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Sample records for spontaneous speech recordings

  1. Motivational Projections of Russian Spontaneous Speech

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    Galina M. Shipitsina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the semantic, pragmatic and structural features of words, phrases, dialogues motivation, in the contemporary Russian popular speech. These structural features are characterized by originality and unconventional use. Language material is the result of authors` direct observation of spontaneous verbal communication between people of different social and age groups. The words and remarks were analyzed in compliance with the communication system of national Russian language and cultural background of popular speech. Studies have discovered that in spoken discourse there are some other ways to increase the expression statement. It is important to note that spontaneous speech identifies lacunae in the nominative language and its vocabulary system. It is proved, prefixation is also effective and regular way of the same action presenting. The most typical forms, ways and means to update language resources as a result of the linguistic creativity of native speakers were identified.

  2. Experiments on Detection of Voiced Hesitations in Russian Spontaneous Speech

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    Vasilisa Verkhodanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and popularity of voice-user interfaces made spontaneous speech processing an important research field. One of the main focus areas in this field is automatic speech recognition (ASR that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers. However, ASR systems often work less efficiently for spontaneous than for read speech, since the former differs from any other type of speech in many ways. And the presence of speech disfluencies is its prominent characteristic. These phenomena are an important feature in human-human communication and at the same time they are a challenging obstacle for the speech processing tasks. In this paper we address an issue of voiced hesitations (filled pauses and sound lengthenings detection in Russian spontaneous speech by utilizing different machine learning techniques, from grid search and gradient descent in rule-based approaches to such data-driven ones as ELM and SVM based on the automatically extracted acoustic features. Experimental results on the mixed and quality diverse corpus of spontaneous Russian speech indicate the efficiency of the techniques for the task in question, with SVM outperforming other methods.

  3. Deixis in Spontaneous Speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'aida, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at describing types and usages of deixis in the speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic native speakers. The present study was conducted in different settings which researcher's family members, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances took part in. Data of the study were collected through observing spontaneous speech of native speakers of…

  4. Corticomuscular Coherence Is Tuned to the Spontaneous Rhythmicity of Speech at 2-3 Hz

    OpenAIRE

    Ruspantini, I.; Saarinen, T.; Belardinelli, P.; Jalava, A.; Parviainen, T.; Kujala, J.; Salmelin, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Human speech features rhythmicity that frames distinctive, fine-grained speech patterns. Speech can thus be counted among rhythmic motor behaviors that generally manifest characteristic spontaneous rates. However, the critical neural evidence for tuning of articulatory control to a spontaneous rate of speech has not been uncovered. The present study examined the spontaneous rhythmicity in speech production and its relationship to cortex–muscle neurocommunication, which is essential for speech...

  5. Qualifying phrases as a measure of spontaneity in speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, W; Plaut, S M

    1985-11-01

    Although investigators have attempted to define the paralinguistic characteristics of spontaneous speech, there have been no systematic attempts to study its verbal reflections. An experiment comparing extemporaneous and impromptu speech samples of 10 freshman medical students showed that, of 10 verbal categories, only qualifying phrases significantly differentiated the two levels of spontaneity. A second study compared post-World War II presidential communications of different degrees of spontaneity. Speech samples were taken from inaugural addresses of seven presidents, and from both introductory remarks and responses to questions at their press conferences. The proportion of qualifying phrases significantly decreased as the amount of preparation increased, confirming the results of the student experiment. The use of qualifying phrases appears to represent, in part, an attempt by the speaker to avoid silence while retrieving and encoding memories from long-term storage.

  6. Phonetic and Prosodic Characteristics of Disfluencies in French Spontaneous Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulides, George; Avanzi, Mathieu; 14th Conference on Laboratory Phonology

    2014-01-01

    A key difference between spontaneous speech and controlled laboratory speech is the prevalence of disfluencies in the former (e.g. Shriberg 1994). Disfluencies typically signal production problems, as the speaker incrementally constructs his message (Levelt 1989). However, in specific contexts, these events may be used as communicative devices, e.g. in order to manage dialogue interaction (Moniz et al. 2009) or indicate information status (Arnold et al. 2003). Disfluencies have recently attra...

  7. Speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaja, Bagus Tris; Farid, Mifta Nur; Arifianto, Dhany

    2016-01-01

    Speech enhancement is challenging task in audio signal processing to enhance the quality of targeted speech signal while suppress other noises. In the beginning, the speech enhancement algorithm growth rapidly from spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering, spectral amplitude MMSE estimator to Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF). Smartphone as revolutionary device now is being used in all aspect of life including journalism; personally and professionally. Although many smartphones have two microphones (main and rear) the only main microphone is widely used for voice recording. This is why the NMF algorithm widely used for this purpose of speech enhancement. This paper evaluate speech enhancement on smartphone voice recording by using some algorithms mentioned previously. We also extend the NMF algorithm to Kulback-Leibler NMF with supervised separation. The last algorithm shows improved result compared to others by spectrogram and PESQ score evaluation. (paper)

  8. A Speech Recognition-based Solution for the Automatic Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment from Spontaneous Speech.

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    Toth, Laszlo; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Gosztolya, Gabor; Vincze, Veronika; Szatloczki, Greta; Banreti, Zoltan; Pakaski, Magdolna; Kalman, Janos

    2018-01-01

    Even today the reliable diagnosis of the prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a great challenge. Our research focuses on the earliest detectable indicators of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the presence of language impairment has been reported even in the mild stage of AD, the aim of this study is to develop a sensitive neuropsychological screening method which is based on the analysis of spontaneous speech production during performing a memory task. In the future, this can form the basis of an Internet-based interactive screening software for the recognition of MCI. Participants were 38 healthy controls and 48 clinically diagnosed MCI patients. The provoked spontaneous speech by asking the patients to recall the content of 2 short black and white films (one direct, one delayed), and by answering one question. Acoustic parameters (hesitation ratio, speech tempo, length and number of silent and filled pauses, length of utterance) were extracted from the recorded speech signals, first manually (using the Praat software), and then automatically, with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) based tool. First, the extracted parameters were statistically analyzed. Then we applied machine learning algorithms to see whether the MCI and the control group can be discriminated automatically based on the acoustic features. The statistical analysis showed significant differences for most of the acoustic parameters (speech tempo, articulation rate, silent pause, hesitation ratio, length of utterance, pause-per-utterance ratio). The most significant differences between the two groups were found in the speech tempo in the delayed recall task, and in the number of pauses for the question-answering task. The fully automated version of the analysis process - that is, using the ASR-based features in combination with machine learning - was able to separate the two classes with an F1-score of 78.8%. The temporal analysis of spontaneous speech

  9. Deixis in Spontaneous Speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic Native Speakers

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    Zainab Sa'aida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing types and usages of deixis in the speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic native speakers. The present study was conducted in different settings which researcher’s family members, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances took part in. Data of the study were collected through observing spontaneous speech of native speakers of Jordanian Urban Arabic. The data consist of transcriptions of deictic expressions, which were categorised into groups according to the types or usages of deictic words. The data were translated and transliterated by the researcher. The International Phonetic Alphabet symbols were used to transcribe the data. Findings of the study show that there are five types of deictic expressions in Jordanian Urban Arabic: Personal, spatial, temporal, discourse and social deixis. The current study has also described the various usages of deictic words in Jordanian Urban Arabic: gestural, symbolic, and non-deictic usage.

  10. A Danish phonetically annotated spontaneous speech corpus (DanPASS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnum, Nina

    2009-01-01

    A corpus is described consisting of non-scripted monologues and dialogues, recorded by 27 speakers, comprising a total of 73,227 running words, corresponding to 9 h and 46 min of speech. The monologues were recorded as one-way communication with an unseen partner where the speaker performed three......-narrow phonetic notation, a symbolic representation of the pitch relation between each stressed and post-tonic syllable, and a symbolic representation of the phrasal intonation....

  11. Production planning and coronal stop deletion in spontaneous speech

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    James Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many phonological processes can be affected by segmental context spanning word boundaries, which often lead to variable outcomes. This paper tests the idea that some of this variability can be explained by reference to production planning. We examine coronal stop deletion (CSD, a variable process conditioned by preceding and upcoming phonological context, in a corpus of spontaneous British English speech, as a means of investigating a number of variables associated with planning: Prosodic boundary strength, word frequency, conditional probability of the following word, and speech rate. From the perspective of production planning, (1 prosodic boundaries should affect deletion rate independently of following context; (2 given the locality of production planning, the effect of the following context should decrease at stronger prosodic boundaries; and (3 other factors affecting planning scope should modulate the effect of upcoming phonological material above and beyond the modulating effect of prosodic boundaries. We build a statistical model of CSD realization, using pause length as a quantitative proxy for boundary strength, and find support for these predictions. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that the locality of production planning constrains variability in speech production, and have practical implications for work on CSD and other variable processes.

  12. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotions in speech using acoustic and lexical features

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    Raaijmakers, S.; Truong, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    We developed acoustic and lexical classifiers, based on a boosting algorithm, to assess the separability on arousal and valence dimensions in spontaneous emotional speech. The spontaneous emotional speech data was acquired by inviting subjects to play a first-person shooter video game. Our acoustic

  13. Language in individuals with left hemisphere tumors: Is spontaneous speech analysis comparable to formal testing?

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    Rofes, Adrià; Talacchi, Andrea; Santini, Barbara; Pinna, Giampietro; Nickels, Lyndsey; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Miceli, Gabriele

    2018-01-31

    The relationship between spontaneous speech and formal language testing in people with brain tumors (gliomas) has been rarely studied. In clinical practice, formal testing is typically used, while spontaneous speech is less often evaluated quantitatively. However, spontaneous speech is quicker to sample and may be less prone to test/retest effects, making it a potential candidate for assessing language impairments when there is restricted time or when the patient is unable to undertake prolonged testing. To assess whether quantitative spontaneous speech analysis and formal testing detect comparable language impairments in people with gliomas. Specifically, we addressed (a) whether both measures detected comparable language impairments in our patient sample; and (b) which language levels, assessment times, and spontaneous speech variables were more often impaired in this subject group. Five people with left perisylvian gliomas performed a spontaneous speech task and a formal language assessment. Tests were administered before surgery, within a week after surgery, and seven months after surgery. Performance on spontaneous speech was compared with that of 15 healthy speakers. Language impairments were detected more often with both measures than with either measure independently. Lexical-semantic impairments were more common than phonological and grammatical impairments, and performance was equally impaired across assessment time points. Incomplete sentences and phonological paraphasias were the most common error types. In our sample both spontaneous speech analysis and formal testing detected comparable language impairments. Currently, we suggest that formal testing remains overall the better option, except for cases in which there are restrictions on testing time or the patient is too tired to undergo formal testing. In these cases, spontaneous speech may provide a viable alternative, particularly if automated analysis of spontaneous speech becomes more readily

  14. Specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated style in indonesian speech recognition

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    Vista, C. B.; Satriawan, C. H.; Lestari, D. P.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    The performance of an automatic speech recognition system is affected by differences in speech style between the data the model is originally trained upon and incoming speech to be recognized. In this paper, the usage of GMM-HMM acoustic models for specific speech styles is investigated. We develop two systems for the experiments; the first employs a speech style classifier to predict the speech style of incoming speech, either spontaneous or dictated, then decodes this speech using an acoustic model specifically trained for that speech style. The second system uses both acoustic models to recognise incoming speech and decides upon a final result by calculating a confidence score of decoding. Results show that training specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated speech styles confers a slight recognition advantage as compared to a baseline model trained on a mixture of spontaneous and dictated training data. In addition, the speech style classifier approach of the first system produced slightly more accurate results than the confidence scoring employed in the second system.

  15. Speech input interfaces for anaesthesia records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    Speech recognition as a medical transcript tool is now common in hospitals and is steadily increasing......Speech recognition as a medical transcript tool is now common in hospitals and is steadily increasing...

  16. Characteristics of Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic spontaneous speech and the consequences for understanding agrammatic aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abuom, Tom O.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    Most studies on spontaneous speech of individuals with agrammatism have focused almost exclusively on monolingual individuals. There is hardly any previous research on bilinguals, especially of structurally different languages; and none on characterization of agrammatism in Swahili. The current

  17. Arousal and Valence prediction in spontaneous emotional speech: felt versus perceived emotion

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    Truong, K.P.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Neerincx, M.A.; Jong, F.M.G. de

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe emotion recognition experiments carried out for spontaneous affective speech with the aim to compare the added value of annotation of felt emotion versus annotation of perceived emotion. Using speech material available in the TNO-GAMING corpus (a corpus containing

  18. Pitch detection in noisy speech recordings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plšek, Martin; Vondra, Martin

    3/6 (2002), s. - ISSN 1213-161X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/1084; GA ČR GA102/02/0124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : speech synthesis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://www.electronicsletters.com/papers/2002/0010/paper.asp

  19. Speech recognition for the anaesthesia record during crisis scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    advantages and disadvantages of a vocal interface compared to the traditional touch-screen and keyboard interface to an electronic anaesthesia record during crisis situations; second, to assess the usability in a realistic work environment of some speech input strategies (hands-free vocal interface activated...... team would fill in the anaesthesia record, in one session using only the traditional touch-screen and keyboard interface while in the other session they could also use the speech input interface. Audio-video recordings of the sessions were subsequently analysed and additional subjective data were...... on the one hand that the traditional touch-screen and keyboard interface imposes a steadily increasing mental workload in terms of items to keep in memory until there is time to update the anaesthesia record, and on the other hand that the speech input interface will allow anaesthetists to enter medications...

  20. THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH OF PROSODIC ORGANIZATION OF TROPES IN SPONTANEOUS PUBLIC SPEECH

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    Zubkova, O.S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of prosodic organization of tropes in spontaneous public speech, identified on the basis of empirical research, and analyzes the role of melody and intonema in the understanding of tropes, determines the value of a pause in the formation and perception of tropes, and studies the effect of prosodic factors on the interpretation of tropes.

  1. Verb retrieval in action naming and spontaneous speech in agrammatic and anemic aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, R; Jonkers, R

    1998-01-01

    The production of verbs in an action naming test and in spontaneous speech was evaluated in 16 aphasic patients: eight agrammatics and eight anomics. Action naming was also compared to object naming. The action naming test was controlled for factors known to be relevant for verb retrieval (i.e. word

  2. James Weldon Johnson and the Speech Lab Recordings

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    Chris Mustazza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available On December 24, 1935, James Weldon Johnson read thirteen of his poems at Columbia University, in a recording session engineered by Columbia Professor of Speech George W. Hibbitt and Barnard colleague Professor W. Cabell Greet, pioneers in the field that became sociolinguistics. Interested in American dialects, Greet and Hibbitt used early sound recording technologies to preserve dialect samples. In the same lab where they recorded T.S. Eliot, Gertrude Stein, and others, James Weldon Johnson read a selection of poems that included several from his seminal collection God’s Trombones and some dialect poems. Mustazza has digitized these and made them publicly available in the PennSound archive. In this essay, Mustazza contextualizes the collection, considering the recordings as sonic inscriptions alongside their textual manifestations. He argues that the collection must be heard within the frames of its production conditions—especially its recording in a speech lab—and that the sound recordings are essential elements in an hermeneutic analysis of the poems. He reasons that the poems’ original topics are reframed and refocused when historicized and contextualized within the frame of The Speech Lab Recordings.

  3. Early Recovery of Aphasia through Thrombolysis: The Significance of Spontaneous Speech.

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    Furlanis, Giovanni; Ridolfi, Mariana; Polverino, Paola; Menichelli, Alina; Caruso, Paola; Naccarato, Marcello; Sartori, Arianna; Torelli, Lucio; Pesavento, Valentina; Manganotti, Paolo

    2018-03-22

    Aphasia is one of the most devastating stroke-related consequences for social interaction and daily activities. Aphasia recovery in acute stroke depends on the degree of reperfusion after thrombolysis or thrombectomy. As aphasia assessment tests are often time-consuming for patients with acute stroke, physicians have been developing rapid and simple tests. The aim of our study is to evaluate the improvement of language functions in the earliest stage in patients treated with thrombolysis and in nontreated patients using our rapid screening test. Our study is a single-center prospective observational study conducted at the Stroke Unit of the University Medical Hospital of Trieste (January-December 2016). Patients treated with thrombolysis and nontreated patients underwent 3 aphasia assessments through our rapid screening test (at baseline, 24 hours, and 72 hours). The screening test assesses spontaneous speech, oral comprehension of words, reading aloud and comprehension of written words, oral comprehension of sentences, naming, repetition of words and a sentence, and writing words. The study included 40 patients: 18 patients treated with thrombolysis and 22 nontreated patients. Both groups improved over time. Among all language parameters, spontaneous speech was statistically significant between 24 and 72 hours (P value = .012), and between baseline and 72 hours (P value = .017). Our study demonstrates that patients treated with thrombolysis experience greater improvement in language than the nontreated patients. The difference between the 2 groups is increasingly evident over time. Moreover, spontaneous speech is the parameter marked by the greatest improvement. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Good and bad in the hands of politicians: spontaneous gestures during positive and negative speech.

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    Daniel Casasanto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the body-specificity hypothesis, people with different bodily characteristics should form correspondingly different mental representations, even in highly abstract conceptual domains. In a previous test of this proposal, right- and left-handers were found to associate positive ideas like intelligence, attractiveness, and honesty with their dominant side and negative ideas with their non-dominant side. The goal of the present study was to determine whether 'body-specific' associations of space and valence can be observed beyond the laboratory in spontaneous behavior, and whether these implicit associations have visible consequences.We analyzed speech and gesture (3012 spoken clauses, 1747 gestures from the final debates of the 2004 and 2008 US presidential elections, which involved two right-handers (Kerry, Bush and two left-handers (Obama, McCain. Blind, independent coding of speech and gesture allowed objective hypothesis testing. Right- and left-handed candidates showed contrasting associations between gesture and speech. In both of the left-handed candidates, left-hand gestures were associated more strongly with positive-valence clauses and right-hand gestures with negative-valence clauses; the opposite pattern was found in both right-handed candidates.Speakers associate positive messages more strongly with dominant hand gestures and negative messages with non-dominant hand gestures, revealing a hidden link between action and emotion. This pattern cannot be explained by conventions in language or culture, which associate 'good' with 'right' but not with 'left'; rather, results support and extend the body-specificity hypothesis. Furthermore, results suggest that the hand speakers use to gesture may have unexpected (and probably unintended communicative value, providing the listener with a subtle index of how the speaker feels about the content of the co-occurring speech.

  5. SOFTWARE EFFORT ESTIMATION FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATION PRODUCTIVITY USING EMOTION RECOGNITION OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERS IN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH

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    B.V.A.N.S.S. Prabhakar Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is a very important part of any organisation in general and software industry in particular. Now a day’s Software Effort estimation is a challenging task. Both Effort and Productivity are inter-related to each other. This can be achieved from the employee’s of the organization. Every organisation requires emotionally stable employees in their firm for seamless and progressive working. Of course, in other industries this may be achieved without man power. But, software project development is labour intensive activity. Each line of code should be delivered from software engineer. Tools and techniques may helpful and act as aid or supplementary. Whatever be the reason software industry has been suffering with success rate. Software industry is facing lot of problems in delivering the project on time and within the estimated budget limit. If we want to estimate the required effort of the project it is significant to know the emotional state of the team member. The responsibility of ensuring emotional contentment falls on the human resource department and the department can deploy a series of systems to carry out its survey. This analysis can be done using a variety of tools, one such, is through study of emotion recognition. The data needed for this is readily available and collectable and can be an excellent source for the feedback systems. The challenge of recognition of emotion in speech is convoluted primarily due to the noisy recording condition, the variations in sentiment in sample space and exhibition of multiple emotions in a single sentence. The ambiguity in the labels of training set also increases the complexity of problem addressed. The existing models using probabilistic models have dominated the study but present a flaw in scalability due to statistical inefficiency. The problem of sentiment prediction in spontaneous speech can thus be addressed using a hybrid system comprising of a Convolution Neural Network and

  6. A Comparison of the Use of Glottal Fry in the Spontaneous Speech of Young and Middle-Aged American Women.

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    Oliveira, Gisele; Davidson, Ashira; Holczer, Rachelle; Kaplan, Sara; Paretzky, Adina

    2016-11-01

    To compare vocal fry use in spontaneous speech of young and middle-aged American women. This is a cross-sectional study. Subjects were 40 American women; 20 aged 18-25 years (mean = 22.9 years) and 20 aged 35-50 years (mean = 43.4 years). Participants were asked to describe all the steps involved in making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich and in doing laundry. Acoustical analysis of selected parameters and sentence position of vocal fry occurrences were performed. The acoustic parameters analyzed were mean, minimum and maximum fundamental frequency (F0), glottal fry/minute ratio, and sentence position of glottal fry. Values of minimum fundamental frequency clearly show that there was vocal fry in the participants' spontaneous speech samples. The average minimum F0 was 74.0 Hz (standard deviation [SD] = 5.6) for the younger women and 73.10 Hz (SD = 6.7) for the middle-aged women (P = 0.527). The mean glottal fry for the medial position and for the final position was similar for both groups. The mean glottal fry/minute ratio for young women was 13.8 (SD = 7.0), whereas for middle-aged women was 11.3 (SD = 7.5; P = 0.402). This study showed that all participants had at least one episode of glottal fry in their spontaneous speech sample. Both groups presented with vocal fry in their spontaneous speech, showing that vocal fry is present in the speech of young and middle-aged women. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Finite Verb Morphology in the Spontaneous Speech of Dutch-Speaking Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Annemiek; Coene, Martine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the acquisition of Dutch finite verb morphology is investigated in children with cochlear implants (CIs) with profound hearing loss and in children with hearing aids (HAs) with moderate to severe hearing loss. Comparing these two groups of children increases our insight into how hearing experience and audibility affect the acquisition of morphosyntax. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed of 48 children with CIs and 29 children with HAs, ages 4 to 7 years. These language samples were analyzed by means of standardized language analysis involving mean length of utterance, the number of finite verbs produced, and target-like subject-verb agreement. The outcomes were interpreted relative to expectations based on the performance of typically developing peers with normal hearing. Outcomes of all measures were correlated with hearing level in the group of HA users and age at implantation in the group of CI users. For both groups, the number of finite verbs that were produced in 50-utterance sample was on par with mean length of utterance and at the lower bound of the normal distribution. No significant differences were found between children with CIs and HAs on any of the measures under investigation. Yet, both groups produced more subject-verb agreement errors than are to be expected for typically developing hearing peers. No significant correlation was found between the hearing level of the children and the relevant measures of verb morphology, both with respect to the overall number of verbs that were used and the number of errors that children made. Within the group of CI users, the outcomes were significantly correlated with age at implantation. When producing finite verb morphology, profoundly deaf children wearing CIs perform similarly to their peers with moderate-to-severe hearing loss wearing HAs. Hearing loss negatively affects the acquisition of subject-verb agreement regardless of the hearing device (CI or HA) that the child is wearing. The

  8. Spontaneous speech: Quantifying daily communication in Spanish-speaking individuals with aphasia.

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    Silvia Martínez-Ferreiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Observable disruptions in spontaneous speech are among the most prominent characteristics of aphasia. The potential of language production analyses in discourse contexts to reveal subtle language deficits has been progressively exploited, becoming essential for diagnosing language disorders (Vermeulen et al., 1989; Goodglass et al., 2000; Prins and Bastiaanse, 2004; Jaecks et al., 2012. Based on previous studies, short and/or fragmentary utterances, and consequently a shorter MLU, are expected in the speech of individuals with aphasia, together with a large proportions of incomplete sentences and a limited use of embeddings. Fewer verbs with a lower diversity (lower type/token ratio and fewer internal arguments are also predicted, as well as a low proportion of inflected verbs (Bastiaanse and Jonkers, 1998. However, this profile comes mainly from the study of individuals with prototypical aphasia types, mainly Broca’s aphasia, raising the question of how accurate spontaneous speech is to pinpoint deficits in individuals with less clear diagnoses. To address this question, we present the results of a spontaneous speech analysis of 25 Spanish-speaking subjects: 10 individuals with aphasia (IWAs, 7 male and 3 female (mean age: 64.2 in neural stable condition (> 1 year post-onset who suffered from a single CVA in the left hemisphere (Rosell, 2005, and 15 non-brain-damaged matched speakers (NBDs. In the aphasia group, 7 of the participants were diagnosed as non-fluent (1 motor aphasia, 4 transcortical motor aphasia or motor aphasia with signs of transcorticality, 2 mixed aphasia with motor predominance, and 3 of them as fluent (mixed aphasia with anomic predominance. The protocol for data collection included semi-standardized interviews, in which participants were asked 3 questions evoking past, present, and future events (last job, holidays, and hobbies. 300 words per participant were analyzed. The MLU over the total 300 words revealed a decreased

  9. Functionally Equivalent Variants in a Non-standard Variety and Their Implications for Universal Grammar: A Spontaneous Speech Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Evelina Leivada; Evelina Leivada; Elena Papadopoulou; Elena Papadopoulou; Natalia Pavlou

    2017-01-01

    Findings from the field of experimental linguistics have shown that a native speaker may judge a variant that is part of her grammar as unacceptable, but still use it productively in spontaneous speech. The process of eliciting acceptability judgments from speakers of non-standard languages is sometimes clouded by factors akin to prescriptive notions of grammatical correctness. It has been argued that standardization enhances the ability to make clear-cut judgments, while non-standardization ...

  10. Evaluating the benefit of recorded early reflections from a classroom for speech intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeffery B.

    Recent standards for classrooms acoustics recommend achieving low levels of reverberation to provide suitable conditions for speech communication (ANSI, 2002; ASHA, 1995). Another viewpoint recommends optimizing classroom acoustics to emphasize early reflections and reduce later arriving reflections (Boothroyd, 2004; Bradley, Sato, & Picard, 2003). The idea of emphasizing early reflections is based in the useful-to-detrimental ratio (UDR) model of speech intelligibility in rooms (Lochner & Burger, 1964). The UDR model predicts that listeners integrate energy from early reflections to improve the signal-to-noise (SNR) of the direct speech signal. However, both early and more recent studies of early reflections and speech intelligibility have used simulated reflections that may not accurately represent the effects of real early reflections on the speech intelligibility of listeners. Is speech intelligibility performance enhanced by the presence of real early reflections in noisy classroom environments? The effect of actual early reflections on speech intelligibility was evaluated by recording a binaural impulse response (BRIR) with a K.E.M.A.R. in a college classroom. From the BRIR, five listening conditions were created with varying amounts of early reflections. Young-adult listeners with normal hearing participated in a fixed SNR word intelligibility task and a variable SNR task to test if speech intelligibility was improved in competing noise when recorded early reflections were present as compared to direct speech alone. Mean speech intelligibility performance gains or SNR benefits were not observed with recorded early reflections. When simulated early reflections were included, improved speech understanding was observed for simulated reflections but for with real reflections. Spectral, temporal, and phonemic analyses were performed to investigate acoustic differences in recorded and simulated reflections. Spectral distortions in the recorded reflections may have

  11. Spontaneous Speech Events in Two Speech Databases of Human-Computer and Human-Human Dialogs in Spanish

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    Rodriguez, Luis J.; Torres, M. Ines

    2006-01-01

    Previous works in English have revealed that disfluencies follow regular patterns and that incorporating them into the language model of a speech recognizer leads to lower perplexities and sometimes to a better performance. Although work on disfluency modeling has been applied outside the English community (e.g., in Japanese), as far as we know…

  12. Speech Adaptation to Kinematic Recording Sensors: Perceptual and Acoustic Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromey, Christopher; Hunter, Elise; Nissen, Shawn L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study used perceptual and acoustic measures to examine the time course of speech adaptation after the attachment of electromagnetic sensor coils to the tongue, lips, and jaw. Method: Twenty native English speakers read aloud stimulus sentences before the attachment of the sensors, immediately after attachment, and again 5, 10, 15,…

  13. Omission of definite and indefinite articles in the spontaneous speech of agrammatic speakers with Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, E.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Cross-linguistic investigation of agrammatic speech in speakers of different languages allows us to tests theoretical accounts of the nature of agrammatism. A significant feature of the speech of many agrammatic speakers is a problem with article production. Mansson and Ahlsen (2001)

  14. [Spontaneous speech prosody and discourse analysis in schizophrenia and Fronto Temporal Dementia (FTD) patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Angela; Felizzola Donado, Carlos Alberto; Matallana Eslava, Diana Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) in their linguistic variants share some language characteristics such as the lexical access difficulties, disordered speech with disruptions, many pauses, interruptions and reformulations. For the schizophrenia patients it reflects a difficulty of affect expression, while for the FTD patients it reflects a linguistic issue. This study, through an analysis of a series of cases assessed Clinic both in memory and on the Mental Health Unit of HUSI-PUJ (Hospital Universitario San Ignacio), with additional language assessment (analysis speech and acoustic analysis), present distinctive features of the DFT in its linguistic variants and schizophrenia that will guide the specialist in finding early markers of a differential diagnosis. In patients with FTD language variants, in 100% of cases there is a difficulty understanding linguistic structure of complex type; and important speech fluency problems. In patients with schizophrenia, there are significant alterations in the expression of the suprasegmental elements of speech, as well as disruptions in discourse. We present how depth language assessment allows to reassess some of the rules for the speech and prosody analysis of patients with dementia and schizophrenia; we suggest how elements of speech are useful in guiding the diagnosis and correlate functional compromise in everyday psychiatrist's practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. A data repository and analysis framework for spontaneous neural activity recordings in developing retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglen, Stephen John; Weeks, Michael; Jessop, Mark; Simonotto, Jennifer; Jackson, Tom; Sernagor, Evelyne

    2014-03-26

    During early development, neural circuits fire spontaneously, generating activity episodes with complex spatiotemporal patterns. Recordings of spontaneous activity have been made in many parts of the nervous system over the last 25 years, reporting developmental changes in activity patterns and the effects of various genetic perturbations. We present a curated repository of multielectrode array recordings of spontaneous activity in developing mouse and ferret retina. The data have been annotated with minimal metadata and converted into HDF5. This paper describes the structure of the data, along with examples of reproducible research using these data files. We also demonstrate how these data can be analysed in the CARMEN workflow system. This article is written as a literate programming document; all programs and data described here are freely available. 1. We hope this repository will lead to novel analysis of spontaneous activity recorded in different laboratories. 2. We encourage published data to be added to the repository. 3. This repository serves as an example of how multielectrode array recordings can be stored for long-term reuse.

  16. Functionally Equivalent Variants in a Non-standard Variety and Their Implications for Universal Grammar: A Spontaneous Speech Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Leivada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings from the field of experimental linguistics have shown that a native speaker may judge a variant that is part of her grammar as unacceptable, but still use it productively in spontaneous speech. The process of eliciting acceptability judgments from speakers of non-standard languages is sometimes clouded by factors akin to prescriptive notions of grammatical correctness. It has been argued that standardization enhances the ability to make clear-cut judgments, while non-standardization may result to grammatical hybridity, often manifested in the form of functionally equivalent variants in the repertoire of a single speaker. Recognizing the importance of working with corpora of spontaneous speech, this work investigates patterns of variation in the spontaneous production of five neurotypical, adult speakers of a non-standard variety in terms of three variants, each targeting one level of linguistic analysis: syntax, morphology, and phonology. The results reveal the existence of functionally equivalent variants across speakers and levels of analysis. We first discuss these findings in relation to the notions of competing, mixed, and fused grammars, and then we flesh out the implications that different values of the same variant carry for parametric approaches to Universal Grammar. We observe that intraspeaker realizations of different values of the same variant within the same syntactic environment are incompatible with the ‘triggering-a-single-value’ approach of parametric models, but we argue that they are compatible with the concept of Universal Grammar itself. Since the analysis of these variants is ultimately a way of investigating the status of Universal Grammar primitives, we conclude that claims about the alleged unfalsifiability of (the contents of Universal Grammar are unfounded.

  17. Functionally Equivalent Variants in a Non-standard Variety and Their Implications for Universal Grammar: A Spontaneous Speech Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivada, Evelina; Papadopoulou, Elena; Pavlou, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Findings from the field of experimental linguistics have shown that a native speaker may judge a variant that is part of her grammar as unacceptable, but still use it productively in spontaneous speech. The process of eliciting acceptability judgments from speakers of non-standard languages is sometimes clouded by factors akin to prescriptive notions of grammatical correctness. It has been argued that standardization enhances the ability to make clear-cut judgments, while non-standardization may result to grammatical hybridity, often manifested in the form of functionally equivalent variants in the repertoire of a single speaker. Recognizing the importance of working with corpora of spontaneous speech, this work investigates patterns of variation in the spontaneous production of five neurotypical, adult speakers of a non-standard variety in terms of three variants, each targeting one level of linguistic analysis: syntax, morphology, and phonology. The results reveal the existence of functionally equivalent variants across speakers and levels of analysis. We first discuss these findings in relation to the notions of competing, mixed, and fused grammars, and then we flesh out the implications that different values of the same variant carry for parametric approaches to Universal Grammar. We observe that intraspeaker realizations of different values of the same variant within the same syntactic environment are incompatible with the 'triggering-a-single-value' approach of parametric models, but we argue that they are compatible with the concept of Universal Grammar itself. Since the analysis of these variants is ultimately a way of investigating the status of Universal Grammar primitives, we conclude that claims about the alleged unfalsifiability of (the contents of) Universal Grammar are unfounded.

  18. Transitioning from Analog to Digital Audio Recording in Childhood Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Mcsweeny, Jane L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Chial, Michael R.; Green, Jordan R.; Hauner, Katherina K.; Moore, Christopher A.; Rusiewicz, Heather L.; Wilson, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Few empirical findings or technical guidelines are available on the current transition from analog to digital audio recording in childhood speech sound disorders. Of particular concern in the present context was whether a transition from analog- to digital-based transcription and coding of prosody and voice features might require re-standardizing…

  19. Does the Recording Medium Influence Phonetic Transcription of Cleft Palate Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintö, Kristina; Lohmander, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent years, analyses of cleft palate speech based on phonetic transcriptions have become common. However, the results vary considerably among different studies. It cannot be excluded that differences in assessment methodology, including the recording medium, influence the results. Aims: To compare phonetic transcriptions from…

  20. The retrieval and inflection of verbs in the spontaneous speech of fluent aphasic speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    Fluent aphasia of the anomic and Wernicke's type is characterized by word retrieval difficulties. However, in fluent aphasic speech, grammatical deviations have been observed as well. There is debate as to whether these grammatical problems are caused by the word retrieval deficit, by an additional

  1. Polynomial Modeling of Child and Adult Intonation in German Spontaneous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    In a data set of 291 spontaneous utterances from German 5-year-olds, 7-year-olds and adults, nuclear pitch contours were labeled manually using the GToBI annotation system. Ten different contour types were identified.The fundamental frequency (F0) of these contours was modeled using third-order orthogonal polynomials, following an approach similar…

  2. Decoding Speech With Integrated Hybrid Signals Recorded From the Human Ventral Motor Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ibayashi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of speech communication for locked-in patients by means of brain computer interfaces (BCIs is currently an important area of active research. Among the neural signals obtained from intracranial recordings, single/multi-unit activity (SUA/MUA, local field potential (LFP, and electrocorticography (ECoG are good candidates for an input signal for BCIs. However, the question of which signal or which combination of the three signal modalities is best suited for decoding speech production remains unverified. In order to record SUA, LFP, and ECoG simultaneously from a highly localized area of human ventral sensorimotor cortex (vSMC, we fabricated an electrode the size of which was 7 by 13 mm containing sparsely arranged microneedle and conventional macro contacts. We determined which signal modality is the most capable of decoding speech production, and tested if the combination of these signals could improve the decoding accuracy of spoken phonemes. Feature vectors were constructed from spike frequency obtained from SUAs and event-related spectral perturbation derived from ECoG and LFP signals, then input to the decoder. The results showed that the decoding accuracy for five spoken vowels was highest when features from multiple signals were combined and optimized for each subject, and reached 59% when averaged across all six subjects. This result suggests that multi-scale signals convey complementary information for speech articulation. The current study demonstrated that simultaneous recording of multi-scale neuronal activities could raise decoding accuracy even though the recording area is limited to a small portion of cortex, which is advantageous for future implementation of speech-assisting BCIs.

  3. Lexical Access in Persian Normal Speakers: Picture Naming, Verbal Fluency and Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadat Ghoreishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lexical access is the process by which the basic conceptual, syntactical and morpho-phonological information of words are activated. Most studies of lexical access have focused on picture naming. There is hardly any previous research on other parameters of lexical access such as verbal fluency and analysis of connected speech in Persian normal participants. This study investigates the lexical access performance in normal speakers in different issues such as age, sex and education. Methods: The performance of 120 adult Persian speakers in three tasks including picture naming, verbal fluency and connected speech, was examined using "Persian Lexical Access Assessment Package”. The performance of participants between two gender groups (male/female, three education groups (below 5 years, above 12 years, between 5 and 12 years and three age groups (18-35 years, 36-55 years, 56-75 years were compared. Results: According to findings, picture naming increased with increasing education and decreased with increasing age. The performance of participants in phonological and semantic verbal fluency showed improvement with age and education. No significant difference was seen between males and females in verbal fluency task. In the analysis of connected speech there were no significant differences between different age and education groups and just mean length of utterance in males was significantly higher than females. Discussion: The findings could be a primitive scale for comparison between normal subjects and patients in lexical access tasks, furthermore it could be a horizon for planning of treatment goals in patients with word finding problem according to age, gender and education.

  4. AGGLOMERATIVE CLUSTERING OF SOUND RECORD SPEECH SEGMENTS BASED ON BAYESIAN INFORMATION CRITERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yu. Kydashev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the detailed description of agglomerative clustering system implementation for speech segments based on Bayesian information criterion. Numerical experiment results with different acoustic features, as well as the full and diagonal covariance matrices application are given. The error rate DER equal to 6.4% for audio records of radio «Svoboda» was achieved by means of designed system.

  5. Discourse Intonation and Information Structure: An Empirical Study of Existential There Constructions in Non-native Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Judit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of given and new information is one of the key components of accomplishing coherence in oral discourse, which is claimed to be a problematic area for language learners (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, and Thurrell 1995: 14. Research on discourse intonation proposes that instead of the given/new dichotomy, givenness should be viewed as a continuum, with different types of accessibility (Baumann & Grice 2006. Moreover, Prince (1992 previously categorized information structure into Hearer-old/Hearer-new and Discourse-old/Discourse-new information. There is consensus on the fact that focus or prominence associated with new information is marked with nuclear pitch accent, and its main acoustic cue, fundamental frequency (f0 (Ward & Birner 2001: 120. Non-native intonation has been reported to display numerous differences in f0 range and patterns compared to native speech (Wennerstrom 1994; Baker 2010. This study is an attempt to address the issue of marking information structure in existential there sentences by means of f0 in non-native spontaneous speech. Data originates from task-based interactions in the Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English (Van Engen et al. 2010. This paper examines two issues: (1 information structure in relation to the notions of givenness and different types of accessibility (Baumann & Grice 2006 and to Prince’s (1992 multidimensional taxonomy and (2 the use of f0 peaks to mark the prominence of new information. Several differences were measured among native speakers regarding the use of f0, sentence type, and complexity.

  6. Do long-term tongue piercings affect speech quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Esther; Birkholz, Peter; Willmes, Klaus; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane

    2017-10-01

    To explore possible effects of tongue piercing on perceived speech quality. Using a quasi-experimental design, we analyzed the effect of tongue piercing on speech in a perception experiment. Samples of spontaneous speech and read speech were recorded from 20 long-term pierced and 20 non-pierced individuals (10 males, 10 females each). The individuals having a tongue piercing were recorded with attached and removed piercing. The audio samples were blindly rated by 26 female and 20 male laypersons and by 5 female speech-language pathologists with regard to perceived speech quality along 5 dimensions: speech clarity, speech rate, prosody, rhythm and fluency. We found no statistically significant differences for any of the speech quality dimensions between the pierced and non-pierced individuals, neither for the read nor for the spontaneous speech. In addition, neither length nor position of piercing had a significant effect on speech quality. The removal of tongue piercings had no effects on speech performance either. Rating differences between laypersons and speech-language pathologists were not dependent on the presence of a tongue piercing. People are able to perfectly adapt their articulation to long-term tongue piercings such that their speech quality is not perceptually affected.

