Ruey-Juin


    Conventional synthetic seismograms for hydrocarbon exploration combine the sonic and density logs, whereas pseudo-synthetic seismograms are constructed with a density log plus a resistivity, neutron, gamma ray, or rarely a spontaneous potential log. Herein, we introduce a new technique for constructing a pseudo-synthetic seismogram by combining the gamma ray (GR) and self-potential (SP) logs to produce the spontaneous ray (SR) log. Three wells, each of which consisted of more than 1000 m of carbonates, sandstones, and shales, were investigated; each well was divided into 12 Groups based on formation tops, and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PCC) was calculated for each "Group" from each of the GR, SP, and SR logs. The highest PCC-valued log curves for each Group were then combined to produce a single log whose values were cross-plotted against the reference well's sonic ITT values to determine a linear transform for producing a pseudo-sonic (PS) log and, ultimately, a pseudo-synthetic seismogram. The range for the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) acceptable value for the pseudo-sonic logs of three wells was 78-83%. This technique was tested on three wells, one of which was used as a blind test well, with satisfactory results. The PCC value between the composite PS (SR) log with low-density correction and the conventional sonic (CS) log was 86%. Because of the common occurrence of spontaneous potential and gamma ray logs in many of the hydrocarbon basins of the world, this inexpensive and straightforward technique could hold significant promise in areas that are in need of alternate ways to create pseudo-synthetic seismograms for seismic reflection interpretation.

  17. Spatial construction in Shanghai lady: a Chinese adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liang


    Full Text Available This article aims to provide spatial analysis of an adaptation of Ibsen’s The Lady from the Sea and the musical Shanghai Lady staged in China in 2009 and directed by Shi Jun, a young Chinese associate professor from Shanghai Theatre Academy. The notion of space may be viewed from two perspectives: first, as a textual construction, it reflects the characterization applied and theme shaped by the director; second, as an on-stage theatrical technique, it conveys the director’s understanding and innovative manoeuvre of adaptation in the target culture. The article tries to analyse the spatial renovation in Shanghai Lady, both in the text and on the stage, from the two perspectives mentioned above and aims to reveal the contemporary Chinese ideological reception of Ibsen’s plays and the literary techniques exhibited in its adaptation.

  18. Research into Practice: Spatial Sense and the Construction of Abstract Units in Tiling. (United States)

    Wheatley, Grayson H., Ed.


    Discusses a variation on tiling that offers opportunities for the construction of the fundamental mathematical concept of constructing abstract units called "unitizing." Tiling integrates geometric and numerical settings to develop spatial sense and present mathematics as constructing patterns. (MDH)

  19. Spontaneous alternation: A potential gateway to spatial working memory in Drosophila. (United States)

    Lewis, Sara A; Negelspach, David C; Kaladchibachi, Sevag; Cowen, Stephen L; Fernandez, Fabian


    Despite their ubiquity in biomedical research, Drosophila have yet to be widely employed as model organisms in psychology. Many complex human-like behaviors are observed in Drosophila, which exhibit elaborate displays of inter-male aggression and female courtship, self-medication with alcohol in response to stress, and even cultural transmission of social information. Here, we asked whether Drosophila can demonstrate behavioral indices of spatial working memory in a Y-maze, a classic test of memory function and novelty-seeking in rodents. Our data show that Drosophila, like rodents, alternate their visits among the three arms of a Y-maze and spontaneously favor entry into arms they have explored less recently versus ones they have just seen. These findings suggest that Drosophila possess some of the information-seeking and working memory facilities mammals depend on to navigate through space and might be relevant models for understanding human psychological phenomena such as curiosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens") (United States)

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro


    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  1. Multiple visioning: new ways of constructing transnational spatial visions


    Wil Zonneveld


    In many parts of Europe, but also at the level of the European Union and the much higher level of the Council of Europe, the creation of spatial visions is now underway. However, these spatial visions often lack an essential ingredient of spatial planning, namely maps. This omission may seem paradoxical, because maps are essential for communicating ideas with a spatial dimension. The vast spatial and political complexities at transnational and European levels are addressed by elementary proce...

  2. Dynamic spatial structure of spontaneous beams in photorefractive bismuth sillicon oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Lyuksyutov, S.; Vasnetsov, M.


    We report the domain structure of spontaneously occurring beams (subharmonics) in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide with an applied electric field from 1 to 6 kV/cm and a running grating. The subharmonic beams are generated in a pattern of domains that evolve dynamically as they move through...

  3. Research on geo-ontology construction based on spatial affairs (United States)

    Li, Bin; Liu, Jiping; Shi, Lihong


    Geo-ontology, a kind of domain ontology, is used to make the knowledge, information and data of concerned geographical science in the abstract to form a series of single object or entity with common cognition. These single object or entity can compose a specific system in some certain way and can be disposed on conception and given specific definition at the same time. Ultimately, these above-mentioned worked results can be expressed in some manners of formalization. The main aim of constructing geo-ontology is to get the knowledge of the domain of geography, and provide the commonly approbatory vocabularies in the domain, as well as give the definite definition about these geographical vocabularies and mutual relations between them in the mode of formalization at different hiberarchy. Consequently, the modeling tool of conception model of describing geographic Information System at the hiberarchy of semantic meaning and knowledge can be provided to solve the semantic conception of information exchange in geographical space and make them possess the comparatively possible characters of accuracy, maturity and universality, etc. In fact, some experiments have been made to validate geo-ontology. During the course of studying, Geo-ontology oriented to flood can be described and constructed by making the method based on geo-spatial affairs to serve the governmental departments at all levels to deal with flood. Thereinto, intelligent retrieve and service based on geoontology of disaster are main functions known from the traditional manner by using keywords. For instance, the function of dealing with disaster information based on geo-ontology can be provided when a supposed flood happened in a certain city. The correlative officers can input some words, such as "city name, flood", which have been realized semantic label, to get the information they needed when they browse different websites. The information, including basic geographical information and flood distributing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turan Sönmez


    Full Text Available General Directorate of Forests (GDF has not yet created the spatial forest database to manage forest and catch the developed countries in forestry. The lack of spatial forest database results in collection of the spatial data redundancy, communication problems among the forestry organizations. Also it causes Turkish forestry to be backward of informatics’ era. To solve these problems; GDF should establish spatial forest database supported Geographic Information System (GIS. To design the spatial database, supported GIS, which provides accurate, on time and current data/info for decision makers and operators in forestry, and to develop sample interface program to apply and monitor classical forest management plans is paramount in contemporary forest management planning process. This research is composed of three major stages: (i spatial rototype database design considering required by the three hierarchical organizations of GDF (regional directorate of forests, forest enterprise, and territorial division, (ii user interface program developed to apply and monitor classical management plans based on the designed database, (iii the implementation of the designed database and its user interface in Artvin Central Planning Unit.

  5. Caffeine improves spatial learning deficits in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) -- the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). (United States)

    Prediger, Rui D S; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Fernandes, Daniel; Takahashi, Reinaldo N


    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is generally considered to be a suitable genetic model for the study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), since it displays hyperactivity, impulsivity, poorly sustained attention, and deficits in learning and memory processes. Converging evidence suggests a primary role of disturbance in the dopaminergic neurotransmission in ADHD patients and in SHR, and in addition, some studies have also demonstrated alterations in adenosinergic neurotransmission in SHR. In the present study, adult female Wistar (WIS) and SHR rats received caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) 30 min before training, immediately after training, or 30 min before a test session in the spatial version of the Morris water maze. The effect of caffeine administration on WIS and SHR blood pressure was also measured. SHR needed significantly more trials in the training session to acquire the spatial information, but they displayed a similar profile to that of WIS rats in the test session (48 h later), demonstrating a selective deficit in spatial learning. Pre-training administration of caffeine (1-10 mg/kg i.p.) improved this spatial learning deficit in SHR, but did not alter the WIS performance. In contrast, post-training administration of caffeine (3 mg/kg i.p.) did not alter the SHR test performance, but increased memory retention in WIS rats. No dose of caffeine tested altered the mean blood pressure of WIS or SHR. These results demonstrate a selective spatial learning deficit in SHR which can be attenuated by pre-training administration of caffeine. In addition, the present findings indicate that the spatial learning deficit in SHR is not directly related to hypertension.

  6. Spatial Dependent Spontaneous Emission of an Atom in a Semi-Infinite Waveguide of Rectangular Cross Section (United States)

    Song, Hai-Xi; Sun, Xiao-Qi; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Lan


    We study a quantum electrodynamics (QED) system made of a two-level atom and a semi-infinite rectangular waveguide, which behaves as a perfect mirror in one end. The spatial dependence of the atomic spontaneous emission has been included in the coupling strength relevant to the eigenmodes of the waveguide. The role of retardation is studied for the atomic transition frequency far away from the cutoff frequencies. The atom-mirror distance introduces different phases and retardation times into the dynamics of the atom interacting resonantly with the corresponding transverse modes. It is found that the upper state population decreases from its initial as long as the atom-mirror distance does not vanish, and is lowered and lowered when more and more transverse modes are resonant with the atom. The atomic spontaneous emission can be either suppressed or enhanced by adjusting the atomic location for short retardation time. There are partial revivals and collapses due to the photon reabsorbed and re-emitted by the atom for long retardation time. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11374095, 11422540, 11434011, and 11575058, National Fundamental Research Program of China (the 973 Program) under Grant No. 2012CB922103, and Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11JJ7001

  7. Spatial characteristics of planning and construction of nautical tourism ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kovačić


    Full Text Available This paper systematically and clearly definesthesignificanceoftheseaandcoastalareainnauticaltourismactivities’ preformances. Ecological aspect of the area is considered and the need for a systematic and multidiscipline planning of its development and the usage is pointed out. With its specificactivityandtheneedforspacearoundthe coastal line within maritime domain, nautical tourism emphasizes problems of protection of costal and sea environment. Location of nautical tourism ports and spatial planning becomes one of the most important issues. Therefore, spatial plans have to be subordinated to the protection and promotion of the environment, which implies efficient, but sensible managing of the coastal area. Authors have emphasized the importance of integral managing in the function of nautical tourism development and selection of nautical tourism ports locations. The significance of sustained research is pointed out in order to understand its role in development of country’s economy. Respecting areal and ecological aspects of nautical tourism development, a sustainable development model of nautical tourism ports has been completed. The model indicates the selection of scientific methodology using methods of multicriterial analysis and team work of experts from various fields.

  8. Using remotely sensed data to construct and assess forest attribute maps and related spatial products (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Warren B. Cohen; Erik Naesset; Stephen V. Stehman; Erkki O. Tomppo


    Tremendous advances in the construction and assessment of forest attribute maps and related spatial products have been realized in recent years, partly as a result of the use of remotely sensed data as an information source. This review focuses on the current state of techniques for the construction and assessment of remote sensing-based maps and addresses five topic...

  9. Children's construction task performance and spatial ability: controlling task complexity and predicting mathematics performance. (United States)

    Richardson, Miles; Hunt, Thomas E; Richardson, Cassandra


    This paper presents a methodology to control construction task complexity and examined the relationships between construction performance and spatial and mathematical abilities in children. The study included three groups of children (N = 96); ages 7-8, 10-11, and 13-14 years. Each group constructed seven pre-specified objects. The study replicated and extended previous findings that indicated that the extent of component symmetry and variety, and the number of components for each object and available for selection, significantly predicted construction task difficulty. Results showed that this methodology is a valid and reliable technique for assessing and predicting construction play task difficulty. Furthermore, construction play performance predicted mathematical attainment independently of spatial ability.

  10. Introduction to the transverse spatial correlations in spontaneous parametric down-conversion through the biphoton birth zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeloch, James; Howell, John C


    As a tutorial to the spatial aspects of spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), we present a detailed first-principles derivation of the transverse correlation width of photon pairs in degenerate collinear SPDC. This width defines the size of a biphoton birth zone, the region where the signal and idler photons are likely to be found when conditioning on the position of the destroyed pump photon. Along the way, we discuss the quantum-optical calculation of the amplitude for the SPDC process, as well as its simplified form for nearly collinear degenerate phase matching. Following this, we show how this biphoton amplitude can be approximated with a double-Gaussian wavefunction, and give a brief discussion of the measurement statistics (and subsequent convenience) of such double-Gaussian wavefunctions. Next, we use this approximation to get a simplified estimation of the transverse correlation width, and compare it to more accurate calculations as well as experimental results. We then conclude with a discussion of the concept of a biphoton birth zone, using it to develop intuition for the tradeoff between the first-order spatial coherence and bipohoton correlations in SPDC. (tutorial)

  11. Building on What You Have Learned: Object Construction Skill during Infancy Predicts the Comprehension of Spatial Relations Words (United States)

    Marcinowski, Emily C.; Campbell, Julie Marie


    Object construction involves organizing multiple objects into a unified structure (e.g., stacking blocks into a tower) and may provide infants with unique spatial information. Because object construction entails placing objects in spatial locations relative to one another, infants can acquire information about spatial relations during construction…

  12. Experimental investigation on spontaneously active hippocampal cultures recorded by means of high-density MEAs: analysis of the spatial resolution effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Maccione


    Full Text Available Based on experiments performed with high-resolution Active Pixel Sensor microelectrode arrays (APS-MEAs coupled with spontaneously active hippocampal cultures, this work investigates the spatial resolution effects of the neuroelectronic interface on the analysis of the recorded electrophysiological signals. The adopted methodology consists, first, in recording the spontaneous activity at the highest spatial resolution (inter-electrode separation of 21 µm from the whole array of 4096 microelectrodes. Then, the full resolution dataset is spatially down sampled in order to evaluate the effects on raster plot representation, array-wide spike rate (AWSR, mean firing rate (MFR and mean bursting rate (MBR. Furthermore, the effects of the array-to-network relative position are evaluated by shifting a subset of equally spaced electrodes on the entire recorded area. Results highlight that MFR and MBR are particularly influenced by the spatial resolution provided by the neuroelectronic interface. On high-resolution large MEAs, such analysis better represent the time-based parameterization of the network dynamics. Finally, this work suggest interesting capabilities of high-resolution MEAs for spatial-based analysis in dense and low-dense neuronal preparation for investigating signalling at both local and global neuronal circuitries.

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of spontaneous grass cover as a control measure of soil loss: a study case in an olive orchard microcatchment (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Vanderlinden, Karl; Pedrera-Parrilla, Aura; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, Jose A.


    Spatial and temporal patterns of vegetal communities control local biogeophysical processes.. The use of cover crops and spontaneous grass cover as a soil erosion control measure is quite common, particularly in hilly agricultural areas. Spontaneous covers show usually irregular spatial and temporal patterns, resulting in a questionable efficiency and and unresolved management requirements. However, due to its zero cost, it is a helpful alternative for soil erosion control in marginal farms (Taguas et al., 2015). The main aim of this work was to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of spontaneous grass cover in an olive orchard microcatchment to interpret its dependences on other physical features as well as its influence on soil loss control. The specific objectives were: i) to evaluate the relationships between the mean cover and the variables: accumulated precipitation, accumulated evapotranspiration and average minimum temperature for the preceding 5, 15, 30 and 60 days to the sampling date; ii) study the spatial aggregation degree of the cover, its temporal stability and its correlation with different topographical properties, the richness of species and the apparent electrical conductivity as a measure of soil variability; and iii) describe the influence of the cover on runoff and soil loss in the catchments. Cover percentage corresponding to spontaneous grass was evaluated on a seaonsal basis during 3 years (2011-2013), resulting in 12 surveys. A permanent and regular grid of 36 points covering the entire catchment (5-6 samples/ha) was used in each survey. At each location cover percentage was determined through image analyses. In order to explore the relations between cover percentage and meteorological variables, multiple linear regression was applied whereas the SADIE approach (Spatial analysis by distance indices; Perry, 1998) was used to describe possible spatial aggregation patterns and the correlation with features such as aspect, slope


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Atay


    Full Text Available This paper describes an on-going study that aims to develop a web-based spatial decision support system model for proactive health and safety management in linear construction projects. Currently, health and safety management is usually performed reactively instead of proactive management since hazard identification and risk assessment is mostly performed on paper based documents that are not effectively used at site. This leads to accidents and fatalities at construction sites. The proposed system automatically identifies the spatial risks according to the topographic and layout map of the site, project specification and health and safety regulations by means of spatial analysis. It enables the workers and management personnel to access the possible hazards and thematic risk map of any portion of the construction site for linear projects. Finally, the described approach provides the proposed mitigation measures for the identified hazards. The developed system is expected to raise awareness in H&S among workers and engineers, and increase participation of workers to health and safety management.

  15. Spatiality of ethnic identity and construction of sociopolitical interaction in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kon K. Madut


    Full Text Available This article explores the complexity of the spatial construction of ethnicity, identity, and sociopolitical interaction among South Sudanese ethnic groups. The article focuses on the interplay between social interaction and the construction of ethnic identity as they affect the notion of human interaction and welfare. The narratives are based on the political sociology of South Sudan after its independence from Sudan and challenges endured in the process of sociopolitical transformation towards the reconstruction of national identity and peaceful coexistence. This discourse gives meaning to visible and invisible ethno-cultural constructions that shaped the norms of social and political interactions among various ethnic groups in the country. The analysis concluded that South Sudan society is socially, politically, and culturally constructed along ethnicized communities with variant perceptions of group and regional identities based on both primordial ties and instrumentalists’ perceptions. These unique characteristics of spaces and construction of social structure has created multi-faceted challenges in the process of social, economic and political reconstruction after the independent of South Sudan in July 2011.

  16. The relation between early constructive play and mathematical word problem solving is mediated by spatial ability. A path analysis in sixth grade students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostermeijer, M.; Boonen, A.J.H.; Jolles, J.


    The scientific literature shows that constructive play activities are positively related to children's spatial ability. Likewise, a close positive relation is found between spatial ability and mathematical word problem-solving performances. The relation between children's constructive play and their

  17. Mechanism of spatial distribution of incremental construction land in island based on TM data: case of Changshan Islands (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Bingru


    With the Landsat-TM of 1993 and 2009, the incremental construction land vector of Changhai county (Changshan islands) was extracted by means of noise removing, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Color Composing, Classifying and Difference value arithmetic. With methods of overlay, buffer and geographic statistic analysis in MapInfo applied to construction land layer, the spatial distribution and the influencing factors were analyzed. The results showed: from 1993 to 2009, the construction land in Changhai county increased to some extent, and the population growth and the economic growth are the main promoting factors; The transport corridor have spatial attraction to the incremental construction land; the distribution of construction land has the trend to the infrastructural facilities such as harbors or dock; the industrial distribution also influences on the distribution of incremental construction land.

  18. Old and New Cirujas. Temporo-Spatial Constructions in the City of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano D. Perelman


    Full Text Available What is known as cirujeo, cartoneo or informal collection acquired visibility with the increase of this activity towards the end of the 1990s. During the first years after the 2001 crisis, as the cartoneros were a “novelty”, investigations mainly tried to understand the new structure of the activity. Since then, they began referring to two groups: structural and new cirujas. Focused on the experience of the latter, this article seeks to complicate this difference. I will argue that these people’s identifications were gradually constructed in the interaction between the two groups (and the outside. This was generated not only by changes linked to the growth of activity, as was stated in large part of the research, but also by the re conceptualization of La Quema and the street as the temporal and spatial place of cirujeo.

  19. Construction of Light-Harvesting Polymeric Vesicles in Aqueous Solution with Spatially Separated Donors and Acceptors. (United States)

    Li, Huimei; Liu, Yannan; Huang, Tong; Qi, Meiwei; Ni, Yunzhou; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Yongli; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue


    This communication describes polymer vesicles self-assembled from hyperbranched polymers (branched polymersomes (BPs)) as scaffolds, conceptually mimicking the natural light-harvesting system in aqueous solution. The system is constructed with hydrophobic 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl) as donors encapsulated in the hydrophobic hyperbranched cores of the vesicles and the hydrophilic Rhodamine B (RB) as acceptors incorporated on the surface of the vesicles through the cyclodextrin (CD)/RB host-guest interactions, through which the donors and acceptors are spatially separated to effectively avoid the self-quenching between donors. This vesicular light harvesting system has presented good energy transfer efficiency of about 80% in water, and can be used as the ink to write multiclolor letters. In addition, due to the giant dimension of BPs, the real-time fluorescent images of the vesicles under an optical microscope can be observed to prove the light-harvesting process. It is supposed that such a vesicular light-harvesting antenna can be used to construct artificial photosynthesis systems in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Discourse Intonation and Information Structure: An Empirical Study of Existential There Constructions in Non-native Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Judit


    Full Text Available The management of given and new information is one of the key components of accomplishing coherence in oral discourse, which is claimed to be a problematic area for language learners (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, and Thurrell 1995: 14. Research on discourse intonation proposes that instead of the given/new dichotomy, givenness should be viewed as a continuum, with different types of accessibility (Baumann & Grice 2006. Moreover, Prince (1992 previously categorized information structure into Hearer-old/Hearer-new and Discourse-old/Discourse-new information. There is consensus on the fact that focus or prominence associated with new information is marked with nuclear pitch accent, and its main acoustic cue, fundamental frequency (f0 (Ward & Birner 2001: 120. Non-native intonation has been reported to display numerous differences in f0 range and patterns compared to native speech (Wennerstrom 1994; Baker 2010. This study is an attempt to address the issue of marking information structure in existential there sentences by means of f0 in non-native spontaneous speech. Data originates from task-based interactions in the Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English (Van Engen et al. 2010. This paper examines two issues: (1 information structure in relation to the notions of givenness and different types of accessibility (Baumann & Grice 2006 and to Prince’s (1992 multidimensional taxonomy and (2 the use of f0 peaks to mark the prominence of new information. Several differences were measured among native speakers regarding the use of f0, sentence type, and complexity.

  1. The relation between children's constructive play activities, spatial ability, and mathematical word problem-solving performance: a mediation analysis in sixth-grade students. (United States)

    Oostermeijer, Meike; Boonen, Anton J H; Jolles, Jelle


    The scientific literature shows that constructive play activities are positively related to children's spatial ability. Likewise, a close positive relation is found between spatial ability and mathematical word problem-solving performances. The relation between children's constructive play and their performance on mathematical word problems is, however, not reported yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether spatial ability acted as a mediator in the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance in 128 sixth-grade elementary school children. This mediating role of spatial ability was tested by utilizing the current mediation approaches suggested by Preacher and Hayes (2008). Results showed that 38.16% of the variance in mathematical word problem-solving performance is explained by children's constructive play activities and spatial ability. More specifically, spatial ability acted as a partial mediator, explaining 31.58% of the relation between constructive play and mathematical word problem-solving performance.

  2. Visuo-spatial construction in patients with frontal and parietal lobe lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himani Kashyap


    Full Text Available Visuospatial construction, traditionally viewed as a putative parietal function, also requires sustained attention, planning, organization strategies and error correction, and hence frontal lobe mediation. The relative contributions of the frontal and parietal lobes are poorly understood. To examine the contributions of parietal, frontal lobes, as well as right and left cerebral hemispheres to visuospatial construction. The Stick Construction Test for two-dimensional construction and the Block Construction Test for three-dimensional construction were administered pre-surgically to patients with lesions in the parietal lobe (n =9 and the frontal lobe (n=11, along with normal control subjects (n =20 matched to the patients on age (+/- 3 years, gender, education (+/- 3 years and handedness. The patients were significantly slower than the controls on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional tests. Patients with parietal lesions were slower than those with frontal lesions on the test of three-dimensional construction. Within each lobe patients with right and left sided lesions did not differ significantly. It appears that tests of three-dimensional construction might be most sensitive to visuospatial construction deficits. Visuospatial construction involves the mediation of both frontal and parietal lobes. The function does not appear to be lateralized. The networks arising from the parieto-occipital areas and projecting to the frontal cortices (e.g., occipito-frontal fasciculus may be the basis of the mediation of both lobes in visuospatial construction. The present findings need replication from studies with larger sample sizes.

  3. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Zhang

    Full Text Available Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users' privacy in location-based services (LBS applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified.

  4. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset. (United States)

    Zhang, Haitao; Chen, Zewei; Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue


    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users' privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified.

  5. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue


    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users’ privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  6. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R


    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  7. Les automatismes du scripteur : Jets textuels spontanés dans le processus de production écrite, le cas des constructions coordinatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cislaru Georgeta


    Full Text Available Cette étude s’intéresse à la nature linguistique des jets textuels, qui sont des séquences produites entre deux pauses dans le temps réel du processus d’écriture. Nous nous appuyons sur des dossiers d’écriture de rapports éducatifs de la protection de l’enfance enregistrés par le logiciel de suivi de rédaction Inputlog. Unités segmentées spontanément par les scripteurs lors de la production langagière écrite, les jets textuels questionnent l’articulation entre langage et cognition, compétence et performance, grammaire et contraintes discursives : les jets textuels présentent-ils des régularités formelles et sémantiques ? Sont-ils gouvernés par des règles ou des normes permettant d’identifier des patrons de rédaction routiniers ? Assument-ils des fonctions d’organisation textuelle spécifiques ? Nous détaillerons les principaux types de jets textuels, en distinguant entre les constructions saturées syntaxiquement et les constructions non saturées syntaxiquement. La fréquence de ces dernières (57% nous oriente vers une approche sémantique. Nous montrons que les frontières des jets sont parfois calquées sur les frontières entre objectivation et modalités appréciatives, entre thème d’une part et rhème d’autre part. L’analyse des séquences coordonnées, qui représentent 7,8% des jets textuels, montre que les relations discursives sont parfois préfigurées par les contraintes génériques et les cadres sociaux dans lesquels sont évaluées les situations particulières des enfants.

  8. The construction of visual-spatial situation models in children's reading and their relation to reading comprehension. (United States)

    Barnes, Marcia A; Raghubar, Kimberly P; Faulkner, Heather; Denton, Carolyn A


    Readers construct mental models of situations described by text to comprehend what they read, updating these situation models based on explicitly described and inferred information about causal, temporal, and spatial relations. Fluent adult readers update their situation models while reading narrative text based in part on spatial location information that is consistent with the perspective of the protagonist. The current study investigated whether children update spatial situation models in a similar way, whether there are age-related changes in children's formation of spatial situation models during reading, and whether measures of the ability to construct and update spatial situation models are predictive of reading comprehension. Typically developing children from 9 to 16 years of age (N=81) were familiarized with a physical model of a marketplace. Then the model was covered, and children read stories that described the movement of a protagonist through the marketplace and were administered items requiring memory for both explicitly stated and inferred information about the character's movements. Accuracy of responses and response times were evaluated. Results indicated that (a) location and object information during reading appeared to be activated and updated not simply from explicit text-based information but from a mental model of the real-world situation described by the text; (b) this pattern showed no age-related differences; and (c) the ability to update the situation model of the text based on inferred information, but not explicitly stated information, was uniquely predictive of reading comprehension after accounting for word decoding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Eye movement suppression interferes with construction of object-centered spatial reference frames in working memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Olsen, Jacob Hedeager


    The brain's frontal eye fields (FEF), responsible for eye movement control, are known to be involved in spatial working memory (WM). In a previous fMRI experiment (Wallentin, Roepstorff & Burgess, Neuropsychologia, 2008) it was found that FEF activation was primarily related to the formation......-spatial ("Was X darker than Y?") relations in a previously shown image containing two to four objects, each with an intrinsic orientation and unique luminance. During half of all recall trials a moving visual stimulus was presented, which participants had to ignore, thus suppressing eye movement. Response times...

