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Sample records for spontaneous sourdough fermentations

  1. SELECTING PARAMETERS OF PREPARATION SOURDOUGH SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF WHEAT BIOACTIVATED

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    E. I. Ponomareva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One way to improving the quality of semi-finished and finished bakery products is the use of starter cultures. This article describes a process for preparing sourdough bioactivated spontaneous fermentation of wheat. The influence of parameters of spontaneous sourdough cooking at its organoleptic, physico-chemical and microbiological parameters was studying, rational parameters of receipt that improve the quality of foods were chosen.

  2. Volatile Compounds and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Spontaneous Fermented Sourdough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, W.Y.; Aida, W.M.W.; Sahilah, A.M.; Maskat, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the predominating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in a spontaneous fermented wheat sourdough. At the same time, an investigation towards volatile compounds that were produced was also carried out. Lactobacillus plantarum has been identified as the dominant species of lactobacilli with characters of a facultative heterofermentative strain. The generated volatile compounds that were produced during spontaneous fermentation were isolated by solvent extraction method, analysed by gas chromatography (GC), and identified by mass spectrophotometer (MS). Butyric acid has been found to be the main volatile compound with relative abundance of 6.75 % and acetic acid at relative abundance of 3.60 %. Esters that were formed at relatively low amount were butyl formate (1.23 %) and cis 3 hexenyl propionate (0.05 %). Butanol was also found at low amount with relative abundance of 0.60 %. The carbohydrate metabolism of Lactobacillus plantarum may contributed to the production of acetic acid in this study via further catabolism activity on lactic acid that was produced. However, butyric acid was not the major product via fermentation by LAB but mostly carried out by the genus Clostridium via carbohydrate metabolism which needs further investigation. (author)

  3. Evaluation of sourdoughs for the production of bread using spontaneous fermentation technique

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    Krischina Singer Aplevicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study developed three sourdoughs using sugarcane, apple and grape as substrate. The fermentative activity and physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the sourdoughs and breads were evaluated. Among the breads that were prepared using different sourdoughs, that which was made from grape sourdough presented high pH (4.30 and less acidity (2.99 mL 0.1N 100 g-1. The grape sourdough was selected for research because it presented the highest fermentation volume and because it was the most preferred in the sensory analysis. The aerobic lactic acid bacteria count at 30°C was 7.52 log CFU g-1 and yeast count was 7.62 log CFU g-1. After one year of cultivation, the aerobic lactic acid bacteria increased by 1.34 logarithmic cycles at a temperature of30°C and the yeasts were reduced by 0.61 logarithmic cycles. The results of this study indicate that the use of different substrates in the preparation of sourdoughs provides breads with different sensory characteristics. Although it is an old process, the application of the spontaneous fermentation technique in bread making is still much used in view of the demand for products with the specific characteristics of this type of fermentation.

  4. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation

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    Savić Dragiša S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The baking of sourdough breads represents one of the oldest biotechnological processes. Despite traditionality, sourdough bread has great potential because of its benefits. Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water that is dominated by a complex microflora composed of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria that are crucial in the preparation of bread dough. Lactic acid bacteria cause acidification by producing lactic acid that increases the shelf life of bread by preventing the growth of undesirable microorganisms and affects the nutritional value of bread by increasing the availability of minerals. In addition to these advantages, the use of sourdough fermentation also improves dough machinability, breadcrumb structure and the characteristic flavour of bread. Lactic acid bacteria in sourdough fermentation are well known representing both homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria. They may originate from selected natural contaminants in the flour or from a starter culture containing one or more known species of lactic acid bacteria. Sourdough can be cultivated in bakeries or obtained from commercial suppliers. However, many bakeries in Europe still use spontaneously fermented sourdoughs, which have been kept metabolically active for decades by the addition of flour and water at regular intervals. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation and their influence on dough and bread quality was discussed on the basis of research and literature data.

  5. Evolution of bacterial consortia in spontaneously started rye sourdoughs during two months of daily propagation.

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    Marianna Bessmeltseva

    Full Text Available The evolution of bacterial consortia was studied in six semi-solid rye sourdoughs during long-term backslopping at different temperatures. Each rye sourdough was started spontaneously in a laboratory (dough yield 200, propagated at either 20°C or 30°C, and renewed daily at an inoculation rate of 1∶10 for 56 days. The changes in bacterial diversity over time were followed by both DGGE coupled with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pyrosequencing of bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Four species from the genus Lactobacillus (brevis, crustorum, plantarum, and paralimentarius were detected in different combinations in all sourdoughs after 56 propagation cycles. Facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 30°C, while both obligate and facultative heterofermentative LAB were found to dominate in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C. After 56 propagation cycles, Kazachstania unispora (formerly Saccharomyces unisporus was identified as the only yeast species that dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C, while different combinations of strains from four yeast species (Kazachstania unispora, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata were detected in sourdoughs propagated at 30°C. The evolution of bacterial communities in sourdoughs fermented at the same temperature did not follow the same time course and changes in the composition of dominant and subdominant bacterial communities occurred even after six weeks of backslopping.

  6. Evolution of bacterial consortia in spontaneously started rye sourdoughs during two months of daily propagation.

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    Bessmeltseva, Marianna; Viiard, Ene; Simm, Jaak; Paalme, Toomas; Sarand, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of bacterial consortia was studied in six semi-solid rye sourdoughs during long-term backslopping at different temperatures. Each rye sourdough was started spontaneously in a laboratory (dough yield 200), propagated at either 20°C or 30°C, and renewed daily at an inoculation rate of 1∶10 for 56 days. The changes in bacterial diversity over time were followed by both DGGE coupled with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pyrosequencing of bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Four species from the genus Lactobacillus (brevis, crustorum, plantarum, and paralimentarius) were detected in different combinations in all sourdoughs after 56 propagation cycles. Facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 30°C, while both obligate and facultative heterofermentative LAB were found to dominate in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C. After 56 propagation cycles, Kazachstania unispora (formerly Saccharomyces unisporus) was identified as the only yeast species that dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C, while different combinations of strains from four yeast species (Kazachstania unispora, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata) were detected in sourdoughs propagated at 30°C. The evolution of bacterial communities in sourdoughs fermented at the same temperature did not follow the same time course and changes in the composition of dominant and subdominant bacterial communities occurred even after six weeks of backslopping.

  7. Microbial Ecology and Process Technology of Sourdough Fermentation.

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    De Vuyst, Luc; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; Leroy, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable. Three distinct types of sourdough fermentation processes can be discerned based on the inocula applied, namely backslopped ones (type 1), those initiated with starter cultures (type 2), and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping (type 3). A sourdough-characteristic LAB species is Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. A sourdough-characteristic yeast species is Candida humilis. Although it has been suggested that the microbiota of a specific sourdough may be influenced by its geographical origin, region specificity often seems to be an artefact resulting from interpretation of the research data, as those are dependent on sampling, isolation, and identification procedures. It is however clear that sourdough-adapted microorganisms are able to withstand stress conditions encountered during their growth. Based on the technological setup, type 0 (predoughs), type I (artisan bakery firm sourdoughs), type II (industrial liquid sourdoughs), and type III sourdoughs (industrial dried sourdoughs) can be distinguished. The production of all sourdoughs, independent of their classification, depends on several intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Both the flour (type, quality status, etc.) and the process parameters (fermentation temperature, pH and pH evolution, dough yield, water activity, oxygen tension, backslopping procedure and fermentation duration, etc.) determine the dynamics and outcome of (backslopped) sourdough fermentation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbial ecology of sourdough fermentations: diverse or uniform?

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    De Vuyst, L; Van Kerrebroeck, S; Harth, H; Huys, G; Daniel, H-M; Weckx, S

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough is a specific and stressful ecosystem inhabited by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly heterofermentative lactobacilli. On the basis of their inocula, three types of sourdough fermentation processes can be distinguished, namely backslopped ones, those initiated with starter cultures, and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping. Typical sourdough LAB species are Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Typical sourdough yeast species are Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whereas region specificity is claimed in the case of artisan backslopped sourdoughs, no clear-cut relationship between a typical sourdough and its associated microbiota can be found, as this is dependent on the sampling, isolation, and identification procedures. Both simple and very complex consortia may occur. Moreover, a series of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence the composition of the sourdough microbiota. For instance, an influence of the flour (type, quality status, etc.) and the process parameters (temperature, pH, dough yield, backslopping practices, etc.) occurs. In this way, the presence of Lb. sanfranciscensis during sourdough fermentation depends on specific environmental and technological factors. Also, Triticum durum seems to select for obligately heterofermentative LAB species. Finally, there are indications that the sourdough LAB are of intestinal origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial behavior and changes in food constituents during fermentation of Japanese sourdoughs with different rye and wheat starting materials.

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    Fujimoto, Akihito; Ito, Keisuke; Itou, Madoka; Narushima, Noriko; Ito, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Akihisa; Hirayama, Satoru; Furukawa, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2018-01-01

    Sourdough is a food item made by kneading grain flour and water together and allowing fermentation through the action of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillales) and yeast. Typically, Japanese bakeries make sourdough with rye flour, wheat flour, malt extract, and water and allow spontaneous fermentation for 6 days. We compared the microbial behavior and food components, such as organic acids, sugars, and free amino acids, of sourdoughs made using two different rye and wheat flours during the 6-day fermentation period. Comparisons were made for two types of rye and wheat flours, using different production sites and different milling, distribution, and storage conditions. The microbial count was evaluated using different culture media. All sourdough types showed a significant increase in lactic acid levels on fermentation day 2 and a decrease in free amino acid levels on day 4. Low overall lactic acid production and little fluctuation in sugar levels occurred in sourdough made from French ingredients. For sourdough made from Japanese ingredients, sugar levels (chiefly glucose, sucrose, and maltose) declined on fermentation day 1, increased on day 2, and declined by day 5. With the French ingredients, no yeast cells were detected until day 3, and many acid precursors of sourdough flavor components were detected. Yet with the Japanese ingredients, 10 6 /g yeast cells were detected on days 3-5, as well as sourdough-flavor esters and alcohols. Differences in raw material quality affected the microbial behavior and changes in food constituents during the fermentation process and, consequently, the sourdough flavor. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolic profiling of sourdough fermented wheat and rye bread.

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    Koistinen, Ville M; Mattila, Outi; Katina, Kati; Poutanen, Kaisa; Aura, Anna-Marja; Hanhineva, Kati

    2018-04-09

    Sourdough fermentation by lactic acid bacteria is commonly used in bread baking, affecting several attributes of the final product. We analyzed whole-grain wheat and rye breads and doughs prepared with baker's yeast or a sourdough starter including Candida milleri, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum using non-targeted metabolic profiling utilizing LC-QTOF-MS. The aim was to determine the fermentation-induced changes in metabolites potentially contributing to the health-promoting properties of whole-grain wheat and rye. Overall, we identified 118 compounds with significantly increased levels in sourdough, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their metabolites, small peptides with high proportion of BCAAs, microbial metabolites of phenolic acids and several other potentially bioactive compounds. We also identified 69 compounds with significantly decreased levels, including phenolic acid precursors, nucleosides, and nucleobases. Intensive sourdough fermentation had a higher impact on the metabolite profile of whole-grain rye compared to milder whole-grain wheat sourdough fermentation. We hypothesize that the increased amount of BCAAs and potentially bioactive small peptides may contribute to the insulin response of rye bread, and in more general, the overall protective effect against T2DM and CVD.

  11. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

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    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mutually stimulating interactions between lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sourdough fermentation

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    Sieuwerts, Sander; Bron, Peter A.; Smid, Eddy J.

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between microorganisms are key to their performance in food habitats. Improved understanding of these interactions supports rational improvement of food fermentations. This study aimed at identifying interactions between lactic acid bacteria and yeast during sourdough fermentation.

  13. Pro-technological and functional characterization of lactic acid bacteria to be used as starters for hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) sourdough fermentation and wheat bread fortification.

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    Nionelli, Luana; Montemurro, Marco; Pontonio, Erica; Verni, Michela; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2018-08-20

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) flour, spontaneously fermented dough, and type I sourdough. Isolates were identified and further selected based on pro-technological, nutritional and functional properties. Lactobacillus plantarum/s5, Pediococcus acidilactici/s5, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides/s1 were used as mixed starter to produce hemp sourdough. Significant decreases of the concentration of phytic acid, condensed tannins, and total saponins were observed during fermentation. The in vitro protein digestibility increased up to 90%. Experimental wheat breads were made adding 5% to 15% (w/w) hemp sourdough to the formula, characterized, and compared to baker's yeast wheat bread manufactured without hemp sourdough. The use of hemp sourdough improved the textural features of wheat bread, without adversely affect the sensory profile. Proportionally to the fortification with hemp sourdough, protein digestibility of the breads increased, while the predicted glycemic index significantly decreased (87 vs 100%). This work demonstrated that the fermentation with selected starters improved nutritional functionality of hemp flour, allowing its large-scale use in different food applications, meeting the consumers and producers request for novel fermented baked goods with a well-balanced nutritional profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evolution of sourdough microbiota in spontaneous sourdoughs started with different plant materials.

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    Ripari, Valery; Gänzle, Michael G; Berardi, Enrico

    2016-09-02

    The preparation of sourdough in bakeries may include the use of inocula, e.g. fruits, flowers or rumen cuts to accelerate the process of selection of suitable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of these inocula on the microbial evolution in sourdoughs. First, the microbiota of nineteen traditional sourdoughs that were initially started with diverse inocula was identified. Second, de novo sourdoughs were started with plant materials and the evolution of sourdough microbiota was investigated by culture, and by high-resolution melting curve quantitative PCR (HRM-qPCR). This study developed a new protocol for HRM-qPCR analysis of yeast microbiota in sourdough, and indicates this independent culture method suitable for characterization of yeasts. Microbiota of traditional sourdoughs were largely independent from the use of inoculum, however, Acetobacter spp. were identified only in sourdoughs started with apple flowers or apple pulp. In de novo sourdoughs started with plant materials, microbiota rapidly stabilized, and were characterized by Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus graminis, or Lactobacillus rossiae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as dominant species. Competition experiments revealed that the ecological fitness of L. plantarum, L. graminis, and L. rossiae in wheat or rye malt sourdoughs was lower when compared to L. sanfranciscensis, demonstrating that their presence in de novo sourdoughs reflects dispersal limitation. In conclusion, establishment of microbiota in de novo sourdoughs is dispersal limited. This study provides scientific support for the artisanal practice to inoculate de novo sourdoughs with flowers, berries, or related plant material. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Synthesis of Taste-Active γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides during Sourdough Fermentation by Lactobacillus reuteri.

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    Zhao, Cindy J; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-10-12

    This study aimed to assess whether peptides influence the taste of sourdough bread. γ-Glutamyl dipeptides with known kokumi taste threshold, namely γ-Glu-Glu, γ-Glu-Leu, γ-Glu-Ile, γ-Glu-Phe, γ-Glu-Met, and γ-Glu-Val, were identified in sourdough by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in MRM mode. γ-Glutamyl dipeptides were found in higher concentrations in sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri when compared to the chemically acidified controls. Proteolysis was an important factor for generation of γ-glutamyl dipeptides. Sourdoughs fermented with four strains of L. reuteri had different concentrations of γ-Glu-Glu, γ-Glu-Leu, and γ-Glu-Met, indicating strain-specific differences in enzyme activity. Buffer fermentations with L. reuteri confirmed the ability of the strains to convert amino acids to γ-glutamyl dipeptides as well as the strain-specific differences. Sensory evaluation of bread revealed that sourdough bread with higher concentrations of γ-glutamyl dipeptides ranked higher with respect to the taste intensity when compared to regular bread and type I sourdough bread. Sourdough breads fermented with L. reuteri LTH5448 and L. reuteri 100-23 differed with respect to the intensity of the salty taste; this difference corresponded to a different concentration of γ-glutamyl dipeptides. These results suggest a strain-specific contribution of γ-glutamyl dipeptides to the taste of bread. The use of sourdough fermented with glutamate and kokumi peptide accumulating lactobacilli improved the taste of bread without adverse effect on other taste or quality attributes.

  16. Diversity of the lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiota in the switch from firm- to liquid-sourdough fermentation.

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    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Calasso, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap-/solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-/SPME-GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time.

  17. Diversity of the Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiota in the Switch from Firm- to Liquid-Sourdough Fermentation

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    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Calasso, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap–/solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT–/SPME–GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

  18. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria on organic flours and application of isolates in sourdough fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Stanzer, Damir; Ivanuša, Ines; Kazazić, Snježana; Hanousek Čiča, Karla; Mrvčić, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    Organic farming preserves biodiversity and organic products can be the source of many microbial species. The species diversity in organically grown wheat, spelt and rye was investigated in order to find strains suitable for sourdough fermentation. Colonies representing various morphological appearances were isolated and catalase-negative colonies were identified by mass spectrometer Microflex LT ™ MALDI-TOF. The fermentation products (lactic, acetic, formic and phenyllactic acid) were determi...

  19. Contribution of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus reuteri to acid resistance and persistence in sourdough fermentation.

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    Su, Marcia S; Schlicht, Sabine; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-08-30

    Acid stress impacts the persistence of lactobacilli in industrial sourdough fermentations, and in intestinal ecosystems. However, the contribution of glutamate to acid resistance in lactobacilli has not been demonstrated experimentally, and evidence for the contribution of acid resistance to the competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough is lacking. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the ecological role of glutamate decarboxylase in L. reuteri. A gene coding for a putative glutamate decarboxylase, gadB, was identified in the genome of L. reuteri 100-23. Different from the organization of genetic loci coding for glutamate decarboxylase in other lactic acid bacteria, gadB was located adjacent to a putative glutaminase gene, gls3. An isogenic deletion mutant, L. reuteri ∆gadB, was generated by a double crossover method. L. reuteri 100-23 but not L. reuteri ∆gadB converted glutamate to γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) in phosphate butter (pH 2.5). In sourdough, both strains converted glutamine to glutamate but only L. reuteri 100-23 accumulated GABA. Glutamate addition to phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, improved survival of L. reuteri 100-23 100-fold. However, survival of L. reuteri ∆gadB remained essentially unchanged. The disruption of gadB did not affect growth of L. reuteri in mMRS or in sourdough. However, the wild type strain L. reuteri 100-23 displaced L. reuteri ∆gadB after 5 cycles of fermentation in back-slopped sourdough fermentations. The conversion of glutamate to GABA by L. reuteri 100-23 contributes to acid resistance and to competitiveness in industrial sourdough fermentations. The organization of the gene cluster for glutamate conversion, and the availability of amino acids in cereals imply that glutamine rather than glutamate functions as the substrate for GABA formation. The exceptional coupling of glutamine deamidation to glutamate decarboxylation in L. reuteri likely reflects adaptation to cereal substrates.

  20. Comparative genomics Lactobacillus reuteri from sourdough reveals adaptation of an intestinal symbiont to food fermentations.

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    Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-12-11

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a dominant member of intestinal microbiota of vertebrates, and occurs in food fermentations. The stable presence of L. reuteri in sourdough provides the opportunity to study the adaptation of vertebrate symbionts to an extra-intestinal habitat. This study evaluated this adaptation by comparative genomics of 16 strains of L. reuteri. A core genome phylogenetic tree grouped L. reuteri into 5 clusters corresponding to the host-adapted lineages. The topology of a gene content tree, which includes accessory genes, differed from the core genome phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the differentiation of L. reuteri is shaped by gene loss or acquisition. About 10% of the core genome (124 core genes) were under positive selection. In lineage III sourdough isolates, 177 genes were under positive selection, mainly related to energy conversion and carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the competitiveness of L. reuteri in sourdough revealed that the competitivess of sourdough isolates was equal or higher when compared to rodent isolates. This study provides new insights into the adaptation of L. reuteri to food and intestinal habitats, suggesting that these two habitats exert different selective pressure related to growth rate and energy (carbohydrate) metabolism.