  7. A multimodal dataset of spontaneous speech and movement production on object affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatakis, Argiro; Pastra, Katerina

    2016-01-19

    In the longstanding effort of defining object affordances, a number of resources have been developed on objects and associated knowledge. These resources, however, have limited potential for modeling and generalization mainly due to the restricted, stimulus-bound data collection methodologies adopted. To-date, therefore, there exists no resource that truly captures object affordances in a direct, multimodal, and naturalistic way. Here, we present the first such resource of 'thinking aloud', spontaneously-generated verbal and motoric data on object affordances. This resource was developed from the reports of 124 participants divided into three behavioural experiments with visuo-tactile stimulation, which were captured audiovisually from two camera-views (frontal/profile). This methodology allowed the acquisition of approximately 95 hours of video, audio, and text data covering: object-feature-action data (e.g., perceptual features, namings, functions), Exploratory Acts (haptic manipulation for feature acquisition/verification), gestures and demonstrations for object/feature/action description, and reasoning patterns (e.g., justifications, analogies) for attributing a given characterization. The wealth and content of the data make this corpus a one-of-a-kind resource for the study and modeling of object affordances.

  8. Classification of intended phoneme production from chronic intracortical microelectrode recordings in speech motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Brumberg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a neurophysiological study of attempted speech production in a paralyzed human volunteer using chronic microelectrode recordings. The volunteer suffers from locked-in syndrome leaving him in a state of near-total paralysis, though he maintains good cognition and sensation. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of supervised classification techniques for prediction of intended phoneme production in the absence of any overt movements including speech. Such classification or decoding ability has the potential to greatly improve the quality-of-life of many people who are otherwise unable to speak by providing a direct communicative link to the general community. We examined the performance of three classifiers on a multi-class discrimination problem in which the items were 38 American English phonemes including monophthong and diphthong vowels and consonants. The three classifiers differed in performance, but averaged between 16-21% overall accuracy (chance-level is 1/38 or 2.6%. Further, the distribution of phonemes classified statistically above chance was non-uniform though 20 of 38 phonemes were classified with statistical significance for all three classifiers. These preliminary results suggest supervised classification techniques are capable of performing large scale multi-class discrimination for attempted speech production and may provide the basis for future communication prostheses.

  9. Investigating Perceptual Biases, Data Reliability, and Data Discovery in a Methodology for Collecting Speech Errors From Audio Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, John; Davies, Monica

    2018-04-01

    This work describes a methodology of collecting speech errors from audio recordings and investigates how some of its assumptions affect data quality and composition. Speech errors of all types (sound, lexical, syntactic, etc.) were collected by eight data collectors from audio recordings of unscripted English speech. Analysis of these errors showed that: (i) different listeners find different errors in the same audio recordings, but (ii) the frequencies of error patterns are similar across listeners; (iii) errors collected "online" using on the spot observational techniques are more likely to be affected by perceptual biases than "offline" errors collected from audio recordings; and (iv) datasets built from audio recordings can be explored and extended in a number of ways that traditional corpus studies cannot be.

  10. Inferior frontal oscillations reveal visuo-motor matching for actions and speech: evidence from human intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halje, Pär; Seeck, Margitta; Blanke, Olaf; Ionta, Silvio

    2015-12-01

    The neural correspondence between the systems responsible for the execution and recognition of actions has been suggested both in humans and non-human primates. Apart from being a key region of this visuo-motor observation-execution matching (OEM) system, the human inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) is also important for speech production. The functional overlap of visuo-motor OEM and speech, together with the phylogenetic history of the IFG as a motor area, has led to the idea that speech function has evolved from pre-existing motor systems and to the hypothesis that an OEM system may exist also for speech. However, visuo-motor OEM and speech OEM have never been compared directly. We used electrocorticography to analyze oscillations recorded from intracranial electrodes in human fronto-parieto-temporal cortex during visuo-motor (executing or visually observing an action) and speech OEM tasks (verbally describing an action using the first or third person pronoun). The results show that neural activity related to visuo-motor OEM is widespread in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Speech OEM also elicited widespread responses partly overlapping with visuo-motor OEM sites (bilaterally), including frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Interestingly a more focal region, the inferior frontal gyrus (bilaterally), showed both visuo-motor OEM and speech OEM properties independent of orolingual speech-unrelated movements. Building on the methodological advantages in human invasive electrocorticography, the present findings provide highly precise spatial and temporal information to support the existence of a modality-independent action representation system in the human brain that is shared between systems for performing, interpreting and describing actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterizing Intonation Deficit in Motor Speech Disorders: An Autosegmental-Metrical Analysis of Spontaneous Speech in Hypokinetic Dysarthria, Ataxic Dysarthria, and Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowit, Anja; Kuschmann, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The autosegmental-metrical (AM) framework represents an established methodology for intonational analysis in unimpaired speaker populations but has found little application in describing intonation in motor speech disorders (MSDs). This study compared the intonation patterns of unimpaired participants (CON) and those with Parkinson's…

  12. Two Methods of Automatic Evaluation of Speech Signal Enhancement Recorded in the Open-Air MRI Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Frollo, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    The paper focuses on two methods of evaluation of successfulness of speech signal enhancement recorded in the open-air magnetic resonance imager during phonation for the 3D human vocal tract modeling. The first approach enables to obtain a comparison based on statistical analysis by ANOVA and hypothesis tests. The second method is based on classification by Gaussian mixture models (GMM). The performed experiments have confirmed that the proposed ANOVA and GMM classifiers for automatic evaluation of the speech quality are functional and produce fully comparable results with the standard evaluation based on the listening test method.

  13. High-Tc superconducting quantum interference device recordings of spontaneous brain activity: Towards high-Tc magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öisjöen, F.; Schneiderman, J. F.; Figueras, G. A.; Chukharkin, M. L.; Kalabukhov, A.; Hedström, A.; Elam, M.; Winkler, D.

    2012-03-01

    We have performed single- and two-channel high transition temperature (high-Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of spontaneous brain activity in two healthy human subjects. We demonstrate modulation of two well-known brain rhythms: the occipital alpha rhythm and the mu rhythm found in the motor cortex. We further show that despite higher noise-levels compared to their low-Tc counterparts, high-Tc SQUIDs can be used to detect and record physiologically relevant brain rhythms with comparable signal-to-noise ratios. These results indicate the utility of high-Tc technology in MEG recordings of a broader range of brain activity.

  14. Fostering Spontaneous Visual Attention in Children on the Autism Spectrum: A Proof-of-Concept Study Comparing Singing and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grace Anne; Abel, Larry Allen

    2018-01-22

    Children on the autism spectrum are reported to have lower rates of social gaze as early as toddlerhood, and this pattern persists across the lifespan. Finding ways to promote more natural and spontaneous engagement in social interactions may help to boost developmental opportunities in the child's home and community settings. This proof-of-concept study hypothesized that a video of a singer would elicit more attention to the performer, particularly to her face, than a video of her reading a story, and that the child's familiarity with the material would enhance attention. Sixteen children on the autism spectrum (7-10 years old) watched 4 videos 1 min long comprising a favorite song or story, and an unfamiliar song and story. Eye movements were recorded, and three-way repeated measures ANOVAs examined the proportion of total valid visual dwell time and fixations, in each trial and each target area. For proportion of both dwell time and fixation counts, children were significantly more likely to look at the performer's face and body and less at the prop during singing than story-telling and when familiar rather than unfamiliar material was presented. These findings raise important issues for supporting children to naturally initiate looking toward a person's face. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Children on the autism spectrum may have difficulty looking at people, particularly their faces. In this study, children watched videos of someone singing or reading a story. The results show that children look more at the person if they were singing and if the story was familiar to them. Using songs and familiar stories may be a way to help children with autism to naturally engage with others. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prevalence of spontaneous Brugada ECG pattern recorded at standard intercostal leads: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shaobo; Barajas-Martinez, Hector; Liu, Tao; Sun, Yaxun; Yang, Bo; Huang, Congxin; Hu, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Typical Brugada ECG pattern is the keystone in the diagnosis of Brugada syndrome. However, the exact prevalence remains unclear, especially in Asia. The present study was designed to systematically evaluate the prevalence of spontaneous Brugada ECG pattern recorded at standard leads. We searched the Medline, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for studies of the prevalence of Brugada ECG pattern, published between Jan 1, 2003, and September 1, 2016. Pooled prevalence of type 1 and type 2-3 Brugada ECG pattern were estimated in a random-effects model, and group prevalence data by the characteristic of studies. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the effect of each study on the overall prevalence. Thirty-nine eligible studies involving 558,689 subjects were identified. Pooled prevalence of type 1 and 2-3 Brugada ECG pattern was 0.03% (95%CI, 0.01%-0.06%), and 0.42% (95%CI, 0.28%-0.59%), respectively. Regions, sample size, year of publication were the main source of heterogeneity. The prevalence of type 1 Brugada ECG pattern was higher in male, Asia, adult, patient, and fever subjects; but the relation between fever and type 2-3 Brugada ECG pattern was not significant. Sensitivity analysis showed that each study did not lonely affect the prevalence of type 1 and type 2-3 Brugada ECG pattern. Brugada ECG pattern is not rare, especially preponderant in adult Asian males, and fever subjects. Clinical screening and further examination of Brugada syndrome in potential population need to be highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Introductory speeches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD is multimedia presentation of programme safety upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. This chapter consist of introductory commentary and 4 introductory speeches (video records): (1) Introductory speech of Vincent Pillar, Board chairman and director general of Slovak electric, Plc. (SE); (2) Introductory speech of Stefan Schmidt, director of SE - Bohunice Nuclear power plants; (3) Introductory speech of Jan Korec, Board chairman and director general of VUJE Trnava, Inc. - Engineering, Design and Research Organisation, Trnava; Introductory speech of Dietrich Kuschel, Senior vice-president of FRAMATOME ANP Project and Engineering

  17. Efficiency and safety of speech recognition for documentation in the electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Tobias; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    To compare the efficiency and safety of using speech recognition (SR) assisted clinical documentation within an electronic health record (EHR) system with use of keyboard and mouse (KBM). Thirty-five emergency department clinicians undertook randomly allocated clinical documentation tasks using KBM or SR on a commercial EHR system. Tasks were simple or complex, and with or without interruption. Outcome measures included task completion times and observed errors. Errors were classed by their potential for patient harm. Error causes were classified as due to IT system/system integration, user interaction, comprehension, or as typographical. User-related errors could be by either omission or commission. Mean task completion times were 18.11% slower overall when using SR compared to KBM (P = .001), 16.95% slower for simple tasks (P = .050), and 18.40% slower for complex tasks (P = .009). Increased errors were observed with use of SR (KBM 32, SR 138) for both simple (KBM 9, SR 75; P documentation, SR was slower and increased the risk of documentation errors, including errors with the potential to cause clinical harm compared to KBM. Some of the observed increase in errors may be due to suboptimal SR to EHR integration and workflow. Use of SR to drive interactive clinical documentation in the EHR requires careful evaluation. Current generation implementations may require significant development before they are safe and effective. Improving system integration and workflow, as well as SR accuracy and user-focused error correction strategies, may improve SR performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  18. First-language raters’ opinions when validating word recordings for a newly developed speech reception threshold test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Panday

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to consider the value of adding first-language speaker ratings to the process of validating word recordings for use in a new speech reception threshold (SRT test in audiology. Previous studies had identified 28 word recordings as being suitable for use in a new SRT test. These word recordings had been shown to satisfy the linguistic criteria of familiarity, phonetic dissimilarity and tone, and the psychometric criterion of homogeneity of audibility.   Objectives: The aim of the study was to consider the value of adding first-language speakers’ ratings when validating word recordings for a new SRT test.   Method: A single observation, cross-sectional design was used to collect and analyse quantitative data in this study. Eleven first-language isiZulu speakers, purposively selected, were asked to rate each of the word recordings for pitch, clarity, naturalness, speech rate and quality on a 5-point Likert scale. The percent agreement and Friedman test were used for analysis.   Results: More than 20% of these 11 participants rated the three-word recordings below ‘strongly agree’ in the category of pitch or tone, and one-word recording below ‘strongly agree’ in the categories of pitch or tone, clarity or articulation and naturalness or dialect.   Conclusion: The first-language speaker ratings proved to be a valuable addition to the process of selecting word recordings for use in a new SRT test. In particular, these ratings identified potentially problematic word recordings in the new SRT test that had been missed by the previously and more commonly used linguistic and psychometric selection criteria.

  19. Two Methods of Mechanical Noise Reduction of Recorded Speech During Phonation in an MRI devic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibil, J.; Horáček, Jaromír; Horák, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2011), s. 92-98 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/0989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514; CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : speech processing * noise reduction * NMR imaging Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.418, year: 2011

  20. Traceability of Biologics in The Netherlands: An Analysis of Information-Recording Systems in Clinical Practice and Spontaneous ADR Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kevin; Scholl, Joep H G; Vermeer, Niels S; Broekmans, André W; Van Puijenbroek, Eugène P; De Bruin, Marie L; Stolk, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    Pharmacovigilance requirements for biologics mandate that EU Member States shall ensure that any biologic that is the subject of a suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) is identifiable by brand name and batch number. Recent studies showed that brand name identification is well established, whereas batch numbers are (still) poorly reported. We evaluated information-recording systems and practices in the Dutch hospital setting to identify determinants for brand name and batch number recording as well as success factors and bottlenecks for traceability. We surveyed Dutch hospital pharmacists with an online questionnaire on systems and practices in hospitals for recording brand names and batch numbers. Additionally, we performed an analysis of the traceability of recombinant biologics in spontaneous ADR reports (received between 2009 and 2014) from the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb. The survey showed that brand names are not routinely recorded in the clinical practice of Dutch hospitals, whereas batch numbers are poorly recorded. Seventy-six percent of the 1523 ADR reports for recombinant biologics had a traceable brand name whereas 5% of these reports contained a batch number. The results suggest a possible relationship between the availability of brand and batch number information in clinical practice and the inclusion of this information in ADR reports for biologics. The limited traceability of brand names and batch numbers in ADR reports may be primarily caused by the shortcomings in the recording of information in clinical practice. We recommend efforts to improve information-recording systems as a first step to improve the traceability of biologics in ADR reporting.

  1. Gift-giving and network structure in rural China: utilizing long-term spontaneous gift records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The tradition of keeping written records of gift received during household ceremonies in many countries offers researchers an underutilized means of data collection for social network analysis. This paper first summarizes unique features of the gift record data that circumvent five prevailing sampling and measurement issues in the literature, and we discuss their advantages over existing studies at both the individual level and the dyadic link level using previous data sources. We then document our research project in rural China that implements a multiple wave census-type household survey and a long-term gift record collection. The pattern of gift-giving in major household social events and its recent escalation is analyzed. There are significantly positive correlations between gift network centrality and various forms of informal insurance. Finally, economic inequality and competitive marriage market are among the main demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the observed gift network structure.

  2. Gift-giving and network structure in rural China: utilizing long-term spontaneous gift records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available The tradition of keeping written records of gift received during household ceremonies in many countries offers researchers an underutilized means of data collection for social network analysis. This paper first summarizes unique features of the gift record data that circumvent five prevailing sampling and measurement issues in the literature, and we discuss their advantages over existing studies at both the individual level and the dyadic link level using previous data sources. We then document our research project in rural China that implements a multiple wave census-type household survey and a long-term gift record collection. The pattern of gift-giving in major household social events and its recent escalation is analyzed. There are significantly positive correlations between gift network centrality and various forms of informal insurance. Finally, economic inequality and competitive marriage market are among the main demographic and socioeconomic determinants of the observed gift network structure.

  3. Secure access to patient's health records using SpeechXRays a mutli-channel biometrics platform for user authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Emmanouil G; Spanakis, Marios; Karantanas, Apostolos; Marias, Kostas

    2016-08-01

    The most commonly used method for user authentication in ICT services or systems is the application of identification tools such as passwords or personal identification numbers (PINs). The rapid development in ICT technology regarding smart devices (laptops, tablets and smartphones) has allowed also the advance of hardware components that capture several biometric traits such as fingerprints and voice. These components are aiming among others to overcome weaknesses and flaws of password usage under the prism of improved user authentication with higher level of security, privacy and usability. To this respect, the potential application of biometrics for secure user authentication regarding access in systems with sensitive data (i.e. patient's data from electronic health records) shows great potentials. SpeechXRays aims to provide a user recognition platform based on biometrics of voice acoustics analysis and audio-visual identity verification. Among others, the platform aims to be applied as an authentication tool for medical personnel in order to gain specific access to patient's electronic health records. In this work a short description of SpeechXrays implementation tool regarding eHealth is provided and analyzed. This study explores security and privacy issues, and offers a comprehensive overview of biometrics technology applications in addressing the e-Health security challenges. We present and describe the necessary requirement for an eHealth platform concerning biometric security.

  4. Analysis of Intonation Patterns in Cantonese Aphasia Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tan; Lam, Wang Kong; Kong, Anthony Pak Hin; Law, Sam Po

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a study on intonation patterns in Cantonese aphasia speech. The speech materials were spontaneous discourse recorded from seven pairs of aphasic and unimpaired speakers. Hidden Markov model based forced alignment was applied to obtain syllable-level time alignments. The pitch level of each syllable was determined and normalized according to the given tone identity of the syllable. Linear regression of the normalized pitch levels was performed to describe the intonation patterns of sentences. It was found that aphasic speech has a higher percentage of sentences with increasing pitch. This trend was found to be more prominent in story-telling than descriptive discourses.

  5. Fast Keyword Spotting in Telephone Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we present a system designed for detecting keywords in telephone speech. We focus not only on achieving high accuracy but also on very short processing time. The keyword spotting system can run in three modes: a an off-line mode requiring less than 0.1xRT, b an on-line mode with minimum (2 s latency, and c a repeated spotting mode, in which pre-computed values allow for additional acceleration. Its performance is evaluated on recordings of Czech spontaneous telephone speech using rather large and complex keyword lists.

  6. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Learning phonemic vowel length from naturalistic recordings of Japanese infant-directed speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A H Bion

    Full Text Available In Japanese, vowel duration can distinguish the meaning of words. In order for infants to learn this phonemic contrast using simple distributional analyses, there should be reliable differences in the duration of short and long vowels, and the frequency distribution of vowels must make these differences salient enough in the input. In this study, we evaluate these requirements of phonemic learning by analyzing the duration of vowels from over 11 hours of Japanese infant-directed speech. We found that long vowels are substantially longer than short vowels in the input directed to infants, for each of the five oral vowels. However, we also found that learning phonemic length from the overall distribution of vowel duration is not going to be easy for a simple distributional learner, because of the large base-rate effect (i.e., 94% of vowels are short, and because of the many factors that influence vowel duration (e.g., intonational phrase boundaries, word boundaries, and vowel height. Therefore, a successful learner would need to take into account additional factors such as prosodic and lexical cues in order to discover that duration can contrast the meaning of words in Japanese. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account the naturalistic distributions of lexicons and acoustic cues when modeling early phonemic learning.

  8. Combined nonlinear metrics to evaluate spontaneous EEG recordings from chronic spinal cord injury in a rat model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jiangbo; Xu, Hanhui; Wang, Yazhou; Cui, Hongyan; Hu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a high-cost disability and may cause permanent loss of movement and sensation below the injury location. The chance of cure in human after SCI is extremely limited. Instead, neural regeneration could have been seen in animals after SCI, and such regeneration could be retarded by blocking neural plasticity pathways, showing the importance of neural plasticity in functional recovery. As an indicator of nonlinear dynamics in the brain, sample entropy was used here in combination with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and Kolmogorov complexity to quantify functional plasticity changes in spontaneous EEG recordings of rats before and after SCI. The results showed that the sample entropy values were decreased at the first day following injury then gradually increased during recovery. DFA and Kolmogorov complexity results were in consistent with sample entropy, showing the complexity of the EEG time series was lost after injury and partially regained in 1 week. The tendency to regain complexity is in line with the observation of behavioral rehabilitation. A critical time point was found during the recovery process after SCI. Our preliminary results suggested that the combined use of these nonlinear dynamical metrics could provide a quantitative and predictive way to assess the change of neural plasticity in a spinal cord injury rat model.

  9. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Recorded Brainstem versus Cortical Auditory-Evoked Potentials to Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Pousson, Monique; Dugas, Calli; Fehrenbach, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Auditory-evoked potentials have proven useful in the objective evaluation of sound encoding at different stages of the auditory pathway (brainstem and cortex). Yet, their utility for use in clinical assessment and empirical research relies critically on the precision and test-retest repeatability of the measure. To determine how subcortical/cortical classes of auditory neural responses directly compare in terms of their internal consistency and test-retest reliability within and between listeners. A descriptive cohort study describing the dispersion of electrophysiological measures. Eight young, normal-hearing female listeners. We recorded auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), brainstem frequency-following responses (FFRs), and cortical (P1-N1-P2) auditory-evoked potentials elicited by speech sounds in the same set of listeners. We reassessed responses within each of four different test sessions over a period of 1 mo, allowing us to detect possible changes in latency/amplitude characteristics with finer detail than in previous studies. Our findings show that brainstem and cortical amplitude/latency measures are remarkably stable; with the exception of slight prolongation of the P1 wave, we found no significant variation in any response measure. Intraclass correlation analysis revealed that the speech-evoked FFR amplitude and latency measures achieved superior repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.85) among the more widely used obligatory brainstem (ABR) and cortical (P1-N1-P2) auditory-evoked potentials. Contrasting these intersubject effects, intrasubject variability (i.e., within-subject coefficient of variation) revealed that while latencies were more stable than amplitudes, brainstem and cortical responses did not differ in their variability at the single subject level. We conclude that (1) the variability of auditory neural responses increases with ascending level along the auditory neuroaxis (cortex > brainstem) between subjects but remains

  10. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2014-01-01

    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  11. Segmentation cues in conversational speech: robust semantics and fragile phonotactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laurence; Mattys, Sven L; Wiget, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Multiple cues influence listeners' segmentation of connected speech into words, but most previous studies have used stimuli elicited in careful readings rather than natural conversation. Discerning word boundaries in conversational speech may differ from the laboratory setting. In particular, a speaker's articulatory effort - hyperarticulation vs. hypoarticulation (H&H) - may vary according to communicative demands, suggesting a compensatory relationship whereby acoustic-phonetic cues are attenuated when other information sources strongly guide segmentation. We examined how listeners' interpretation of segmentation cues is affected by speech style (spontaneous conversation vs. read), using cross-modal identity priming. To elicit spontaneous stimuli, we used a map task in which speakers discussed routes around stylized landmarks. These landmarks were two-word phrases in which the strength of potential segmentation cues - semantic likelihood and cross-boundary diphone phonotactics - was systematically varied. Landmark-carrying utterances were transcribed and later re-recorded as read speech. Independent of speech style, we found an interaction between cue valence (favorable/unfavorable) and cue type (phonotactics/semantics). Thus, there was an effect of semantic plausibility, but no effect of cross-boundary phonotactics, indicating that the importance of phonotactic segmentation may have been overstated in studies where lexical information was artificially suppressed. These patterns were unaffected by whether the stimuli were elicited in a spontaneous or read context, even though the difference in speech styles was evident in a main effect. Durational analyses suggested speaker-driven cue trade-offs congruent with an H&H account, but these modulations did not impact on listener behavior. We conclude that previous research exploiting read speech is reliable in indicating the primacy of lexically based cues in the segmentation of natural conversational speech.

  12. Segmentation cues in conversational speech: Robust semantics and fragile phonotactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eWhite

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cues influence listeners’ segmentation of connected speech into words, but most previous studies have used stimuli elicited in careful readings rather than natural conversation. Discerning word boundaries in conversational speech may differ from the laboratory setting. In particular, a speaker’s articulatory effort – hyperarticulation vs hypoarticulation (H&H – may vary according to communicative demands, suggesting a compensatory relationship whereby acoustic-phonetic cues are attenuated when other information sources strongly guide segmentation. We examined how listeners’ interpretation of segmentation cues is affected by speech style (spontaneous conversation vs read, using cross-modal identity priming. To elicit spontaneous stimuli, we used a map task in which speakers discussed routes around stylised landmarks. These landmarks were two-word phrases in which the strength of potential segmentation cues – semantic likelihood and cross-boundary diphone phonotactics – was systematically varied. Landmark-carrying utterances were transcribed and later re-recorded as read speech.Independent of speech style, we found an interaction between cue valence (favourable/unfavourable and cue type (phonotactics/semantics. Thus, there was an effect of semantic plausibility, but no effect of cross-boundary phonotactics, indicating that the importance of phonotactic segmentation may have been overstated in studies where lexical information was artificially suppressed. These patterns were unaffected by whether the stimuli were elicited in a spontaneous or read context, even though the difference in speech styles was evident in a main effect. Durational analyses suggested speaker-driven cue trade-offs congruent with an H&H account, but these modulations did not impact on listener behaviour. We conclude that previous research exploiting read speech is reliable in indicating the primacy of lexically-based cues in the segmentation of natural

  13. Machine Translation from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    This chapter describes approaches for translation from speech. Translation from speech presents two new issues. First, of course, we must recognize the speech in the source language. Although speech recognition has improved considerably over the last three decades, it is still far from being a solved problem. In the best of conditions, when the speech comes from high quality, carefully enunciated speech, on common topics (such as speech read by a trained news broadcaster), the word error rate is typically on the order of 5%. Humans can typically transcribe speech like this with less than 1% disagreement between annotators, so even this best number is still far worse than human performance. However, the task gets much harder when anything changes from this ideal condition. Some of the conditions that cause higher error rate are, if the topic is somewhat unusual, or the speakers are not reading so that their speech is more spontaneous, or if the speakers have an accent or are speaking a dialect, or if there is any acoustic degradation, such as noise or reverberation. In these cases, the word error can increase significantly to 20%, 30%, or higher. Accordingly, most of this chapter discusses techniques for improving speech recognition accuracy, while one section discusses techniques for integrating speech recognition with translation.

  14. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  15. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  16. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  17. A prepared speech in front of a pre-recorded audience: subjective, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses to the Leiden Public Speaking Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, P Michiel; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Miers, Anne C; Sumter, Sindy R; Kallen, Victor L; van Pelt, Johannes; Blöte, Anke W

    2009-10-01

    This study describes a new public speaking protocol for youth. The main question asked whether a speech prepared at home and given in front of a pre-recorded audience creates a condition of social-evaluative threat. Findings showed that, on average, this task elicits a moderate stress response in a community sample of 83 12- to 15-year-old adolescents. During the speech, participants reported feeling more nervous and having higher heart rate and sweatiness of the hands than at baseline or recovery. Likewise, physiological (heart rate and skin conductance) and neuroendocrine (cortisol) activity were higher during the speech than at baseline or recovery. Additionally, an anticipation effect was observed: baseline levels were higher than recovery levels for most variables. Taking the anticipation and speech response together, a substantial cortisol response was observed for 55% of participants. The findings indicate that the Leiden Public Speaking Task might be particularly suited to investigate individual differences in sensitivity to social-evaluative situations.

  18. Speech Acts during Friends' and Non-Friends' Spontaneous Conversations in Preschool Dyads with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Golan-Itshaky, Adi; Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we videotaped two 10-min. free-play interactions and coded speech acts (SAs) in peer talk of 51 preschoolers (21 ASD, 30 typical), interacting with friend versus non-friend partners. Groups were matched for maternal education, IQ (verbal/nonverbal), and CA. We compared SAs by group (ASD/typical), by partner's friendship status…

  19. Experimental investigation on spontaneously active hippocampal cultures recorded by means of high-density MEAs: analysis of the spatial resolution effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Maccione

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on experiments performed with high-resolution Active Pixel Sensor microelectrode arrays (APS-MEAs coupled with spontaneously active hippocampal cultures, this work investigates the spatial resolution effects of the neuroelectronic interface on the analysis of the recorded electrophysiological signals. The adopted methodology consists, first, in recording the spontaneous activity at the highest spatial resolution (inter-electrode separation of 21 µm from the whole array of 4096 microelectrodes. Then, the full resolution dataset is spatially down sampled in order to evaluate the effects on raster plot representation, array-wide spike rate (AWSR, mean firing rate (MFR and mean bursting rate (MBR. Furthermore, the effects of the array-to-network relative position are evaluated by shifting a subset of equally spaced electrodes on the entire recorded area. Results highlight that MFR and MBR are particularly influenced by the spatial resolution provided by the neuroelectronic interface. On high-resolution large MEAs, such analysis better represent the time-based parameterization of the network dynamics. Finally, this work suggest interesting capabilities of high-resolution MEAs for spatial-based analysis in dense and low-dense neuronal preparation for investigating signalling at both local and global neuronal circuitries.

  20. Prosodic Contrasts in Ironic Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic features in spontaneous speech help disambiguate implied meaning not explicit in linguistic surface structure, but little research has examined how these signals manifest themselves in real conversations. Spontaneously produced verbal irony utterances generated between familiar speakers in conversational dyads were acoustically analyzed…

  1. Perceived liveliness and speech comprehensibility in aphasia : the effects of direct speech in auditory narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in 'healthy' communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to

  2. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  3. Feasibility study to assess clinical applications of 3-T cine MRI coupled with synchronous audio recording during speech in evaluation of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagar, Pallavi; Nimkin, Katherine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-08-16

    In the past decade, there has been increased utilization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating and understanding velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). To our knowledge, none of the prior studies with MRI has simultaneously linked the audio recordings of speech during cine MRI acquisition with the corresponding images and created a video for evaluating VPI. To develop an MRI protocol with static and cine sequences during phonation to evaluate for VPI in children and compare the findings to nasopharyngoscopy and videofluoroscopy. Five children, ages 8-16 years, with known VPI, who had previously undergone nasopharyngoscopy and videofluoroscopy, were included. MRI examination was performed on a 3-T Siemens scanner. Anatomical data was obtained using an isotropic T2-weighted 3-D SPACE sequence with multiplanar reformation capability. Dynamic data was obtained using 2-D FLASH cine sequences of the airway in three imaging planes during phonation. Audio recordings were captured by a MRI compatible optical microphone. All five cases had MRI and nasopharyngoscopy and four had videofluoroscopy performed. VPI was identified by MRI in all five patients. The location and severity of the velopharyngeal gap, closure pattern, velar size and shape and levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle were identified in all patients. MRI was superior in visualizing the integrity of the LVP muscle. MRI was unable to identify hemipalatal weakness in one case. In a case of stress-induced VPI, occurring only during clarinet playing, cine MRI demonstrated discordant findings of a velopharyngeal gap during phonatory tasks but not with instrument playing. Overall, there was satisfactory correlation among MRI, nasopharyngoscopy and videofluoroscopy findings. Cine MRI of the airway during speech is a noninvasive, well-tolerated diagnostic imaging tool that has the potential to serve as a guide prior to and after surgical correction of VPI. MRI provided superior anatomical detail of the levator

  4. Feasibility study to assess clinical applications of 3-T cine MRI coupled with synchronous audio recording during speech in evaluation of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Pallavi; Nimkin, Katherine

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, there has been increased utilization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating and understanding velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). To our knowledge, none of the prior studies with MRI has simultaneously linked the audio recordings of speech during cine MRI acquisition with the corresponding images and created a video for evaluating VPI. To develop an MRI protocol with static and cine sequences during phonation to evaluate for VPI in children and compare the findings to nasopharyngoscopy and videofluoroscopy. Five children, ages 8-16 years, with known VPI, who had previously undergone nasopharyngoscopy and videofluoroscopy, were included. MRI examination was performed on a 3-T Siemens scanner. Anatomical data was obtained using an isotropic T2-weighted 3-D SPACE sequence with multiplanar reformation capability. Dynamic data was obtained using 2-D FLASH cine sequences of the airway in three imaging planes during phonation. Audio recordings were captured by a MRI compatible optical microphone. All five cases had MRI and nasopharyngoscopy and four had videofluoroscopy performed. VPI was identified by MRI in all five patients. The location and severity of the velopharyngeal gap, closure pattern, velar size and shape and levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle were identified in all patients. MRI was superior in visualizing the integrity of the LVP muscle. MRI was unable to identify hemipalatal weakness in one case. In a case of stress-induced VPI, occurring only during clarinet playing, cine MRI demonstrated discordant findings of a velopharyngeal gap during phonatory tasks but not with instrument playing. Overall, there was satisfactory correlation among MRI, nasopharyngoscopy and videofluoroscopy findings. Cine MRI of the airway during speech is a noninvasive, well-tolerated diagnostic imaging tool that has the potential to serve as a guide prior to and after surgical correction of VPI. MRI provided superior anatomical detail of the levator

  5. Feasibility study to assess clinical applications of 3-T cine MRI coupled with synchronous audio recording during speech in evaluation of velopharyngeal insufficiency in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, Pallavi; Nimkin, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been increased utilization of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating and understanding velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). To our knowledge, none of the prior studies with MRI has simultaneously linked the audio recordings of speech during cine MRI acquisition with the corresponding images and created a video for evaluating VPI. To develop an MRI protocol with static and cine sequences during phonation to evaluate for VPI in children and compare the findings to nasopharyngoscopy and videofluoroscopy. Five children, ages 8-16 years, with known VPI, who had previously undergone nasopharyngoscopy and videofluoroscopy, were included. MRI examination was performed on a 3-T Siemens scanner. Anatomical data was obtained using an isotropic T2-weighted 3-D SPACE sequence with multiplanar reformation capability. Dynamic data was obtained using 2-D FLASH cine sequences of the airway in three imaging planes during phonation. Audio recordings were captured by a MRI compatible optical microphone. All five cases had MRI and nasopharyngoscopy and four had videofluoroscopy performed. VPI was identified by MRI in all five patients. The location and severity of the velopharyngeal gap, closure pattern, velar size and shape and levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle were identified in all patients. MRI was superior in visualizing the integrity of the LVP muscle. MRI was unable to identify hemipalatal weakness in one case. In a case of stress-induced VPI, occurring only during clarinet playing, cine MRI demonstrated discordant findings of a velopharyngeal gap during phonatory tasks but not with instrument playing. Overall, there was satisfactory correlation among MRI, nasopharyngoscopy and videofluoroscopy findings. Cine MRI of the airway during speech is a noninvasive, well-tolerated diagnostic imaging tool that has the potential to serve as a guide prior to and after surgical correction of VPI. MRI provided superior anatomical detail of the levator

  6. Speech Entrainment Compensates for Broca's Area Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to speech entrainment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during speech entrainment versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of speech entrainment to improve speech production and may help select patients for speech entrainment treatment. PMID:25989443

  7. Speech and voice rehabilitation in selected patients fitted with a bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J

    1996-01-01

    With the Birmingham osseointegrated implant programme there have been several patients with severe pre-lingual conductive hearing loss. The majority of these have been patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. There are characteristic features of speech and voice in those with long-standing conductive hearing loss. In addition, the associated abnormalities of jaw, teeth and palate may amplify the problem. There may be spontaneous improvement in features such as voice pitch, quality and intensity following the fitting of a BAHA. However, in those with a pre-lingual hearing impairment, speech therapy may be necessary. Patients assessed as suitable for BAHA have a full assessment of communication skills including audio recording of speech and voice. Post-operative training improves auditory discrimination and perception and is followed by training in the production of the newly perceived speech sounds.

  8. Chronic recordings reveal tactile stimuli can suppress spontaneous activity of neurons in somatosensory cortex of awake and anesthetized primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L; Franca, Joao G; Jain, Neeraj; Kajikawa, Yoshinao; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-04-01

    In somatosensory cortex, tactile stimulation within the neuronal receptive field (RF) typically evokes a transient excitatory response with or without postexcitatory inhibition. Here, we describe neuronal responses in which stimulation on the hand is followed by suppression of the ongoing discharge. With the use of 16-channel microelectrode arrays implanted in the hand representation of primary somatosensory cortex of New World monkeys and prosimian galagos, we recorded neuronal responses from single units and neuron clusters. In 66% of our sample, neuron activity tended to display suppression of firing when regions of skin outside of the excitatory RF were stimulated. In a small proportion of neurons, single-site indentations suppressed firing without initial increases in response to any of the tested sites on the hand. Latencies of suppressive responses to skin indentation (usually 12-34 ms) were similar to excitatory response latencies. The duration of inhibition varied across neurons. Although most observations were from anesthetized animals, we also found similar neuron response properties in one awake galago. Notably, suppression of ongoing neuronal activity did not require conditioning stimuli or multi-site stimulation. The suppressive effects were generally seen following single-site skin indentations outside of the neuron's minimal RF and typically on different digits and palm pads, which have not often been studied in this context. Overall, the characteristics of widespread suppressive or inhibitory response properties with and without initial facilitative or excitatory responses add to the growing evidence that neurons in primary somatosensory cortex provide essential processing for integrating sensory stimulation from across the hand. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  10. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-03-17

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs.

  11. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs

  12. Pattern recognition in speech and language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Wu

    2003-01-01

    Minimum Classification Error (MSE) Approach in Pattern Recognition, Wu ChouMinimum Bayes-Risk Methods in Automatic Speech Recognition, Vaibhava Goel and William ByrneA Decision Theoretic Formulation for Adaptive and Robust Automatic Speech Recognition, Qiang HuoSpeech Pattern Recognition Using Neural Networks, Shigeru KatagiriLarge Vocabulary Speech Recognition Based on Statistical Methods, Jean-Luc GauvainToward Spontaneous Speech Recognition and Understanding, Sadaoki FuruiSpeaker Authentication, Qi Li and Biing-Hwang JuangHMMs for Language Processing Problems, Ri

  13. Investigation of the Reationship between Hand Gestures and Speech in Adults Who Stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Barikrou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gestures of the hands and arms have long been observed to accompany speech in spontaneous conversation. However, the way in which these two modes of expression are related in production is not yet fully understood. So, the present study aims to investigate the spontaneous gestures that accompany speech in adults who stutter in comparison to fluent controls.  Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional and comparative research, ten adults who stutter were selected randomly from speech and language pathology clinics and compared with ten healthy persons as control group who were matched with stutterers according to sex, age and education. The cartoon story-retelling task used to elicit spontaneous gestures that accompany speech. Participants were asked to watch the animation carefully and then retell the storyline in as much detail as possible to a listener sitting across from him or her and his or her narration was video recorded simultaneously. Then recorded utterances and gestures were analyzed. The statistical methods such as Kolmogorov- Smirnov and Independent t-test were used for data analyzing. Results: The results indicated that stutterers in comparison to controls in average use fewer iconic gestures in their narration (P=0.005. Also, stutterers in comparison to controls in average use fewer iconic gestures per each utterance and word (P=0.019. Furthermore, the execution of gesture production during moments of dysfluency revealed that more than 70% of the gestures produced with stuttering were frozen or abandoned at the moment of dysfluency. Conclusion: It seems gesture and speech have such an intricate and deep association that show similar frequency and timing patterns and move completely parallel to each other in such a way that deficit in speech results in deficiency in hand gesture.

  14. Semi-Automated Speech Transcription System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    System) program and was trained on the Wall Street Journal task (described in [recogl], [recog2] and [recog3]). This speech recognizer is a time...quality of Wall Street Journal data (very high) and SWITCHBOARD data (poor), but also because the type of speech in broadcast data is also somewhere...between extremes of read text (the Wall Street Journal data) and spontaneous speech (SWITCHBOARD data). Dragon Systems’ SWITCHBOARD recognizer obtained a

  15. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  16. Speech-to-Speech Relay Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Guide Speech to Speech Relay Service Speech-to-Speech (STS) is one form of Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS). TRS is a service that allows persons with hearing and speech disabilities ...