  10. Testing of spatial ability: construction and evaluation of a new instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květon, Petr; Jelínek, Martin; Vobořil, Dalibor


    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2014), s. 233-252 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2397 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : spatial ability * testing * psychometrics Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2014

  11. Construction (United States)


    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  12. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Yu

    Full Text Available For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs, two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  13. Soft X-ray microscope constructed with 130-nm spatial resolution using a high harmonic X-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Deuk Su; Park, Jong Ju; Lee, Kyoung Hwan; Park, Juyun; Nam, Chang Hee


    Using high harmonic radiation as an X-ray light source, a soft X-ray microscope with nanometer-scale spatial resolution was investigated. A transmission soft X-ray microscope was constructed using a Mo/Si multilayer concave mirror as a condenser and a Fresnel zone plate as a microscope objective. The high-order harmonic source at 13 nm, emitted from neon atoms driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses, was optimized by controlling laser chirp. Objects, patterned on 160-nm-thick hydrogen silsesquioxane coated on a 100-nm-thick Si 3 N 4 membrane, were used for imaging. The analysis of object images, captured on an X-ray charge-coupled device, showed that the spatial resolution of the microscope was about 130 nm, verifying the usefulness of the tabletop soft X-ray source. (author)

  14. Non-retinotopic feature processing in the absence of retinotopic spatial layout and the construction of perceptual space from motion. (United States)

    Ağaoğlu, Mehmet N; Herzog, Michael H; Oğmen, Haluk


    The spatial representation of a visual scene in the early visual system is well known. The optics of the eye map the three-dimensional environment onto two-dimensional images on the retina. These retinotopic representations are preserved in the early visual system. Retinotopic representations and processing are among the most prevalent concepts in visual neuroscience. However, it has long been known that a retinotopic representation of the stimulus is neither sufficient nor necessary for perception. Saccadic Stimulus Presentation Paradigm and the Ternus-Pikler displays have been used to investigate non-retinotopic processes with and without eye movements, respectively. However, neither of these paradigms eliminates the retinotopic representation of the spatial layout of the stimulus. Here, we investigated how stimulus features are processed in the absence of a retinotopic layout and in the presence of retinotopic conflict. We used anorthoscopic viewing (slit viewing) and pitted a retinotopic feature-processing hypothesis against a non-retinotopic feature-processing hypothesis. Our results support the predictions of the non-retinotopic feature-processing hypothesis and demonstrate the ability of the visual system to operate non-retinotopically at a fine feature processing level in the absence of a retinotopic spatial layout. Our results suggest that perceptual space is actively constructed from the perceptual dimension of motion. The implications of these findings for normal ecological viewing conditions are discussed. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  15. Spatial distribution of heavy metal accumulation in the sediments after dam construction. (United States)

    Shim, Moo Joon; Yang, Yun Mo; Oh, Da Yeon; Lee, Soo Hyung; Yoon, Yi Yong


    The sedimentary environment has been modified in the Geum River where an estuary dam and midstream dams were constructed. Furthermore, the Geum River tributaries deliver contaminants from the wastewater of an industrial complex. However, the influence of tributaries and dams on sedimentary metal deposition has not been extensively studied. The objectives of this study are to assess metal accumulation and to investigate the source of the metals. Sediments were collected in the main channel and two tributaries on October 2013. Abnormal accumulations of fine sediments were not observed above the midstream dams. Chromium, Ni, and Zn showed higher concentrations in above the midstream dam, but their concentrations were not related to grain size. Cadmium, Cu, Pb, and Hg were much higher upstream from the first midstream dam and came from one of the major tributaries. Arsenic was the only element found at higher concentrations downstream from the last midstream dam and was likely sourced from abandoned mines and/or agricultural activity. The pollution indexes indicated deposition of all metals, except Cr and Ni, may have been affected by anthropogenic activity. With respect to long-term accumulation of the metals, accumulation of Pb, Zn, and Cu by anthropogenic input largely increased, implying accumulation of these metals has continued due to anthropogenic activity since the estuary dam was constructed. Our results suggest that changes in river flow caused by the estuary dam and anthropogenic input from tributaries sources increased the accumulation of heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, and As).

  16. Seasonal and Spatial Changes of Microorganism Communities in Constructed Wetlands: A Community Level Physiological Profiling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Chazarenc


    Full Text Available In constructed wetlands, microorganisms associated with plants are assumed to play a major role. A one-year survey was conducted in five vertical flow constructed wetland systems that had been operating from 2 months to 8 years in small French villages (100–500 People Equivalent to provide a better understanding of microbiological activity. The objective of our study was to highlight the most important factor generating variability between microorganisms communities compared to treatment performances. Results of community level physiological profiling using Biolog Ecoplates were analyzed using principal component analysis. The greatest microbial activity was observed in the oldest wetland during summer. Profiles of fed and rest bed were differentiated by the nature of the main carbon source metabolized. Whereas carbohydrates and carboxylic acids appeared to be better assimilated with fed beds, it seemed that phosphate compounds as well as amines allowed better growth in the plates inoculated with samples of rest beds. In all fed beds, the most important parameters affecting the diversity were the season and the age of the wetlands. There were only slight profile differences between surface and subsurface samples and between the first and second stage samples.

  17. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  18. Spatial Econometric Research on the Relationship between Highway Construction and Regional Economic Growth in China: Evidence from the Nationwide Panel Data (United States)

    Ye, N. J.; Li, W. J.; Li, Y.; Bai, Y. F.


    Based on spatial panel data from 2010 to 2016 in China, this paper makes an empirical analysis on the relationship between highway construction and regional economic growth by means of spatial econometric model. The results show that there is positive spatial correlation on regional economic growth in China, and strong spatial dependences between some provinces and cities appear, specifically, Hebei, Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Zhejiang and other eastern coastal areas show high-high agglomeration trend, the Pearl River Delta region presents high-low agglomeration trend; In terms of nationwide provinces and municipalities, a province’s highway construction investment for their own province and the neighboring provinces has pulling effect on economic growth to a certain extent, and the direct effect is more obvious.

  19. Planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria for sustainable spatial development in the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Meiţă


    Full Text Available The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve represents a complex of ecosystems embedding a biome that had been included on UNESCO World Heritage list due to its global environmental importance. The outstanding natural diversity, including ecosystems, habitats and species situated at the top of European and International conservation lists, is mixed with an equally rich and important cultural (ethnic and religious diversity of the human communities inhabiting the area. According to the guidelines of the Man and the Biosphere Programme of UNESCO, the biosphere reserves including human settlements should be managed such that they could constitute an example for what sustainable development means. Starting from the spatial dimension added to the traditional socioeconomic, ecological and cultural pillars of sustainable development, the paper examines planning, architecture, seismic, construction and energy-related criteria that could substantiate a sustainable development model applicable to the Danube Delta, and counter the effects of clime change in the area. The results suggest that the traditional practices of the inhabitants could offer sustainable solutions and help preserving the natural and cultural diversity of the region.

  20. Construction et visualisation 3D de scénarios de changement de l'utilisation des terres pour l'appui à la gestion des paysages de montagne en cours de boisement spontané.


    GIBON, Annick; LADET, Sylvie; BALENT, Gerard


    Dans les recherches sur les paysages, la construction de scénarios et la visualisation se développent comme outils de sensibilisation au changement ou d’aide à la gestion des paysages (Dockerty et al., 2006). Nous avons appliqué ce type de démarche dans le cadre d’une recherche en partenariat sur les processus et conséquences du boisement spontané des vallées du Parc National des Pyrénées par le frêne (Fraxinus Excelsior). La finalité du projet est de mettre au point des références et des ou...

  1. Dead reckoning (path integration) requires the hippocampal formation: evidence from spontaneous exploration and spatial learning tasks in light (allothetic) and dark (idiothetic) tests. (United States)

    Whishaw, I Q; Hines, D J; Wallace, D G


    Animals navigate using cues generated by their own movements (self-movement cues or idiothetic cues), as well as the cues they encounter in their environment (distal cues or allothetic cues). Animals use these cues to navigate in two different ways. When dead reckoning (deduced reckoning or path integration), they integrate self-movement cues over time to locate a present position or to return to a starting location. When piloting, they use allothetic cues as beacons, or they use the relational properties of allothetic cues to locate places in space. The neural structures involved in cue use and navigational strategies are still poorly understood, although considerable attention is directed toward the contributions of the hippocampal formation (hippocampus and associated pathways and structures, including the fimbria-fornix and the retrosplenial cortex). In the present study, using tests in allothetic and idiothetic paradigms, we present four lines of evidence to support the hypothesis that the hippocampal formation plays a central role in dead reckoning. (1) Control but not fimbria-fornix lesion rats can return to a novel refuge location in both light and dark (infrared) food carrying tasks. (2). Control but not fimbria-fornix lesion rats make periodic direct high velocity returns to a starting location in both light and dark exploratory tests. Control but not fimbria-fornix rats trained in the light to carry food from a fixed location to a refuge are able to maintain accurate outward and homebound trajectories when tested in the dark. (3). Control but not fimbria-fornix rats are able to correct an outward trajectory to a food source when the food source is moved when allothetic cues are present. These, tests of spontaneous exploration and foraging suggest a role for the hippocampal formation in dead reckoning.

  2. Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of the Economic Efficiency of Construction Land in the Pearl River Delta Megalopolis from 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyao Ye


    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the rapid, extensive, and dispersed urban expansion in the Pearl River Delta megalopolis (PRDM has led to landscape fragmentation and the inefficient use of construction land. Like other developed regions in China that are subject to the dual challenges of shortages of construction land and deterioration of the ecological environment, it is becoming increasingly important in the PRDM to improve the land-use efficiency of urban construction. However, current methods for assessing land-use efficiency do not meet the emerging needs of land-use planning and policymaking. Therefore, using the American Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP/Operational Linescan System (OLS nighttime light imagery and Landsat TM data, this study aims to develop a timely and efficient approach to model the high-resolution economic efficiency of construction land (EECL. With this approach, we mapped the reliable EECL of the PRDM at township level and with a one-kilometer grid. Next, the study compared the temporal changes and revealed the spatial-temporal dynamics in order to provide a scientific reference for informed land-use planning and policymaking. The results show that since 1998, the economic efficiency of construction land in the PRDM increased in general but varied significantly throughout the area. Further, these disparities widened from 1998 to 2012 between the PRDM’s inner and peripheral circles. Only one-fifth of the towns and subdistricts were categorized as fast-growth or ultrafast-growth, with the majority located in the most developed areas of the PRDM’s inner circle. In order to improve the efficiency of construction land in the PRDM and realize sustainable development, differentiated land-use policies for the inner and peripheral circles were proposed. The inner circle should focus on promoting the efficiency of existing construction land and encourage urban renewal, while the peripheral circle should enhance the control

  3. Redox potential dynamics in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland for wastewater treatment: Diel, seasonal ans spatial fluctuations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušek, Jiří; Picek, T.; Čížková, Hana


    Roč. 34, - (2008), s. 223-232 ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Redox potential * Redox prosesses * Phragmites australis * Wastewater treatment s * Constructed wetlands * Contunuous measurement Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.836, year: 2008

  4. An impedance method for spatial sensing of 3D cell constructs – towards applications in tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Mazzoni, Chiara; Larsen, Layla Bashir


    ) cells were encapsulated in gelatin to form artificial 3D cell constructs and detected when placed in different positions inside large gelatin scaffolds. Taken together, these results open new perspectives for impedance-based sensing technologies for non-invasive monitoring in tissue engineering...

  5. The research and implementation of coalfield spontaneous combustion of carbon emission WebGIS based on Silverlight and ArcGIS server

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Z; Bi, J; Wang, X; Zhu, W


    As an important sub-topic of the natural process of carbon emission data public information platform construction, coalfield spontaneous combustion of carbon emission WebGIS system has become an important study object. In connection with data features of coalfield spontaneous combustion carbon emissions (i.e. a wide range of data, which is rich and complex) and the geospatial characteristics, data is divided into attribute data and spatial data. Based on full analysis of the data, completed the detailed design of the Oracle database and stored on the Oracle database. Through Silverlight rich client technology and the expansion of WCF services, achieved the attribute data of web dynamic query, retrieval, statistical, analysis and other functions. For spatial data, we take advantage of ArcGIS Server and Silverlight-based API to invoke GIS server background published map services, GP services, Image services and other services, implemented coalfield spontaneous combustion of remote sensing image data and web map data display, data analysis, thematic map production. The study found that the Silverlight technology, based on rich client and object-oriented framework for WCF service, can efficiently constructed a WebGIS system. And then, combined with ArcGIS Silverlight API to achieve interactive query attribute data and spatial data of coalfield spontaneous emmission, can greatly improve the performance of WebGIS system. At the same time, it provided a strong guarantee for the construction of public information on China's carbon emission data

  6. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters. (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J


    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  7. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.


    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  8. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  9. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L


    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  10. Spatial distribution of organic pollutants in industrial construction and demolition waste and their mutual interaction on an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant. (United States)

    Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Yanqiu; Ma, Jianli; Gao, Xiaofeng; Xie, Tian; Xu, Dongsheng; Yu, Yi; Zhao, Youcai


    A comprehensive field investigation of organic pollutants was examined in industrial construction and demolition waste (ICDW) inside an abandoned pesticide manufacturing plant. Concentrations of eight types of pesticides, a metabolite and two intermediates were studied. The ICDW was under severe and long-term contamination by organophosphorus, intermediates and pyrethroid pesticide with mean concentrations of 23,429, 3538 and 179.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. FT-IR analysis suggested that physical absorption and chemical bonding were their mutual interaction forms. Patterns of total pesticide spatial distribution showed good correlations with manufacturing processes spreading all over the plant both in enclosed workshops and in residues randomly dumped outside, while bricks and coatings were the most vulnerable to pollutants. Ultimately the fate of the OPPs was diversified as the immersion of ICDW in water largely transferred the pollutants into aquatic systems while exposure outside did not largely lead to pesticide degradation. The adoption of centralized collections for the disposal of wastes could only eliminate part of the contaminated ICDW, probably due to lack of knowledge and criteria. Correlation matrix and cluster analysis indicated that regulated disposal and management of polluted ICDW was effective, thus presenting the requirement for its appropriate disposal.

  11. Geometry of spontaneously broken local N=1 supersymmetry in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.


    The authers reveal the model-independent geometric content of spontaneous breakdown of local supersymmetry in N=1 supergravities (conformal and minimal Einstien ones) via constructing nonlinear realizations of their underlying superspace gauge group. A general method of implementing such realizations consistently with the intrinsic superspace geometry of supergravity theories is proposed and its relevance to description of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the theories of similar nature (strings, membranes) is pointed out. Superspace adequate to the nonlinear realizations constructed and find the explicit relation between them and conventional curved N=1 superspaces are defined. The implications of this relationship for the N = 1 supergravity actions with spontaneously broken supersymmetry are discussed. 29 refs

  12. Spontaneous flocking in human groups. (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete


    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd


    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  14. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  15. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis]. (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina


    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  16. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations. (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn


    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  18. Spontaneous dimensional reduction? (United States)

    Carlip, Steven


    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  19. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection. (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  20. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P


    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  1. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K


    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  2. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD


    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  3. Model for spontaneous generation of gauge structure and matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.-M.; Tsou, S.T.


    Based on a special topological property of R 4 , it is argued that in a 4 + 1 - dimensional pure Einstein theory, the world will tend to find itself in a Kaluza-Klein mode with one compactified spatial dimension populated by singly charged solitons, so that both gauge structure and matter are spontaneously generated. (author)

  4. Bio-inks for 3D printing of Cartilage Implants : Tailoring gelMA and polyHPMA-lac-PEG hydrogels for the fabrication of spatially organized constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, V.H.M.


    A promising approach to treat cartilage defects is the implantation of stratified cell-laden hydrogel implants that mimic native cartilage. To fabricate such constructs, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques are promising, as they allow accurate deposition of (cell-laden) biomaterials, the

  5. Validation of a spatial model used to locate fish spawning reef construction sites in the St. Clair–Detroit River system (United States)

    Fischer, Jason L.; Bennion, David; Roseman, Edward F.; Manny, Bruce A.


    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) populations have suffered precipitous declines in the St. Clair–Detroit River system, following the removal of gravel spawning substrates and overfishing in the late 1800s to mid-1900s. To assist the remediation of lake sturgeon spawning habitat, three hydrodynamic models were integrated into a spatial model to identify areas in two large rivers, where water velocities were appropriate for the restoration of lake sturgeon spawning habitat. Here we use water velocity data collected with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) to assess the ability of the spatial model and its sub-models to correctly identify areas where water velocities were deemed suitable for restoration of fish spawning habitat. ArcMap 10.1 was used to create raster grids of water velocity data from model estimates and ADCP measurements which were compared to determine the percentage of cells similarly classified as unsuitable, suitable, or ideal for fish spawning habitat remediation. The spatial model categorized 65% of the raster cells the same as depth-averaged water velocity measurements from the ADCP and 72% of the raster cells the same as surface water velocity measurements from the ADCP. Sub-models focused on depth-averaged velocities categorized the greatest percentage of cells similar to ADCP measurements where 74% and 76% of cells were the same as depth-averaged water velocity measurements. Our results indicate that integrating depth-averaged and surface water velocity hydrodynamic models may have biased the spatial model and overestimated suitable spawning habitat. A model solely integrating depth-averaged velocity models could improve identification of areas suitable for restoration of fish spawning habitat.

  6. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.


    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  7. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.


    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  8. Dynamics of Spontaneous Emission Controlled by Local Density of States in Photonic Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Nikolaev, Ivan S.; van Driel, A. Floris


    We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots in 3D photonic crystals. Due to the spatially dependent local density of states, the distribution of decay rates varies strongly with the photonic crystal lattice parameter....

  9. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.


    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  10. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.


    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  11. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS


    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  12. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  13. Cellular microtissues spontaneously formed in a microfabricated device for angiongenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Gac, Severine; Rivron, N.C.; Rivron, Nicolas; Wijnperle, Daniël; Wijnperle, Daniel; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; van den Berg, Albert; Locascio, L.E.; Gaitan, M.; Paegel, B.M.; Ross, D.J.; Vreeland, W.N.


    We report here on a microdevice for the spontaneous and simultaneous formation of microtissues -or microscale spheroids- in a fast, controlled and reproducible way. Spheroids are relevant constructs for tissue engineering applications, and notably for studying the process of angiogenesis which is of

  14. L’habitat spontané comme un outil de développement urbain. Le cas de Bangkok Spontaneous Housing as a Tool for Urban Development, the Case of Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Gerbeaud


    Full Text Available En Thaïlande, les ensembles d’habitat spontané s’étendent à toute la capitale, malgré des politiques publiques qui visent à les contrer. Ce sont aujourd’hui de véritables morceaux de ville qui dynamisent l’espace urbain, car étroitement liés à l’identité et à l’histoire de la ville. L’opposition entre habitat spontané et « logement formel », fréquente tant dans les productions scientifiques que dans les représentations, mérite donc d���être interrogée à Bangkok. À partir d’une analyse spatiale et architecturale, nous avons abordé l’habitat spontané comme une manière de fabriquer la ville centrée sur l’appropriation : au moins sous trois formes (habitat spontané pur, ancien, greffé, il assure par sa flexibilité la continuité du tissu urbain et s’y assimile progressivement. Si pour les autorités locales les communautés de bidonvilles demeurent un signe de sous-développement, certains architectes et acteurs y voient une source d’inspiration ainsi qu’un patrimoine populaire à préserver. Une métropolisation accrue et la mondialisation des échanges économiques, culturels, politiques, amènent de nouvelles modalités de négociation de l’espace urbain qui redéfinissent le statut de l’habitat spontané. Avec l’apparition de nouvelles professions (architecte des communautés et orientations dans la manière de concevoir des projets urbains (processus participatif notamment, l’habitat spontané s’affirme peu à peu comme un outil de développement de la capitale.In Thailand, despite some public policies, spontaneous settlements spread all over the city. Closely related to the city’s history and identity they are nowadays real dynamic neighbourhoods. The opposition between spontaneous housing and “formal housing”, common in both the scientific publications and representations, is yet to be questioned in Bangkok. Through an architectural and spatial analysis, we

  15. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.


    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  16. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.


    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  17. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat


    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  18. Geospatial Field Methods: An Undergraduate Course Built Around Point Cloud Construction and Analysis to Promote Spatial Learning and Use of Emerging Technology in Geoscience (United States)

    Bunds, M. P.


    Point clouds are a powerful data source in the geosciences, and the emergence of structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques has allowed them to be generated quickly and inexpensively. Consequently, applications of them as well as methods to generate, manipulate, and analyze them warrant inclusion in undergraduate curriculum. In a new course called Geospatial Field Methods at Utah Valley University, students in small groups use SfM to generate a point cloud from imagery collected with a small unmanned aerial system (sUAS) and use it as a primary data source for a research project. Before creating their point clouds, students develop needed technical skills in laboratory and class activities. The students then apply the skills to construct the point clouds, and the research projects and point cloud construction serve as a central theme for the class. Intended student outcomes for the class include: technical skills related to acquiring, processing, and analyzing geospatial data; improved ability to carry out a research project; and increased knowledge related to their specific project. To construct the point clouds, students first plan their field work by outlining the field site, identifying locations for ground control points (GCPs), and loading them onto a handheld GPS for use in the field. They also estimate sUAS flight elevation, speed, and the flight path grid spacing required to produce a point cloud with the resolution required for their project goals. In the field, the students place the GCPs using handheld GPS, and survey the GCP locations using post-processed-kinematic (PPK) or real-time-kinematic (RTK) methods. The students pilot the sUAS and operate its camera according to the parameters that they estimated in planning their field work. Data processing includes obtaining accurate locations for the PPK/RTK base station and GCPs, and SfM processing with Agisoft Photoscan. The resulting point clouds are rasterized into digital surface models

  19. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection. (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis


    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  20. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan


    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  1. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.


    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  2. Spontaneity and international marketing performance


    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.


    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  3. Planning for spontaneous evacuation during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.H. Jr.


    The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) radiological emergency preparedness program ignores the potential problem of spontaneous evacuation during a nuclear reactor accident. To show the importance of incorporating the emergency spatial behaviors of the population at risk in radiological emergency preparedness and response plans, this article presents empirical evidence that demonstrates the potential magnitude and geographic extent of spontaneous evacuation in the event of an accident at the Long Island Lighting Company's Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. The results indicate that, on the average, 39% of the population of Long Island is likely to evacuate spontaneously and thus to cast an evacuation shadow extending at least 25 miles beyond the plant. On the basis of these findings, necessary revisions to FEMA's radiological emergency preparedness program are outlined

  4. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami


    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  5. Design, Construction, and Initial Test of High Spatial Resolution Thermometry Arrays for Detection of Surface Temperature Profiles on SRF Cavities in Super Fluid Helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Grigory Eremeev


    We designed and built two high resolution (0.6-0.55mm special resolution [1.1-1.2mm separation]) thermometry arrays prototypes out of the Allen Bradley 90-120 ohm 1/8 watt resistor to measure surface temperature profiles on SRF cavities. One array was designed to be physically flexible and conform to any location on a SRF cavity; the other was modeled after the common G-10/stycast 2850 thermometer and designed to fit on the equator of an ILC (Tesla 1.3GHz) SRF cavity. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each array and their construction. In addition we will present a case study of the arrays performance on a real SRF cavity TB9NR001. TB9NR001 presented a unique opportunity to test the performance of each array as it contained a dual (4mm separation) cat eye defect which conventional methods such as OST (Oscillating Superleak second-sound Transducers) and full coverage thermometry mapping were unable to distinguish between. We will discuss the new arrays ability to distinguish between the two defects and their preheating performance.

  6. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.


    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  7. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission. (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C


    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  8. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.


    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  9. Historical Evolution of Spatial Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ardila


    Full Text Available Historical evolution and cross-cultural differences in spatial abilities are analyzed. Spatial abilities have been found to be significantly associated with the complexity of geographical conditions and survival demands. Although impaired spatial cognition is found in cases of, exclusively or predominantly, right hemisphere pathology, it is proposed that this asymmetry may depend on the degree of training in spatial abilities. It is further proposed that spatial cognition might have evolved in a parallel way with cultural evolution and environmental demands. Contemporary city humans might be using spatial abilities in some new, conceptual tasks that did not exist in prehistoric times: mathematics, reading, writing, mechanics, music, etc. Cross-cultural analysis of spatial abilities in different human groups, normalization of neuropsychological testing instruments, and clinical observations of spatial ability disturbances in people with different cultural backgrounds and various spatial requirements, are required to construct a neuropsychological theory of brain organization of spatial cognition.

  10. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk


    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  11. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)


    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  12. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen


    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  13. Spontaneous formation of wurzite-CdS/zinc blende-CdTe heterodimers through a partial anion exchange reaction. (United States)

    Saruyama, Masaki; So, Yeong-Gi; Kimoto, Koji; Taguchi, Seiji; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko; Teranishi, Toshiharu


    Ion exchange of ionic semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) is a facile method for the synthesis of type-II semiconductor heterostructured NPs with staggered alignment of band edges for photoelectric applications. Through consideration of the crystallographic orientation and strain at the heterointerface, well-designed heterostructures can be constructed through ion exchange reactions. Here we report the selective synthesis of anisotropically phase-segregated cadmium sulfide (CdS)/ cadmium telluride (CdTe) heterodimers via a novel anion exchange reaction of CdS NPs with an organic telluride precursor. The wurtzite-CdS/zinc blende-CdTe heterodimers in this study resulted from spontaneous phase segregation induced by the differences in the crystal structures of the two phases, accompanying a centrosymmetry breaking of the spherical CdS NPs. The CdS/CdTe heterodimers exhibited photoinduced spatial charge separation because of their staggered band-edge alignment.

  14. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.


    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  15. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts (United States)

    Siegal, M.


    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  16. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter


    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  17. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien


    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  18. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  19. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  20. Phonetic and Prosodic Characteristics of Disfluencies in French Spontaneous Speech


    Christodoulides, George; Avanzi, Mathieu; 14th Conference on Laboratory Phonology


    A key difference between spontaneous speech and controlled laboratory speech is the prevalence of disfluencies in the former (e.g. Shriberg 1994). Disfluencies typically signal production problems, as the speaker incrementally constructs his message (Levelt 1989). However, in specific contexts, these events may be used as communicative devices, e.g. in order to manage dialogue interaction (Moniz et al. 2009) or indicate information status (Arnold et al. 2003). Disfluencies have recently attra...

  1. Noise-induced effects on multicellular biopacemaker spontaneous activity: Differences between weak and strong pacemaker cells (United States)

    Aghighi, Alireza; Comtois, Philippe


    Self-organization of spontaneous activity of a network of active elements is important to the general theory of reaction-diffusion systems as well as for pacemaking activity to initiate beating of the heart. Monolayer cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, consisting of resting and pacemaker cells, exhibit spontaneous activation of their electrical activity. Similarly, one proposed approach to the development of biopacemakers as an alternative to electronic pacemakers for cardiac therapy is based on heterogeneous cardiac cells with resting and spontaneously beating phenotypes. However, the combined effect of pacemaker characteristics, density, and spatial distribution of the pacemaker cells on spontaneous activity is unknown. Using a simple stochastic pattern formation algorithm, we previously showed a clear nonlinear dependency of spontaneous activity (occurrence and amplitude of spontaneous period) on the spatial patterns of pacemaker cells. In this study, we show that this behavior is dependent on the pacemaker cell characteristics, with weaker pacemaker cells requiring higher density and larger clusters to sustain multicellular activity. These multicellular structures also demonstrated an increased sensitivity to voltage noise that favored spontaneous activity at lower density while increasing temporal variation in the period of activity. This information will help researchers overcome the current limitations of biopacemakers.

  2. Constructed Wetlands (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  3. Robustness of spatial micronetworks (United States)

    McAndrew, Thomas C.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Bagrow, James P.


    Power lines, roadways, pipelines, and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure, physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, i.e., small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting for spatial effects in both construction and robustness is important for designing efficient microgrids and other network infrastructure.

  4. A temperature-compensated high spatial resolution distributed strain sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belal, Mohammad; Cho, Yuh Tat; Ibsen, Morten; Newson, Trevor P


    We propose and demonstrate a scheme which utilizes the temperature dependence of spontaneous Raman scattering to provide temperature compensation for a high spatial resolution Brillouin frequency-based strain sensor

  5. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  6. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  7. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín


    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  8. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.


    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  9. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain


    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  10. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer. (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki


    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke


    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  12. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation


    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide


    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  13. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian


    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  14. Spontaneous intraparenchymal otogenic pneumocephalus presenting with abrupt onset of coma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scuotto, A.; Cappabianca, S.; Capasso, R.; Natale, M.; D'Oria, S.; Rotondo, M.


    We report a case of spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus, manifesting with a rapid deterioration of consciousness level. A 37-year-old man presented a 3-days history of headache and fluctuant confusion. On admission the patient was neurologically intact except for temporo-spatial disorientation. Brain Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed a large air collection in the left temporal lobe, causing mass effect. Hyperpneumatisation of mastoid air cells was also noticed. Because of the abrupt onset of coma (Glasgow Coma Scale = 10), emergency surgical evacuation of tensive pneumocephalus was carried out. Postoperatively, the patient quickly regained a good level of consciousness and was headache-free. - Highlights: • Spontaneous otogenic pneumocephalus generally presents with subtle symptoms. • Sudden consciousness involvement is a rare onset condition. • Hyperpneumatisation of the petrous bone is a predisposing factor.

  15. Spatial Sense. (United States)

    Del Grande, John


    Describes seven spatial abilities related to mathematics including eye-motor coordination, figure-ground perception, perceptual constancy, position-in-space perception, perception of spatial relationships, visual discrimination, and visual memory. Discusses the relationship of the spatial abilities to the study of geometry. Lists 19 references.…

  16. Working memory performance inversely predicts spontaneous delta and theta-band scaling relations. (United States)

    Euler, Matthew J; Wiltshire, Travis J; Niermeyer, Madison A; Butner, Jonathan E


    Electrophysiological studies have strongly implicated theta-band activity in human working memory processes. Concurrently, work on spontaneous, non-task-related oscillations has revealed the presence of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) within sub-bands of the ongoing EEG, and has begun to demonstrate their functional significance. However, few studies have yet assessed the relation of LRTCs (also called scaling relations) to individual differences in cognitive abilities. The present study addressed the intersection of these two literatures by investigating the relation of narrow-band EEG scaling relations to individual differences in working memory ability, with a particular focus on the theta band. Fifty-four healthy adults completed standardized assessments of working memory and separate recordings of their spontaneous, non-task-related EEG. Scaling relations were quantified in each of the five classical EEG frequency bands via the estimation of the Hurst exponent obtained from detrended fluctuation analysis. A multilevel modeling framework was used to characterize the relation of working memory performance to scaling relations as a function of general scalp location in Cartesian space. Overall, results indicated an inverse relationship between both delta and theta scaling relations and working memory ability, which was most prominent at posterior sensors, and was independent of either spatial or individual variability in band-specific power. These findings add to the growing literature demonstrating the relevance of neural LRTCs for understanding brain functioning, and support a construct- and state-dependent view of their functional implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneously broken Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravities as double copies (United States)

    Chiodaroli, Marco; Günaydin, Murat; Johansson, Henrik; Roiban, Radu


    Color/kinematics duality and the double-copy construction have proved to be systematic tools for gaining new insight into gravitational theories. Extending our earlier work, in this paper we introduce new double-copy constructions for large classes of spontaneously-broken Yang-Mills-Einstein theories with adjoint Higgs fields. One gauge-theory copy entering the construction is a spontaneously-broken (super-)Yang-Mills theory, while the other copy is a bosonic Yang-Mills-scalar theory with trilinear scalar interactions that display an explicitly-broken global symmetry. We show that the kinematic numerators of these gauge theories can be made to obey color/kinematics duality by exhibiting particular additional Lie-algebraic relations. We discuss in detail explicit examples with N=2 supersymmetry, focusing on Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories belonging to the generic Jordan family in four and five dimensions, and identify the map between the supergravity and double-copy fields and parameters. We also briefly discuss the application of our results to N=4 supergravity theories. The constructions are illustrated by explicit examples of tree-level and one-loop scattering amplitudes.