  1. Codominance of Lactobacillus plantarum and obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation.

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    Ventimiglia, Giusi; Alfonzo, Antonio; Galluzzo, Paola; Corona, Onofrio; Francesca, Nicola; Caracappa, Santo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen sourdoughs produced in western Sicily (southern Italy) were analysed by classical methods for their chemico-physical characteristics and the levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were mostly in the range commonly reported for similar products produced in Italy, but the fermentation quotient (FQ) of the majority of samples was above 4.0, due to the low concentration of acetic acid estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Specific counts of LAB showed levels higher than 10(8) CFU g(-1) for many samples. The colonies representing various morphologies were isolated and, after the differentiation based on phenotypic characteristics, divided into 10 groups. The most numerous group was composed of facultative heterofermentative isolates, indicating a relevance of this bacterial group during fermentation. The genetic analysis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCRs identified 33 strains as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus graminis. Due to the consistent presence of L. plantarum, it was concluded that this species codominates with obligate heterofermentative LAB in sourdough production in this geographical area. In order to evaluate the performances at the basis of their fitness, the 29 L. plantarum strains were investigated for several technological traits. Twelve cultures showed good acidifying abilities in vitro and L. plantarum PON100148 produced the highest concentrations of organic acids. Eleven strains were positive for extracellular protease activity. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) production and antifungal activity was scored positive for several strains, included L. plantarum PON100148 which was selected as starter for experimental sourdough production. The characteristics of the sourdoughs and the resulting breads indicated that the best productions were obtained in presence of L

  2. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from SpontaneousSourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread

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    Vaičiulytė-Funk, Lina; Šalomskienė, Joana; Alenčikienė, Gitana; Mieželienė, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Summary Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb firmness of the final product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically differ from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread. PMID:27956866

  3. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from Spontaneous Sourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaičiulytė-Funk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb fi rmness of the fi nal product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically diff er from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread.

  4. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Reijo Laatikainen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h, would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs, and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26. Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03, but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.

  5. Sourdough Fermentation of Wheat Flour does not Prevent the Interaction of Transglutaminase 2 with α2-Gliadin or Gluten

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    Niklas Engström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2 plays a crucial role in the initiation of celiac disease by catalyzing the deamidation of gluten peptides. In susceptible individuals, the deamidated peptides initiate an immune response leading to celiac disease. Several studies have addressed lactic fermentation plus addition of enzymes as a means to degrade gluten in order to prevent adverse response in celiacs. Processing for complete gluten degradation is often harsh and is not likely to yield products that are of comparable characteristics as their gluten-containing counterparts. We are concerned that incomplete degradation of gluten may have adverse effects because it leads to more available TG2-binding sites on gluten peptides. Therefore, we have investigated how lactic acid fermentation affects the potential binding of TG2 to gluten protein in wheat flour by means of estimating TG2-mediated transamidation in addition to measuring the available TG2-binding motif QLP, in α2-gliadin. We show that lactic fermentation of wheat flour, as slurry or as part of sourdough bread, did not decrease the TG2-mediated transamidation, in the presence of a primary amine, to an efficient level (73%–102% of unfermented flour. Nor did the lactic fermentation decrease the available TG2 binding motif QLP in α2-gliadin to a sufficient extent in sourdough bread (73%–122% of unfermented control to be useful for celiac safe food.

  6. Use of hop extract as antifungal ingredient for bread making and selection of autochthonous resistant starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2018-02-02

    Aiming at meeting the consumers' demand in terms of bio-preservation, the potential of the combination of the lactic acid bacteria fermentation and the addition of hop extract as natural preservative in breadmaking, was exploited. The antifungal properties of a hop (Humulus lupulus) extract were investigated, showing a significant inhibition of the hyphal growth of Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium carneum, Penicillium polonicum, Penicillium paneum, Penicillium chermesinum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium roqueforti. Lactic acid bacteria belonging to species of Enterococcus feacium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Pediococcus acidilactici were isolated from hop and subjected to selection based on kinetics of growth and acidification. The sourdough (hS) enriched with hop extract (hE), started with three selected strains, had phenols concentration and antioxidant activity higher than those obtained in the same condition but without the hE. Hop-sourdough used in breadmaking delayed the fungal growth (14 days), giving a bread characterized by free aminoacids concentration, antioxidant and phytase activities higher than bread started only with baker's yeast, with or without the addition of hE. Specific volume and cell-total area of the bread containing hE improved, and its sensory profile was characterized by typical sourdough attributes, and a moderate bitter/herbaceous perception.

  7. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory evaluation indicated that the techniques of nixtamalization, fermentation and cowpea fortification used for the processing of the products did not influence their acceptability by the panel. Nixtamalized maize can therefore be subjected to spontaneous fermentation with cowpea fortification to enhance the functional, ...

  8. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Laatikainen, Reijo; Koskenpato, Jari; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Loponen, Jussi; Poussa, Tuija; Huang, Xin; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Salmenkari, Hanne; Korpela, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h), would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs), and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjectiv...

  9. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  10. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  11. Quality evaluation of the sourdough rye breads

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    IULIANA BANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation is a biotechnological process that has been reported to improve dough properties, to increase bread flavor and taste, to enhance nutritional value and to extend shelf life of sourdough bread. The quality of rye breads prepared with 20 and 40% sourdough, fermented with different mixed starter cultures was investigated in this study. The bread quality was evaluated in terms of specific volume, humidity, total titratable acidity, crumb characteristics and sensory profiles. Digital image analysis revealed that rye bread with 40% sourdough had a considerably denser crumb structure. Rye bread with 20% sourdough maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period, while increasing the sourdough content to 40% had a negative effect on the texture. The sensory profiles of the bread highly depended on the type of starter cultures used for fermentation.

  12. Lactic Acid Bacteria Combinations for Wheat Sourdough Preparation and Their Influence on Wheat Bread Quality and Acrylamide Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Bartkevics, Vadims; Krungleviciute, Vita; Pugajeva, Iveta; Zadeike, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina

    2017-10-01

    Different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spontaneous wheat sourdough were isolated, identified, and characterized by their growth, acidification rate, and carbohydrate metabolism. The combinations of isolated LAB (Pediococcus pentosaceus LUHS183 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides LUHS242, P. pentosaceus LUHS183 and Lactobacillus brevis LUHS173, P. pentosaceus LUHS183 and Enterococcus pseudoavium LUHS 234, P. pentosaceus LUHS183 and Lactobacillus curvatus LUHS51, Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 and L. curvatus LUHS51, L. plantarum LUHS135 and P. pentosaceus LUHS183) were used for wheat sourdough production, and the effects of LAB fermentation in sourdoughs on wheat bread quality parameters and acrylamide formation were evaluated. All of the tested strains (except E. pseudoavium LUHS 234) were able to ferment l-arabinose, d-ribose, d-galactose, d-fructose, and d-maltose and showed high tolerance to acidic conditions. The highest overall acceptability (135.8 ± 5.5 mm) was found in the bread produced with L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus sourdough. This group of bread also showed the highest shape coefficient (2.59 ± 0.02), the highest specific volume (3.40 ± 0.03 cm 3 /g), the highest porosity (76.6 ± 0.3%), and the highest moisture content (33.7%). Selected sourdoughs reduced acrylamide content in bread samples by 29.5% (sourdough prepared with P. pentosaceus and L. mesenteroides) to 67.2% (sourdough prepared with P. pentosaceus and L. curvatus). These cultures potentially can be used to reduce acrylamide in breads. The data of this study have practical applications. L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus sourdoughs increases overall acceptability, specific volume, and porosity of wheat bread. Besides the fact that sourdoughs produced by using combinations of selected LAB strains improved the quality parameters of bread, fermentation with prepared sourdoughs also reduced the acrylamide content in wheat bread samples by 29.5% (sourdough prepared with P. pentosaceus

  13. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer

    OpenAIRE

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D.; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations i...

  15. Probiotic potential of spontaneously fermented cereal based foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotic potential of spontaneously fermented cereal based foods – A review. ... The realization that food has a role beyond provision of energy and body forming ... with growing interest in the research and development of functional foods.

  16. THE EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE RYE SOURDOUGH BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biotechnology of bread production uses sourdough as a natural leavening agent. In rye bread making the sourdough is essential. The aim of this paper was to examine the influence of starter culture types, flour extraction rate, dough yield and temperature of fermentation on the quality of the sourdough rye bread. The sourdough was prepared using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. The rye breads prepared with 20% sourdough and bread with no sourdough were investigated. The addition of sourdough increases the loaf specific volume relative to control sample. The best results were obtained in case of sourdough made from dark rye flour, 300 dough yield, after 24 h fermentation at 30 °C. The porosity of the bread was estimated by analyzing the scanned images of the vertically halved bread. Digital image analysis revealed that the cell-to-total area ratio was lower for the sourdough prepared with whole rye bread.

  17. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  18. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freek Spitaels

    Full Text Available Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration.

  19. The microbial diversity of traditional spontaneously fermented lambic beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitaels, Freek; Wieme, Anneleen D; Janssens, Maarten; Aerts, Maarten; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Lambic sour beers are the products of a spontaneous fermentation that lasts for one to three years before bottling. The present study determined the microbiota involved in the fermentation of lambic beers by sampling two fermentation batches during two years in the most traditional lambic brewery of Belgium, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. From 14 samples per fermentation, over 2000 bacterial and yeast isolates were obtained and identified. Although minor variations in the microbiota between casks and batches and a considerable species diversity were found, a characteristic microbial succession was identified. This succession started with a dominance of Enterobacteriaceae in the first month, which were replaced at 2 months by Pediococcus damnosus and Saccharomyces spp., the latter being replaced by Dekkera bruxellensis at 6 months fermentation duration.

  20. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  1. 1 INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION ON SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    ... of Ghana,. P. O. Box LG 134, Legon-Accra, Ghana ... and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as well as .... Fig. 1. Effect of fermentation on the pH of maize-based cowpea-fortified ..... 1991; 7: 203-210. 4. ... International Workshop on Food-based Approaches for Healthy Nutrition in.

  2. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis on technological properties of sourdough and voluminous bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gharekhani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough applications in bread production are rising in recent decades continuously due to consumers' desire for natural products containing less chemical preservatives. In sourdough, lactic acid bacteria play a key role in the fermentation process. In this study Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis as single starter and their mixture as a mixed starter were used in the preparation of sourdough. The results showed that the use of single starters increased diacetyl and hydrogen peroxide of sourdough and sourdough fermented with mixed starter had the highest content of diacetyl and hydrogen peroxide. In the end sourdough fermentation period the highest lactic acid bacteria count was associated with sourdough containing L. sanfranciscensis. Effects of different starters were significant on the pH of TTA of sourdough, dough and bread, and also resulted in decreased pH and increased of TTA compared to control bread. The results of the assessment of physicochemical and organoleptic properties of bread showed that sourdough containing mixed starter resulted in increasing of height, specific volume and porosity; however, it reduced the hardness of bread crust and crumb, and retarded the emergence of mold colonies. Sourdough bread containing mixed starter gained the highest score of organoleptic properties. Therefore the use of mixed starters consisting of L. plantarum and L. sanfranciscensis could be considered as a suitable starter culture for the production of sourdough and high quality bread.

  3. Biodiversity of Yeasts During Plum Wegierka Zwykla Spontaneous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Tuszynski

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The study comprises an analysis of the yeast microbiota that participated in the spontaneous fermentation of crushed Wegierka Zwykla plum fruit, which is the raw material for slivovitz production in the mountain region in the south of Poland. Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains were differentiated by means of the killer sensitivity analysis related to a killer reference panel of 9 well-known killer yeast strains. The first phase of the fermentation was dominated by the representatives of Kloeckera apiculata and Candida pulcherrima species, which reached their maximum concentration (1.4·106 CFU/mL after 48 h of the process. Almost all yeasts isolated during the following days were classified as S. cerevisiae and the killer sensitivity analysis revealed a high population diversity of this species and the presence of 14 different strains that changed quantitatively and qualitatively throughout the fermentation period.

  4. Yeast hulls: effect on spontaneous fermentation in different vinification conditions

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    Rosa López

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of yeast hulls in vinification was investigated during three consecutive years. The study was carried out in the experimental winery of C.I.D.A in La Rioja (Spain with free running white grape juice of the Viura variety. Four different vinifications were studied. In two of these vinifications, stuck fermentations were detected. In all the studies, the addition of yeast hulls (yeast ghosts improved the fermentation kinetics, increasing the number of viable yeasts at the end of the exponential stage and decreasing the final content of reducing sugars. This work revealed a new effect of yeast hull addition which had not been identified previously; their selection effect on the wild yeast strain in spontaneous fermentation.

  5. Fundamental studies of sourdoughs fermented with Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum: influence on baking characteristics, sensory profiles and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free breads

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Anika

    2013-01-01

    The application of sourdough can improve texture, structure, nutritional value, staling rate and shelf life of wheat and gluten-free breads. These quality improvements are associated with the formation of organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), aroma or antifungal compounds. Initially, the suitability of two lactic acid bacteria strains to serve as sourdough starters for buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum and flours was investigated. Wheat flour was chosen as a reference. The obligate heterofer...

  6. Yeast Population Dynamics in Spontaneous and Inoculated Alcoholic Fermentations of Zametovka Must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Cus

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculated fermentations, which are more rapid and more reliable than spontaneous fermentations, and assure predictable wine quality, are nowadays prevalent in Slovenia’s large-scale wine production. However, spontaneous fermentation strengthens local characteristics of wine and offers opportunities for technological innovation. In the 1999 vintage, spontaneous and inoculated fermentations of Zametovka (Vitis vinifera grape must were studied. Zametovka is the main red variety in production of traditional Slovene red blend wine, Cvicek. The diversity of yeast species and strains in both of the investigated fermentations was determined by molecular and traditional identification methods. The outset of alcoholic fermentation, yeast growth kinetics, and yeast population dynamics presents the main differences between the examined fermentations. Yeast population diversity was higher in the spontaneous process. Dominant yeast isolates from spontaneous fermentation were identified as Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; whereas Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia membranifaciens and Torulaspora delbrueckiim were found less frequently. Dominant species in the inoculated fermentation was Saccharomyces cerevisiae; other species found in smaller numbers were Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii. Using PFGE, we were able to distinguish among 15 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and three different Saccharomyces bayanus strains isolated from spontaneous fermentation, whereas, in the case of inoculated fermentation, only two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were found. Their chromosomal patterns coincide with the chromosomal patterns of the starter culture strains.

  7. Effect of lineage-specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on sourdough microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increases acid resistance by generating a proton motive force. Glycerol and glutamate metabolisms are lineage-specific traits in L. reuteri; therefore, this study employed glycerol dehydratase-positive sourdough isolates of human-adapted L. reuteri lineage I, glutamate decarboxylase-positive strains of rodent-adapted L. reuteri lineage II, as well as mutants with deletions in gadB or gupCDE. The competitivenesses of the strains were quantified by inoculation of wheat and sorghum sourdoughs with defined strains, followed by propagation of doughs with a 10% inoculum and 12-h or 72-h fermentation cycles. Lineage I L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 12-h fermentation cycles; lineage II L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 72-h fermentation cycles. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with 72-h fermentation cycles; L. reuteri FUA3400ΔgupCDE was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with both 12-h and 72-h fermentation cycles. Competition experiments with isogenic pairs of strains resulted in a constant rate of strain displacement of the less competitive mutant strain. In conclusion, lineage-specific traits of L. reuteri determine the competitiveness of this species in sourdough fermentations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Variations of internal pH in typical Italian sourdough yeasts during co-fermentation with lactobacilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valmorri, Sara; Mortensen, Henrik Dam; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    The effects of organic acids (lactic and acetic) and extracellular pH (pHex) on the intracellular pH (pHi) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida milleri during co-fermentation with lactobacilli were investigated by using Fluorescence-Ratio-Imaging-Microscopy (FRIM). Yeasts were grown in a syste...

  9. Effect of Lineage-Specific Metabolic Traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on Sourdough Microbial Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaoxi B.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increas...

  10. Molecular identification of the microbiota of French sourdough using temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchichi, Mounir; Valcheva, Rosica; Prévost, Hervé; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    The microbiota of four industrial French sourdoughs (BF, GO, VB and RF) was characterized by PCR temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE). The TTGE technique reveals differences in the 16S rDNA V6-V8 regions of these bacteria. DNA was extracted directly from sourdough samples. A specific TTGE fingerprint was determined for 30 bacterial species, including members of the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc and Weissella, all known to be present in sourdough. These sourdoughs contain different species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) depending on ecological conditions prevailing in the different sourdough fermentations. Only a few LAB species were found to be competitive and became dominant. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was observed as the most frequently found species. In sourdough GO, L. sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus panis and two new species, Lactobacillus nantensis and Lactobacillus hammesii, were detected. Sourdough BF contain L. sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus spicheri and Lactobacillus pontis. In sourdough VB, which differed in the process temperature, we identified exclusively L. sanfranciscensis and Leuconostoc mesenteroïdes subsp. mesenteroïdes. Lactobacillus frumenti, L. hammesii and Lacobacillus paralimentarius became the predominant species in sourdough RF. Compared with conventional bacteriological methods, the use of this new molecular approach to analyze the sourdough ecosystem should therefore allow a more complete and rapid assessment of its specific microbiota.

  11. Yeast dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of mawe and tchoukoutou, two traditional products from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Rantisou, Kalliopi; Padonou, Wilfrid

    2013-01-01

    Mawe and tchoukoutou are two traditional fermented foods largely consumed in Benin, West Africa. Their preparations remain as a house art and they are the result of spontaneous fermentation processes. In this study, dynamics of the yeast populations occurring during spontaneous fermentations...... of mawe and tchoukoutou were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. For each product, two productions were followed. Samples were taken at different fermentation times and yeasts were isolated, resulting in the collection of 177 isolates. They were identified by the PCR......-DGGE technique followed by the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species identified were typed by rep-PCR. Candida krusei was the predominant yeast species in mawe fermentation followed by Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces marxianus. Other yeast species were detected...

  12. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS DURING SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF MAIZE [Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroorganisme pada Fermentasi Spontan Jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati1,2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize was traditionally the second most common staple food in Indonesia. Conversion to maize flour has been accomplished to improve its convenience. Traditionally, maize flour is produced by soaking the kernels in water followed by grinding. It was reported that final physicochemical characteristics of the maize flour were influenced by spontaneous fermentation which occurred during soaking. This research aimed to isolate and identify important microorganisms that grew during fermentation thus a standardized starter culture can be developed for a more controlled fermentation process. Soaking of maize grits was conducted in sterile water (grits:water=1:2, w/v in a closed container at room temperature (±28ºC for 72 hours. After 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 hours, water and maize grits were sampled and tested for the presence of mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Isolates obtained from the spontaneous fermentation were reinoculated into the appropriate media containing starch to observe their amylolytic activity. Individual isolate was then identified; mold by slide culture method, while yeast and LAB by biochemical rapid kits, i.e. API 20C AUX and API CH50, respectively. The number of each microorganism was plotted against time to obtain the growth curve of the microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, R.oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Acremonium strictum, Candida famata, Kodamaea ohmeri, Candida krusei/incospicua, Lactobacillus plantarum 1a, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. brevis 1, L. plantarum 1b, and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 3. Four molds and one yeast were amylolytic while none of the LAB was capable of starch hydrolysis. The growth curve suggested that the amylolitic mold and yeast grew to hydrolyze starch during the course of fermentation, while the LABs benefited from the hydrolyzed products and dominated the later

  13. Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented camel milk and selection of strains for fermentation of camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Angelina June Brandt; Berhe, Tesfemariam; Kiran, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The microbial communities in spontaneously fermented camel milk from Ethiopia were characterised through metagenomic 16S rRNA sequencing and lactic acid bacteria were isolated with the goal of selecting strains suitable as starter cultures. The fermented camel milk microbiota was dominated either...... by Lactobacillales or by Enterobacteriaceae, depending on incubation temperature and the provider of the milk. Strains of species with a potential use as starter cultures i.e., Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici, were isolated. Fast acidifiers of camel milk have been isolated...