  17. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  18. Relationship between speech motor control and speech intelligibility in children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Yu, Vickie Y; Kadis, Darren S; Kroll, Robert; Pang, Elizabeth W; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to investigate the impact of speech motor issues on the speech intelligibility of children with moderate to severe speech sound disorders (SSD) within the context of the PROMPT intervention approach. The word-level Children's Speech Intelligibility Measure (CSIM), the sentence-level Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and tests of speech motor control and articulation proficiency were administered to 12 children (3:11 to 6:7 years) before and after PROMPT therapy. PROMPT treatment was provided for 45 min twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-four naïve adult listeners aged 22-46 years judged the intelligibility of the words and sentences. For CSIM, each time a recorded word was played to the listeners they were asked to look at a list of 12 words (multiple-choice format) and circle the word while for BIT sentences, the listeners were asked to write down everything they heard. Words correctly circled (CSIM) or transcribed (BIT) were averaged across three naïve judges to calculate percentage speech intelligibility. Speech intelligibility at both the word and sentence level was significantly correlated with speech motor control, but not articulatory proficiency. Further, the severity of speech motor planning and sequencing issues may potentially be a limiting factor in connected speech intelligibility and highlights the need to target these issues early and directly in treatment. The reader will be able to: (1) outline the advantages and disadvantages of using word- and sentence-level speech intelligibility tests; (2) describe the impact of speech motor control and articulatory proficiency on speech intelligibility; and (3) describe how speech motor control and speech intelligibility data may provide critical information to aid treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An optimal speech processor for efficient human speech ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    above, the speech signal is recorded at 21739 Hz for English subjects and 20000 Hz for. Cantonese and Georgian subjects. We downsampled the speech signals to 16 kHz for our anal- ysis. Using these parallel acoustic and articulatory data from Cantonese and Georgian, we will be able to examine our communication ...

  20. Speech Characteristics and Intelligibility in Adults with Mild and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens-Hofman, Marjolein C; Terband, Hayo; Snik, Ad F M; Maassen, Ben A M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show reduced speech intelligibility, which affects their social interaction skills. This study aims to establish the main predictors of this reduced intelligibility in order to ultimately optimise management. METHOD: Spontaneous speech and

  1. Speech characteristics and intelligibility in adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens-Hofman, , Marjolein; Terband, H.R.; Snik, A.F.M.; Maassen, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show reduced speech intelligibility, which affects their social interaction skills. This study aims to establish the main predictors of this reduced intelligibility in order to ultimately optimise management. Method: Spontaneous speech and

  2. Neurophysiology of Speech Differences in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  3. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.

  4. The contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data: acoustic and articulatory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mota, Helena Bolli; Berti, Larissa Cristina

    2017-06-08

    This study used acoustic and articulatory analyses to characterize the contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data, comparing the parameters (acoustic and articulatory) of adults and children with typical speech development. The sample consisted of 20 adults and 15 children with typical speech development. The analyzed corpus was organized through five repetitions of each target-word (/'kap ə/, /'tapə/, /'galo/ e /'daɾə/). These words were inserted into a carrier phrase and the participant was asked to name them spontaneously. Simultaneous audio and video data were recorded (tongue ultrasound images). The data was submitted to acoustic analyses (voice onset time; spectral peak and burst spectral moments; vowel/consonant transition and relative duration measures) and articulatory analyses (proportion of significant axes of the anterior and posterior tongue regions and description of tongue curves). Acoustic and articulatory parameters were effective to indicate the contrast between alveolar and velar stops, mainly in the adult group. Both speech analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The acoustic and articulatory parameters provided signals to characterize the phonic contrast of speech. One of the main findings in the comparison between adult and child speech was evidence of articulatory refinement/maturation even after the period of segment acquisition.

  5. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca’s aphasia to produce fluent speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca’s aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect ‘speech entrainment’ and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca’s aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca’s aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca’s area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production

  6. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-25

    collection of deceptive and non-deceptive speech recorded from interviews between native speaker of Mandarin and of English instructed to answer...report, such as final, technical, interim, memorandum, master’s thesis, progress , quarterly, research, special, group study, etc. 3. DATES COVERED...non-deceptive speech recorded from interviews between native speaker of Mandarin and of English and are currently completing the use of this data to

  7. Neural Entrainment to Speech Modulates Speech Intelligibility

    OpenAIRE

    Riecke, Lars; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina; Baskent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and acoustic speech signal, listening task, and speech intelligibility have been observed repeatedly. However, a methodological bottleneck has prevented so far clarifying whether speech-brain entrainme...

  8. Características iniciais da comunicação verbal de pré-escolares com Alterações Específicas do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem em fala espontânea Primary characteristics of the verbal communication of preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment in spontaneous speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Maria Befi-Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar desempenho fonológico de pré-escolares com Alterações Específicas do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem (AEDL em fala espontânea. MÉTODOS: Foram sujeitos 27 crianças com AEDL, entre três anos e cinco anos e 11 meses, em tratamento fonoaudiológico. Foram selecionados aqueles que realizaram ao menos 50% da avaliação da fonologia a partir de provas de nomeação e imitação de palavras, ou que apresentaram inteligibilidade de fala passível de análise. Foram coletadas amostras de fala na prova de pragmática e no discurso eliciado por figuras. Foram realizadas análises a partir da utilização de processos fonológicos do desenvolvimento de linguagem (PD e idiossincráticos (PI. RESULTADOS: A estatística descritiva (médias de PD e PI indicou grande variabilidade intra-grupos. Não houve variação em número de processos conforme a idade (PD: p=0,38; PI: p=0,72, porém houve predominância de PD em todas as idades, nas duas provas aplicadas (Z=-6,327; pPURPOSE: To verify the phonological performance of preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment (SLI in spontaneous speech. METHODS: The subjects were 27 children with SLI with ages between three years and five years and 11 months, who attended Speech-Language Pathology therapy. The subjects who carried out at least 50% of the phonological assessment or who had speech intelligibility that allowed analysis were selected. Speech samples were obtained from a pragmatics evaluation and from elicited discourse. Analyses considered the use of developmental (DP and idiossyncratic phonological processes (IP in spontaneous speech. RESULTS: The descriptive statistics (mean DP and IP showed large within-group variability. There was no variation in the number of processes according to age (DP: p=0.38; IP: p=0.72, but there was a prevalence of DP in all ages, in both tests (Z=-6.327; p<0.001. The occurrence of DP and IP was higher in the pragmatics evaluation (p<0.001, situation in

  9. Speech Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are placed in the mouth, much like an orthodontic retainer. The two most common types are 1) the speech bulb and 2) the palatal lift. The speech bulb is designed to partially close off the space between the soft palate and the throat. The palatal lift appliance serves to lift the soft palate to a ...

  10. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  11. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  12. Words from spontaneous conversational speech can be recognized with human-like accuracy by an error-driven learning algorithm that discriminates between meanings straight from smart acoustic features, bypassing the phoneme as recognition unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Arnold

    Full Text Available Sound units play a pivotal role in cognitive models of auditory comprehension. The general consensus is that during perception listeners break down speech into auditory words and subsequently phones. Indeed, cognitive speech recognition is typically taken to be computationally intractable without phones. Here we present a computational model trained on 20 hours of conversational speech that recognizes word meanings within the range of human performance (model 25%, native speakers 20-44%, without making use of phone or word form representations. Our model also generates successfully predictions about the speed and accuracy of human auditory comprehension. At the heart of the model is a 'wide' yet sparse two-layer artificial neural network with some hundred thousand input units representing summaries of changes in acoustic frequency bands, and proxies for lexical meanings as output units. We believe that our model holds promise for resolving longstanding theoretical problems surrounding the notion of the phone in linguistic theory.

  13. Memory for speech and speech for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L; Kutz, K J

    1975-03-01

    Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.

  14. Multimodal Speech Capture System for Speech Rehabilitation and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebkhi, Nordine; Desai, Dhyey; Islam, Mohammad; Lu, Jun; Wilson, Kimberly; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-11-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are trained to correct articulation of people diagnosed with motor speech disorders by analyzing articulators' motion and assessing speech outcome while patients speak. To assist SLPs in this task, we are presenting the multimodal speech capture system (MSCS) that records and displays kinematics of key speech articulators, the tongue and lips, along with voice, using unobtrusive methods. Collected speech modalities, tongue motion, lips gestures, and voice are visualized not only in real-time to provide patients with instant feedback but also offline to allow SLPs to perform post-analysis of articulators' motion, particularly the tongue, with its prominent but hardly visible role in articulation. We describe the MSCS hardware and software components, and demonstrate its basic visualization capabilities by a healthy individual repeating the words "Hello World." A proof-of-concept prototype has been successfully developed for this purpose, and will be used in future clinical studies to evaluate its potential impact on accelerating speech rehabilitation by enabling patients to speak naturally. Pattern matching algorithms to be applied to the collected data can provide patients with quantitative and objective feedback on their speech performance, unlike current methods that are mostly subjective, and may vary from one SLP to another.

  15. Compressed Speech: Potential Application for Air Force Technical Training. Final Report, August 73-November 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, K. Anne

    Time-compressed speech (also called compressed speech, speeded speech, or accelerated speech) is an extension of the normal recording procedure for reproducing the spoken word. Compressed speech can be used to achieve dramatic reductions in listening time without significant loss in comprehension. The implications of such temporal reductions in…

  16. Neural entrainment to speech modulates speech intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riecke, Lars; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina; Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and

  17. Neural Entrainment to Speech Modulates Speech Intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riecke, Lars; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina; Baskent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and

  18. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  19. Measuring Speech Comprehensibility in Students with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Camarata, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There is an ongoing need to develop assessments of spontaneous speech that focus on whether the child's utterances are comprehensible to listeners. This study sought to identify the attributes of a stable ratings-based measure of speech comprehensibility, which enabled examining the criterion-related validity of an orthography-based…

  20. The Motivational Function of Private Speech: An Experimental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, M. J.; Montero, I.

    Recently, some works have been published exploring the role of private speech as a tool for motivation, reaching beyond the classical research on its regulatory function for cognitive processes such as attention or executive function. In fact, the authors' own previous research has shown that a moderate account of spontaneous private speech of…

  1. Minimal Pair Distinctions and Intelligibility in Preschool Children with and without Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Megan M.; Gotzke, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    Listeners' identification of young children's productions of minimally contrastive words and predictive relationships between accurately identified words and intelligibility scores obtained from a 100-word spontaneous speech sample were determined for 36 children with typically developing speech (TDS) and 36 children with speech sound disorders…

  2. Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Apraxia of Speech On this page: What is apraxia of speech? ... additional information about apraxia of speech? What is apraxia of speech? Apraxia of speech (AOS)—also known as acquired ...

  3. Multisensory integration of speech sounds with letters vs. visual speech: only visual speech induces the mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Keetels, Mirjam; Vroomen, Jean

    2018-03-14

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the vision of lip movements can alter the perception of auditory speech syllables (McGurk effect). While there is ample evidence for integration of text and auditory speech, there are only a few studies on the orthographic equivalent of the McGurk effect. Here, we examined whether written text, like visual speech, can induce an illusory change in the perception of speech sounds on both the behavioural and neural levels. In a sound categorization task, we found that both text and visual speech changed the identity of speech sounds from an /aba/-/ada/ continuum, but the size of this audiovisual effect was considerably smaller for text than visual speech. To examine at which level in the information processing hierarchy these multisensory interactions occur, we recorded electroencephalography in an audiovisual mismatch negativity (MMN, a component of the event-related potential reflecting preattentive auditory change detection) paradigm in which deviant text or visual speech was used to induce an illusory change in a sequence of ambiguous sounds halfway between /aba/ and /ada/. We found that only deviant visual speech induced an MMN, but not deviant text, which induced a late P3-like positive potential. These results demonstrate that text has much weaker effects on sound processing than visual speech does, possibly because text has different biological roots than visual speech. © 2018 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of cognitive function and dysarthria on spoken language and perceived speech severity in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenaughty, Lynda

    Purpose: The current study sought to investigate the separate effects of dysarthria and cognitive status on global speech timing, speech hesitation, and linguistic complexity characteristics and how these speech behaviors impose on listener impressions for three connected speech tasks presumed to differ in cognitive-linguistic demand for four carefully defined speaker groups; 1) MS with cognitive deficits (MSCI), 2) MS with clinically diagnosed dysarthria and intact cognition (MSDYS), 3) MS without dysarthria or cognitive deficits (MS), and 4) healthy talkers (CON). The relationship between neuropsychological test scores and speech-language production and perceptual variables for speakers with cognitive deficits was also explored. Methods: 48 speakers, including 36 individuals reporting a neurological diagnosis of MS and 12 healthy talkers participated. The three MS groups and control group each contained 12 speakers (8 women and 4 men). Cognitive function was quantified using standard clinical tests of memory, information processing speed, and executive function. A standard z-score of ≤ -1.50 indicated deficits in a given cognitive domain. Three certified speech-language pathologists determined the clinical diagnosis of dysarthria for speakers with MS. Experimental speech tasks of interest included audio-recordings of an oral reading of the Grandfather passage and two spontaneous speech samples in the form of Familiar and Unfamiliar descriptive discourse. Various measures of spoken language were of interest. Suprasegmental acoustic measures included speech and articulatory rate. Linguistic speech hesitation measures included pause frequency (i.e., silent and filled pauses), mean silent pause duration, grammatical appropriateness of pauses, and interjection frequency. For the two discourse samples, three standard measures of language complexity were obtained including subordination index, inter-sentence cohesion adequacy, and lexical diversity. Ten listeners

  5. Automatic Smoker Detection from Telephone Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavijeh, Amir Hossein Poorjam; Hesaraki, Soheila; Safavi, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic smoking habit detection from spontaneous telephone speech signals. In this method, each utterance is modeled using i-vector and non-negative factor analysis (NFA) frameworks, which yield low-dimensional representation of utterances by applying factor analysis on G...

  6. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  7. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, P.; Vopicka, J.; Hanzl, V.; Sovka, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo) speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  8. Pet-directed speech draws adult dogs’ attention more efficiently than Adult-directed speech

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannin, Sarah; Gilbert, Caroline; Amy, Mathieu; Leboucher, Gérard

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Humans speak to dogs using a special speech register called Pet-Directed Speech (PDS) which is very similar to Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) used by parents when talking to young infants. These two type of speech share prosodic features that are distinct from the typical Adult-Directed Speech (ADS): a high pitched voice and an increased pitch variation. So far, only one study has investigated the effect of PDS on dogs' attention. We video recorded 44 adult pet dogs and ...

  9. Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    and their performance bounded and assessed in terms of noise reduction and speech distortion. The book shows how various filter designs can be obtained in this framework, including the maximum SNR, Wiener, LCMV, and MVDR filters, and how these can be applied in various contexts, like in single-channel and multichannel...

  10. 78 FR 49717 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...] Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities... Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay...

  11. Rhythmic Priming Enhances the Phonological Processing of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Nia; Schon, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    While natural speech does not possess the same degree of temporal regularity found in music, there is recent evidence to suggest that temporal regularity enhances speech processing. The aim of this experiment was to examine whether speech processing would be enhanced by the prior presentation of a rhythmical prime. We recorded electrophysiological…

  12. Method and apparatus for obtaining complete speech signals for speech recognition applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash, Victor (Inventor); Cesari, Federico (Inventor); Franco, Horacio (Inventor); George, Christopher (Inventor); Zheng, Jing (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for obtaining complete speech signals for speech recognition applications. In one embodiment, the method continuously records an audio stream comprising a sequence of frames to a circular buffer. When a user command to commence or terminate speech recognition is received, the method obtains a number of frames of the audio stream occurring before or after the user command in order to identify an augmented audio signal for speech recognition processing. In further embodiments, the method analyzes the augmented audio signal in order to locate starting and ending speech endpoints that bound at least a portion of speech to be processed for recognition. At least one of the speech endpoints is located using a Hidden Markov Model.

  13. An integrated approach to improving noisy speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Serguei; Stolbov, Mikhail; Smirnova, Natalia; Khitrov, Mikhail

    2002-05-01

    For a number of practical purposes and tasks, experts have to decode speech recordings of very poor quality. A combination of techniques is proposed to improve intelligibility and quality of distorted speech messages and thus facilitate their comprehension. Along with the application of noise cancellation and speech signal enhancement techniques removing and/or reducing various kinds of distortions and interference (primarily unmasking and normalization in time and frequency fields), the approach incorporates optimal listener expert tactics based on selective listening, nonstandard binaural listening, accounting for short-term and long-term human ear adaptation to noisy speech, as well as some methods of speech signal enhancement to support speech decoding during listening. The approach integrating the suggested techniques ensures high-quality ultimate results and has successfully been applied by Speech Technology Center experts and by numerous other users, mainly forensic institutions, to perform noisy speech records decoding for courts, law enforcement and emergency services, accident investigation bodies, etc.

  14. Speech Intelligibility Evaluation for Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Cubick, Jens; Dau, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    In the development process of modern telecommunication systems, such as mobile phones, it is common practice to use computer models to objectively evaluate the transmission quality of the system, instead of time-consuming perceptual listening tests. Such models have typically focused on the quality...... of the transmitted speech, while little or no attention has been provided to speech intelligibility. The present study investigated to what extent three state-of-the art speech intelligibility models could predict the intelligibility of noisy speech transmitted through mobile phones. Sentences from the Danish...... Dantale II speech material were mixed with three different kinds of background noise, transmitted through three different mobile phones, and recorded at the receiver via a local network simulator. The speech intelligibility of the transmitted sentences was assessed by six normal-hearing listeners...

  15. [Prosodic analysis of speech of patient affected by peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, M; Mauclair, J; Lannadere, E; Tankéré, F; Lamas, G; Gatignol, P

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study of prosody in facial palsy is to assess the intensity of pathology in suprasegmental viewpoint in order to establish a proper rehabilitation. Patients were recorded during a reading and spontaneous speech test and a prosodic observation of speech spectrogram provided by Praat software. The Accentual Groups lowering and significant dysprosodics elements (adverse effects and breaking balance) and a larger amount of disfluencies showed that the prosody of patients with facial palsy is altered because they need to swallow their saliva intentionally. Then, the decrease of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) and the opinion of the jury highlight a decrease in desire to communicate and a loss of speech informativeness. In patients with severe facial palsy, there is an impact of swallowing disorder (caused by salivary stasis) on the prosody of speech, with variations in the position of intonations boundaries and the intensity of prosodic marking. This also creates impact on fluency and on the perception of the message by the listener.

  16. An acoustical assessment of pitch-matching accuracy in relation to speech frequency, speech frequency range, age and gender in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    This study investigated the relationship between acoustical measurement of singing accuracy in relationship to speech fundamental frequency, speech fundamental frequency range, age and gender in preschool-aged children. Seventy subjects from Southeastern Pennsylvania; the San Francisco Bay Area, California; and Terre Haute, Indiana, participated in the study. Speech frequency was measured by having the subjects participate in spontaneous and guided speech activities with the researcher, with 18 diverse samples extracted from each subject's recording for acoustical analysis for fundamental frequency in Hz with the CSpeech computer program. The fundamental frequencies were averaged together to derive a mean speech frequency score for each subject. Speech range was calculated by subtracting the lowest fundamental frequency produced from the highest fundamental frequency produced, resulting in a speech range measured in increments of Hz. Singing accuracy was measured by having the subjects each echo-sing six randomized patterns using the pitches Middle C, D, E, F♯, G and A (440), using the solfege syllables of Do and Re, which were recorded by a 5-year-old female model. For each subject, 18 samples of singing were recorded. All samples were analyzed by the CSpeech for fundamental frequency. For each subject, deviation scores in Hz were derived by calculating the difference between what the model sang in Hz and what the subject sang in response in Hz. Individual scores for each child consisted of an overall mean total deviation frequency, mean frequency deviations for each pattern, and mean frequency deviation for each pitch. Pearson correlations, MANOVA and ANOVA analyses, Multiple Regressions and Discriminant Analysis revealed the following findings: (1) moderate but significant (p E, F♯, G and A in the study; (2) mean speech frequency also emerged as the strongest predictor of subjects' ability to sing the notes E and F♯; (3) mean speech frequency correlated

  17. Speech Databases of Typical Children and Children with SLI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Grill

    Full Text Available The extent of research on children's speech in general and on disordered speech specifically is very limited. In this article, we describe the process of creating databases of children's speech and the possibilities for using such databases, which have been created by the LANNA research group in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at Czech Technical University in Prague. These databases have been principally compiled for medical research but also for use in other areas, such as linguistics. Two databases were recorded: one for healthy children's speech (recorded in kindergarten and in the first level of elementary school and the other for pathological speech of children with a Specific Language Impairment (recorded at a surgery of speech and language therapists and at the hospital. Both databases were sub-divided according to specific demands of medical research. Their utilization can be exoteric, specifically for linguistic research and pedagogical use as well as for studies of speech-signal processing.

  18. Clear Speech Modifications in Children Aged 6-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Griffin Lijding

    Modifications to speech production made by adult talkers in response to instructions to speak clearly have been well documented in the literature. Targeting adult populations has been motivated by efforts to improve speech production for the benefit of the communication partners, however, many adults also have communication partners who are children. Surprisingly, there is limited literature on whether children can change their speech production when cued to speak clearly. Pettinato, Tuomainen, Granlund, and Hazan (2016) showed that by age 12, children exhibited enlarged vowel space areas and reduced articulation rate when prompted to speak clearly, but did not produce any other adult-like clear speech modifications in connected speech. Moreover, Syrett and Kawahara (2013) suggested that preschoolers produced longer and more intense vowels when prompted to speak clearly at the word level. These findings contrasted with adult talkers who show significant temporal and spectral differences between speech produced in control and clear speech conditions. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to analyze changes in temporal and spectral characteristics of speech production that children aged 6-10 made in these experimental conditions. It is important to elucidate the clear speech profile of this population to better understand which adult-like clear speech modifications they make spontaneously and which modifications are still developing. Understanding these baselines will advance future studies that measure the impact of more explicit instructions and children's abilities to better accommodate their interlocutors, which is a critical component of children's pragmatic and speech-motor development.

  19. 78 FR 49693 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...] Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities... amends telecommunications relay services (TRS) mandatory minimum standards applicable to Speech- to...

  20. Automatic Speech Recognition Systems for the Evaluation of Voice and Speech Disorders in Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Maier; Tino Haderlein; Florian Stelzle; Elmar Nöth; Emeka Nkenke; Frank Rosanowski; Anne Schützenberger; Maria Schuster

    2010-01-01

    In patients suffering from head and neck cancer, speech intelligibility is often restricted. For assessment and outcome measurements, automatic speech recognition systems have previously been shown to be appropriate for objective and quick evaluation of intelligibility. In this study we investigate the applicability of the method to speech disorders caused by head and neck cancer. Intelligibility was quantified by speech recognition on recordings of a standard text read by 41 German laryngect...

  1. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  2. Developmental profile of speech-language and communicative functions in an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B; Vollmann, Ralf; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Green, Vanessa A; van der Meer, Larah; Wolin, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-08-01

    We assessed various aspects of speech-language and communicative functions of an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome (RTT) to describe her developmental profile over a period of 11 years. For this study, we incorporated the following data resources and methods to assess speech-language and communicative functions during pre-, peri- and post-regressional development: retrospective video analyses, medical history data, parental checklists and diaries, standardized tests on vocabulary and grammar, spontaneous speech samples and picture stories to elicit narrative competences. Despite achieving speech-language milestones, atypical behaviours were present at all times. We observed a unique developmental speech-language trajectory (including the RTT typical regression) affecting all linguistic and socio-communicative sub-domains in the receptive as well as the expressive modality. Future research should take into consideration a potentially considerable discordance between formal and functional language use by interpreting communicative acts on a more cautionary note.

  3. Multimicrophone Speech Dereverberation: Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Dereverberation is required in various speech processing applications such as handsfree telephony and voice-controlled systems, especially when signals are applied that are recorded in a moderately or highly reverberant environment. In this paper, we compare a number of classical and more recently developed multimicrophone dereverberation algorithms, and validate the different algorithmic settings by means of two performance indices and a speech recognition system. It is found that some of the classical solutions obtain a moderate signal enhancement. More advanced subspace-based dereverberation techniques, on the other hand, fail to enhance the signals despite their high-computational load.

  4. Recognizing intentions in infant-directed speech: evidence for universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A; Barrett, H Clark

    2007-08-01

    In all languages studied to date, distinct prosodic contours characterize different intention categories of infant-directed (ID) speech. This vocal behavior likely exists universally as a species-typical trait, but little research has examined whether listeners can accurately recognize intentions in ID speech using only vocal cues, without access to semantic information. We recorded native-English-speaking mothers producing four intention categories of utterances (prohibition, approval, comfort, and attention) as both ID and adult-directed (AD) speech, and we then presented the utterances to Shuar adults (South American hunter-horticulturalists). Shuar subjects were able to reliably distinguish ID from AD speech and were able to reliably recognize the intention categories in both types of speech, although performance was significantly better with ID speech. This is the first demonstration that adult listeners in an indigenous, nonindustrialized, and nonliterate culture can accurately infer intentions from both ID speech and AD speech in a language they do not speak.

  5. Cortical activity patterns predict robust speech discrimination ability in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetake, Jai A.; Wolf, Jordan T.; Cheung, Ryan J.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Ram, Satyananda K.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support speech discrimination in noisy conditions are poorly understood. In quiet conditions, spike timing information appears to be used in the discrimination of speech sounds. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that spike timing is also used to distinguish between speech sounds in noisy conditions that significantly degrade neural responses to speech sounds. We tested speech sound discrimination in rats and recorded primary auditory cortex (A1) responses to speech sounds in background noise of different intensities and spectral compositions. Our behavioral results indicate that rats, like humans, are able to accurately discriminate consonant sounds even in the presence of background noise that is as loud as the speech signal. Our neural recordings confirm that speech sounds evoke degraded but detectable responses in noise. Finally, we developed a novel neural classifier that mimics behavioral discrimination. The classifier discriminates between speech sounds by comparing the A1 spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked on single trials with the average spatiotemporal patterns evoked by known sounds. Unlike classifiers in most previous studies, this classifier is not provided with the stimulus onset time. Neural activity analyzed with the use of relative spike timing was well correlated with behavioral speech discrimination in quiet and in noise. Spike timing information integrated over longer intervals was required to accurately predict rat behavioral speech discrimination in noisy conditions. The similarity of neural and behavioral discrimination of speech in noise suggests that humans and rats may employ similar brain mechanisms to solve this problem. PMID:22098331

  6. Standardization of Speech Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-jun Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech corpus is the basis for analyzing the characteristics of speech signals and developing speech synthesis and recognition systems. In China, almost all speech research and development affiliations are developing their own speech corpora. We have so many different kinds numbers of Chinese speech corpora that it is important to be able to conveniently share these speech corpora to avoid wasting time and money and to make research work more efficient. The primary goal of this research is to find a standard scheme which can make the corpus be established more efficiently and be used or shared more easily. A huge speech corpus on 10 regional accented Chinese, RASC863 (a Regional Accent Speech Corpus funded by National 863 Project will be exemplified to illuminate the standardization of speech corpus production.

  7. Automated acoustic analysis in detection of spontaneous swallows in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Rajaei, Ali; Derakhshan, Mahmoud; Sadri, Saeed; Taheri, Masoud; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-10-01

    Acoustic monitoring of swallow frequency has become important as the frequency of spontaneous swallowing can be an index for dysphagia and related complications. In addition, it can be employed as an objective quantification of ingestive behavior. Commonly, swallowing complications are manually detected using videofluoroscopy recordings, which require expensive equipment and exposure to radiation. In this study, a noninvasive automated technique is proposed that uses breath and swallowing recordings obtained via a microphone located over the laryngopharynx. Nonlinear diffusion filters were used in which a scale-space decomposition of recorded sound at different levels extract swallows from breath sounds and artifacts. This technique was compared to manual detection of swallows using acoustic signals on a sample of 34 subjects with Parkinson's disease. A speech language pathologist identified five subjects who showed aspiration during the videofluoroscopic swallowing study. The proposed automated method identified swallows with a sensitivity of 86.67 %, a specificity of 77.50 %, and an accuracy of 82.35 %. These results indicate the validity of automated acoustic recognition of swallowing as a fast and efficient approach to objectively estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

  8. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J

    1995-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  9. Speech Analysis of Bengali Speaking Children with Repaired Cleft Lip & Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Kumar, Suman; Chatterjee, Indranil; Maheshwari, Neha

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at analyzing speech samples of four Bengali speaking children with repaired cleft palates with a view to differentiate between the misarticulations arising out of a deficit in linguistic skills and structural or motoric limitations. Spontaneous speech samples were collected and subjected to a number of linguistic analyses…

  10. Consonant and Syllable Structure Patterns in Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Developmental Change in Three Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Adam; Marquardt, Thomas P.; Davis, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in consonant and syllable-level error patterns of three children diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) were investigated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed to assess the accuracy of consonants and syllables. Consonant accuracy was low overall, with most frequent errors on middle- and…

  11. Do Native Speakers of North American and Singapore English Differentially Perceive Comprehensibility in Second Language Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Shintani, Natsuko

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the extent to which native speakers of North American and Singapore English differentially perceive the comprehensibility (ease of understanding) of second language (L2) speech. Spontaneous speech samples elicited from 50 Japanese learners of English with various proficiency levels were first rated by 10 Canadian and 10…

  12. Tools for the assessment of childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubiani, Marileda Barichello; Pagliarin, Karina Carlesso; Keske-Soares, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the literature on the main tools used to evaluate childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The search strategy includes Scopus, PubMed, and Embase databases. Empirical studies that used tools for assessing CAS were selected. Articles were selected by two independent researchers. The search retrieved 695 articles, out of which 12 were included in the study. Five tools were identified: Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children, Dynamic Evaluation of Motor Speech Skill, The Orofacial Praxis Test, Kaufman Speech Praxis Test for Children, and Madison Speech Assessment Protocol. There are few instruments available for CAS assessment and most of them are intended to assess praxis and/or orofacial movements, sequences of orofacial movements, articulation of syllables and phonemes, spontaneous speech, and prosody. There are some tests for assessment and diagnosis of CAS. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted at the national level, as well as protocols to assess and assist in an accurate diagnosis.

  13. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Speech and Language Developmental Milestones On this page: How do speech ... and language developmental milestones? How do speech and language develop? The first 3 years of life, when ...

  14. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth / For Parents / Delayed Speech ... their child is right on schedule. How Are Speech and Language Different? Speech is the verbal expression ...

  15. Automatic Speech Signal Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Assessment of Speech Disorders

    CERN Document Server

    Baghai-Ravary, Ladan

    2013-01-01

    Automatic Speech Signal Analysis for Clinical Diagnosis and Assessment of Speech Disorders provides a survey of methods designed to aid clinicians in the diagnosis and monitoring of speech disorders such as dysarthria and dyspraxia, with an emphasis on the signal processing techniques, statistical validity of the results presented in the literature, and the appropriateness of methods that do not require specialized equipment, rigorously controlled recording procedures or highly skilled personnel to interpret results. Such techniques offer the promise of a simple and cost-effective, yet objective, assessment of a range of medical conditions, which would be of great value to clinicians. The ideal scenario would begin with the collection of examples of the clients’ speech, either over the phone or using portable recording devices operated by non-specialist nursing staff. The recordings could then be analyzed initially to aid diagnosis of conditions, and subsequently to monitor the clients’ progress and res...

  16. Free Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Lecture capture technology has advanced to a point where implementing a solution can be disarmingly simple. But it is important for faculty and administrators not to be lulled into a false sense of security--recording faculty and guest lectures still comes with its share of legal issues covering copyright, intellectual property rights,…

  17. Speech and Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum disorder Brain injury Stroke Some speech and communication problems may be genetic. Often, no one knows the causes. By first grade, about 5 percent of children ...

  18. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after age 4 (I want...I want my doll. I...I see you.) Putting in (interjecting) extra ... may outgrow milder forms of speech disorders. Speech therapy may help with more severe symptoms or any ...

  19. Speech rate according to stuttering severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcuri, Cláudia Fassin; Osborn, Ellen; Schiefer, Ana Maria; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2009-01-01

    Speech duration has been the subject of acoustic studies due to its relationship with rhythm and speech rate. The speech analysis of stutterers has revealed data which often differs from that found in non-stutterers. These differences most likely stem from timing disturbances related to speech motor control. To compare the speech rates of individuals presenting different stuttering severity levels. Participants were 6 adult stutterers with the following severity levels: 2 with mild stuttering; 2 with moderate stuttering and 2 with severe stuttering. The words 'cavalo' (horse), 'pipoca' (popcorn) and 'tapete' (carpet) were introduced in a carrier phrase, 'Digo......baixinho' (Say ......in a low voice). Each phrase was uttered by the researcher and then repeated aloud 3 times by the participants while being recorded in a computer. Utterances containing speech disruptions were discarded. Subsequently, timing measurements were made, using the Praat 4.2 software. Utterances were divided into segments delimited by two consecutive voice onsets, and speech rate was then calculated (number of vowel-vowel segments divided by the total sum of duration of the segments). The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA. The group with mild/moderate stuttering presented higher and similar speech rates, differing statistically from the group with severe stuttering, therefore indicating that the higher the severity of stuttering, the lower the speech rate. This difference seems to be related to difficulties in motor programming, affecting mainly the rhythm and the timing of discourse. The rate of fluent speech during a repetition task differentiated the studied individuals according to the severity of stuttering.

  20. Progressive apraxia of speech as a window into the study of speech planning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganaro, Marina; Croisier, Michèle; Bagou, Odile; Assal, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    We present a 3-year follow-up study of a patient with progressive apraxia of speech (PAoS), aimed at investigating whether the theoretical organization of phonetic encoding is reflected in the progressive disruption of speech. As decreased speech rate was the most striking pattern of disruption during the first 2 years, durational analyses were carried out longitudinally on syllables excised from spontaneous, repetition and reading speech samples. The crucial result of the present study is the demonstration of an effect of syllable frequency on duration: the progressive disruption of articulation rate did not affect all syllables in the same way, but followed a gradient that was function of the frequency of use of syllable-sized motor programs. The combination of data from this case of PAoS with previous psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic data, points to a frequency organization of syllable-sized speech-motor plans. In this study we also illustrate how studying PAoS can be exploited in theoretical and clinical investigations of phonetic encoding as it represents a unique opportunity to investigate speech while it progressively disrupts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring Progress in Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients: Relationships between Speech Samples and Scores from the Conditioned Assessment of Speech Production (CASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, David J.; Jung, Jongmin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the concurrent validity of the Conditioned Assessment of Speech Production (CASP; Ertmer & Stoel-Gammon, 2008) and data obtained from speech samples recorded at the same intervals. Method: Nineteen children who are deaf who received cochlear implants before their 3rd birthdays participated in the study. Speech samples and…

  2. Speech evaluation in children with temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aparecida Pizolato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD on speech in children, and to verify the influence of occlusal characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Speech and dental occlusal characteristics were assessed in 152 Brazilian children (78 boys and 74 girls, aged 8 to 12 (mean age 10.05 ± 1.39 years with or without TMD signs and symptoms. The clinical signs were evaluated using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD (axis I and the symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire. The following groups were formed: Group TMD (n=40, TMD signs and symptoms (Group S and S, n=68, TMD signs or symptoms (Group S or S, n=33, and without signs and symptoms (Group N, n=11. Articulatory speech disorders were diagnosed during spontaneous speech and repetition of the words using the "Phonological Assessment of Child Speech" for the Portuguese language. It was also applied a list of 40 phonological balanced words, read by the speech pathologist and repeated by the children. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact or Chi-square tests (α=0.05. RESULTS: A slight prevalence of articulatory disturbances, such as substitutions, omissions and distortions of the sibilants /s/ and /z/, and no deviations in jaw lateral movements were observed. Reduction of vertical amplitude was found in 10 children, the prevalence being greater in TMD signs and symptoms children than in the normal children. The tongue protrusion in phonemes /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/ and frontal lips in phonemes /s/ and /z/ were the most prevalent visual alterations. There was a high percentage of dental occlusal alterations. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between TMD and speech disorders. Occlusal alterations may be factors of influence, allowing distortions and frontal lisp in phonemes /s/ and /z/ and inadequate tongue position in phonemes /t/; /d/; /n/; /l/.

  3. Speech disfluencies in children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; Van Eerdenbrugh, Sabine

    Speech and language development in individuals with Down syndrome is often delayed and/or disordered and speech disfluencies appear to be more common. These disfluencies have been labeled over time as stuttering, cluttering or both. were usually generated from studies with adults or a mixed age group, quite often using different methodologies, making it difficult to compare findings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze and describe the speech disfluencies of a group, only consisting of children with Down Syndrome between 3 and 13 years of age. Participants consisted of 26 Dutch-speaking children with DS. Spontaneous speech samples were collected and 50 utterances were analyzed for each child. Types of disfluencies were identified and classified into stuttering-like (SLD) and other disfluencies (OD). The criterion of three or more SLD per 100 syllables (cf. Ambrose & Yairi, 1999) was used to identify stuttering. Additional parameters such as mean articulation rate (MAR), ratio of disfluencies, and telescoping (cf. Coppens-Hofman et al., 2013) were used to identify cluttering and to differentiate between stuttering and cluttering. Approximately 30 percent of children with DS between 3 and 13 years of age in this study stutter, which is much higher than the prevalence in normally developing children. Moreover, this study showed that the speech of children with DS has a different distribution of types of disfluencies than the speech of normally developing children. Although different cluttering-like characteristics were found in the speech of young children with DS, none of them could be identified as cluttering or cluttering-stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Atypical speech versus non-speech detection and discrimination in 4- to 6- yr old children with autism spectrum disorder: An ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Galilee

    Full Text Available Previous event-related potential (ERP research utilizing oddball stimulus paradigms suggests diminished processing of speech versus non-speech sounds in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. However, brain mechanisms underlying these speech processing abnormalities, and to what extent they are related to poor language abilities in this population remain unknown. In the current study, we utilized a novel paired repetition paradigm in order to investigate ERP responses associated with the detection and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds in 4- to 6-year old children with ASD, compared with gender and verbal age matched controls. ERPs were recorded while children passively listened to pairs of stimuli that were either both speech sounds, both non-speech sounds, speech followed by non-speech, or non-speech followed by speech. Control participants exhibited N330 match/mismatch responses measured from temporal electrodes, reflecting speech versus non-speech detection, bilaterally, whereas children with ASD exhibited this effect only over temporal electrodes in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, while the control groups exhibited match/mismatch effects at approximately 600 ms (central N600, temporal P600 when a non-speech sound was followed by a speech sound, these effects were absent in the ASD group. These findings suggest that children with ASD fail to activate right hemisphere mechanisms, likely associated with social or emotional aspects of speech detection, when distinguishing non-speech from speech stimuli. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of atypical speech versus non-speech processing in children with ASD when compared with typically developing children matched on verbal age.

  6. Atypical speech versus non-speech detection and discrimination in 4- to 6- yr old children with autism spectrum disorder: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galilee, Alena; Stefanidou, Chrysi; McCleery, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research utilizing oddball stimulus paradigms suggests diminished processing of speech versus non-speech sounds in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, brain mechanisms underlying these speech processing abnormalities, and to what extent they are related to poor language abilities in this population remain unknown. In the current study, we utilized a novel paired repetition paradigm in order to investigate ERP responses associated with the detection and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds in 4- to 6-year old children with ASD, compared with gender and verbal age matched controls. ERPs were recorded while children passively listened to pairs of stimuli that were either both speech sounds, both non-speech sounds, speech followed by non-speech, or non-speech followed by speech. Control participants exhibited N330 match/mismatch responses measured from temporal electrodes, reflecting speech versus non-speech detection, bilaterally, whereas children with ASD exhibited this effect only over temporal electrodes in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, while the control groups exhibited match/mismatch effects at approximately 600 ms (central N600, temporal P600) when a non-speech sound was followed by a speech sound, these effects were absent in the ASD group. These findings suggest that children with ASD fail to activate right hemisphere mechanisms, likely associated with social or emotional aspects of speech detection, when distinguishing non-speech from speech stimuli. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of atypical speech versus non-speech processing in children with ASD when compared with typically developing children matched on verbal age.