  18. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson


    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  19. General features of spontaneous baryogenesis (United States)

    Arbuzova, Elena


    The classical version of spontaneous baryogenesis is studied in details. It is shown that the relation between the time derivative of the (pseudo)goldstone field and the baryonic chemical potential essentially depends upon the representation chosen for the fermionic fields with non-zero baryonic number (quarks). The kinetic equation, used for the calculations of the cosmological baryon asymmetry, is generalized to the case of non-stationary background. The effects of the finite interval of the integration over time are also included into consideration.

  20. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kattapuram, Susan V. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)], E-mail:


    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'.

  1. Construction practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.; Clelland, J.; Rumble, E.; Sandell, L.


    One has elaborated a virtual computer model (VRC) of construction of the AP1000 project reactor to demonstrate its viability, to improve the NPP project making it more easy for construction with simultaneous reduction of time, costs and risk of construction. The approach ensured time sequence of the 3-D visualization of NPP at the construction stages. The VRC ensures optimization of scheme implementation time period and specifies the basic costs. The VRC application offers essential advantages when planning construction of a nuclear power facility [ru

  2. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A.


    of “variational free-energy”, a theoretical construct pertaining to probability and information theory which allows explanation of unexplored features of spontaneous brain activity. PMID:27303283

  3. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.


    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  4. Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission. (United States)

    Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi


    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.

  5. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri


    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  6. Spontaneity of communication in individuals with autism. (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark


    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or measured. Several approaches to conceptualization of communicative spontaneity are examined with a particular focus on the continuum model and how it might be practically applied. A range of possible explanations for deficits in spontaneity of communication in children with autism is subsequently explored, including external factors (highly structured teaching programs, failure to systematically instruct for spontaneity) and intrinsic characteristics (intellectual disability, stimulus overselectivity, weak central coherence). Possible implications for future research are presented.

  7. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkanuparph S


    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. However, spontaneous peritonitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is uncommon. Delayed diagnosis of cryptococcal peritonitis often results in death. We describe three cases of spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One case had associated symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical awareness of this entity may lead to the early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  8. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu


    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  9. Spontaneous renal hematoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrzut, M.; Obrzut, M.; Homa, J.; Obrzut, B.


    Spontaneous pararenal hematoma is a rare pathology most frequently coexisting with renal tumours, vascular anomalies and inflammatory processes. In some cases one cannot establish its etiology. The paper describes a case of a 58-year-old man with a spontaneous pararenal hematoma and presents a diagnostic algorithm. Ultrasonography and CT play an important role in diagnostics of spontaneous pararenal haemorrhages. These methods enable a precise evaluation of size and location of hematoma and its evolution. (author)

  10. Construction aggregates (United States)

    Tepordei, V.V.


    Part of a special section on industrial minerals in 1993. The 1993 production of construction aggregates increased 6.3 percent over the 1992 figure, to reach 2.01 Gt. This represents the highest estimated annual production of combined crushed stone and construction sand and gravel ever recorded in the U.S. The outlook for construction aggregates and the issues facing the industry are discussed.

  11. FFTF constructibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.A.; Hulbert, D.I.


    The influence of the design criteria on the constructibility of the Fast Flux Test Facility is described. Specifically, the effects of requirements due to maintenance accessibility, inerting of cells, seismicity, codes, and standards are addressed. The design and construction techniques developed to minimize the impact of the design criteria on cost and schedule are presented with particular emphasis on the cleanliness and humidity controls imposed during construction of the sodium systems. (U.S.)

  12. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu–Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Brauner


    Full Text Available Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a general principle that constitutes the underlying concept of a vast number of physical phenomena ranging from ferromagnetism and superconductivity in condensed matter physics to the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particles. I focus on manifestations of spontaneously broken symmetries in systems that are not Lorentz invariant, which include both nonrelativistic systems as well as relativistic systems at nonzero density, providing a self-contained review of the properties of spontaneously broken symmetries specific to such theories. Topics covered include: (i Introduction to the mathematics of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem. (ii Minimization of Higgs-type potentials for higher-dimensional representations. (iii Counting rules for Nambu–Goldstone bosons and their dispersion relations. (iv Construction of effective Lagrangians. Specific examples in both relativistic and nonrelativistic physics are worked out in detail.

  13. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian


    predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...

  14. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory....... Empirically, the analysis is founded on descriptive accounts from the five entrepreneurs. By highlighting the spontaneous strategies described by actors, we show how sites and objects are actively used as an element in their strategy, and also how the sites and objects end up facilitating new ways of thinking...

  15. Spatial Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper contains a brief description of the most important operations that can be performed on spatial data such as spatial queries, create, update, insert, delete operations, conversions, operations on the map or analysis on grid cells. Each operation has a graphical example and some of them have code examples in Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  16. Spatializing Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning


    The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations.......The article analyses some of artist Søren Lose's photographic installations in which time, history and narration is reflected in the creation of allegoric, spatial relations....

  17. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness. (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas


    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  18. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning. (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward


    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Construction fraud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.; Liedekerke, L.; Dubbink, W.; van Liedekerke, L.; van Luijk, H.


    Due to the actions of a whistleblower The Netherlands was confronted with a massive case of construction fraud involving almost the entire construction sector. Price fixing, prior consulting, duplicate accounts, fictitious invoices and active corruption of civil servants were rampant practices. This

  20. Superstring construction

    CERN Document Server


    The book includes a selection of papers on the construction of superstring theories, mainly written during the years 1984-1987. It covers ten-dimensional supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric strings, four-dimensional heterotic strings and four-dimensional type-II strings. An introduction to more recent developments in conformal field theory in relation to string construction is provided.

  1. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren


    frustrating systems are experienced similarly to easy-to-use systems. Looking at the most characteristic construct for each participant we find that Chinese participants use constructs related to security, task types, training, and system issues, whereas Danish and to some extent Indian participants make more...

  2. Runaway cultural niche construction (United States)

    Rendell, Luke; Fogarty, Laurel; Laland, Kevin N.


    Cultural niche construction is a uniquely potent source of selection on human populations, and a major cause of recent human evolution. Previous theoretical analyses have not, however, explored the local effects of cultural niche construction. Here, we use spatially explicit coevolutionary models to investigate how cultural processes could drive selection on human genes by modifying local resources. We show that cultural learning, expressed in local niche construction, can trigger a process with dynamics that resemble runaway sexual selection. Under a broad range of conditions, cultural niche-constructing practices generate selection for gene-based traits and hitchhike to fixation through the build up of statistical associations between practice and trait. This process can occur even when the cultural practice is costly, or is subject to counteracting transmission biases, or the genetic trait is selected against. Under some conditions a secondary hitchhiking occurs, through which genetic variants that enhance the capability for cultural learning are also favoured by similar dynamics. We suggest that runaway cultural niche construction could have played an important role in human evolution, helping to explain why humans are simultaneously the species with the largest relative brain size, the most potent capacity for niche construction and the greatest reliance on culture. PMID:21320897

  3. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien


    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  4. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  5. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  7. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  8. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth


    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  9. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts. (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I


    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Worldwide construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M.


    The paper lists major construction projects in worldwide processing and pipelining, showing capacities, contractors, estimated costs, and time of construction. The lists are divided into refineries, petrochemical plants, sulfur recovery units, gas processing plants, pipelines, and related fuel facilities. This last classification includes cogeneration plants, coal liquefaction and gasification plants, biomass power plants, geothermal power plants, integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plants, and a coal briquetting plant

  11. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys. (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R


    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek


    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  13. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  14. Construction history and construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agh, S.


    The process of pre-design and design preparation of the Mochovce NPP as well as the construction history of the plant is highlighted, including the financing aspect and problems arising from changes in the technological and other conditions of start-up of the reactor units. The results of international audits performed to improve the level of nuclear safety and implementation of the measures suggested are also described. The milestones of the whole construction process and start-up process, the control and quality system, and the methods of control and management of the complex construction project are outlined. (author)

  15. Spontaneous Stochasticity and Anomalous Dissipation for Burgers Equation (United States)

    Eyink, Gregory L.; Drivas, Theodore D.


    We develop a Lagrangian approach to conservation-law anomalies in weak solutions of inviscid Burgers equation, motivated by previous work on the Kraichnan model of turbulent scalar advection. We show that the entropy solutions of Burgers possess Markov stochastic processes of (generalized) Lagrangian trajectories backward in time for which the Burgers velocity is a backward martingale. This property is shown to guarantee dissipativity of conservation-law anomalies for general convex functions of the velocity. The backward stochastic Burgers flows with these properties are not unique, however. We construct infinitely many such stochastic flows, both by a geometric construction and by the zero-noise limit of the Constantin-Iyer stochastic representation of viscous Burgers solutions. The latter proof yields the spontaneous stochasticity of Lagrangian trajectories backward in time for Burgers, at unit Prandtl number. It is conjectured that existence of a backward stochastic flow with the velocity as martingale is an admissibility condition which selects the unique entropy solution for Burgers. We also study linear transport of passive densities and scalars by inviscid Burgers flows. We show that shock solutions of Burgers exhibit spontaneous stochasticity backward in time for all finite Prandtl numbers, implying conservation-law anomalies for linear transport. We discuss the relation of our results for Burgers with incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence, especially Lagrangian admissibility conditions for Euler solutions and the relation between turbulent cascade directions and time-asymmetry of Lagrangian stochasticity.

  16. Clock frequency estimation under spontaneous emission (United States)

    Qin, Xi-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Hao; Zhong, Hong-Hua; Lee, Chaohong


    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a driven two-level system under spontaneous emission and its application in clock frequency estimation. By using the Lindblad equation to describe the system, we analytically obtain its exact solutions, which show three different regimes: Rabi oscillation, damped oscillation, and overdamped decay. From the analytical solutions, we explore how the spontaneous emission affects the clock frequency estimation. We find that under a moderate spontaneous emission rate, the transition frequency can still be inferred from the Rabi oscillation. Our results enable potential practical applications in frequency measurement and quantum control under decoherence.

  17. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta


    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  18. Spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. (United States)

    Yutaka, Yojiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Shikuma, Kei; Okuda, Masato; Taki, Toshihiko


    Although there are many reports of spontaneous regression of noninvasive thymoma, there are no reports of spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. Moreover, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression is still unknown. The present case concerns a 47-year-old man who presented with chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with left pleural effusion that occluded the innominate vein. The tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery suggested a diagnosis of invasive thymic carcinoma. One month later CT showed prominent regression of the tumor, and the tumor was completely resected. On pathology, the diagnosis was thymoma type B3.

  19. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.


    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  20. Spontaneous ignition characteristics of coal in a large-scale furnace: An experimental and numerical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Hu; Yu, Zhijin; Deng, Jun; Zhai, Xiaowei


    Highlights: • Three coal spontaneous combustion coupled models based on various flow equations were constructed and compared. • The airflow behavior in loose coal should be defined as a Brinkman flow. • The self-heating of coal in a large-scale reactor was numerically reappeared. • The effect of heat dissipated conditions on temperature profiles of broken coal was presented. - Abstract: A comprehensive understanding of the spontaneous combustion characteristics of coal in various surroundings is necessary for developing reliable test platform and predictive models. In this study, the characteristics of oxidation and self-heating combining various gas flow equations in loose coal were investigated separately and used to simulate the experimental procedure of spontaneous combustion. The main focus was to investigate the effect of thermal boundary on temperature profiles as well as spontaneous combustion period. The results showed that the numerical approach was validated by comparison with the test data. Furthermore, the model based upon Brinkman equation showed a higher accuracy, which indicated that airflow behavior influences the balances of coal oxidation and heat dissipation, thus impacts the temperature profiles of loose coal. The areas of high temperature zones would be evidently expanded and the spontaneous ignition time would be significantly accelerated if the thermal exchange between the coal and its surroundings decreased. Our results, especially for the field of engineering, have substantial effects for grasping and controlling coal spontaneous combustion disaster.

  1. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination? (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte


    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man


    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  3. Spatial neglect (United States)

    Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A


    The syndrome of visuospatial neglect is a common consequence of unilateral brain injury. It is most often associated with stroke and is more severe and persistent following right hemisphere damage, with reported frequencies in the acute stage of up to 80%. Neglect is primarily a disorder of attention whereby patients characteristically fail to orientate, to report or to respond to stimuli located on the contralesional side. Neglect is usually caused by large strokes in the middle cerebral artery territory and is heterogeneous, such that most patients do not manifest every feature of the syndrome. A number of treatments may improve neglect, but there is no widely accepted universal approach to therapy. Although most patients recover spontaneously, the evidence suggests that they continue to have significant cognitive impairments, particularly relating to attention. PMID:26023203

  4. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi


    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  5. Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant gastroenteritis: report of a rare case. Duvuru Ram, Vilvapathy S. Karthikeyan, Sarath C. Sistla, Sheik M. Ali, Parnandi Sridhar, Nagarajan Rajkumar ...

  6. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media. (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja


    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.

  7. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal


    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  8. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A


    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  9. Postmenopausal spontaneous uterine perforation: Case report (United States)

    İşlek Seçen, Elçin; Ağış, Hilal; Altunkaya, Canan; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz


    Spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis caused by pyometra occurs rarely with high morbidity and mortality. A correct and definite diagnosis can be made with laparotomy or laparoscopy. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and gynecologic symptoms are less frequent, which makes preoperative diagnosis difficult. We report a case of a patient aged 82 years who underwent surgery for spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis as a result of pyometra. PMID:28913055

  10. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture. (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François


    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  11. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J


    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  12. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  13. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment. (United States)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jerônimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo


    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xareltor. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban.

  14. High-precision atom localization via controllable spontaneous emission in a cycle-configuration atomic system. (United States)

    Ding, Chunling; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Hao, Xiangying; Wu, Ying


    A scheme for realizing two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is proposed based on controllable spontaneous emission in a coherently driven cycle-configuration atomic system. As the spatial-position-dependent atom-field interaction, the frequency of the spontaneously emitted photon carries the information about the position of the atom. Therefore, by detecting the emitted photon one could obtain the position information available, and then we demonstrate high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization induced by the quantum interference between the multiple spontaneous decay channels. Moreover, we can achieve 100% probability of finding the atom at an expected position by choosing appropriate system parameters under certain conditions.

  15. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia


    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  16. Scale Construction. (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.


    Discusses design, development, and evaluation of scales used in counseling psychology research. Describes methods of scale construction including the Thurstone, Q-sort, rank-order methods, Likert, semantic differential, Guttman, Rasch, and external criterion methods. Presents ways of evaluating newly developed scales. Discusses measurement versus…

  17. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others


    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  18. Spatial Structure of Modern Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria V. Goloukhova


    Full Text Available The article is focused on the spatial structure of modern Moscow and features distinguishing it from the cities of Western Europe and the US. The city has hybrid spatial structure combining elements which emerged on different stages of the city development. In the 14th century two tendencies appeared: the prestige of the city centre and opposition of Western districts as more prestigious to Eastern districts as less prestigious. Crucial spatial characteristics emerged in the Soviet era and up to now they define the image of Moscow. Firstly, it's a peculiar density profile. Population density in post-socialist cities tends to increase as we move further from the city centre while in Western European cities population density is the highest in central districts. Secondly, elementary units of Moscow spatial structure are so called micro-districts (neighbourhoods. The concept of a microdistrict was very popular with Soviet urban planners and widely applied in the residential construction. Another peculiarity of Moscow spatial structure is social heterogeneity of districts and absence of ethnic quarters or ghettos. Furthermore, significant part of the city area is occupied by former industrials zones which are not used anymore and need to be reconstructed. With transition to market economy a number of spatial changes emerged. They were partly related to the large-scale privatization, infill construction and lack of effective urban planning policy. In conclusion the article states the need for the new model of spatial organization which would take into account the specifics of Russian reality.

  19. Spatial interpolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.


    The theory and practical application of techniques of statistical interpolation are studied in this thesis, and new developments in multivariate spatial interpolation and the design of sampling plans are discussed. Several applications to studies in soil science are

  20. Effects of dopamine D4 receptor antagonist on spontaneous alternation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Nanna M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was a component of a series of studies scrutinising the neuroreceptor substrate of behavioural flexibility in a rat model. Spontaneous alternation paradigms model the natural tendency of rodents to spontaneously and flexibly shift between alternative spatial responses. In the study it was tested for the first time if the neurochemical substrate mediating spontaneous alternation behaviour includes the dopamine D4 receptor. Methods The acute effects of the highly selective dopamine D4 receptor antagonist L-745,870 on rats' performance in a spontaneous alternation paradigm in a T-maze were examined. The paradigm was a food-rewarded continuous trial procedure performed for 20 trials. Results The spontaneous alternation rate was not affected by the doses of the drug administered (0.02 mg/kg; 0.2 mg/kg; 2 mg/kg, but the position bias of the group receiving the highest L-745,870 dose (2 mg/kg was significantly increased compared to the group that received the lowest dose (0.02 mg/kg. No significant effects on position bias were found compared to saline. The drug did not increase response perseveration. Conclusion The results show that the neural substrate mediating the spatial distribution of responses in the spontaneous alternation paradigm includes the D4 receptor. However, the statistically significant effect of L-745,870 on position bias was found comparing a high drug dose with a low drug dose, and not comparing the drug doses with saline. For the tested doses of L-745,870 the effect on position bias was not large enough to affect the alternation rate.

  1. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart


    , these notations have been extended in order to increase expressiveness and to be more competitive. This resulted in an increasing number of notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and in an increase of the different modelling constructs provided by modelling notations, which makes it difficult......There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts...... to compare modelling notations and to make transformations between them. One of the reasons is that, in each notation, the new concepts are introduced in a different way by extending the already existing constructs. In this chapter, we go the opposite direction: We show that it is possible to add most...

  2. Airship construction (United States)

    Roda, J.


    Forty-four years ago the first successful metal airship was completed and delivered to the United States Navy, the ZMC-2. Between those years and the present, very little effort or serious consideration has been given to the manufacture, design, construction, or economic impact of airships. It is important to retain and exploit the small but continually diminishing pool of airship talent that will expedite the success of the United States in what is now a pioneering venture. The relative simplicity of airship construction, utilizing the tremendous technical advances of the last 44 years, leads to the conclusion that this form of transportation holds great promise for reducing costs of military missions and improving the international competitive position of the United States in commercial applications.

  3. Deixis in Spontaneous Speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Sa'aida


    Full Text Available This study aims at describing types and usages of deixis in the speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic native speakers. The present study was conducted in different settings which researcher’s family members, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances took part in. Data of the study were collected through observing spontaneous speech of native speakers of Jordanian Urban Arabic. The data consist of transcriptions of deictic expressions, which were categorised into groups according to the types or usages of deictic words. The data were translated and transliterated by the researcher. The International Phonetic Alphabet symbols were used to transcribe the data. Findings of the study show that there are five types of deictic expressions in Jordanian Urban Arabic: Personal, spatial, temporal, discourse and social deixis. The current study has also described the various usages of deictic words in Jordanian Urban Arabic: gestural, symbolic, and non-deictic usage.

  4. Cooperative spontaneous emission from volume sources in layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichelatti, E.


    The classical theory of radiation from a dipole located inside a microcavity is extended to the case of a volume source placed inside a layered medium. Cooperation phenomena that can take place in the spontaneous emission process are taken into account with an approach based on the theory of spatial coherence. Three cases are considered: noncooperation, long-range cooperation, and short-range cooperation. In all these cases, the expressions found for the out coupled power are analytical. As an application of the theory, an Alq 3 -based organic light emitting diode is analyzed. The optical properties of the device are evaluated and compared for two different types of cathode, one consisting of an Al layer, the other one consisting of an Al/LiF bi-layer. The results found show that the ultra-thin LiF layer significantly improves extraction efficiency [it

  5. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik


    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  6. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.; Zozikov, B.; Otzetov, A.; Kamenova, M.; Martinova, F.; Kalyonski, R.


    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  7. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha


    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  8. Cursed lamp: the problem of spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Simkulet, William


    Many people believe human fetuses have the same moral status as adult human persons, that it is wrong to allow harm to befall things with this moral status, and thus voluntary, induced abortion is seriously morally wrong. Recently, many prochoice theorists have argued that this antiabortion stance is inconsistent; approximately 60% of human fetuses die from spontaneous abortion, far more than die from induced abortion, so if antiabortion theorists really believe that human fetuses have significant moral status, they have strong moral obligations to oppose spontaneous abortion. Yet, few antiabortion theorists devote any effort to doing so. Many prochoice theorists argue that to resolve this inconsistency, antiabortion theorists should abandon their opposition to induced abortion. Here, I argue that those who do not abandon their opposition to induced abortion but continue to neglect spontaneous abortion act immorally. Aristotle argues that moral responsibility requires both control and awareness; I argue that once an antiabortion theorist becomes aware of the frequency of spontaneous abortion, they have a strong moral obligation to redirect their efforts towards combating spontaneous abortion; failure to do so is morally monstrous. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. L’organisation sociale et spatiale des minorités sexuelles à Mexico. Construction d’une économie culturelle au cours du XXème siècle


    Boivin, Renaud René


    Au travers d’œuvres littéraires, mémoires, biographies, documents d’archives et d’entretiens d’hommes homosexuels, l’article expose les changements historiques survenus dans la distribution géographique et sociale des espaces de socialisation et de rencontre entre hommes au cours du XXème siècle dans la ville de Mexico. Il dépeint le processus de spécialisation identitaire des établissements commerciaux, fruit d’un double déplacement, à la fois spatial et symbolique, qui va transformer les mo...

  10. Localization of the relative position of two atoms induced by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Sun, C.P.


    We reexamine the back-action of emitted photons on the wave packet evolution about the relative position of two cold atoms. We show that photon recoil resulting from the spontaneous emission can induce the localization of the relative position of the two atoms through the entanglement between the spatial motion of individual atoms and their emitted photons. The obtained result provides a more realistic model for the analysis of the environment-induced localization of a macroscopic object

  11. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips


    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  12. Spontaneous Lorentz violation: the case of infrared QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, A.P. [Syracuse University, Physics Department, Syracuse, NY (United States); Kuerkcueoglu, S. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Physics, Ankara (Turkey); Queiroz, A.R. de [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Brasilia (Brazil); Universidad de Zaragoza, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Zaragoza (Spain); Vaidya, S. [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Bangalore (India)


    It is by now clear that the infrared sector of quantum electrodynamics (QED) has an intriguingly complex structure. Based on earlier pioneering work on this subject, two of us recently proposed a simple modification of QED by constructing a generalization of the U(1) charge group of QED to the ''Sky'' group incorporating the well-known spontaneous Lorentz violation due to infrared photons, but still compatible in particular with locality (Balachandran and Vaidya, Eur Phys J Plus 128:118, 2013). It was shown that the ''Sky'' group is generated by the algebra of angle-dependent charges and a study of its superselection sectors has revealed a manifest description of spontaneous breaking of the Lorentz symmetry. We further elaborate this approach here and investigate in some detail the properties of charged particles dressed by the infrared photons. We find that Lorentz violation due to soft photons may be manifestly codified in an angle-dependent fermion mass, modifying therefore the fermion dispersion relations. The fact that the masses of the charged particles are not Lorentz invariant affects their spin content, and time dilation formulas for decays should also get corrections. (orig.)

  13. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...... to pose two main problems. One problem consists in optimizing the layout with respect to the constraints and preferences specified in the style information. Another problem consists in finding a representation of the style information that both supports its use in the combinatorial optimization...

  14. Spatial analysis statistics, visualization, and computational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Oyana, Tonny J


    An introductory text for the next generation of geospatial analysts and data scientists, Spatial Analysis: Statistics, Visualization, and Computational Methods focuses on the fundamentals of spatial analysis using traditional, contemporary, and computational methods. Outlining both non-spatial and spatial statistical concepts, the authors present practical applications of geospatial data tools, techniques, and strategies in geographic studies. They offer a problem-based learning (PBL) approach to spatial analysis-containing hands-on problem-sets that can be worked out in MS Excel or ArcGIS-as well as detailed illustrations and numerous case studies. The book enables readers to: Identify types and characterize non-spatial and spatial data Demonstrate their competence to explore, visualize, summarize, analyze, optimize, and clearly present statistical data and results Construct testable hypotheses that require inferential statistical analysis Process spatial data, extract explanatory variables, conduct statisti...

  15. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex in humans. Comparison with drug-induced responses. (United States)

    Parlow, J; Viale, J P; Annat, G; Hughson, R; Quintin, L


    We compared two methods of assessment of baroreflex sensitivity in eight supine healthy volunteers during repeated baseline measurements and various conditions of cardiac autonomic blockade. The spontaneous baroreflex method involved computer scanning of recordings of continuous finger arterial pressure and electrocardiogram to locate sequences of three or more beats in which pressure spontaneously increased or decreased, with parallel changes in pulse intervals. The mean regression slope of all these sequences during each study condition was considered to represent the mean spontaneous baroreflex slope. In the drug-induced method, sigmoidal curves were constructed from data obtained by bolus injections of phenylephrine and nitroprusside; the tangents taken at the resting pressure of each of these curves were compared with the mean spontaneous baroreflex slopes. The two methods yielded slopes that were highly correlated (r = .96, P < .001), with significant but similar intraindividual baseline variability. Atropine virtually eliminated the baroreflex slope; subsequent addition of propranolol did not alter it further. Propranolol or clonidine alone increased average baroreflex slope to the extent that they increased resting pulse interval (r = .69 to .83). The spontaneous baroreflex method provides a reliable, noninvasive assessment of human vagal cardiac baroreflex sensitivity within its physiological operating range.

  16. Spontaneous Regression of Lumbar Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Chang


    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation of the lumbar spine is a common disease presenting with low back pain and involving nerve root radiculopathy. Some neurological symptoms in the majority of patients frequently improve after a period of conservative treatment. This has been regarded as the result of a decrease of pressure exerted from the herniated disc on neighboring neurostructures and a gradual regression of inflammation. Recently, with advances in magnetic resonance imaging, many reports have demonstrated that the herniated disc has the potential for spontaneous regression. Regression coincided with the improvement of associated symptoms. However, the exact regression mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present 2 cases of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation with spontaneous regression. We review the literature and discuss the possible mechanisms, the precipitating factors of spontaneous disc regression and the proper timing of surgical intervention.

  17. Spontaneous hemothorax: primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Panjwani


    Full Text Available Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare condition seen in coagulation and vascular disorders. Uncommonly, malignant neoplasms may cause spontaneous hemothorax. Primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcomas (excluding the cases with pleuropulmonary or chest wall involvement are extremely rare pleural tumors, which may be mistaken for mesothelioma or adenocarcinoma, and only 19 cases (one of them from India have been reported in the English literature, to date. It commonly occurs in older men, has a nonspecific clinicoradiological presentation, and carries a poor prognosis with no survivors beyond a year of establishing the diagnosis. We report a case of primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma presenting as a life-threatening spontaneous hemothorax. We also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.

  18. Computed tomographic findings of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Young Chul [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Computed tomography (CT) was a reliable technique to evaluate the exact size and location of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and to predict it's prognosis. Fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and reviewed by CT scan. The following results were obtained. 1. The sex ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4, The highest incidence was in 6th and 7th decades. 2. The most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage was hypertension (74.6%), followed by the aneurysm (13.5%), arteriovenous malformation (5.1%), occlusive vascular disease (3.4%), and blood dyscrasia (3.4%). 3. The most common location was basal ganglia and thalamic hemorrhage (37.3%), followed by lobar hemorrhage (27.1%), cerebellar hemorrhage (13.5%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (11.9%). 4. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage carried the highest mortality. 5. The larger volume of hematoma, the higher the mortality rate.

  19. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  20. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik


    , the notion of aesthetics (taken in the original signification of aisthesis: sensory perception) helped to map the relations between city, human experience, and various forms of art and culture. Delving into our simultaneously optical and tactical reception of space (a dialectics pointed out by Walter...... Benjamin), studies in urbanity and aesthetics may highlight mul-tisensory everyday practices that pass unnoticed in the current era of visual domination. A humanistic approach to urban and spatial cultures should also learn from German sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel’s hypothesis of a modern need......: Memory”, and ”Staging and Interpretation: Places”....