  14. Yeast species associated with the spontaneous fermentation of cider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Belén Suárez; Bedriñana, Rosa Pando; Tascón, Norman Fernández; Simón, Amparo Querol; Madrera, Roberto Rodríguez

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports the influence of cider-making technology (pneumatic and traditional pressing) on the dynamics of wild yeast populations. Yeast colonies isolated from apple juice before and throughout fermentation at a cider cellar of Asturias (Spain), during two consecutive years were studied. The yeast strains were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences (ITS). The musts obtained by pneumatic pressing were dominated by non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Hanseniaspora genus and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) whereas in the apple juices obtained by traditional pressing Saccharomyces together with non-Saccharomyces, were always present. The species Saccharomyces present were S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. Apparently S. bayanus, was the predominant species at the beginning and the middle fermentation steps of the fermentation process, reaching a percentage of isolation between 33% and 41%, whereas S. cerevisiae took over the process in the final stages of fermentation. During the 2001 harvest, with independence of cider-making technology, the species Hanseniaspora valbyensis was always isolated at the end of fermentations.

  15. Adaptability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava and use of competitive strains as starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Seitter, Michael; Singer, Ulrike; Brandt, Markus J; Hertel, Christian

    2009-04-15

    The adaptability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava was investigated using PCR-DGGE and bacteriological culture combined with rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sourdoughs were prepared either from flours of the cereals wheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, maize, and millet, or from the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, or from cassava, using a starter consisting of various species of LAB and yeasts. Doughs were propagated until a stable microbiota was established. The dominant LAB and yeast species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proportion of the species within the microbiota varied. L. paralimentarius dominated in the pseudocereal sourdoughs, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and L. spicheri in the cassava sourdough, and L. fermentum, L. helveticus and L. pontis in the cereal sourdoughs. S. cerevisiae constituted the dominating yeast, except for quinoa sourdough, where I. orientalis also reached similar counts, and buckwheat and oat sourdoughs, where no yeasts could be detected. To assess the usefulness of competitive LAB and yeasts as starters, the fermentations were repeated using flours from rice, maize, millet and the pseudocereals, and by starting the dough fermentation with selected dominant strains. At the end of fermentation, most of starter strains belonged to the dominating microbiota. For the rice, millet and quinoa sourdoughs the species composition was similar to that of the prior fermentation, whereas in the other sourdoughs, the composition differed.

  16. Effect of the environment microbiota on the flavour of light-flavour Baijiu during spontaneous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Na; Han, Bei-Zhong; Huang, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Xin; Hou, Lin-Feng; Cao, Ming; Gao, Li-Juan; Hu, Guang-Hui; Chen, Jing-Yu

    2018-02-21

    Light-flavour Baijiu is a type of Chinese liquor with a pure and mild flavour produced by traditional spontaneous solid-state fermentation. The flavour of this liquor has been found to vary in the different periods of annual production. To explore the factors affecting flavour, the microbiota of the surrounding environment, starter and fermentation process in different periods were investigated. Results showed that the ester content and acidity of light-flavour Baijiu were significantly lower when annual production was resumed after a summer break. HCA plot of volatile flavour profile and bacterial PCoA results indicated that the differences occurred at later stages, mainly due to different structures of Lactobacillus. Correlation analysis by O2PLS indicated that Lactobacillus positively correlated with esters. Species-level analysis showed that the lack of L. acetotolerans on the surface of the jar might cause a lag in fermentation and lower ester content. Thereafter, L. acetotolerans was revived during fermentation and enriched on the surface of the jar, which promoted ester formation. As important sources of L. acetotolerans, the air and fermentation jars played a critical role during fermentation. Therefore, this systematic study on environmental microbial ecology is valuable for quality control and to explore environmental microbiota functions during spontaneous fermentation.

  17. Diet-derived changes by sourdough-fermented rye bread in exhaled breath aspiration ion mobility spectrometry profiles in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa; Lappi, Jenni; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; Raatikainen, Olavi

    2017-12-01

    The potential of utilising exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles in studying diet-derived metabolic changes was examined. After a four-week initial diet period with white wheat bread (WW), seven participants received in randomised order high-fibre diets containing sourdough whole grain rye bread (WGR) or white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (WW + BRB), both for 4 weeks. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analysed with ChemPro ® 100i analyser (Environics OY, Mikkeli, Finland) at the end of each diet period in fasting state and after a standardised meal. The AIMS signal intensities in fasting state were different after the WGR diet as compared to other diets. The result suggests that WGR has metabolic effects not completely explained by the rye fibre content of the diet. This study encourages to utilise the exhaled breath VOC profile analysis as an early screening tool in studying physiological functionality of foods.

  18. Yeast species associated with the spontaneous fermentation of cider.

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez, Belén; Pando, Rosa; Fernández, Norman; Querol, Amparo; Rodríguez, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of cider-making technology (pneumatic and traditional pressing) on the dynamics of wild yeast populations. Yeast colonies isolated from apple juice before and throughout fermentation at a cider cellar of Asturias (Spain), during two consecutive years were studied. The yeast strains were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two flanking internal transcribed sequences (ITS). The musts obtained by ...

  19. Development of fermented milk “Leben” made from spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... shaking it back and forth till the coalescence of the fat globules. ... proteins, mesophilic lactis acid bacteria (LAB) were the predominant ... the following steps: five liters of raw milk was left spontaneously at. 25 ± 2°C in a jar ...

  20. The biodiversity of lactic acid bacteria in Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs is reflected in both composition and metabolite formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

    2002-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and Weissella cibaria. This consortium seems to be unique for the Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs studied. Strains of the species W. cibaria have not been isolated from sourdoughs previously. No Lactobacillus pontis or Lactobacillus panis strains were found. An L. brevis-like isolate (ACA-DC 3411 t1) could not be identified properly and might be a new sourdough LAB species. In addition, fermentation capabilities associated with the LAB detected have been studied. During laboratory fermentations, all heterofermentative sourdough LAB strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. Mannitol was produced from fructose that served as an additional electron acceptor. In addition to glucose, almost all of the LAB isolates fermented maltose, while fructose as the sole carbohydrate source was fermented by all sourdough LAB tested except L. sanfranciscensis. Two of the L. paralimentarius isolates tested did not ferment maltose; all strains were homofermentative. In the presence of both maltose and fructose in the medium, induction of hexokinase activity occurred in all sourdough LAB species mentioned above, explaining why no glucose accumulation was found extracellularly. No maltose phosphorylase activity was found either. These data produced a variable fermentation coefficient and a unique sourdough metabolite composition.

  1. Survival of commercial yeasts in the winery environment and their prevalence during spontaneous fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, P; Orriols, I; Losada, A

    2011-01-01

    Inoculation of active dry yeasts during the wine-making process has become a common practice in most wine-producing regions; this practice may affect the diversity of the indigenous population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the winery. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of commercial yeasts in the experimental winery of Estación de Viticultura e Enoloxía de Galicia (EVEGA) and their ability to lead spontaneous fermentations. To do this, 64 spontaneous fermentations were carried out in the experimental cellar of EVEGA over a period of 7 years. Samples were taken from must and at the beginning, vigorous and final stages of fermentation. A representative number of yeast colonies was isolated from each sample. S. cerevisiae strains were characterised by analysis of mitochondrial DNA restriction patterns. The results showed that although more than 40 different strains of S. cerevisiae were identified, only 10 were found as the dominant strain or in codominance with other strains in spontaneous fermentations. The genetic profiles (mtDNA-RFLPs) of eight of these strains were similar to those of different commercial yeasts that had been previously used in the EVEGA cellar. The remaining two strains were autochthonous ones that were able to reach implantation frequencies as high of those of commercial yeasts. These results clearly indicated that commercial wine yeasts were perfectly adapted to survive in EVEGA cellar conditions, and they successfully competed with the indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae, even during spontaneous fermentations. On the other hand, autochthonous dominant strains that presented desirable oenological traits could be of interest to preserve wine typicity.

  2. Influence of Barley Sourdough and Vacuum Cooling on Shelf Life Quality of Partially Baked Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Driven by the bakery industry urge to satisfy consumer demand for fresh, diverse and high quality bakery products, we investigated the influence of barley sourdough and vacuum cooling on shelf life quality of partially baked bread stored in modified atmosphere packaging at ambient conditions. Barley sourdough was fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 20016, F275). Partially baked bread with sourdough was microbiologically acceptable during 30 days of storage, while bread without sourdough had detectable mould on the 30th day. Stored bread samples were rebaked after 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days to determine moisture content, physical and sensorial properties. Moisture loss (5%) was detected on the 15th day, after which it remained stable until the end of investigated storage period. Nevertheless, textural quality of stored bread continuously declined due to crumb firming. Bread flavour did not change during mould-free storage time. The principal component analysis identified major differences in the flavour of sour and control bread, also in crumb firmness and moisture content of samples. This study indicates the positive role of barley sourdough fermented with L. reuteri in improving crumb texture for at least 15 days, and ensuring mould- and bacteria-free partially baked bread for 30 days. Vacuum cooling combined with sourdough improved bread shape, porosity, and reduced sour taste, crust colouring and crumbliness. Hence, it can successfully extend shelf life quality of partially baked bread in modified atmosphere packaging. PMID:29540981

  3. Physicochemical characterization and sensory analysis of yeast-leavened and sourdough soy breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezbick, Gabrielle; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael

    2013-10-01

    Sourdough fermentation has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects on bread quality, and nutritionally enhance soy-supplemented bread by altering isoflavone chemical forms. Given this, the objective of this study was to compare the loaf quality and shelf life of sourdough and yeast-leavened soy breads by various physical, thermal, and sensorial methods, and to assess the effects of fermentation by various microorganisms on isoflavone profile in dough and breads using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sourdough fermentation yielded a less extensible dough compared to yeast-leavened soy dough (P bread crumb (P yeast-leavened soy bread (Y-B). Sensory analysis revealed a significantly higher overall liking of Y-B compared to sourdough soy bread (SD-B) (P bread consumption frequency may be determinants of Y-B or SD-B preference. SD-B and Y-B exhibited similar shelf-life properties. Despite significantly different enthalpies associated with the melting of amylose-lipid complexes, thermal analysis of the 2 soy breads stored for 10 d (ambient conditions) demonstrated no significant difference in water distribution and starch retrogradation (P < 0.05). Lastly, SD-B was determined to have 32% of total isoflavones occurring in the aglycone form compared to 17% in Y-B. These findings warrant further investigation of sourdough fermentation as a processing technique for quality and nutritional enhancement of soy-based baked goods. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Freezing of meat raw materials affects tyramine and diamine accumulation in spontaneously fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, Sara; Miguelez-Arrizado, M Jesús; Luz Latorre Moratalla, L; Vidal Carou, M Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic amine accumulation was studied in spontaneously fermented sausages (Fuet) manufactured from unfrozen-fresh meat (U-sausages) and frozen-thawed meat (F-sausages). The aim was to investigate whether the frozen storage of raw materials affects the microbial composition and its aminogenic activity during sausage fermentation. Tyramine was the major amine in all sausages. Although the final levels were similar, tyramine accumulated more rapidly in F-sausages, which contained putrescine as the second amine. By contrast, U-sausages accumulated much more cadaverine than putrescine. F-sausages showed a slightly lower pH and free amino acid content as well as higher counts of technological flora (lactic acid and gram positive catalase positive bacteria) and lower counts of enterobacteria. Therefore, to freeze the meat raw materials for few days before sausage manufacture could be a useful practice, especially for the artisan fermented sausages (without starter), because it helps to reduce enterobacteria development and cadaverine production.

  5. Impact of starter culture, ingredients, and flour type on sourdough bread volatiles as monitored by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; Comasio, Andrea; Harth, Henning; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-04-01

    This study deals with the detection of volatile compounds originating from the crumb of breads made with sourdoughs obtained through starter culture-initiated fermentations, which differed in flour type (wheat and teff), ingredients (citrate and malate), fermentation time (24h or 72h), and starter culture strains (homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria species and acetic acid bacteria species) applied. Therefore, selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) was used. SIFT-MS is an easy-to-use and promising technique in the field of food and flavor analysis. Volatile compounds of crumb samples from the breads with sourdough were measured and compared with those of reference bread crumb samples. In general, sourdough addition had a positive effect on the concentrations of the volatile compounds measured by SIFT-MS. Furthermore, a trend toward higher concentrations of several volatiles was seen upon the addition of sourdoughs that were fermented up to 72h, compared to the addition of sourdoughs that were fermented for a shorter time. Ethanol was the major volatile compound identified tentatively, next to alcohols, aldehydes, esters, terpenes, and heterocyclic compounds. Also acetoin/ethyl acetate could be identified, but these compounds could not be distinguished. Higher alcohols showed an increase upon the use of sourdough fermented for a long time. High concentrations of acetic acid were found in breads made with Gluconobacter oxydans IMDO A845-initiated sourdough, indicating its potential for sourdough production. Breads made with teff sourdoughs were distinct from wheat-based sourdough breads as to their volatile compound profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lactic acid bacteria population dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardali, Eleni; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Papadelli, Marina; Mataragas, Marios; Drosinos, Eleftherios H

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the microecosystem development and the dynamics of the lactic acid bacteria population during spontaneous fermentation of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots in brine at 20 and 30 °C. In both temperatures, lactic acid bacteria prevailed the fermentation; as a result, the pH value was reduced to ca. 3.6 and total titrable acidity increased to ca. 0.4% lactic acid. Enterococci population increased and formed a secondary microbiota while pseudomonads, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts/molds populations were below enumeration limit already before the middle of fermentation. Pediococcus pentosaceus dominated during the first days, followed by Lactobacillus plantarum that prevailed the fermentation until the end. Lactobacillus brevis was also detected during the final days of fermentation. A succession at sub-species level was revealed by the combination of RAPD-PCR and rep-PCR analyses. Glucose and fructose were the main carbohydrates detected in brine and were metabolized into lactic acid, acetic acid and ethanol.

  7. DGGE and multivariate analysis of a yeast community in spontaneous cocoa fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C R; Marques, E L S; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2015-12-28

    Cocoa bean is the main raw material used in the production of chocolate. In southern Bahia, Brazil, cocoa farming and processing is an important economic activity. The fermentation of cocoa is the processing stage that yields important chocolate flavor precursors and complex microbial involvement is essential for this process. In this study, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses (DGGE) was used to investigate the diversity of yeasts present during the spontaneous fermentation of cocoa in southern Bahia. The DGGE analysis revealed a richness of 8 to 13 distinct bands of varied intensities among the samples; and samples taken at 24, 36, and 48 h into the fermentation process were found to group with 70% similarity and showed the greatest diversity of bands. Hierarchical clustering showed that all samples had common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the highest number of OTUs was found in the 48 h sample. Variations in pH and temperature observed within the fermenting mass over time possibly had direct effects on the composition of the existing microbial community. The findings reported here indicate that a heterogeneous yeast community is involved in the complex cocoa fermentation process, which is known to involve a succession of specialized microorganisms.

  8. A combined meta-barcoding and shotgun metagenomic analysis of spontaneous wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternes, Peter R; Lee, Danna; Kutyna, Dariusz R; Borneman, Anthony R

    2017-07-01

    Wine is a complex beverage, comprising hundreds of metabolites produced through the action of yeasts and bacteria in fermenting grape must. Commercially, there is now a growing trend away from using wine yeast (Saccharomyces) starter cultures, toward the historic practice of uninoculated or "wild" fermentation, where the yeasts and bacteria associated with the grapes and/or winery perform the fermentation. It is the varied metabolic contributions of these numerous non-Saccharomyces species that are thought to impart complexity and desirable taste and aroma attributes to wild ferments in comparison to their inoculated counterparts. To map the microflora of spontaneous fermentation, metagenomic techniques were employed to characterize and monitor the progression of fungal species in 5 different wild fermentations. Both amplicon-based ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) phylotyping and shotgun metagenomics were used to assess community structure across different stages of fermentation. While providing a sensitive and highly accurate means of characterizing the wine microbiome, the shotgun metagenomic data also uncovered a significant overabundance bias in the ITS phylotyping abundance estimations for the common non-Saccharomyces wine yeast genus Metschnikowia. By identifying biases such as that observed for Metschnikowia, abundance measurements from future ITS phylotyping datasets can be corrected to provide more accurate species representation. Ultimately, as more shotgun metagenomic and single-strain de novo assemblies for key wine species become available, the accuracy of both ITS-amplicon and shotgun studies will greatly increase, providing a powerful methodology for deciphering the influence of the microbial community on the wine flavor and aroma. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Effect of Glutathione on the Taste and Texture of Type I Sourdough Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai Xing; Zhao, Cindy J; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-05-31

    Type I sourdough fermentations with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis as predominant organism accumulate reduced glutathione through glutathione reductase (GshR) activity of L. sanfranciscensis. Reduced glutathione acts as chain terminator for gluten polymerization but is also kokumi-active and may thus enhance bread taste. This study implemented a type I model sourdough fermentations to quantitate glutathione accumulation sourdough, bread dough, and bread and to assess the effect of L. sanfranciscensis GshR on bread volume by comparison of L. sanfranciscensis and an isogenic strain devoid of GshR. L. sanfranciscensis sourdough accumulated the highest amount of reduced glutathione during proofing. Bread produced with the wild type strain had a lower volume when compared to the gshR deficient mutant. The accumulation of γ-glutamyl-cysteine was also higher in L. sanfranciscensis sourdoughs when compared to doughs fermented with the gshR mutant strain. The accumulation of reduced glutathione in L. sanfranciscensis bread did not enhance the saltiness of bread.

  10. Characterisation of the microbiota of rice sourdoughs and description of Lactobacillus spicheri sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroth, Christiane B; Hammes, Walter P; Hertel, Christian

    2004-03-01

    The microbiota of two industrially processed rice sourdoughs was characterised by bacteriological culture in combination with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S/28S rDNA sequence analysis. Rice sourdough I was continuously propagated for several years by back-slopping every week, whereas sourdough II was processed by using a commercial starter culture and back-slopping daily for three days. In rice sourdough II Candida krusei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus kimchii, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated at the first day of fermentation. RAPD analysis of lactobacilli revealed identical profiles for each of the species except for L. fermentum and L. pontis indicating the presence of different strains. Fluctuations within the LAB community during fermentation were monitored by PCR-DGGE. L. pontis decreased in numbers over time and L. curvatus became dominant after 3 days of fermentation. Rice sourdough I contained S. cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei (present with three different RAPD types), Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and a Lactobacillus strain which could not be allotted to any valid species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences revealed Lactobacillus brevis as the closest relative (97.3% sequence similarity). Differences in some phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness indicated that the strain represents a new Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus spicheri is proposed.