  7. Temporal modulations in speech and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nai; Patel, Aniruddh D; Chen, Lin; Butler, Henry; Luo, Cheng; Poeppel, David

    2017-10-01

    Speech and music have structured rhythms. Here we discuss a major acoustic correlate of spoken and musical rhythms, the slow (0.25-32Hz) temporal modulations in sound intensity and compare the modulation properties of speech and music. We analyze these modulations using over 25h of speech and over 39h of recordings of Western music. We show that the speech modulation spectrum is highly consistent across 9 languages (including languages with typologically different rhythmic characteristics). A different, but similarly consistent modulation spectrum is observed for music, including classical music played by single instruments of different types, symphonic, jazz, and rock. The temporal modulations of speech and music show broad but well-separated peaks around 5 and 2Hz, respectively. These acoustically dominant time scales may be intrinsic features of speech and music, a possibility which should be investigated using more culturally diverse samples in each domain. Distinct modulation timescales for speech and music could facilitate their perceptual analysis and its neural processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surgical speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tianjie; Sie, Kathleen C Y

    2014-11-01

    Most speech disorders of childhood are treated with speech therapy. However, two conditions, ankyloglossia and velopharyngeal dysfunction, may be amenable to surgical intervention. It is important for surgeons to work with experienced speech language pathologists to diagnose the speech disorder. Children with articulation disorders related to ankyloglossia may benefit from frenuloplasty. Children with velopharyngeal dysfunction should have standardized clinical evaluation and instrumental asseessment of velopharyngeal function. Surgeons should develop a treatment protocol to optimize speech outcomes while minimizing morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Restoration of speech in aphasia during the post hospital period based on the "speech donorship" method and a family speech discourse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnev, V A; Shteĭnerdt, V V

    2010-01-01

    The method of "speech donorship" is based on genetically mediated factors of tempo-rhythmic concordance of speech in monozygotic twins (co-twins) and pairs of close relatives (father-son, mother-daughter, sibs). Recording of the natural audiovisual donor sample of the speech adapted for a structurally-linguistic condition of speech of the recipient was carried out on a digital movie camera. This sample is defined using the data of computer transformation obtained by the program specially developed by the authors. The program allows to compute time equivalents of three parameters: the time spent for realization of "word", "pause", "word + pauses". Work of the recipient with the screen donor sample assumes a support of the restoration of genetic and adaptive speech patterns. Then the recipient works with the own audiovisual sample. The dictionary of a family speech was used to build tests. The use of this method was described for 15 patients with aphasia of vascular and traumatic etiology.

  10. Digital speech processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2014-01-01

    Digital Speech Processing Using Matlab deals with digital speech pattern recognition, speech production model, speech feature extraction, and speech compression. The book is written in a manner that is suitable for beginners pursuing basic research in digital speech processing. Matlab illustrations are provided for most topics to enable better understanding of concepts. This book also deals with the basic pattern recognition techniques (illustrated with speech signals using Matlab) such as PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, HMM, GMM, BPN, and KSOM.

  11. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  12. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  13. Filled Pause Refinement Based on the Pronunciation Probability for Lecture Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan-Hua; Ye, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, although automatic speech recognition has become quite proficient in recognizing or transcribing well-prepared fluent speech, the transcription of speech that contains many disfluencies remains problematic, such as spontaneous conversational and lecture speech. Filled pauses (FPs) are the most frequently occurring disfluencies in this type of speech. Most recent studies have shown that FPs are widely believed to increase the error rates for state-of-the-art speech transcription, primarily because most FPs are not well annotated or provided in training data transcriptions and because of the similarities in acoustic characteristics between FPs and some common non-content words. To enhance the speech transcription system, we propose a new automatic refinement approach to detect FPs in British English lecture speech transcription. This approach combines the pronunciation probabilities for each word in the dictionary and acoustic language model scores for FP refinement through a modified speech recognition forced-alignment framework. We evaluate the proposed approach on the Reith Lectures speech transcription task, in which only imperfect training transcriptions are available. Successful results are achieved for both the development and evaluation datasets. Acoustic models trained on different styles of speech genres have been investigated with respect to FP refinement. To further validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, speech transcription performance has also been examined using systems built on training data transcriptions with and without FP refinement. PMID:25860959

  14. Automatic error detection in alignments for speech synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The phonetic segmentation of recorded speech is a crucial factor in the quality of concatenative systems for speech synthesis. The authors describe a likelihood-based error detection process that can be used to flag possible errors in such a...

  15. Managing the reaction effects of speech disorders on speech ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... persons having speech disorders. Speech disorders must be treated so that speech defectives will be helped out of their speech problems and be prevented from becoming obsessed by frustrations resulting from their speech disorders. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation Vol. 6 2004: 91-95 ...

  16. Freedom of racist speech: Ego and expressive threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark H; Crandall, Christian S

    2017-09-01

    Do claims of "free speech" provide cover for prejudice? We investigate whether this defense of racist or hate speech serves as a justification for prejudice. In a series of 8 studies (N = 1,624), we found that explicit racial prejudice is a reliable predictor of the "free speech defense" of racist expression. Participants endorsed free speech values for singing racists songs or posting racist comments on social media; people high in prejudice endorsed free speech more than people low in prejudice (meta-analytic r = .43). This endorsement was not principled-high levels of prejudice did not predict endorsement of free speech values when identical speech was directed at coworkers or the police. Participants low in explicit racial prejudice actively avoided endorsing free speech values in racialized conditions compared to nonracial conditions, but participants high in racial prejudice increased their endorsement of free speech values in racialized conditions. Three experiments failed to find evidence that defense of racist speech by the highly prejudiced was based in self-relevant or self-protective motives. Two experiments found evidence that the free speech argument protected participants' own freedom to express their attitudes; the defense of other's racist speech seems motivated more by threats to autonomy than threats to self-regard. These studies serve as an elaboration of the Justification-Suppression Model (Crandall & Eshleman, 2003) of prejudice expression. The justification of racist speech by endorsing fundamental political values can serve to buffer racial and hate speech from normative disapproval. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-06

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  18. Toward a Quantitative Basis for Assessment and Diagnosis of Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L.; Jacks, Adam; de Riesthal, Michael; Abou-Khalil, Rima; Roth, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We explored the reliability and validity of 2 quantitative approaches to document presence and severity of speech properties associated with apraxia of speech (AOS). Method: A motor speech evaluation was administered to 39 individuals with aphasia. Audio-recordings of the evaluation were presented to 3 experienced clinicians to determine…

  19. The 2005 AMI System for the Transcription of Speech in Meetings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hain, Thomas; Burget, Lukas; Dines, John; Gaurau, Giulia; Karafiat, Martin; Lincoln, Mike; McCowan, Iain; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Moore, Darren; Wan, Vincent; Renals, Steve

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the 2005 AMI system for the transcription of speech in meetings used for participation in the 2005 NIST RT evaluations. The system was designed for participation in the speech to text part of the evaluations, in particular for transcription of speech recorded with multiple

  20. Prediction of Audience Response from Spoken Sequences, Speech Pauses and Co-speech Gestures in Humorous Discourse by Barack Obama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to predict audience response from simple spoken sequences, speech pauses and co-speech gestures in annotated video- and audio-recorded speeches by Barack Obama at the Annual White House Correspondents’ Association Dinner in 2011 and 2016. At these dinners, the American...... president mocks himself, his collaborators, political adversary and the press corps making the audience react with cheers, laughter and/or applause. The results of the prediction experiment demonstrate that information about spoken sequences, pauses and co-speech gestures by Obama can be used to predict...

  1. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception “could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people” (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader’s breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener–reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener–speaker coupling. PMID:24367344

  2. Mapping Speech Spectra from Throat Microphone to Close-Speaking Microphone: A Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yegnanarayana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech recorded from a throat microphone is robust to the surrounding noise, but sounds unnatural unlike the speech recorded from a close-speaking microphone. This paper addresses the issue of improving the perceptual quality of the throat microphone speech by mapping the speech spectra from the throat microphone to the close-speaking microphone. A neural network model is used to capture the speaker-dependent functional relationship between the feature vectors (cepstral coefficients of the two speech signals. A method is proposed to ensure the stability of the all-pole synthesis filter. Objective evaluations indicate the effectiveness of the proposed mapping scheme. The advantage of this method is that the model gives a smooth estimate of the spectra of the close-speaking microphone speech. No distortions are perceived in the reconstructed speech. This mapping technique is also used for bandwidth extension of telephone speech.

  3. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  4. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point...

  5. Spontaneous Activity Drives Local Synaptic Plasticity In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Johan; Cheyne, Juliette E; Niculescu, Dragos; Lohmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous activity fine-tunes neuronal connections in the developing brain. To explore the underlying synaptic plasticity mechanisms, we monitored naturally occurring changes in spontaneous activity at individual synapses with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous calcium imaging in

  6. Automatic Smoker Detection from Telephone Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavijeh, Amir Hossein Poorjam; Hesaraki, Soheila; Safavi, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic smoking habit detection from spontaneous telephone speech signals. In this method, each utterance is modeled using i-vector and non-negative factor analysis (NFA) frameworks, which yield low-dimensional representation of utterances by applying factor analysis...... on Gaussian mixture model means and weights respectively. Each framework is evaluated using different classification algorithms to detect the smoker speakers. Finally, score-level fusion of the i-vector-based and the NFA-based recognizers is considered to improve the classification accuracy. The proposed...... method is evaluated on telephone speech signals of speakers whose smoking habits are known drawn from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2008 and 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation databases. Experimental results over 1194 utterances show the effectiveness of the proposed approach...

  7. Speech disorder prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladis Fornaris-Méndez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.

  8. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  9. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then ...

  10. Mimetic Transpositions: An Aesthetic Theory of Composition Linking Music and Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Schnurr, Andrew Alan

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, the potential connections between music and speech have captivated the imagination of vast numbers of researchers, theorists, and musicians alike. My inquiry into speech-music connections is based on intuitive creative musical practice exploring common acoustic traits shared by both phenomena. My creative process as a composer involves transcriptions of recorded speech that depend on acoustic perceptual judgments of intonation and rhythm in speech melody. My analysis linking t...

  11. Prevalence of Speech Disorders in Arak Primary School Students, 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoreza Yavari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The speech disorders may produce irreparable damage to childs speech and language development in the psychosocial view. The voice, speech sound production and fluency disorders are speech disorders, that may result from delay or impairment in speech motor control mechanism, central neuron system disorders, improper language stimulation or voice abuse. Materials and Methods: This study examined the prevalence of speech disorders in 1393 Arakian students at 1 to 6th grades of primary school. After collecting continuous speech samples, picture description, passage reading and phonetic test, we recorded the pathological signs of stuttering, articulation disorder and voice disorders in a special sheet. Results: The prevalence of articulation, voice and stuttering disorders was 8%, 3.5% and%1 and the prevalence of speech disorders was 11.9%. The prevalence of speech disorders was decreasing with increasing of student’s grade. 12.2% of boy students and 11.7% of girl students of primary school in Arak had speech disorders. Conclusion: The prevalence of speech disorders of primary school students in Arak is similar to the prevalence of speech disorders in Kermanshah, but the prevalence of speech disorders in this research is smaller than many similar researches in Iran. It seems that racial and cultural diversity has some effect on increasing the prevalence of speech disorders in Arak city.

  12. Clinical evaluation of conversational speech fluency in the acute phase of acquired childhood aphasia: does a fluency/nonfluency dichotomy exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, H R; Paquier, P F; Creten, W L; van Borsel, J; Catsman-Berrevoets, C E

    2001-05-01

    Traditional neurologic tenets claim that the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia is nonfluent irrespective of lesion location. In the past 20 years, however, several case studies have shown that fluent aphasic patterns can be observed in children with acquired childhood aphasia. But the question remains open as to whether the pattern of their speech characteristics is similar to the one described in adult aphasics as studies addressing spontaneous speech fluency characteristics in larger series of children with acquired childhood aphasia are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an analysis of spontaneous speech fluency as has previously been performed in adult aphasics by other investigators would also yield two distinct groups of aphasic children and, if so, whether the distribution of the different speech characteristics in both groups would reflect the rank order found in adults, that is, whether nonfluent verbal output characteristics would predominate in one group and fluent features in the other. Audiotaped and videotaped recordings of 24 cooperative children with acute acquired childhood aphasia unselected for age, gender, etiology, and aphasia severity ratings were analyzed according to 10 different speech characteristics. A cluster analysis (two-means clustering) was performed to seek the existence of two distinct groups of aphasic children. Results were confirmed, and exact P values were computed with Mann-Whitney U-tests. A two-means clustering created two distinct classes. Mann-Whitney U-tests ranked the speech characteristics according to their discriminating power between clusters. Comparing this rank order with the one previously found in adults revealed a high correlation (Spearman's rank correlation: r = .915, P uniformity of the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia are obsolete. Our findings corroborate data issued from several case reports of fluent acquired childhood aphasia and from the few studies

  13. Advertising and Free Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Allen, Ed.; Johnson, M. Bruce, Ed.

    The articles collected in this book originated at a conference at which legal and economic scholars discussed the issue of First Amendment protection for commercial speech. The first article, in arguing for freedom for commercial speech, finds inconsistent and untenable the arguments of those who advocate freedom from regulation for political…

  14. Physics and Speech Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, M.; Lowe, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development and content of a speech science course taught to speech therapists for two years, modified by feedback from those two classes. Presents basic topics and concepts covered. Evaluates a team teaching approach as well as the efficacy of teaching physics relevant to vocational interests. (JM)

  15. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  16. Speech Quality Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    2.271 Sound Patterns of English, N. Chomsky and H. Halle, Haper zi Row, New York, 1968. 12.281 "Speech Synthesis by Rule," J. N. Holmes, I. G...L. H. Nakatani, B. J. McDermott, "Effect of Pitch and Formant Manipulations on Speech Quality," Bell Telephone Laboratories, Technical Memorandum, 72

  17. Speech and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grade and has recently been diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech—or CAS. CAS is a speech disorder marked ... 800.242.5338 | http://www.cleftline.org Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America | CASANA http://www.apraxia- ...

  18. Free Speech. No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    This issue of "Free Speech" contains the following articles: "Daniel Schoor Relieved of Reporting Duties" by Laurence Stern, "The Sellout at CBS" by Michael Harrington, "Defending Dan Schorr" by Tome Wicker, "Speech to the Washington Press Club, February 25, 1976" by Daniel Schorr, "Funds…

  19. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  20. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  1. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  2. Personal Names in Children's Speech: The Process of Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina R. Dobrova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of children’s understanding of the differences between proper and common names. The author emphasizes the role of the anthropocentric approach to personal names, especially when it is based on the study of the ontogenetic development of linguistic capacity focusing on the mechanisms of the formation of mental patterns of proper names, in particular — of personal names, and of their special linguistic status as (relatively “strict” designators. Analyzing recordings of children’s spontaneous speech and experimental data, the author argues that the study of the early stages of personal names acquisition, in comparison with the acquisition of common nouns, highlights such significant features of a child’s developing mind as the ability to distinguish between identifying and generalizing linguistic signs, to construct hyponym/hyperonym relations going from individual to the most generalized designations (from personal name to common nouns of different kinds, including relative, completely depending on the reference point, and reciprocal ones, e. g. kinship terms. Additionally, the author shows that the anthropocentric approach emphasizes such properties of personal names as their coreferentiality, relativity and their capacity to act as semiotic shifters as far as the choice of the form of a name depends on the social relations between the speaker and his addressee and their respective positions in the social hierarchy.

  3. An optimal speech processor for efficient human speech ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our experimental findings suggest that the auditory filterbank in human ear functions as a near-optimal speech processor for achieving efficient speech communication between humans. Keywords. Human speech communication; articulatory gestures; auditory filterbank; mutual information. 1. Introduction. Speech is one of ...

  4. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level

  5. Recognition memory in noise for speech of varying intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rachael C; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which noise impacts normal-hearing young adults' speech processing of sentences that vary in intelligibility. Intelligibility and recognition memory in noise were examined for conversational and clear speech sentences recorded in quiet (quiet speech, QS) and in response to the environmental noise (noise-adapted speech, NAS). Results showed that (1) increased intelligibility through conversational-to-clear speech modifications led to improved recognition memory and (2) NAS presented a more naturalistic speech adaptation to noise compared to QS, leading to more accurate word recognition and enhanced sentence recognition memory. These results demonstrate that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech enhance speech-in-noise processing beyond word recognition. Effortful speech processing in challenging listening environments can thus be improved by speaking style adaptations on the part of the talker. In addition to enhanced intelligibility, a substantial improvement in recognition memory can be achieved through speaker adaptations to the environment and to the listener when in adverse conditions.

  6. Recovering With Acquired Apraxia of Speech: The First 2 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L; Shafer, Jennifer N; Harmon, Tyson G; Jacks, Adam

    2016-12-01

    This study was intended to document speech recovery for 1 person with acquired apraxia of speech quantitatively and on the basis of her lived experience. The second author sustained a traumatic brain injury that resulted in acquired apraxia of speech. Over a 2-year period, she documented her recovery through 22 video-recorded monologues. We analyzed these monologues using a combination of auditory perceptual, acoustic, and qualitative methods. Recovery was evident for all quantitative variables examined. For speech sound production, the recovery was most prominent during the first 3 months, but slower improvement was evident for many months. Measures of speaking rate, fluency, and prosody changed more gradually throughout the entire period. A qualitative analysis of topics addressed in the monologues was consistent with the quantitative speech recovery and indicated a subjective dynamic relationship between accuracy and rate, an observation that several factors made speech sound production variable, and a persisting need for cognitive effort while speaking. Speech features improved over an extended time, but the recovery trajectories differed, indicating dynamic reorganization of the underlying speech production system. The relationship among speech dimensions should be examined in other cases and in population samples. The combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis methods offers advantages for understanding clinically relevant aspects of recovery.

  7. Does Signal Degradation Affect Top-Down Processing of Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anita; Pals, Carina; de Blecourt, Charlotte M; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Speech perception is formed based on both the acoustic signal and listeners' knowledge of the world and semantic context. Access to semantic information can facilitate interpretation of degraded speech, such as speech in background noise or the speech signal transmitted via cochlear implants (CIs). This paper focuses on the latter, and investigates the time course of understanding words, and how sentential context reduces listeners' dependency on the acoustic signal for natural and degraded speech via an acoustic CI simulation.In an eye-tracking experiment we combined recordings of listeners' gaze fixations with pupillometry, to capture effects of semantic information on both the time course and effort of speech processing. Normal-hearing listeners were presented with sentences with or without a semantically constraining verb (e.g., crawl) preceding the target (baby), and their ocular responses were recorded to four pictures, including the target, a phonological (bay) competitor and a semantic (worm) and an unrelated distractor.The results show that in natural speech, listeners' gazes reflect their uptake of acoustic information, and integration of preceding semantic context. Degradation of the signal leads to a later disambiguation of phonologically similar words, and to a delay in integration of semantic information. Complementary to this, the pupil dilation data show that early semantic integration reduces the effort in disambiguating phonologically similar words. Processing degraded speech comes with increased effort due to the impoverished nature of the signal. Delayed integration of semantic information further constrains listeners' ability to compensate for inaudible signals.

  8. Application of automatic speech recognition to quantitative assessment of tracheoesophageal speech with different signal quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderlein, Tino; Riedhammer, Korbinian; Nöth, Elmar; Toy, Hikmet; Schuster, Maria; Eysholdt, Ulrich; Hornegger, Joachim; Rosanowski, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Tracheoesophageal voice is state-of-the-art in voice rehabilitation after laryngectomy. Intelligibility on a telephone is an important evaluation criterion as it is a crucial part of social life. An objective measure of intelligibility when talking on a telephone is desirable in the field of postlaryngectomy speech therapy and its evaluation. Based upon successful earlier studies with broadband speech, an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system was applied to 41 recordings of postlaryngectomy patients. Recordings were available in different signal qualities; quality was the crucial criterion for this study. Compared to the intelligibility rating of 5 human experts, the ASR system had a correlation coefficient of r = -0.87 and Krippendorff's alpha of 0.65 when broadband speech was processed. The rater group alone achieved alpha = 0.66. With the test recordings in telephone quality, the system reached r = -0.79 and alpha = 0.67. For medical purposes, a comprehensive diagnostic approach to (substitute) voice has to cover both subjective and objective tests. An automatic recognition system such as the one proposed in this study can be used for objective intelligibility rating with results comparable to those of human experts. This holds for broadband speech as well as for automatic evaluation via telephone. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Speech motor planning and execution deficits in early childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Bridget; Mettel, Kathleen Marie; Smith, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Five to eight percent of preschool children develop stuttering, a speech disorder with clearly observable, hallmark symptoms: sound repetitions, prolongations, and blocks. While the speech motor processes underlying stuttering have been widely documented in adults, few studies to date have assessed the speech motor dynamics of stuttering near its onset. We assessed fundamental characteristics of speech movements in preschool children who stutter and their fluent peers to determine if atypical speech motor characteristics described for adults are early features of the disorder or arise later in the development of chronic stuttering. Orofacial movement data were recorded from 58 children who stutter and 43 children who do not stutter aged 4;0 to 5;11 (years; months) in a sentence production task. For single speech movements and multiple speech movement sequences, we computed displacement amplitude, velocity, and duration. For the phrase level movement sequence, we computed an index of articulation coordination consistency for repeated productions of the sentence. Boys who stutter, but not girls, produced speech with reduced amplitudes and velocities of articulatory movement. All children produced speech with similar durations. Boys, particularly the boys who stuttered, had more variable patterns of articulatory coordination compared to girls. This study is the first to demonstrate sex-specific differences in speech motor control processes between preschool boys and girls who are stuttering. The sex-specific lag in speech motor development in many boys who stutter likely has significant implications for the dramatically different recovery rates between male and female preschoolers who stutter. Further, our findings document that atypical speech motor development is an early feature of stuttering.

  10. Comparative Study on Feature Selection and Fusion Schemes for Emotion Recognition from Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Planet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic analysis of speech to detect affective states may improve the way users interact with electronic devices. However, the analysis only at the acoustic level could be not enough to determine the emotion of a user in a realistic scenario. In this paper we analyzed the spontaneous speech recordings of the FAU Aibo Corpus at the acoustic and linguistic levels to extract two sets of features. The acoustic set was reduced by a greedy procedure selecting the most relevant features to optimize the learning stage. We compared two versions of this greedy selection algorithm by performing the search of the relevant features forwards and backwards. We experimented with three classification approaches: Naïve-Bayes, a support vector machine and a logistic model tree, and two fusion schemes: decision-level fusion, merging the hard-decisions of the acoustic and linguistic classifiers by means of a decision tree; and feature-level fusion, concatenating both sets of features before the learning stage. Despite the low performance achieved by the linguistic data, a dramatic improvement was achieved after its combination with the acoustic information, improving the results achieved by this second modality on its own. The results achieved by the classifiers using the parameters merged at feature level outperformed the classification results of the decision-level fusion scheme, despite the simplicity of the scheme. Moreover, the extremely reduced set of acoustic features obtained by the greedy forward search selection algorithm improved the results provided by the full set.

  11. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  12. Speech Communication and Signal Processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on 'Auditory-like filter bank: An optimal speech processor for efficient human speech commu- nication', Ghosh et al argue that the auditory filter bank in human ear is a near-optimal speech processor for efficient speech communication between human beings. They use mutual informa- tion criterion to design the optimal filter ...

  13. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  14. Dysarthric Bengali speech: a neurolinguistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, N; Roy, T; Hazra, A; Biswas, A; Bhattacharya, K

    2008-01-01

    Dysarthria affects linguistic domains such as respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance and prosody due to upper motor neuron, lower motor neuron, cerebellar or extrapyramidal tract lesions. Although Bengali is one of the major languages globally, dysarthric Bengali speech has not been subjected to neurolinguistic analysis. We attempted such an analysis with the goal of identifying the speech defects in native Bengali speakers in various types of dysarthria encountered in neurological disorders. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with 66 dysarthric subjects, predominantly middle-aged males, attending the Neuromedicine OPD of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kolkata. After neurological examination, an instrument comprising commonly used Bengali words and a text block covering all Bengali vowels and consonants were used to carry out perceptual analysis of dysarthric speech. From recorded speech, 24 parameters pertaining to five linguistic domains were assessed. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used for analysis. The dysarthria types were spastic (15 subjects), flaccid (10), mixed (12), hypokinetic (12), hyperkinetic (9) and ataxic (8). Of the 24 parameters assessed, 15 were found to occur in one or more types with a prevalence of at least 25%. Imprecise consonant was the most frequently occurring defect in most dysarthrias. The spectrum of defects in each type was identified. Some parameters were capable of distinguishing between types. This perceptual analysis has defined linguistic defects likely to be encountered in dysarthric Bengali speech in neurological disorders. The speech distortion can be described and distinguished by a limited number of parameters. This may be of importance to the speech therapist and neurologist in planning rehabilitation and further management.

  15. Dysarthric Bengali speech: A neurolinguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Dysarthria affects linguistic domains such as respiration, phonation, articulation, resonance and prosody due to upper motor neuron, lower motor neuron, cerebellar or extrapyramidal tract lesions. Although Bengali is one of the major languages globally, dysarthric Bengali speech has not been subjected to neurolinguistic analysis. We attempted such an analysis with the goal of identifying the speech defects in native Bengali speakers in various types of dysarthria encountered in neurological disorders. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with 66 dysarthric subjects, predominantly middle-aged males, attending the Neuromedicine OPD of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kolkata. Materials and Methods: After neurological examination, an instrument comprising commonly used Bengali words and a text block covering all Bengali vowels and consonants were used to carry out perceptual analysis of dysarthric speech. From recorded speech, 24 parameters pertaining to five linguistic domains were assessed. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance, Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test were used for analysis. Results: The dysarthria types were spastic (15 subjects, flaccid (10, mixed (12, hypokinetic (12, hyperkinetic (9 and ataxic (8. Of the 24 parameters assessed, 15 were found to occur in one or more types with a prevalence of at least 25%. Imprecise consonant was the most frequently occurring defect in most dysarthrias. The spectrum of defects in each type was identified. Some parameters were capable of distinguishing between types. Conclusions: This perceptual analysis has defined linguistic defects likely to be encountered in dysarthric Bengali speech in neurological disorders. The speech distortion can be described and distinguished by a limited number of parameters. This may be of importance to the speech therapist and neurologist in planning rehabilitation and further management.

  16. Speech processing in mobile environments

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on speech processing in the presence of low-bit rate coding and varying background environments. The methods presented in the book exploit the speech events which are robust in noisy environments. Accurate estimation of these crucial events will be useful for carrying out various speech tasks such as speech recognition, speaker recognition and speech rate modification in mobile environments. The authors provide insights into designing and developing robust methods to process the speech in mobile environments. Covering temporal and spectral enhancement methods to minimize the effect of noise and examining methods and models on speech and speaker recognition applications in mobile environments.

  17. Hidden Hearing Loss and Computational Models of the Auditory Pathway: Predicting Speech Intelligibility Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    Title: Hidden Hearing Loss and Computational Models of the Auditory Pathway: Predicting Speech Intelligibility Decline Christopher J. Smalt...to utilize computational models of the auditory periphery and auditory cortex to study the effect of low spontaneous rate ANF loss on the cortical...representation of speech intelligibility in noise. The auditory-periphery model of Zilany et al. (JASA 2009,2014) is used to make predictions of

  18. A Foreign Speech Accent in a Case of Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Verhoeven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to report the psychiatric, neuroradiological and linguistic characteristics in a native speaker of Dutch who developed speech symptoms which strongly resemble Foreign Accent Syndrome. Background: Foreign Accent Syndrome is a rare speech production disorder in which the speech of a patient is perceived as foreign by speakers of the same speech community. This syndrome is generally related to focal brain damage. Only in few reported cases the Foreign Accent Syndrome is assumed to be of psychogenic and/or psychotic origin. Method: In addition to clinical and neuroradiological examinations, an extensive test battery of standardized neuropsychological and neurolinguistic investigations was carried out. Two samples of the patient's spontaneous speech were analysed and compared to a 500,000-words reference corpus of 160 normal native speakers of Dutch. Results: The patient had a prominent French accent in her pronunciation of Dutch. This accent had persisted over the past eight years and has become progressively stronger. The foreign qualities of her speech did not only relate to pronunciation, but also to the lexicon, syntax and pragmatics. Structural as well as functional neuroimaging did not reveal evidence that could account for the behavioural symptoms. By contrast psychological investigations indicated conversion disorder. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a foreign accent like syndrome in conversion disorder.

  19. A Foreign Speech Accent in a Case of Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; D’Haenen, Hugo; De Deyn, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to report the psychiatric, neuroradiological and linguistic characteristics in a native speaker of Dutch who developed speech symptoms which strongly resemble Foreign Accent Syndrome. Background: Foreign Accent Syndrome is a rare speech production disorder in which the speech of a patient is perceived as foreign by speakers of the same speech community. This syndrome is generally related to focal brain damage. Only in few reported cases the Foreign Accent Syndrome is assumed to be of psychogenic and/or psychotic origin. Method: In addition to clinical and neuroradiological examinations, an extensive test battery of standardized neuropsychological and neurolinguistic investigations was carried out. Two samples of the patient's spontaneous speech were analysed and compared to a 500,000-words reference corpus of 160 normal native speakers of Dutch. Results: The patient had a prominent French accent in her pronunciation of Dutch. This accent had persisted over the past eight years and has become progressively stronger. The foreign qualities of her speech did not only relate to pronunciation, but also to the lexicon, syntax and pragmatics. Structural as well as functional neuroimaging did not reveal evidence that could account for the behavioural symptoms. By contrast psychological investigations indicated conversion disorder. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a foreign accent like syndrome in conversion disorder. PMID:16518013

  20. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  1. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  2. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  3. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  4. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  5. The politeness prosody of the Javanese directive speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.X. Rahyono

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This experimental phonetic research deals with the prosodies of directive speech in Javanese. The research procedures were: (1 speech production, (2 acoustic analysis, and (3 perception test. The data investigated are three directive utterances, in the form of statements, commands, and questions. The data were obtained by recording dialogues that present polite as well as impolite speech. Three acoustic experiments were conducted for statements, commands, and questions in directive speech: (1 modifications of duration, (2 modifications of contour, and (3 modifications of fundamental frequency. The result of the subsequent perception tests to 90 stimuli with 24 subjects were analysed statistically with ANOVA (Analysis of Variant. Based on this statistic analysis, the prosodic characteristics of polite and impolite speech were identified.

  6. Speech and non-speech processing in children with phonological disorders: an electrophysiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Crivellaro Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether neurophysiological auditory brainstem responses to clicks and repeated speech stimuli differ between typically developing children and children with phonological disorders. INTRODUCTION: Phonological disorders are language impairments resulting from inadequate use of adult phonological language rules and are among the most common speech and language disorders in children (prevalence: 8 - 9%. Our hypothesis is that children with phonological disorders have basic differences in the way that their brains encode acoustic signals at brainstem level when compared to normal counterparts. METHODS: We recorded click and speech evoked auditory brainstem responses in 18 typically developing children (control group and in 18 children who were clinically diagnosed with phonological disorders (research group. The age range of the children was from 7-11 years. RESULTS: The research group exhibited significantly longer latency responses to click stimuli (waves I, III and V and speech stimuli (waves V and A when compared to the control group. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that the abnormal encoding of speech sounds may be a biological marker of phonological disorders. However, these results cannot define the biological origins of phonological problems. We also observed that speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses had a higher specificity/sensitivity for identifying phonological disorders than click-evoked auditory brainstem responses. CONCLUSIONS: Early stages of the auditory pathway processing of an acoustic stimulus are not similar in typically developing children and those with phonological disorders. These findings suggest that there are brainstem auditory pathway abnormalities in children with phonological disorders.

  7. Methodology for Speech Assessment in the Scandcleft Project-An International Randomized Clinical Trial on Palatal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present the methodology for speech assessment in the Scandcleft project and discuss issues from a pilot study. Design: Description of methodology and blinded test for speech assessment. Speech samples and instructions for data collection and analysis for comparisons of speech outcom...... conventions and rules are important. A composite variable for perceptual assessment of velopharyngeal function during speech seems usable; whereas, the method for hypernasality evaluation requires further testing.  ......Objective: To present the methodology for speech assessment in the Scandcleft project and discuss issues from a pilot study. Design: Description of methodology and blinded test for speech assessment. Speech samples and instructions for data collection and analysis for comparisons of speech outcomes...... across five included languages were developed and tested. Participants and Materials: Randomly selected video recordings of 10 5-year-old children from each language (n = 50) were included in the project. Speech material consisted of test consonants in single words, connected speech, and syllable chains...

  8. Speech and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hallucinations/Delusions Pain Skeletal & Bone Health Skin Changes Sleep Disorders Small Handwriting Speech & Swallowing Problems Urinary Incontinence Vision Changes Weight Management Diagnosis Treatment Help Us Make a Difference We need your ...

  9. Anxiety and ritualized speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalljee, Mansur; Cook, Mark

    1975-01-01

    The experiment examines the effects on a number of words that seem irrelevant to semantic communication. The Units of Ritualized Speech (URSs) considered are: 'I mean', 'in fact', 'really', 'sort of', 'well' and 'you know'. (Editor)

  10. Speech impairment (adult)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 13. Kirshner HS. Dysarthria and apraxia of speech. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  11. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezzat, Tony F

    2002-01-01

    .... After processing the corpus automatically, a visual speech module is learned from the data that is capable of synthesizing the human subject's mouth littering entirely novel utterances that were not...

  12. Speech perception as categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lori L; Lotto, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Speech perception (SP) most commonly refers to the perceptual mapping from the highly variable acoustic speech signal to a linguistic representation, whether it be phonemes, diphones, syllables, or words. This is an example of categorization, in that potentially discriminable speech sounds are assigned to functionally equivalent classes. In this tutorial, we present some of the main challenges to our understanding of the categorization of speech sounds and the conceptualization of SP that has resulted from these challenges. We focus here on issues and experiments that define open research questions relevant to phoneme categorization, arguing that SP is best understood as perceptual categorization, a position that places SP in direct contact with research from other areas of perception and cognition.

  13. Brain stem evoked response to forward and reversed speech in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Gary C; Amaya, Elizabeth M; de Rivera, Jacinta M Diaz; Donan, Namee M; Duong, Mylien T; Hsu, Jeffrey N; Tran, Kim; Tsang, Lian P

    2004-09-15

    Speech stimuli played in reverse are perceived as unfamiliar and alien-sounding, even though phoneme duration and fundamental voicing frequency are preserved. Although language perception ultimately resides in the neocortex, the brain stem plays a vital role in processing auditory information, including speech. The present study measured brain stem frequency-following responses (FFR) evoked by forward and reverse speech stimuli recorded from electrodes oriented horizontally and vertically to measure signals with putative origins in auditory nerve and rostral brain stem, respectively. The vertical FFR showed increased amplitude due to forward speech. It is concluded that familiar phonological and prosodic properties of forward speech selectively activate central brain stem neurons.

  14. Endogenous cortical rhythms determine cerebral specialization for speech perception and production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giraud, Anne-Lise; Kleinschmidt, Andreas; Poeppel, David

    2007-01-01

    Across multiple timescales, acoustic regularities of speech match rhythmic properties of both the auditory and motor systems. Syllabic rate corresponds to natural jaw-associated oscillatory rhythms, and phonemic length could reflect endogenous oscillatory auditory cortical properties. Hemispheric...... lateralization for speech could result from an asymmetry of cortical tuning, with left and right auditory areas differentially sensitive to spectro-temporal features of speech. Using simultaneous electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings from humans, we show......, indicating coupling between temporal properties of speech perception and production. These data show that endogenous cortical rhythms provide temporal and spatial constraints on the neuronal mechanisms underlying speech perception and production....

  15. Charisma in business speeches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Brem, Alexander; Novák-Tót, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    to business speeches. Consistent with the public opinion, our findings are indicative of Steve Jobs being a more charismatic speaker than Mark Zuckerberg. Beyond previous studies, our data suggest that rhythm and emphatic accentuation are also involved in conveying charisma. Furthermore, the differences...... between Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg and the investor- and customer-related sections of their speeches support the modern understanding of charisma as a gradual, multiparametric, and context-sensitive concept....

  16. Speech spectrum envelope modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vích, Robert; Vondra, Martin

    Vol. 4775, - (2007), s. 129-137 ISSN 0302-9743. [COST Action 2102 International Workshop. Vietri sul Mare, 29.03.2007-31.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET301710509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : speech * speech processing * cepstral analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.302, year: 2005

  17. Baby Sign but Not Spontaneous Gesture Predicts Later Vocabulary in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena; Bailey, Jhonelle; Schmuck, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Early spontaneous gesture, specifically deictic gesture, predicts subsequent vocabulary development in typically developing (TD) children. Here, we ask whether deictic gesture plays a similar role in predicting later vocabulary size in children with Down Syndrome (DS), who have been shown to have difficulties in speech production, but strengths in…

  18. A grammatical analysis of the spontaneous L2 English use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assessment tool for the grammatical analysis of the spontaneous L2 speech of four schizophrenics and four (non-psychotic) controls who were matched to the schizophrenics in terms of age, gender and first language (L1) and L2 dialects. Following a comparison of the types and frequency of the two groups' phonological, ...

  19. Applying prosodic speech features in mental health care: An exploratory study in a life-review intervention for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, S.M.A.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Steunenberg, B.; Steunenberg, B.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the application of prosodic speech features in a psychological intervention based on lifereview. Several studies have shown that speech features can be used as indicators of depression severity, but these studies are mainly based on controlled speech recording

  20. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McAuliffe, Michael; Haber, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  1. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly eBabel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  2. The predictive roles of neural oscillations in speech motor adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ranit; Nasir, Sazzad M

    2016-06-01

    The human speech system exhibits a remarkable flexibility by adapting to alterations in speaking environments. While it is believed that speech motor adaptation under altered sensory feedback involves rapid reorganization of speech motor networks, the mechanisms by which different brain regions communicate and coordinate their activity to mediate adaptation remain unknown, and explanations of outcome differences in adaption remain largely elusive. In this study, under the paradigm of altered auditory feedback with continuous EEG recordings, the differential roles of oscillatory neural processes in motor speech adaptability were investigated. The predictive capacities of different EEG frequency bands were assessed, and it was found that theta-, beta-, and gamma-band activities during speech planning and production contained significant and reliable information about motor speech adaptability. It was further observed that these bands do not work independently but interact with each other suggesting an underlying brain network operating across hierarchically organized frequency bands to support motor speech adaptation. These results provide novel insights into both learning and disorders of speech using time frequency analysis of neural oscillations. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Emotion Estimation in Speech Using a 3D Emotion Space Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Michael; Kroschel, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discussed the recognition of emotions in spontaneous speech. We used a general framework motivated by emotion psychology to describe emotions by means of three emotion "primitives" (attributes), namely valence, activation, and dominance. With these emotion primitives, we proposed a real-valued three-dimensional emotion space concept to overcome the limitations in the state-of-the-art emotion categorization. We tested the method on the basis of 893 spontaneous emotional utte...

  4. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  5. Record Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Record Club

    2011-01-01

    http://cern.ch/Record.Club June Selections We have put a significant number of new CDs and DVDs into the Club You will find the full lists at http://cern.ch/record.club and select the «Discs of the Month» button on the left side on the left panel of the web page and then June 2011. New films include the latest Action, Suspense and Science Fiction film hits, general drama movies including the Oscar-winning The King’s Speech, comedies including both chapter of Bridget Jones’s Diary, seven films for children and a musical. Other highlights include the latest Harry Potter release and some movies from the past you may have missed including the first in the Terminator series. New CDs include the latest releases by Michel Sardou, Mylene Farmer, Jennifer Lopez, Zucchero and Britney Spears. There is also a hits collection from NRJ. Don’t forget that the Club is now open every Monday, Wednesday and Friday lunchtimes from 12h30 to 13h00 in Restaurant 2, Building 504. (C...