  1. Spontaneous quenches of a high temperature superconducting pancake coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Aized, D.; Campbell, J.M.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)


    A double-pancake coil made of Bi-2223/Ag high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape was constructed with an embedded heater and graded conductors to study the stability and quench propagation in HTS coils. The experiments were performed with liquid nitrogen and gaseous helium cooling in temperatures ranging from 5 to 77 K. The coil was very stable, and no ``normal`` zone was sustained or propagated with local pulsed heating. However, spontaneous quenches of the cod were experienced. This was found to be the result of having the coil current higher than that of the lower I{sub c} sections of the coil for a long time. This quench process took minutes to develop--much longer than would be expected in a low temperature superconducting coil. The quench behaved more like a spreading and continuous heating of an increasingly larger partially resistive section of the coil than like a sequential ``normal`` front propagation.

  2. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni


    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  4. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.


    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  5. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD


    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  7. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon


    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  8. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Urs [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    We discuss various strategies for regularising supersymmetric quantum field theories on a space-time lattice. In general, simulations of lattice models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We discuss a novel approach which evades this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. Then we present exact results on the spectrum and the Witten index for N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics and results from simulations of the spontaneously broken N=1 Wess-Zumino model.

  9. The Spatial Politics of Spatial Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian; Richardson, Tim


    This paper explores the interplay between the spatial politics of new governance landscapes and innovations in the use of spatial representations in planning. The central premise is that planning experiments with new relational approaches become enmeshed in spatial politics. The case of strategic...... spatial planning in Denmark reveals how fuzzy spatial representations and relational spatial concepts are being used to depoliticise strategic spatial planning processes and to camouflage spatial politics. The paper concludes that, while relational geography might play an important role in building...

  10. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods




    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  11. Original article Spontaneous Pregnancy Outcome after Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 28, 2011 ... Table 2: Spontaneous pregnancy in relation to postoperative semen parameters. (no statistically significant difference), comparable to the mean ages of 22, 28.4 and. 34.9 years, respectively, reported by Bach et al9, Abdel- Meguid et al10 and Baazeem et al11. The mean age of the wives who did or did.

  12. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.


    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  13. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  16. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  17. Spontaneous regression of an intraspinal disc cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Eerens, I.; Wilms, G. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Goffin, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)


    We present a patient with a so-called disc cyst. Its location in the ventrolateral epidural space and its communication with the herniated disc are clearly shown. The disc cyst developed rapidly and regressed spontaneously. This observation, which has not been reported until now, appears to support focal degeneration with cyst formation as the pathogenesis. (orig.)

  18. Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, W.; Toelly, E.; Ebner, F.; Kullnig, P.


    Spontaneous or traumatic rupture of renal cysts is a rare occurrence. The contents of the cyst can perforate into the renal calyx system or into the perirenal space. Perforation into the peritoneal cavity has also been described (1, 2, 4, 5).

  19. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana


    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  20. Spontaneous emission from saturated parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Steffensen, Henrik


    Noise performance of parametric amplifiers is typically calculated assuming un-depleted operation. However, in many applications especially when applied as regenerative amplifiers in systems based on phase shift keyed modulation schemes, this assumption is not valid. Here we show the impact...... on accumulated spontaneous emission for a parametric amplifier operated in saturation....

  1. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco


    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  2. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis | Lule | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 81, No 3 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. GN Lule. Abstract. No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  3. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny


    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  4. Spontaneous dimensional reduction in quantum gravity (United States)

    Carlip, S.


    Hints from a number of different approaches to quantum gravity point to a phenomenon of “spontaneous dimensional reduction” to two spacetime dimensions near the Planck scale. I examine the physical meaning of the term “dimension” in this context, summarize the evidence for dimensional reduction, and discuss possible physical explanations.

  5. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior


    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  6. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Allium sativum extract on the medial prefrontal cortex and neurobehaviour of adult Wistar rats. ... altered spontaneous alternation, while cellular pathologic changes were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex of these test groups in a dose dependent sequence.

  7. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.


    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  8. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  9. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of ...

  10. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptug Tokatli


    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a very rare clinical condition. Physiopathology of SCAD is still mostly unclear. Clinical presentation of SCAD ranges from atypical symptoms to sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of dissection is generally made by using conventional coronary angiography. Invasive or conservative treatment is reasonable.

  11. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, John C.; Jones, Blaise V.; Crone, Kerry R.


    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  12. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, John C. [Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crone, Kerry R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  13. Spontaneous Sourcing among Students Reading Multiple Documents (United States)

    Stromso, Helge I.; Braten, Ivar; Britt, M. Anne; Ferguson, Leila E.


    This study used think-aloud methodology to explore undergraduates' spontaneous attention to and use of source information while reading six documents that presented conflicting views on a controversial social scientific issue in a Google-like environment. Results showed that students explicitly and implicitly paid attention to sources of documents…

  14. Massive Spontaneous Hemothorax, Giant Intrathoracic Meningocele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haemothorax associated with von Recklinghausen's disease: Review of occurrence in Japan. Thorax 1997;52:575‑8. 3. Fedoruk LM, English J, Fradet GJ. Spontaneous hemothorax and neurofibromatosis: A review of a lethal combination. Asian Cardiovasc. Thorac Ann 2007;15:342‑4. 4. Conlon NP, Redmond KC, Celi LA.

  15. A Fatal Complication of Dermatomyositis: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Demirdöğen Çetinoğlu


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a negative prognostic factor associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of DM and it can be fatal. We present a 48-year-old woman with DM and ILD complicated by pneumomediastinum without pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema.

  16. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de


    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  17. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short ...

  18. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues. (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm


    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  19. Spontaneous electric fields in solid films: spontelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew


    When dipolar gases are condensed at sufficiently low temperature onto a solid surface, they form films that may spontaneously exhibit electric fields in excess of 108V/m. This effect, called the ‘spontelectric effect’, was recently revealed using an instrument designed to measure scattering...

  20. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.


    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  1. Individual differences in spontaneous analogical transfer. (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J


    Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. In two experiments, we systematically compared the effect of augmenting verbal descriptions of the source with animations or static diagrams. Solution rates to Duncker's radiation problem were measured across varying source presentation conditions, and participants' understanding of the relevant source material was assessed. The pattern of transfer was best fit by a moderated mediation model: the positive impact of fluid intelligence on spontaneous transfer was mediated by its influence on source comprehension; however, this path was in turn modulated by provision of a supplemental animation via its influence on comprehension of the source. Animated source depictions were most beneficial in facilitating spontaneous transfer for those participants with low scores on the fluid intelligence measure.

  2. Spontaneous regression of a mandibular arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B. Raymond, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Mandibular arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are rare lesions that may initially present as catastrophic bleeding during dental surgical procedures. Owing to the significant risk of bleeding, most mandibular AVMs are treated definitively by resection or embolization. In this report, we describe a mandibular AVM that spontaneously regressed after biopsy.

  3. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.


    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  4. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico- chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  5. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A class of spontaneously broken field theories is proposed, and the occurrence of their periodic, classical solutions is investigated in detail. The emergence of multiple solutions is observed, their normal modes of oscillation are studied, and the bifurcations of the classical energy functional are

  7. Spontaneous sensorimotor coupling with multipart music. (United States)

    Hurley, Brian K; Martens, Peter A; Janata, Petr


    Music often evokes spontaneous movements in listeners that are synchronized with the music, a phenomenon that has been characterized as being in "the groove." However, the musical factors that contribute to listeners' initiation of stimulus-coupled action remain unclear. Evidence suggests that newly appearing objects in auditory scenes orient listeners' attention, and that in multipart music, newly appearing instrument or voice parts can engage listeners' attention and elicit arousal. We posit that attentional engagement with music can influence listeners' spontaneous stimulus-coupled movement. Here, 2 experiments-involving participants with and without musical training-tested the effect of staggering instrument entrances across time and varying the number of concurrent instrument parts within novel multipart music on listeners' engagement with the music, as assessed by spontaneous sensorimotor behavior and self-reports. Experiment 1 assessed listeners' moment-to-moment ratings of perceived groove, and Experiment 2 examined their spontaneous tapping and head movements. We found that, for both musically trained and untrained participants, music with more instruments led to higher ratings of perceived groove, and that music with staggered instrument entrances elicited both increased sensorimotor coupling and increased reports of perceived groove. Although untrained participants were more likely to rate music as higher in groove, trained participants showed greater propensity for tapping along, and they did so more accurately. The quality of synchronization of head movements with the music, however, did not differ as a function of training. Our results shed new light on the relationship between complex musical scenes, attention, and spontaneous sensorimotor behavior.

  8. Expressions of Private Mourning in Public Space : The Evolving Structure of Spontaneous and Permanent Roadside Memorials in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassens, Mirjam; Groote, Peter D.; Vanclay, Frank M.


    A visual content analysis of photos of 216 roadside memorials in the Netherlands was undertaken together with 24 interviews with the people who constructed them to understand how they deal with traumatic death. Friends urgently need to memorialize the deceased and establish spontaneous memorials.

  9. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie


    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  10. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth]. (United States)

    Brabant, G


    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low

  11. Culture in constructive remembering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady


    The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced an alterna......The present chapter explores novel ways of thinking about what it means to remember and how precisely culture is involved in this process. Since Plato, the dominant metaphor for conceptualizing memory has been that of a spatial ‘storage’. In contrast to this, Frederic Bartlett advanced...... an alternative temporal metaphor of remembering as ‘construction’. If we push his metaphor further—with the help of cultural psychology—we can say memory construction is done by agents using cultural ‘tools’ such as language and narrative. In this chapter, Bartlett’s theory is contextualized, elucidated......, critiqued and developed with the help of a number of other thinkers. The ultimate aim of the chapter is to go beyond Bartlett and arrive at a thoroughgoing culturally inclusive psychological theory of remembering. Though Bartlett clearly situated remembering within a social process, he did not provide...

  12. The painter from Sinaloa: artistic analysis of a case of spatial agnosia and neglect of visual shapes. (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa; Díaz-Victoria, Ana Ruth; Marrufo Melendez, Oscar René; Leyva Townsend, Nicolás

    Paintings produced spontaneously by patients with neurological lesions represent a fascinating opportunity to analyze some aspects of the underlying disease and involved brain mechanisms. Many cases of artists who have suffered spatial neglect following a neurological disease have been reported in the literature. However, only a few studies evaluating the different subtypes of graphic neglect and aspects related to the construction of perspective (three dimensionality) in works of art have been published. In the present article, we present the case of an artist who, after resection of a central neurocytoma that affected the right thalamo-parietal connections, suffered an impairment of the ability to create perspective in his paintings and involuntary omission of only shapes in the left side of his paintings, although colors and contours were preserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Nesterenko


    Full Text Available The essence and the genesis of spontaneous order are disclosed in the context of critical analysis of constructivism. The author’s approach to the definition of the characteristic features of the spontaneous order is proposed. The dichotomy of the order is revealed towards the economic sphere in form of spontaneous order and organization.

  14. [Spontaneous renal artery dissection: a case report]. (United States)

    Maehana, Takeshi; Nishida, Sachiyo; Shindo, Tetsuya; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Muranaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Yanase, Masahiro


    A 65-year-old female was admitted to our hospital complaining of left upper abdominal pain. Although the symptom improved with observation, serum creatinine rose to 2.0 mg/dl. Slight atrophy of the left kidney was seen on abdominal plain computed tomography. In order to examine the possibility of renal infarction from thrombosis with angiography, we consulted the department of cardiovascular medicine. Even though we did not detect thrombosis with left renal angiography or intravascular ultrasound, there was a dissection finding localized at the left renal artery. Based on this finding, we made a diagnosis of spontaneous renal artery dissection and performed stent placement. Spontaneous renal artery dissection is extremely rare and the frequency of occurrence is reported to be less than 0.05%. Recently, however the frequency of detection has risen with the development of clinical imaging. We must keep in mind that the condition has the possibility of leading to renal blood circulation disorders.

  15. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.


    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  16. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... time periods are the relevant measure. We followed a cohort of first pregnancy planners from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses include 181 pregnancies, of which 32 were subclinical pregnancies detected by hCG analysis only. During early...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  17. Spontaneous Enterocutaneous Fistula Resulting from Richter's Hernia. (United States)

    Hajong, Ranendra; Khongwar, Donkupar; Komut, Ojing; Naku, Narang; Baru, Kappa


    Richter's hernia is due to the entrapment of a part of circumference of the bowel wall. As the bowel continuity is maintained, the patients usually do not have intestinal obstruction. Some patients with Richter's hernia may present with enterocutaneous fistula either spontaneous or due to surgical intervention mistaking the obstructed hernia to be inguinal abscess. This is more so in developing countries due to lack of awareness among the masses or due to the delay in seeking medical attention. Presenting here is a case of a 53-year-old male patient with enterocutaneous fistula which occurred spontaneously and sought medical attention only after about three years of repeated discharge of yellowish fluid from the left inguinal region. Magnetic resonance fistulogram confirmed the diagnosis of enterocutaneous fistula. Laparotomy with resection and primary anastomosis of the fistulous bowel was done. Patient recovered uneventfully without any complications or recurrence.

  18. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Pregnancy. (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-traumatic cause of coronary artery dissection. SCAD is the most common cause of myocardial infarction in pregnancy or the postpartum period and results in significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the pregnant population. It is important to consider pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (PASCAD) high on the differential for a pregnant woman who presents with symptoms consistent with acute coronary syndrome. Management of these patients requires a thoughtful, multidisciplinary approach, with consideration of conservative management if possible. Counseling regarding future pregnancies is also critical and requires compassionate care. Given our limited understanding of SCAD, including PASCAD, more data and research are needed to help guide diagnosis, management, and determination of prognosis.

  19. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.


    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head

  20. Motivational Projections of Russian Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Shipitsina


    Full Text Available The article deals with the semantic, pragmatic and structural features of words, phrases, dialogues motivation, in the contemporary Russian popular speech. These structural features are characterized by originality and unconventional use. Language material is the result of authors` direct observation of spontaneous verbal communication between people of different social and age groups. The words and remarks were analyzed in compliance with the communication system of national Russian language and cultural background of popular speech. Studies have discovered that in spoken discourse there are some other ways to increase the expression statement. It is important to note that spontaneous speech identifies lacunae in the nominative language and its vocabulary system. It is proved, prefixation is also effective and regular way of the same action presenting. The most typical forms, ways and means to update language resources as a result of the linguistic creativity of native speakers were identified.

  1. Probabilistic liver atlas construction. (United States)

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E


    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  2. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang


    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  3. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  4. Self energy QED: Multipole spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamin, Y.I.


    Within the context of Barut's self-field approach, we write the exact expression of the spontaneous atomic decay rate (Phys. Rev. A37, 2284 (1988)), in the long wavelength approximation, in terms of electric- and magnetic-like multipole contributions which are related to the matrix elements of the transition charge and current distributions of the relativistic electron. A number of features of these expressions are discussed and their generalization to interacting composite systems is also pointed out. (author). 8 refs

  5. Quantum mechanics with spontaneous localization and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.; Grassi, R.


    We examine from an experimental point of view the recently proposed models of spontaneous reduction. We compare their implications about decoherence with those of environmental effects. We discuss the treatment, within the considered models, of the so called quantum telegraph phenomenon and we show that, contrary to what has been recently stated, no problems are met. Finally, we review recent interesting work investigating the implications of dynamical reduction for the proton decay. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation associated with tonsillitis


    Shunmugam, Meenalochani; Poonnoose, Santosh


    Atlantoaxial subluxation is a rare condition and requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose and treat in order to avoid long-term sequelae. Here, we present a case of late presentation of a nontraumatic rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint or atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. A 17-year-old girl presented 3 months after the onset of nonspecific upper limb sensory symptoms which eventually settled spontaneously. Initial conservative management by the general practitioner had no e...

  7. Spontaneous Regression of a Cervical Disk Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Delen


    Full Text Available A 54 years old female patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a two months history of muscle spasms of her neck and pain radiating to the left upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging had shown a large left-sided paracentral disk herniation at the C6-C7 disk space (Figure 1. Neurological examination showed no obvious neurological deficit. She received conservative treatment including bed rest, rehabilitation, and analgesic drugs. After 13 months, requested by the patient, a second magnetic resonance imaging study showed resolution of the disc herniation.(Figure 2 Although the literature contains several reports about spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar disc without surgical intervention, that of phenomenon reported for herniated cervical level is rare, and such reports are few[1]. In conclusion, herniated intervertebral disc have the potential to spontaneously regress independently from the spine level. With further studies, determining the predictive signs for prognostic evaluation for spontaneous regression which would yield to conservative treatment would be beneficial.

  8. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes (United States)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos


    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  9. Spontaneous prediction error generation in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Yamashita

    Full Text Available Goal-directed human behavior is enabled by hierarchically-organized neural systems that process executive commands associated with higher brain areas in response to sensory and motor signals from lower brain areas. Psychiatric diseases and psychotic conditions are postulated to involve disturbances in these hierarchical network interactions, but the mechanism for how aberrant disease signals are generated in networks, and a systems-level framework linking disease signals to specific psychiatric symptoms remains undetermined. In this study, we show that neural networks containing schizophrenia-like deficits can spontaneously generate uncompensated error signals with properties that explain psychiatric disease symptoms, including fictive perception, altered sense of self, and unpredictable behavior. To distinguish dysfunction at the behavioral versus network level, we monitored the interactive behavior of a humanoid robot driven by the network. Mild perturbations in network connectivity resulted in the spontaneous appearance of uncompensated prediction errors and altered interactions within the network without external changes in behavior, correlating to the fictive sensations and agency experienced by episodic disease patients. In contrast, more severe deficits resulted in unstable network dynamics resulting in overt changes in behavior similar to those observed in chronic disease patients. These findings demonstrate that prediction error disequilibrium may represent an intrinsic property of schizophrenic brain networks reporting the severity and variability of disease symptoms. Moreover, these results support a systems-level model for psychiatric disease that features the spontaneous generation of maladaptive signals in hierarchical neural networks.

  10. Spontaneous Large Serous Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voraporn Chaikitmongkol


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report cases of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE tear complicating serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Methods: The records of 3 Asian patients with spontaneous giant RPE tear were reviewed retrospectively by including clinical presentation, angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual outcome. Results: Three patients (4 eyes were included in this study, with a mean age of 48.3 (42–56 years, and a mean follow-up period of 7.75 (4–18 months. Fundus examination in all patients showed giant RPE tear associated with bullous PED. Two cases had a history of prior corticosteroid use, and 1 had no history of medication use. All 3 patients developed spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid with no treatment. However, in patients who used corticosteroids, initial progression of the tear and subretinal fluid were observed despite ceasing medication. On subsequent follow-up, an incomplete RPE regeneration was demonstrated by fundus autofluorescence imaging, and choroidal neovascularization developed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Large PED with RPE tear is a rare manifestation. When the fovea is spared, visual prognosis is favorable. No specific treatment is required, but careful choroidal neovascularization monitoring should be performed.

  11. Spontaneous fission of the heaviest elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.


    Although spontaneous fission was discovered in /sup 238/U in 1940, detailed studies of the process were first made possible in the 1960's with the availability of milligram quantities of /sup 252/Cf. The advent of solid-state detectors made it possible to perform measurements of coincident fission fragments from even very short-lived spontaneous fission activities or those available in only very small quantities. Until 1971 it was believed that the main features of the mass and kinetic-energy distributions were essentially the same as those for thermal neutron-induced fission and that all low-energy fission proceeded via asymmetric mass division with total kinetic energies which could be derived by linear extrapolation from those of lighter elements. In 1971, measurements of /sup 257/Fm showed an increase in symmetric mass division with anomalously high TKE's. Subsequent experiments showed that in /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, the most probable mass split was symmetric with very high total kinetic energy. Measurements for the heavier elements have shown symmetric mass distributions with both high and low total kinetic energies. Recent results for spontaneous fission properties of the heaviest elements are reviewed and compared with theory. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. An Efficient Representation of General Qualitative Spatial Information Using Bintrees


    Karlsen, Leif Harald; Giese, Martin


    In this paper we extend previous work on using bintrees as an efficient representation for qualitative information about spatial objects. Our approach represents each spatial object as a bintree satisfying the exact same qualitative relationships to other bintree representations as the corresponding spatial objects. We prove that such correct bintrees always exists and that they can be constructed as a sum of local representations, allowing a practically efficient construction. Our representa...

  13. Developing spontaneity and well-being in women victims of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Testoni


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the last stage of the research project Empower Daphne that involved the participation of six countries belonging to the EU in two phases: I validation of the theoretical model on which basis rests the construct of well-being and spontaneity; II analysis of Morenian psychodrama intervention efficacy. 407 university students were part of the non-clinical sample in the first phase and 136 women victims of domestic violence made up the clinical sample for the second phase. During the six month the women took part in psychodramatic sessions, together with individual interviews. At the beginning and the end of the six month, a questionnaire was administered consisting of a well-being and a spontaneity scales. In the article we present the results that compare well-being and spontaneity between clinical and non-clinical samples, and between the clinical cut-off scores highlighted in the literature and the scores of clinical sample. The findings demonstrate interesting differences between two sample: observed lower levels of spontaneity and well-being in women victims of domestic violence, both before and after the psychodramatic intervention.

  14. Assessing the associations among trait and state levels of deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering. (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel


    Recent research has demonstrated that mind wandering can be subdivided into spontaneous and deliberate types, and this distinction has been found to hold at both the trait and state levels. However, to date, no attempts have been made to link trait-level spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering with state-level assessments of these two subtypes of mind wandering. Here we evaluated whether trait-level deliberate and spontaneous mind wandering map onto state levels of these subtypes of mind wandering. Results showed correspondence between trait-level reports of spontaneous and deliberate mind wandering and their state-level counterparts, indicating that people's reports on the intentionality of their mind wandering in the laboratory correspond to their reports of the intentionality of mind wandering in everyday life. Thus, the trait- and state-level scales of mind wandering were found to validate each other: Whereas the state-level measures provided some construct validity for the trait-level measures, the trait-level measures indicated that the state-level measures may be generalizable to everyday situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Associated With Pregnancy. (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Hayes, Sharonne N; Codsi, Elisabeth; Gulati, Rajiv; Rose, Carl H; Best, Patricia J M


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is the most common cause of pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction and remains poorly characterized. This study sought to assess presentation, clinical factors, and outcomes of pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (P-SCAD) compared with spontaneous coronary artery dissection not associated with pregnancy (NP-SCAD). A Mayo Clinic registry was established in 2010 to include comprehensive retrospective and prospective SCAD data. Records were reviewed to identify women who were pregnant or ≤12 weeks postpartum at time of SCAD. Complete records were available for 323 women; 54 women met criteria for P-SCAD (4 during pregnancy) and they were compared with 269 women with NP-SCAD. Most events occurred within the first month postpartum (35 of 50). Compared with NP-SCAD, P-SCAD patients more frequently presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (57% vs. 36%; p = 0.009), left main or multivessel SCAD (24% vs. 5%; p vs. 14%; p = 0.0027, respectively), and left ventricular function ≤35% (26% vs. 10%; p = 0.0071). Among women with imaging of other vascular territories, P-SCAD was less likely with a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia and extracoronary vascular abnormalities (42% vs. 64%; p = 0.047; and 46% vs. 77%; p = 0.0032, respectively). Compared with U.S. birth data, women with P-SCAD were more often multiparous (p = 0.0167), had a history of infertility therapies (p = 0.0004), and had pre-eclampsia (p = 0.001). On long-term follow-up (median 2.3 years) recurrent SCAD occurred in 51 patients, with no difference in the Kaplan Meier 5-year recurrence rates (10% vs. 23%; p = 0.18). P-SCAD patients had more acute presentations and high-risk features than women with NP-SCAD did. The highest frequency of P-SCAD occurred during the first postpartum month and P-SCAD patients less often had extracoronary vascular abnormalities. Hormonal, hemodynamic variations, and yet

  16. Spontaneous emission modulation of colloidal quantum dots via efficient coupling with hybrid plasmonic photonic crystal. (United States)

    Yuan, X W; Shi, L; Wang, Qi; Chen, C Q; Liu, X H; Sun, L X; Zhang, Bo; Zi, J; Lu, Wei


    The spontaneous emission of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (CQDs) modified by the hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal is reported in this paper. By using a spin coater, the spatial overlap between CQDs and the surface resonance modes in this quasi-2D crystal slab is achieved. In this case, the coupling efficiency of them is enhanced greatly and most excited CQDs radiate through the surface modes. Consequently, despite the low refractive index contrast of our hybrid structure, the directionality of spontaneous emission, increased radiative probability and narrowed full width at half maximum of emission peak are all clearly observed by our home-made microscopic angle-resolved spectroscopy and time-resolved photoluminescence system. Our results manifest that the quasi-2D hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal is an ideal candidate to tailor the radiative properties of CdSe/ZnS CQDs, which might be significant for the applications of light emitting devices.

  17. Massive Kaluza-Klein theories and their spontaneously broken symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohm, O.


    In this thesis we investigate the effective actions for massive Kaluza-Klein states, focusing on the massive modes of spin-3/2 and spin-2 fields. To this end we determine the spontaneously broken gauge symmetries associated to these 'higher-spin' states and construct the unbroken phase of the Kaluza-Klein theory. We show that for the particular background AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} a consistent coupling of the first massive spin-3/2 multiplet requires an enhancement of local supersymmetry, which in turn will be partially broken in the Kaluza-Klein vacuum. The corresponding action is constructed as a gauged maximal supergravity in D=3. Subsequently, the symmetries underlying an infinite tower of massive spin-2 states are analyzed in case of a Kaluza-Klein compactification of four-dimensional gravity to D=3. It is shown that the resulting gravity-spin-2 theory is given by a Chern-Simons action of an affine algebra and also allows a geometrical interpretation in terms of 'algebra-valued' differential geometry. The global symmetry group is determined, which contains an affine extension of the Ehlers group. We show that the broken phase can in turn be constructed via gauging a certain subgroup of the global symmetry group. Finally, deformations of the Kaluza-Klein theory on AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} and the corresponding symmetry breakings are analyzed as possible applications for the AdS/CFT correspondence. (Orig.)

  18. Ordered patterns of cell shape and orientational correlation during spontaneous cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke T Maeda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the absence of stimuli, most motile eukaryotic cells move by spontaneously coordinating cell deformation with cell movement in the absence of stimuli. Yet little is known about how cells change their own shape and how cells coordinate the deformation and movement. Here, we investigated the mechanism of spontaneous cell migration by using computational analyses. METHODOLOGY: We observed spontaneously migrating Dictyostelium cells in both a vegetative state (round cell shape and slow motion and starved one (elongated cell shape and fast motion. We then extracted regular patterns of morphological dynamics and the pattern-dependent systematic coordination with filamentous actin (F-actin and cell movement by statistical dynamic analyses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that Dictyostelium cells in both vegetative and starved states commonly organize their own shape into three ordered patterns, elongation, rotation, and oscillation, in the absence of external stimuli. Further, cells inactivated for PI3-kinase (PI3K and/or PTEN did not show ordered patterns due to the lack of spatial control in pseudopodial formation in both the vegetative and starved states. We also found that spontaneous polarization was achieved in starved cells by asymmetric localization of PTEN and F-actin. This breaking of the symmetry of protein localization maintained the leading edge and considerably enhanced the persistence of directed migration, and overall random exploration was ensured by switching among the different ordered patterns. Our findings suggest that Dictyostelium cells spontaneously create the ordered patterns of cell shape mediated by PI3K/PTEN/F-actin and control the direction of cell movement by coordination with these patterns even in the absence of external stimuli.

  19. Ontogenetic paths to the parenthetical construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeg Thomsen, Ditte


    or as autonomous chunks. Spontaneous-speech analyses of English and German acquisition take internal inflexibility as evidence of chunk acquisition (Brandt, Lieven & Tomasello 2010, Diessel & Tomasello 2001), but inflexibility in parent-child interactions may be inaccurate as chunk-status indicator since...... these contexts may encourage stereotyped viewpoint talk. The present study uses a kindergarten corpus to compare parenthetical clauses and possible source constructions in Danish. Analyses of distribution, flexibility, pronunciation and formal marking suggest that clauses with parenthetical verbs are used more...... flexibly in children’s group conversations than in one-on-one interactions with a caregiver. In Danish, the parenthetical construction most likely develops as an extension of the complement-clause construction, supported by children’s schemas for object-first clauses....

  20. Developing Students' Spatial Ability. (United States)

    Bishop, Jeanne E.


    Discusses the importance of developing students' understanding of certain spatial aspects of important concepts. Piaget's contributions to the development of spatial conceptualization are included. Some examples for applying spatial techniques in earth sciences, physics, and chemistry are also presented. (HM)

  1. Spatial Management Areas (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial management files combine all related and relevant spatial management files into an integrated fisheries management file. Overlaps of the redundant spatial...