  11. Analysis of the cocobiota and metabolites of Moniliophthora perniciosa-resistant Theobroma cacao beans during spontaneous fermentation in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Valdeci S; Santos, Maria Fs; Gomes, Laidson P; Leite, Analy Mo; Flosi Paschoalin, Vânia M; Del Aguila, Eduardo M

    2018-03-25

    Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities, yeasts, lactic acid, and acetic acid bacteria. The spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans by Theobroma cacao TSH565 clonal variety, a highly productive hybrid resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa and Phytophthora spp., was investigated. The natural cocobiota involved in the spontaneous fermentation of this hybrid in southern Brazil, was investigated by using both a culture-dependent microbiological analysis and a molecular analysis. The changes in the physicochemical characteristics and the kinetics of substrate utilization and metabolite production during fermentation were also evaluated. Yeasts (178) and bacteria (244) isolated during fermentation were identified by partial sequencing of the ITS and 16S rDNAs, respectively. After 144 h of fermentation, the indigenous yeast community was composed of Hanseniaspora spp., Saccharomyces spp., and Pichia spp. The bacterial population comprised Lactococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Acetobacter spp. and Lactobacilli strains. The kinetics of substrate transformation reflected the dynamic composition of the cocobiota. Substrates such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and citric acid, present at the beginning of fermentation, were metabolized to produce ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid. The results described here provide new insights into microbial diversity in cocoa bean-pulp mass fermentation and the kinetics of metabolites synthesis, and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency to obtain homogeneous and best quality cocoa products. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Sourdough-Based Biotechnologies for the Production of Gluten-Free Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Nionelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation, a traditional biotechnology for making leavened baked goods, was almost completely replaced by the use of baker’s yeast and chemical leavening agents in the last century. Recently, it has been rediscovered by the scientific community, consumers, and producers, thanks to several effects on organoleptic, technological, nutritional, and functional features of cereal-based products. Acidification, proteolysis, and activation of endogenous enzymes cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, carried out by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, which positively affect the overall quality of the baked goods. In particular, the hydrolysis of native proteins of the cereal flours may improve the functional features of baked goods. The wheat flour processed with fungal proteases and selected lactic acid bacteria was demonstrated to be safe for coeliac patients. This review article focuses on the biotechnologies that use selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria to potentially counteract the adverse reactions to gluten, and the risk of gluten contamination.

  13. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of spontaneous fermentation of Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eBleve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. In the Greek style, table olives are obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. Evolution of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, mono and polyphenol compounds and volatile compounds associated with the fermentative metabolism of yeasts and bacteria throughout the natural fermentation process of the two Italian olive cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Leccino were determined. A protocol was developed and applied aimed at the technological characterization of LAB and yeast strains as possible candidate autochthonous starters for table olive fermentation from Cellina di Nardò and Leccino cultivars. The study of the main physic-chemical parameters and volatile compounds during fermentation helped to determine chemical descriptors that may be suitable for monitoring olive fermentation. In both the analyzed table olive cultivars, aldehydes proved to be closely related to the first stage of fermentation (30 days, while higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol; 3-methyl-1-butanol, styrene, and o-cymene were associated with the middle stage of fermentation (90 days and acetate esters with the final step of olive fermentation (180 days.

  14. Composition of lactic acid bacteria during spontaneous curly kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Magdalena; Gustaw, Klaudia; Waśko, Adam; Polak-Berecka, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The present work is the first report on spontaneous fermentation of curly kale and characteristics of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Our results indicate that curly kale fermentation is the new possibility of the technological use of this vegetable. Bacteria representing ten different species were isolated from three phases of curly kale fermentation and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among them, four species were identified as Lactobacillus spp. (Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, Lb. brevis R413, Lb. curvatus 154), two as Weissella spp. (W. hellenica 152, W. cibaria G44), two as Pediococcus spp. (P. pentosaceus 45AN, P. acidilactici 2211), one as Leuconostoc mesenteroides 153, and one as Lactococcus lactis 37BN. The functional properties of isolates, i.e. acid, NaCl and bile salt tolerance, enzyme activities, adhesion to hydrocarbons, and antibiotic resistance, were examined. Among the tested strains, Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, P. pentosaceus 2211, and Lb. brevis R413 exhibited the best hydrophobicity value and high tolerance to bile salts, NaCl, and low pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of selected lactic acid bacteria on the characteristics of amaranth sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekle, Mario; Houben, Andreas; Mitzscherling, Martin; Becker, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    As the processing of amaranth in baked goods is challenging, the use of sourdough fermentation is a promising possibility to exploit the advantages of this raw material. In this study the fermentation properties of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius and Lactobacillus helveticus in amaranth-based sourdough were examined in order to validate them as starter cultures. pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and lactic/acetic acid ratio of the sourdough and sensory properties of the resulting wheat bread were evaluated using fermentation temperatures of 30 and 35 °C. While fermentation pH, TTA and lactic acid concentration showed small variations with the use of L. plantarum and L. paralimentarius, L. helveticus reached the most intensive acidification after initial adaptation to the substrate. Acetic acid production was independent of lactic acid metabolism. Furthermore, the lactic/acetic acid ratio exceeded recommendation by 10-35 times (fermentation quotient 25-82). Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the two fermentation temperatures but differences among the three micro-organisms. The results provide relevant information on the fermentation properties required of a customised starter for amaranth flour. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.

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    Esther Meersman

    Full Text Available The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts, and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts. Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency.

  17. Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-Jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency.

  18. Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke; Gänzle, Michael

    2010-05-12

    The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS.

  19. Effects of yeasts and bacteria on the levels of folates in rye sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariluoto, Susanna; Aittamaa, Marja; Korhola, Matti; Salovaara, Hannu; Vahteristo, Liisa; Piironen, Vieno

    2006-02-01

    Fermentation of rye dough is often accompanied with an increase in folate content. In this study, three sourdough yeasts, Candida milleri CBS 8195, Saccharomyces cerevisiae TS 146, and Torulaspora delbrueckii TS 207; a control, baker's yeast S. cerevisiae ALKO 743; and four Lactobacillus spp., L. acidophilus TSB 262, L. brevis TSB 307, L. plantarum TSB 304, and L. sanfranciscensis TSB 299 originally isolated from rye sourdough were examined for their abilities to produce or consume folates. The microorganisms were grown in yeast extract-peptone-d-glucose medium as well as in small-scale fermentations that modelled the sourdough fermentation step used in rye baking. Total folate contents were determined using Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) as the growth indicator organism. The microorganisms studied did not excrete folates into the media in significant amounts. Yeasts increased the folate contents of sterilised rye flour-water mixtures from 6.5 microg/100 g to between 15 and 23 microg/100 g after 19-h fermentation, whereas lactic acid bacteria decreased it to between 2.9 and 4.2 microg/100 g. Strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei, L. curvatus, L. fermentum, L. helveticus, Pediococcus spp., and Streptococcus thermophilus that were also tested gave folate contents after fermentation that varied between 2 and 10.4 microg/100 g. Although the four Lactobacillus spp. from sourdough consumed folates their effect on folate contents in co-cultivations was minimal. It was concluded that the increase of folate content during fermentation was mainly due to folate synthesis by yeasts. Fermentation of non-sterilised flour-water mixtures as such resulted in three-fold increases in the folate contents. Two folate producing bacteria were isolated from the non-sterilised flour and identified as Enterobacter cowanii and Pantoea agglomerans.

  20. Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Iranian sourdoughs for Antifungal Activity: Enterococcus faecium showed the Most Potent Antifungal Activity in Bread

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    Alam Taghi-Zadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The use of antifungal lactic acid bacteria as starter for bread making could be a good alternative to improve the stability of bread shelf life.Material and Methods: In this study, a total of 57 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spontaneously fermented wheat sourdoughs collected in Chahar-Mahalo Bakhryari province of Iran. The isolates were screened for in vitro antifungal activity (towards Aspergilus niger or Penicillium roqueforti; and the selected isolates (six isolates were applied in flat bread making. The freshly baked breads were nebulized with a suspension of either molds, containing 104 spores ml-1, and the fungal growth on breads was monitored over a 7-day storage period.Results and Conclusion: Bread produced with either isolates AN3 and MB1 (both were identified as Enterococcus faecium restrained the growth of Aspergillus niger for up to 5 days. Even though none of the isolates were strong enough to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roquforti on bread, the surface area of breads contaminated by this fungus was significantly lower than the control samples. To our knowledge, it was the first report indicating the anti-mold activity of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from sourdough. These isolates seem to be promising for further analysis and their application in bread industry for prolonging the shelf life.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  1. Impact of process parameters on the sourdough microbiota, selection of suitable starter strains, and description of the novel yeast Cryptococcus thermophilus sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelmann, Stephanie Anke

    2013-01-01

    The microbiota of a ripe sourdough consists of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially of the genus Lactobacillus, and yeasts. Their composition is influenced by the interplay of species or strains, the kind of substrate as well as the process parameters temperature, dough yield, redox potential, refreshment time, and number of propagation steps (Hammes and Gänzle, 1997). As taste and quality of sourdough breads are mainly influenced by the fermentation microbiota, intense research has been fo...

  2. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Influence of geographical origin and flour type on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-10-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.

  4. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

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    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  5. Molecular analysis of sourdough reveals Lactobacillus mindensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Matthias A; Müller, Martin R A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2003-01-01

    Genotypic fingerprinting to analyse the bacterial flora of an industrial sourdough revealed a coherent group of strains which could not be associated with a valid species. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that these strains formed a homogeneous cluster distinct from their closest relatives, Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Lactobacillus kimchii. To characterize them further, physiological (sugar fermentation, formation of DL-lactate, hydrolysis of arginine, growth temperature, CO2 production) and chemotaxonomic properties have been determined. The DNA G +C content was 37.5 0.2 mol%. The peptidoglycan was of the lysine-D-iso-asparagine (L-Lys-D-Asp) type. The strains were homofermentative, Gram-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. They were found as a major stable component of a rye flour sourdough fermentation. Physiological, biochemical as well as genotypic data suggested them to be a new species of the genus Lactobacillus. This was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization of genomic DNA, and the name Lactobacillus mindensis is proposed. The type strain of this species is DSM 14500T (=LMG 21508T).

  6. Identification and characterization of wild lactobacilli and pediococci from spontaneously fermented Mountain cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Larcher, Roberto; Viola, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran; Franciosi, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The Traditional Mountain Malga (TMM) cheese is made from raw cow's milk by spontaneously fermentation in small farms called "Malga" located in Trentino region. This study was designed to characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growing on MRS medium, of TMM-cheese at the end of the ripening. Ninety-five LAB were isolated and genotypically characterized by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) with two primers, species-specific PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The 95 LAB clustered in 70 biotypes. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus paracasei were the dominant species. Isolates were tested for their growth properties, carbohydrate metabolism, acidifying ability, proteolytic and lipolytic activities, acetoin production, amino-peptidase (AP) activity, biogenic amines production, bile salts hydrolysis, conjugated linoleic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid production. Lb. paracasei isolates resulted to be well adapted to Malga environment and to show the best AP activity and acetoin production. TMM-cheese related LAB showed also interesting health promoting properties and produced bioactive substances. In particular, one Lb. brevis biotype produced a GABA mean value of 129 mg/L that is considered a high concentration. The results confirmed that TMM-cheese resident LAB could be exploited for dairy production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and Identification of the Indigenous Yeast Population during Spontaneous Fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) Grape Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Eder, María L.; Reynoso, Cristina; Lauret, Santiago C.; Rosa, Alberto L.

    2017-01-01

    Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) grape must. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted using standard enological practices, and the associated non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast community was analyzed using selective growth media and 5.8-ITS DNA sequencing. Candida californica, Candida hellenica, Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Hanseniaspora vineae were the main non-Saccharomyces species identified on Isabella fermenting must. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a yeast species rarely found on Vitis vinifera L. grapes, was also recognized on Isabella grape must. Candida azymoides, Candida californica and Pichia cecembensis, identified in this work on Isabella fermenting must, have not previously been found on Vitis vinifera L. grape must. Interestingly, C. azymoides, I. hanoiensis and P. cecembensis have recently been isolated from the surface of Vitis labrusca L. grapes from vineyards in the Azores archipelago, suggesting that specific Vitis-yeast species associations are formed independently of geographic origin. We suggest that C. azymoides, C. californica, and P. cecembensis are yeast species preferentially associated with Vitis labrusca L. grapes. Specific biological interactions between grapevines and yeast species may underlie the assembly of differential Vitis-microbial communities. PMID:28424672

  8. Predominant yeasts in Chinese traditional sourdough and their influence on aroma formation in Chinese steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongjie; Li, Yang; Sadiq, Faizan A; Yang, Huanyi; Gu, Jingsi; Yuan, Lei; Lee, Yuan Kun; He, Guoqing

    2018-03-01

    A total of 105 yeast isolates was obtained from 15 sourdough samples collected from different regions in China and subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Six species were identified including Pichia membranifaciens, which has not previously been reported in Chinese sourdoughs. Different species of yeast were used in single-culture fermentation to make Chinese steamed bread (CSB). The volatiles of the CSB were captured by solid-phase microextraction method, separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 41 volatile compounds were found in all the steamed breads. All CSBs showed a similar volatile profile; however, significant differences in the quantity of some volatile compounds were seen among the CSB fermented by different yeast species. A partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that the CSBs could be separated by their characteristic volatile profiles. The study suggested that the aromatic properties of CSB are determined by the yeast used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery.

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    Jonathan T Martiniuk

    Full Text Available Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards.

  10. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Jonathan T; Pacheco, Braydon; Russell, Gordon; Tong, Stephanie; Backstrom, Ian; Measday, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards.

  11. Different flour microbial communities drive to sourdoughs characterized by diverse bacterial strains and free amino acid profiles

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    GIUSEPPE CELANO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate whether different microbial assemblies in flour may influence the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sourdough. To reach this purpose, members of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, and yeasts were isolated from durum wheat flour. Secondly, the isolated microorganisms (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Escherichia hermanni were inoculated in doughs prepared with irradiated flour (gamma rays at 10 kGy, so that eight different microbial assemblies were obtained. Two non-inoculated controls were prepared, one of which (C-IF using irradiated flour and the other (C using non-irradiated flour.As shown by plate counts, irradiation of flour caused total inactivation of yeasts and a decrease of all the other microbial populations. However acidification occurred also in the dough C-IF, due to metabolic activity of P. pentosaceus that had survived irradiation. After six fermentations, P. pentosaceus was the dominant lactic acid bacterium species in all the sourdoughs produced with irradiated flour (IF. Yet, IF-based sourdoughs broadly differed from each other in terms of strains of P. pentosaceus, probably due to the different microorganisms initially inoculated. Quantitative and qualitative differences of free amino acids concentration were found among the sourdoughs, possibly because of different microbial communities. In addition, as shown by culture-independent analysis (16S metagenetics, irradiation of flour lowered and modified microbial diversity of sourdough ecosystem.

  12. How organic farming of wheat may affect the sourdough and the nutritional and technological features of leavened baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontonio, Erica; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Dousset, Xavier; Clément, Héliciane; Filannino, Pasquale; Onno, Bernard; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-19

    Organic farming is gaining broad recognition as a system that complies well with sustainability, an overarching principle that should drive agriculture now and in the coming year. Different cultivars and products can harbour different abundances of specific bacterial groups, farming system may influence the composition and abundances of microbial communities found on food product. Despite the growing interest towards organic foods, we still have a limited understanding of the diversity of food-associated microbial communities and the factors that influence the composition of these communities. Consumers in developed nations are commonly exposed to differences in farming practices through their choice between organic and conventionally farmed foods. Organic farming practices can differ from conventional farming practices in a variety of ways, including the types of fertilizer and pesticides that are used. This review aiming to gather current knowledge on chemical, technological, toxicological and functional properties and microbiota composition of wheat flours originating from organic and conventional farming systems and how the use of these may affect the sourdough fermentation and breadmaking. Sourdough fermentation is the most natural and best-performing process to ensure optimal sensory and functional characteristics. It fits perfectly into the processing chain that starts with the organic farming, especially for old wheat varieties with weaker technological properties. Recently, organic and sourdough microbiota diversity was investigated and in some case a comparison between organic and conventional microbial ecosystem was also carried out. Opposites evidences arise. Once a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria species was found in conventional wheat sourdoughs, while when the diversity of Firmicutes was investigated, organic sourdoughs showed the highest complexity. When occurring, the differences between conventional and organic sourdough microbiota and

  13. Dynamic study of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc in Jingyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. AN INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS MICROFLORA OF FERMENTED HORSEMEAT PRODUCTS ON THE FORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PEPTIDES

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    I. M. Chernukha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, different methods are used to accumulate functional peptides in meat raw materials, including the use of spontaneous microflora during autolysis, the use of the microbial enzymes (the application of starter cultures and the use of the non-microbial enzymes (enzymes of animals and plant origin. Each method has its own specific characteristics of an impact on raw materials, which requires their detail study. This paper examines an effect of spontaneous microflora of fermented meat products from horsemeat on formation of biologically active peptides. Using the T-RFLP analysis, it was established that in air dried and uncooked smoked sausages produced with the use of the muscle tissue of horsemeat as a raw material, a significant proportion of microflora was presented by lactic acid microorganisms. The highest content of lactic acid microflora was observed in sample 1 (52.45 %, and the least in sample 3 (29.62 %. Sample 2 had the medium percent content of microflora compared to samples 1 and 3 — 38.82 %. It is necessary to note that about 25 % of microflora was unculturable; i.e., it had metabolic processes but did not grow on culture media. In the samples, the representatives of Actinobacteria and Pseudomonadales were found. Pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora was not detected. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the studied samples. For example, in samples 1 and 2, the fractions of amilo-1,6-glucosidase, fast-type muscle myosin-binding-protein C; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; fast skeletal muscle troponin I, phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and skeletal muscle actin were found, which were absent or reduced in sample 3. Therefore, in the studied product, good preservation of the main spectra of muscle proteins was observed, and the identified fractions, apparently, can be sources of new functional peptides. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the

  15. Diversity and Stability of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Rye Sourdoughs of Four Bakeries with Different Propagation Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Viiard

    Full Text Available We identified the lactic acid bacteria within rye sourdoughs and starters from four bakeries with different propagation parameters and tracked their dynamics for between 5-28 months after renewal. Evaluation of bacterial communities was performed using plating, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus frumenti or Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus panis prevailed in sourdoughs propagated at higher temperature, while ambient temperature combined with a short fermentation cycle selected for Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus pontis, and Lactobacillus zymae or Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus zymae. The ratio of species in bakeries employing room-temperature propagation displayed a seasonal dependence. Introduction of different and controlled propagation parameters at one bakery (higher fermentation temperature, reduced inoculum size, and extended fermentation time resulted in stabilization of the microbial community with an increased proportion of L. helveticus and L. pontis. Despite these new propagation parameters no new species were detected.

  16. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF WINE MICROBIOTA DURING THE SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF RED GRAPES JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep its place on the wine international market, Romania should produce typical wines starting from localgrape varieties and conducting the alcoholic fermentation by starter cultures obtained from local isolated wine yeast.The present study was initiated due to the fact that there are few informations regarding the evolution of winemicrorganisms in plantations and in the fermentations process for quantitative point of view.The population dynamics of microbiota in Valea Calugareasca vineyard was analysed during the alcoholicfermentation. No yeast starter cultures had been used in order to investigate the dynamics of grape-related indigenousmicroorganisms population. Classical works and methods for alcoholic fermentation monitoring have been employed atthis level.At the beginning of fermentation the total number of yeasts found is doubling, while the number of bacteria is stabilizedat a value of 103 CFU/ml. During the alcoholic fermentation the yeasts become predominant (107–108 cfu/ml andcontinue the fermentation until its completion. Significant differences regarding the evolution of yeast microbiota forquantitative point of view between varieties have been recorded.