  6. Initial consonant deletion in bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Cuzner, Suzanne Lea

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a theoretical model of bilingual speech sound production as a framework for analyzing the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders. In order to distinguish speech difference from speech disorder, we examined between-language interaction on initial consonant deletion, an error pattern found cross-linguistically in the speech of children with speech sound disorders. Thirteen monolingual English-speaking and bilingual Spanish-and English-speaking preschoolers with speech sound disorders were audio-recorded during a single word picture-naming task and their recordings were phonetically transcribed. Initial consonant deletion errors were examined both quantitatively and qualitatively. An analysis of cross-linguistic effects and an analysis of phonemic complexity were performed. Monolingual English-speaking children exhibited initial consonant deletion at a significantly lower rate than bilingual children in their Spanish productions; however, no other quantitative differences were found across groups or languages. Qualitative differences yielded between-language interaction in the error patterns of bilingual children. Phonemic complexity appeared to play a role in initial consonant deletion. Evidence from the speech of bilingual children with speech sound disorders supports analysing bilingual speech using a cross-linguistic framework. Both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  7. Spontaneous regression of intracranial malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Nobuto; Tokutomi, Takashi; Eguchi, Gihachirou; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Tomie; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Shigemori, Minoru.

    1988-01-01

    In a 46-year-old female with a 1-month history of gait and speech disturbances, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated mass lesions of slightly high density in the left basal ganglia and left frontal lobe. The lesions were markedly enhanced by contrast medium. The patient received no specific treatment, but her clinical manifestations gradually abated and the lesions decreased in size. Five months after her initial examination, the lesions were absent on CT scans; only a small area of low density remained. Residual clinical symptoms included mild right hemiparesis and aphasia. After 14 months the patient again deteriorated, and a CT scan revealed mass lesions in the right frontal lobe and the pons. However, no enhancement was observed in the previously affected regions. A biopsy revealed malignant lymphoma. Despite treatment with steroids and radiation, the patient's clinical status progressively worsened and she died 27 months after initial presentation. Seven other cases of spontaneous regression of primary malignant lymphoma have been reported. In this case, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression was not clear, but changes in immunologic status may have been involved. (author)

  8. Computer-based speech therapy for childhood speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Lisa; Erickson, Shane; Morris, Meg E

    2017-07-01

    With the current worldwide workforce shortage of Speech-Language Pathologists, new and innovative ways of delivering therapy to children with speech sound disorders are needed. Computer-based speech therapy may be an effective and viable means of addressing service access issues for children with speech sound disorders. To evaluate the efficacy of computer-based speech therapy programs for children with speech sound disorders. Studies reporting the efficacy of computer-based speech therapy programs were identified via a systematic, computerised database search. Key study characteristics, results, main findings and details of computer-based speech therapy programs were extracted. The methodological quality was evaluated using a structured critical appraisal tool. 14 studies were identified and a total of 11 computer-based speech therapy programs were evaluated. The results showed that computer-based speech therapy is associated with positive clinical changes for some children with speech sound disorders. There is a need for collaborative research between computer engineers and clinicians, particularly during the design and development of computer-based speech therapy programs. Evaluation using rigorous experimental designs is required to understand the benefits of computer-based speech therapy. The reader will be able to 1) discuss how computerbased speech therapy has the potential to improve service access for children with speech sound disorders, 2) explain the ways in which computer-based speech therapy programs may enhance traditional tabletop therapy and 3) compare the features of computer-based speech therapy programs designed for different client populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Hierarchical Cortical Organization of Human Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Wendy A; Huth, Alexander G; Griffiths, Thomas L; Gallant, Jack L; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2017-07-05

    Speech comprehension requires that the brain extract semantic meaning from the spectral features represented at the cochlea. To investigate this process, we performed an fMRI experiment in which five men and two women passively listened to several hours of natural narrative speech. We then used voxelwise modeling to predict BOLD responses based on three different feature spaces that represent the spectral, articulatory, and semantic properties of speech. The amount of variance explained by each feature space was then assessed using a separate validation dataset. Because some responses might be explained equally well by more than one feature space, we used a variance partitioning analysis to determine the fraction of the variance that was uniquely explained by each feature space. Consistent with previous studies, we found that speech comprehension involves hierarchical representations starting in primary auditory areas and moving laterally on the temporal lobe: spectral features are found in the core of A1, mixtures of spectral and articulatory in STG, mixtures of articulatory and semantic in STS, and semantic in STS and beyond. Our data also show that both hemispheres are equally and actively involved in speech perception and interpretation. Further, responses as early in the auditory hierarchy as in STS are more correlated with semantic than spectral representations. These results illustrate the importance of using natural speech in neurolinguistic research. Our methodology also provides an efficient way to simultaneously test multiple specific hypotheses about the representations of speech without using block designs and segmented or synthetic speech. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate the processing steps performed by the human brain to transform natural speech sound into meaningful language, we used models based on a hierarchical set of speech features to predict BOLD responses of individual voxels recorded in an fMRI experiment while subjects listened to

  10. Automatic Speech Recognition Systems for the Evaluation of Voice and Speech Disorders in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Maier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients suffering from head and neck cancer, speech intelligibility is often restricted. For assessment and outcome measurements, automatic speech recognition systems have previously been shown to be appropriate for objective and quick evaluation of intelligibility. In this study we investigate the applicability of the method to speech disorders caused by head and neck cancer. Intelligibility was quantified by speech recognition on recordings of a standard text read by 41 German laryngectomized patients with cancer of the larynx or hypopharynx and 49 German patients who had suffered from oral cancer. The speech recognition provides the percentage of correctly recognized words of a sequence, that is, the word recognition rate. Automatic evaluation was compared to perceptual ratings by a panel of experts and to an age-matched control group. Both patient groups showed significantly lower word recognition rates than the control group. Automatic speech recognition yielded word recognition rates which complied with experts' evaluation of intelligibility on a significant level. Automatic speech recognition serves as a good means with low effort to objectify and quantify the most important aspect of pathologic speech—the intelligibility. The system was successfully applied to voice and speech disorders.

  11. Functional overlap between regions involved in speech perception and in monitoring one's own voice during speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zane Z; Munhall, Kevin G; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2010-08-01

    The fluency and the reliability of speech production suggest a mechanism that links motor commands and sensory feedback. Here, we examined the neural organization supporting such links by using fMRI to identify regions in which activity during speech production is modulated according to whether auditory feedback matches the predicted outcome or not and by examining the overlap with the network recruited during passive listening to speech sounds. We used real-time signal processing to compare brain activity when participants whispered a consonant-vowel-consonant word ("Ted") and either heard this clearly or heard voice-gated masking noise. We compared this to when they listened to yoked stimuli (identical recordings of "Ted" or noise) without speaking. Activity along the STS and superior temporal gyrus bilaterally was significantly greater if the auditory stimulus was (a) processed as the auditory concomitant of speaking and (b) did not match the predicted outcome (noise). The network exhibiting this Feedback Type x Production/Perception interaction includes a superior temporal gyrus/middle temporal gyrus region that is activated more when listening to speech than to noise. This is consistent with speech production and speech perception being linked in a control system that predicts the sensory outcome of speech acts and that processes an error signal in speech-sensitive regions when this and the sensory data do not match.

  12. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  13. Authenticity affects the recognition of emotions in speech: behavioral and fMRI evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Matthis; Schubotz, Ricarda I; Fischer, Julia

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine how authenticity of emotion expression in speech modulates activity in the neuronal substrates involved in emotion recognition. Within an fMRI paradigm, participants judged either the authenticity (authentic or play acted) or emotional content (anger, fear, joy, or sadness) of recordings of spontaneous emotions and reenactments by professional actors. When contrasting between task types, active judgment of authenticity, more than active judgment of emotion, indicated potential involvement of the theory of mind (ToM) network (medial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal cortex, retrosplenium) as well as areas involved in working memory and decision making (BA 47). Subsequently, trials with authentic recordings were contrasted with those of reenactments to determine the modulatory effects of authenticity. Authentic recordings were found to enhance activity in part of the ToM network (medial prefrontal cortex). This effect of authenticity suggests that individuals integrate recollections of their own experiences more for judgments involving authentic stimuli than for those involving play-acted stimuli. The behavioral and functional results show that authenticity of emotional prosody is an important property influencing human responses to such stimuli, with implications for studies using play-acted emotions.

  14. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  15. Speech training alters consonant and vowel responses in multiple auditory cortex fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Crystal T; Rahebi, Kimiya C; Buell, Elizabeth P; Fink, Melyssa K; Kilgard, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Speech sounds evoke unique neural activity patterns in primary auditory cortex (A1). Extensive speech sound discrimination training alters A1 responses. While the neighboring auditory cortical fields each contain information about speech sound identity, each field processes speech sounds differently. We hypothesized that while all fields would exhibit training-induced plasticity following speech training, there would be unique differences in how each field changes. In this study, rats were trained to discriminate speech sounds by consonant or vowel in quiet and in varying levels of background speech-shaped noise. Local field potential and multiunit responses were recorded from four auditory cortex fields in rats that had received 10 weeks of speech discrimination training. Our results reveal that training alters speech evoked responses in each of the auditory fields tested. The neural response to consonants was significantly stronger in anterior auditory field (AAF) and A1 following speech training. The neural response to vowels following speech training was significantly weaker in ventral auditory field (VAF) and posterior auditory field (PAF). This differential plasticity of consonant and vowel sound responses may result from the greater paired pulse depression, expanded low frequency tuning, reduced frequency selectivity, and lower tone thresholds, which occurred across the four auditory fields. These findings suggest that alterations in the distributed processing of behaviorally relevant sounds may contribute to robust speech discrimination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds following theta-burst stimulation of the motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Charles Rogers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceiving speech engages parts of the motor system involved in speech production. The role of the motor cortex in speech perception has been demonstrated using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to suppress motor excitability in the lip representation and disrupt discrimination of lip-articulated speech sounds (Möttönen & Watkins, 2009. Another form of rTMS, continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS, can produce longer-lasting disruptive effects following a brief train of stimulation. We investigated the effects of cTBS on motor excitability and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds. cTBS was applied for 40 seconds over either the hand or the lip representation of motor cortex. Motor-evoked potentials recorded from the lip and hand muscles in response to single pulses of TMS revealed no measurable change in motor excitability due to cTBS. This failure to replicate previous findings may reflect the unreliability of measurements of motor excitability related to inter-individual variability. We also measured the effects of cTBS on a listener’s ability to discriminate:(1 lip-articulated speech sounds from sounds not articulated by the lips (‘ba’vs.‘da’; (2 two speech sounds not articulated by the lips (‘ga’vs.‘da’; and (3 non-speech sounds produced by the hands (‘claps’vs.‘clicks’. Discrimination of lip-articulated speech sounds was impaired between 20 and 35 minutes after cTBS over the lip motor representation. Specifically, discrimination of across-category ba–da sounds presented with an 800-ms inter-stimulus interval was reduced to chance level performance. This effect was absent for speech sounds that do not require the lips for articulation and non-speech sounds. Stimulation over the hand motor representation did not affect discrimination of speech or non-speech sounds. These findings show that stimulation of the lip motor representation disrupts discrimination of speech

  17. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  18. Self-organizing map classifier for stressed speech recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partila, Pavol; Tovarek, Jaromir; Voznak, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a method for detecting speech under stress using Self-Organizing Maps. Most people who are exposed to stressful situations can not adequately respond to stimuli. Army, police, and fire department occupy the largest part of the environment that are typical of an increased number of stressful situations. The role of men in action is controlled by the control center. Control commands should be adapted to the psychological state of a man in action. It is known that the psychological changes of the human body are also reflected physiologically, which consequently means the stress effected speech. Therefore, it is clear that the speech stress recognizing system is required in the security forces. One of the possible classifiers, which are popular for its flexibility, is a self-organizing map. It is one type of the artificial neural networks. Flexibility means independence classifier on the character of the input data. This feature is suitable for speech processing. Human Stress can be seen as a kind of emotional state. Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, LPC coefficients, and prosody features were selected for input data. These coefficients were selected for their sensitivity to emotional changes. The calculation of the parameters was performed on speech recordings, which can be divided into two classes, namely the stress state recordings and normal state recordings. The benefit of the experiment is a method using SOM classifier for stress speech detection. Results showed the advantage of this method, which is input data flexibility.

  19. Intelligibility of speech of children with speech and sound disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ivetac, Tina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine speech intelligibility of children with primary speech and sound disorders aged 3 to 6 years in everyday life. The research problem is based on the degree to which parents or guardians, immediate family members (sister, brother, grandparents), extended family members (aunt, uncle, cousin), child's friends, other acquaintances, child's teachers and strangers understand the speech of children with speech sound disorders. We examined whether the level ...

  20. Validation of spontaneous abortion diagnoses in the Danish National Registry of Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Sarah Rytter; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Lohse, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to validate the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion (SA) recorded in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP).......The purpose of this study is to validate the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion (SA) recorded in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP)....

  1. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  2. Speech analysis as an index of alcohol intoxication--the Exxon Valdez accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, M; Cash, J R

    1991-09-01

    As part of its investigation of the EXXON VALDEZ tankship accident and oil spill, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) examined the master's speech for alcohol-related effects. Recorded speech samples were obtained from marine radio communications tapes. The samples were tested for four effects associated with alcohol consumption is available scientific literature: slowed speech, speech errors, misarticulation of difficult sounds ("slurring"), and audible changes in speech quality. It was found that speech immediately before and after the accident displayed large changes of the sort associated with alcohol consumption. These changes were not readily explained by fatigue, psychological stress, drug effects, or medical problems. Speech analysis appears to be a useful technique to provide secondary evidence of alcohol impairment.

  3. Decoding of articulatory gestures during word production using speech motor and premotor cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugler, Emily M; Goldrick, Matthew; Rosenow, Joshua M; Tate, Matthew C; Slutzky, Marc W

    2015-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces that directly translate attempted speech from the speech motor areas could change the lives of people with complete paralysis. However, it remains uncertain exactly how speech production is encoded in cortex. Improving this understanding could greatly improve brain-machine interface design. Specifically, it is not clear to what extent the different levels of speech production (phonemes, or speech sounds, and articulatory gestures, which describe the movements of the articulator muscles) are represented in the motor cortex. Using electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrodes on the cortical surface, we recorded neural activity from speech motor and premotor areas during speech production. We decoded both gestures and phonemes using the neural signals. Overall classification accuracy was higher for gestures than phonemes. In particular, gestures were better represented in the primary sensorimotor cortices, while phonemes were better represented in more anterior areas.

  4. Language modeling for automatic speech recognition of inflective languages an applications-oriented approach using lexical data

    CERN Document Server

    Donaj, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    This book covers language modeling and automatic speech recognition for inflective languages (e.g. Slavic languages), which represent roughly half of the languages spoken in Europe. These languages do not perform as well as English in speech recognition systems and it is therefore harder to develop an application with sufficient quality for the end user. The authors describe the most important language features for the development of a speech recognition system. This is then presented through the analysis of errors in the system and the development of language models and their inclusion in speech recognition systems, which specifically address the errors that are relevant for targeted applications. The error analysis is done with regard to morphological characteristics of the word in the recognized sentences. The book is oriented towards speech recognition with large vocabularies and continuous and even spontaneous speech. Today such applications work with a rather small number of languages compared to the nu...

  5. A Technique for Estimating Intensity of Emotional Expressions and Speaking Styles in Speech Based on Multiple-Regression HSMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takao

    In this paper, we propose a technique for estimating the degree or intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles appearing in speech. The key idea is based on a style control technique for speech synthesis using a multiple regression hidden semi-Markov model (MRHSMM), and the proposed technique can be viewed as the inverse of the style control. In the proposed technique, the acoustic features of spectrum, power, fundamental frequency, and duration are simultaneously modeled using the MRHSMM. We derive an algorithm for estimating explanatory variables of the MRHSMM, each of which represents the degree or intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles appearing in acoustic features of speech, based on a maximum likelihood criterion. We show experimental results to demonstrate the ability of the proposed technique using two types of speech data, simulated emotional speech and spontaneous speech with different speaking styles. It is found that the estimated values have correlation with human perception.

  6. Impact of a rapid palatal expander on speech articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kyle; Bressmann, Tim; Gong, Siew-Ging; Tompson, Bryan D

    2011-08-01

    Rapid palatal expanders (RPEs) have attachments cemented to the teeth and a screw that covers the palate. Because of their position and relative size, RPEs can affect speech. Our objective was to assess speech perturbation and adaptation related to RPE appliances over time. RPEs were planned for the treatment of 22 patients in the orthodontic clinic at the University of Toronto in Canada. Speech recordings were made at 6 time points: before RPE placement, after placement, during expansion, during retention, after removal, and 4 weeks after removal. The speech recordings consisted of 35 sentences, from which 3 sentences were chosen for analysis. Speech acceptability was assessed perceptually by 10 listeners who rated each sentence on an equal-appearing interval scale. The vowel formants for /i/ and the fricative spectra for /s/ and /∫/ were measured with speech analysis software. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with post-hoc paired t tests was used for statistical analysis. When the appliance was placed, speech acceptability deteriorated. Over time, the ratings improved and returned to baseline when the appliance was removed. For the vowel /i/, the first formant increased, and the second formant decreased in frequency, indicating centralization of the vowel. The formants returned to the pretreatment levels during treatment. For the fricatives (/s/ and /∫/), low-to-high frequency ratios indicated that the fricatives were distorted when the appliance was placed. The ratios returned to baseline levels once the appliance was removed. The results for the spectral moments indicated that spectral mean decreased and skewness became more positive. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed significant effects for time for all acoustic measures. Speech was altered and distorted when the appliance was first placed. The patients' speech gradually improved over time and returned to baseline once the appliance was removed. The results from the study will be useful

  7. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of School-Age ... amount of success to be expected. Choosing a Speech-Language Pathologist The key to success with any ...

  8. Tackling the complexity in speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    section includes four carefully selected chapters. They deal with facets of speech production, speech acoustics, and/or speech perception or recognition, place them in an integrated phonetic-phonological perspective, and relate them in more or less explicit ways to aspects of speech technology. Therefore......, we hope that this volume can help speech scientists with traditional training in phonetics and phonology to keep up with the latest developments in speech technology. In the opposite direction, speech researchers starting from a technological perspective will hopefully get inspired by reading about...... the questions, phenomena, and communicative functions that are currently addressed in phonetics and phonology. Either way, the future of speech research lies in international, interdisciplinary collaborations, and our volume is meant to reflect and facilitate such collaborations...

  9. Maria Montessori on Speech Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David A.

    1973-01-01

    Montessori's theory of education, as related to speech communication skills learning, is explored for insights into speech and language acquisition, pedagogical procedure for teaching spoken vocabulary, and the educational environment which encourages children's free interaction and confidence in communication. (CH)

  10. Speech spectrogram expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  11. RECOGNISING SPEECH ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Kaburise

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech Act Theory (SAT, a theory in pragmatics, is an attempt to describe what happens during linguistic interactions. Inherent within SAT is the idea that language forms and intentions are relatively formulaic and that there is a direct correspondence between sentence forms (for example, in terms of structure and lexicon and the function or meaning of an utterance. The contention offered in this paper is that when such a correspondence does not exist, as in indirect speech utterances, this creates challenges for English second language speakers and may result in miscommunication. This arises because indirect speech acts allow speakers to employ various pragmatic devices such as inference, implicature, presuppositions and context clues to transmit their messages. Such devices, operating within the non-literal level of language competence, may pose challenges for ESL learners.

  12. Out-of-synchrony speech entrainment in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Nicola; Lizarazu, Mikel; Lallier, Marie; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a reading disorder often characterized by reduced awareness of speech units. Whether the neural source of this phonological disorder in dyslexic readers results from the malfunctioning of the primary auditory system or damaged feedback communication between higher-order phonological regions (i.e., left inferior frontal regions) and the auditory cortex is still under dispute. Here we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from 20 dyslexic readers and 20 age-matched controls while they were listening to ∼10-s-long spoken sentences. Compared to controls, dyslexic readers had (1) an impaired neural entrainment to speech in the delta band (0.5-1 Hz); (2) a reduced delta synchronization in both the right auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal gyrus; and (3) an impaired feedforward functional coupling between neural oscillations in the right auditory cortex and the left inferior frontal regions. This shows that during speech listening, individuals with developmental dyslexia present reduced neural synchrony to low-frequency speech oscillations in primary auditory regions that hinders higher-order speech processing steps. The present findings, thus, strengthen proposals assuming that improper low-frequency acoustic entrainment affects speech sampling. This low speech-brain synchronization has the strong potential to cause severe consequences for both phonological and reading skills. Interestingly, the reduced speech-brain synchronization in dyslexic readers compared to normal readers (and its higher-order consequences across the speech processing network) appears preserved through the development from childhood to adulthood. Thus, the evaluation of speech-brain synchronization could possibly serve as a diagnostic tool for early detection of children at risk of dyslexia. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2767-2783, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Brainstem response to speech and non-speech stimuli in children with learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malayeri, Saeed; Lotfi, Yones; Moossavi, Seyed Abdollah; Rostami, Reza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2014-07-01

    Neuronal firing synchronization is critical for recording auditory responses from the brainstem. Recent studies have shown that both click and/da/synthetic syllable (speech) stimuli perform well in evoking neuronal synchronization at the brainstem level. In the present study, brainstem responses to click and speech stimuli were compared between children with learning problems (LP) and those with normal learning (NL) abilities. The study included 49 children with LP and 34 children with NL. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) to 100-μs click stimulus and speech ABR (sABR) to/da/40-ms stimulus were tested in these children. Wave latencies III, V, and Vn and inter-peak latency (IPL) V-Vn in click ABR and wave latencies I, V, and A and IPL V-A in sABR were significantly longer in children with LP than children with NL. Except IPL of I-III, a significant positive correlation was observed between click ABR and sABR wave latencies and IPLs in children with NL; this correlation was weaker or not observed in children with LP. In this regard, the difference between correlation coefficients of wave latencies I, III, and V and IPLs I-V and V-Vn/V-A was significant in the two groups. Deficits in auditory processing timing in children with LP may have probably affected ABR for both click and speech stimuli. This finding emphasizes the possibility of shared connections between processing timing for speech and non-speech stimuli in auditory brainstem pathways. Weak or no correlation between click and speech ABR parameters in children with LP may have a clinical relevance and may be effectively used for objective diagnoses after confirming its sufficient sensitivity and specificity and demonstrating its acceptable validity with more scientific evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Speech identity conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondra, Martin; Vích, Robert

    Vol. 3445, - (2005), s. 421-426 ISSN 0302-9743. [International Summer School on Neural Nets "E. R. Caianiello". Course: Nonlinear Speech Modeling and Applications /9./. Vietri sul Mare, 13.09.2004-18.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/04/1097; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/02/0124; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 277.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : speech synthesis * computer science Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  15. The chairman's speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper contains a transcript of a speech by the chairman of the UKAEA, to mark the publication of the 1985/6 annual report. The topics discussed in the speech include: the Chernobyl accident and its effect on public attitudes to nuclear power, management and disposal of radioactive waste, the operation of UKAEA as a trading fund, and the UKAEA development programmes. The development programmes include work on the following: fast reactor technology, thermal reactors, reactor safety, health and safety aspects of water cooled reactors, the Joint European Torus, and under-lying research. (U.K.)

  16. Designing speech for a recipient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin

    is investigated on three candidates for so-called ‘simplified registers’: speech to children (also called motherese or baby talk), speech to foreigners (also called foreigner talk) and speech to robots. The volume integrates research from various disciplines, such as psychology, sociolinguistics...

  17. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Information is carried in changes of a signal. The paper starts with revis- iting Dudley's concept of the carrier nature of speech. It points to its close connection to modulation spectra of speech and argues against short-term spectral envelopes as dominant carriers of the linguistic information in speech. The history of ...

  18. Speech Communication and Signal Processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Communicating with a machine in a natural mode such as speech brings out not only several technological challenges, but also limitations in our understanding of how people communicate so effortlessly. The key is to understand the distinction between speech processing (as is done in human communication) and speech ...

  19. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  20. Spotting social signals in conversational speech over IP : A deep learning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brueckner, Raymond; Schmitt, Maximilian; Pantic, Maja; Schuller, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The automatic detection and classification of social signals is an important task, given the fundamental role nonverbal behavioral cues play in human communication. We present the first cross-lingual study on the detection of laughter and fillers in conversational and spontaneous speech collected

  1. Gesturing through Time: Holds and Intermodal Timing in the Stream of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Doob, Mischa Alan

    2010-01-01

    Most previous work examining co-speech gestures (the spontaneous bodily movements and configurations we engage in during speaking) has emphasized the importance of their most "salient" or energetically expressive moments, known as gesture "strokes" (Kendon 1980). In contrast, in this dissertation I explore the potential functions of intervals of…

  2. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  3. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Perceptual learning of speech under optimal and adverse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2014-02-01

    Humans have a remarkable ability to understand spoken language despite the large amount of variability in speech. Previous research has shown that listeners can use lexical information to guide their interpretation of atypical sounds in speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). This kind of lexically induced perceptual learning enables people to adjust to the variations in utterances due to talker-specific characteristics, such as individual identity and dialect. The current study investigated perceptual learning in two optimal conditions: conversational speech (Experiment 1) versus clear speech (Experiment 2), and three adverse conditions: noise (Experiment 3a) versus two cognitive loads (Experiments 4a and 4b). Perceptual learning occurred in the two optimal conditions and in the two cognitive load conditions, but not in the noise condition. Furthermore, perceptual learning occurred only in the first of two sessions for each participant, and only for atypical /s/ sounds and not for atypical /f/ sounds. This pattern of learning and nonlearning reflects a balance between flexibility and stability that the speech system must have to deal with speech variability in the diverse conditions that speech is encountered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Hearing speech in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth-Reino Ekström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA. The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01. Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01 and SPN (P<.05. Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01, but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01. It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  6. Media Criticism Group Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To integrate speaking practice with rhetorical theory. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: 100 points (i.e., 30 points based on peer evaluations, 30 points based on individual performance, 40 points based on the group presentation), which is 25% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 7-10; (b) Length: 20-30 minutes; (c)…

  7. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  8. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  9. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... time periods are the relevant measure. We followed a cohort of first pregnancy planners from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses include 181 pregnancies, of which 32 were subclinical pregnancies detected by hCG analysis only. During early...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  10. Visualizing structures of speech expressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Graugaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    vowels and consonants, and which converts the speech energy into visual particles that form complex visual structures, provides us with a mean to present the expressiveness of speech into a visual mode. This system is presented in an artwork whose scenario is inspired from the reasons of language......Speech is both beautiful and informative. In this work, a conceptual study of the speech, through investigation of the tower of Babel, the archetypal phonemes, and a study of the reasons of uses of language is undertaken in order to create an artistic work investigating the nature of speech...

  11. Brain-inspired speech segmentation for automatic speech recognition using the speech envelope as a temporal reference

    OpenAIRE

    Byeongwook Lee; Kwang-Hyun Cho

    2016-01-01

    Speech segmentation is a crucial step in automatic speech recognition because additional speech analyses are performed for each framed speech segment. Conventional segmentation techniques primarily segment speech using a fixed frame size for computational simplicity. However, this approach is insufficient for capturing the quasi-regular structure of speech, which causes substantial recognition failure in noisy environments. How does the brain handle quasi-regular structured speech and maintai...

  12. The Nationwide Speech Project: A multi-talker multi-dialect speech corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2004-05-01

    Most research on regional phonological variation relies on field recordings of interview speech. Recent research on the perception of dialect variation by naive listeners, however, has relied on read sentence materials in order to control for phonological and lexical content and syntax. The Nationwide Speech Project corpus was designed to obtain a large amount of speech from a number of talkers representing different regional varieties of American English. Five male and five female talkers from each of six different dialect regions in the United States were recorded reading isolated words, sentences, and passages, and in conversations with the experimenter. The talkers ranged in age from 18 and 25 years old and they were all monolingual native speakers of American English. They had lived their entire life in one dialect region and both of their parents were raised in the same region. Results of an acoustic analysis of the vowel spaces of the talkers included in the Nationwide Speech Project will be presented. [Work supported by NIH.

  13. Variability and Intelligibility of Clarified Speech to Different Listener Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Ronnie F.

    Two studies examined the modifications that adult speakers make in speech to disadvantaged listeners. Previous research that has focused on speech to the deaf individuals and to young children has shown that adults clarify speech when addressing these two populations. Acoustic measurements suggest that the signal undergoes similar changes for both populations. Perceptual tests corroborate these results for the deaf population, but are nonsystematic in developmental studies. The differences in the findings for these populations and the nonsystematic results in the developmental literature may be due to methodological factors. The present experiments addressed these methodological questions. Studies of speech to hearing impaired listeners have used read, nonsense, sentences, for which speakers received explicit clarification instructions and feedback, while in the child literature, excerpts of real-time conversations were used. Therefore, linguistic samples were not precisely matched. In this study, experiments used various linguistic materials. Experiment 1 used a children's story; experiment 2, nonsense sentences. Four mothers read both types of material in four ways: (1) in "normal" adult speech, (2) in "babytalk," (3) under the clarification instructions used in the "hearing impaired studies" (instructed clear speech) and (4) in (spontaneous) clear speech without instruction. No extra practice or feedback was given. Sentences were presented to 40 normal hearing college students with and without simultaneous masking noise. Results were separately tabulated for content and function words, and analyzed using standard statistical tests. The major finding in the study was individual variation in speaker intelligibility. "Real world" speakers vary in their baseline intelligibility. The four speakers also showed unique patterns of intelligibility as a function of each independent variable. Results were as follows. Nonsense sentences were less intelligible than story

  14. Representation of speech variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael F

    2017-07-01

    Speech signals provide both linguistic information (e.g., words and sentences) as well as information about the speaker who produced the message (i.e., social-indexical information). Listeners store highly detailed representations of these speech signals, which are simultaneously indexed with linguistic and social category membership. A variety of methodologies-forced-choice categorization, rating, and free classification-have shed light on listeners' cognitive-perceptual representations of the social-indexical information present in the speech signal. Specifically, listeners can accurately identify some talker characteristics, including native language status, approximate age, sex, and gender. Additionally, listeners have sensitivity to other speaker characteristics-such as sexual orientation, regional dialect, native language for non-native speakers, race, and ethnicity-but listeners tend to be less accurate or more variable at categorizing or rating speakers based on these constructs. However, studies have not necessarily incorporated more recent conceptions of these constructs (e.g., separating listeners' perceptions of race vs ethnicity) or speakers who do not fit squarely into specific categories (e.g., for sex perception, intersex individuals; for gender perception, genderqueer speakers; for race perception, multiracial speakers). Additional research on how the intersections of social-indexical categories influence speech perception is also needed. As the field moves forward, scholars from a variety of disciplines should be incorporated into investigations of how listeners' extract and represent facets of personal identity from speech. Further, the impact of these representations on our interactions with one another in contexts outside of the laboratory should continue to be explored. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1434. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1434 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain Psychology

  15. Nobel peace speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FRYE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Peace Prize has long been considered the premier peace prize in the world. According to Geir Lundestad, Secretary of the Nobel Committee, of the 300 some peace prizes awarded worldwide, “none is in any way as well known and as highly respected as the Nobel Peace Prize” (Lundestad, 2001. Nobel peace speech is a unique and significant international site of public discourse committed to articulating the universal grammar of peace. Spanning over 100 years of sociopolitical history on the world stage, Nobel Peace Laureates richly represent an important cross-section of domestic and international issues increasingly germane to many publics. Communication scholars’ interest in this rhetorical genre has increased in the past decade. Yet, the norm has been to analyze a single speech artifact from a prestigious or controversial winner rather than examine the collection of speeches for generic commonalities of import. In this essay, we analyze the discourse of Nobel peace speech inductively and argue that the organizing principle of the Nobel peace speech genre is the repetitive form of normative liberal principles and values that function as rhetorical topoi. These topoi include freedom and justice and appeal to the inviolable, inborn right of human beings to exercise certain political and civil liberties and the expectation of equality of protection from totalitarian and tyrannical abuses. The significance of this essay to contemporary communication theory is to expand our theoretical understanding of rhetoric’s role in the maintenance and development of an international and cross-cultural vocabulary for the grammar of peace.

  16. Speech and the right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, E M

    1991-01-01

    Two facts are well recognized: the location of the speech centre with respect to handedness and early brain damage, and the involvement of the right hemisphere in certain cognitive functions including verbal humour, metaphor interpretation, spatial reasoning and abstract concepts. The importance of the right hemisphere in speech is suggested by pathological studies, blood flow parameters and analysis of learning strategies. An insult to the right hemisphere following left hemisphere damage can affect residual language abilities and may activate non-propositional inner speech. The prosody of speech comprehension even more so than of speech production-identifying the voice, its affective components, gestural interpretation and monitoring one's own speech-may be an essentially right hemisphere task. Errors of a visuospatial type may occur in the learning process. Ease of learning by actors and when learning foreign languages is achieved by marrying speech with gesture and intonation, thereby adopting a right hemisphere strategy.

  17. Metaheuristic applications to speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kunche, Prajna

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a basic reference for those interested in the application of metaheuristics to speech enhancement. The major goal of the book is to explain the basic concepts of optimization methods and their use in heuristic optimization in speech enhancement to scientists, practicing engineers, and academic researchers in speech processing. The authors discuss why it has been a challenging problem for researchers to develop new enhancement algorithms that aid in the quality and intelligibility of degraded speech. They present powerful optimization methods to speech enhancement that can help to solve the noise reduction problems. Readers will be able to understand the fundamentals of speech processing as well as the optimization techniques, how the speech enhancement algorithms are implemented by utilizing optimization methods, and will be given the tools to develop new algorithms. The authors also provide a comprehensive literature survey regarding the topic.

  18. Conversation, speech acts, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Speakers frequently have specific intentions that they want others to recognize (Grice, 1957). These specific intentions can be viewed as speech acts (Searle, 1969), and I argue that they play a role in long-term memory for conversation utterances. Five experiments were conducted to examine this idea. Participants in all experiments read scenarios ending with either a target utterance that performed a specific speech act (brag, beg, etc.) or a carefully matched control. Participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize speech act verbs after having read the speech act version than after having read the control version, and the speech act verbs served as better recall cues for the speech act utterances than for the controls. Experiment 5 documented individual differences in the encoding of speech act verbs. The results suggest that people recognize and retain the actions that people perform with their utterances and that this is one of the organizing principles of conversation memory.

  19. A Comparison between Three Methods of Language Sampling: Freeplay, Narrative Speech and Conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Rezapour

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The spontaneous language sample analysis is an important part of the language assessment protocol. Language samples give us useful information about how children use language in the natural situations of daily life. The purpose of this study was to compare Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech in aspects of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU, Type-token ratio (TTR, and the number of utterances. Methods: By cluster sampling method, a total of 30 Semnanian five-year-old boys with normal speech and language development were selected from the active kindergartens in Semnan city. Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech were three applied language sample elicitation methods to obtain 15 minutes of children’s spontaneous language samples. Means for MLU, TTR, and the number of utterances are analyzed by dependent ANOVA. Results: The result showed no significant difference in number of elicited utterances among these three language sampling methods. Narrative speech elicited longer MLU than freeplay and conversation, and compared to freeplay and narrative speech, conversation elicited higher TTR. Discussion: Results suggest that in the clinical assessment of the Persian-language children, it is better to use narrative speech to elicit longer MLU and to use conversation to elicit higher TTR.

  20. The Nationwide Speech Project: A new corpus of American English dialects☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual and acoustic research on dialect variation in the United States requires an appropriate corpus of spoken language materials. Existing speech corpora that include dialect variation are limited by poor recording quality, small numbers of talkers, and/or small samples of speech from each talker. The Nationwide Speech Project corpus was designed to contain a large amount of speech produced by male and female talkers representing the primary regional varieties of American English. Five male and five female talkers from each of six dialect regions in the United States were recorded reading words, sentences, passages, and in interviews with an experimenter, using high quality digital recording equipment in a sound-attenuated booth. The resulting corpus contains nearly an hour of speech from each of the 60 talkers that can be used in future research on the perception and production of dialect variation. PMID:21423815

  1. Measuring word complexity in speech screening: single-word sampling to identify phonological delay/disorder in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolyn; Cohen, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Children's speech sound development is assessed by comparing speech production with the typical development of speech sounds based on a child's age and developmental profile. One widely used method of sampling is to elicit a single-word sample along with connected speech. Words produced spontaneously rather than imitated may give a more accurate indication of a child's speech development. A published word complexity measure can be used to score later-developing speech sounds and more complex word patterns. There is a need for a screening word list that is quick to administer and reliably differentiates children with typically developing speech from children with patterns of delayed/disordered speech. To identify a short word list based on word complexity that could be spontaneously named by most typically developing children aged 3;00-5;05 years. One hundred and five children aged between 3;00 and 5;05 years from three local authority nursery schools took part in the study. Items from a published speech assessment were modified and extended to include a range of phonemic targets in different word positions in 78 monosyllabic and polysyllabic words. The 78 words were ranked both by phonemic/phonetic complexity as measured by word complexity and by ease of spontaneous production. The ten most complex words (hereafter Triage 10) were named spontaneously by more than 90% of the children. There was no significant difference between the complexity measures for five identified age groups when the data were examined in 6-month groups. A qualitative analysis revealed eight children with profiles of phonological delay or disorder. When these children were considered separately, there was a statistically significant difference (p speech from those with delayed or disordered speech patterns. The Triage 10 words can be used as a screening tool for triage and general assessment and have the potential to monitor progress during intervention. Further testing is being undertaken to

  2. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  3. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  4. High-frequency energy in singing and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian Bruce

    While human speech and the human voice generate acoustical energy up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy above approximately 5 kHz has been largely neglected. Evidence is accruing that this high-frequency energy contains perceptual information relevant to speech and voice, including percepts of quality, localization, and intelligibility. The present research was an initial step in the long-range goal of characterizing high-frequency energy in singing voice and speech, with particular regard for its perceptual role and its potential for modification during voice and speech production. In this study, a database of high-fidelity recordings of talkers was created and used for a broad acoustical analysis and general characterization of high-frequency energy, as well as specific characterization of phoneme category, voice and speech intensity level, and mode of production (speech versus singing) by high-frequency energy content. Directionality of radiation of high-frequency energy from the mouth was also examined. The recordings were used for perceptual experiments wherein listeners were asked to discriminate between speech and voice samples that differed only in high-frequency energy content. Listeners were also subjected to gender discrimination tasks, mode-of-production discrimination tasks, and transcription tasks with samples of speech and singing that contained only high-frequency content. The combination of these experiments has revealed that (1) human listeners are able to detect very subtle level changes in high-frequency energy, and (2) human listeners are able to extract significant perceptual information from high-frequency energy.

  5. Acceptance of speech recognition by physicians: A survey of expectations, experiences, and social influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Andersen, Henning Boje; Hertzum, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The present study has surveyed physician views and attitudes before and after the introduction of speech technology as a front end to an electronic medical record. At the hospital where the survey was made, speech technology recently (2006–2007) replaced traditional dictation and subsequent secre...

  6. Mismatch Negativity Responses in Children with a Diagnosis of Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froud, Karen; Khamis-Dakwar, Reem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether a hypothesis suggesting that apraxia of speech results from phonological overspecification could be relevant for childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Method: High-density EEG was recorded from 5 children with CAS and 5 matched controls, ages 5-8 years, with and without CAS, as they listened to randomized sequences of CV…

  7. Production Variability and Single Word Intelligibility in Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Katarina L.; Martin, Gwenyth

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate test-retest reliability of orthographic speech intelligibility testing in speakers with aphasia and AOS and to examine its relationship to the consistency of speaker and listener responses. Monosyllabic single word speech samples were recorded from 13 speakers with coexisting aphasia and AOS. These words were…

  8. The first Malay language storytelling text-to-speech (TTS) corpus for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    speech annotations are described in detail in accordance to baseline work. The stories were recorded in two speaking styles that are neutral and storytelling speaking style. The first. Malay language storytelling corpus is not only necessary for the development of a storytelling text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis. It is also ...