    Hellerstein, Judith K.; Neumark, David; McInerney, Melissa


    We contrast the spatial mismatch hypothesis with what we term the racial mismatch hypothesis – that the problem is not a lack of jobs, per se, where blacks live, but a lack of jobs where blacks live into which blacks are hired. We first report new evidence on the spatial mismatch hypothesis, using data from Census Long-Form respondents. We construct direct measures of the presence of jobs in detailed geographic areas, and find that these job density measures are related to employment of black male residents in ways that would be predicted by the spatial mismatch hypothesis – in particular that spatial mismatch is primarily an issue for low-skilled black male workers. We then look at mismatch along not only spatial lines but racial lines as well, by estimating the effects of job density measures that are disaggregated by race. We find that it is primarily black job density that influences black male employment, whereas white job density has little if any influence on their employment. The evidence implies that space alone plays a relatively minor role in low black male employment rates. PMID:19727422

  3. Multiple genetic switches spontaneously modulating bacterial mutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Randal N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background All life forms need both high genetic stability to survive as species and a degree of mutability to evolve for adaptation, but little is known about how the organisms balance the two seemingly conflicting aspects of life: genetic stability and mutability. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR system is essential for maintaining genetic stability and defects in MMR lead to high mutability. Evolution is driven by genetic novelty, such as point mutation and lateral gene transfer, both of which require genetic mutability. However, normally a functional MMR system would strongly inhibit such genomic changes. Our previous work indicated that MMR gene allele conversion between functional and non-functional states through copy number changes of small tandem repeats could occur spontaneously via slipped-strand mis-pairing during DNA replication and therefore may play a role of genetic switches to modulate the bacterial mutability at the population level. The open question was: when the conversion from functional to defective MMR is prohibited, will bacteria still be able to evolve by accepting laterally transferred DNA or accumulating mutations? Results To prohibit allele conversion, we "locked" the MMR genes through nucleotide replacements. We then scored changes in bacterial mutability and found that Salmonella strains with MMR locked at the functional state had significantly decreased mutability. To determine the generalizability of this kind of mutability 'switching' among a wider range of bacteria, we examined the distribution of tandem repeats within MMR genes in over 100 bacterial species and found that multiple genetic switches might exist in these bacteria and may spontaneously modulate bacterial mutability during evolution. Conclusions MMR allele conversion through repeats-mediated slipped-strand mis-pairing may function as a spontaneous mechanism to switch between high genetic stability and mutability during bacterial evolution.

  4. Being Spontaneous: The Future of Telehealth Implementation? (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E


    The smartphone simplifies interprofessional communication, and smartphone applications can facilitate telemedicine activity. Much has been written about the steps that need to be followed to implement and establish a successful telemedicine service that is integrated into everyday clinical practice. A traditional and systematic approach has evolved incorporating activities such as strategy development, needs assessment, business cases and plans, readiness assessment, implementation plans, change management interventions, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. This "best practice" has been promoted in the telehealth literature for many years. In contrast, several recent initiatives have arisen without any such formal undertakings. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of two "spontaneous" telemedicine services in dermatology and burn management that have evolved in South Africa. Two spontaneous services were identified and reviewed. In one unsolicited service, doctors at rural referring hospitals have been taking photographs of skin lesions and sending them with a brief text message history to dermatologists using the instant messaging smartphone app, WhatsApp. In the other, burns service, admissions to the burns unit or the clinic were triaged by telephonic description of the case and completion of a preadmission questionnaire. More recently, management and referral decisions are made only after completion of the questionnaire and subsequent submission of photographs of the burn sent by WhatsApp, with the decision transmitted by text message. Although efficient and effective, potential legal and ethical shortcomings have been identified. These "spontaneous" telehealth services challenge traditional best practice, yet appear to lead to truly integrated practice and, therefore, are successful and warrant further study.

  5. Spontaneous emergence of social influence in online systems. (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Reed-Tsochas, Felix


    Social influence drives both offline and online human behavior. It pervades cultural markets, and manifests itself in the adoption of scientific and technical innovations as well as the spread of social practices. Prior empirical work on the diffusion of innovations in spatial regions or social networks has largely focused on the spread of one particular technology among a subset of all potential adopters. Here we choose an online context that allows us to study social influence processes by tracking the popularity of a complete set of applications installed by the user population of a social networking site, thus capturing the behavior of all individuals who can influence each other in this context. By extending standard fluctuation scaling methods, we analyze the collective behavior induced by 100 million application installations, and show that two distinct regimes of behavior emerge in the system. Once applications cross a particular threshold of popularity, social influence processes induce highly correlated adoption behavior among the users, which propels some of the applications to extraordinary levels of popularity. Below this threshold, the collective effect of social influence appears to vanish almost entirely, in a manner that has not been observed in the offline world. Our results demonstrate that even when external signals are absent, social influence can spontaneously assume an on-off nature in a digital environment. It remains to be seen whether a similar outcome could be observed in the offline world if equivalent experimental conditions could be replicated.

  6. Spontaneous fluctuations in a zero-noise model of flocking (United States)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Kunal


    Investigations into the complex structure and dynamics of collectively moving groups of living organisms have provided valuable insights. Understanding the emergent features, especially, the origin of fluctuations, appears to be challenging in the current scheme of models. It has been argued that flocks are poised at criticality. We present a two-dimensional self-propelled particle model where neighbourhoods and forces are defined through topology-based rules. The attractive forces are modeled in order to maintain cohesion in the flock in open-boundary conditions. We find that fluctuations occur spontaneously in the absence of any external noise. For certain values of the parameters the flock shows a high degree of order as well as scale-free decay of spatial correlations in velocity and speed. We characterize the dynamical behaviour of the system using the Lyapunov spectrum. Largest exponents being positive but small in magnitude suggest that the apparent high susceptibility may result from the system operating near the borderline of order and chaos.

  7. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  8. Cerebrovascular gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Frederiksen, Simona Denise; Edvinsson, Lars


    in the middle cerebral arteries from hypertensive compared to normotensive rats. The gene expression of 72 genes was decreased and the gene expression of 97 genes was increased. The following genes with a fold difference ≥1.40 were verified by quantitative PCR; Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1, Serpine1......, Mmp11, Cd34, Ptgs1 and Ptgs2. The gene expression of Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1 and Serpine1 and the protein expression of LOX1 (also known as OLR1) were significantly increased in the middle cerebral arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar-Kyoto rats. In conclusion...

  9. Spontaneous light emission from fibers in MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avvakumov, S.; Barrett, W.L.; Belias, T.; Bower, C.; Erwin, A.; Kordosky, M.; Lang, K.; Lee, R.; Liu, J.; Miller, W.; Mualem, L.; Nichol, R.; Nelson, J.; Pearce, G.; Proga, M.; Rebel, B.; Ruddick, K.; Smith, C.; Thomas, J.; Vahle, P.; Webb, R.


    We report on the observation and measurements of unexpected background rates in the MINOS Far Detector. The noise level at the Far Detector is significantly greater than that expected from natural radioactivity and intrinsic photomultiplier dark current. We have conducted a series of additional tests which demonstrate that the excess rate is caused by spontaneous light emission in the wavelength-shifting fibers, which are used to read out signals from scintillator strips. This noise due to fibers exhibits an exponential fall off with time with a decay time constant of the order of 100 days

  10. Fracture of maternal sternum during spontaneous delivery. (United States)

    Stubert, J; Gerber, B


    We report of a maternal sternal fracture during a spontaneous delivery in a 31-year-old primipara without a suitable trauma. The putative mechanism of fracture was strong hyperflexion of the thoracic spine and additional cervical flexion with pushing the chin to the thorax due to active management of labour. The history of the healthy woman was free of related risk factors. A possible promoting factor might be pregnancy-induced bone loss. Although there were clear symptoms, the diagnosis of the fracture was delayed by a week because nobody took account of such a possibility.

  11. Effect of atomic initial phase difference on spontaneous emission of an atom embedded in photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing, Zhang; Xiu-Dong, Sun; Xiang-Qian, Jiang


    We investigate the effect of initial phase difference between the two excited states of a V-type three-level atom on its steady state behaviour of spontaneous emission. A modified density of modes is introduced to calculate the spontaneous emission spectra in photonic crystal. Spectra in free space are also shown to compare with that in photonic crystal with different relative positions of the excited levels from upper band-edge frequency. It is found that the initial phase difference plays an important role in the quantum interference property between the two decay channels. For a zero initial phase, destructive property is presented in the spectra. With the increase of initial phase difference, quantum interference between the two decay channels from upper levels to ground level turns to be constructive. Furthermore, we give an interpretation for the property of these spectra. (atomic and molecular physics)

  12. Spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom in a double-band photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Han Zhuang; Tang Sing Hai; Dong Po; He Jun


    The spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom embedded in a double-band photonic band gap (PBG) material has been investigated for the first time. Most interestingly it is shown that there is not only a black dark line, but also a narrow spontaneous line near the edges of the double photonic band. The positions of the dark line and narrow spontaneous line are near the transition from an empty upper level to a lower level. The lines stem from destructive and constructive quantum interferences, which induce population transfer between the two upper levels, in the PBG reservoirs. The effects of system parameters on the interference have been discussed in detail

  13. Construction and performance of large flash chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.E.; Bogert, D.; Fisk, R.; Stutte, L.; Walker, J.K.; Wolfson, J.; Abolins, M.; Ernwein, J.; Owen, D.; Lyons, T.


    The construction and performance of 12' x 12' flash chambers used in a 340 ton neutrino detector under construction at Fermilab is described. The flash chambers supply digital information with a spatial resolution of 0.2'', and are used to finely sample the shower development of the reaction products of neutrino interactions. The flash chambers are easy and inexpensive to build and are electronically read out

  14. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  15. A Qualitative Analysis of the Spontaneous Volunteer Response to the 2013 Sudan Floods: Changing the Paradigm. (United States)

    Albahari, Amin; Schultz, Carl H


    Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster? This retrospective, descriptive case study involved: (1) interviews with Nafeer members that participated in the disaster response to the Khartoum floods; (2) examination of documents generated during the event; and (3) subsequent benchmarking of their efforts with the Sphere Handbook. Members who agreed to participate were requested to provide all documents in their possession relating to Nafeer. The response by Nafeer was then benchmarked to the Sphere Handbook's six core standards, as well as the 11 minimum standards in essential health services. A total of 11 individuals were interviewed (six from leadership and five from active members). Nafeer's activities included: food provision; delivery of basic health care; environmental sanitation campaigns; efforts to raise awareness; and construction and strengthening of flood barricades. Its use of electronic platforms and social media to collect data and coordinate the organization's response was effective. Nafeer adopted a flat-management structure, dividing itself into 14 committees. A Coordination Committee was in charge of liaising between all committees. The Health and Sanitation Committee supervised two health days which included mobile medical and dentistry clinics supported by a mobile laboratory and pharmacy. The Engineering Committee managed to construct and maintain flood barricades. Nafeer used crowd-sourcing to fund its activities, receiving donations locally and internationally using supporters

  16. Spontaneous cooperation for prosocials, but not for proselfs: Social value orientation moderates spontaneous cooperation behavior (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dorothee; Glöckner, Andreas


    Cooperation is essential for the success of societies and there is an ongoing debate whether individuals have therefore developed a general spontaneous tendency to cooperate or not. Findings that cooperative behavior is related to shorter decision times provide support for the spontaneous cooperation effect, although contrary results have also been reported. We show that cooperative behavior is better described as person × situation interaction, in that there is a spontaneous cooperation effect for prosocial but not for proself persons. In three studies, one involving population representative samples from the US and Germany, we found that cooperation in a public good game is dependent on an interaction between individuals’ social value orientation and decision time. Increasing deliberation about the dilemma situation does not affect persons that are selfish to begin with, but it is related to decreasing cooperation for prosocial persons that gain positive utility from outcomes of others and score high on the related general personality trait honesty/humility. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous cooperation hypothesis has to be qualified in that it is limited to persons with a specific personality and social values. Furthermore, they allow reconciling conflicting previous findings by identifying an important moderator for the effect. PMID:26876773

  17. Spontaneous regression of intracranial malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Nobuto; Tokutomi, Takashi; Eguchi, Gihachirou; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Tomie; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Shigemori, Minoru.


    In a 46-year-old female with a 1-month history of gait and speech disturbances, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated mass lesions of slightly high density in the left basal ganglia and left frontal lobe. The lesions were markedly enhanced by contrast medium. The patient received no specific treatment, but her clinical manifestations gradually abated and the lesions decreased in size. Five months after her initial examination, the lesions were absent on CT scans; only a small area of low density remained. Residual clinical symptoms included mild right hemiparesis and aphasia. After 14 months the patient again deteriorated, and a CT scan revealed mass lesions in the right frontal lobe and the pons. However, no enhancement was observed in the previously affected regions. A biopsy revealed malignant lymphoma. Despite treatment with steroids and radiation, the patient's clinical status progressively worsened and she died 27 months after initial presentation. Seven other cases of spontaneous regression of primary malignant lymphoma have been reported. In this case, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression was not clear, but changes in immunologic status may have been involved. (author)

  18. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers. (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio


    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  19. Surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Emerging trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Menon


    Full Text Available In spite of advances in imaging and surgical techniques, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH has defied attempts to find a scientifically proven effective therapy. The pathophysiology of SICH suggests that early removal of the clot with minimal additional surgical trauma should prove beneficial. Trials in this direction have been few, and for some unknown reason, surgery has not proved to be superior to best medical management in most of these trials. This has led to substantial variability in the management of ICH throughout the world, and the treatment of SICH remains a controversy. SICH encompasses spectra of possible clot locations with varying volumes. Surgery so far has been reserved only for patients with large hematomas and impending brain herniation. Critical analysis of the earlier studies has now shown that surgery does help in clots in certain locations and of particular volume and when done at an optimal time. Poor grade patients with large hematomas, earlier considered poor surgical candidates are being taken up for aggressive decompressive craniectomies with fair results. In addition, minimally invasive surgical techniques complemented by thrombolytic techniques seem to providing surprisingly good results. Overall surgery seems to be going through a period of renaissance with respect to primary spontaneous ICHs.

  20. Spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forell, B.; Myers, L.S. Jr.; Norman, A.


    The rate of spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes was estimated from measurements of tritiated thymidine incorporation into double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) during incubation of cells in vitro. The contribution of scheduled DNA synthesis to the observed incorporation was reduced by inhibiting replication with hydroxyurea and by separating freshly replicated single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) from repaired ds-DNA by column chromatography. The residual contribution of scheduled DNA synthesis was estimated by observing effects on thymidine incorporation of: (a) increasing the rate of production of apurinic sites, and alternatively, (b) increasing the number of cells in S-phase. Corrections based on estimates of endogenous pool size were also made. The rate of spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis is estimated to be 490 +- 120 thymidine molecules incorporated per cell per hour. These results compare favorably with estimates made from rates of depurination and depyrimidination of DNA, measured in molecular systems if we assume thymidine is incorporated by a short patch mechanism which incorporates an average of four bases per lesion

  1. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes


    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  2. Spontaneous and stimulated emission from quasifree electrons (United States)

    Friedman, A.; Gover, A.; Kurizki, G.; Ruschin, S.; Yariv, A.


    This article presents a unified formulation and review of an extensive class of radiation effects and devices based on free or quasifree electrons. The effects and devices reviewed include slow-wave radiators [such as Čerenkov, Smith-Purcell, and TWT (traveling-wave tube) effects and devices], periodic bremsstrahlung radiators [such as undulator radiation, magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL's (free-electron lasers), and coherent bremsstrahlung in the crystal lattice], and transverse-binding radiators [such as the CRM (cyclotron resonance maser) and channeling radiation]. Starting from a general quantum-electrodynamic model, both quantum and classical effects and operating regimes of these radiation devices are described. The article provides a unified physical description of the interaction kinematics, and presents equations for the characterization of spontaneous and stimulated radiative emission in these various effects and devices. Universal relations between the spontaneous and stimulated emission parameters are revealed and shown to be related (in the quantum limit) to Einstein relations for atomic radiators and (in the classical limit) to the relations derived by Madey for magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL for on-axis radiative emission. Examples for the application of the formulation are given, estimating the feasibility of channeling radiation x-ray laser and optical regime Smith-Purcell FEL, and deriving the gain equations of magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL and CRM for arbitrary electron propagation direction, structure (wiggler) axis, and radiative emission angle.

  3. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia


    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  4. Microchimerism after induced or spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Sato, Tomoko; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Akira; Ohto, Hitoshi


    To investigate fetomaternal microchimerism in women with induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 76 healthy women who underwent dilation and curettage in the first trimester but had never had an abortion or male delivery before. Samples were collected at three time points: just before, 7 days after, and 30 days after abortion. Y chromosome-specific, nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) was used to test DNA extracted from buffy coat cells. DNA was also extracted from the chorion to determine sex. The sensitivity of our assay allowed detection of approximately one male cell in 100,000 female cells. Thirty-six male and 40 female chorions were obtained. Male DNA was found in 52.8% of women who had a male chorion before abortion, decreasing to 5.6% at 7 days after abortion. At 30 days after abortion, no male DNA was detected. Male DNA was never detected at any point from women with a female chorion. Fetal cells in the maternal circulation are undetectable 30 days after induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Fetal cells may be harbored in maternal organs.

  5. Body Mass Index and spontaneous miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J


    OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.

  6. Brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Kyu; Byun, Woo Mok; Cho, Jae Ho; Cho Kil Ho; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Yang Gu [Keimyoung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jin [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. A retrospective review of MRI findings was conducted on six patients with clinically proven spontaneous intracranial hypotension; no patient had a history of previous spinal puncture. Follow-up MRI was available in two patients, and to detect CSF leakage, radio-nuclide cisternography(n=3D5), myelography(n=3D1), and MR myelography(n=3D1) were performed. On contrast-enhanced T1WI, diffuse dural enhancement was seen in all cases, subdural hematoma or hygroma was seen in four cases, pituitary gland prominence in four, dural sinus dilatation in four, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil in two, downward displacement of the iter in one, and suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement in two. In no patient was abnormal CSF leakage found. Although dural enhancement, as seen on MRI, is not specific, diffuse enhancement of the dura mater accompanied by subdural hematoma, hygroma, pituitary gland prominence, dural sinus dilatation, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil, or suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement can strongly suggest intracranial hypotension.=20.

  7. [Expression of human spindle mitosis arrest deficiency gene in spontaneous abortion embryo tissues]. (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Wang, Jian; Yuan, Tai-Xian; Shi, Qiong; Weng, Ya-Guang; Wang, Ying-Xiong; Jiang, Hong-Yan; Liu, Zi-Jie


    To investigate the expression of human spindle mitosis arrest deficiency gene (hsMAD2) in spontaneous abortion embryos and the relationship between low expression of hsMAD2 and numerical chromosomal aberration. METHODS Spontaneous abortion embryo tissues were collected, including 23 cases of once spontaneous abortion tissue and 10 cases of twice or more spontaneous abortion tissue and induced abortion embryos (35 cases) from the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the Affiliated Hospitals of Chongqing University of Medical Science during the period of March 2006 to March 2007. FQ-PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the endogenous expression level of hsMAD2 mRNA and hsMAD2 protein; primary culturing of cells from the induced abortion embryos was conducted and 5 embryonic cells were selected by chromosomes karyotype analysis. Recombinant shRNA plasmids targeting hsMAD2 gene were constructed to inhibit the expression of endogenous hsMAD2 genes in embryonic cells which have normal karyotypes; the groups were defined as the first experimental group (transfected with pshRNA-hsMAD2-1) , the second experimental group (transfected with pshRNA-hsMAD2-2), the third experimental group (transfected with pshRNA-hsMAD2-3), the first control group (transfected with nothing), the second control group (transfected with pTZU6 + 1) and the independent group (transfected with pshRNA-N1). Interference efficiency was demonstrated by FQ-PCR and western blot; cell proliferation was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay; cell-cycle was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM); the chromosome numbers were calculated to analyze the variation of chromosomes. (1) The mRNA levels of hsMAD2 in the once spontaneous abortion tissue, twice or more spontaneous abortion tissue and induced abortion tissue were 0.00879 +/- 0.00035, 0.00901 +/- 0.00033 and 0.00941 +/- 0.00026 respectively, and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) compared with each other; however, the

  8. Spontaneous emission of an atom in the presence of a plasmonic cloaking sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Rosa, F.S.S.; Pinheiro, F.A.; Farina, Carlos


    Full text: Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics (CQED) consists, essentially, in the study of the influence of the neighborhood of an atomic system in its radiative properties. The purpose of this kind of study is not only to obtain more precise results for atomic quantities like the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, but also to control the radiative properties of the system as, for example, the atomic transition frequencies or the natural line widths. Particularly, spontaneous emission rates, which are directly related to the natural line widths, may be enhanced, weakened or even suppressed due to the presence of appropriately arranged perfectly conducting walls in the vicinity of the atomic system. The work considered as a landmark of CQED, presented in a conference of the American Physical Society by Purcell in 1946, was precisely about this kind of influence. Purcell showed that the spontaneous emission associated to nuclear magnetic dipole transitions could be enhanced if the system were appropriately coupled to a resonant external electric circuit. Nowadays, there are several studies about the influence in the spontaneous emission rate of an atom due to the presence of new materials in its neighborhood. Particularly, the so-called metamaterials, the name given to material structures artificially constructed with desired electromagnetic properties, give rise to a new way of controlling the radiative properties of an atomic system.In the present work, after making a brief introduction on spontaneous emission, which includes the calculation of Einstein's coefficient in some simple cases as, for example, an atom embedded in a negative refractive index metamaterial, we discuss how the spontaneous emission rate of a two level atom is altered due to the presence of a plasmonic cloaking sphere. Among other things, our result shows that the emission rate exhibits an oscillatory behavior with the mutual distance between the atom and sphere. Also, we show that for a

  9. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect. (United States)

    Karnath, Hans-Otto


    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen


    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  11. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo


    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  12. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G


    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  13. Spontaneous resolution of a herniated fragment cervical disc


    METE, Mesut; SAVRAN, Mehmet; DEMİRÇİVİ ÖZER, Füsun; DURANSOY, Yusuf Kurtuluş


    ABSTRACT Although the spontaneous resolution of herniated nucleus pulposus is a well known phe¬nomenon in lumbar disc herniations, it is rarely encountered in the cervical region. The spontaneous resolution of a herniated cervical disc in a woman is reported to describe a rare occurrence of spontaneous regression of a cervical herniated nucleus pulposus and to discuss its mechanism. A woman with a large and fragment herniated cervical disc refused to undergo operation and was followed-up ...

  14. Spontaneous globe luxation associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashok Kumar


    Full Text Available Spontaneous globe luxation is a rarely reported condition which can lead to complications like optic neuropathy. Common causes are thyroid eye disease, shallow orbit and floppy eyelid syndrome. We report a case of spontaneous globe luxation with the onset and severity associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous globe luxation associated with COPD.

  15. Biomarkers of Spontaneous Recovery from Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (United States)


    inflammation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS traumatic spinal cord injury, spinal cord , spontaneous recovery, functional recovery, inflammation, biomarkers, trauma 16...Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0614 TITLE: Biomarkers of Spontaneous Recovery from Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ona Bloom...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0614 W81XWH-15-1-0614 Biomarkers of Spontaneous Recovery from Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  16. Spontaneous ripple formation in phosphorene: electronic properties and possible applications. (United States)

    Zhou, Yungang; Yang, Li; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei


    According to the Mermin-Wagner theorem and theory of elasticity, long-range order in two-dimensional (2D) crystals will be inevitably destroyed due to a thermal fluctuation. Thus, a 2D lattice prefers a corrugation meaning that a 2D crystal is easy to present a ripple. In this work, we, via employing ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, for the first time evidenced that the inherent dynamics of phosphorene would lead to a spontaneous formation of ripples at room temperature. The height of a ripple closely associates with the temperature and the width. Via density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we further demonstrated that the emergence of ripples would remarkably reduce the bandgap of phosphorene. Via the construction of the unique phosphorene structure, we finally found that such a rippled structure is expected to be used in the light-emitting field. These results give us further knowledge of phosphorene, which goes beyond the current scope of phosphorene limited to the flat lattice.

  17. Spontaneous regression of a lumbar disc herniation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostarchid Brahim El


    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation is a common disease that induces back pain and radicular pain. Some cases require conservative treatment or at times relived spontaneously. Spontaneous regression of disc herniation is an atypical clinical presentation, and it has been recognized with the advancement of recent advances in imaging techniques. We present a 35-year-old woman presented a spontaneous regression of a lumbar disc herniation with good outcome after intensive physical therapy program. Spontaneous regression of disc herniation is thought to occur via an inflammatory reaction with molecular mechanisms of phagocytic processes.

  18. Spontaneous closure of an ileostomy: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saxena


    CONCLUSION: Further research is warranted to understand the mechanism behind spontaneous regression of a stoma. Relationship between this event and intestinal tuberculosis or ATT needs to be analysed.

  19. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin


    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases......; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence...

  20. Dorsomedial prefontal cortex supports spontaneous thinking per se. (United States)

    Raij, T T; Riekki, T J J


    Spontaneous thinking, an action to produce, consider, integrate, and reason through mental representations, is central to our daily experience and has been suggested to serve crucial adaptive purposes. Such thinking occurs among other experiences during mind wandering that is associated with activation of the default mode network among other brain circuitries. Whether and how such brain activation is linked to the experience of spontaneous thinking per se remains poorly known. We studied 51 healthy subjects using a comprehensive experience-sampling paradigm during 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging. In comparison with fixation, the experiences of spontaneous thinking and spontaneous perception were related to activation of wide-spread brain circuitries, including the cortical midline structures, the anterior cingulate cortex and the visual cortex. In direct comparison of the spontaneous thinking versus spontaneous perception, activation was observed in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Modality congruence of spontaneous-experience-related brain activation was suggested by several findings, including association of the lingual gyrus with visual in comparison with non-verbal-non-visual thinking. In the context of current literature, these findings suggest that the cortical midline structures are involved in the integrative core substrate of spontaneous thinking that is coupled with other brain systems depending on the characteristics of thinking. Furthermore, involvement of the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex suggests the control of high-order abstract functions to characterize spontaneous thinking per se. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3277-3288, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Spatial econometrics using microdata

    CERN Document Server

    Dubé, Jean


    This book provides an introduction to spatial analyses concerning disaggregated (or micro) spatial data.Particular emphasis is put on spatial data compilation and the structuring of the connections between the observations. Descriptive analysis methods of spatial data are presented in order to identify and measure the spatial, global and local dependency.The authors then focus on autoregressive spatial models, to control the problem of spatial dependency between the residues of a basic linear statistical model, thereby contravening one of the basic hypotheses of the ordinary least squares appr

  2. Stonke Construction Information Sheet (United States)

    Stonke Construction (the Company) is located in Anchorage, Alaska. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in and around Anchorage, Alaska.

  3. Evaluation of Perceived Spatial Audio Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Berg


    Full Text Available The increased use of audio applications capable of conveying enhanced spatial quality puts focus on how such a quality should be evaluated. Different approaches to evaluation of perceived quality are briefly discussed and a new technique is introduced. In a series of experiment, attributes were elicited from subjects, tested and subsequently used for derivation of evaluation scales that were feasible for subjective evaluation of the spatial quality of certain multichannel stimuli. The findings of these experiments led to the development of a novel method for evaluation of spatial audio in surround sound systems. Parts of the method were subsequently implemented in the OPAQUE software prototype designed to facilitate the elicitation process. The prototype was successfully tested in a pilot experiment. The experiments show that attribute scales derived from subjects' personal constructs are functional for evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality. Finally, conclusions on the importance of spatial quality evaluation of new applications are made.

  4. A Classification for a Geostatistical Index of Spatial Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Júnior Seidel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In geostatistical studies, spatial dependence can generally be described by means of the semivariogram or, in complementary form, with a single index followed by its categorization to classify the degree of such dependence. The objective of this study was to construct a categorization for the spatial dependence index (SDI proposed by Seidel and Oliveira (2014 in order to classify spatial variability in terms of weak, moderate, and strong dependence. Theoretical values were constructed from different degrees of spatial dependence, which served as a basis for calculation of the SDI. In view of the form of distribution and SDI descriptive measures, we developed a categorization for posterior classification of spatial dependence, specific to each semivariogram model. The SDI categorization was based on its median and 3rd quartile, allowing us to classify spatial dependence as weak, moderate, or strong. We established that for the spherical semivariogram: SDISpherical (% ≤ 7 % (weak spatial dependence, 7 % 15 % (strong spatial dependence; for the exponential semivariogram: SDIExponential (% ≤ 6 % (weak spatial dependence, 6 % 13 % (strong spatial dependence; and for the Gaussian semivariogram: SDIGaussian (% ≤ 9 % (weak spatial dependence, 9 % 20 % (strong spatial dependence. The proposed categorization allows the user to transform the numerical values calculated for SDI into categories of variability of spatial dependence, with adequate power for explanation and comparison.

  5. Spontaneous Cdc42 polarization independent of GDI-mediated extraction and actin-based trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe O Bendezú


    Full Text Available The small Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 is critical for cell polarization and polarizes spontaneously in absence of upstream spatial cues. Spontaneous polarization is thought to require dynamic Cdc42 recycling through Guanine nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor (GDI-mediated membrane extraction and vesicle trafficking. Here, we describe a functional fluorescent Cdc42 allele in fission yeast, which demonstrates Cdc42 dynamics and polarization independent of these pathways. Furthermore, an engineered Cdc42 allele targeted to the membrane independently of these recycling pathways by an amphipathic helix is viable and polarizes spontaneously to multiple sites in fission and budding yeasts. We show that Cdc42 is highly mobile at the membrane and accumulates at sites of activity, where it displays slower mobility. By contrast, a near-immobile transmembrane domain-containing Cdc42 allele supports viability and polarized activity, but does not accumulate at sites of activity. We propose that Cdc42 activation, enhanced by positive feedback, leads to its local accumulation by capture of fast-diffusing inactive molecules.