  17. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts associated with spontaneous fermentations during the production of sour cassava starch in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Inayara C A; Miranda, Rose L; Borelli, Beatriz M; Nunes, Alvaro C; Nardi, Regina M D; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2005-11-25

    Sour cassava starch is a traditional fermented food used in the preparation of fried foods and baked goods such as traditional cheese breads in Brazil. Thirty samples of sour cassava starch were collected from two factories in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples were examined for the presence of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, mesophilic microorganisms, Bacillus cereus and faecal coliforms. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolates were identified by biochemical tests, and the identities were confirmed by molecular methods. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum were the prevalent lactic acid bacteria in product from both factories, at numbers between 6.0 and 9.0 log cfu g(-)(1). Lactobacillus perolans and Lactobacillus brevis were minor fractions of the population. Galactomyces geothricum and Issatchenkia sp. were the prevalent yeasts at numbers of 5.0 log cfu g(-)(1). A species similar to Candida ethanolica was frequently isolated from one factory. Mesophilic bacteria and amylolytic microorganisms were recovered in high numbers at all stages of the fermentation. B. cereus was found at low numbers in product at both factories. The spontaneous fermentations associated with the production of sour cassava starch involve a few species of lactic acid bacteria at high numbers and a variety of yeasts at relatively low numbers.

  18. Microbiota and metabolome during controlled and spontaneous fermentation of Nocellara Etnea table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Todaro, Aldo; Pino, Alessandra; Pitino, Iole; Corona, Onofrio; Caggia, Cinzia

    2017-08-01

    This study is aimed to investigate bacterial community and its dynamics during the fermentation of Nocellara Etnea table olives and to study its effect on metabolome formation. Six different combination of bacterial cultures (BC1-BC6) were used as starters for table olive fermentation and one additional process, conducted without addition of any starters, was used as control (C). The processes were conducted in triplicate and, overall, 21 vessels were performed at industrial scale. The fermentation was monitored for 120 days through culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Microbial counts of the main microbial groups revealed slight differences among brine samples, with the exception of LAB counts and Enterobacteriaceae, which were higher and lower, respectively, in most of the inoculated samples than the control ones. In addition, results demonstrated that the use of bacterial cultures (except the BC1), singly or in different combinations, clearly influenced the fermentation process reducing the final pH value below 4.50. When microbiota was investigated through sequencing analysis, data revealed the presence of halophilic bacteria and, among lactobacilli, the dominance of Lactobacillus plantarum group at the initial stage of fermentation, in all brine samples, except in the BC5 in which dominated Lactobacillus casei group. At 60 and 120 days of fermentation, an overturned bacterial ecology and an increase of biodiversity was observed in all samples, with the occurrence of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Pediococcus parvulus. Correlation between bacterial OTU and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed that, aldehydes and alcohol compounds exhibited a positive correlation with Proteobacteria, while several esters with LAB and Hafnia. In particular, esters, associated with fruity and floral notes, were positively correlated to L. paracollinoides, L. acidipiscis, and P. parvulus species. Although the VOCs amounts were sample

  19. Yeast diversity isolated from grape musts during spontaneous fermentation from a Brazilian winery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra-Bussoli, Carolina; Baffi, Milla Alves; Gomes, Eleni; Da-Silva, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast species from a winery located in Brazil were identified by ribosomal gene-sequencing analysis. A total of 130 yeast strains were isolated from grape surfaces and musts during alcoholic fermentation from Isabel, Bordeaux, and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties. Samples were submitted to PCR-RFLP analysis and genomic sequencing. Thirteen species were identified: Candida quercitrusa, Candida stellata, Cryptococcus flavescens, Cryptococcus laurentii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Issatchenkia occidentalis, Issatchenkia orientalis, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Sporidiobolus pararoseus. A sequential substitution of species during the different stages of fermentation, with a dominance of non-Saccharomyces yeasts at the beginning, and a successive replacement of species by S. cerevisiae strains at the final steps were observed. This is the first report about the yeast distribution present throughout the alcoholic fermentation in a Brazilian winery, providing supportive information for future studies on their contribution to wine quality.

  20. Industrial application of selected lactic acid bacteria isolated from local semolinas for typical sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Nasca, Anna; Francesca, Nicola; Martorana, Alessandra; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Four obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Weissella cibaria PON10030 and PON10032 and Leuconostoc citreum PON 10079 and PON10080) were tested as single strain starters, mono-species dual strain starters, and multiple strain starter for the preparation and propagation of sourdoughs for the production of a typical bread at industrial level. The kinetics of pH and TTA during the daily sourdough refreshments indicated a correct acidification process for all trials. The concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased consistently during fermentation. The resulting molar ratios between these two organic acids in the experimental trials were lower than those observed in the control trial. The microbiological investigation showed levels of approximately 10(9) CFU/mL in almost all sourdoughs and the comparison of the genetic polymorphisms of the dominating LAB with those of the pure cultures evidenced the persistence of the added strains over time. The resulting breads were evaluated for several quality parameters. The breads with the greatest height were obtained with the quadruple combination of leuconostocs and weissellas. The highest softness was registered for the breads obtained from fermentations performed by W. cibaria PON10032 alone and in combination. The different inocula influenced also the color, the void fraction, the cell density and the mean cell area of the breads. Different levels of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, furans and phenol were emitted by the breads. The sensory tests indicated the breads from the sourdoughs fermented with the seven LAB inocula as sweeter and less acidic than control breads and the breads from the trials with the highest complexity of LAB inoculums were those more appreciated by tasters. A multivariate approach found strong differences among the trials. In particular, control breads and the breads obtained with different starter LAB were quite distant and a more

  1. Solid-State Fermentation of Silybum marianum L. Seeds Used as Additive to Increase the Nutritional Value of Wheat Bread

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    Dalia Cizeikiene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Silybum marianum L. seeds were fermented using solid-state fermentation (SSF with several lactic acid bacteria (LAB of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus genera, isolated from spontaneously fermented Lithuanian rye sourdough. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavour of Silybum marianum L. seeds using LAB fermentation was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of the unfermented and LAB-fermented seeds of this plant was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Fermented seeds have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of higher alcohols. Total amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of unfermented and fermented seeds were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results indicate that Silybum marianum L. seeds are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. The highest content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids (4596 and 1346 mg of rutin equivalents (RE per 100 g, respectively was determined in the seeds fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria in solid-state fermentation. Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 and Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-9 showed stronger antioxidant activity (1263 and 1041 mg of RE per 100 g, respectively, compared to the unfermented seeds (805 mg of RE per 100 g. The addition of Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria had the highest effect on the decrease of the bacterial spoilage of bread. The aroma compounds from the fermented seeds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. Ultrasonic pretreatment of the seeds reduced the total amount of microorganisms in the raw material. Microbiological tests revealed that the highest antimicrobial effect was achieved using the solid-state fermentation conditions. This

  2. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in .... com) and prepared for microarray construction and analysis. .... a single time point of the late stage of VHG fermentation.

  3. Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by culture dependent and independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Michela; Cristani, Caterina; Giovannetti, Manuela; Agnolucci, Monica

    2017-06-05

    Sourdough fermentation has been increasingly used worldwide, in accordance with the demand of consumers for tasty, natural and healthy food. The high diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast species, detected in sourdoughs all over the world, may affect nutritional, organoleptic and technological traits of leavened baked goods. A wide regional variety of traditional sourdough breads, over 200 types, has been recorded in Italy, including special types selected as worthy of either Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) or Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), whose sourdough microbiota has been functionally and molecularly characterized. As, due to the very recent designation, the microbiota of Tuscan bread sourdough has not been investigated so far, the aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize the species composition of LAB and yeasts of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by culture-independent and dependent methods. A total of 130 yeasts from WLN medium and 193 LAB from both mMRS and SDB media were isolated and maintained to constitute the germplasm bank of PDO Tuscan bread. Ninety six LAB from mMRS medium and 68 yeasts from WLN medium were randomly selected and molecularly identified by ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) and PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS region, respectively, and sequencing. The yeast identity was confirmed by 26S D1/D2 sequencing. All bacterial isolates showed 99% identity with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, 65 yeast isolates were identified as Candida milleri, and 3 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular characterization of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by PCR-DGGE confirmed such data. The distinctive tripartite species association, detected as the microbiota characterizing the sourdough used to produce PDO Tuscan bread, encompassed a large number of L. sanfranciscensis and C. milleri strains, along with a few of S. cerevisiae. The relative composition and specific physiological characteristics of such microbiota

  4. The Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Greek Traditional Wheat Sourdoughs Is Reflected in Both Composition and Metabolite Formation

    OpenAIRE

    De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactob...

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Illeghems

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni. Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

  6. Investigating the sourdough potential for enhance microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survival of indicator microorganisms in finished-products were decreased. But intensity of crust roasty aroma did not have the same profile. Therefore, process requirements for optimum microbiological shelf life and roasty aroma were different, which should be taken into account in designing sourdough baking processes.

  7. Bacillus licheniformis affects the microbial community and metabolic profile in the spontaneous fermentation of Daqu starter for Chinese liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qun; Jiang, Xuejian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jingli; Xu, Yan

    2017-06-05

    Chinese liquor is produced from spontaneous fermentation starter (Daqu) that provides the microbes, enzymes and flavors for liquor fermentation. To improve the flavor character of Daqu, we inoculated Bacillus licheniformis and studied the effect of this strain on the community structure and metabolic profile in Daqu fermentation. The microbial relative abundance changed after the inoculation, including the increase in Bacillus, Clavispora and Aspergillus, and the decrease in Pichia, Saccharomycopsis and some other genera. This variation was also confirmed by pure culture and coculture experiments. Seventy-three metabolites were identified during Daqu fermentation process. After inoculation, the average content of aromatic compounds were significantly enriched from 0.37mg/kg to 0.90mg/kg, and the average content of pyrazines significantly increased from 0.35mg/kg to 5.71mg/kg. The increase in pyrazines was positively associated with the metabolism of the inoculated Bacillus and the native genus Clavispora, because they produced much more pyrazines in their cocultures. Whereas the increase in aromatic compounds might be related to the change of in situ metabolic activity of several native genera, in particular, Aspergillus produced more aromatic compounds in cocultures with B. licheniformis. It indicated that the inoculation of B. licheniformis altered the flavor character of Daqu by both its own metabolic activity and the variation of in situ metabolic activity. Moreover, B. licheniformis inoculation influenced the enzyme activity of Daqu, including the significant increase in amylase activity (from 1.3gstarch/g/h to 1.7gstarch/g/h), and the significant decrease in glucoamylase activity (from 627.6mgglucose/g/h to 445.6mgglucose/g/h) and esterase activity (from 28.1mgethylcaproate/g/100h to 17.2mgethylcaproate/g/100h). These effects of inoculation were important factors for regulating the metabolism of microbial communities, hence for improving the flavor profile

  8. Application of novel starter cultures for sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Mantzourani, I; Koutinas, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Sourdough application has been extensively increased in the last years due to the consumers demand for food consumption without the addition of chemical preservatives. Several starter cultures have been applied in sourdough bread making targeting the increase of bread self-life and the improvement of sensorial character. More specific, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus sakei as single and mixed cultures were used for sourdough bread making. Various sourdough breads were produced with the addition of sourdough perviously prepared with 10% w/w L. acidophilus, 10% w/w L. sakei and 5% w/w L. acidophilus and 5% w/w L. sakei at the same time. Various chemical parameters were determined such as lactic acid, total titratable acidity and pH. The results revealed that the produced sourdough bread made with sourdough containing the mixed culture was preserved for more days (12 days) than all the other breads produced in the frame of this study, since it contained lactic acid in higher concentrations. The respective total titratable acidity varied between 10.5 and 11 ml NaOH N/10. The same sourdough bread had a firmer texture, better aroma, flavor and overall quality compared to other sourdough breads examined in this study, as shown by sensory evaluation tests and results obtained through SPME GC-MS analysis, which revealed significant differences among the different bread types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains isolated from five sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, M; Sakata, S; Benno, Y

    2005-01-01

    Five different sourdoughs were investigated for the composition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the biodiversity of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis strains. A total of 57 strains were isolated from five sourdoughs. Isolated strains were all identified by the 16S rDNA sequence and species-specific primers for L. sanfranciscensis. Results of identification showed that LAB strains were L. sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus casei, Weisella confusa and Pediococcus pentosaceus. A total of 21 strains were identified as L. sanfranciscensis and these isolates were detected in all five sourdoughs. Ribotyping was applied to investigate the relationship between intraspecies diversity of L. sanfranciscensis and sourdough. A total of 22 strains of L. sanfranciscensis including L. sanfranciscensis JCM 5668T were compared by ribotyping. The dendrogram of 21 ribotyping patterns showed four clusters, and L. sanfranciscensis JCM 5668T was independent of the others. The different biotypes of L. sanfranciscensis were present in two sourdoughs compared with other three sourdoughs. The LAB compositions of five sourdoughs were different and the relationship between intraspecies diversity of L. sanfranciscensis strains and five sourdoughs was shown by ribotyping. This study demonstrated that ribotyping was useful for distinguishing L. sanfranciscensis strains. A further important result is that the intra-species diversity of L. sanfranciscensis strains seems to be related to the sourdough preparation.

  10. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  11. The effect of hexose ratios on metabolite production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains obtained from the spontaneous fermentation of mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Hernández, Amanda A; Taillandier, Patricia; Reséndez Pérez, Diana; Narváez Zapata, José A; Larralde Corona, Claudia Patricia

    2013-04-01

    Mezcal from Tamaulipas (México) is produced by spontaneous alcoholic fermentation using Agave spp. musts, which are rich in fructose. In this study eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates obtained at the final stage of fermentation from a traditional mezcal winery were analysed in three semi-synthetic media. Medium M1 had a sugar content of 100 g l(-1) and a glucose/fructose (G/F) of 9:1. Medium M2 had a sugar content of 100 g l(-1) and a G/F of 1:9. Medium M3 had a sugar content of 200 g l(-1) and a G/F of 1:1. In the three types of media tested, the highest ethanol yield was obtained from the glucophilic strain LCBG-3Y5, while strain LCBG-3Y8 was highly resistant to ethanol and the most fructophilic of the mezcal strains. Strain LCBG-3Y5 produced more glycerol (4.4 g l(-1)) and acetic acid (1 g l(-1)) in M2 than in M1 (1.7 and 0.5 g l(-1), respectively), and the ethanol yields were higher for all strains in M1 except for LCBG-3Y5, -3Y8 and the Fermichamp strain. In medium M3, only the Fermichamp strain was able to fully consume the 100 g of fructose l(-1) but left a residual 32 g of glucose l(-1). Regarding the hexose transporters, a high number of amino acid polymorphisms were found in the Hxt1p sequences. Strain LCBG-3Y8 exhibited eight unique amino acid changes, followed by the Fermichamp strain with three changes. In Hxt3p, we observed nine amino acid polymorphisms unique for the Fermichamp strain and five unique changes for the mezcal strains.

  12. Applying meta-pathway analyses through metagenomics to identify the functional properties of the major bacterial communities of a single spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data, the current knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of bacterial members involved in the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem was extended. Functional meta-pathway analysis revealed the distribution of the metabolic pathways between the bacterial members involved. The metabolic capabilities of the lactic acid bacteria present were most associated with the heterolactic fermentation and citrate assimilation pathways. The role of Enterobacteriaceae in the conversion of substrates was shown through the use of the mixed-acid fermentation and methylglyoxal detoxification pathways. Furthermore, several other potential functional roles for Enterobacteriaceae were indicated, such as pectinolysis and citrate assimilation. Concerning acetic acid bacteria, metabolic pathways were partially reconstructed, in particular those related to responses toward stress, explaining their metabolic activities during cocoa bean fermentation processes. Further, the in-depth metagenomic analysis unveiled functionalities involved in bacterial competitiveness, such as the occurrence of CRISPRs and potential bacteriocin production. Finally, comparative analysis of the metagenomic data with bacterial genomes of cocoa bean fermentation isolates revealed the applicability of the selected strains as functional starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization, Ecological Distribution, and Population Dynamics of Saccharomyces Sensu Stricto Killer Yeasts in the Spontaneous Grape Must Fermentations of Southwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Matilde; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L.

    2012-01-01

    Killer yeasts secrete protein toxins that are lethal to sensitive strains of the same or related yeast species. Among the four types of Saccharomyces killer yeasts already described (K1, K2, K28, and Klus), we found K2 and Klus killer yeasts in spontaneous wine fermentations from southwestern Spain. Both phenotypes were encoded by medium-size double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses, Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus (ScV)-M2 and ScV-Mlus, whose genome sizes ranged from 1.3 to 1.75 kb and from 2.1 to 2.3 kb, respectively. The K2 yeasts were found in all the wine-producing subareas for all the vintages analyzed, while the Klus yeasts were found in the warmer subareas and mostly in the warmer ripening/harvest seasons. The middle-size isotypes of the M2 dsRNA were the most frequent among K2 yeasts, probably because they encoded the most intense K2 killer phenotype. However, the smallest isotype of the Mlus dsRNA was the most frequent for Klus yeasts, although it encoded the least intense Klus killer phenotype. The killer yeasts were present in most (59.5%) spontaneous fermentations. Most were K2, with Klus being the minority. The proportion of killer yeasts increased during fermentation, while the proportion of sensitive yeasts decreased. The fermentation speed, malic acid, and wine organoleptic quality decreased in those fermentations where the killer yeasts replaced at least 15% of a dominant population of sensitive yeasts, while volatile acidity and lactic acid increased, and the amount of bacteria in the tumultuous and the end fermentation stages also increased in an unusual way. PMID:22101056

  14. The Impact of Novel Fermented Products Containing Extruded Wheat Material on the Quality of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaiciulyte-Funk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei MI806, Pediococcus pentosaceus MI810 and Pediococcus acidilactici MI807, able to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, were originally isolated from Lithuanian spontaneous rye sourdough and adapted in the novel fermentation medium containing extruded wheat material. The novel fermented products (50 and 65 % moisture content were stored at the temperatures used in bakeries (15 days at 30–35 °C in the summer period or 20 days under refrigeration conditions at 0–6 °C. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was determined during the storage of fermented products for 15–20 days. Furthermore, the effect of novel fermented products stored under different conditions on wheat bread quality was examined. Extruded wheat material was found to have a higher positive effect on LAB growth compared to the control medium by lowering the reduction of LAB populations in fermented products with the extension of storage time and increase of temperature. During storage, lower variation and lower decrease in LAB count were measured in the novel fermented products with a moisture content of 65 % compared to those with 50 %. Furthermore, this humidity allows for the production of a product with higher moisture content in continuous production processes. The addition of the new fermented products with 65 % humidity to the wheat bread recipe (10 % of the quantity of flour had a significant effect on bread quality: it increased the acidity of the crumb and specific volume of the bread, and decreased the fractal dimension of the crumb pores and crumb firmness. Based on the microbiological investigations of fermented products during storage and baking tests, the conditions of LAB cultivation in novel fermentation media were optimized (time of cultivation approx. 20 days at 0–6 °C and approx. 10 days at 30–35 °C.