  9. Dual silent communication system development based on subvocal speech and Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Ramírez-Corzo

    2016-09-01

    Additionally, in this article we show the speech subvocal signals’ recording system realization. The average accuracy percentage was 72.5 %, and includes a total of 50 words by class, this is 200 signals. Finally, it demonstrated that using the Raspberry Pi it is possible to set a silent communication system, using subvocal. speech signals.

  10. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  11. Human Superior Temporal Gyrus Organization of Spectrotemporal Modulation Tuning Derived from Speech Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullett, Patrick W; Hamilton, Liberty S; Mesgarani, Nima; Schreiner, Christoph E; Chang, Edward F

    2016-02-10

    The human superior temporal gyrus (STG) is critical for speech perception, yet the organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well understood. Here, to characterize the spatial organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech across human STG, we use high-density cortical surface field potential recordings while participants listened to natural continuous speech. While synthetic broad-band stimuli did not yield sustained activation of the STG, spectrotemporal receptive fields could be reconstructed from vigorous responses to speech stimuli. We find that the human STG displays a robust anterior-posterior spatial distribution of spectrotemporal tuning in which the posterior STG is tuned for temporally fast varying speech sounds that have relatively constant energy across the frequency axis (low spectral modulation) while the anterior STG is tuned for temporally slow varying speech sounds that have a high degree of spectral variation across the frequency axis (high spectral modulation). This work illustrates organization of spectrotemporal processing in the human STG, and illuminates processing of ethologically relevant speech signals in a region of the brain specialized for speech perception. Considerable evidence has implicated the human superior temporal gyrus (STG) in speech processing. However, the gross organization of spectrotemporal processing of speech within the STG is not well characterized. Here we use natural speech stimuli and advanced receptive field characterization methods to show that spectrotemporal features within speech are well organized along the posterior-to-anterior axis of the human STG. These findings demonstrate robust functional organization based on spectrotemporal modulation content, and illustrate that much of the encoded information in the STG represents the physical acoustic properties of speech stimuli. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/362014-13$15.00/0.

  12. Indonesian Text-To-Speech System Using Diphone Concatenative Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design and develop a database of Indonesian diphone synthesis using speech segment of recorded voice to be converted from text to speech and save it as audio file like WAV or MP3. In designing and develop a database of Indonesian diphone there are several steps to follow; First, developed Diphone database includes: create a list of sample of words consisting of diphones organized by prioritizing looking diphone located in the middle of a word if not at the beginning or end; recording the samples of words by segmentation. ;create diphones made with a tool Diphone Studio 1.3. Second, develop system using Microsoft Visual Delphi 6.0, includes: the conversion system from the input of numbers, acronyms, words, and sentences into representations diphone. There are two kinds of conversion (process alleged in analyzing the Indonesian text-to-speech system. One is to convert the text to be sounded to phonem and two, to convert the phonem to speech. Method used in this research is called Diphone Concatenative synthesis, in which recorded sound segments are collected. Every segment consists of a diphone (2 phonems. This synthesizer may produce voice with high level of naturalness. The Indonesian Text to Speech system can differentiate special phonemes like in ‘Beda’ and ‘Bedak’ but sample of other spesific words is necessary to put into the system. This Indonesia TTS system can handle texts with abbreviation, there is the facility to add such words.

  13. Predicting automatic speech recognition performance over communication channels from instrumental speech quality and intelligibility scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, L.F.; Möller, S.; Beerends, J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of automatic speech recognition based on coded-decoded speech heavily depends on the quality of the transmitted signals, determined by channel impairments. This paper examines relationships between speech recognition performance and measurements of speech quality and intelligibility

  14. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  15. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  16. Sensorimotor Interactions in Speech Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Shiller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory input is essential for normal speech development and plays a key role in speech production throughout the life span. In traditional models, auditory input plays two critical roles: 1 establishing the acoustic correlates of speech sounds that serve, in part, as the targets of speech production, and 2 as a source of feedback about a talker's own speech outcomes. This talk will focus on both of these roles, describing a series of studies that examine the capacity of children and adults to adapt to real-time manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. In one study, we examined sensory and motor adaptation to a manipulation of auditory feedback during production of the fricative “s”. In contrast to prior accounts, adaptive changes were observed not only in speech motor output but also in subjects' perception of the sound. In a second study, speech adaptation was examined following a period of auditory–perceptual training targeting the perception of vowels. The perceptual training was found to systematically improve subjects' motor adaptation response to altered auditory feedback during speech production. The results of both studies support the idea that perceptual and motor processes are tightly coupled in speech production learning, and that the degree and nature of this coupling may change with development.

  17. Speech is Golden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Most of the Danish municipalities are ready to begin to adopt automatic speech recognition, but at the same time remain nervous following a long series of bad business cases in the recent past. Complaints are voiced over costly licences and low service levels, typical effects of a de facto monopoly...... on the supply side. The present article reports on a new public action strategy which has taken shape in the course of 2013-14. While Denmark is a small language area, our public sector is well organised and has considerable purchasing power. Across this past year, Danish local authorities have organised around...... the speech technology challenge, they have formulated a number of joint questions and new requirements to be met by suppliers and have deliberately worked towards formulating tendering material which will allow fair competition. Public researchers have contributed to this work, including the author...

  18. Speech is Golden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    on the supply side. The present article reports on a new public action strategy which has taken shape in the course of 2013-14. While Denmark is a small language area, our public sector is well organised and has considerable purchasing power. Across this past year, Danish local authorities have organised around...... the speech technology challenge, they have formulated a number of joint questions and new requirements to be met by suppliers and have deliberately worked towards formulating tendering material which will allow fair competition. Public researchers have contributed to this work, including the author...... of the present article, in the role of economically neutral advisers. The aim of the initiative is to pave the way for the first profitable contract in the field - which we hope to see in 2014 - an event which would precisely break the present deadlock and open up a billion EUR market for speech technology...

  19. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  20. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  1. Accurate referential communication and its relation with private and social speech in a naturalistic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbau, Dolors; Boada, Humbert

    2004-11-01

    Research into human communication has been grouped under two traditions: referential and sociolinguistic. The study of a communication behavior simultaneously from both paradigms appears to be absent. Basically, this paper analyzes the use of private and social speech, through both a referential task (Word Pairs) and a naturalistic dyadic setting (Lego-set) administered to a sample of 64 children from grades 3 and 5. All children, of 8 and 10 years of age, used speech that was not adapted to the decoder, and thus ineffective for interpersonal communication, in both referential and sociolinguistic communication. Pairs of high-skill referential encoders used significantly more task-relevant social speech, that is, cognitively more complex, than did low-skill dyads in the naturalistic context. High-skill referential encoder dyads showed a trend to produce more inaudible private speech than did low-skill ones during spontaneous communication. Gender did not affect the results.

  2. IBM MASTOR SYSTEM: Multilingual Automatic Speech-to-speech Translator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Yuqing; Gu, Liang; Zhou, Bowen; Sarikaya, Ruhi; Afify, Mohamed; Kuo, Hong-Kwang; Zhu, Wei-zhong; Deng, Yonggang; Prosser, Charles; Zhang, Wei

    2006-01-01

    .... Challenges include speech recognition and machine translation in adverse environments, lack of training data and linguistic resources for under-studied languages, and the need to rapidly develop...

  3. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  4. Do positive spontaneous thoughts function as incentive salience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Elise L; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2017-08-01

    The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting. In Study 1, 103 adults recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk reported on key aspects of 10 everyday activities. As predicted, positive spontaneous thoughts mediated the relationship between liking an activity in the past and wanting to engage in it in the future. In Study 2, 99 undergraduate students viewed amusing and humorless cartoons and completed a thought-listing task, providing experimental evidence for the causal effect of liking on positive spontaneous thoughts. In Study 3, we tested whether positive spontaneous thoughts play an active role in energizing wanting rather than merely co-occurring with (inferred) incentive salience. In that experiment involving 80 undergraduates, participants who were led to believe that their spontaneous thoughts about a target activity were especially positive planned to devote more time to that activity over the coming week than participants who received no such information about their spontaneous thoughts. Collectively, these findings suggest that positive spontaneous thoughts may play an important role in shaping approach motivation. Broader implications and future directions in the study of positive spontaneous thoughts are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos

    2003-10-01

    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  6. Spontaneous Large Serous Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voraporn Chaikitmongkol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report cases of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE tear complicating serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Methods: The records of 3 Asian patients with spontaneous giant RPE tear were reviewed retrospectively by including clinical presentation, angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual outcome. Results: Three patients (4 eyes were included in this study, with a mean age of 48.3 (42–56 years, and a mean follow-up period of 7.75 (4–18 months. Fundus examination in all patients showed giant RPE tear associated with bullous PED. Two cases had a history of prior corticosteroid use, and 1 had no history of medication use. All 3 patients developed spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid with no treatment. However, in patients who used corticosteroids, initial progression of the tear and subretinal fluid were observed despite ceasing medication. On subsequent follow-up, an incomplete RPE regeneration was demonstrated by fundus autofluorescence imaging, and choroidal neovascularization developed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Large PED with RPE tear is a rare manifestation. When the fovea is spared, visual prognosis is favorable. No specific treatment is required, but careful choroidal neovascularization monitoring should be performed.

  7. The effect of vowel height on Voice Onset Time in stop consonants in CV sequences in spontaneous Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Johannes; Tøndering, John

    2013-01-01

    Voice onset time has been reported to vary with the height of vowels following the stop consonant. This paper investigates the effects of vowel height on VOT in Danish CV sequences with stop consonants in Danish spontaneous speech. A significant effect of vowel height on VOT was found...

  8. Speech endpoint detection with non-language speech sounds for generic speech processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Matthew; Romanowski, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Non-language speech sounds (NLSS) are sounds produced by humans that do not carry linguistic information. Examples of these sounds are coughs, clicks, breaths, and filled pauses such as "uh" and "um" in English. NLSS are prominent in conversational speech, but can be a significant source of errors in speech processing applications. Traditionally, these sounds are ignored by speech endpoint detection algorithms, where speech regions are identified in the audio signal prior to processing. The ability to filter NLSS as a pre-processing step can significantly enhance the performance of many speech processing applications, such as speaker identification, language identification, and automatic speech recognition. In order to be used in all such applications, NLSS detection must be performed without the use of language models that provide knowledge of the phonology and lexical structure of speech. This is especially relevant to situations where the languages used in the audio are not known apriori. We present the results of preliminary experiments using data from American and British English speakers, in which segments of audio are classified as language speech sounds (LSS) or NLSS using a set of acoustic features designed for language-agnostic NLSS detection and a hidden-Markov model (HMM) to model speech generation. The results of these experiments indicate that the features and model used are capable of detection certain types of NLSS, such as breaths and clicks, while detection of other types of NLSS such as filled pauses will require future research.

  9. Rehabilitation of Oronasal Speech Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shemshadi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Oronasal region, as an important organ of taste and smell, being respected for its impact on the resonace, which is crucial for any normal speech production. Different congenital, acquired and/or developmentalpdefect, may not only have impacts on the quality of respiration, phonation, resonance, also on the process of a normal speech. This article will enable readers to have more focus in such important neuroanatomical speech zones disorders and their respective proper rehabilitation methods in different derangements. Among all other defects, oronasal malfunctionings would definitely has an influence on the oronasal sound resonance and furtherly render impairments on a normal speech production. Rehabilitative approach by speech and language pathologist is highly recommended to alleviate most of oronasal speech disorders.

  10. Speech and the Right Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. R. Critchley

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two facts are well recognized: the location of the speech centre with respect to handedness and early brain damage, and the involvement of the right hemisphere in certain cognitive functions including verbal humour, metaphor interpretation, spatial reasoning and abstract concepts. The importance of the right hemisphere in speech is suggested by pathological studies, blood flow parameters and analysis of learning strategies. An insult to the right hemisphere following left hemisphere damage can affect residual language abilities and may activate non-propositional inner speech. The prosody of speech comprehension even more so than of speech production—identifying the voice, its affective components, gestural interpretation and monitoring one's own speech—may be an essentially right hemisphere task. Errors of a visuospatial type may occur in the learning process. Ease of learning by actors and when learning foreign languages is achieved by marrying speech with gesture and intonation, thereby adopting a right hemisphere strategy.

  11. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Associated With Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Hayes, Sharonne N; Codsi, Elisabeth; Gulati, Rajiv; Rose, Carl H; Best, Patricia J M

    2017-07-25

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is the most common cause of pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction and remains poorly characterized. This study sought to assess presentation, clinical factors, and outcomes of pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (P-SCAD) compared with spontaneous coronary artery dissection not associated with pregnancy (NP-SCAD). A Mayo Clinic registry was established in 2010 to include comprehensive retrospective and prospective SCAD data. Records were reviewed to identify women who were pregnant or ≤12 weeks postpartum at time of SCAD. Complete records were available for 323 women; 54 women met criteria for P-SCAD (4 during pregnancy) and they were compared with 269 women with NP-SCAD. Most events occurred within the first month postpartum (35 of 50). Compared with NP-SCAD, P-SCAD patients more frequently presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (57% vs. 36%; p = 0.009), left main or multivessel SCAD (24% vs. 5%; p vs. 14%; p = 0.0027, respectively), and left ventricular function ≤35% (26% vs. 10%; p = 0.0071). Among women with imaging of other vascular territories, P-SCAD was less likely with a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia and extracoronary vascular abnormalities (42% vs. 64%; p = 0.047; and 46% vs. 77%; p = 0.0032, respectively). Compared with U.S. birth data, women with P-SCAD were more often multiparous (p = 0.0167), had a history of infertility therapies (p = 0.0004), and had pre-eclampsia (p = 0.001). On long-term follow-up (median 2.3 years) recurrent SCAD occurred in 51 patients, with no difference in the Kaplan Meier 5-year recurrence rates (10% vs. 23%; p = 0.18). P-SCAD patients had more acute presentations and high-risk features than women with NP-SCAD did. The highest frequency of P-SCAD occurred during the first postpartum month and P-SCAD patients less often had extracoronary vascular abnormalities. Hormonal, hemodynamic variations, and yet

  12. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  13. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  14. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  15. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  16. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...... in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within...... command and control, text entry and search are presented with an emphasis on mobile text entry....

  17. Psychotic speech: a neurolinguistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, A; Wales, R J

    1994-06-01

    The existence of an aphasia-like language disorder in psychotic speech has been the subject of much debate. This paper argues that a discrete language disorder could be an important cause of the disturbance seen in psychotic speech. A review is presented of classical clinical descriptions and experimental studies that have explored the similarities between psychotic language impairment and aphasic speech. The paper proposes neurolinguistic tasks which may be used in future studies to elicit subtle language impairments in psychotic speech. The usefulness of a neurolinguistic model for further research in the aetiology and treatment of psychosis is discussed.

  18. Phonetic Consequences of Speech Disfluency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shriberg, Elizabeth E

    1999-01-01

    .... Analyses of American English show that disfluency affects a variety of phonetic aspects of speech, including segment durations, intonation, voice quality, vowel quality, and coarticulation patterns...

  19. Cortical encoding of speech acoustics: Effects of noise and amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla-Mathew, Abin; Purdy, Suzanne C; Welch, David

    2015-01-01

    To investigate speech stimuli and background-noise-dependent changes in cortical auditory-evoked potentials (CAEPs) in unaided and aided conditions, and determine amplification effects on CAEPs. CAEPs to naturally produced syllables in quiet and in multi-talker babble were recorded, with and without a hearing aid in the right ear. At least 300 artifact-free trials for each participant were required to measure latencies and amplitudes of CAEPs. Acoustic characteristics of the hearing-aid-transduced stimuli were measured using in-the-canal probe microphone measurements to determine unaided versus aided SNR and to compare stimulus acoustic characteristics to CAEP findings. Ten participants with normal hearing, aged 19 to 35 years. CAEP latencies and amplitudes showed significant effects of speech contrast, background noise, and amplification. N1 and P2 components varied differently across conditions. In general, cortical processing in noise was influenced by SNR and the spectrum of the speech stimuli. Hearing-aid-induced spectral and temporal changes to the speech stimuli affected P1-N1-P2 components. Amplification produced complex effects on latencies and amplitudes across speech stimuli and CAEP components, and for quiet versus noise conditions. CAEP components reflect spectral and temporal characteristics of speech stimuli and acoustic changes induced by background noise and amplification.

  20. Acoustical conditions for speech communication in active elementary school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Bradley, John

    2005-04-01

    Detailed acoustical measurements were made in 34 active elementary school classrooms with typical rectangular room shape in schools near Ottawa, Canada. There was an average of 21 students in classrooms. The measurements were made to obtain accurate indications of the acoustical quality of conditions for speech communication during actual teaching activities. Mean speech and noise levels were determined from the distribution of recorded sound levels and the average speech-to-noise ratio was 11 dBA. Measured mid-frequency reverberation times (RT) during the same occupied conditions varied from 0.3 to 0.6 s, and were a little less than for the unoccupied rooms. RT values were not related to noise levels. Octave band speech and noise levels, useful-to-detrimental ratios, and Speech Transmission Index values were also determined. Key results included: (1) The average vocal effort of teachers corresponded to louder than Pearsons Raised voice level; (2) teachers increase their voice level to overcome ambient noise; (3) effective speech levels can be enhanced by up to 5 dB by early reflection energy; and (4) student activity is seen to be the dominant noise source, increasing average noise levels by up to 10 dBA during teaching activities. [Work supported by CLLRnet.

  1. THE DIRECTIVE SPEECH ACTS USED IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khatib Bayanuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses about an analysis of the directive speech acts used in english speaking class at the third semester of english speaking class of english study program of IAIN STS Jambi. The aims of this research are to describe the types of directive speech acts and politeness strategies that found in English speaking class. This research used descriptive qualitative method. This method used to describe clearly about the types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts based on the data in English speaking class. The result showed that in English speaking class that there are some types and politeness strategies of directive speech acts, such as: requestives, questions, requirements, prohibitives, permissives, and advisores as types, as well as on-record indirect strategies (prediction statement, strong obligation statement, possibility statement, weaker obligation statement, volitional statement, direct strategies (imperative, performative, and nonsentential strategies as politeness strategies. The achievement of this research are hoped can be additional knowledge about linguistics study, especially in directive speech acts and can be developed for future researches. Key words: directive speech acts, types, politeness strategies.

  2. Cost and complexity: selection for speech and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, John L

    2008-04-21

    The handicap principle has been applied to a number of different traits in the last three decades, but it is difficult to characterize its record, or even its perceived relevance, when it comes to an important human attribute-spoken language. In some cases, assumptions regarding the energetic cost of speech, and the veracity of linguistically encoded messages, have failed to recognize critical aspects of human development, cognition, and social ecology. In other cases, the fact that speech contains honest (physiological) information, and tends to be used honestly with family and friends, has been overlooked. Speech and language are functionally related but they involve different resources. Individuals can increase the attractiveness of their speech, and of more stylized vocal and verbal performances, without enhancing linguistic structure or content; and they can modify their use of language without significant changes in the physical form of speech. That its production costs are normally low enables speech to be produced extravagantly in bids for status and mating relationships, and in evolution, may have allowed its content--linguistic knowledge and structure--to become complex.

  3. Real-Time Control of an Articulatory-Based Speech Synthesizer for Brain Computer Interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Bocquelet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Restoring natural speech in paralyzed and aphasic people could be achieved using a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI controlling a speech synthesizer in real-time. To reach this goal, a prerequisite is to develop a speech synthesizer producing intelligible speech in real-time with a reasonable number of control parameters. We present here an articulatory-based speech synthesizer that can be controlled in real-time for future BCI applications. This synthesizer converts movements of the main speech articulators (tongue, jaw, velum, and lips into intelligible speech. The articulatory-to-acoustic mapping is performed using a deep neural network (DNN trained on electromagnetic articulography (EMA data recorded on a reference speaker synchronously with the produced speech signal. This DNN is then used in both offline and online modes to map the position of sensors glued on different speech articulators into acoustic parameters that are further converted into an audio signal using a vocoder. In offline mode, highly intelligible speech could be obtained as assessed by perceptual evaluation performed by 12 listeners. Then, to anticipate future BCI applications, we further assessed the real-time control of the synthesizer by both the reference speaker and new speakers, in a closed-loop paradigm using EMA data recorded in real time. A short calibration period was used to compensate for differences in sensor positions and articulatory differences between new speakers and the reference speaker. We found that real-time synthesis of vowels and consonants was possible with good intelligibility. In conclusion, these results open to future speech BCI applications using such articulatory-based speech synthesizer.

  4. An investigation of co-speech gesture production during action description in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Rebecca A; Poliakoff, Ellen; Galpin, Adam; Dick, Jeremy P R; Holler, Judith

    2011-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can impact enormously on speech communication. One aspect of non-verbal behaviour closely tied to speech is co-speech gesture production. In healthy people, co-speech gestures can add significant meaning and emphasis to speech. There is, however, little research into how this important channel of communication is affected in PD. The present study provides a systematic analysis of co-speech gestures which spontaneously accompany the description of actions in a group of PD patients (N = 23, Hoehn and Yahr Stage III or less) and age-matched healthy controls (N = 22). The analysis considers different co-speech gesture types, using established classification schemes from the field of gesture research. The analysis focuses on the rate of these gestures as well as on their qualitative nature. In doing so, the analysis attempts to overcome several methodological shortcomings of research in this area. Contrary to expectation, gesture rate was not significantly affected in our patient group, with relatively mild PD. This indicates that co-speech gestures could compensate for speech problems. However, while gesture rate seems unaffected, the qualitative precision of gestures representing actions was significantly reduced. This study demonstrates the feasibility of carrying out fine-grained, detailed analyses of gestures in PD and offers insights into an as yet neglected facet of communication in patients with PD. Based on the present findings, an important next step is the closer investigation of the qualitative changes in gesture (including different communicative situations) and an analysis of the heterogeneity in co-speech gesture production in PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Current trends in multilingual speech processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    ; speech-to-speech translation; language identification. ... interest owing to two strong driving forces. Firstly, technical advances in speech recognition and synthesis are posing new challenges and opportunities to researchers.

  6. Speech Recognition: How Do We Teach It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Karl

    2002-01-01

    States that growing use of speech recognition software has made voice writing an essential computer skill. Describes how to present the topic, develop basic speech recognition skills, and teach speech recognition outlining, writing, proofreading, and editing. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  7. Speech and Language Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children vary in their development of speech and language skills. Health care professionals have lists of milestones ... it may be due to a speech or language disorder. Children who have speech disorders may have ...

  8. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  9. Effects of the Syntactic Complexity on Speech Dysfluency of Stuttering Persian-Speaking Children and Adults in Conversational Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, researchers have increasingly turned to study the relation between stuttering and syntactic complexity. This study investigates the effect of syntactic complexity on theamount of speech dysfluency in stuttering Persian-speaking children and adults in conversational speech. The obtained results can pave the way to a better understanding of stuttering in children andadults, and finding more appropriate treatments.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 15 stuttering adult Persian-speakers, older than 15 years, and 15 stuttering child Persian-speakers of 4-6 years of age. In this study, first a 30 minute sample of the spontaneous speech of the participants was provided. Then the utterances of each person were studied in respect to the amount of dysfluency and syntactic complexity. The obtained information was analyzed using paired samples t-test.Results: In both groups of stuttering children and adults, there was a significant difference between the amount of dysfluency of simple and complex sentences (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that an increase in syntactic complexity in conversational speech, increased the amount of dysfluency in stuttering children and adults. Moreover,as a result of increase of syntactic complexity, dysfluency had a greater increase in stuttering children than stuttering adults.

  10. Propositional speech in unselected stroke: The effect of genre and external support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Bonnie; Young, Breanne; Pinsker, Donna; Robinson, Gail A

    2015-01-01

    Distinguished from nominal language, propositional language generation refers to the spontaneous and voluntary aspect of language that introduces novel concepts to a specific context. Propositional language can be impaired in a range of neurological disorders, including stroke, despite well-preserved nominal language. Although external support can increase speech rate in patients with reduced propositional speech, no specific investigation of propositional speech has been carried out in unselected stroke patients. The current study investigated propositional language in an unselected post-acute stroke group (N = 18) with mild cognitive impairment and prominent executive dysfunction, but without significant aphasia. Specifically, we investigated whether genre or external support affected the number of words, sentences, and novel ideas produced, compared to healthy controls (N = 27). Results showed that discourse genre was not associated with differential performances. By contrast, speech quantity increased without external support although, for stroke patients, speech novelty decreased. Overall, the novelty deficit in unselected stroke patients highlights the importance of assessing cognition and propositional speech. Our findings suggest that for stroke patients with mild cognitive deficits, including executive dysfunction, introducing external support improved speech quality but not quantity. Implications for both assessment and rehabilitation of social communication are discussed.

  11. Speech-Based Human and Service Robot Interaction: An Application for Mexican Dysarthric People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Omar Caballero Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speech muscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or by a degenerative neurological disease. Commonly, people with this disorder also have muscular dystrophy, which restricts their use of switches or keyboards for communication or control of assistive devices (i.e., an electric wheelchair or a service robot. In this case, speech recognition is an attractive alternative for interaction and control of service robots, despite the difficulty of achieving robust recognition performance. In this paper we present a speech recognition system for human and service robot interaction for Mexican Spanish dysarthric speakers. The core of the system consisted of a Speaker Adaptive (SA recognition system trained with normal-speech. Features such as on-line control of the language model perplexity and the adding of vocabulary, contribute to high recognition performance. Others, such as assessment and text-to-speech (TTS synthesis, contribute to a more complete interaction with a service robot. Live tests were performed with two mild dysarthric speakers, achieving recognition accuracies of 90–95% for spontaneous speech and 95–100% of accomplished simulated service robot tasks.

  12. Selective Attention Enhances Beta-Band Cortical Oscillation to Speech under "Cocktail-Party" Listening Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yayue; Wang, Qian; Ding, Yu; Wang, Changming; Li, Haifeng; Wu, Xihong; Qu, Tianshu; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Human listeners are able to selectively attend to target speech in a noisy environment with multiple-people talking. Using recordings of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), this study investigated how selective attention facilitates the cortical representation of target speech under a simulated "cocktail-party" listening condition with speech-on-speech masking. The result shows that the cortical representation of target-speech signals under the multiple-people talking condition was specifically improved by selective attention relative to the non-selective-attention listening condition, and the beta-band activity was most strongly modulated by selective attention. Moreover, measured with the Granger Causality value, selective attention to the single target speech in the mixed-speech complex enhanced the following four causal connectivities for the beta-band oscillation: the ones (1) from site FT7 to the right motor area, (2) from the left frontal area to the right motor area, (3) from the central frontal area to the right motor area, and (4) from the central frontal area to the right frontal area. However, the selective-attention-induced change in beta-band causal connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, but not other beta-band causal connectivities, was significantly correlated with the selective-attention-induced change in the cortical beta-band representation of target speech. These findings suggest that under the "cocktail-party" listening condition, the beta-band oscillation in EEGs to target speech is specifically facilitated by selective attention to the target speech that is embedded in the mixed-speech complex. The selective attention-induced unmasking of target speech may be associated with the improved beta-band functional connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, suggesting a top-down attentional modulation of the speech-motor process.

  13. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid-Ahmed Selouani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  14. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  15. Measurement of speech parameters in casual speech of dementia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Roelant; Jonkers, Roel; Jalvingh, Fedor; Bastiaanse, Yvonne

    Measurement of speech parameters in casual speech of dementia patients Roelant Adriaan Ossewaarde1,2, Roel Jonkers1, Fedor Jalvingh1,3, Roelien Bastiaanse1 1CLCG, University of Groningen (NL); 2HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht (NL); 33St. Marienhospital - Vechta, Geriatric Clinic Vechta

  16. Speech to Text Translation for Malay Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-khulaidi, Rami Ali; Akmeliawati, Rini

    2017-11-01

    The speech recognition system is a front end and a back-end process that receives an audio signal uttered by a speaker and converts it into a text transcription. The speech system can be used in several fields including: therapeutic technology, education, social robotics and computer entertainments. In most cases in control tasks, which is the purpose of proposing our system, wherein the speed of performance and response concern as the system should integrate with other controlling platforms such as in voiced controlled robots. Therefore, the need for flexible platforms, that can be easily edited to jibe with functionality of the surroundings, came to the scene; unlike other software programs that require recording audios and multiple training for every entry such as MATLAB and Phoenix. In this paper, a speech recognition system for Malay language is implemented using Microsoft Visual Studio C#. 90 (ninety) Malay phrases were tested by 10 (ten) speakers from both genders in different contexts. The result shows that the overall accuracy (calculated from Confusion Matrix) is satisfactory as it is 92.69%.

  17. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  18. Phonetic Variability in Residual Speech Sound Disorders: Exploration of Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Koenig, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore whether subgroups of children with residual speech sound disorders (R-SSDs) can be identified through multiple measures of token-to-token phonetic variability (changes in one spoken production to the next). Method: Children with R-SSDs were recorded during a rapid multisyllabic picture naming task and an oral diadochokinetic…

  19. Generalization of Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech across Talkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, Julia Jones; Smith, Rachel H.; Hawkins, Sarah; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether perceptual learning of noise-vocoded (NV) speech is specific to a particular talker or accent. Method: Four groups of listeners (n = 18 per group) were first trained by listening to 20 NV sentences that had been recorded by a talker with either the same native accent as the listeners or a different regional accent.…

  20. Spontaneous Electrical Activity in the Nervous System and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to examine the effects of biogenic amines on the spontaneous electrical activity of the nervous system in the silkworm Bombyx mori. The activity recorded from different segments of the ventral nerve cord differed in the frequency and number of spike categories firing. The activity was highest ...

  1. One approach to design of speech emotion database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrin, Dominik; Chmelikova, Zdenka; Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Voznak, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    This article describes a system for evaluating the credibility of recordings with emotional character. Sound recordings form Czech language database for training and testing systems of speech emotion recognition. These systems are designed to detect human emotions in his voice. The emotional state of man is useful in the security forces and emergency call service. Man in action (soldier, police officer and firefighter) is often exposed to stress. Information about the emotional state (his voice) will help to dispatch to adapt control commands for procedure intervention. Call agents of emergency call service must recognize the mental state of the caller to adjust the mood of the conversation. In this case, the evaluation of the psychological state is the key factor for successful intervention. A quality database of sound recordings is essential for the creation of the mentioned systems. There are quality databases such as Berlin Database of Emotional Speech or Humaine. The actors have created these databases in an audio studio. It means that the recordings contain simulated emotions, not real. Our research aims at creating a database of the Czech emotional recordings of real human speech. Collecting sound samples to the database is only one of the tasks. Another one, no less important, is to evaluate the significance of recordings from the perspective of emotional states. The design of a methodology for evaluating emotional recordings credibility is described in this article. The results describe the advantages and applicability of the developed method.

  2. Use of digital speech recognition in diagnostics radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, H.; Stockheim, D.; Mutze, S.; Petersein, J.; Gregor, P.; Hamm, B.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Applicability and benefits of digital speech recognition in diagnostic radiology were tested using the speech recognition system SP 6000. Methods: The speech recognition system SP 6000 was integrated into the network of the institute and connected to the existing Radiological Information System (RIS). Three subjects used this system for writing 2305 findings from dictation. After the recognition process the date, length of dictation, time required for checking/correction, kind of examination and error rate were recorded for every dictation. With the same subjects, a correlation was performed with 625 conventionally written finding. Results: After an 1-hour initial training the average error rates were 8.4 to 13.3%. The first adaptation of the speech recognition system (after nine days) decreased the average error rates to 2.4 to 10.7% due to the ability of the program to learn. The 2 nd and 3 rd adaptations resulted only in small changes of the error rate. An individual comparison of the error rate developments in the same kind of investigation showed the relative independence of the error rate on the individual user. Conclusion: The results show that the speech recognition system SP 6000 can be evaluated as an advantageous alternative for quickly recording radiological findings. A comparison between manually writing and dictating the findings verifies the individual differences of the writing speeds and shows the advantage of the application of voice recognition when faced with normal keyboard performance. (orig.) [de

  3. Auditory Modeling for Noisy Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...) has used its existing technology in phonetic speech recognition, audio signal processing, and multilingual language translation to design and demonstrate an advanced audio interface for speech...

  4. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  5. Teaching Speech Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teaching Speech Acts

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that pragmatic ability must become part of what we teach in the classroom if we are to realize the goals of communicative competence for our students. I review the research on pragmatics, especially those articles that point to the effectiveness of teaching pragmatics in an explicit manner, and those that posit methods for teaching. I also note two areas of scholarship that address classroom needs—the use of authentic data and appropriate assessment tools. The essay concludes with a summary of my own experience teaching speech acts in an advanced-level Portuguese class.

  6. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  7. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next ...

  8. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  9. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  10. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency ...

  11. Indirect speech acts in English

    OpenAIRE

    Василина, В. Н.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with indirect speech acts in Englishspeaking discourse. Different approaches to their analysis and the reasons for their use are discussed. It is argued that the choice of the form of speech actsdepends on the parameters of communicative partners.

  12. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  13. Perceptual Learning of Interrupted Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, Michel Ruben; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The intelligibility of periodically interrupted speech improves once the silent gaps are filled with noise bursts. This improvement has been attributed to phonemic restoration, a top-down repair mechanism that helps intelligibility of degraded speech in daily life. Two hypotheses were investigated

  14. VOCAL DEVELOPMENT AS A MAIN CONDITION IN EARLY SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne HOLM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is the evident positive vocal development in pre-lingual deaf children, who underwent a Cochlea Implantation in early age. The presented research compares the vocal speech expressions of three hearing impaired children and two children with normal hearing from 10 months to 5 years. Comparisons of the spontaneous vocal expressions were conducted by sonagraphic analyses. The awareness of the own voice as well as the voices of others is essential for the child’s continuous vocal development from crying to speech. Supra-segmental factors, such as rhythm, dynamics and melody play a very important role in this development.

  15. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  16. Top-down influences of written text on perceived clarity of degraded speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohoglu, Ediz; Peelle, Jonathan E; Carlyon, Robert P; Davis, Matthew H

    2014-02-01

    An unresolved question is how the reported clarity of degraded speech is enhanced when listeners have prior knowledge of speech content. One account of this phenomenon proposes top-down modulation of early acoustic processing by higher-level linguistic knowledge. Alternative, strictly bottom-up accounts argue that acoustic information and higher-level knowledge are combined at a late decision stage without modulating early acoustic processing. Here we tested top-down and bottom-up accounts using written text to manipulate listeners' knowledge of speech content. The effect of written text on the reported clarity of noise-vocoded speech was most pronounced when text was presented before (rather than after) speech (Experiment 1). Fine-grained manipulation of the onset asynchrony between text and speech revealed that this effect declined when text was presented more than 120 ms after speech onset (Experiment 2). Finally, the influence of written text was found to arise from phonological (rather than lexical) correspondence between text and speech (Experiment 3). These results suggest that prior knowledge effects are time-limited by the duration of auditory echoic memory for degraded speech, consistent with top-down modulation of early acoustic processing by linguistic knowledge. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Redistribution of neural phase coherence reflects establishment of feedforward map in speech motor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ranit; Nasir, Sazzad M

    2015-04-01

    Despite recent progress in our understanding of sensorimotor integration in speech learning, a comprehensive framework to investigate its neural basis is lacking at behaviorally relevant timescales. Structural and functional imaging studies in humans have helped us identify brain networks that support speech but fail to capture the precise spatiotemporal coordination within the networks that takes place during speech learning. Here we use neuronal oscillations to investigate interactions within speech motor networks in a paradigm of speech motor adaptation under altered feedback with continuous recording of EEG in which subjects adapted to the real-time auditory perturbation of a target vowel sound. As subjects adapted to the task, concurrent changes were observed in the theta-gamma phase coherence during speech planning at several distinct scalp regions that is consistent with the establishment of a feedforward map. In particular, there was an increase in coherence over the central region and a decrease over the fronto-temporal regions, revealing a redistribution of coherence over an interacting network of brain regions that could be a general feature of error-based motor learning in general. Our findings have implications for understanding the neural basis of speech motor learning and could elucidate how transient breakdown of neuronal communication within speech networks relates to speech disorders. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. An acoustic feature-based similarity scoring system for speech rehabilitation assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syauqy, Dahnial; Wu, Chao-Min; Setyawati, Onny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which focused on automatic scoring based on the comparison of the patient's speech with another normal speech on several aspects including pitch, vowel, voiced-unvoiced segments, strident fricative and sound intensity. The pitch estimation employed the use of cepstrum-based algorithm for its robustness; the vowel classification used multilayer perceptron (MLP) to classify vowel from pitch and formants; and the strident fricative detection was based on the major peak spectral intensity, location and the pitch existence in the segment. In order to evaluate the performance of the system, this study analyzed eight patient's speech recordings (four males, four females; 4-58-years-old), which had been recorded in previous study in cooperation with Taipei Veterans General Hospital and Taoyuan General Hospital. The experiment result on pitch algorithm showed that the cepstrum method had 5.3% of gross pitch error from a total of 2086 frames. On the vowel classification algorithm, MLP method provided 93% accuracy (men), 87% (women) and 84% (children). In total, the overall results showed that 156 tool's grading results (81%) were consistent compared to 192 audio and visual observations done by four experienced respondents. Implication for Rehabilitation Difficulties in communication may limit the ability of a person to transfer and exchange information. The fact that speech is one of the primary means of communication has encouraged the needs of speech diagnosis and rehabilitation. The advances of technology in computer-assisted speech therapy (CAST) improve the quality, time efficiency of the diagnosis and treatment of the disorders. The present study attempted to develop tool to assist speech therapy and rehabilitation, which provided simple interface to let the assessment be done even by the patient himself without the need of particular knowledge of speech processing while at the

  19. Measuring glottal activity during voiced speech using a tuned electromagnetic resonating collar sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. R., III; Keenaghan, K.; Desimini, S.

    2005-11-01

    Non-acoustic speech sensors can be employed to obtain measurements of one or more aspects of the speech production process, such as glottal activity, even in the presence of background noise. These sensors have a long history of clinical applications and have also recently been applied to the problem of denoising speech signals recorded in acoustically noisy environments (Ng et al 2000 Proc. Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (Istanbul, Turkey) vol 1, pp 229-32). Recently, researchers developed a new non-acoustic speech sensor based primarily on a tuned electromagnetic resonator collar (TERC) (Brown et al 2004 Meas. Sci. Technol. 15 1291). The TERC sensor measures glottal activity by sensing small changes in the dielectric properties of the glottis that result from voiced speech. This paper builds on the seminal work in Brown et al (2004). The primary contributions of this paper are (i) a description of a new single-mode TERC sensor design addressing the comfort and complexity issues of the original sensor, (ii) a complete description of new external interface systems used to obtain long-duration recordings from the TERC sensor and (iii) more extensive experimental results and analysis for the single-mode TERC sensor including spectrograms of speech containing both voiced and unvoiced speech segments in quiet and acoustically noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrate that the single-mode TERC sensor is able to detect glottal activity up to the fourth harmonic and is also insensitive to acoustic background noise.