  6. On what controls the spacing of spontaneous adiabatic shear bands in collapsing thick-walled cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovinger Zev


    Full Text Available Shear bands formation in collapsing thick walled cylinders occurs in a spontaneous manner. The advantage of examining spontaneous, as opposed to forced shear localization, is that it highlights the inherent susceptibility of the material to adiabatic shear banding without prescribed geometrical constraints. The Thick-Walled Cylinder technique (TWC provides a controllable and repeatable technique to create and study multiple adiabatic shear bands. The technique, reported in the literature uses an explosive cylinder to create the driving force, collapsing the cylindrical sample. Recently, we developed an electro-magnetic set-up using a pulsed current generator to provide the collapsing force, replacing the use of explosives. Using this platform we examined the shear band evolution at different stages of formation in 7 metallic alloys, spanning a wide range of strength and failure properties. We examined the number of shear bands and spacing between them for the different materials to try and figure out what controls these parameters. The examination of the different materials enabled us to better comprehend the mechanisms which control the spatial distribution of multiple shear bands in this geometry. The results of these tests are discussed and compared to explosively driven collapsing TWC results in the literature and to existing analytical models for spontaneous adiabatic shear localization.

  7. Spatiotemporal stability of neonatal rat cardiomyocyte monolayers spontaneous activity is dependent on the culture substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Boudreau-Béland

    Full Text Available In native conditions, cardiac cells must continuously comply with diverse stimuli necessitating a perpetual adaptation. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is commonly used in cell culture to study cellular response to changes in the mechanical environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using PDMS substrates on the properties of spontaneous activity of cardiomyocyte monolayer cultures. We compared PDMS to the gold standard normally used in culture: a glass substrate. Although mean frequency of spontaneous activity remained unaltered, incidence of reentrant activity was significantly higher in samples cultured on glass compared to PDMS substrates. Higher spatial and temporal instability of the spontaneous rate activation was found when cardiomyocytes were cultured on PDMS, and correlated with decreased connexin-43 and increased CaV3.1 and HCN2 mRNA levels. Compared to cultures on glass, cultures on PDMS were associated with the strongest response to isoproterenol and acetylcholine. These results reveal the importance of carefully selecting the culture substrate for studies involving mechanical stimulation, especially for tissue engineering or pharmacological high-throughput screening of cardiac tissue analog.

  8. Spontaneous emission in the presence of a realistically sized cylindrical waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dung, Ho Trung


    Various quantities characterizing the spontaneous emission process of a dipole emitter including the emission rate and the emission pattern can be expressed in terms of the Green tensor of the surrounding environment. By expanding the Green tensor around some analytically known background one as a Born series, and truncating it under appropriate conditions, complicated boundaries can be tackled with ease. However, when the emitter is embedded in the medium, even the calculation of the first-order term in the Born series is problematic because of the presence of a singularity. We show how to eliminate this singularity for a medium of arbitrary size and shape by expanding around the bulk medium rather than vacuum. In the highly symmetric configuration of an emitter located on the axis of a realistically sized cylinder, it is shown that the singularity can be removed by changing the integral variables and then the order of integration. Using both methods, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of an initially excited two-level dipole emitter, embedded in a realistically sized cylinder, which can be a common optical fiber in the long-length limit and a disk in the short-length limit. The spatial distribution of the emitted light is calculated using the Born-expansion approach, and local-field corrections to the spontaneous emission rate are briefly discussed. (paper)

  9. [Spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization]. (United States)

    Studničková, M; Holusková, I; Durdová, V; Kratochvílová, T; Strašilová, P; Marková, I; Lubušký, M


    Assess the incidence of spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization in RhD negative pregnant women with an RhD positive fetus. Clinical study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School and University Hospital Olomouc. A total of 906 RhD negative women with an RhD positive fetus and without the presence of anti-Dalloantibodies at the beginning of pregnancy were examined. Always it was a singleton pregnancy, RhD blood group of the pregnant women was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, RhD status of the fetus was determined after delivery. Screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies was performed in all women in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, at 28-32 weeks gestation and immediately prior to delivery at 38-42 weeks gestation. Screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies was performed also at 6 months following delivery in all cases of positive antibodies before delivery. Antibody screening was performed using the indirect antiglobulin (LISS/NAT) and enzyme (papain) test with their subsequent identification using a panel of reference erythrocytes by column agglutination method Dia-Med. After delivery, the volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage was assesed in all RhD negative women and RhD alloimmunization prophylaxis was performed by administering the necessary IgG anti-D dose; none of the women were administered IgG anti-D antepartally. During screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies at 28-32 weeks gestation, anti-D alloantibodies were diagnosed in 0.2% of the women (2/906); immediately prior to the delivery at 38-42 weeks gestation, anti-D alloantibodies were diagnosed in 2.3% of the women (21/906) and repeatedly even at 6 months following delivery (21/157). In 82.7% of the women (749/906), examination at 6 months following delivery was not performed, therefore in these women spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization cannot reliably be ruled out. Alloimmunization may not be diagnosed yet at term of delivery. If anti

  10. Traceability of biopharmaceuticals in spontaneous reporting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Straus, Sabine M J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K


    , including spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs), in which reports of ADRs are collected. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the current status of traceability of biopharmaceuticals in the US and the EU up to patient level in SRSs. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted over......BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of biopharmaceuticals can be batch or product specific, resulting from small differences in the manufacturing process. Detailed exposure information should be readily available in systems for postmarketing safety surveillance of biopharmaceuticals...... the period 2004-2010, including ADR reports from two major SRSs: the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) in the US and EudraVigilance (EV) in the EU. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The availability of batch numbers was determined for biopharmaceuticals, and compared with small molecule drugs...

  11. Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Marko V.


    Full Text Available This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative and morphologic (qualitative. Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki is defined, which is a product of road coefficient (Kr and real relative height (RRH. Morphological indicators refer to the position of a settlement on a certain geomorphological unit (ridge, valley, valley side, as well as to the geomorphological homogeneity of space, determined by geomorphological mapping. The defined indicators of unsustainability are presented in detail as a case study of the abandoned village Smilov Laz, in the municipality of Novi Pazar.

  12. Spontaneous galactosylation of agalactoglycoproteins in colostrum. (United States)

    Oubihi, M; Kitajima, K; Aoki, N; Matsuda, T


    We have found that spontaneous galactosylation of GlcNAc residues occurs in bovine colostrum, but not in dialyzed colostrum, without adding UDP-Gal as a donor substrate. UDP-Gal was shown to be present in bovine colostrum at a level ranging from 200 to 600 microM. When a tracer UDP-[(14)C]Gal was added to the dialyzed colostrum together with a Gal beta1,4-specific beta-galactosidase, remarkable incorporation of radioactivity into 24-28 kDa and 33 kDa RCA1-positive glycoproteins was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE/autoradiography. Some 100-140 kDa agalactoglycoproteins of a CHO mutant cell line were also galactosylated on a blotted membrane by the incubation in the colostrum.

  13. Pneumomediastin spontané chez un asthmatique (United States)

    Elmoqaddem, Amine; Serghini, Issam; Janah, Hicham; Chouikh, Chakib; Alaoui, Amine; Bensghir, Mustapha


    Le pneumomédiastin spontané est une pathologie rare. Il se voit surtout chez l’adulte jeune. Sa survenue brutale est caractéristique, associant une douleur thoracique, un emphysème sous-cutané et une dyspnée. Nous rapportons l’observation d’un pneumomédiastin, chez un patient de 24 ans asthmatique déclenché suite à un effort de toux. Le patient s’est présenté dans un tableau d’insuffisance respiratoire aigue avec une douleur thoracique retrosternale. La radiographie pulmonaire a confirmé le diagnostic de pneumomédiastin. L’évolution a été favorable en 4 jours après exsufflation, oxygénothérapie et traitement médical conventionnel. PMID:28292057

  14. Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B


    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...

  15. Spontaneous unilamellar polymer vesicles in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Song, Chaeyeon; Han, Young-Soo; Jang, Jong-Dae; Choi, Myung Chul


    A unilamellar polymeric vesicle is a self-assembled structure of a block copolymer that forms a spherical single bilayer structure with a hydrophobic interlayer and a hydrophilic surface. Due to their enhanced colloidal stability and mechanical property, controllable surface functionality, or tunable membrane thickness, polymeric vesicles are useful in nano and bio-science, providing potential applications as nanosized carriers for catalysts, drugs, and enzymes. For fabrication of a unilamellar vesicle, however, preparative procedures with a few steps are inherently required. Herein, without complicated preparative procedures, we report spontaneous unilamellar polymeric vesicles with nanometer sizes (small angle neutron scattering and cryo-TEM, resulting in a phase diagram drawn as a function of temperature and the 5mS concentration. Interestingly the critical temperature for the micelle-to-vesicle phase transition was easily controlled by varying the 5mS concentration, i.e. it was decreased with increasing the 5mS concentration.

  16. Spontaneous jamming in one-dimensional systems (United States)

    O'Loan, O. J.; Evans, M. R.; Cates, M. E.


    We study the phenomenon of jamming in driven diffusive systems. We introduce a simple microscopic model in which jamming of a conserved driven species is mediated by the presence of a non-conserved quantity, causing an effective long-range interaction of the driven species. We study the model analytically and numerically, providing strong evidence that jamming occurs; however, this proceeds via a strict phase transition (with spontaneous symmetry breaking) only in a prescribed limit. Outside this limit, the nearby transition (characterised by an essential singularity) induces sharp crossovers and transient coarsening phenomena. We discuss the relevance of the model to two physical situations: the clustering of buses, and the clogging of a suspension forced along a pipe.

  17. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs. (United States)

    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William


    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation.

  18. A Young Man with Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Lieve Willemien Verhaert


    Full Text Available Case. A 33-year-old male nonsmoker presented with sudden onset of dyspnoea and thoracic pain. Chest radiograph showed a left-sided pneumothorax. Few days later he developed a right-sided pneumothorax. He had a positive family history of pneumothorax. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed multiple pulmonary cysts predominantly located in the lower lung regions. We suspected Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD. Conclusion. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited genodermatosis and characterised by clinical manifestations including hamartomas of the skin, renal tumors, and pulmonary cysts with spontaneous pneumothorax. BHD is probably underdiagnosed because of the wide variability in its clinical expression. It is important to recognize these patients because of the possibility of developing renal cancer.

  19. Constrained gauge fields from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chkareuli, J. L.; Froggatt, C. D.; Jejelava, J. G.


    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type AµAµ=M2 (M is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant...... theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory...... couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical Lorentz violation due to the simultaneously generated gauge invariance. Udgivelsesdato: June 11...

  20. Spontaneous Esophageal Injury: Esophageal Intramural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Chiu


    Full Text Available Acute chest pain can indicate a life-threatening condition and it is important for physicians to diagnose and treat it as a matter of urgency. We report 1 rare case of esophageal intramural hematoma (IMH that presented with chest pain at the emergency department and which was initially clinically suspected to be due to aortic dissection. The case was diagnosed preoperatively by multidetector computed tomography. Esophageal IMH may represent an intermediate stage between Mallory-Weiss tear (mucosal and Boerhaave's syndrome (transmural. Multidetector computed tomography is a useful noninvasive imaging modality for accurate diagnosis of these spontaneous intramural and transmural ruptures of the esophagus, and aids in the differential diagnosis of aortic and other mediastinal diseases with acute chest pain.

  1. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement (United States)

    Sveshnikov, Konstantin; Tolokonnikov, Andrey


    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The most novel and nontrivial result, which has not been reported previously, is that such an effect takes place not only for attractive, but also for repulsive interactions of atomic electrons with the cavity environment. Moreover, in the limit of a large box size R ≫ aB the regime of an atom, soaring over a plane with boundary condition of "not going out", is reproduced, rather than a spherically symmetric configuration, which would be expected on the basis of the initial SO(3) symmetry of the problem.

  2. Spontaneous Heterotopic Triplet Pregnancy With Tubal Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Arsala MBBS, BBMedSci


    Full Text Available The recent increase in heterotopic pregnancies has been largely attributed to the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies. We report the rare case of a multiparous woman with a spontaneous conception resulting in a triplet heterotopic pregnancy: a twin intrauterine pregnancy and a single right tubal ectopic pregnancy. Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in which simultaneous gestations occur at 2 or more implantation sites. It is infrequent in natural conception cycles, occurring in 1:30 000 pregnancies. However, the prevalence is rising with the increased use of assisted reproduction techniques to that of 1:100 to 1:500 in these patient subgroups, highlighting the need to incorporate it into a clinician’s diagnostic algorithm.

  3. Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greyson, N.D.; Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.


    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using 99 /sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase

  4. Spontaneous closure of midline diastema following frenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koora Kiran


    Full Text Available Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and early permanent dentitions. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenical factors. Many innovative therapies varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomies and orthodontics are available. Although literature says every frenectomy procedure should be preceded by orthodontic treatment, we opted for frenectomy technique without any orthodontic intervention. Presented herewith is a case report of a 9-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. A spontaneous closure of the midline diastema was noted within 2 months following frenectomy. The patient was followed up for 4 months after which the space remained closed and there was no necessity for an orthodontic treatment at a later stage.

  5. Glioblastoma Multiforme Presenting as Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Ozdol


    Full Text Available Brain tumors with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage are rarely encountered. Hemorrhage as the initial presentation of a brain tumour may pose some diagnostic problems, especially if the tumour is small or the hemorrhage is abundant. We present a 47-year-old man who admitted to the emergency department with sudden onset headache, right blurred vision and gait disturbance. A non-contrast cranial computerized tomography scan performed immediately after his admission revealed a well circumscribed right occipitoparietal haematoma with intense peripheral edema causing compression of the ipsilateral ventricles. On 6th hour of his admission the patient%u2019s neurological status deteriorated and he subsequently underwent emergent craniotomy and microsurgical evacuation of the haematoma. The histopathological examination of the mass was consistent with a glioblastoma multiforme. Neoplasms may be hidden behind each case of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Histological sampling and investigation is mandatory in the presence of preoperative radiological features suggesting a neoplasm.

  6. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises


    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model. (United States)

    Smirne, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo


    Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is the most refined and studied among collapse models. A well-known problem of this model, and of similar ones, is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we present the dissipative version of the CSL model, which guarantees a finite energy during the entire system's evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a non-linear stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise. The possibility to introduce dissipation within collapse models in a consistent way will have relevant impact on the experimental investigations of the CSL model, and therefore also on the testability of the quantum superposition principle.

  8. Effects of a Classroom Intervention with Spatial Play Materials on Children's Object and Viewer Transformation Abilities (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M.; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle


    Children practice their spatial skills when playing with spatial toys, such as construction materials, board games, and puzzles. Sex and SES differences are observed in the engagement in such spatial play activities at home, which relate to individual differences in spatial performance. The current study investigated the effects of explicitly…

  9. Spontaneous activity in peripheral diaphragmatic lymphatic loops. (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela


    The spontaneous contractility of FITC-dextran-filled lymphatics at the periphery of the pleural diaphragm was documented for the first time "in vivo" in anesthetized Wistar rats. We found that lymphatic segments could be divided into four phenotypes: 1) active, displaying rhythmic spontaneous contractions (51.8% of 197 analyzed sites); 2) stretch-activated, whose contraction was triggered by passive distension of the vessel lumen (4.1%); 3) passive, which displayed a completely passive distension (4.5%); and 4) inert, whose diameter never changed over time (39.6%). Smooth muscle actin was detected by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in the vessel walls of active but also of inert sites, albeit with a very different structure within the vessel wall. Indeed, while in active segments, actin was arranged in a dense mesh completely surrounding the lumen, in inert segments actin decorated the vessels wall in sparse longitudinal strips. When located nearby along the same lymphatic loop, active, stretch-activated, and passive sites were always recruited in temporal sequence starting from the active contraction. The time delay was ∼0.35 s between active and stretch-activated and 0.54 s between stretch-activated and passive segments, promoting a uniform lymph flux of ∼150/200 pl/min. We conclude that, unlike more central diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels, loops located at the extreme diaphragmatic periphery do require an intrinsic pumping mechanism to propel lymph centripetally, and that such an active lymph propulsion is attained by means of a complex interplay among sites whose properties differ but are indeed able to organize lymph flux in an ordered fashion.

  10. Risk factors for recurrent spontaneous epistaxis. (United States)

    Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H


    To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. High-precision measurement of the temperature of methanol and ethanol droplets using spontaneous Raman scattering (United States)

    Müller, T.; Grünefeld, G.; Beushausen, V.

    The temperature of liquid methanol and ethanol is demonstrated to be determined by a non-intrusive laser technique in sprays. The method is based on spontaneous Raman scattering, namely the shape and spectral position of the OH stretching band, which is temperature dependent. The accuracy achieved in this way is about +/-2 °C. Thus, it could be applied to precise evaporation studies in sprays. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that this technique can be performed with moderate spectral resolution, although the spectral shape of a Raman line used for temperature determination. Hence, several other vibrational Raman lines can be recorded simultaneously along a line by using a spatially resolving optical multichannel analyzer. This yields the possibility to obtain additional spatially resolved information, e.g., air/fuel ratio, vapour/liquid mass fraction, or gas temperature, simultaneously.

  12. String dynamics, spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry, and dual scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxin


    The dynamics of a vortex string, which describes the Nambu-Goldstone modes of the spontaneous breakdown of the target space D=4, N=1 supersymmetry and internal U(1) R symmetry to the world sheet ISO(1,1) symmetry, is constructed by using the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting action describing the low energy oscillations of the string into the covolume (super)space is found to have an invariant synthesis form of the Akulov-Volkov and Nambu-Goto actions. Its dual scalar field action is obtained by means of introducing two vectorial Lagrangian multipliers into the action of the string.

  13. Analysis of spontaneous deletions and gene amplification in the lac region of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, A.M.; Hofer, M.; Calos, M.P.; Tlsty, T.D.; Miller, J.H.


    Spontaneous rearrangements, such as large deletions and duplications, have important implications for the structure of the genome. It is therefore of great interest to analyze these events at the molecular level. We have constructed derivatives of a lacI-Z fusion strain, which allow us to study deletions in a more systematic manner than was previously possible. These derivatives have been used to investigate how frequently larger deletions (> 700 bp) occur between short homologies on both recA and recA - strains and to determine the effect of the lengths of the short homologies and of the distance between homologies on the frequency of deletion formation. 38 references, 11 figures

  14. Disturbances of spontaneous empathic processing relate with the severity of the negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: a behavioural pilot-study using virtual reality technology. (United States)

    Thirioux, Bérangère; Tandonnet, Louis; Jaafari, Nematollah; Berthoz, Alain


    Behavioural and neuroimaging data have recently pointed out that empathy (feeling into someone else) is associated with mental imagery and transformation related to one's and other's visuo-spatial perspectives. Impairments of both empathic and visuo-spatial abilities have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Especially, it has been suggested that schizophrenics are altered in spontaneously simulating another individual's first-person experience. However, there is so far only little evidence regarding the relationship between deficits in empathy and disturbances in spontaneous heterocentered coding in schizophrenia. In the present pilot-study, we tested with schizophrenic patients our behavioural paradigm that enables to measure from the bodily postures and movements whether individuals in ecologically more valid conditions are interacting with another individual by using egocentered - as in sympathy (feeling with someone else) - or heterocentered - as in empathy - visuo-spatial mechanisms. For that, ten patients and ten controls, standing and moving, interacted with a virtual tightrope walker, displayed life-sized, standing and moving as well. We show that patients with higher negative symptoms had, in most cases, deficits in spontaneously using heterocentered visuo-spatial mechanisms and employed preferentially an egocentered referencing to interact with the avatar. In contrast, preserved spontaneous heterocentered visuo-spatial strategies were not linked to a prevailing negative or positive symptomatology. Our data suggest that the severity of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia relates with disturbances of spontaneous ("on-line") empathic processing in association with lower scoring self-reported trait cognitive empathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Spontaneous trait inference and spontaneous trait transference are both unaffected by prior evaluations of informants. (United States)

    Zengel, Bettina; Ambler, James K; McCarthy, Randy J; Skowronski, John J


    This article reports results from a study in which participants encountered either (a) previously known informants who were positive (e.g. Abraham Lincoln), neutral (e.g., Jay Leno), or negative (e.g., Adolf Hitler), or (b) previously unknown informants. The informants ostensibly described either a trait-implicative positive behavior, a trait-implicative negative behavior, or a neutral behavior. These descriptions were framed as either the behavior of the informant or the behavior of another person. Results yielded evidence of informant-trait linkages for both self-informants and for informants who described another person. These effects were not moderated by informant type, behavior valence, or the congruency or incongruency between the prior knowledge of the informant and the behavior valence. Results are discussed in terms of theories of Spontaneous Trait Inference and Spontaneous Trait Transference.

  16. Computational Account of Spontaneous Activity as a Signature of Predictive Coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Koren


    Full Text Available Spontaneous activity is commonly observed in a variety of cortical states. Experimental evidence suggested that neural assemblies undergo slow oscillations with Up ad Down states even when the network is isolated from the rest of the brain. Here we show that these spontaneous events can be generated by the recurrent connections within the network and understood as signatures of neural circuits that are correcting their internal representation. A noiseless spiking neural network can represent its input signals most accurately when excitatory and inhibitory currents are as strong and as tightly balanced as possible. However, in the presence of realistic neural noise and synaptic delays, this may result in prohibitively large spike counts. An optimal working regime can be found by considering terms that control firing rates in the objective function from which the network is derived and then minimizing simultaneously the coding error and the cost of neural activity. In biological terms, this is equivalent to tuning neural thresholds and after-spike hyperpolarization. In suboptimal working regimes, we observe spontaneous activity even in the absence of feed-forward inputs. In an all-to-all randomly connected network, the entire population is involved in Up states. In spatially organized networks with local connectivity, Up states spread through local connections between neurons of similar selectivity and take the form of a traveling wave. Up states are observed for a wide range of parameters and have similar statistical properties in both active and quiescent state. In the optimal working regime, Up states are vanishing, leaving place to asynchronous activity, suggesting that this working regime is a signature of maximally efficient coding. Although they result in a massive increase in the firing activity, the read-out of spontaneous Up states is in fact orthogonal to the stimulus representation, therefore interfering minimally with the network

  17. Very long spatial and temporal spontaneous coherence of 2D polariton condensates across the parametric threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spano, R.; Cuadra, J.; Lingg, C.


    , and a relative large beam area (∅~50 μm) to obtain a true 2D condensate. Its coherence properties are measured with a Michelson interferometer. A finite correlation length is measured at an energy δE=-0.19 meV from the parametric threshold, as shown in Fig. 1(A). Once the threshold is reached, by changing...

  18. Spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry in the complex Coulomb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry; Coulomb potential; complex en- ergy eigenvalues. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 03.65.Nk; 11.30.Er. 1. Introduction. One of the most intriguing features of PT -symmetric quantum mechanics is the spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry. This phenomenon was noted in the first.

  19. Safety of Oral Clemastine – Analysis of Data from Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    event reporting system. Methods: We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on ... existing spontaneous monitoring system for adverse effects in Poland may not be sensitive enough and therefore, needs improvement. ... which is based on current EU legislation. As part.

  20. Spontaneous splenic rupture in pregnancy: a case report | Makwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous splenic rupture in pregnancy is a rare condition, associated with very high maternal mortality rate and fetal wastage. It is frequently misdiagnosed at presentation. We report a case of a 33-year-old, gravida 2, para 1 lady at 29 weeks' gestation with spontaneous splenic rupture, which was initially diagnosed as ...

  1. Spontaneous massive vulva swelling in pregnancy: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous massive vulva edema is not common during pregnancy, but its presence possesses management challenges with significant patient anxiety and discomfort. We report a case of spontaneous vulva edema in a 24-year old primigravida at 28 weeks gestational age havingtwin gestation, with one anaecephalyand ...

  2. Safety of Oral Clemastine – Analysis of Data from Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyse the safety of oral clemastine marketed in Poland based on spontaneous adverse event reporting system. Methods: We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on the adverse effects of Clemastinum Hasco tablets (1.0 mg) and Clemastinum Hasco syrup (0.1 ...

  3. Spontaneous vortex phase (SVP) of ruthenocuprate high Tc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RuSr2(RE1.5Ce0.5)Cu2O10, has given rise to the concept of spontaneous vortex phase (SVP). In these compounds, the magnetic ordering temperature (Tmag >. 100 K) is higher than the superconducting transition temperature (Tc ~ 30 K). Hence, due to internal magnetic fields, these compounds remain in a spontaneous.

  4. Spontaneous infected biloma: case report | Kimani | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biloma is defined as any collection of bile outside the biliary tree. It mainly results from surgical complications and abdominal trauma. Spontaneous biloma is extremely rare and is occasionally associated with choledocholithiasis. This report describes a case of spontaneous biloma diagnosed radiologically and confirmed at ...

  5. Spontaneous rupture: An uncommon complication of ventral hernia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Literature is scarce about spontaneous rupture of hernia because spontaneous rupture of here is uncommon (1). Reported cases are complications of incisional hernias, recurrent inguinal hernia, and umbilical hernias. It is potentially life threatening (1) because the ensuing entrapment and tension on ...

  6. A comparison of spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal according to the rank. To estimate the spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal, both crossing-point temperature (CPT) measurement and gas analysis by using gas chromatography (GC) were performed. For the experiment, Ihuoma coal, Orlu ...

  7. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin


    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases; thi...

  8. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amany Talaat Kamal


    Feb 29, 2012 ... [13] Terg R, Fassio E, Guevara M. Ciprofloxacin in primary prophy- laxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a randomized, placebo controlled study. J Hepatol 2008;48(5):774–9. [14] Akriviadis EA, Runyon BA. Utility of an algorithm in differen- tiating spontaneous from secondary bacterial peritonitis. Gastro ...

  9. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca


    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous...

  10. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin


    by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point...

  11. Spontaneous herniation of the thoracic spinal cord : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sung Chan; Lee, Seong Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin


    Spontaneous herniation of the spinal cord is a rare disease entity in which spinal cord substance is herniated through a previously uninjured and/or untouched dural. It is a cause of myelopathy that is treatable but difficult to diagnose. We report the CT and MR findings of a case of spontaneous thoracic spinal cord through a dural defect

  12. Spontaneous perforation by pyometra — an acute emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous perforation by pyometra — an acute emergency. B Gupta, R Agarwal, G Radhakrishnan. Abstract. Accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity is termed pyometra and has an incidence of 0.1 - 0.5%.1 We report a case of spontaneous pyometra rupture with subsequent peritonitis. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  13. A Rare Case of Peritonitis Following Spontaneous Rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chan LY, Yu VS, HO LC, Lok YH, Hui SK. Spontaneous uterine perforation of pyometra. A report of three cases. J Reprod Med 2000;45:857-60. 5. Bostofte E, Legarth J. Spontaneous perforation of pyometra with diffuse peritonitis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1981;60:511-2. 6. Nakao A, Mimura H, Fujisawa K. Generalized ...

  14. Computed Tomography Features of Spontaneously Perforated Pyometra: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Tan, C.K.; Mak, C.W.; Chia, C.C.; Kuo, C.Y.; Yu, W.L. [Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China). Depts. of Intensive Care Medicine, Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Surgery


    Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is an extremely rare emergent gynecologic disease. We report a 73-year-old woman with a spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with acute abdomen in the emergency department. A dedicated computed tomography examination of the abdominal and pelvic regions revealed the diagnosis. The patient recovered well after surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.

  15. Spontaneous resolution of post-traumatic chronic subdural hematoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we present a case of spontaneously resolved post-traumatic bilateral chronic subdural hematoma within a period of one month in a 55-year-old male and we discuss the probable mechanisms of pathophysiology in the spontaneous resolution of chronic subdural hematoma. Keywords: Antiaggregation therapy, chronic ...

  16. Spontaneity and Equilibrium III: A History of Misinformation (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    Necessary and sufficient criteria for reaction spontaneity in a given direction and for spontaneity of finite transformations in single-reaction, closed systems are developed. The criteria are general in that they hold for reactions conducted under either conditions of constant T and p or constant T and V. These results are illustrated using a…

  17. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T


    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  18. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik


    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During...

  19. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  20. Two Cases of Subdural Hematoma in Spontaneous CSF Hypovolemia


    島谷, 佳光; 井戸川, 美帆; 阿部, 剛典; 仁平, 敦子; 溝渕, 雅広; 佐光, 一也; 田中, 千春


    Two cases of subdural hematoma in spontaneous CSF hypovolemia. The typical orthostatic features were replaced by continuous, nonpositional headache. MEI showed subdural hematoma. These cases emphasize that spontaneous CSF hypovolemia is not an entirely benign condition and that subudural hematoma may accompany persistent intracranial hypotension.

  1. Spontaneous Uterine Rupture during Pregnancy: Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient. The case was managed at the University Teaching Hospital of Yaounde (Cameroon). She had past history of ...

  2. Spontaneous Activity Drives Local Synaptic Plasticity In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Johan; Cheyne, Juliette E; Niculescu, Dragos; Lohmann, C.


    Spontaneous activity fine-tunes neuronal connections in the developing brain. To explore the underlying synaptic plasticity mechanisms, we monitored naturally occurring changes in spontaneous activity at individual synapses with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous calcium imaging in

  3. Spatial Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Mamoulis, Nikos


    Spatial database management deals with the storage, indexing, and querying of data with spatial features, such as location and geometric extent. Many applications require the efficient management of spatial data, including Geographic Information Systems, Computer Aided Design, and Location Based Services. The goal of this book is to provide the reader with an overview of spatial data management technology, with an emphasis on indexing and search techniques. It first introduces spatial data models and queries and discusses the main issues of extending a database system to support spatial data.