  15. In Situ Analysis of Metabolic Characteristics Reveals the Key Yeast in the Spontaneous and Solid-State Fermentation Process of Chinese Light-Style Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yu; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The in situ metabolic characteristics of the yeasts involved in spontaneous fermentation process of Chinese light-style liquor are poorly understood. The covariation between metabolic profiles and yeast communities in Chinese light-style liquor was modeled using the partial least square (PLS) regression method. The diversity of yeast species was evaluated by sequence analysis of the 26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) D1/D2 domains of cultivable yeasts, and the volatile compounds in fermented grains were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Eight yeast species and 58 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. The modulation of 16 of these volatile compounds was associated with variations in the yeast population (goodness of prediction [Q2] > 20%). The results showed that Pichia anomala was responsible for the characteristic aroma of Chinese liquor, through the regulation of several important volatile compounds, such as ethyl lactate, octanoic acid, and ethyl tetradecanoate. Correspondingly, almost all of the compounds associated with P. anomala were detected in a pure culture of this yeast. In contrast to the PLS regression results, however, ethyl lactate and ethyl isobutyrate were not detected in the same pure culture, which indicated that some metabolites could be generated by P. anomala only when it existed in a community with other yeast species. Furthermore, different yeast communities provided different volatile patterns in the fermented grains, which resulted in distinct flavor profiles in the resulting liquors. This study could help identify the key yeast species involved in spontaneous fermentation and provide a deeper understanding of the role of individual yeast species in the community. PMID:24727269

  16. Bacterial population in traditional sourdough evaluated by molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; Heilig, H; Restuccia, C; Giudici, P; Caggia, C

    2005-01-01

    To study the microbial communities in artisanal sourdoughs, manufactured by traditional procedure in different areas of Sicily, and to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population by classical and culture-independent approaches. Forty-five LAB isolates were identified both by phenotypic and molecular methods. The restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing gave evidence of a variety of species with the dominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lactobacillus pentosus, in all sourdoughs tested. Culture-independent method, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the V6-V8 regions of the 16S rDNA, was applied for microbial community fingerprint. The DGGE profiles revealed the dominance of L. sanfranciscensis species. In addition, Lactobacillus-specific primers were used to amplify the V1-V3 regions of the 16S rDNA. DGGE profiles flourished the dominance of L. sanfranciscensis and Lactobacillus fermentum in the traditional sourdoughs, and revealed that the closely related species Lactobacillus kimchii and Lactobacillus alimentarius were not discriminated. Lactobacillus-specific PCR-DGGE analysis is a rapid tool for rapid detection of Lactobacillus species in artisanal sourdough. This study reports a characterization of Lactobacillus isolates from artisanal sourdoughs and highlights the value of DGGE approach to detect uncultivable Lactobacillus species.

  17. Identification of predominant lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of Turkish sourdoughs and selection of starter cultures for liquid sourdough production using different flours and dough yields

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca, N.; Settanni, L.; Moschetti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Eight samples of mature sourdough were collected from five provinces of Turkey. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were isolated and identified and used in different combinations to produce liquid sourdoughs. Microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of the experimental sourdoughs made with different flour types and dough yields were studied. The main lactic acid bacteria species identified were Lactobacillus (L.) sanfranciscensis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. plantarum, L. namurencis, ...

  18. Toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    The microbiology of the naturally fermented African condiments Afiitin, iru and sonru produced in Benin from locust beans, has recently been studied showing high Bacillus cereus counts of log7CFU/g (Azokpota, 2005). A total of 19 B. cereus strains isolated from the three condiments showed...

  19. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid and nattokinase-enriched fermented beans on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanintra Suwanmanon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have evaluated the changes in arterial blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR caused by the short-term intake of Bacillus subtilis B060-fermented beans with significant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and nattokinase activity. After being weaned, 7-week-old male SHR and 7-week-old male Wistar–Kyoto (WKY rats were randomized into seven groups. Until the 8th week of life, the rats in each group were given one of the following: Group 1, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SHD; Group 2, medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SMD; Group 3, low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SLD; Group 4, negative control in the SHR (SD; Group 5, positive control in the SHR (SM; Group 6, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY (WHD; and Group 7, negative control in the WKY (WD. Distilled water served as the negative control, and captopril (50 mg/kg, a known ACE inhibitor, served as the positive control. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure values were measured weekly from the 8th week to the 16th week of life using the tail-cuff method. A definite decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values could be observed in the rats treated with captopril and in the rats that received GABA and nattokinase. The greatest antihypertensive effect was observed when the pharmacological treatment was administered. The effect of the daily intake of fermented beans containing GABA and nattokinase may be helpful in controlling blood pressure levels in hypertensive model animals. The fermentation of beans with B. subtilis B060 may therefore constitute a successful strategy for producing a functional food with antihypertensive activity.

  20. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid and nattokinase-enriched fermented beans on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwanmanon, Kanintra; Hsieh, Pao-Chuan

    2014-12-01

    In this study we have evaluated the changes in arterial blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) caused by the short-term intake of Bacillus subtilis B060-fermented beans with significant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and nattokinase activity. After being weaned, 7-week-old male SHR and 7-week-old male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were randomized into seven groups. Until the 8 th week of life, the rats in each group were given one of the following: Group 1, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SHD); Group 2, medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SMD); Group 3, low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SLD); Group 4, negative control in the SHR (SD); Group 5, positive control in the SHR (SM); Group 6, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY (WHD); and Group 7, negative control in the WKY (WD). Distilled water served as the negative control, and captopril (50 mg/kg), a known ACE inhibitor, served as the positive control. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure values were measured weekly from the 8 th week to the 16 th week of life using the tail-cuff method. A definite decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values could be observed in the rats treated with captopril and in the rats that received GABA and nattokinase. The greatest antihypertensive effect was observed when the pharmacological treatment was administered. The effect of the daily intake of fermented beans containing GABA and nattokinase may be helpful in controlling blood pressure levels in hypertensive model animals. The fermentation of beans with B. subtilis B060 may therefore constitute a successful strategy for producing a functional food with antihypertensive activity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Lactobacillus paralimentarius sp. nov., isolated from sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Y; Okada, H; Mori, H; Benno, Y; Nakase, T

    1999-10-01

    Six strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sourdough were characterized taxonomically. They were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not produce gas from glucose. Morphological and physiological data indicated that the strains belong to the genus Lactobacillus and they were similar to Lactobacillus alimentarius in phenotypic characteristics. These strains shared the same phenotypic characteristics and exhibited intragroup DNA homology values of over 89.8%, indicating that they comprised a single species. The G + C content of the DNA for the strains was 37.2-38.0 mol%. The 16S rRNA sequence of representative strain TB 1T was determined and aligned with that of other Lactobacillus species. This strain was placed in the genus Lactobacillus on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. L. alimentarius was the most closely related species in the phylogenetic tree and this species also showed the highest sequence homology value (96%) with strain TB 1T. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strain TB 1T did not belong to L. alimentarius. It is proposed that these strains are placed in the genus Lactobacillus as a new species, Lactobacillus paralimentarius sp. nov. The type strain of L. paralimentarius is TB 1T, which has been deposited in the Japan Collection of Microorganisms (JCM) as strain JCM 10415T.

  2. Direct Application of Rep-PCR on Type I Sourdough Matrix to Monitor the Dominance and Persistence of a Lactobacillus plantarum Starter Throughout Back-Slopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2017-08-01

    This study describes the optimization and application of repetitive element-PCR (rep-PCR) technique directly on microbial DNA extracted from type I sourdoughs for fast monitoring of a Lb. plantarum starter strain (P1FMC) throughout daily back-slopping. The challenge was to follow and study the performance of a starter culture directly in sourdoughs without cultivation on selective media. The extraction of good quality microbial DNA suitable for amplification from a complex matrix such as dough was the first target. In addition, the objective to obtain a clear rep-PCR profile referable to a specific starter strain among a microbial community was pursued. Co-inoculum trials, in flour matrix, with Lb. plantarum P1FMC and L. lactis LC71 strains and, subsequently, type I sourdough back-slopping trials were performed. The rep-PCR amplification profiles obtained were clearly referable to that of Lb. plantarum P1FMC starter in both co-inoculum trials (also when it was present with one order of magnitude less with respect to L. lactis LC71) and back-slopping trials where it dominated the fermentation process with loads of 10 8 cfu g -1 and prevailed on the autochthonous microbiota. Thus, the approach proposed in this paper could be considered a methodological advancement, based on a culture-independent one-step rep-PCR, suitable for fast monitoring of starter performance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Bacterial population in traditional sourdough evaluated by molecular methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randazzo, C.L.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Restuccia, C.; Giudici, P.; Caggia, C.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To study the microbial communities in artisanal sourdoughs, manufactured by traditional procedure in different areas of Sicily, and to evaluate the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population by classical and culture-independent approaches. Methods and Results: Forty-five LAB isolates were

  4. Identification of Predominant Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts of Turkish Sourdoughs and Selection of Starter Cultures for Liquid Sourdough Production Using Different Flours and Dough Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yağmur Gülten

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight samples of mature sourdough were collected from five provinces of Turkey. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were isolated and identified and used in different combinations to produce liquid sourdoughs. Microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of the experimental sourdoughs made with different flour types and dough yields were studied. The main lactic acid bacteria species identified were Lactobacillus (L. sanfranciscensis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. plantarum, L. namurencis, L. rossiae, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and L. zymae. L. spicheri, L. paralimentarius, L. mindensis, L. farciminis, L. acetotolerans, L. casei, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus durans were also found in sourdoughs at subdominant levels. Among yeasts, mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but also Pichia guiliermondii and Torulaspora delbrueckii were the predominant species of yeasts identified in sourdoughs.

  5. Investigating the association between African spontaneously fermented dairy products, faecal carriage of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and colorectal adenocarcinoma in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindi, Dasel W M; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lule, Godfrey N; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Renault, Pierre; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Jans, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Consumption of traditional fermented dairy products (tFDP) in Africa leads to the ingestion of up to 10 8 Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius (Sii) per millilitre of spontaneously fermented milk. Sii is a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) for which some members are associated particularly with colorectal cancer or endocarditis. The extent of health risks to tFDP consumers is largely unknown. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi (Kenya) on 80 cases and 193 controls that were selected exhaustively from patients attending colonoscopy at the hospital. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and residency were used in the statistical analysis. Consumption of tFDP was not associated with CRC (odds ratio (OR) 1.4; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.7; p=0.34). Risk factors associated with CRC included age above 40 years, and consumption of processed meat and alcohol. Faecal carriage of Sii was significantly higher in persons with colon tumours and polyps compared to controls (8.4% vs 21.6%: OR: 4.6; CI 1.3-15.9). Patients with haemorrhoids represented an unexpected carrier group with significantly higher Sii faecal carriage (30.4%, CI: 17.7-45.8). Consumption of tFDP does not represent risk factors for CRC whereas Sii seems to be associated with CRC. However, there is urgent need to assess this finding also in the general population, investigate the causality of SBSEC, Sii and CRC as well as compare the phylogenetic, functional and genomic relationship between human and dairy Sii with regards to the ongoing application of Sii in FDP production. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydroxylated phenylacetamides derived from bioactive benzoxazinoids are bioavailable in humans after habitual consumption of whole grain sourdough rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Manfred; Lloyd, Amanda J; Haldar, Sumanto; Seal, Chris; Brandt, Kirsten; Draper, John

    2013-10-01

    Understanding relationships between dietary whole grain and health is hindered by incomplete knowledge of potentially bioactive metabolites derived from these foods. We aimed to discover compounds in urine correlated with changes in amounts of whole grain rye consumption. After a wash-out period, volunteers consumed 48-g whole grain rye foods per day for 4 wk and then doubled their intake for a further 4 wk. Samples of 24-h urines were analyzed by flow infusion electrospray MS followed by supervised multivariate data analysis. Urine samples from participants who reported high intakes of rye flakes, rye pasta, or total whole grain rye products could not be discriminated adequately from their wash-out samples. However, discrimination was seen in urine samples from participants who reported high whole grain sourdough rye bread consumption. Accurate mass analysis of explanatory signals followed by fragmentation identified conjugates of the benzoxazinoid lactam 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one and hydroxylated phenyl acetamide derivatives. Statistical validation showed sensitivities of 84-96% and specificities of 70-81% (p values bread consumption. Several potentially bioactive alkaloids have been identified in humans consuming fermented whole grain sourdough rye bread. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Reduction of acrylamide in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Esfahani, Behnaz; Kadivar, Mahdi; Shahedi, Mohammad; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2017-11-01

    This study mainly focuses on a strategy for reducing acrylamide content in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast in sourdough breadmaking. Combinations of sourdough (fermented dough using different Lactobacillus strains including Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1896 [probiotic], L. sakei DSM 20,017, L. rhamnosus DSM 20,021, and L. delbrueckii DSM 20,081) and yeast, in comparison with yeast alone, were used for breadmaking. The results showed that acrylamide levels in breads fermented using sourdough+yeast were in all cases much lower (6.9-20 μg/kg on a dry weight basis [d.b.]) than those in the yeast-only fermented bread (47.6 μg/kg d.b.). Significant (p bread (r = 0.925, p breads and either the reducing sugar or free amino acid contents in dough samples. According to the different effects of Lactobacillus strains, it could be concluded that the acrylamide reducing potential of lactobacilli was strain-specific, with L. rhamnosus being the most effective. This suggests that sourdough fermentation with appropriate Lactobacillus strains can be used as an advantageous technology to reduce the acrylamide content of whole-wheat breads.

  8. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed...

  9. Molecular identification and technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented kidney beans flours (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P. coccineus) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Gabriel D; Hébert, Elvira M; Saavedra, Lucila; Zárate, Gabriela

    2017-12-01

    Legumes are an important protein source in developing countries and their flours represent an attractive alternative for the manufacture of gluten free products. In the present study, 4 kidney bean varieties (Alubia, Pallar, Black and Red beans) commonly cultivated in northwestern Argentina, were milled and spontaneously fermented in order to isolate and select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with relevant technological and functional properties for usage as starter cultures. Twelve doughs were fermented with daily back-slopping at 37°C for 6days and evolution of total mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds populations were followed by plate counting. A combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods including (GTG) 5 -based PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to differentiate and identify the isolated LAB to species level. LAB counts ranged from around 0.89±0.81 to 8.74±0.03logcfu/g with a pH decline from 6.4 to 3.9 throughout fermentation. Four genera and nine species of LAB: Enterococcus durans, E. faecium, E. mundtii, E. casseliflavus; Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus garvieae, Weissella cibaria and W. paramesenteroides were found on kidney beans. Twenty five LAB strains were assessed for their abilities to grow on kidney bean extracts, acidifying capacities (pH and acidification rates), amylolytic, proteolytic, tannase and gallate decarboxylase activities as well as pathogens inhibition by antimicrobials. Based on these properties E. durans CRL 2178 and W. paramesenteroides CRL 2182 were inoculated singly and combined in Alubia kidney bean flour and fermented for 24h at 37°C. LAB strains were beneficial for removing trypsin inhibitors and tannins from sourdoughs and for improving amino acids and phenolics contents, increasing the antioxidant activities of kidney bean matrices. Selected strains have potential as starter cultures for obtaining fermented bean products with high nutritional and functional

  10. Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Barbara; Nicolai, Emanuele; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; La Sala, Carmine N; Aiello, Marco; Inglese, Marianna; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Rosa, Tiziana; Schiatti, Alfio; Mondelli, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo; Cuomo, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested. The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207516.

  11. Selection of sourdough lactobacilli with antifungal activity for use as biopreservatives in bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Zannini, Emanuele; Aquilanti, Lucia; Silvestri, Gloria; Fierro, Olga; Picariello, Gianluca; Clementi, Francesca

    2012-08-08

    Two hundred and sixteen LAB cultures from sourdoughs and dough for bread and panettone production were screened for in vitro antifungal properties against three indicator cultures ascribed to Aspergillus japonicus , Eurotium repens , and Penicillium roseopurpureum , isolated from bakery environment and moldy panettone. Nineteen preselected isolates were subjected to minimum inhibitory concentration determination against the indicator cultures. Sourdoughs prepared with the two most promising strains, identified as Lactobacillus rossiae LD108 and Lactobacillus paralimentarius PB127, were characterized. The sourdough extracts were subjected to HPLC analysis coupled with a microtiter plate bioassay against A. japonicus to identify the active fractions. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed the occurrence of a series of peptides corresponding to wheat α-gliadin proteolysis fragments in the active fraction from L. rossiae LD108 sourdough. The ability to prevent mold growth on bread was demonstrated for both strains, whereas L. rossiae LD108 also inhibited mold growth on panettone.

  12. An integrated approach project for the revaluation of a traditional sourdough bread production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Piazza, C.; Giudici, P.; Corbellini, M.; Gianinetti, A.; Morcia, C.; Terzi, V.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of organic and conventional farming systems on the performance of a panel of old and modern Italian bread wheat varieties has been evaluated, with the aim to individuate an agronomic protocol suitable for the production of a sourdough bread traditionally prepared in a hill zone of Emilia-Romagna. The agronomic and technological characterisation of the wheat samples obtained in organic and conventional farming conditions has been done and the sensorial qualities of the sourdough ...

  13. Effects of Germination and Fermentation on the Functionality of Whole Soy Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Patrascu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional quality and technological performances of grains can be modulated through germination and controlled fermentation. The aim of the work was to estimate the effect of germination (72 h at 23oC and fermentation on the fundamental rheological properties of the soy flour based suspensions and sourdoughs, and to assess the bread making potential of the whole soy flours by considering the thermo-mechanical functionality of soy in admixture with white wheat flour. Soy flour based sourdough were prepared using three different starter cultures, consisting of mixtures of lactic acid bacteria like Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. casei, Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium BB12®, and Streptococcus thermophilus and/or yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus subsp. Marxianus. The rheological behaviour of the suspensions and sourdoughs was influenced by the soy germination and fermentation processes. The stress sweep tests indicated significant narrowing of the linear viscoelastic regions, as well as the decrease of the stress values required for the beginning of flow. The temperature ramp test showed more intense swelling in case of the germinated and fermented samples. Both native and germinated soy flours were used to replace 15% of the wheat flour, and the Mixolab test indicated that the germination process caused the decrease of protein weakening and dough stability. The sourdoughs addition to the wheat flour resulted in significant changes of the thermo-mechanical properties of the dough. Properties related to stability of starch gel during heating, starch gelatinization and retrogradation depended on the type of starter culture used for fermentation.

  14. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The evolution of lactic acid bacteria community during the development of mature sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dragiša S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to follow the composition and changes in lactic acid bacteria (LAB population of rye flour sourdough that was continuously propagated by a repeated inoculation, sixty-two strains of LAB were isolated and characterized. The LAB were the only bacteria detected, both at the end of the second propagation step and in the stage of mature sourdough (after two weeks of continuous daily refreshment. The stable ecological system in rye sourdough could be established from the second propagation step onward. The predominant genera of LAB during the development of sourdough were lactobacilli, which were grouped in eight clusters. Heterofermentative lactobacilli were in majority in both propagation step two and a mature sourdough participating 56% and 70% of total bacterial count, respectively. The identification based on a phenotypic characterization that was carried out by using a set of 36 tests, showed that the lactobacilli contained in the two sourdough steps did not clearly belong to any known species of the genus Lactobacillus. In addition, the structure of the bacterial population were monitored by two statistical techniques (Hierachical Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, being applied to phenotypical characteristics of the isolates.