  20. Look Who’s Talking NOW! Parentese Speech, Social Context, and Language Development Across Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nairán Ramírez-Esparza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we found that the social interactions infants experience in their everyday lives at 11- and 14-months of age affect language ability at 24 months of age. These studies investigated relationships between the speech style (i.e., parentese speech vs. standard speech and social context [i.e., one-on-one (1:1 vs. group] of language input in infancy and later speech development (i.e., at 24 months of age, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES. Results showed that the amount of exposure to parentese speech-1:1 in infancy was related to productive vocabulary at 24 months. The general goal of the present study was to investigate changes in (1 the pattern of social interactions between caregivers and their children from infancy to childhood and (2 relationships among speech style, social context, and language learning across time. Our study sample consisted of 30 participants from the previously published infant studies, evaluated at 33 months of age. Social interactions were assessed at home using digital first-person perspective recordings of the auditory environment. We found that caregivers use less parentese speech-1:1, and more standard speech-1:1, as their children get older. Furthermore, we found that the effects of parentese speech-1:1 in infancy on later language development at 24 months persist at 33 months of age. Finally, we found that exposure to standard speech-1:1 in childhood was the only social interaction that related to concurrent word production/use. Mediation analyses showed that standard speech-1:1 in childhood fully mediated the effects of parentese speech-1:1 in infancy on language development in childhood, controlling for SES. This study demonstrates that engaging in one-on-one interactions in infancy and later in life has important implications for language development.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Progression of Cortical Activity Related to Continuous Overt and Covert Speech Production in a Reading Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Jonathan S; Krusienski, Dean J; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Gunduz, Aysegul; Brunner, Peter; Ritaccio, Anthony L; Schalk, Gerwin

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech. Specifically, we asked subjects to repeat continuous sentences aloud or silently while we recorded electrical signals directly from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography (ECoG)). We then determined the relationship between cortical activity and speech output across different areas of cortex and at sub-second timescales. The results highlight a spatio-temporal progression of cortical involvement in the continuous speech process that initiates utterances in frontal-motor areas and ends with the monitoring of auditory feedback in superior temporal gyrus. Direct comparison of cortical activity related to overt versus covert conditions revealed a common network of brain regions involved in speech that may implement orthographic and phonological processing. Our results provide one of the first characterizations of the spatiotemporal electrophysiological representations of the continuous speech process, and also highlight the common neural substrate of overt and covert speech. These results thereby contribute to a refined understanding of speech functions in the human brain.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Progression of Cortical Activity Related to Continuous Overt and Covert Speech Production in a Reading Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, Jonathan S.; Krusienski, Dean J.; Chakrabarti, Shreya; Gunduz, Aysegul; Brunner, Peter; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2016-01-01

    How the human brain plans, executes, and monitors continuous and fluent speech has remained largely elusive. For example, previous research has defined the cortical locations most important for different aspects of speech function, but has not yet yielded a definition of the temporal progression of involvement of those locations as speech progresses either overtly or covertly. In this paper, we uncovered the spatio-temporal evolution of neuronal population-level activity related to continuous overt speech, and identified those locations that shared activity characteristics across overt and covert speech. Specifically, we asked subjects to repeat continuous sentences aloud or silently while we recorded electrical signals directly from the surface of the brain (electrocorticography (ECoG)). We then determined the relationship between cortical activity and speech output across different areas of cortex and at sub-second timescales. The results highlight a spatio-temporal progression of cortical involvement in the continuous speech process that initiates utterances in frontal-motor areas and ends with the monitoring of auditory feedback in superior temporal gyrus. Direct comparison of cortical activity related to overt versus covert conditions revealed a common network of brain regions involved in speech that may implement orthographic and phonological processing. Our results provide one of the first characterizations of the spatiotemporal electrophysiological representations of the continuous speech process, and also highlight the common neural substrate of overt and covert speech. These results thereby contribute to a refined understanding of speech functions in the human brain. PMID:27875590

  3. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  4. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  5. Visual Speech Fills in Both Discrimination and Identification of Non-Intact Auditory Speech in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; McAlpine, Rachel P.; Abdi, Herve

    2018-01-01

    To communicate, children must discriminate and identify speech sounds. Because visual speech plays an important role in this process, we explored how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification by children. Critical items had intact visual speech (e.g. baez) coupled to non-intact (excised onsets) auditory speech (signified…

  6. Coevolution of Human Speech and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horan, R.D.; Bulte, E.H.; Shogren, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a paleoeconomic coevolutionary explanation for the origin of speech in modern humans. The coevolutionary process, in which trade facilitates speech and speech facilitates trade, gives rise to multiple stable trajectories. While a `trade-speech¿ equilibrium is not an inevitable outcome for

  7. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  8. The "Checkers" Speech and Televised Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaningam, Carl

    Richard Nixon's 1952 "Checkers" speech was an innovative use of television for political communication. Like television news itself, the campaign fund crisis behind the speech can be thought of in the same terms as other television melodrama, with the speech serving as its climactic episode. The speech adapted well to television because…

  9. Predicting masking release of lateralized speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Locsei et al. (2015) [Speech in Noise Workshop, Copenhagen, 46] measured ˝ speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in anechoic conditions where the target speech and the maskers were lateralized using interaural time delays. The maskers were speech-shaped noise (SSN) and reversed babble with 2, 4, or 8...

  10. Speech-Language Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech-Language Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Speech-Language Therapy What's in ... coughing, gagging, and refusing foods. Specialists in Speech-Language Therapy Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), often informally known as ...

  11. Neural and Behavioral Mechanisms of Clear Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Jenna Silver

    2017-01-01

    Clear speech is a speaking style that has been shown to improve intelligibility in adverse listening conditions, for various listener and talker populations. Clear-speech phonetic enhancements include a slowed speech rate, expanded vowel space, and expanded pitch range. Although clear-speech phonetic enhancements have been demonstrated across a…

  12. Towards personalized speech synthesis for augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Timothy; Bunnell, H Timothy; Patel, Rupal

    2014-09-01

    Text-to-speech options on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices are limited. Often, several individuals in a group setting use the same synthetic voice. This lack of customization may limit technology adoption and social integration. This paper describes our efforts to generate personalized synthesis for users with profoundly limited speech motor control. Existing voice banking and voice conversion techniques rely on recordings of clearly articulated speech from the target talker, which cannot be obtained from this population. Our VocaliD approach extracts prosodic properties from the target talker's source function and applies these features to a surrogate talker's database, generating a synthetic voice with the vocal identity of the target talker and the clarity of the surrogate talker. Promising intelligibility results suggest areas of further development for improved personalization.

  13. Quantitative values for perceptual notion of speech speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainschenker, R; Doorn, J; Castro, M

    2002-01-01

    Although it is widely used in everyday activities and in several professions such as locution, shorthand and stenography among others, the magnitude speed of speech does not have a precise meaning in everyday use. Such precision is fundamental in the context of the study of the typical behaviour of a large set of language allophones as the basic components for robust speech synthesis. No information was found for Spanish and less for the variant spoken in Uruguay and the center and south of Argentina, usually called Riverplatean Spanish. This article presents a quantitative characterization of the intuitive notions of fast, slow and normal speech speed. The article reports research with strong experimental foundation since its conclusions were obtained from 120 texts uttered by different speakers at different speeds in a context free of any sort of conditioning. More than a half of the texts were collected from public sources and from people who never knew they were being recorded for this purpose.

  14. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  15. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  16. Records Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles M.

    1977-01-01

    This discussion of evaluating a records management course includes comments on management orientation, creation of records, maintenance of records, selection and use of equipment, storage and destruction of records, micrographics, and a course outline. (TA)

  17. Theater, Speech, Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Vitez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a medium as a substantial translator: an intermediary between the producers and receivers of a communicational act. A medium is a material support to the spiritual potential of human sources. If the medium is a support to meaning, then the relations between different media can be interpreted as a space for making sense of these meanings, a generator of sense: it means that the interaction of substances creates an intermedial space that conceives of a contextualization of specific meaningful elements in order to combine them into the sense of a communicational intervention. The theater itself is multimedia. A theatrical event is a communicational act based on a combination of several autonomous structures: text, scenography, light design, sound, directing, literary interpretation, speech, and, of course, the one that contains all of these: the actor in a human body. The actor is a physical and symbolic, anatomic, and emblematic figure in the synesthetic theatrical act because he reunites in his body all the essential principles and components of theater itself. The actor is an audio-visual being, made of kinetic energy, speech, and human spirit. The actor’s body, as a source, instrument, and goal of the theater, becomes an intersection of sound and light. However, theater as intermedial art is no intermediate practice; it must be seen as interposing bodies between conceivers and receivers, between authors and auditors. The body is not self-evident; the body in contemporary art forms is being redefined as a privilege. The art needs bodily dimensions to explore the medial qualities of substances: because it is alive, it returns to studying biology. The fact that theater is an archaic art form is also the purest promise of its future.

  18. Speech enhancement theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Loizou, Philipos C

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile devices and hearing devices, including hearing aids and cochlear implants, there is a growing and pressing need to design algorithms that can improve speech intelligibility without sacrificing quality. Responding to this need, Speech Enhancement: Theory and Practice, Second Edition introduces readers to the basic problems of speech enhancement and the various algorithms proposed to solve these problems. Updated and expanded, this second edition of the bestselling textbook broadens its scope to include evaluation measures and enhancement algorithms aimed at impr

  19. Computational neuroanatomy of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2012-01-05

    Speech production has been studied predominantly from within two traditions, psycholinguistics and motor control. These traditions have rarely interacted, and the resulting chasm between these approaches seems to reflect a level of analysis difference: whereas motor control is concerned with lower-level articulatory control, psycholinguistics focuses on higher-level linguistic processing. However, closer examination of both approaches reveals a substantial convergence of ideas. The goal of this article is to integrate psycholinguistic and motor control approaches to speech production. The result of this synthesis is a neuroanatomically grounded, hierarchical state feedback control model of speech production.

  20. Visual speech influences speech perception immediately but not automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterer, Holger; Reinisch, Eva

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments examined the time course of the use of auditory and visual speech cues to spoken word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. Results of the first experiment showed that the use of visual speech cues from lipreading is reduced if concurrently presented pictures require a division of attentional resources. This reduction was evident even when listeners' eye gaze was on the speaker rather than the (static) pictures. Experiment 2 used a deictic hand gesture to foster attention to the speaker. At the same time, the visual processing load was reduced by keeping the visual display constant over a fixed number of successive trials. Under these conditions, the visual speech cues from lipreading were used. Moreover, the eye-tracking data indicated that visual information was used immediately and even earlier than auditory information. In combination, these data indicate that visual speech cues are not used automatically, but if they are used, they are used immediately.

  1. INTEGRATING MACHINE TRANSLATION AND SPEECH SYNTHESIS COMPONENT FOR ENGLISH TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE SPEECH TO SPEECH TRANSLATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.

  2. Mandibular movement during speech of two related Latin languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontoira-Surís, Marilí; Lago, Laura; Da Silva, Luís; Santana-Mora, Urbano; Santana-Penín, Urbano; Mora, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the kinesiographic recordings of jaw movements during reading a text in Galician and Spanish language. Cross-sectional blind study. A homogeneous healthy group of 25 normal stomatognathic system and native Galician participants was studied. Frontal and parasagittal plane recordings of the intraborder lateral jaw movements and during reading Galician and Spanish texts were recorded using a calibrated jaw-tracking device, kinesiograph. Although movements were similar in both languages, a greater retrusion of the jaw in the Spanish language was shown; moreover, a tendency exists for a left-side motion envelope in this right-handedness preference sample. This study supports the hypothesis that speech is controlled by the central nervous system rather than by peripheral factors and that the hemispheric dominance influences the asymmetry of the speech envelope.

  3. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  4. TMS produces two dissociable types of speech disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L; Walsh, V; Frith, U; Rothwell, J C

    2001-03-01

    We aimed to use repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to disrupt speech with the specific objective of dissociating speech disruption according to whether or not it was associated with activation of the mentalis muscle. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied over two sites of the right and left hemisphere while subjects counted aloud and recited the days of the week, months of the year, and nursery rhymes. Analysis of EMG data and videotaped recordings showed that rTMS applied over a posterior site, lateral to the motor hand area of both the right and the left hemisphere resulted in speech disruption that was accompanied by activation of the mentalis muscle, while rTMS applied over an anterior site on the left but not the right hemisphere resulted in speech disruption that was dissociated from activation of the mentalis muscle. The findings provide a basis for the use of subthreshold stimulation over the extrarolandic speech disruption site in order to probe the functional properties of this area and to test psychological theories of linguistic function. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Concurrent Speech Segregation Problems in Hearing Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Talebi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was a basic investigation of the ability of concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children. Concurrent segregation is one of the fundamental components of auditory scene analysis and plays an important role in speech perception. In the present study, we compared auditory late responses or ALRs between hearing impaired and normal children. Materials & Methods: Auditory late potentials in response to 12 double vowels were recorded in 10 children with moderate to severe sensory neural hearing loss and 10 normal children. Double vowels (pairs of synthetic vowels were presented concurrently and binaurally. Fundamental frequency (F0 of these vowels and the size of the difference in F0 between vowels was 100 Hz and 0.5 semitones respectively. Results: Comparing N1-P2 amplitude showed statistically significant difference in some stimuli between hearing impaired and normal children (P<0.05. This complex indexing the vowel change detection and reflecting central auditory speech representation without active client participation was decreased in hearing impaired children. Conclusion: This study showed problems in concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children evidenced by ALRs. This information indicated deficiencies in bottom-up processing of speech characteristics based on F0 and its differences in these children.

  6. Decoding speech perception from single cell activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossmy, Ori; Fried, Itzhak; Mukamel, Roy

    2015-08-15

    Deciphering the content of continuous speech is a challenging task performed daily by the human brain. Here, we tested whether activity of single cells in auditory cortex could be used to support such a task. We recorded neural activity from auditory cortex of two neurosurgical patients while presented with a short video segment containing speech. Population spiking activity (~20 cells per patient) allowed detection of word onset and decoding the identity of perceived words with significantly high accuracy levels. Oscillation phase of local field potentials (8-12Hz) also allowed decoding word identity although with lower accuracy levels. Our results provide evidence that the spiking activity of a relatively small population of cells in human primary auditory cortex contains significant information for classification of words in ongoing speech. Given previous evidence for overlapping neural representation during speech perception and production, this may have implications for developing brain-machine interfaces for patients with deficits in speech production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Auditory Brainstem Responses to Continuous Natural Speech in Human Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Ross K; Lee, Adrian K C

    2018-01-01

    Speech is an ecologically essential signal, whose processing crucially involves the subcortical nuclei of the auditory brainstem, but there are few experimental options for studying these early responses in human listeners under natural conditions. While encoding of continuous natural speech has been successfully probed in the cortex with neurophysiological tools such as electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography, the rapidity of subcortical response components combined with unfavorable signal-to-noise ratios signal-to-noise ratio has prevented application of those methods to the brainstem. Instead, experiments have used thousands of repetitions of simple stimuli such as clicks, tone-bursts, or brief spoken syllables, with deviations from those paradigms leading to ambiguity in the neural origins of measured responses. In this study we developed and tested a new way to measure the auditory brainstem response (ABR) to ongoing, naturally uttered speech, using EEG to record from human listeners. We found a high degree of morphological similarity between the speech-derived ABRs and the standard click-evoked ABR, in particular, a preserved Wave V, the most prominent voltage peak in the standard click-evoked ABR. Because this method yields distinct peaks that recapitulate the canonical ABR, at latencies too short to originate from the cortex, the responses measured can be unambiguously determined to be subcortical in origin. The use of naturally uttered speech to measure the ABR allows the design of engaging behavioral tasks, facilitating new investigations of the potential effects of cognitive processes like language and attention on brainstem processing.

  8. Speech spectrum's correlation with speakers' Eysenck personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Wang, Qiandong; Short, Lindsey A; Fu, Genyue

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored the correlation between speakers' Eysenck personality traits and speech spectrum parameters. Forty-six subjects completed the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. They were instructed to verbally answer the questions shown on a computer screen and their responses were recorded by the computer. Spectrum parameters of /sh/ and /i/ were analyzed by Praat voice software. Formant frequencies of the consonant /sh/ in lying responses were significantly lower than that in truthful responses, whereas no difference existed on the vowel /i/ speech spectrum. The second formant bandwidth of the consonant /sh/ speech spectrum was significantly correlated with the personality traits of Psychoticism, Extraversion, and Neuroticism, and the correlation differed between truthful and lying responses, whereas the first formant frequency of the vowel /i/ speech spectrum was negatively correlated with Neuroticism in both response types. The results suggest that personality characteristics may be conveyed through the human voice, although the extent to which these effects are due to physiological differences in the organs associated with speech or to a general Pygmalion effect is yet unknown.

  9. Gaze aversion to stuttered speech: a pilot study investigating differential visual attention to stuttered and fluent speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Andrew L; Crawcour, Stephen C; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People who stutter are often acutely aware that their speech disruptions, halted communication, and aberrant struggle behaviours evoke reactions in communication partners. Considering that eye gaze behaviours have emotional, cognitive, and pragmatic overtones for communicative interactions and that previous studies have indicated increased physiological arousal in listeners in response to stuttering, it was hypothesized that stuttered speech incurs increased gaze aversion relative to fluent speech. The possible importance in uncovering these visible reactions to stuttering is that they may contribute to the social penalty associated with stuttering. To compare the eye gaze responses of college students while observing and listening to fluent and severely stuttered speech samples produced by the same adult male who stutters. Twelve normally fluent adult college students watched and listened to three 20-second audio-video clips of the face of an adult male stuttering and three 20-second clips of the same male producing fluent speech. Their pupillary movements were recorded with an eye-tracking device and mapped to specific regions of interest (that is, the eyes, the nose and the mouth of the speaker). Participants spent 39% more time fixating on the speaker's eyes while witnessing fluent speech compared with stuttered speech. In contrast, participants averted their direct eye gaze more often and spent 45% more time fixating on the speaker's nose when witnessing stuttered speech compared with fluent speech. These relative time differences occurred as a function of the number of fixations in each area of interest. Thus, participants averted their gaze from the eyes of the speaker more frequently during the stuttered stimuli than the fluent stimuli. This laboratory study provides pilot data suggesting that gaze aversion is a salient response to the breakdown in communication that occurs during stuttering. This response may occur as a result of emotional, cognitive, and

  10. The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-10-01

    Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (L2) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on bilingual language processing have shown, however, that there are strong reasons to believe that multilingual speakers experience co-activation of the languages they speak. We have studied to what degree language co-activation affects fluency in the speech of bilinguals, comparing a monolingual German control group with two bilingual groups: 1) first-language (L1) attriters, who have fully acquired German before emigrating to an L2 English environment, and 2) immersed L2 learners of German (L1: English). We have analysed the temporal fluency and the incidence of disfluency markers (pauses, repetitions and self-corrections) in spontaneous film retellings. Our findings show that learners to speak more slowly than controls and attriters. Also, on each count, the speech of at least one of the bilingual groups contains more disfluency markers than the retellings of the control group. Generally speaking, both bilingual groups-learners and attriters-are equally (dis)fluent and significantly more disfluent than the monolingual speakers. Given that the L1 attriters are unaffected by incomplete acquisition, we interpret these findings as evidence for language competition during speech production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Silent reading of direct versus indirect speech activates voice-selective areas in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, for silent reading, the representational consequences of this distinction are still unclear. Although many of us share the intuition of an "inner voice," particularly during silent reading of direct speech statements in text, there has been little direct empirical confirmation of this experience so far. Combining fMRI with eye tracking in human volunteers, we show that silent reading of direct versus indirect speech engenders differential brain activation in voice-selective areas of the auditory cortex. This suggests that readers are indeed more likely to engage in perceptual simulations (or spontaneous imagery) of the reported speaker's voice when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech statements as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Our results may be interpreted in line with embodied cognition and form a starting point for more sophisticated interdisciplinary research on the nature of auditory mental simulation during reading.

  12. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  13. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  14. Acoustic Changes in the Speech of Children with Cerebral Palsy Following an Intensive Program of Dysarthria Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Lindsay; Lombardo, Eftychia; Steen, Nick; Miller, Nick

    2018-01-01

    Background: The speech intelligibility of children with dysarthria and cerebral palsy has been observed to increase following therapy focusing on respiration and phonation. Aims: To determine if speech intelligibility change following intervention is associated with change in acoustic measures of voice. Methods & Procedures: We recorded 16…

  15. Why the Left Hemisphere Is Dominant for Speech Production: Connecting the Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Martin Sussman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from seemingly disparate areas of speech/language research is reviewed to form a unified theoretical account for why the left hemisphere is specialized for speech production. Research findings from studies investigating hemispheric lateralization of infant babbling, the primacy of the syllable in phonological structure, rhyming performance in split-brain patients, rhyming ability and phonetic categorization in children diagnosed with developmental apraxia of speech, rules governing exchange errors in spoonerisms, organizational principles of neocortical control of learned motor behaviors, and multi-electrode recordings of human neuronal responses to speech sounds are described and common threads highlighted. It is suggested that the emergence, in developmental neurogenesis, of a hard-wired, syllabically-organized, neural substrate representing the phonemic sound elements of one’s language, particularly the vocalic nucleus, is the crucial factor underlying the left hemisphere’s dominance for speech production.

  16. Comprehension of synthetic speech and digitized natural speech by adults with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hux, Karen; Knollman-Porter, Kelly; Brown, Jessica; Wallace, Sarah E

    2017-09-01

    Using text-to-speech technology to provide simultaneous written and auditory content presentation may help compensate for chronic reading challenges if people with aphasia can understand synthetic speech output; however, inherent auditory comprehension challenges experienced by people with aphasia may make understanding synthetic speech difficult. This study's purpose was to compare the preferences and auditory comprehension accuracy of people with aphasia when listening to sentences generated with digitized natural speech, Alex synthetic speech (i.e., Macintosh platform), or David synthetic speech (i.e., Windows platform). The methodology required each of 20 participants with aphasia to select one of four images corresponding in meaning to each of 60 sentences comprising three stimulus sets. Results revealed significantly better accuracy given digitized natural speech than either synthetic speech option; however, individual participant performance analyses revealed three patterns: (a) comparable accuracy regardless of speech condition for 30% of participants, (b) comparable accuracy between digitized natural speech and one, but not both, synthetic speech option for 45% of participants, and (c) greater accuracy with digitized natural speech than with either synthetic speech option for remaining participants. Ranking and Likert-scale rating data revealed a preference for digitized natural speech and David synthetic speech over Alex synthetic speech. Results suggest many individuals with aphasia can comprehend synthetic speech options available on popular operating systems. Further examination of synthetic speech use to support reading comprehension through text-to-speech technology is thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The psychologist as an interlocutor in autism spectrum disorder assessment: insights from a study of spontaneous prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Daniel; Lee, Chi-Chun; Black, Matthew P; Williams, Marian E; Lee, Sungbok; Levitt, Pat; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between prosodic speech cues and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) severity, hypothesizing a mutually interactive relationship between the speech characteristics of the psychologist and the child. The authors objectively quantified acoustic-prosodic cues of the psychologist and of the child with ASD during spontaneous interaction, establishing a methodology for future large-sample analysis. Speech acoustic-prosodic features were semiautomatically derived from segments of semistructured interviews (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS; Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 1999; Lord et al., 2012) with 28 children who had previously been diagnosed with ASD. Prosody was quantified in terms of intonation, volume, rate, and voice quality. Research hypotheses were tested via correlation as well as hierarchical and predictive regression between ADOS severity and prosodic cues. Automatically extracted speech features demonstrated prosodic characteristics of dyadic interactions. As rated ASD severity increased, both the psychologist and the child demonstrated effects for turn-end pitch slope, and both spoke with atypical voice quality. The psychologist's acoustic cues predicted the child's symptom severity better than did the child's acoustic cues. The psychologist, acting as evaluator and interlocutor, was shown to adjust his or her behavior in predictable ways based on the child's social-communicative impairments. The results support future study of speech prosody of both interaction partners during spontaneous conversation, while using automatic computational methods that allow for scalable analysis on much larger corpora.

  18. Spatial localization of speech segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian Lykkegaard

    1999-01-01

    Much is known about human localization of simple stimuli like sinusoids, clicks, broadband noise and narrowband noise in quiet. Less is known about human localization in noise. Even less is known about localization of speech and very few previous studies have reported data from localization...... of speech in noise. This study attempts to answer the question: ``Are there certain features of speech which have an impact on the human ability to determine the spatial location of a speaker in the horizontal plane under adverse noise conditions?''. The study consists of an extensive literature survey...... the task of the experiment. The psychoacoustical experiment used naturally-spoken Danish consonant-vowel combinations as targets presented in diffuse speech-shaped noise at a peak SNR of -10 dB. The subjects were normal hearing persons. The experiment took place in an anechoic chamber where eight...

  19. Comparison of speech and language therapy techniques for speech problems in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Herd, CP; Tomlinson, CL; Deane, KHO; Brady, MC; Smith, CH; Sackley, CM; Clarke, CE

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease commonly suffer from speech and voice difficulties such as impaired articulation and reduced loudness. Speech and language therapy (SLT) aims to improve the intelligibility of speech with behavioural treatment techniques or instrumental aids.

  20. The University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Davis, Stephen; Bartrip, Jon

    2009-04-01

    This research note gives details of 2 releases of audio recordings available from speakers who stutter that can be accessed on the Web. Most of the recordings are from school-age children. These are available on the University College London Archive of Stuttered Speech (UCLASS) Web site, and information is provided about how to access the site. A description of the recordings and background information about the speakers who contributed recordings to UCLASS Releases One and Two are given. The sample types available in Release One are monologs. Release Two has monologs, readings, and conversations. Three optional software formats that can be used with the archive are described (although processing the archive is not restricted to these formats). Some perceptual assessment of the quality of each recording is given. An assessment of the strengths and limitations of the recording archive is presented. Finally, some past applications and future research possibilities using the recordings are discussed.

  1. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen

    2016-01-01

    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  2. Analysis of the Roles and the Dynamics of Breathy and Whispery Voice Qualities in Dialogue Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Norihiro Hagita; Carlos Toshinori Ishi; Hiroshi Ishiguro

    2010-01-01

    Breathy and whispery voices are nonmodal phonations produced by an air escape through the glottis and may carry important linguistic or paralinguistic information (intentions, attitudes, and emotions), depending on the language. Analyses on spontaneous dialogue speech utterances of several speakers show that breathy and whispery voices are related with the expression of a variety of emotion- or attitude-related paralinguistic information. Potential acoustic parameters for characterizing breat...

  3. Censored: Whistleblowers and impossible speech

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Kate

    2017-01-01

    What happens to a person who speaks out about corruption in their organization, and finds themselves excluded from their profession? In this article, I argue that whistleblowers experience exclusions because they have engaged in ‘impossible speech’, that is, a speech act considered to be unacceptable or illegitimate. Drawing on Butler’s theories of recognition and censorship, I show how norms of acceptable speech working through recruitment practices, alongside the actions of colleagues, can ...

  4. Semi-spontaneous oral text production: measurements in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2009-12-01

    Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple measurements for the analysis of semi-spontaneous oral text production by speakers with aphasia. Specifically, the measurements are related to the production of verbs and nouns, and the realization of different sentence types. The proposed measurements should be clinically relevant, easily applicable, and linguistically meaningful. The measurements have been applied to oral descriptions of the 'Cookie Theft' picture by eight monolingual Norwegian speakers, four with an anomic type of aphasia and four without any type of language impairment. Despite individual differences in both the clinical and the non-clinical group, most of the measurements seem to distinguish between speakers with and without aphasia.

  5. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  6. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  7. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  8. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  9. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  10. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  11. Detecting Parkinson's disease from sustained phonation and speech signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Vaiciukynas

    Full Text Available This study investigates signals from sustained phonation and text-dependent speech modalities for Parkinson's disease screening. Phonation corresponds to the vowel /a/ voicing task and speech to the pronunciation of a short sentence in Lithuanian language. Signals were recorded through two channels simultaneously, namely, acoustic cardioid (AC and smart phone (SP microphones. Additional modalities were obtained by splitting speech recording into voiced and unvoiced parts. Information in each modality is summarized by 18 well-known audio feature sets. Random forest (RF is used as a machine learning algorithm, both for individual feature sets and for decision-level fusion. Detection performance is measured by the out-of-bag equal error rate (EER and the cost of log-likelihood-ratio. Essentia audio feature set was the best using the AC speech modality and YAAFE audio feature set was the best using the SP unvoiced modality, achieving EER of 20.30% and 25.57%, respectively. Fusion of all feature sets and modalities resulted in EER of 19.27% for the AC and 23.00% for the SP channel. Non-linear projection of a RF-based proximity matrix into the 2D space enriched medical decision support by visualization.

  12. Live Speech Driven Head-and-Eye Motion Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Binh H; Ma, Xiaohan; Deng, Zhigang

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes a fully automated framework to generate realistic head motion, eye gaze, and eyelid motion simultaneously based on live (or recorded) speech input. Its central idea is to learn separate yet interrelated statistical models for each component (head motion, gaze, or eyelid motion) from a prerecorded facial motion data set: 1) Gaussian Mixture Models and gradient descent optimization algorithm are employed to generate head motion from speech features; 2) Nonlinear Dynamic Canonical Correlation Analysis model is used to synthesize eye gaze from head motion and speech features, and 3) nonnegative linear regression is used to model voluntary eye lid motion and log-normal distribution is used to describe involuntary eye blinks. Several user studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed speech-driven head and eye motion generator using the well-established paired comparison methodology. Our evaluation results clearly show that this approach can significantly outperform the state-of-the-art head and eye motion generation algorithms. In addition, a novel mocap+video hybrid data acquisition technique is introduced to record high-fidelity head movement, eye gaze, and eyelid motion simultaneously.

  13. Speech and Voice Response to a Levodopa Challenge in Late-Stage Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Fabbri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundParkinson’s disease (PD patients are affected by hypokinetic dysarthria, characterized by hypophonia and dysprosody, which worsens with disease progression. Levodopa’s (l-dopa effect on quality of speech is inconclusive; no data are currently available for late-stage PD (LSPD.ObjectiveTo assess the modifications of speech and voice in LSPD following an acute l-dopa challenge.MethodLSPD patients [Schwab and England score <50/Hoehn and Yahr stage >3 (MED ON] performed several vocal tasks before and after an acute l-dopa challenge. The following was assessed: respiratory support for speech, voice quality, stability and variability, speech rate, and motor performance (MDS-UPDRS-III. All voice samples were recorded and analyzed by a speech and language therapist blinded to patients’ therapeutic condition using Praat 5.1 software.Results24/27 (14 men LSPD patients succeeded in performing voice tasks. Median age and disease duration of patients were 79 [IQR: 71.5–81.7] and 14.5 [IQR: 11–15.7] years, respectively. In MED OFF, respiratory breath support and pitch break time of LSPD patients were worse than the normative values of non-parkinsonian. A correlation was found between disease duration and voice quality (R = 0.51; p = 0.013 and speech rate (R = −0.55; p = 0.008. l-Dopa significantly improved MDS-UPDRS-III score (20%, with no effect on speech as assessed by clinical rating scales and automated analysis.ConclusionSpeech is severely affected in LSPD. Although l-dopa had some effect on motor performance, including axial signs, speech and voice did not improve. The applicability and efficacy of non-pharmacological treatment for speech impairment should be considered for speech disorder management in PD.

  14. Speech and Voice Response to a Levodopa Challenge in Late-Stage Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Margherita; Guimarães, Isabel; Cardoso, Rita; Coelho, Miguel; Guedes, Leonor Correia; Rosa, Mario M; Godinho, Catarina; Abreu, Daisy; Gonçalves, Nilza; Antonini, Angelo; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are affected by hypokinetic dysarthria, characterized by hypophonia and dysprosody, which worsens with disease progression. Levodopa's (l-dopa) effect on quality of speech is inconclusive; no data are currently available for late-stage PD (LSPD). To assess the modifications of speech and voice in LSPD following an acute l-dopa challenge. LSPD patients [Schwab and England score 3 (MED ON)] performed several vocal tasks before and after an acute l-dopa challenge. The following was assessed: respiratory support for speech, voice quality, stability and variability, speech rate, and motor performance (MDS-UPDRS-III). All voice samples were recorded and analyzed by a speech and language therapist blinded to patients' therapeutic condition using Praat 5.1 software. 24/27 (14 men) LSPD patients succeeded in performing voice tasks. Median age and disease duration of patients were 79 [IQR: 71.5-81.7] and 14.5 [IQR: 11-15.7] years, respectively. In MED OFF, respiratory breath support and pitch break time of LSPD patients were worse than the normative values of non-parkinsonian. A correlation was found between disease duration and voice quality ( R  = 0.51; p  = 0.013) and speech rate ( R  = -0.55; p  = 0.008). l-Dopa significantly improved MDS-UPDRS-III score (20%), with no effect on speech as assessed by clinical rating scales and automated analysis. Speech is severely affected in LSPD. Although l-dopa had some effect on motor performance, including axial signs, speech and voice did not improve. The applicability and efficacy of non-pharmacological treatment for speech impairment should be considered for speech disorder management in PD.

  15. Electrophysiological Correlates of Semantic Dissimilarity Reflect the Comprehension of Natural, Narrative Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Michael P; Anderson, Andrew J; Di Liberto, Giovanni M; Crosse, Michael J; Lalor, Edmund C

    2018-03-05

    People routinely hear and understand speech at rates of 120-200 words per minute [1, 2]. Thus, speech comprehension must involve rapid, online neural mechanisms that process words' meanings in an approximately time-locked fashion. However, electrophysiological evidence for such time-locked processing has been lacking for continuous speech. Although valuable insights into semantic processing have been provided by the "N400 component" of the event-related potential [3-6], this literature has been dominated by paradigms using incongruous words within specially constructed sentences, with less emphasis on natural, narrative speech comprehension. Building on the discovery that cortical activity "tracks" the dynamics of running speech [7-9] and psycholinguistic work demonstrating [10-12] and modeling [13-15] how context impacts on word processing, we describe a new approach for deriving an electrophysiological correlate of natural speech comprehension. We used a computational model [16] to quantify the meaning carried by words based on how semantically dissimilar they were to their preceding context and then regressed this measure against electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded from subjects as they listened to narrative speech. This produced a prominent negativity at a time lag of 200-600 ms on centro-parietal EEG channels, characteristics common to the N400. Applying this approach to EEG datasets involving time-reversed speech, cocktail party attention, and audiovisual speech-in-noise demonstrated that this response was very sensitive to whether or not subjects understood the speech they heard. These findings demonstrate that, when successfully comprehending natural speech, the human brain responds to the contextual semantic content of each word in a relatively time-locked fashion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Externalizing the private experience of pain: a role for co-speech gestures in pain communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, Samantha; Lloyd, Donna M; Holler, Judith; Wearden, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of effective pain communication, talking about pain represents a major challenge for patients and clinicians because pain is a private and subjective experience. Focusing primarily on acute pain, this article considers the limitations of current methods of obtaining information about the sensory characteristics of pain and suggests that spontaneously produced "co-speech hand gestures" may constitute an important source of information here. Although this is a relatively new area of research, we present recent empirical evidence that reveals that co-speech gestures contain important information about pain that can both add to and clarify speech. Following this, we discuss how these findings might eventually lead to a greater understanding of the sensory characteristics of pain, and to improvements in treatment and support for pain sufferers. We hope that this article will stimulate further research and discussion of this previously overlooked dimension of pain communication.

  17. Spontaneous abortion: a prospective cohort study of younger women from the general population in Denmark. Validation, occurrence and risk determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, L; Tolstrup, J; Munk, C; Bergholt, T; Ottesen, B; Grønbaek, M; Kjaer, S K

    2006-01-01

    To assess the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, comparing two different data sources. To estimate the rate of spontaneous abortion over a 2-year period, and examine potential predictors of the risk for incident spontaneous abortion. We used interview data from a population-based prospective cohort study comprising 11,088 women and data from a linkage of the cohort with the Hospital Discharge Register to compare spontaneous abortions as reported in the interview with those identified in the register. Based on interview data, we estimated the rate of spontaneous abortion during the two-year follow-up. Finally, risk determinants for incident spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of logistic regression. A total of 654 spontaneous abortions before enrolment in the study were reported by the women compared to 531 abortions found in the register. More than 80% of the spontaneous abortions identified from both sources were recorded in the same year. During follow-up a total of 20.9% of pregnancies intended to be carried to term ended as a spontaneous abortion. In the risk factor analysis, we found that previous spontaneous abortion, being single, never having used oral contraceptives, and use of intrauterine device were associated with increased risk of subsequent spontaneous abortion. In addition, it was indicated that a short interpregnancy interval following a spontaneous abortion may confer an increased risk of abortion in the subsequent pregnancy. We found a high rate of spontaneous abortion in the present study and an acceptable agreement between information obtained by interview and register information. More than 25% of the spontaneous abortions were only reported by the women, and this could not be explained by erroneously reported induced abortions, and may be early, nonhospitalized abortions. We confirm that number of previous spontaneous abortions is a strong determinant, and our data may also indicate a role of previous contraceptive habits. A role of

  18. Tamsulosin modulates, but does not abolish the spontaneous activity in the guinea pig prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Basu; Dey, Anupa; Lam, Michelle; Ventura, Sabatino; Exintaris, Betty

    2015-06-01

    To examine the effects of the α1A -adrenoceptor antagonist, tamsulosin, on spontaneous contractile and electrical activity in the guinea-pig prostate gland. The effects of tamsulosin (0.1 and 0.3 nM) were investigated in adult and ageing male guinea pig prostate glands using conventional tension recording and electrophysiological intracellular microelectrode recording techniques. Tamsulosin reduced spontaneous activity, and had different age-dependent effects on adult and ageing guinea pigs at different concentrations. 0.1 nM tamsulosin caused a significantly greater reduction of spontaneous contractile and electrical activity in ageing guinea pigs in comparison to adult guinea pigs. In contrast, 0.3 nM tamsulosin had a significantly greater reduction of spontaneous contractile and electrical activity in adult guinea pigs in comparison to ageing guinea pigs. This study demonstrates that tamsulosin can modulate spontaneous myogenic stromal contractility and the underlying spontaneous electrical activity; tamsulosin does not block spontaneous activity. This reduction in spontaneous activity suggests that downstream cellular mechanisms underlying smooth muscle tone are being targeted, and these may represent novel therapeutic targets to better treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Exploring Australian speech-language pathologists' use and perceptions ofnon-speech oral motor exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F; Rose, Tanya A; Cheah, Mynn

    2018-01-29

    To explore Australian speech-language pathologists' use of non-speech oral motor exercises, and rationales for using/not using non-speech oral motor exercises in clinical practice. A total of 124 speech-language pathologists practising in Australia, working with paediatric and/or adult clients with speech sound difficulties, completed an online survey. The majority of speech-language pathologists reported that they did not use non-speech oral motor exercises when working with paediatric or adult clients with speech sound difficulties. However, more than half of the speech-language pathologists working with adult clients who have dysarthria reported using non-speech oral motor exercises with this population. The most frequently reported rationale for using non-speech oral motor exercises in speech sound difficulty management was to improve awareness/placement of articulators. The majority of speech-language pathologists agreed there is no clear clinical or research evidence base to support non-speech oral motor exercise use with clients who have speech sound difficulties. This study provides an overview of Australian speech-language pathologists' reported use and perceptions of non-speech oral motor exercises' applicability and efficacy in treating paediatric and adult clients who have speech sound difficulties. The research findings provide speech-language pathologists with insight into how and why non-speech oral motor exercises are currently used, and adds to the knowledge base regarding Australian speech-language pathology practice of non-speech oral motor exercises in the treatment of speech sound difficulties. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-speech oral motor exercises refer to oral motor activities which do not involve speech, but involve the manipulation or stimulation of oral structures including the lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate. Non-speech oral motor exercises are intended to improve the function (e.g., movement, strength) of oral structures. The

  20. Enhancement of speech signals - with a focus on voiced speech models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie

    This thesis deals with speech enhancement, i.e., noise reduction in speech signals. This has applications in, e.g., hearing aids and teleconference systems. We consider a signal-driven approach to speech enhancement where a model of the speech is assumed and filters are generated based on this mo......This thesis deals with speech enhancement, i.e., noise reduction in speech signals. This has applications in, e.g., hearing aids and teleconference systems. We consider a signal-driven approach to speech enhancement where a model of the speech is assumed and filters are generated based...