  4. Innovative rock bed construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.


    A general discussion of the use of rock beds for heating and cooling thermal storage is particularized for design and construction in Phoenix, Arizona. The rock bed parameters for three two-story condominium apartments constructed in 1982 are discussed, including sizing criteria and original construction details. A revised construction method using gabions that are self-supporting chain link cylinders provided a much more economical construction method as well as other advantages of speed and structural flexibility.

  5. Light-front quantized field theory (an introduction): spontaneous symmetry breaking. Phase transition in φ4 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Prem P.


    The Dirac procedure is used to construct the Hamiltonian formulation of the scalar field theory on the light-front. The theory is quantized and the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the front form and the instant form dynamics are compared. The phase transition in (φ 4 )2 theory is also discussed and found to be of the second order. (author). 36 refs

  6. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology. (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva


    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  7. The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition. (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Jacoby, Larry L; Thomas, Ruthann C; Balota, David A


    Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words followed by recognition judgments on stimuli with an old or new word superimposed over an old or new picture. Participants were instructed to make their recognition decision on either the picture or word and to ignore the distracting stimulus. Spontaneous recognition was measured as the influence of old vs. new distracters on target recognition. Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-attention younger adults. The occurrence of spontaneous recognition is discussed in relation to ability to constrain retrieval to goal-relevant information.

  8. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin


    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases......; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence...... of therapy, which is considered inadequate to exert a significant influence on neoplastic disease. The incidence of spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma is approximately one per 400 patients, and possible mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and tumour nutritional...

  9. Spontaneous mutation rates and the rate-doubling dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Borstel, R.C.; Moustaccki, E.; Latarjet, R.


    The amount of radiation required to double the frequency of mutations or tumours over the rate of those that occur spontaneously is called the rate-doubling dose. An equivalent concept has been proposed for exposure to other environmental mutagens. The doubling dose concept is predicated on the assumption that all human populations have the same spontaneous mutation rate, and that this spontaneous mutation rate is known. It is now established for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that numerous genes control the spontaneous mutation rate, and it is likely that the same is true for human cells as well. Given that the accepted mode of evolution of human populatons is from small, isolated groups of individuals, it seems likely that each population would have a different spontaneous mutation rate. Given that a minimum of twenty genes control or affect the spontaneous mutation rate, and that each of these in turn is susceptible to spontaneously arising or environmentally induced mutations, it seems likely that every individual within a population (except for siblings from identical multiple births) will have a unique spontaneous mutation rate. If each individual in a population does have a different spontaneous mutation rate, the doubling dose concept, in rigorous terms, is fallacious. Therefore, as with other concepts of risk evaluation, the doubling dose concept is subject to criticism. Nevertheless, until we know individual spontaneous mutation rates with precision, and can evaluate risks based on this information, the doubling dose concept has a heuristic value and is needed for practical assessment of risks for defined populations. (author)

  10. Integrating spatial and numerical structure in mathematical patterning (United States)

    Ni’mah, K.; Purwanto; Irawan, E. B.; Hidayanto, E.


    This paper reports a study monitoring the integrating spatial and numerical structure in mathematical patterning skills of 30 students grade 7th of junior high school. The purpose of this research is to clarify the processes by which learners construct new knowledge in mathematical patterning. Findings indicate that: (1) students are unable to organize the structure of spatial and numerical, (2) students were only able to organize the spatial structure, but the numerical structure is still incorrect, (3) students were only able to organize numerical structure, but its spatial structure is still incorrect, (4) students were able to organize both of the spatial and numerical structure.

  11. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons (United States)

    Löffler, W.; Eliel, E. R.; Woerdman, J. P.; Euser, T. G.; Scharrer, M.; Russell, P.


    High-dimensional entangled photons pairs are interesting for quantum information and cryptography: Compared to the well-known 2D polarization case, the stronger non-local quantum correlations could improve noise resistance or security, and the larger amount of information per photon increases the available bandwidth. One implementation is to use entanglement in the spatial degree of freedom of twin photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion, which is equivalent to orbital angular momentum entanglement, this has been proven to be an excellent model system. The use of optical fiber technology for distribution of such photons has only very recently been practically demonstrated and is of fundamental and applied interest. It poses a big challenge compared to the established time and frequency domain methods: For spatially entangled photons, fiber transport requires the use of multimode fibers, and mode coupling and intermodal dispersion therein must be minimized not to destroy the spatial quantum correlations. We demonstrate that these shortcomings of conventional multimode fibers can be overcome by using a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which follows the paradigm to mimic free-space transport as good as possible, and are able to confirm entanglement of the fiber-transported photons. Fiber transport of spatially entangled photons is largely unexplored yet, therefore we discuss the main complications, the interplay of intermodal dispersion and mode mixing, the influence of external stress and core deformations, and consider the pros and cons of various fiber types.

  12. Spatial dynamics of ecological public goods. (United States)

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Nowak, Martin A; Hauert, Christoph


    The production, consumption, and exploitation of common resources ranging from extracellular products in microorganisms to global issues of climate change refer to public goods interactions. Individuals can cooperate and sustain common resources at some cost or defect and exploit the resources without contributing. This generates a conflict of interest, which characterizes social dilemmas: Individual selection favors defectors, but for the community, it is best if everybody cooperates. Traditional models of public goods do not take into account that benefits of the common resource enable cooperators to maintain higher population densities. This leads to a natural feedback between population dynamics and interaction group sizes as captured by "ecological public goods." Here, we show that the spatial evolutionary dynamics of ecological public goods in "selection-diffusion" systems promotes cooperation based on different types of pattern formation processes. In spatial settings, individuals can migrate (diffuse) to populate new territories. Slow diffusion of cooperators fosters aggregation in highly productive patches (activation), whereas fast diffusion enables defectors to readily locate and exploit these patches (inhibition). These antagonistic forces promote coexistence of cooperators and defectors in static or dynamic patterns, including spatial chaos of ever-changing configurations. The local environment of cooperators and defectors is shaped by the production or consumption of common resources. Hence, diffusion-induced self-organization into spatial patterns not only enhances cooperation but also provides simple mechanisms for the spontaneous generation of habitat diversity, which denotes a crucial determinant of the viability of ecological systems.

  13. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization. (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Vercillo, Tiziana; Sandini, Giulio; Burr, David


    Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014). To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback, or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject's forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially congruent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.

  14. Tactile feedback improves auditory spatial localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori


    Full Text Available Our recent studies suggest that congenitally blind adults have severely impaired thresholds in an auditory spatial-bisection task, pointing to the importance of vision in constructing complex auditory spatial maps (Gori et al., 2014. To explore strategies that may improve the auditory spatial sense in visually impaired people, we investigated the impact of tactile feedback on spatial auditory localization in 48 blindfolded sighted subjects. We measured auditory spatial bisection thresholds before and after training, either with tactile feedback, verbal feedback or no feedback. Audio thresholds were first measured with a spatial bisection task: subjects judged whether the second sound of a three sound sequence was spatially closer to the first or the third sound. The tactile-feedback group underwent two audio-tactile feedback sessions of 100 trials, where each auditory trial was followed by the same spatial sequence played on the subject’s forearm; auditory spatial bisection thresholds were evaluated after each session. In the verbal-feedback condition, the positions of the sounds were verbally reported to the subject after each feedback trial. The no-feedback group did the same sequence of trials, with no feedback. Performance improved significantly only after audio-tactile feedback. The results suggest that direct tactile feedback interacts with the auditory spatial localization system, possibly by a process of cross-sensory recalibration. Control tests with the subject rotated suggested that this effect occurs only when the tactile and acoustic sequences are spatially coherent. Our results suggest that the tactile system can be used to recalibrate the auditory sense of space. These results encourage the possibility of designing rehabilitation programs to help blind persons establish a robust auditory sense of space, through training with the tactile modality.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eOccelli


    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences (cognitive style on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4x4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ. Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches.

  16. Loss of form vision impairs spatial imagery. (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Lin, Jonathan B; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K


    Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences ("cognitive style") on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4 × 4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS) and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ). Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches.

  17. Spatial Deixis in Chiwere. (United States)

    Hopkins, Jill D.


    This paper examines spatial deixis in Chiwere (Siouan) in the framework of two theories of deixis. Denny (1978) attempts to define a set of distinctive features for spatial deixis, while Rauh (1983) uses spatial deixis as a template for organizing all deictic dimensions. Chiwere data suggest language and dimension specific expansion of both…

  18. Spatial Language Learning (United States)

    Fu, Zhengling


    Spatial language constitutes part of the basic fabric of language. Although languages may have the same number of terms to cover a set of spatial relations, they do not always do so in the same way. Spatial languages differ across languages quite radically, thus providing a real semantic challenge for second language learners. The essay first…

  19. Design and implementation of distributed spatial computing node based on WPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liping; Li, Guoqing; Xie, Jibo


    Currently, the research work of SIG (Spatial Information Grid) technology mostly emphasizes on the spatial data sharing in grid environment, while the importance of spatial computing resources is ignored. In order to implement the sharing and cooperation of spatial computing resources in grid environment, this paper does a systematical research of the key technologies to construct Spatial Computing Node based on the WPS (Web Processing Service) specification by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). And a framework of Spatial Computing Node is designed according to the features of spatial computing resources. Finally, a prototype of Spatial Computing Node is implemented and the relevant verification work under the environment is completed

  20. Spontaneous breakdown and the scalar nonet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scadron, M.D.


    In the context of the QCD quark model and on the basis of dynamical Bethe-Salpeter ladder graphs, we suggest that (i) the existence of the scalar q-barq hadron multiplet, like the pseudoscalar q-barq multiplet, is a direct consequence of dynamical spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry with a chiral-limiting nonstrange mass scale of m/sub sigmaNS//sup CL/ = 2m/sub dyn/ roughly-equal630 MeV, (ii) the lifting of the nonstrange sigma-delta degeneracy is expected from the s-wave quark-gluon annihilation diagram, and (iii) the observed sigma-S* mixing follows from the existence of the p-wave scalar quark-annihilation diagram. The resulting predicted 0q-barq nonet is then sigma(750 MeV), kappa(800), S*(980), and delta(985), in agreement with data for the resonant masses, the mixing angle, and also decay widths except for the kappa(800).

  1. Enhancement of Pleasure during Spontaneous Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò F. Bernardi


    Full Text Available Dancing emphasizes the motor expression of emotional experiences. The bodily expression of emotions can modulate the subjective experience of emotions, as when adopting emotion-specific postures and faces. Thus, dancing potentially offers a ground for emotional coping through emotional enhancement and regulation. Here we investigated the emotional responses to music in individuals without any prior dance training while they either freely danced or refrained from movement. Participants were also tested while imitating their own dance movements but in the absence of music as a control condition. Emotional ratings and cardio-respiratory measures were collected following each condition. Dance movements were recorded using motion capture. We found that emotional valence was increased specifically during spontaneous dance of groovy excerpts, compared to both still listening and motor imitation. Furthermore, parasympathetic-related heart rate variability (HRV increased during dance compared to motor imitation. Nevertheless, subjective and physiological arousal increased during movement production, regardless of whether participants were dancing or imitating. Significant correlations were found between inter-individual differences in the emotions experienced during dance and whole-body acceleration profiles. The combination of movement and music during dance results in a distinct state characterized by acutely heightened pleasure, which is of potential interest for the use of dance in therapeutic settings.

  2. Sync the emerging science of spontaneous order

    CERN Document Server

    Strogatz, Steven


    At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat, the sound of cycles in sync. Along the tidal rivers of Malaysia, thousands of fireflies congregate and flash in unison; the moon spins in perfect resonance with its orbit around the earth; our hearts depend on the synchronous firing of ten thousand pacemaker cells. While the forces that synchronize the flashing of fireflies may seem to have nothing to do with our heart cells, there is in fact a deep connection. Synchrony is a science in its infancy, and Strogatz is a pioneer in this new frontier in which mathematicians and physicists attempt to pinpoint just how spontaneous order emerges from chaos. From underground caves in Texas where a French scientist spent six months alone tracking his sleep-wake cycle, to the home of a Dutch physicist who in 1665 discovered two of his pendulum clocks swinging in perfect time, this fascinating book spans disciplines, continents, and centuries. Engagingly written for readers of books such as Chaos and The Elegant ...

  3. Spontaneous Assembly of Exopolymers from Phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xue Ding


    Full Text Available Phytoplankton exopolymeric substances (EPS contribute significantly to the dissolved organic car bon (DOC pool in the ocean, playing crucial roles in the surface ocean car bon cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that ~10% of marine DOC can self-assemble as microgels through electro static Ca bonds providing hotspots of enriched microbial substrate. How ever, the question whether EPS can self-assemble and the formation mechanisms for EPS microgels have not been examined. Here were port that EPS from three representative phytoplankton species, Synechococcus, Emiliania huxleyi, and Skeletonema costatum can spontaneously self assemble in artificial sea water (ASW, forming microscopic gels of ~ 3 - 4 __m in diameter. Different from the marine DOC polymers assembly, these EPS samples can self-assemble in Ca2+-free ASW. Further experiments from fluorescence enhancement and chemical composition analysis confirmed the existence of fair amounts of hydrophobic domains in these EPS samples. These results suggest that hydrophobic interactions play a key role in the assembly of EPS from these three species of marine phytoplankton.

  4. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.N.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.


    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x10 9 n/cm 2 s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x10 3 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  5. Spontaneously settled refugees in Northwestern Province, Zambia. (United States)

    Freund, P J; Kalumba, K


    The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) commissioned researchers from the University of Zambia to conduct a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia in 1982. The sample consisted of 188 Angolans, 201 Zaireans, and 2 South Africans. The difficulties experienced by refugees in Northwestern Province in achieving integration were related to a combination of factors including the lack of a clear national policy on refugees and refugee status, a national concern for maintaining security, the popular belief that aliens are responsible for an increasing crime rate, the desire by immigration officials for stricter laws to control alien infiltration, conflict between traditional and modern leaders, and Zambia's deteriorating economic situation. In spite of the problems described, the integration of refugees into existing communities is a desirable goal and should be encouraged. One should not assume that self-settling refugees are able to live with ethnic kin, receive assistance and hospitality, and thus are better off than those in camps. The Zambian case provides ample evidence that integration is not easy even with kin support, shared ethnicity, language, and historical connections. Moreover, given the fact that Zambia will continue to receive refugees it is vital that there is a well defined refugee policy and an administrative mechanism for implementing that policy at all levels. This will be particularly important in Zambia as it will undoubtedly continue to receive large influxes of refugees, from countries such as Namibia, Uganda, Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa.

  6. Self-completeness and spontaneous dimensional reduction (United States)

    Mureika, Jonas; Nicolini, Piero


    A viable quantum theory of gravity is one of the biggest challenges physicists are facing. We discuss the confluence of two highly expected features which might be instrumental in the quest of a finite and renormalizable quantum gravity —spontaneous dimensional reduction and self-completeness. The former suggests the spacetime background at the Planck scale may be effectively two-dimensional, while the latter implies a condition of maximal compression of matter by the formation of an event horizon for Planckian scattering. We generalize such a result to an arbitrary number of dimensions, and show that gravity in higher than four dimensions remains self-complete, but in lower dimensions it does not. In such a way we established an "exclusive disjunction" or "exclusive or" (XOR) between the occurrence of self-completeness and dimensional reduction, with the goal of actually reducing the unknowns for the scenario of the physics at the Planck scale. Potential phenomenological implications of this result are considered by studying the case of a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model resulting from dimensional reduction of the Einstein gravity.

  7. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Diagnosis and Management. (United States)

    Yeo, Ilhwan; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Kim, Luke K


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-iatrogenic and non-traumatic separation of the coronary arterial wall. While SCAD represents an important cause of myocardial infarction, optimal diagnostic and therapeutic options remain challenging. We sought to review recent studies and provide an update on diagnosis and management of SCAD. Coronary angiography is the first-line diagnostic modality for SCAD, with three angiographic features commonly observed in SCAD: type 1 (pathognomonic angiographic appearance with contrast staining of the arterial wall), type 2 (long coronary stenosis), and type 3 (focal tubular stenosis). In addition, adjunctive intracoronary imaging can aid in identifying coronary dissections. Conservative management with beta-blockers and aspirin remains the mainstay of therapy. However, patients with high-risk features and recurrent symptoms may require revascularization. Several techniques have been reported, such as long stents to seal the entire length of the dissection, stepwise stenting starting at the distal edge followed by proximal edge stenting, use of bioabsorbable stents, and cutting balloon angioplasty. Furthermore, cardiac rehabilitation appears to be safe and offers significant benefits for patients with SCAD. Coronary angiographic classification contributed to the increased recognition of SCAD in recent years. Selecting the most suitable and appropriate therapy based on accurate diagnosis is the cornerstone of management in SCAD. Further studies are needed to establish optimal treatment of SCAD depending on anatomical and/or clinical features.

  8. Spontaneous Cervical Artery Dissection: The Borgess Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas eAl-Ali


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground and Purpose: The pathogenesis of spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD and its best medical treatment are debated. This may be due to a lack of clear classification of sCAD. We propose the new Borgess classification of sCAD, based on the presence or absence of intimal tear as depicted on imaging studies and effect on blood flow. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center investigator-initiated registry on consecutive patients treated for sCAD. In the Borgess classification, type I dissections have intact intima and type II dissections have an intimal tear. Results: Forty-four patients and 52 dissected arteries were found. Forty-nine of 52 dissections (93% were treated with dual anti-platelet therapy. Twenty-one of 52 dissections were type I; 31 were type II. Type I dissections were more likely to present with ischemic symptoms (stroke, TIA (p=0.001. More type I dissections occurred in the vertebral artery, while more type II dissections occurred in the internal carotid artery (p

  9. Current management of spontaneous coronary artery dissection. (United States)

    Bastante, Teresa; Cuesta, Javier; García-Guimaraes, Marcos; Rivero, Fernando; Maruri, Ramon; Adlan, David; Alfonso, Fernando


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) remains an infrequent and elusive clinical entity of unknown etiology. However, our knowledge of SCAD has been significantly enriched in recent years. Large and prospective contemporary series have increased the interest in this disease with fewer patients misdiagnosed and a growing number of cases recognized in daily clinical practice. Classically, SCAD was thought to present mainly in young women without traditional atherosclerotic risk factors but, actually, most patients are middle-aged and are not free from coronary risk factors. A high number of associated conditions have been reported. Of these, fibromuscular dysplasia emerges as a major association with intriguing pathophysiological implications. Areas covered: This review aims to present a contemporary update on SCAD. We concentrate on the clinical scenario, related conditions, practical management and treatment strategies. Expert commentary: Recognition of SCAD is currently much more frequent and accurate as a result of increased clinical awareness and the widespread use of intravascular imaging techniques. Hopefully, in the near future an improvement in the management of SCAD patients will come not only from empirical evidence but also from dedicated clinical trials.

  10. Clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MICH. Methods Conservative therapy, puncture and drainage, hematoma removal and/or decompressive craniectomy were used in the treatment of 630 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH patients, who were divided into 2 groups: 30 cases with MICH and another 600 cases with solitary intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH. Three months after onset, modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to evaluate the prognosis of all cases. Results Compared with patients in SICH group, the occurrence rate of hypertension > 5 years (P = 0.008, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.024, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.050 and previous ischemic stroke (P = 0.026 were all significantly higher in MICH group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP level (P = 0.002 and the incidence of limb movement disorder (P = 0.000 were significantly higher in patients with MICH than those with SICH. Basal ganglia and thalamus were the predilection sites of hematoma (P = 0.001. Patients with MICH had worse prognosis compared to those with SICH 3 months after onset (P = 0.006. Conclusions Hypertension > 5 years, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and ischemic stroke were identified to be the pathophysiological basis of MICH in this study. All patients with MICH had more serious clinical manifestations after onset and worse prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.008

  11. Spontaneous canine hydrocephalus: cerebrospinal fluid dynamics1 (United States)

    Sahar, A.; Hochwald, G. M.; Kay, W. J.; Ransohoff, J.


    Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics were studied in 14 dogs with spontaneous hydrocephalus. In nine of the dogs aqueductal obstruction was observed and the remainder had a `communicating type' hydrocephalus. The major histological findings consisted of severe ependymal destruction, spongy changes in the periventricular white matter, increased density of capillaries in this area, and varying degrees of thickening, fibrosis, and fusion of the choroid villi. The formation and absorption of CSF were studied by perfusion of the cerebral ventricles. The rate of formation of CSF was found to decrease with perfusion pressure by Vf = 0·02595−0·00022 P ml./min (P = pressure in cm H2O). The absorption of spinal fluid was found to increase linearly with pressure by Va = 0·0165 + 0·00050 P. The various factors influencing the formation and absorption of the spinal fluid are discussed. The meaning and attainment of `arrest' of the hydrocephalic process in terms of the measured rates of CSF formation and absorption in these animals are considered. Images PMID:5571319

  12. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum with a Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bolvardi


    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an unusual and benign condition in which air is present in mediastinum. A 20-year-old male patient presented to ED with complaint of hoarseness and odynophagia from the day before, after weightlifting. The patient was nonsmoker and denied history of other diseases. On physical examination he had no dyspnea with normal vital signs. Throat examination and pulmonary auscultation were normal and no crepitation was palpable. We could not find subcutaneous emphysema in neck and chest examination. In neck and chest X-ray we found that air is present around the trachea. There was no apparent pneumothorax in CXR. In cervical and chest CT free air was present around trachea and in mediastinum. Subcutaneous emphysema was also evident. But there was no pneumothorax. The patient was admitted and went under close observation, oxygen therapy, and analgesic. The pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema gradually resolved within a week by conservative therapy and he was discharged without any complication. Many different conditions could be trigged because of pneumomediastinum but it is rarely seen in intense physical exertion such as weightlifting and bodybuilding. Two most common symptoms are retrosternal chest pain and dyspnea. But the patient here complained of hoarseness and odynophagia.

  13. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy]. (United States)

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil


    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Spontaneous Blinking from a Tribological Viewpoint. (United States)

    Pult, Heiko; Tosatti, Samuele G P; Spencer, Nicholas D; Asfour, Jean-Michel; Ebenhoch, Michael; Murphy, Paul J


    The mechanical forces between the lid wiper and the ocular surface, and between a contact lens and the lid wiper, are reported to be related to dry eye symptoms. Furthermore, the mechanical forces between these sliding partners are assumed to be related to the ocular signs of lid-wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) and lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF). Recent literature provides some evidence that a contact lens with a low coefficient of friction (CoF) improves wearing comfort by reducing the mechanical forces between the contact lens surface and the lid wiper. This review discusses the mechanical forces during spontaneous blinks from a tribological perspective, at both low and high sliding velocities, in a healthy subject. It concludes that the coefficient of friction of the ocular surfaces appears to be strongly comparable to that of hydrophilic polymer brushes at low sliding velocity, and that, with increased sliding velocity, there is no wear at the sliding partners' surfaces thanks to the presence of a fluid film between the two sliding partners. In contrast, in the case of dry eye, the failure to maintain a full fluid film lubrication regime at high blinking speeds may lead to increased shear rates, resulting in deformation and wear of the sliding pairs. These shear rates are most likely related to tear film viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement of Pleasure during Spontaneous Dance (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; Bellemare-Pepin, Antoine; Peretz, Isabelle


    Dancing emphasizes the motor expression of emotional experiences. The bodily expression of emotions can modulate the subjective experience of emotions, as when adopting emotion-specific postures and faces. Thus, dancing potentially offers a ground for emotional coping through emotional enhancement and regulation. Here we investigated the emotional responses to music in individuals without any prior dance training while they either freely danced or refrained from movement. Participants were also tested while imitating their own dance movements but in the absence of music as a control condition. Emotional ratings and cardio-respiratory measures were collected following each condition. Dance movements were recorded using motion capture. We found that emotional valence was increased specifically during spontaneous dance of groovy excerpts, compared to both still listening and motor imitation. Furthermore, parasympathetic-related heart rate variability (HRV) increased during dance compared to motor imitation. Nevertheless, subjective and physiological arousal increased during movement production, regardless of whether participants were dancing or imitating. Significant correlations were found between inter-individual differences in the emotions experienced during dance and whole-body acceleration profiles. The combination of movement and music during dance results in a distinct state characterized by acutely heightened pleasure, which is of potential interest for the use of dance in therapeutic settings. PMID:29238298

  16. Timing of spontaneous sleep-paralysis episodes. (United States)

    Girard, Todd A; Cheyne, J Allan


    The objective of this prospective naturalistic field study was to determine the distribution of naturally occurring sleep-paralysis (SP) episodes over the course of nocturnal sleep and their relation to bedtimes. Regular SP experiencers (N = 348) who had previously filled out a screening assessment for SP as well as a general sleep survey were recruited. Participants reported, online over the World Wide Web, using a standard reporting form, bedtimes and subsequent latencies of spontaneous episodes of SP occurring in their homes shortly after their occurrence. The distribution of SP episodes over nights was skewed to the first 2 h following bedtime. Just over one quarter of SP episodes occurred within 1 h of bedtime, although episodes were reported throughout the night with a minor mode around the time of normal waking. SP latencies following bedtimes were moderately consistent across episodes and independent of bedtimes. Additionally, profiles of SP latencies validated self-reported hypnagogic, hypnomesic, and hypnopompic SP categories, as occurring near the beginning, middle, and end of the night/sleep period respectively. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that SP timing is controlled by mechanisms initiated at or following sleep onset. These results also suggest that SP, rather than uniquely reflecting anomalous sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, may result from failure to maintain sleep during REM periods at any point during the sleep period. On this view, SP may sometimes reflect the maintenance of REM consciousness when waking and SP hallucinations the continuation of dream experiences into waking life.

  17. Lattice model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Fierro

    Full Text Available Individual behavioral response to the spreading of an epidemic plays a crucial role in the progression of the epidemic itself. The risk perception induces individuals to adopt a protective behavior, as for instance reducing their social contacts, adopting more restrictive hygienic measures or undergoing prophylaxis procedures. In this paper, starting with a previously developed lattice-gas SIR model, we construct a coupled behavior-disease model for influenza spreading with spontaneous behavioral changes. The focus is on self-initiated behavioral changes that alter the susceptibility to the disease, without altering the contact patterns among individuals. Three different mechanisms of awareness spreading are analyzed: the local spreading due to the presence in the neighborhood of infective individuals; the global spreading due to the news published by the mass media and to educational campaigns implemented at institutional level; the local spreading occurring through the "thought contagion" among aware and unaware individuals. The peculiarity of the present approach is that the awareness spreading model is calibrated on available data on awareness and concern of the population about the risk of contagion. In particular, the model is validated against the A(H1N1 epidemic outbreak in Italy during the 2009/2010 season, by making use of the awareness data gathered by the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (PASSI. We find that, increasing the accordance between the simulated awareness spreading and the PASSI data on risk perception, the agreement between simulated and experimental epidemiological data improves as well. Furthermore, we show that, within our model, the primary mechanism to reproduce a realistic evolution of the awareness during an epidemic, is the one due to globally available information. This result highlights how crucial is the role of mass media and educational campaigns in influencing the epidemic spreading of infectious

  18. Users as essential contributors to spatial cyberinfrastructures (United States)

    Poore, B.S.


    Current accounts of spatial cyberinfrastructure development tend to overemphasize technologies to the neglect of critical social and cultural issues on which adoption depends. Spatial cyberinfrastructures will have a higher chance of success if users of many types, including nonprofessionals, are made central to the development process. Recent studies in the history of infrastructures reveal key turning points and issues that should be considered in the development of spatial cyberinfrastructure projects. These studies highlight the importance of adopting qualitative research methods to learn how users work with data and digital tools, and how user communities form. The author's empirical research on data sharing networks in the Pacific Northwest salmon crisis at the turn of the 21st century demonstrates that ordinary citizens can contribute critical local knowledge to global databases and should be considered in the design and construction of spatial cyberinfrastructures.

  19. Do positive spontaneous thoughts function as incentive salience? (United States)

    Rice, Elise L; Fredrickson, Barbara L


    The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting. In Study 1, 103 adults recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk reported on key aspects of 10 everyday activities. As predicted, positive spontaneous thoughts mediated the relationship between liking an activity in the past and wanting to engage in it in the future. In Study 2, 99 undergraduate students viewed amusing and humorless cartoons and completed a thought-listing task, providing experimental evidence for the causal effect of liking on positive spontaneous thoughts. In Study 3, we tested whether positive spontaneous thoughts play an active role in energizing wanting rather than merely co-occurring with (inferred) incentive salience. In that experiment involving 80 undergraduates, participants who were led to believe that their spontaneous thoughts about a target activity were especially positive planned to devote more time to that activity over the coming week than participants who received no such information about their spontaneous thoughts. Collectively, these findings suggest that positive spontaneous thoughts may play an important role in shaping approach motivation. Broader implications and future directions in the study of positive spontaneous thoughts are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Spontaneous bacterial empyema in cirrhotic patients: analysis of eleven cases. (United States)

    Xiol, X; Castellote, J; Baliellas, C; Ariza, J; Gimenez Roca, A; Guardiola, J; Casais, L


    Eleven episodes of spontaneous bacterial empyema were identified in eight cirrhotic patients with ascites. Criteria for spontaneous bacterial empyema included positive pleural fluid culture or polymorphonuclear cell concentration greater than 500 cells/mm3, evidence of pleural effusion before an infectious episode and transudate characteristics during infection. In five cases, spontaneous bacterial empyema was culture-negative and was associated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Ascitic fluid was culture-negative in two of these cases and culture-positive in three. Blood cultures were negative in all five of these cases. In six cases spontaneous bacterial empyema was culture-positive (Escherichia coli in four, Klebsiella pneumoniae in one and Clostridium perfringens in one). Four of these patients had the same organism in ascites; one had culture-negative spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and one had no infection of ascites. Blood cultures were positive in four of these patients; three died. Death was more frequent in patients with positive cultures than in those with negative ones (p less than 0.05). Patients with hydrothorax are prone to spontaneous bacterial empyema. This infection probably occurs through hematogenous seeding, but transfer of infected ascites from the abdominal cavity through the diaphragm cannot be excluded. Patients with spontaneous bacterial empyema may be asymptomatic or may be seen with fever, chills and dyspnea. Spontaneous bacterial empyema must be differentiated from parapneumonic empyemas. The presence of pleural effusion before the infectious episode, fluid characteristics and the organisms isolated are the clues for differential diagnosis. Treatment includes antibiotics; chest tube insertion probably is not necessary.