  16. Sourdough microbial community dynamics: An analysis during French organic bread-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Urien, Charlotte; Legrand, Judith; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard; Sicard, Delphine

    2016-02-01

    Natural sourdoughs are commonly used in bread-making processes, especially for organic bread. Despite its role in bread flavor and dough rise, the stability of the sourdough microbial community during and between bread-making processes is debated. We investigated the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast communities in traditional organic sourdoughs of five French bakeries during the bread-making process and several months apart using classical and molecular microbiology techniques. Sourdoughs were sampled at four steps of the bread-making process with repetition. The analysis of microbial density over 68 sourdough/dough samples revealed that both LAB and yeast counts changed along the bread-making process and between bread-making runs. The species composition was less variable. A total of six LAB and nine yeast species was identified from 520 and 1675 isolates, respectively. The dominant LAB species was Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, found for all bakeries and each bread-making run. The dominant yeast species changed only once between bread-making processes but differed between bakeries. They mostly belonged to the Kazachstania clade. Overall, this study highlights the change of population density within the bread-making process and between bread-making runs and the relative stability of the sourdough species community during bread-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the microbial dynamics and biochemistry of laboratory sourdoughs prepared with grape, apple and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordún, Elena; del Valle, Luis J; Ginovart, Marta; Carbó, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    The microbiological culture-dependent characterization and physicochemical characteristics of laboratory sourdough prepared with grape (GS) were evaluated and compared with apple (AS) and yogurt (YS), which are the usual Spanish sourdough ingredients. Ripe GS took longer than AS and YS to reach the appropriate acidity and achieved lower values of lactic acid. In all sourdoughs, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased during processing and were the dominant microorganisms (>1E+8 CFU/g). GS, as well as AS, had high diversity of LAB species. In ripe YS, Pediococcus pentosaceus was the only species identified; in GS and AS, several Lactobacilli were also found, Lb. plantarum, Lb. brevis, and Lb. sakei; in addition, in GS Weisella cibaria also appeared. Regarding the yeast population, non-Saccharomyces yeasts from GS and AS showed a very high specific population (>1E+7 CFU/g), but this was reduced in ripe sourdough (<1E+4 CFU/g). Finally, the Saccharomyces group dominated in all sourdoughs. Starting ingredients or raw material provided microbiological specificity to sourdoughs, and grape could be considered one of them. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Lactobacillus nantensis sp. nov., isolated from French wheat sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcheva, Rosica; Ferchichi, Mounir F; Korakli, Maher; Ivanova, Iskra; Gänzle, Michael G; Vogel, Rudi F; Prévost, Hervé; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2006-03-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study of the bacterial flora isolated from traditional French wheat sourdough, using phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic as well as genetic methods, revealed a consistent group of isolates that could not be assigned to any recognized species. These results were confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting analyses. Cells were Gram-positive, homofermentative rods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the representative strain LP33T indicated that these strains belong to the genus Lactobacillus and that they formed a branch distinct from their closest relatives Lactobacillus farciminis, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus paralimentarius and Lactobacillus mindensis. DNA-DNA reassociation experiments with the three phylogenetically closest Lactobacillus species confirmed that LP33T (= DSM 16982T = CIP 108546T = TMW 1.1265T) represents the type strain of a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus nantensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  19. Lactobacillus hammesii sp. nov., isolated from French sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcheva, Rosica; Korakli, Maher; Onno, Bernard; Prévost, Hervé; Ivanova, Iskra; Ehrmann, Matthias A; Dousset, Xavier; Gänzle, Michael G; Vogel, Rudi F

    2005-03-01

    Twenty morphologically different strains were chosen from French wheat sourdough isolates. Cells were Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile rods. The isolates were identified using amplified-fragment length polymorphism, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. All isolates were members of the genus Lactobacillus. They were identified as representing Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus spicheri and Lactobacillus sakei. However, two isolates (LP38(T) and LP39) could be clearly discriminated from recognized Lactobacillus species on the basis of genotyping methods. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicate that the two strains belong to a novel Lactobacillus species, for which the name Lactobacillus hammesii is proposed. The type strain is LP38(T) (=DSM 16381(T)=CIP 108387(T)=TMW 1.1236(T)).

  20. Phytase-active lactic acid bacteria from sourdoughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuobariene, Lina; Cizeikiene, Dalia; Gradzeviciute, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Whole-grain foods play an important role in human diet as they are relatively rich in minerals, however, the absorption of those minerals in human gut can be very low due to high content of the mineral binding phytate. Therefore, the object of this study was to identify phytase-active lactic acid...... bacteria (LAB) which could be used as a starter to increase mineral bioavailability in whole-meal bread. Hence, LAB isolates were isolated from Lithuanian sourdoughs, tested for phytase activity, and phytase active isolates were identified. Studies of phytase activity of the isolates were carried out...... at conditions optimal for leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30°C). The phytase active isolates belonged to the species Lactobacillus panis, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Phytase activities of the tested LAB isolates were both extra- and intra...

  1. Microbiological and technological characterization of sourdoughs destined for bread-making with barley flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Garofalo, Cristiana; Aquilanti, Lucia; Santarelli, Sara; Silvestri, Gloria; Clementi, Francesca

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the microbiological and technological characterization of laboratory- made sourdoughs for use in barley-flour-based bread-making. A defined multi-strain starter culture consisting of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from wheat sourdoughs was inoculated into three flour-water mixtures, composed of: (i) 100% wheat flour (ii) 50% wheat flour and 50% hull-less barley flour (composite flour); (iii) 100% hull-less barley flour. After two months of continuous propagation, the chemical characteristics of the three sourdoughs were investigated by measuring: pH, total titratable acidity and concentrations of various microbial metabolites by HPLC (i.e. lactic, acetic, phenyllactic and butyric acids and diacetyl). The microbial traits were studied through viable counts, isolation and typing of LAB and yeasts and PCR-DGGE analyses. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable in the sourdoughs together with other lactobacilli species which were different depending on the type of flour blend used. The molecular typing of the isolates highlighted that only a few strains among those initially inoculated prevailed. The volume increases of the three types of sourdough were also investigated and a correlation was seen between an increase in the barley flour content and a reduction in the dough volume.

  2. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Misihairabgwi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.

  3. KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN KRISTALINITAS TEPUNG PISANG TERMODIFIKASI SECARA FERMENTASI SPONTAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN BERTEKANAN-PENDINGINAN (Chemical Composition and Crystallinity of Modified Banana Flour by Spontaneous Fermentation and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-07-01

    (39,13 – 42,68% bk dibandingkan dengan yang satu siklus (29,34 – 35,93% bk. Proses pemanasan bertekananpendinginan menurunkan kristalinitas tepung pisang dari 18,74-20,08% menjadi 6,98-9,52%. Difraksi sinar X menunjukkan granula pati pisang adalah granula tipe C yang merupakan campuran dari granula tipe A dan tipe B. Kata kunci: Tepung pisang termodifikasi, fermentasi spontan, autoclaving-cooling cycles

  4. Added ingredients affect the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat type-I sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Celano, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the effect of additional ingredients (baker's yeast, macerated pears, grape must, honey, or water from macerated pears) on the microbiota and biochemical characteristics of durum wheat-based sourdough. One dough prepared using only flour was used as the control (control-dough). Compared to the control-dough, doughs containing additional ingredients showed higher (P  0.7, P < 0.05) with several biochemical characteristics of the sourdoughs (e.g., free amino acids and their derivatives). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Structure-function relationships of bacterial and enzymatically produced reuterans and dextran in sourdough bread baking application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Yan; Levy, Clemens; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-12-19

    Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria may improve texture and shelf life of bread. The effect of exopolysaccharides on bread quality, however, depends on properties of the EPS and the EPS producing strain. This study investigated structure-function relationships of EPS in baking application. The dextransucrase DsrM and the reuteransucrase GtfA were cloned from Weissella cibaria 10M and Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.656, respectively, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Site-directed mutagenesis of GtfA was generates reuterans with different glycosidic bonds. NMR spectrum indicated reuteranPI, reuteranNS and reuteranPINS produced by GtfA-V1024P:V1027I, GtfA-S1135N:A1137S and GtfA-V1024P:V1027I:S1135N:A1137S, respectively, had a higher proportion of α-(1→4) linkages when compared to reuteran. ReuteranNS has the lowest molecular weight as measured by asymmetric flow-field-flow fractionation. The reuteransucrase negative mutant L. reuteri TMW1.656ΔgtfA was generated as EPS-negative derivative of L. reuteri TMW1.656. Cell counts, pH, and organic acid levels of sourdough fermented with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and TMW1.656ΔgtfA were comparable. Reuteran produced by L. reuteri TMW1.656 during growth in sourdough and reuteran produced ex situ by GtfA-ΔN had comparable effects on bread volume and crumb hardness. Enzymatically produced dextran improved volume and texture of wheat bread, and of bread containing 20% rye flour. ReuteranNS but not reuteranPI or reuteran was as efficient as dextran in enhancing wheat bread volume and texture. Overall, reuteran linkage type and molecular weight are determinants of EPS effects on bread quality. This study established a valuable method to elucidate structure-function relationships of glucans in baking applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ccm 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis ccm 1815 for fermentation of cereal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Romanová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus is the most representative strain in a group of lactic acid bacteria, which perform an essential role in the preservation and production of wholesome foods. Lactic acid fermentation is the oldest traditional method for preparation of fermented vegetables, meat products, dairy products and cereal foods. Cereal grains are considered to be one of the most important sources of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibre for people. The main exploitation of cereals is to prepare sourdough, which is a mixture of wheat, rye or other cereal flour with water and contains yeasts and lactobacilli. The basic biochemical changes that occur in sourdough bread fermentation are acidification of the dough with organic acids produced by the lactobacilli and leavening with carbon dioxide produced by the yeast and the lactobacilli. Acidification perhaps initiate enzymatic processes of proteins and phytates degradation. Lactobacilli produce various enzymes which make flavour precursors, improve of mineral bioavailability or degrade celiac active peptides, because some species of lactobacilli produce specific peptidases during growth, which are capable to hydrolyze hardly cleavable, celiac-active proline-rich peptides. Microbial fermentation with selected strains of lactobacilli may be new alternative approach for modification of gluten by hydrolysis. In this paper are described growth characteristics and intracellular aminopeptidases activities of Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis CCM 1815. Work was focused on characterization of the lactobacilli for potential usage as a starter culture in further fermentation experiments.

  8. Lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas of sixteen French traditional sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Lattanzi, Anna; Dousset, Xavier; Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Lacaze, Guylaine; Onno, Bernard; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-12-23

    Sixteen sourdoughs (FS1-FS16) used for the manufacture of traditional French breads were characterized by strongly acid conditions (median value of pH 3.5). The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) was highly variable, due to different proteolytic activity of flour used for back slopping and of dominant microorganisms. Median value of cell density of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was 9.2 log CFU/g. The ratio between LAB and yeasts ranged from 10,000:1 to 10:1. According to the culture-dependent method and 16S metagenetics, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was the dominant species in French sourdoughs. FS5 and FS15, propagated according to protocols including one back slopping step at 14 °C, were the only exceptions. High positive correlations were found between L. sanfranciscensis, temperature of back slopping and FAA. The results of this study highlighted the broad adaptability of L. sanfranciscensis to very acid sourdough. Besides species frequently encountered (e.g., Lactobacillus parabrevis/Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides), first Lactobacillus xiangfangensis (FS5) and Lactobacillus diolivorans (FS15) were found in sourdough. As determined by RAPD-PCR analyses, the sourdough samples showed a different number of strains, ranging from 5 (FS9, FS11 and FS15) to 12 (FS1 and FS13), meaning a highly variable bacterial diversity. Cluster analysis showed that different sourdoughs, especially when propagated in the same bakery, may harbor similar strains. Except for L. plantarum (FS5) and Ln. mesenteroides (FS3), all the dominant species were detected by both 16S metagenetics and culture-dependent method. Yeast diversity was lower than LAB. Except for FS4 (solely dominated by Kazachstania servazzii), yeast microbiota of French sourdoughs was dominated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains isolated in this study could be a useful base for developing new basic researches on physiology, metabolism, and intraspecific diversity of L

  9. Taxonomic Structure and Stability of the Bacterial Community in Belgian Sourdough Ecosystems as Assessed by Culture and Population Fingerprinting▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-01-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-base...

  10. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  11. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  12. Taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial community in belgian sourdough ecosystems as assessed by culture and population fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-04-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment

  13. Taxonomic Structure and Stability of the Bacterial Community in Belgian Sourdough Ecosystems as Assessed by Culture and Population Fingerprinting▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2008-01-01

    A total of 39 traditional sourdoughs were sampled at 11 bakeries located throughout Belgium which were visited twice with a 1-year interval. The taxonomic structure and stability of the bacterial communities occurring in these traditional sourdoughs were assessed using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. A total of 1,194 potential lactic acid bacterium (LAB) isolates were tentatively grouped and identified by repetitive element sequence-based PCR, followed by sequence-based identification using 16S rRNA and pheS genes from a selection of genotypically unique LAB isolates. In parallel, all samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of V3-16S rRNA gene amplicons. In addition, extensive metabolite target analysis of more than 100 different compounds was performed. Both culturing and DGGE analysis showed that the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis dominated the LAB population of Belgian type I sourdoughs. In addition, DGGE band sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of Acetobacter sp. and a member of the Erwinia/Enterobacter/Pantoea group in some samples. Overall, the culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches each exhibited intrinsic limitations in assessing bacterial LAB diversity in Belgian sourdoughs. Irrespective of the LAB biodiversity, a large majority of the sugar and amino acid metabolites were detected in all sourdough samples. Principal component-based analysis of biodiversity and metabolic data revealed only little variation among the two samples of the sourdoughs produced at the same bakery. The rare cases of instability observed could generally be linked with variations in technological parameters or differences in detection capacity between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Within a sampling interval of 1 year, this study reinforces previous observations that the bakery environment

  14. Probiotic-fermented purple sweet potato yogurt activates compensatory IGF‑IR/PI3K/Akt survival pathways and attenuates cardiac apoptosis in the hearts of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Pei; Hsieh, You-Miin; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lin, Yueh-Min; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Lin, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsai, Cheng-Chih

    2013-12-01

    Apoptosis is recognized as a predictor of adverse outcomes in subjects with cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of probiotic-fermented purple sweet potato yogurt (PSPY) with high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content on cardiac apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) hearts. The rats were orally adminsitered with 2 different concentrations of PSPY (10 and 100%) or captopril, 15.6 mg/kg, body weight (BW)/day. The control group was administered distilled water. DAPI and TUNEL staining were used to detect the numbers of apoptotic cells. A decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive cardiac myocytes was observed in the SHR-PSPY (10 and 100%) groups. In addition, the levels of key components of the Fas receptor- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathways were determined by western blot analysis. The results revealed that the levels of the key components of the Fas receptor- and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway were significantly decreased in the SHR-captopril, and 10 and 100% PSPY groups. Additionally, the levels of phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor‑I receptor (p-IGF‑IR) were increased in SHR hearts from the SHR-control group; however, no recovery in the levels of downstream signaling components was observed. In addition, the levels of components of the compensatory IGF-IR-dependent survival pathway (p-PI3K and p-Akt) were all highly enhanced in the left ventricles in the hearts form the SHR-10 and 100% PSPY groups. Therefore, the oral administration of PSPY may attenuate cardiomyocyte apoptosis in SHR hearts by activating IGF‑IR-dependent survival signaling pathways.

  15. Microbiota of sausages obtained by spontaneous fermentation produced in the South of Brazil Microbiota de salames obtidos por fermentação espontânea produzidos no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ecology of fermented sausage is fundamental to understand the physical and chemical changes that happen during fermentation and maturation. The aim of the present study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation. Fifty samples of sausages produced in the South of Brazil by different small manufacturers were analyzed for the following microbiota: aerobic mesophilic bacteria; Micrococcaceae; mold and yeast; lactic acid bacteria; total and fecal coliforms; coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. In most samples (72%, the count of lactic bacteria was higher than 6 log10 cfu.g-1, and the samples with the highest counts were above 8 log10 cfu.g-1. The counts of Micrococcaceae in most samples were between 5 log10 and 7 log10 cfu.g-1. With respect to the presence of molds and yeasts, there was a significant variation among the samples with counts ranging from 2 log10 cfu.g-1 and 6 log10 cfu.g-1. From the data obtained, it was possible to conclude that 24% of the analyzed samples did not comply with the current law in Brazil since the levels of fecal coliforms or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus exceeded the maximum limit allowed.O estudo da ecologia de salames fermentados faz-se necessário para entender as mudanças físicas e químicas que ocorrem durante a fermentação e maturação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as características microbiológicas de salames produzidos por fermentação espontânea. Foram analisadas cinquenta amostras de salames de diferentes pequenas indústrias em relação à seguinte microbiota: bactérias aeróbias mesófilas; Micrococcaceae; bolores e leveduras; bactérias lácticas; coliformes totais e fecais; Staphylococcus coagulase positiva; e Salmonella. Na grande maioria das amostras (72%, a presença de bactérias lácticas foi superior a 10(6 ufc.g-1, sendo que as amostras com as maiores contagens tiveram quantidades

  16. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Carola; Lucisano, Mara; Raineri, Andrea; Fongaro, Lorenzo; Foschino, Roberto; Mariotti, Manuela

    2016-10-23

    The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF) breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD), compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) or their mixture (SDCY) as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process) the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity) in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY.

  17. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Cappa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD, compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae or their mixture (SDCY as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY.

  18. Control of mixing step in the bread production with weak wheat flour and sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several old Italian grain varieties have been reinstated, and the market seems to reward the breads made with these flours. Among such varieties, cultivar Verna appears to be interesting because the regular consumption of bread obtained by this variety and sourdough provides beneficial effects on human health such as the improving of the lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological profiles. However, flours derived from Verna shows low technological performances. For example, the W value of these flours, obtained with alveoghraphic tests and considered as the commercial standard for the flour “strength” evaluation, is largely inferior than the W values of the commercial flour blends currently used in the bread making process. Moreover, the W values broadly change among the batches of Verna flours, whereas, usually, commercial blends are provided to bakeries with standard technological properties. Hence, these properties of Verna flour could lead to developed or overworked doughs and therefore to breads of worse quality. In addition, the previous mentioned large variability of flours from Verna can affect also the sourdough microbiota. For these reasons the composition and activity of the sourdough microorganisms should be controlled while the mixing process should be able to adapt to the different flour properties. Some works, in literature, report that monitoring the electrical consumption could provide useful information about the dough rheology, and this could be used to monitor the mixing step. In the present work the effect of different mixing times are evaluated on breads made with Verna flour type 2 leavened with sourdough. Tests were carried out at industrial scale in two different days. During the tests the electric consumption was monitored to highlight some features suitable for the mixing phase control. The breads were evaluated in terms of loaf volume measurement, crumb image analysis and losses of moisture content during

  19. Novel starters for old processes: use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdough for craft beer production at a brewery scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Antonella; Zara, Giacomo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Del Caro, Alessandra; Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Budroni, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The deliberate inoculation of yeast strains isolated from food matrices such as wine or bread, could allow the transfer of novel properties to beer. In this work, the feasibility of the use of baker's yeast strains as starters for craft beer production has been evaluated at laboratory and brewery scale. Nine out of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdoughs metabolized 2 % maltose, glucose and trehalose and showed growth rates and cell populations higher than those of the brewer's strain Safbrew-S33. Analysis of allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci clustered seven baker's strains and Safbrew-S33 in the main group of bread isolates. Chemical analyses of beers produced at a brewery scale showed significant differences among the beers produced with the baker's strain S38 or Safbrew-S33, while no significant differences were observed when S38 or the brewer's strain Safbrew-F2 was used for re-fermentation. The sensory profile of beers obtained with S38 or the brewer's yeasts did not show significant differences, thus suggesting that baker's strains of S. cerevisiae could represent a reservoir of biodiversity for the selection of starter strains for craft beer production.