  1. Proficiency and Linguistic Complexity Influence Speech Motor Control and Performance in Spanish Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nip, Ignatius S B; Blumenfeld, Henrike K

    2015-06-01

    Second-language (L2) production requires greater cognitive resources to inhibit the native language and to retrieve less robust lexical representations. The current investigation identifies how proficiency and linguistic complexity, specifically syntactic and lexical factors, influence speech motor control and performance. Speech movements of 29 native English speakers with low or high proficiency in Spanish were recorded while producing simple and syntactically complex sentences in English and Spanish. Sentences were loaded with cognate (e.g., baby-bebé) or noncognate (e.g., dog-perro) words. Effects of proficiency, lexicality (cognate vs. noncognate), and syntactic complexity on maximum speed, range of movement, duration, and speech movement variability were examined. In general, speakers with lower L2 proficiency differed in their speech motor control and performance from speakers with higher L2 proficiency. Speakers with higher L2 proficiency generally had less speech movement variability, shorter phrase durations, greater maximum speeds, and greater ranges of movement. In addition, lexicality and syntactic complexity affected speech motor control and performance. L2 proficiency, lexicality, and syntactic complexity influence speech motor control and performance in adult L2 learners. Information about relationships between speech motor control, language proficiency, and cognitive-linguistic demands may be used to assess and treat bilingual clients and language learners.

  2. Co-speech gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Hasson, Uri; Skipper, Jeremy I; Small, Steven L

    2009-11-01

    Everyday communication is accompanied by visual information from several sources, including co-speech gestures, which provide semantic information listeners use to help disambiguate the speaker's message. Using fMRI, we examined how gestures influence neural activity in brain regions associated with processing semantic information. The BOLD response was recorded while participants listened to stories under three audiovisual conditions and one auditory-only (speech alone) condition. In the first audiovisual condition, the storyteller produced gestures that naturally accompany speech. In the second, the storyteller made semantically unrelated hand movements. In the third, the storyteller kept her hands still. In addition to inferior parietal and posterior superior and middle temporal regions, bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus and left anterior inferior frontal gyrus responded more strongly to speech when it was further accompanied by gesture, regardless of the semantic relation to speech. However, the right inferior frontal gyrus was sensitive to the semantic import of the hand movements, demonstrating more activity when hand movements were semantically unrelated to the accompanying speech. These findings show that perceiving hand movements during speech modulates the distributed pattern of neural activation involved in both biological motion perception and discourse comprehension, suggesting listeners attempt to find meaning, not only in the words speakers produce, but also in the hand movements that accompany speech.

  3. Temporal plasticity in auditory cortex improves neural discrimination of speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Crystal T; Shetake, Jai A; Engineer, Navzer D; Vrana, Will A; Wolf, Jordan T; Kilgard, Michael P

    Many individuals with language learning impairments exhibit temporal processing deficits and degraded neural responses to speech sounds. Auditory training can improve both the neural and behavioral deficits, though significant deficits remain. Recent evidence suggests that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative therapies enhances both cortical plasticity and recovery of normal function. We predicted that pairing VNS with rapid tone trains would enhance the primary auditory cortex (A1) response to unpaired novel speech sounds. VNS was paired with tone trains 300 times per day for 20 days in adult rats. Responses to isolated speech sounds, compressed speech sounds, word sequences, and compressed word sequences were recorded in A1 following the completion of VNS-tone train pairing. Pairing VNS with rapid tone trains resulted in stronger, faster, and more discriminable A1 responses to speech sounds presented at conversational rates. This study extends previous findings by documenting that VNS paired with rapid tone trains altered the neural response to novel unpaired speech sounds. Future studies are necessary to determine whether pairing VNS with appropriate auditory stimuli could potentially be used to improve both neural responses to speech sounds and speech perception in individuals with receptive language disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  5. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  6. Neural bases of accented speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti eAdank

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of unfamiliar regional and foreign accents represents a challenging task for the speech perception system (Adank, Evans, Stuart-Smith, & Scott, 2009; Floccia, Goslin, Girard, & Konopczynski, 2006. Despite the frequency with which we encounter such accents, the neural mechanisms supporting successful perception of accented speech are poorly understood. Nonetheless, candidate neural substrates involved in processing speech in challenging listening conditions, including accented speech, are beginning to be identified. This review will outline neural bases associated with perception of accented speech in the light of current models of speech perception, and compare these data to brain areas associated with processing other speech distortions. We will subsequently evaluate competing models of speech processing with regards to neural processing of accented speech. See Cristia et al. (2012 for an in-depth overview of behavioural aspects of accent processing.

  7. Tactile Modulation of Emotional Speech Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Salminen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally only speech communicates emotions via mobile phone. However, in daily communication the sense of touch mediates emotional information during conversation. The present aim was to study if tactile stimulation affects emotional ratings of speech when measured with scales of pleasantness, arousal, approachability, and dominance. In the Experiment 1 participants rated speech-only and speech-tactile stimuli. The tactile signal mimicked the amplitude changes of the speech. In the Experiment 2 the aim was to study whether the way the tactile signal was produced affected the ratings. The tactile signal either mimicked the amplitude changes of the speech sample in question, or the amplitude changes of another speech sample. Also, concurrent static vibration was included. The results showed that the speech-tactile stimuli were rated as more arousing and dominant than the speech-only stimuli. The speech-only stimuli were rated as more approachable than the speech-tactile stimuli, but only in the Experiment 1. Variations in tactile stimulation also affected the ratings. When the tactile stimulation was static vibration the speech-tactile stimuli were rated as more arousing than when the concurrent tactile stimulation was mimicking speech samples. The results suggest that tactile stimulation offers new ways of modulating and enriching the interpretation of speech.

  8. A Double Dissociation between Anterior and Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus for Processing Audiovisual Speech Demonstrated by Electrocorticography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozker, Muge; Schepers, Inga M; Magnotti, John F; Yoshor, Daniel; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-06-01

    Human speech can be comprehended using only auditory information from the talker's voice. However, comprehension is improved if the talker's face is visible, especially if the auditory information is degraded as occurs in noisy environments or with hearing loss. We explored the neural substrates of audiovisual speech perception using electrocorticography, direct recording of neural activity using electrodes implanted on the cortical surface. We observed a double dissociation in the responses to audiovisual speech with clear and noisy auditory component within the superior temporal gyrus (STG), a region long known to be important for speech perception. Anterior STG showed greater neural activity to audiovisual speech with clear auditory component, whereas posterior STG showed similar or greater neural activity to audiovisual speech in which the speech was replaced with speech-like noise. A distinct border between the two response patterns was observed, demarcated by a landmark corresponding to the posterior margin of Heschl's gyrus. To further investigate the computational roles of both regions, we considered Bayesian models of multisensory integration, which predict that combining the independent sources of information available from different modalities should reduce variability in the neural responses. We tested this prediction by measuring the variability of the neural responses to single audiovisual words. Posterior STG showed smaller variability than anterior STG during presentation of audiovisual speech with noisy auditory component. Taken together, these results suggest that posterior STG but not anterior STG is important for multisensory integration of noisy auditory and visual speech.

  9. Two distinct auditory-motor circuits for monitoring speech production as revealed by content-specific suppression of auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, Sari; Nora, Anni; Leminen, Alina; Hakala, Tero; Huotilainen, Minna; Shtyrov, Yury; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Service, Elisabet

    2015-06-01

    Speech production, both overt and covert, down-regulates the activation of auditory cortex. This is thought to be due to forward prediction of the sensory consequences of speech, contributing to a feedback control mechanism for speech production. Critically, however, these regulatory effects should be specific to speech content to enable accurate speech monitoring. To determine the extent to which such forward prediction is content-specific, we recorded the brain's neuromagnetic responses to heard multisyllabic pseudowords during covert rehearsal in working memory, contrasted with a control task. The cortical auditory processing of target syllables was significantly suppressed during rehearsal compared with control, but only when they matched the rehearsed items. This critical specificity to speech content enables accurate speech monitoring by forward prediction, as proposed by current models of speech production. The one-to-one phonological motor-to-auditory mappings also appear to serve the maintenance of information in phonological working memory. Further findings of right-hemispheric suppression in the case of whole-item matches and left-hemispheric enhancement for last-syllable mismatches suggest that speech production is monitored by 2 auditory-motor circuits operating on different timescales: Finer grain in the left versus coarser grain in the right hemisphere. Taken together, our findings provide hemisphere-specific evidence of the interface between inner and heard speech. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Development of a speech-based dialogue system for report dictation and machine control in the endoscopic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, B; Gergely, J; Toth, G; Pronai, L; Zagoni, T; Papik, K; Tulassay, Z

    2000-01-01

    Reporting and machine control based on speech technology can enhance work efficiency in the gastrointestinal endoscopy laboratory. The status and activation of endoscopy laboratory equipment were described as a multivariate parameter and function system. Speech recognition, text evaluation and action definition engines were installed. Special programs were developed for the grammatical analysis of command sentences, and a rule-based expert system for the definition of machine answers. A speech backup engine provides feedback to the user. Techniques were applied based on the "Hidden Markov" model of discrete word, user-independent speech recognition and on phoneme-based speech synthesis. Speech samples were collected from three male low-tone investigators. The dictation module and machine control modules were incorporated in a personal computer (PC) simulation program. Altogether 100 unidentified patient records were analyzed. The sentences were grouped according to keywords, which indicate the main topics of a gastrointestinal endoscopy report. They were: "endoscope", "esophagus", "cardia", "fundus", "corpus", "antrum", "pylorus", "bulbus", and "postbulbar section", in addition to the major pathological findings: "erosion", "ulceration", and "malignancy". "Biopsy" and "diagnosis" were also included. We implemented wireless speech communication control commands for equipment including an endoscopy unit, video, monitor, printer, and PC. The recognition rate was 95%. Speech technology may soon become an integrated part of our daily routine in the endoscopy laboratory. A central speech and laboratory computer could be the most efficient alternative to having separate speech recognition units in all items of equipment.

  11. Speech recognition acceptance by physicians: A temporal replication of a survey of expectations and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Joseph P; Sanders, Salvatore A; Fredrick Cesene, Daniel; Palmer, Christopher; Mihalik, Valerie L; Weigel, Tracy

    2016-09-01

    A replication survey of physicians' expectations and experience with speech recognition technology was conducted before and after its implementation. The expectations survey was administered to emergency medicine physicians prior to training with the speech recognition system. The experience survey consisting of similar items was administered after physicians gained speech recognition technology experience. In this study, 82 percent of the physicians were initially optimistic that the use of speech recognition technology with the electronic medical record was a good idea. After using the technology for 6 months, 87 percent of the physicians agreed that speech recognition technology was a good idea. In addition, 72 percent of the physicians in this study had an expectation that the use of speech recognition technology would save time. After use in the clinical environment, 51 percent of the participants reported time savings. The increased acceptance of speech recognition technology by physicians in this study was attributed to improvements in the technology and the electronic medical record. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Effect of speech therapy and pharmacological treatment in prosody of parkinsonians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lemos de Azevedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Parkinsonian patients usually present speech impairment. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of levodopa and of the adapted Lee Silverman Vocal Treatment® method on prosodic parameters employed by parkinsonian patients. Method Ten patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease using levodopa underwent recording of utterances produced in four stages: expressing attitudes of certainty and doubt and declarative and interrogative modalities. The sentences were recorded under the effect of levodopa (on, without the effect of levodopa (off; before and after speech therapy during the on and off periods. Results The speech therapy and its association with drug treatment promoted the improvement of prosodic parameters: increase of fundamental frequency measures, reduction of measures of duration and greater intensity. Conclusion The association of speech therapy to medication treatment is of great value in improving the communication of parkinsonian patients.

  13. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  14. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne E Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1 The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2 A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS. (3 Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA.

  15. LINGUO-PRAGMATIC ASPECTS OF STUDY OF RUSSIAN PUBLIC ACADEMIC SPEECH GENRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorikova, T.P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers linguo-pragmatic aspects of the study of Russian public academic speech, including linguocognitive mechanisms of the formation of oral utterance. The research is based on the analysis of original records of this type of speech. It is shown that public academic speech should be studied in the complex of its extralinguistic features, situational-thematic structure and genre forms realization. The principles and methods of research can be used for linguo-pragmatic descriptions of other spheres of oral communication of contemporary Russian society.

  16. Records Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All Federal Agencies are required to prescribe an appropriate records maintenance program so that complete records are filed or otherwise preserved, records can be...

  17. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  18. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  19. Acoustic Study of Acted Emotions in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong

    An extensive set of carefully recorded utterances provided a speech database for investigating acoustic correlates among eight emotional states. Four professional actors and four professional actresses simulated the emotional states of joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, sadness, hate, fear, and depression. The values of 14 acoustic parameters were extracted from analyses of the simulated portrayals. Normalization of the parameters was made to reduce the talker-dependence. Correlates of emotion were investigated by means of principal components analysis. Sadness and depression were found to be "ambiguous" with respect to each other, but "unique" with respect to joy and anger in the principal components space. Joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, hate, and fear did not separate well in the space and so exhibited ambiguity with respect to one another. The different talkers expressed joy, anger, sadness, and depression more consistently than the other four emotions. The analysis results were compared with the results of a subjective study using the same speech database and considerable consistency between the two was found.

  20. Electrophysiological evidence for Audio-visuo-lingual speech integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treille, Avril; Vilain, Coriandre; Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Hueber, Thomas; Sato, Marc

    2018-01-31

    Recent neurophysiological studies demonstrate that audio-visual speech integration partly operates through temporal expectations and speech-specific predictions. From these results, one common view is that the binding of auditory and visual, lipread, speech cues relies on their joint probability and prior associative audio-visual experience. The present EEG study examined whether visual tongue movements integrate with relevant speech sounds, despite little associative audio-visual experience between the two modalities. A second objective was to determine possible similarities and differences of audio-visual speech integration between unusual audio-visuo-lingual and classical audio-visuo-labial modalities. To this aim, participants were presented with auditory, visual, and audio-visual isolated syllables, with the visual presentation related to either a sagittal view of the tongue movements or a facial view of the lip movements of a speaker, with lingual and facial movements previously recorded by an ultrasound imaging system and a video camera. In line with previous EEG studies, our results revealed an amplitude decrease and a latency facilitation of P2 auditory evoked potentials in both audio-visual-lingual and audio-visuo-labial conditions compared to the sum of unimodal conditions. These results argue against the view that auditory and visual speech cues solely integrate based on prior associative audio-visual perceptual experience. Rather, they suggest that dynamic and phonetic informational cues are sharable across sensory modalities, possibly through a cross-modal transfer of implicit articulatory motor knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lovgoi kai; e[rga : Thucydides and His Speeches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Pobežin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with some problems posed by the study of speeches in Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, especially those that result from seeking the so-called historical truth. The historical value of the speeches, which show the unmistakable influence of forensic oratory, has been subject to various interpretations. The efforts seem to be epitomised by the search for an adequate explanation of the so-called “methodological” chapter 1.22, especially the sentence 1.22.1, which has been identified as the most crucial for a proper understanding of Thucydides' use of speeches: wJ~ dÆ a]n ejdovkoun moi e{kastoi peri; tw`n ajei; parovntwn ta; devonta mavlistÆ eijpei`n, ejcomevnw/ o{ti ejgguvtata th`~ xumpavsh~ gnwvmh~ tw`n ajlhqw`~ lecqevntwn, ou{tw~ ei[rhtai . It seems absolutely imperative that this sentence be understood as an authorial manifesto, a statement of the use and arrangement of speeches in the work. To deny the author even the minimum of historical ambition in the speeches included, thus reducing the entire account to a work of largely fictional value, seems highly inadequate. The paper therefore contends that, while there is no actual proof that the speeches available to the reader were recorded in their spoken form (in fact, judging from the term th`~ xumpavsh~ gnwvmh~ , their length may well have been adapted to the needs of a historical narrative, there is similarly no ground for denying their basic historical substance.

  2. Prediction of speech intelligibility based on an auditory preprocessing model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Forup Corlin; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Classical speech intelligibility models, such as the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII) are based on calculations on the physical acoustic signals. The present study predicts speech intelligibility by combining a psychoacoustically validated model of auditory...

  3. Recording voiceover the spoken word in media

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The only book on the market to specifically address its audience, Recording Voiceover is the comprehensive guide for engineers looking to understand the aspects of capturing the spoken word.Discussing all phases of the recording session, Recording Voiceover addresses everything from microphone recommendations for voice recording to pre-production considerations, including setting up the studio, working with and directing the voice talent, and strategies for reducing or eliminating distracting noise elements found in human speech.Recording Voiceover features in-depth, specific recommendations f

  4. Atendimento fonoaudiológico intensivo em pacientes operados de fissura labiopalatina: relato de casos Intensive speech therapy in patients operated for cleft lip and palate: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Ferreira Lima

    2007-09-01

    articulatory disorders, were engaged in an intensive summer training program. For each patient, intervention was carried out daily for three hours, during 10 days, divided into individual and group therapy. At the beginning and at the end of that period, patients were assessed by a speech therapist who did not participate in the sessions. A sample of spontaneous speech, counting from 1 to 20 and repetition of a list of words and sentences with oral occlusive and fricative phonemes were recorded on video tape. All patients showed satisfactory development with the intensive therapy program, adapting the worked phonemes in directed speech, but still requiring follow-up therapy to automatize their production. Intensive speech therapy was shown to be an efficient and possible alternative in these cases, and could also be a strategy at the beginning of conventional speech intervention.

  5. Contextual variability during speech-in-speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the influence of background language variation on speech recognition. English listeners performed an English sentence recognition task in either "pure" background conditions in which all trials had either English or Dutch background babble or in mixed background conditions in which the background language varied across trials (i.e., a mix of English and Dutch or one of these background languages mixed with quiet trials). This design allowed the authors to compare performance on identical trials across pure and mixed conditions. The data reveal that speech-in-speech recognition is sensitive to contextual variation in terms of the target-background language (mis)match depending on the relative ease/difficulty of the test trials in relation to the surrounding trials.

  6. Selective Attention Enhances Beta-Band Cortical Oscillation to Speech under “Cocktail-Party” Listening Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yayue; Wang, Qian; Ding, Yu; Wang, Changming; Li, Haifeng; Wu, Xihong; Qu, Tianshu; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Human listeners are able to selectively attend to target speech in a noisy environment with multiple-people talking. Using recordings of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), this study investigated how selective attention facilitates the cortical representation of target speech under a simulated “cocktail-party” listening condition with speech-on-speech masking. The result shows that the cortical representation of target-speech signals under the multiple-people talking condition was specifically improved by selective attention relative to the non-selective-attention listening condition, and the beta-band activity was most strongly modulated by selective attention. Moreover, measured with the Granger Causality value, selective attention to the single target speech in the mixed-speech complex enhanced the following four causal connectivities for the beta-band oscillation: the ones (1) from site FT7 to the right motor area, (2) from the left frontal area to the right motor area, (3) from the central frontal area to the right motor area, and (4) from the central frontal area to the right frontal area. However, the selective-attention-induced change in beta-band causal connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, but not other beta-band causal connectivities, was significantly correlated with the selective-attention-induced change in the cortical beta-band representation of target speech. These findings suggest that under the “cocktail-party” listening condition, the beta-band oscillation in EEGs to target speech is specifically facilitated by selective attention to the target speech that is embedded in the mixed-speech complex. The selective attention-induced unmasking of target speech may be associated with the improved beta-band functional connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, suggesting a top-down attentional modulation of the speech-motor process. PMID:28239344

  7. Spontaneous regression of intracranial malignant lymphoma. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Nobuto; Tokutomi, Takashi; Eguchi, Gihachirou; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Tomie; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Shigemori, Minoru.

    1988-05-01

    In a 46-year-old female with a 1-month history of gait and speech disturbances, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated mass lesions of slightly high density in the left basal ganglia and left frontal lobe. The lesions were markedly enhanced by contrast medium. The patient received no specific treatment, but her clinical manifestations gradually abated and the lesions decreased in size. Five months after her initial examination, the lesions were absent on CT scans; only a small area of low density remained. Residual clinical symptoms included mild right hemiparesis and aphasia. After 14 months the patient again deteriorated, and a CT scan revealed mass lesions in the right frontal lobe and the pons. However, no enhancement was observed in the previously affected regions. A biopsy revealed malignant lymphoma. Despite treatment with steroids and radiation, the patient's clinical status progressively worsened and she died 27 months after initial presentation. Seven other cases of spontaneous regression of primary malignant lymphoma have been reported. In this case, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression was not clear, but changes in immunologic status may have been involved.

  8. Functions of Repetition in Learners' Private Speech in Japanese Language Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Reiko

    2008-01-01

    Studies investigating repetition in SL/FL learners' private speech have focused mainly on its cognitive and metacognitive functions. In the present study, the classroom observations, video-recordings of lessons, audio-recordings of six learners and two teachers and simulated recall interviews were conducted in Japanese language classes over two…

  9. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  10. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  11. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  13. Development of the speech test signal in Brazilian Portuguese for real-ear measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Luciana P; Scollie, Susan D; Martinelli Iório, Maria Cecília

    2013-08-01

    Recommended practice is to verify the gain and/or output of hearing aids with speech or speech-shaped signals. This study has the purpose of developing a speech test signal in Brazilian Portuguese that is electroacoustically similar to the international long-term average speech spectrum (ILTASS) for use in real ear verification systems. A Brazilian Portuguese speech passage was recorded using standardized equipment and procedures for one female talker and compared to ISTS. The passage consisted of simple, declarative sentences making a total of 148 words. The recordings of a Brazilian Portuguese passage were filtered to the ILTASS and compared to the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS). Aided recordings were made at three test levels, for three audiograms for the Brazilian Portuguese passage and the ISTS. The unaided test signals were spectrally matched to within 0.5 dB. Aided evaluation revealed that the Brazilian Portuguese passage produced aided spectra that were within 1 dB on average, within about 2 dB per audiogram, and within about 3 dB per frequency for 95% of fittings. Results indicate that the Brazilian Portuguese passage developed in this study provides similar electroacoustic hearing-aid evaluations to those expected from the standard ISTS passage.

  14. Voice Activity Detection. Fundamentals and Speech Recognition System Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.; Gorriz, J. M.; Segura, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter has shown an overview of the main challenges in robust speech detection and a review of the state of the art and applications. VADs are frequently used in a number of applications including speech coding, speech enhancement and speech recognition. A precise VAD extracts a set of discriminative speech features from the noisy speech and formulates the decision in terms of well defined rule. The chapter has summarized three robust VAD methods that yield high speech/non-speech discri...

  15. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  16. Assessing the efficacy of benchmarks for automatic speech accent recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Bock; Lior Shamir

    2015-01-01

    Speech accents can possess valuable information about the speaker, and can be used in intelligent multimedia-based human-computer interfaces. The performance of algorithms for automatic classification of accents is often evaluated using audio datasets that include recording samples of different people, representing different accents. Here we describe a method that can detect bias in accent datasets, and apply the method to two accent identification datasets to reveal the existence of dataset ...

  17. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  18. Hemodynamic responses to speech and music in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilahti, Kalle; Nissilä, Ilkka; Näsi, Tiina; Lipiäinen, Lauri; Noponen, Tommi; Meriläinen, Pekka; Huotilainen, Minna; Fellman, Vineta

    2010-04-01

    We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to study responses to speech and music on the auditory cortices of 13 healthy full-term newborn infants during natural sleep. The purpose of the study was to investigate the lateralization of speech and music responses at this stage of development. NIRS data was recorded from eight positions on both hemispheres simultaneously with electroencephalography, electrooculography, electrocardiography, pulse oximetry, and inclinometry. In 11 subjects, statistically significant (P < 0.02) oxygenated (HbO2) and total hemoglobin (HbT) responses were recorded. Both stimulus types elicited significant HbO2 and HbT responses on both hemispheres in five subjects. Six of the 11 subjects had positive HbO2 and HbT responses to both stimulus types, whereas one subject had negative responses. Mixed positive and negative responses were observed in four neonates. On both hemispheres, speech and music responses were significantly correlated (r = 0.64; P = 0.018 on the left hemisphere (LH) and r = 0.60; P = 0.029 on the right hemisphere (RH)). On the group level, the average response to the speech stimuli was statistically significantly greater than zero in the LH, whereas responses on the RH or to the music stimuli did not differ significantly from zero. This suggests a more coherent response to speech on the LH. However, significant differences in lateralization of the responses or mean response amplitudes of the two stimulus types were not observed on the group level. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Speech Inconsistency in Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech, Language Impairment, and Speech Delay: Depends on the Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Green, Jordan R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current research sought to determine (a) if speech inconsistency is a core feature of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) or if it is driven by comorbid language impairment that affects a large subset of children with CAS and (b) if speech inconsistency is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker that can differentiate between CAS and…

  20. Acoustic characteristics of ataxic speech in Japanese patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikui, Yukiko; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Koyano, Shigeru; Hirose, Hajime; Taguchi, Takahide

    2012-01-01

    In English- and German-speaking countries, ataxic speech is often described as showing scanning based on acoustic impressions. Although the term 'scanning' is generally considered to represent abnormal speech features including prosodic excess or insufficiency, any precise acoustic analysis of ataxic speech has not been performed in Japanese-speaking patients. This raises the question of what is the most dominant acoustic characteristic of ataxic speech in Japanese subjects, particularly related to the perceptual impression of 'scanning'. The study was designed to investigate the nature of speech characteristics of Japanese ataxic subjects, particularly 'scanning', by means of acoustic analysis. The study comprised 20 Japanese cases with spinocerebellar degeneration diagnosed to have a perceptual impression of scanning by neurologists (ataxic group) and 20 age-matched normal healthy subjects (control group). Recordings of speech samples of Japanese test sentences were obtained from each subject. The recorded and digitized acoustic samples were analysed using 'Acoustic Core-8' (Arcadia Inc.). Sentence duration was significantly longer in the ataxic group as compared with the control group, indicating that the speaking rate was slower in the ataxic subjects. Segment duration remained consistent in both vowels and consonants in the control group as compared with the ataxic group. In particular, the duration of vowel segments, i.e. the nucleus of Japanese mora, was significantly invariable in the control group regardless of differences between subjects as well as in segments compared with the ataxic group. In addition, the duration of phonemically long Japanese vowels was significantly shorter in the ataxic group. The results indicate that the perceptual impression of 'scanning' in Japanese ataxic cases derives mainly from the breakdown of isochrony in terms of difficulty in keeping the length of vowel segments of Japanese invariable during speech production. In

  1. Human neuromagnetic steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated tones, speech, and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamminmäki, Satu; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Auditory steady-state responses that can be elicited by various periodic sounds inform about subcortical and early cortical auditory processing. Steady-state responses to amplitude-modulated pure tones have been used to scrutinize binaural interaction by frequency-tagging the two ears' inputs at different frequencies. Unlike pure tones, speech and music are physically very complex, as they include many frequency components, pauses, and large temporal variations. To examine the utility of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) steady-state fields (SSFs) in the study of early cortical processing of complex natural sounds, the authors tested the extent to which amplitude-modulated speech and music can elicit reliable SSFs. MEG responses were recorded to 90-s-long binaural tones, speech, and music, amplitude-modulated at 41.1 Hz at four different depths (25, 50, 75, and 100%). The subjects were 11 healthy, normal-hearing adults. MEG signals were averaged in phase with the modulation frequency, and the sources of the resulting SSFs were modeled by current dipoles. After the MEG recording, intelligibility of the speech, musical quality of the music stimuli, naturalness of music and speech stimuli, and the perceived deterioration caused by the modulation were evaluated on visual analog scales. The perceived quality of the stimuli decreased as a function of increasing modulation depth, more strongly for music than speech; yet, all subjects considered the speech intelligible even at the 100% modulation. SSFs were the strongest to tones and the weakest to speech stimuli; the amplitudes increased with increasing modulation depth for all stimuli. SSFs to tones were reliably detectable at all modulation depths (in all subjects in the right hemisphere, in 9 subjects in the left hemisphere) and to music stimuli at 50 to 100% depths, whereas speech usually elicited clear SSFs only at 100% depth.The hemispheric balance of SSFs was toward the right hemisphere for tones and speech, whereas

  2. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  3. Speech Recognition: Its Place in Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szul, Linda F.; Bouder, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Suggests uses of speech recognition devices in the classroom for students with disabilities. Compares speech recognition software packages and provides guidelines for selection and teaching. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  4. Modeling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    by the normal as well as impaired auditory system. Jørgensen and Dau [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 1475-1487] proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII......) in conditions with nonlinearly processed speech. Instead of considering the reduction of the temporal modulation energy as the intelligibility metric, as assumed in the STI, the sEPSM applies the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv). This metric was shown to be the key for predicting...... the intelligibility of reverberant speech as well as noisy speech processed by spectral subtraction. However, the sEPSM cannot account for speech subjected to phase jitter, a condition in which the spectral structure of speech is destroyed, while the broadband temporal envelope is kept largely intact. In contrast...

  5. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  6. Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Kenney, Mary Kay; Loucks, Torrey M J; Poletto, Christopher J; Ludlow, Christy L

    2009-08-01

    The issue of whether speech is supported by the same neural substrates as non-speech vocal tract gestures has been contentious. In this fMRI study we tested whether producing non-speech vocal tract gestures in humans shares the same functional neuroanatomy as non-sense speech syllables. Production of non-speech vocal tract gestures, devoid of phonological content but similar to speech in that they had familiar acoustic and somatosensory targets, was compared to the production of speech syllables without meaning. Brain activation related to overt production was captured with BOLD fMRI using a sparse sampling design for both conditions. Speech and non-speech were compared using voxel-wise whole brain analyses, and ROI analyses focused on frontal and temporoparietal structures previously reported to support speech production. Results showed substantial activation overlap between speech and non-speech function in regions. Although non-speech gesture production showed greater extent and amplitude of activation in the regions examined, both speech and non-speech showed comparable left laterality in activation for both target perception and production. These findings posit a more general role of the previously proposed "auditory dorsal stream" in the left hemisphere--to support the production of vocal tract gestures that are not limited to speech processing.

  7. Poor Speech Perception Is Not a Core Deficit of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Cabbage, Kathryn; Green, Jordan R.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is hypothesized to arise from deficits in speech motor planning and programming, but the influence of abnormal speech perception in CAS on these processes is debated. This study examined speech perception abilities among children with CAS with and without language impairment compared to those with…

  8. The treatment of apraxia of speech : Speech and music therapy, an innovative joint effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, Josephus Johannes Stephanus

    2016-01-01

    Apraxia of Speech (AoS) is a neurogenic speech disorder. A wide variety of behavioural methods have been developed to treat AoS. Various therapy programmes use musical elements to improve speech production. A unique therapy programme combining elements of speech therapy and music therapy is called

  9. Motor Speech Phenotypes of Frontotemporal Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Progressive Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Matthew L.; Brodtmann, Amy; Darby, David; Vogel, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to create a comprehensive review of speech impairment in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and progressive apraxia of speech in order to identify the most effective measures for diagnosis and monitoring, and to elucidate associations between speech and neuroimaging. Method: Speech and…

  10. Listeners Experience Linguistic Masking Release in Noise-Vocoded Speech-in-Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Navin; Kokkinakis, Kostas; Williams, Brittany T.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether listeners with normal hearing perceiving noise-vocoded speech-in-speech demonstrate better intelligibility of target speech when the background speech was mismatched in language (linguistic release from masking [LRM]) and/or location (spatial release from masking [SRM]) relative to the…

  11. Visual context enhanced. The joint contribution of iconic gestures and visible speech to degraded speech comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijvers, L.; Özyürek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech

  12. Inner Speech's Relationship with Overt Speech in Poststroke Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Brielle C.; Geva, Sharon; Warburton, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Relatively preserved inner speech alongside poor overt speech has been documented in some persons with aphasia (PWA), but the relationship of overt speech with inner speech is still largely unclear, as few studies have directly investigated these factors. The present study investigates the relationship of relatively preserved inner speech…

  13. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  14. Fishing for meaningful units in connected speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Peter Juel; Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    In many branches of spoken language analysis including ASR, the set of smallest meaningful units of speech is taken to coincide with the set of phones or phonemes. However, fishing for phones is difficult, error-prone, and computationally expensive. We present an experiment, based on machine...... learning, with an alternative approach. Instead of stipulating a basic set of target units, the determination of the set is considered to be part of the learning task. Given 18 recordings of Danish talkers performing a simple lab task, our algorithm produced a set of acoustically well-defined units...... was far lower than for phonemic recognition. Our findings show that it is possible to automatically characterize a linguistic message, without detailed spectral information or presumptions about the target units. Further, fishing for simple meaningful cues and enhancing these selectively would potentially...

  15. Conversation electrified: ERP correlates of speech act recognition in underspecified utterances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa S Gisladottir

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize speech acts (verbal actions in conversation is critical for everyday interaction. However, utterances are often underspecified for the speech act they perform, requiring listeners to rely on the context to recognize the action. The goal of this study was to investigate the time-course of auditory speech act recognition in action-underspecified utterances and explore how sequential context (the prior action impacts this process. We hypothesized that speech acts are recognized early in the utterance to allow for quick transitions between turns in conversation. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants listened to spoken dialogues and performed an action categorization task. The dialogues contained target utterances that each of which could deliver three distinct speech acts depending on the prior turn. The targets were identical across conditions, but differed in the type of speech act performed and how it fit into the larger action sequence. The ERP results show an early effect of action type, reflected by frontal positivities as early as 200 ms after target utterance onset. This indicates that speech act recognition begins early in the turn when the utterance has only been partially processed. Providing further support for early speech act recognition, actions in highly constraining contexts did not elicit an ERP effect to the utterance-final word. We take this to show that listeners can recognize the action before the final word through predictions at the speech act level. However, additional processing based on the complete utterance is required in more complex actions, as reflected by a posterior negativity at the final word when the speech act is in a less constraining context and a new action sequence is initiated. These findings demonstrate that sentence comprehension in conversational contexts crucially involves recognition of verbal action which begins as soon as it can.

  16. Conversation electrified: ERP correlates of speech act recognition in underspecified utterances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Rosa S; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognize speech acts (verbal actions) in conversation is critical for everyday interaction. However, utterances are often underspecified for the speech act they perform, requiring listeners to rely on the context to recognize the action. The goal of this study was to investigate the time-course of auditory speech act recognition in action-underspecified utterances and explore how sequential context (the prior action) impacts this process. We hypothesized that speech acts are recognized early in the utterance to allow for quick transitions between turns in conversation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants listened to spoken dialogues and performed an action categorization task. The dialogues contained target utterances that each of which could deliver three distinct speech acts depending on the prior turn. The targets were identical across conditions, but differed in the type of speech act performed and how it fit into the larger action sequence. The ERP results show an early effect of action type, reflected by frontal positivities as early as 200 ms after target utterance onset. This indicates that speech act recognition begins early in the turn when the utterance has only been partially processed. Providing further support for early speech act recognition, actions in highly constraining contexts did not elicit an ERP effect to the utterance-final word. We take this to show that listeners can recognize the action before the final word through predictions at the speech act level. However, additional processing based on the complete utterance is required in more complex actions, as reflected by a posterior negativity at the final word when the speech act is in a less constraining context and a new action sequence is initiated. These findings demonstrate that sentence comprehension in conversational contexts crucially involves recognition of verbal action which begins as soon as it can.

  17. Decoding spectrotemporal features of overt and covert speech from the human cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eMartin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Auditory perception and auditory imagery have been shown to activate overlapping brain regions. We hypothesized that these phenomena also share a common underlying neural representation. To assess this, we used intracranial recordings from epileptic patients performing an out loud or a silent reading task. In these tasks, short stories scrolled across a video screen in two conditions: subjects read the same stories both aloud (overt and silently (covert. In a control condition the subject remained in a resting state. We first built a high gamma (70-150 Hz neural decoding model to reconstruct spectrotemporal auditory features of self-generated overt speech. We then evaluated whether this same model could reconstruct auditory speech features in the covert speech condition. Two speech models were tested: a spectrogram and a modulation-based feature space. For the overt condition, reconstruction accuracy was evaluated as the correlation between original and predicted speech features, and was significant in each subject. For the covert speech condition, dynamic time warping was first used to realign the covert speech reconstruction with the corresponding original speech from the overt condition. Covert reconstruction accuracy was then compared to the accuracy obtained from reconstructions in the baseline control condition. Across the group of subjects, reconstruction accuracy for the covert condition was significantly better than for the control condition. Electrodes in the superior temporal gyrus, pre- and post-central gyrus were the strongest predictors of decoding accuracy. These results provide evidence that auditory representations of covert speech can be reconstructed from models that are built from an overt speech data set, supporting a partially shared neural substrate.

  18. THE ONTOGENESIS OF SPEECH DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Braudo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to acquaint the specialists, working with children having developmental disorders, with age-related norms for speech development. Many well-known linguists and psychologists studied speech ontogenesis (logogenesis. Speech is a higher mental function, which integrates many functional systems. Speech development in infants during the first months after birth is ensured by the innate hearing and emerging ability to fix the gaze on the face of an adult. Innate emotional reactions are also being developed during this period, turning into nonverbal forms of communication. At about 6 months a baby starts to pronounce some syllables; at 7–9 months – repeats various sounds combinations, pronounced by adults. At 10–11 months a baby begins to react on the words, referred to him/her. The first words usually appear at an age of 1 year; this is the start of the stage of active speech development. At this time it is acceptable, if a child confuses or rearranges sounds, distorts or misses them. By the age of 1.5 years a child begins to understand abstract explanations of adults. Significant vocabulary enlargement occurs between 2 and 3 years; grammatical structures of the language are being formed during this period (a child starts to use phrases and sentences. Preschool age (3–7 y. o. is characterized by incorrect, but steadily improving pronunciation of sounds and phonemic perception. The vocabulary increases; abstract speech and retelling are being formed. Children over 7 y. o. continue to improve grammar, writing and reading skills. The described stages may not have strict age boundaries, as soon as they are dependent not only on environment, but also on the child’s mental constitution, heredity and character.

  19. The timing and effort of lexical access in natural and degraded speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Eva Wagner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding speech is effortless in ideal situations, and although adverse conditions, such as caused by hearing impairment, often render it an effortful task, they do not necessarily suspend speech comprehension. A prime example of this is speech perception by cochlear implant users, whose hearing prostheses transmit speech as a significantly degraded signal. It is yet unknown how mechanisms of speech processing deal with such degraded signals, and whether they are affected by effortful processing of speech.This paper compares the automatic process of lexical competition between natural and degraded speech, and combines gaze fixations, which capture the course of lexical disambiguation, with pupillometry, which quantifies the mental effort involved in processing speech. Listeners’ ocular responses were recorded during disambiguation of lexical embeddings with matching and mismatching durational cues. Durational cues were selected due to their substantial role in listeners' quick limitation of the number of lexical candidates for lexical access in natural speech. Results showed that lexical competition increased effort in processing natural stimuli in particular in presence of mismatching cues. Signal degradation reduced listeners’ ability to quickly integrate durational cues in lexical selection, and delayed and prolonged lexical competition. The effort of processing degraded speech was increased overall, and because it had its sources at the pre-lexical level this effect can be attributed to listening to degraded speech rather than to lexical disambiguation. In sum, the course of lexical competition was largely comparable for natural and degraded speech, but showed crucial shifts in timing, and different sources of increased mental effort. We argue that well-timed progress of information from sensory to pre-lexical and lexical stages of processing, which is the result of perceptual adaptation during speech development, is the reason why

  20. Hate speech, report 1. Research on the nature and extent of hate speech

    OpenAIRE

    Nadim, Marjan; Fladmoe, Audun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to gather research-based knowledge concerning: • the extent of online hate speech • which groups in society are particularly subjected to online hate speech • who produces hate speech, and what motivates them Hate speech is commonly understood as any speech that is persecutory, degrading or discriminatory on grounds of the recipient’s minority group identity. To be defined as hate speech, the speech must be conveyed publicly or in the presence of others and be di...