  1. Construction project management handbook. (United States)


    The purpose of the FTA Construction Project Management Handbook is to provide guidelines for use by public transit agencies (Agen-cies) undertaking substantial construction projects, either for the first time or with little prior experience with cons...

  2. Improving concrete overlay construction. (United States)


    Several road construction projects involving concrete overlays at the state and county levels in Iowa in 2009 were studied for : construction techniques and methods. The projects that were evaluated consisted of sites in four Iowa counties: Osceola, ...

  3. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  4. USAID Construction Assessment (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from June...

  5. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian


    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  6. Construction Sector (NAICS 23) (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  7. Construction dust amelioration techniques. (United States)


    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  8. Skin Problems in Construction (United States)

    ... you use at work. Find out more about construction hazards. To receive copies of this Hazard Alert ... index.html Physician’s Alert: Occupational Contact Dermatitis Among Construction Workers – give this Alert to your doctor http:// ...

  9. Spatially-Heterodyned Holography (United States)

    Thomas, Clarence E [Knoxville, TN; Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN


    A method of recording a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram, including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis, includes: splitting a laser beam into a reference beam and an object beam; interacting the object beam with an object; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to form a spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digital recording the spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram; Fourier transforming axes of the recorded spatially low-frequency heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a heterodyne carrier frequency defined by an angle between the reference beam and the object beam; cutting off signals around an origin; and performing an inverse Fourier transform.

  10. Sustainable advanced construction technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC


    Full Text Available Materials (ECOMAT IV 2009): Paths Towards Sustainability Bayamo, CUBA 4 coupled with unimaginative and ill-directed policies by developers have created hectares of sterile concrete block units unaffordable to the average worker.” [10] Advanced construction... Gypsum panel boards Standards / Easy, fast construction 2. Frametech Concrete / Wire Mesh (durawall) Standards / Easy, fast construction 3. Frametech Wood panels Standards / Easy, fast construction 4. Wood Cabins Wood planks / boards Standards...

  11. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Ковальова


    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  12. Acupuncture and Spontaneous Regression of a Radiculopathic Cervical Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Ha


    Full Text Available The spontaneous regression of herniated cervical discs is not a well-established phenomenon. However, we encountered a case of a spontaneous regression of a severe radiculopathic herniated cervical disc that was treated with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herb medicine. The symptoms were improved within 12 months of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI conducted at that time revealed marked regression of the herniated disc. This case provides an additional example of spontaneous regression of a herniated cervical disc documented by MRI following non-surgical treatment.

  13. Acupuncture and spontaneous regression of a radiculopathic cervical herniated disc. (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ha; Park, Man-Young; Lee, Sang-Mi; Jung, Ho-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Kyoun; Lee, Jong-Deok; Kim, Dong-Woung; Yeom, Seung-Ryong; Lim, Jin-Young; Park, Min-Jung; Park, Se-Woon; Kim, Sung-Chul


    The spontaneous regression of herniated cervical discs is not a well-established phenomenon. However, we encountered a case of a spontaneous regression of a severe radiculopathic herniated cervical disc that was treated with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herb medicine. The symptoms were improved within 12 months of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted at that time revealed marked regression of the herniated disc. This case provides an additional example of spontaneous regression of a herniated cervical disc documented by MRI following non-surgical treatment.

  14. Teaching spontaneous responses to a young child with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily


    Children with Down syndrome experience significant communication impairments, particularly in expressive language. Although receiving little attention in the literature, deficiencies in expressive language are likely to affect spontaneous communicative responses in children with Down syndrome. In this study, using a multiple baseline design across responses, we demonstrated the effectiveness of discrete trial instruction in establishing spontaneous responses in a preschooler with Down syndrome. Spontaneous responses generalised to a novel setting involving a novel person and novel materials. Implications for the use of behaviourally based interventions to address the social-communicative needs of children with Down syndrome are discussed.

  15. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael


    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified...... by the histamine content of the adhering basophils. The spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin was higher than to laminin and collagen type I. Both spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA...

  16. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik


    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During...... the first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....

  17. [Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD): about 2 cases]. (United States)

    Elkasimi, Abdelouahab; Elouazzani, Ghizlane; Hbali, Anas; Ismaili, Nabila; Elouafi, Nouha


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); its prevalence is estimated to be less than 3%. It is defined as a separation within the coronary arterial wall secondary to intramural bleeding with or without intimal tear, creating a false channel. It mainly affects young subjects, mainly women, without coronary atherosclerosis or risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, the occurrence of spontaneous dissection due to atheromatous disease is possible. We here report 2 cases of spontaneous coronary dissection, in order to discuss its pathogenesis, factors favoring its occurrence, its clinical presentation and its therapeutic management.

  18. Strong evidence for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in (quenched) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, I.M.; Gibbs, P.; Schierholz, G.; Teper, M.; Gilchrist, J.P.; Schneider, H.


    We calculate the chiral condensate for all quark masses using Kogut-Susskind fermions in lattice-regularized quenched QCD. The large volume behaviour of at small quark masses demonstrates that the explicit U(1) chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. We perform the calculation for β = 5.1 to 5.9 and find very good continuum renormalization group behaviour. We infer that the spontaneous breaking we observe belongs to continuum QCD. This constitutes the first unambiguous demonstration of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in continuum quenched QCD. (orig.)

  19. 1998 Construction Report. (United States)

    Abramson, Paul


    Reports on the third annual survey of college and university construction in the United States. Finds that almost $5.8 billion worth of construction was completed in 1997, and $6.3 billion will be finished in 1998. Offers information on regional construction activity, profiles of new buildings on campuses, residence hall amenities, and other data.…

  20. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.


    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  1. A Duplicate Construction Experiment. (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent

    This experiment was designed to assess the ability of item writers to construct truly parallel tests based on a "duplicate-construction experiment" in which Cronbach argues that if the universe description and sampling are ideally refined, the two independently constructed tests will be entirely equivalent, and that within the limits of item…

  2. Safety in construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.M.


    Causative factors of accidents in construction industry in the context of experience of construction work of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Project are enumerated. The aspect of accident cost - direct and indirect - is discussed briefly. Setting up of a safety set-up at construction sites is emphasized and principles which should guide the accident prevention programme are spelt out. (M.G.B.)

  3. The Ecology and Evolution of Constructed Ecosystems as Green Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eLundholm


    Full Text Available Green infrastructure consists of ecosystems that provide valuable services to urban areas. Constructed ecosystems, including green roofs, bioretention systems, constructed wetlands and bioreactors are artificial, custom-built components of green infrastructure that are becoming more common in cities. Small size, strong spatial boundaries, ecological novelty and the role of human design characterize all constructed ecosystems, influencing their functions and interactions with other urban ecosystems. Here I outline the relevance of ecology and evolution in understanding the functioning of constructed ecosystems. In turn, a research focus on the distinctive aspects of constructed ecosystems can contribute to fundamental science.

  4. Spatial ordering of nano-dislocation loops in ion-irradiated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudarev, S.L., E-mail: [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Arakawa, K. [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, 1060 Nishikawatsu, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Yi, X. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Yao, Z. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen’s University, Nicol Hall, 60 Union Street, Kingston K7L 3N6, Ontario (Canada); Jenkins, M.L. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Gilbert, M.R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Derlet, P.M. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)


    Defect microstructures formed in ion-irradiated metals, for example iron or tungsten, often exhibit patterns of spatially ordered nano-scale dislocation loops. We show that such ordered dislocation loop structures may form spontaneously as a result of Brownian motion of loops, biased by the angular-dependent elastic interaction between the loops. Patterns of spatially ordered loops form once the local density of loops produced by ion irradiation exceeds a critical threshold value.

  5. Spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in IPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Torrubia, S.; Sabate, J.M.; Rodriguez-Arias, J.M.


    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are at risk for a variety of acute pulmonary complications, including pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Our aim was to describe the radiographic and CT findings and to determine the frequency of complicating spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in patients with IPF. A retrospective study was performed including 78 consecutive patients who underwent CT scanning of the chest and who had confirmed IPF. The chest radiographs and CT scans were reviewed by two chest radiologists and classified as showing features of extra-alveolar air collections. The CT scans showed extra-alveolar air in 9 (11.2 %) of 78 patients (six females and three males; age range 26-90 years, mean age 65 years). Pneumothorax was demonstrated in 5 patients and mediastinal air collections in 4 patients. All patients had dyspnea for 1-48 months (mean 14 months). Of the five cases with pneumothorax, four developed acute onset of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain, whereas 1 patient had a relatively stable functional status. Of the 4 patients with pneumomediastinum, three presented with nonpleuritic chest pain and acute dyspnea. Chest radiographs showed extra-alveolar air in 6 patients. Three cases were predicted to be negative by chest radiographs. Follow-up CT showed that air collections had resolved completely in 5 patients. Two patients died of respiratory failure within 4 months after CT. Extra-alveolar air should be recognized as a relatively common IPF-related complication. Chest CT is a useful imaging method in determining air collections in patients with IPF that become acutely breathless and their chest radiograph fails to reveal the presence of extra-alveolar air. (orig.)

  6. Probiotics and refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria. (United States)

    Nettis, E; Di Leo, E; Pastore, A; Distaso, M; Zaza, I; Vacca, M; Macchia, L; Vacca, A


    Background. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) first-line therapy with an antihistamine-based regimen may not achieve satisfactory control in patients. Thus, a continuing need exists for effective and safe treatments for refractory CSU. Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of an intake of a combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03) in patients with CSU who remain symptomatic despite concomitant H1-antihistamine therapy. Methods. This report analyzes the effects of therapy with two probiotic strains on the clinical progress of 52 unselected patients with difficulty to treat CSU underwent to medical examination in two Italian specialist urticaria Clinics between September 2013 and September 2014. A mixture of Lactobacillus LS01 and Bifidobacterium BR03 were administered in each patient twice daily for 8 weeks. To evaluate patients' improvement with probiotics, urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) was used at baseline and at week 8 in addition to a 5-question urticaria quality of life questionnaire. Results. Fifty-two patients with CSU were included in this study (10 male and 42 female, age range 19-72 years). Mean disease duration was 1.5 years. Fourteen patients discontinued treatment, so evaluable population consisted of 38 patients. Nine of the 38 patients experienced mild clinical improvement during probiotic treatment (23.7%); one patient reported significant clinical improvement (2.6%) and one patient had complete remission of urticaria (2.6%). Twenty-seven patients did not have improvement in symptoms (71.1%). No side effects during the course of therapy were reported. Conclusions. A combination of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 administered twice daily for 8 weeks might reduce the symptoms scores and improve quality of life scores in a part of patients with CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with H1 antihistamine mostly in subjects with allergic

  7. Progress in Spatial Demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Matthews


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demography is an inherently spatial science, yet the application of spatial data and methods to demographic research has tended to lag that of other disciplines. In recent years, there has been a surge in interest in adding a spatial perspective to demography. This sharp rise in interest has been driven in part by rapid advances in geospatial data, new technologies, and methods of analysis. OBJECTIVE We offer a brief introduction to four of the advanced spatial analytic methods: spatial econometrics, geographically weighted regression, multilevel modeling, and spatial pattern analysis. We look at both the methods used and the insights that can be gained by applying a spatial perspective to demographic processes and outcomes. To help illustrate these substantive insights, we introduce six papers that are included in a Special Collection on Spatial Demography. We close with some predictions for the future, as we anticipate that spatial thinking and the use of geospatial data, technology, and analytical methods will change how many demographers address important demographic research questions. CONCLUSIONS Many important demographic questions can be studied and framed using spatial approaches. This will become even more evident as changes in the volume, source, and form of available demographic data - much of it geocode - -further alter the data landscape, and ultimately the conceptual models and analytical methods used by demographers. This overview provides a brief introduction to a rapidly changing field.

  8. TPX tokamak construction management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, D.; Kungl, D.; Seidel, P.; Halfast, C.


    A construction management contract normally involves the acquisition of a construction management firm to assist in the design, planning, budget conformance, and coordination of the construction effort. In addition the construction management firm acts as an agent in the awarding of lower tier contracts. The TPX Tokamak Construction Management (TCM) approach differs in that the construction management firm is also directly responsible for the assembly and installation of the tokamak including the design and fabrication of all tooling required for assembly. The Systems Integration Support (SIS) contractor is responsible for the architect-engineering design of ancillary systems, such as heating and cooling, buildings, modifications and site improvements, and a variety of electrical requirements, including switchyards and >4kV power distribution. The TCM will be responsible for the procurement of materials and the installation of the ancillary systems, which can either be performed directly by the TCM or subcontracted to a lower tier subcontractor. Assurance that the TPX tokamak is properly assembled and ready for operation when turned over to the operations team is the primary focus of the construction management effort. To accomplish this a disciplined constructability program will be instituted. The constructability effort will involve the effective and timely integration of construction expertise into the planning, component design, and field operations. Although individual component design groups will provide liaison during the machine assembly operations, the construction management team is responsible for assembly

  9. What is the Relationship between Synaesthesia and Visuo-Spatial Number Forms? (United States)

    Sagiv, Noam; Simner, Julia; Collins, James; Butterworth, Brian; Ward, Jamie


    This study compares the tendency for numerals to elicit spontaneous perceptions of colour or taste (synaesthesia) with the tendency to visualise numbers as occupying particular visuo-spatial configurations (number forms). The prevalence of number forms was found to be significantly higher in synaesthetes experiencing colour compared both to…

  10. Sustainable construction: construction and demolition waste reconsidered. (United States)

    del Río Merino, Mercedes; Izquierdo Gracia, Pilar; Weis Azevedo, Isabel Salto


    Construction activity in Europe has increased substantially in the past decade. Likewise, there has also been a commensurate rise in the generation of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). This, together with the fact that in many European countries the rate of recycling and reuse of C&DW is still quite low has engendered a serious environmental problem and a motivation to develop strategies and management plans to solve it. Due to its composition, there is a significant potential to reuse and/or recycle C&DW, and thereby, contribute to improving the sustainability of construction and development, but practical procedures are not yet widely known or practiced in the construction industry. This article (a) summarizes the different applications that are presently practiced to optimize the recovery and/or application of C&DW for reuse, and (b) proposes various measures and strategies to improve the processing of this waste. The authors suggest that to enhance environmental effectiveness, a conscious and comprehensive C&DW management plan should be implemented in each jurisdiction. More precisely, this study presents a holistic approach towards C&DW management, through which environmental benefits can be achieved through the application of new construction methods that can contribute to sustainable growth.

  11. Towards green construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajracharya, Bijaya B.; Shrestha, Prasanna M.


    Sustainability is the key to any development works. In the operation phase, hydro power is the most sustainable form of energy. However construction activities for the same power station are usually far from being green. The popular myth is that construction activity converts green into grey. Despite this popular myth, construction of a hydro power project in Nepal has made the project area greener than earlier during the construction phase itself. Choice of construction technology, appropriate level of environmental impact assessment, monitoring of environmental parameters along side the construction progress followed by mitigation at the right time; launching community development programmes side by side, having environmental specification in contractual documents and self-reliance to fulfill environmental obligations by contractors itself are the key factors in the environmental management within the construction activities. The main conclusions in the paper is the need to change the way to think about the project constraints

  12. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  13. Spontaneous choledochal cyst rupture in pregnancy with concomitant chronic pancreatitis. (United States)

    Pal, Sandip; Simon, Ebby George; Koshy, Anoop K; Ramakrishna, B S; Raju, Ravish S; Vyas, Fredrick L; Joseph, Philip; Sitaram, V; Eapen, Anu


    Choledochal cysts are rare cystic transformations of the biliary tree that are increasingly diagnosed in adult patients. We report here a case of spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst in a pregnant young lady with chronic pancreatitis.

  14. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    given birth twice or more previously had increased odds ratio (OR), 1.78 (1.27-2.49), whereas women who were students had decreased OR, 0.55 (0.34-0.91) for having spontaneous abortions. Regarding lifestyle factors, the adjusted ORs among women who consumed 5 units or more alcohol per week or 375 mg......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  15. Treatment of ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis - Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Grønbæk, Henning; Hansen, Jesper Bach


    National guidelines for treatment of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hyponatremia have been approved by the Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Ascites develops in approximately 60% of patients with cirrhosis during a 10 year period...

  16. Renormalization of extended QED with spontaneously broken supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibold, K.


    Using the BPHZ subtraction scheme in the version of Lowenstein and Zimmermann gauge and supersymmetry Ward identities are proved to all orders of perturbation theory for the super QED where supersymmetry is spontaneously broken. (orig.)

  17. Spontaneous Tumour Lysis Syndrome in a Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Huzmeli


    Full Text Available The tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a collection of metabolic abnormalities that occur in consequence of the release of intracellular contents following lysis of tumor cells. TLS occurs spontaneously or after chemotherapy. Spontaneous TLS is uncommon occurrence in multiple myeloma (MM. We define a case of a 70-year-old woman patient who was found to have MM with spontaneous TLS, following a compression fracture of the T-12 vertebrae. While serum uric acid and phosphorous levels were high, low calcium levels were identified. There were also acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis. Upon the diagnosis of TLS, she was treated with hydration, allopurinol, sodium bicarbonate, and calcium gluconate. The improvement of her laboratory data was observed. We submitted this case in order to draw attention to the presentation of MM with spontaneous TLS.

  18. Fetal megacystis : prediction of spontaneous resolution and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanella, F.; Duin, L.; Adama van Scheltema, P. N.; Cohen-Overbeek, T. E.; Pajkrt, E.; Bekker, M.; Willekes, C.; Bax, C. J.; Bilardo, C. M.


    Objectives: To investigate the natural history of fetal megacystis from diagnosis in utero to postnatal outcome, and to identify prognostic indicators of spontaneous resolution and postnatal outcome after resolution. Methods: This was a national retrospective cohort study. Fetal megacystis was

  19. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah


    STUDY QUESTION: Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? SUMMARY ANSWER: We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced...... abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk...... and spontaneous abortion over time. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995...

  20. Spontaneous ignition due to intentional acute aluminum phosphide poisoning. (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz


    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common cause of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Spontaneous ignition is a rare finding in AlP poisoning. To present two cases of fatal AlP poisoning that involved spontaneous ignition. Two patients presented with suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage. During insertion of a nasogastric tube, both patients experienced spontaneous ignition, and flames were witnessed by the medical personnel. Unfortunately, both patients died due to systemic effects of AlP poisoning. Patients who present with acute aluminum phosphide poisoning may experience spontaneous ignition in the ED. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunoglobulin G antisperm antibodies and prediction of spontaneous pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leushuis, Esther; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Repping, Sjoerd; Schöls, Willem; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Hompes, Peter G. A.


    Objective: To investigate the predictive capacity of immunoglobulin G ASA (direct MAR test) for spontaneous ongoing pregnancy in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Nine fertility centers in The Netherlands. Patient(s): Consecutive ovulatory subfertile couples.

  2. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    , and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  3. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  4. Spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring (United States)

    Gong, ZhiRui; Zhang, ZhenWei; Xu, DaZhi; Zhao, Nan; Sun, ChangPu


    We study the spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring container, where the nearest-neighbor harmonic potentials are taken into consideration. Without any external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment, the quantum superposition state prepared in the relative degrees of freedom gradually loses its quantum coherence spontaneously. This spontaneous decoherence is interpreted by the gauge couplings between the center-of-mass and the relative degrees of freedoms, which actually originate from the symmetries of the ring geometry and the corresponding nontrivial boundary conditions. In particular, such spontaneous decoherence does not occur at all at the thermodynamic limit because the nontrivial boundary conditions become the trivial Born-von Karman boundary conditions when the perimeter of the ring container tends to infinity. Our investigation shows that a thermal macroscopic object with certain symmetries has a chance for its quantum properties to degrade even without applying an external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment.

  5. Spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Eun Young; Nam, Sang Yu; Choi, Hye Young; Hong, Min Ji [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Spontaneous breast infarction is a very rare complication of fibroadenoma of the breast. We present an interesting case of a 33-year-old woman with spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue related to pregnancy and lactation. Mammography showed an oval, circumscribed, fat-containing mass with microcalcifications. Ultrasonography revealed an oval, circumscribed mass with echogenic dots. Color Doppler imaging revealed presence of minimal vascularity at the periphery of the mass.

  6. Teaching Spontaneous Responses to Young Children With Autism


    Jones, Emily A; Feeley, Kathleen M; Takacs, Jennifer


    Using a multiple probe design across responses, we demonstrated the effectiveness of intensive intervention in establishing spontaneous verbal responses to 2 3-year-old children with autism with generalization to novel settings involving novel persons. Intervention involved discrete-trial instruction (i.e., repeated instructional opportunities presented in close proximity to high rates of reinforcement), specific prompts, and error correction. Spontaneous responses were defined as specific ve...

  7. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage caused by decompensated liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnagopal Srikanth


    Full Text Available Expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage can be surgical or spontaneous. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage (SESCH is a rare entity. Most of the reported cases of SESCH were caused by a combination of corneal pathology and glaucoma. We are reporting a rare presentation of SESCH with no pre-existing glaucoma or corneal pathology and caused by massive intra- and peri-ocular hemorrhage due to decompensated liver disease.

  8. Spontaneous emission of semiconductors in the Wigner approach (United States)

    Filinov, V. S.; Hoyer, W.; Bonitz, M.; Kira, M.; Fortov, V. E.; Koch, S. W.


    This paper presents a first step towards combining two well-established methods used in semiconductor physicsmdashsemiconductor Bloch equations and the Wigner approach to quantum transport. This combination provides the possibility of including spontaneous emission, i.e., the spontaneous recombination of excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors, into the Wigner approach, which so far has been used only for systems with fixed particle number. The theory is presented and first numerical results for a three-dimensional system are shown.

  9. Learning sculpts the spontaneous activity of the resting human brain


    Lewis, Christopher M.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Committeri, Giorgia; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio


    The brain is not a passive sensory-motor analyzer driven by environmental stimuli, but actively maintains ongoing representations that may be involved in the coding of expected sensory stimuli, prospective motor responses, and prior experience. Spontaneous cortical activity has been proposed to play an important part in maintaining these ongoing, internal representations, although its functional role is not well understood. One spontaneous signal being intensely investigated in the human brai...

  10. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  11. Idiopathic Spontaneous Adrenal Hemorrhage in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narin Nasiroglu Imga


    Full Text Available Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage (SAH is seen in the absence of trauma or adrenal tumor in adrenal glands. The incidence of SAH has been reported from 0.14% to 1.1% and it usually involves the right gland. During pregnancy, idiopathic unilateral SAH has been reported rarely. We present a case which comes to emergency department with an acute abdominal pain and the test results showed spontaneous left SAH.

  12. [Atypical etiology of rhinorrhea: spontaneous bilateral temporal encephalocele]. (United States)

    Lorente Muñoz, Asís; Lisbona Alquézar, María Pilar; González Martínez, Luis; Sevil Navarro, Jorge; Llorente Arenas, Eva María


    Spontaneous herniation of brain parenchyma through a dural and osseous defect in the temporal bone is a rare entity and a bilateral form is even more infrequent. It usually presents as an intermittent but persistent otorrhea. Manifestation as nose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is very uncommon. Our objective is presenting this unusual case report of a spontaneous bilateral encephalocele with a bilateral tegmen tympani defect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma in a patient with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ahad Wani


    Full Text Available Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in a patient of multiple myeloma receiving chemotherapy is an unknown event, needing an urgent neurosurgical management. We report this patient who presented with progressive neurological deterioration and a low platelet count. She was successfully managed by craniotomy and evacuation of subdural hematoma with intraoperative transfusion of platelets. The acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in her was probably related to the bleeding diathesis due to thrombocytopenia associated with chemotherapy.

  14. Spontaneous Rupture of the Stomach; Report of Case, (United States)


    massively distended and she experienced dyspnea. She developed tachycardia (110) and became hypotensive (90 systolic). Portable x-rays of the chest and...pointed out by Matikainen 17 in 1979. Spontaneous gastric rupture in the newborn appears to be more common than in the adult. 18 DISCUSSION The cause of...138:(451-452), 1979. 18. Bayatpour, M., Bernard, L., McCune, F., and bariel, W.: Spontaneous gastric rupture in the newborn , Am. J. Surg., 137:(267-269), 1979.

  15. Spontaneous Tricuspid Valve Chordal Rupture in Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Clara Tude; Afonso, José E; Cordovil, Adriana; Monaco, Claudia; Piveta, Rafael; Cordovil, Rodrigo; Fischer, Claudio H; Vieira, Marcelo; Lira-Filho, Edgar; Morhy, Samira S


    Rupture of tricuspid valve is unusual, occurring mainly in the setting of blunt trauma or endomyocardial biopsy. Spontaneous tricuspid valve chordal rupture is particularly rare. We report herein a case of a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension, on the lung transplantation waiting list, who presented with spontaneous chordal rupture, exacerbation of tricuspid insufficiency and worsening of clinical status. Diagnosis and treatment, along with possible mechanisms for this complication, are discussed. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spontaneous remission of a diffuse brainstem lesion in a neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Leena; Kahn, Thomas [University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Merkenschlager, Andreas [University of Leipzig, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Hirsch, Wolfgang [University of Leipzig, Pediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany)


    We describe here the spontaneous remission of a diffuse brainstem lesion found in an infant at the age of 7 weeks. Clinical and MRI characteristics strongly suggested a diffuse pontine glioma. Repeated MRI studies showed a continuous decrease in the size of the lesion, which was no longer visible by the age of 27 months. Spontaneous remission of diffuse pontine glioma is extremely rare; to our knowledge there are reports of only three similar cases. (orig.)

  17. Spontaneous Regression of Intervertebral Disc Herniation – Case Reports


    Rapan, Saša; Gulan, Gordan; Lovrić, Ivan; Jovanović, Savo


    Lumbar disc hernia (LDH) is a common cause of low back pain and radicular leg pain. It is well known that the majority of LDH patients recover spontaneously. Since the advent of MRI, a spontaneous regression of fragment size of disc hernia occurs, as well as mitigation of subjective difficulties and neurological disorders. Therefore, surgical treatment is not always method of choice in this disease. Two cases of conservatively treated large disc extrusion which result in significant ...

  18. Trisomy 13 ascertained in a survey of spontaneous abortions.


    Jacobs, P A; Hassold, T J; Henry, A; Pettay, D; Takaesu, N


    In a series of 2922 karyotyped spontaneous abortions, 62 were found to be trisomic for chromosome 13, 46 having a simple trisomy and 16 a translocation trisomy. The epidemiology of this series of trisomy 13 conceptuses is presented and compared to that of trisomy 13 ascertained from other populations. In most compared parameters the trisomy 13 spontaneous abortions are very similar. However, there is no evidence in our material for the fall in proportion of trisomy 13 conceptuses at very adva...

  19. The construction and practice of GIS ontology service mechanism (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Wang, Jun; Peng, Shuang-yun; Cheng, Hong-ping


    With the development of Semantic Web technology, the spatial information service based on ontology is an effective way for sharing and interoperation of heterogeneous information resources in the distributed network environment. Based on the deep analysis for the spatial information service mechanism of geo-ontology, the system construction strategy and service workflow and combined with the present mainstream commercial GIS software packages, three solutions of system construction for spatial information sharing and interoperation have been proposed here in this paper. The different geographic information application systems distributed on the internet may be integrated dynamically and openly by using one of the three solutions for realizing the sharing and interoperation of heterogeneous spatial information resources in the distributing environment. In order to realize the practical applications of spatial information sharing and interoperation in different brunches of police system, a prototype system for crime case information sharing based on geo-ontology has also been developed by using the methods described above.

  20. Comparing Spatial Predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Hering, Amanda S.


    Under a general loss function, we develop a hypothesis test to determine whether a significant difference in the spatial predictions produced by two competing models exists on average across the entire spatial domain of interest. The null hypothesis is that of no difference, and a spatial loss differential is created based on the observed data, the two sets of predictions, and the loss function chosen by the researcher. The test assumes only isotropy and short-range spatial dependence of the loss differential but does allow it to be non-Gaussian, non-zero-mean, and spatially correlated. Constant and nonconstant spatial trends in the loss differential are treated in two separate cases. Monte Carlo simulations illustrate the size and power properties of this test, and an example based on daily average wind speeds in Oklahoma is used for illustration. Supplemental results are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Qualitys.