  20. Effect of sourdough addition and storage time on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of tef bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumoy, Habtu; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Devecioglu, Dilara; Raes, Katleen

    2018-10-30

    The effect of sourdough amount and storage time on starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of tef bread was investigated. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of 0-30% sourdough fresh tef breads ranged from 49 to 58, 16 to 29 and 20 to 26 g/100 g starch, respectively. Storage of tef breads up to 5 days decreased the RDS by more than 2-fold while SDS and RS increased by 2 and 3 fold, respectively. The eGI for fresh and stored breads ranged from 39 to 89. Addition of sourdough increased the eGI of fresh breads while no uniform pattern was seen in the stored breads. As the storage time increased, all the breads showed a decrease in eGI. In vivo study is necessary to further investigate the effect of sourdough on GI of tef bread. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Acute Impact of Ingestion of Sourdough and Whole-Grain Breads on Blood Glucose, Insulin, and Incretins in Overweight and Obese Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Mofidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of whole-grain and sourdough breads is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the impact of commercial breads on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis in subjects at risk for glucose intolerance. In a randomized, crossover study, overweight or obese males ingested 11-grain, sprouted-grain, 12-grain, sourdough, or white bread on different occasions, matched for available carbohydrate (50 g in part 1 (n=12 and bread mass (107 g in part 2 (n=11, and blood glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 were determined for 3 h. In part 1, glucose response for sprouted-grain was lower than 11-grain, sourdough, and white breads. Insulin area under the curve (AUC for sourdough and white was lower than 11-grain and sprouted-grain breads. GLP-1 response to sourdough was lower than all breads. In part 2, glucose and insulin AUC for sourdough was greater than 11-grain, sprouted-grain, and 12-grain breads. Sprouted-grain bread improved glycemia by lowering glucose response and increasing GLP-1 response. In overweight and obese men, the glycemic response to sprouted grain bread was reduced in both parts 1 and 2 while the other whole-grain test breads did not improve metabolic responses in the acute postprandial state.

  3. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  4. Molecular characterization and technological properties of wine yeasts isolated during spontaneous fermentation of Vitis vinifera L.cv. Narince grape must grown in ancient wine making area Tokat, Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Zeynep Dilan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera L grown in Tokat and produces rich and balanced wines often with a greenish yellow tint and delicate fruity flavour. Fermentation by indigenous yeasts may produce wines with complex oenological properties that are unique to specific region. In this study yeast population during alcoholic fermentation of Narince was investigated. Yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 5.8 ITS rRNA region and sequence information for the D1/D2 domains of the 26S gene. Eight different species belonging to nine genera were identified as: Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hansenispora guilliermondii, Pichia kluyveri, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida zemplinina, Lachancea thermotolerance and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis and Pichia kluyveri were identified only in the early stage of fermentation. Selected yeasts tested for their physiological traits, ethanol, SO2, temperature, pH tolerance, H2S production, killer and enzymatic activity, fermentation rate, flocculation characteristic, foam, volatile acid and volatile compounds production. Among the yeasts, one,Lachancea thermotolerance and four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain showed remarkable technological properties and results were compared with those obtained by using commercial starter culture.

  5. Effect of Fermentation Methods on Chemical and Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mung flours were fermented using spontaneous and backslopping methods for 72 h and microbial analysis over a period of 72 h fermentation was carried out. The samples were subjected to biochemical test, anti-nutrient and selected mineral and vitamin contents evaluation using standard methods. There was a gradual ...

  6. An untargeted metabolomic assessment of cocoa beans during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Gross, Ana Lucía; Quirós Guerrero, Luis Manuel; Fourny, G.; Vaillant Barka, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is a critical step in the processing of high quality cocoa; however, the biochemistry behind is still not well understood at a molecular level. In this research, using a non-targeted approach, the main metabolomic changes that occur throughout the fermentation process were explored. Genetically undefined cocoa varieties from Trinidad and Tobago (n = 3), Costa Rica (n = 1) and one clone IMC-67 (n = 3) were subjected to spontaneous fermentation using farm-based and pilot plant cont...

  7. Diversity and Stability of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Rye Sourdoughs of Four Bakeries with Different Propagation Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Viiard, Ene; Bessmeltseva, Marianna; Simm, Jaak; Talve, Tiina; Aasp?llu, Anu; Paalme, Toomas; Sarand, Inga

    2016-01-01

    We identified the lactic acid bacteria within rye sourdoughs and starters from four bakeries with different propagation parameters and tracked their dynamics for between 5-28 months after renewal. Evaluation of bacterial communities was performed using plating, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus frumenti or Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus panis prevailed in sourdoug...

  8. Influence of Artisan Bakery- or Laboratory-Propagated Sourdoughs on the Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiotas

    OpenAIRE

    Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA ...

  9. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas of 19 sourdoughs used for traditional/typical italian breads: interactions between ingredients and microbial species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Antonielli, Livio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Cappelle, Stefan; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-02-01

    The study of the microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional/typical breads allowed the identification, through a culture-dependent approach, of 20 and 4 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, respectively. Numerically, the most frequent LAB isolates were Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (ca. 28% of the total LAB isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (ca. 16%), and Lactobacillus paralimentarius (ca. 14%). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in 16 sourdoughs. Candida humilis, Kazachstania barnettii, and Kazachstania exigua were also identified. As shown by principal component analysis (PCA), a correlation was found between the ingredients, especially the type of flour, the microbial community, and the biochemical features of sourdoughs. Triticum durum flours were characterized by the high level of maltose, glucose, fructose, and free amino acids (FAA) correlated with the sole or main presence of obligately heterofermentative LAB, the lowest number of facultatively heterofermentative strains, and the low cell density of yeasts in the mature sourdoughs. This study highlighted, through a comprehensive and comparative approach, the dominant microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs, which determined some of the peculiarities of the resulting traditional/typical Italian breads.

  11. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. PMID:26150457

  12. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Effect of the spontaneous fermentation and the ageing on the chemo-sensory quality of Brazilian organic cachaça Efeito da fermentação natural e do envelhecimento sobre a qualidade química e sensorial de cachaça orgânica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afra Vital Matos Dias Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the effect of the spontaneous fermentation/natural ferment (NF on the chemo-sensory quality of cachaça, comparing to the commercial ferment (CF. The effect of ageing (maturation was also analysed in the beverage. Microbiological analysis (plating on selective media for total/wild yeast and bacteria counting and physico-chemical analysis (pH, acidity and soluble solids were performed in the samples of the must and the ferment collected during three cycles of fermentation in a semi-industrial scale. Samples of cachaça were stored in 5-L oak containers for 45 days, subsequently analyzing the physico-chemical characteristics (pH, acidity, alcohol content, copper and secondary compounds and sensory acceptability (aroma, flavour, colour, body and global impression. The fermentation with NF showed higher number of wild yeasts; however there was no difference in the number of bacteria comparing to CF. An intense acidification occurred during the preparation of NF, which was also observed in the initial cycles of fermentation, but decreased afterwards. Greater alterations in cachaça composition were found to be more exclusively related to the maturation than to the type of ferment, except for the acidity. However, there was a significant loss of aroma, flavour and global impression after maturation but only in cachaça produced with the CF. The results revealed a strong interaction between ferment and maturation of the beverage, suggesting that substances produced by the microorganisms from different inocula during fermentation reacted differently with the wood components of the barrels influencing the sensory attributes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da fermentação espontânea/fermento natural (NF sobre a qualidade fisico-química e aceitabilidade da cachaça, comparando-se com o fermento comercial (CF. O efeito do envelhecimento (maturação da bebida foi também avaliado. Análises microbiol

  14. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  15. Characterization of relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria species in French organic sourdough by cultural, qPCR and MiSeq high-throughput sequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Elisa; Monfort, Clarisse; Deffrasnes, Marion; Guezenec, Stéphane; Lhomme, Emilie; Barret, Matthieu; Sicard, Delphine; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard

    2016-12-19

    In order to contribute to the description of sourdough LAB composition, MiSeq sequencing and qPCR methods were performed in association with cultural methods. A panel of 16 French organic bakers and farmer-bakers were selected for this work. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity of their organic sourdoughs was investigated quantitatively and qualitatively combining (i) Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis-specific qPCR, (ii) global sequencing with MiSeq Illumina technology and (iii) molecular isolates identification. In addition, LAB and yeast enumeration, pH, Total Titratable Acidity, organic acids and bread specific volume were analyzed. Microbial and physico-chemical data were statistically treated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC). Total yeast counts were 6 log 10 to 7.6 log 10 CFU/g while LAB counts varied from 7.2 log 10 to 9.6 log 10 CFU/g. Values obtained by L. sanfranciscensis-specific qPCR were estimated between 7.2 and 10.3 log 10 CFU/g, except for one sample at 4.4 log 10 CFU/g. HAC and PCA clustered the sixteen sourdoughs into three classes described by their variables but without links to bakers' practices. L. sanfranciscensis was the dominant species in 13 of the 16 sourdoughs analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), by the culture dependent method this species was dominant only in only 10 samples. Based on isolates identification, LAB diversity was higher for 7 sourdoughs with the recovery of L. curvatus, L. brevis, L. heilongjiangensis, L. xiangfangensis, L. koreensis, L. pontis, Weissella sp. and Pediococcus pentosaceus, as the most representative species. L. koreensis, L. heilongjiangensis and L. xiangfangensis were identified in traditional Asian food and here for the first time as dominant in organic sourdough. This study highlighted that L. sanfranciscensis was not the major species in 6/16 sourdough samples and that a relatively high LAB diversity can be observed in French organic

  16. Monitoring of wheat lactic acid bacteria from the field until the first step of dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Antonio; Miceli, Claudia; Nasca, Anna; Franciosi, Elena; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tuohy, Kieran; Francesca, Nicola; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The present work was carried out to retrieve the origin of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sourdough. To this purpose, wheat LAB were monitored from ear harvest until the first step of fermentation for sourdough development. The influence of the geographical area and variety on LAB species/strain composition was also determined. The ears of four Triticum durum varieties (Duilio, Iride, Saragolla and Simeto) were collected from several fields located within the Palermo province (Sicily, Italy) and microbiologically investigated. In order to trace the transfer of LAB during the consecutive steps of manipulation, ears were transformed aseptically and, after threshing, milling and fermentation, samples of kernels, semolinas and doughs, respectively, were analysed. LAB were not found to dominate the microbial communities of the raw materials. In general, kernels harboured lower levels of microorganisms than ears and ears than semolinas. Several samples showing no development of LAB colonies acidified the enrichment broth suggesting the presence of LAB below the detection limit. After fermentation, LAB loads increased consistently for all doughs, reaching levels of 7.0-7.5 Log CFU/g on M17. The values of pH (5.0) and TTA (5.6 mL NaOH/10 g of dough) indicated the occurrence of the acidification process for several doughs. LAB were phenotypically and genotypically differentiated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR into eight groups including 51 strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc citreum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Lactobacilli constituted a minority the LAB community, while lactococci represented more than 50% of strains. Lower LAB complexity was found on kernels, while a richer biodiversity was observed in semolinas and fermented doughs. For broader microbiota characterisation in

  17. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  18. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  20. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  1. Purification and characterization of novel antifungal compounds from the sourdough Lactobacillus plantarum strain 21B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavermicocca, P; Valerio, F; Evidente, A; Lazzaroni, S; Corsetti, A; Gobbetti, M

    2000-09-01

    Sourdough lactic acid bacteria were selected for antifungal activity by a conidial germination assay. The 10-fold-concentrated culture filtrate of Lactobacillus plantarum 21B grown in wheat flour hydrolysate almost completely inhibited Eurotium repens IBT18000, Eurotium rubrum FTDC3228, Penicillium corylophilum IBT6978, Penicillium roqueforti IBT18687, Penicillium expansum IDM/FS2, Endomyces fibuliger IBT605 and IDM3812, Aspergillus niger FTDC3227 and IDM1, Aspergillus flavus FTDC3226, Monilia sitophila IDM/FS5, and Fusarium graminearum IDM623. The nonconcentrated culture filtrate of L. plantarum 21B grown in whole wheat flour hydrolysate had similar inhibitory activity. The activity was fungicidal. Calcium propionate at 3 mg ml(-1) was not effective under the same assay conditions, while sodium benzoate caused inhibition similar to L. plantarum 21B. After extraction with ethyl acetate, preparative silica gel thin-layer chromatography, and chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses, novel antifungal compounds such as phenyllactic and 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic acids were identified in the culture filtrate of L. plantarum 21B. Phenyllactic acid was contained at the highest concentration in the bacterial culture filtrate and had the highest activity. It inhibited all the fungi tested at a concentration of 50 mg ml(-1) except for P. roqueforti IBT18687 and P. corylophilum IBT6978 (inhibitory concentration, 166 mg ml(-1)). L. plantarum 20B, which showed high antimold activity, was also selected. Preliminary studies showed that phenyllactic and 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic acids were also contained in the bacterial culture filtrate of strain 20B. Growth of A. niger FTDC3227 occurred after 2 days in breads started with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 alone or with S. cerevisiae and Lactobacillus brevis 1D, an unselected but acidifying lactic acid bacterium, while the onset of fungal growth was delayed for 7 days in bread started with S. cerevisiae and selected L. plantarum 21B.

  2. Evaluation of growth, metabolism and production of potentially bioactive components during fermentation of barley with Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallin, Anton; Agback, Peter; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Eighteen bacterial isolates from millet, buckwheat and rye flour were identified as Lactobacillus reuteri. Genomic fingerprinting (rep-PCR) revealed that they represented five strains and phylogenetic analyses using multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA) showed that all clustered with strains of rodent origin. Two strains (SU12-3 and SU18-3) from different phylogenetic clades were used in fermentations of six varieties of barley, both untreated and heat-treated (with inactivated indigenous enzymes) flour. They were compared with two probiotic strains of human origin (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 6475), one previously isolated sourdough strain (LTH 5531) and one strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (36E). Analyses of growth (CFU) and metabolism (1H-NMR) revealed differences at species level, with L. plantarum showing a higher capacity to assimilate nutrients without help of the cereal enzymes. Similarities were observed between L. reuteri strains isolated from sourdough, while the greatest differences between L. reuteri strains were observed between strains 6475 and 17938. Multivariate analysis of the metabolic profiles revealed clear clustering according to flour treatment, species of bacteria and barley variety and to some extent also bacterial strain. Possible bioactive compounds such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,3- propanediol (sign of reuterin production) and histamine were identified and quantified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other...

  4. Microbiological Research on the Traditional Alcoholic Fermented Milk“Airag”in Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    宮本, 拓

    2015-01-01

     Airag, a traditional fermented milk well loved by Mongolians, has been drunk habitually sinceancient times as a unique drink. It is produced from cow, mare and camel milk by a traditional method using indigenous starter cultures containing lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and other fermentative microorganisms. Spontaneously fermented milk products have for centuries been consumed for their therapeutic value in promoting health and well-being, especially among the pastoral communities in Mongolia...

  5. Yeast Biodiversity from DOQ Priorat Uninoculated Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Beatriz; García-Fernández, David; González, Beatriz; Izidoro, Iara; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Beltran, Gemma; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Climate, soil, and grape varieties are the primary characteristics of terroir and lead to the definition of various appellations of origin. However, the microbiota associated with grapes are also affected by these conditions and can leave a footprint in a wine that will be part of the characteristics of terroir. Thus, a description of the yeast microbiota within a vineyard is of interest not only to provide a better understanding of the winemaking process, but also to understand the source of microorganisms that maintain a microbial footprint in wine from the examined vineyard. In this study, two typical grape varieties, Grenache and Carignan, have been sampled from four different vineyards in the DOQ Priorat winegrowing region. Afterward, eight spontaneous alcoholic fermentations containing only grapes from one sampling point and of one variety were conducted at laboratory scale. The fermentation kinetics and yeast population dynamics within each fermentation experiment were evaluated. Yeast identification was performed by RFLP-PCR of the 5.8S-ITS region and by sequencing D1/D2 of the 26S rRNA gene of the isolates. The fermentation kinetics did not indicate clear differences between the two varieties of grapes or among vineyards. Approximately 1,400 isolates were identified, exhibiting high species richness in some fermentations. Of all the isolates studied, approximately 60% belong to the genus Hanseniaspora, 16% to Saccharomyces, and 11% to Candida. Other minor genera, such as Hansenula, Issatchenkia, Kluyveromyces, Saccharomycodes, and Zygosaccharomyces, were also found. The distribution of the identified yeast throughout the fermentation process was studied, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be present mainly at the end of the fermentation process, while Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated primarily during the first days of fermentation in three of the eight spontaneous fermentations. This work highlights the complexity and diversity of the vineyard

  6. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  8. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  9. Alcoholic fermentation of whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, A S; Holland, J W

    1958-09-10

    The lactose of whey and other milk products is rapidly fermented to ethanol by means of Candida pseudotropicalis strain XI. The fermentation is complete in about 12 hours and yields about 45% ethanol based on the weight of lactose. Conditions favoring the fermentation and inhibiting lactic acid production include pH 4.5, 30/sup 0/, and continuous aeration.

  10. Amino acid and fatty acid compositions of Rusip from fermented Anchovy fish (Stolephorussp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesoemawardani, D.; Hidayati, S.; Subeki

    2018-04-01

    Rusip is a typical food of Bangka Belitung Indonesia made from fermented anchovy. This study aims to determine the properties of chemistry, microbiology, composition of amino acids and fatty acids from fermented fish spontaneously and non spontaneously. Spontaneous rusip treatment is done by anchovy fish (Stolephorussp) after cleaning and added salt 25% (w/w) and palm sugar 10% (w/w). While, non-spontaneous rusip is done by adding a culture mixture of Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus bacteria 2% (w/v). The materials are then incubated for 2 weeks. The data obtained were then performed t-test at the level of 5%. Spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip fermentation process showed significant differences in total acid, reducing sugar, salt content, TVN, total lactic acid bacteria, total mold, and total microbial. The dominant amino acid content of spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are glutamic acid and aspartic acid, while the dominant fatty acids in spontaneous and non-spontaneous rusip are docosahexaenoic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, arachidonic acid, stearic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, palmitoleic acid, and myristic acid.

  11. Enzymatic Reduction of Anti-nutritional Factors in Fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work, therefore, was to use microorganisms, specifically Lactobacillus plantarum and the enzymes it produces to reduce anti-nutritional factors and improve the nutritional composition of such food blends. Nine strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from spontaneously fermenting cereals, identified ...

  12. Recent advances in microbial fermentation for dairy and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elke; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour. Lactic acid bacteria can produce a number of bioactive metabolites during fermentation, such as bacteriocins, biogenic amines, exopolysaccharides, and proteolytically released peptides, among others. Prebiotics are added to food fermentations to improve the performance of probiotics. It has also been found that prebiotics fermented in the gut can have benefits that go beyond helping probiotic growth. Studies are now looking at how the fermentation of prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides can help in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis, obesity, and colorectal cancer. The potential to prevent or even treat disease through the fermentation of food is a medically and commercially attractive goal and is showing increasing promise. However, the stringent regulation of probiotics is beginning to detrimentally affect the field and limit their application. PMID:28649371

  13. Influence of baking enzymes on antimicrobial activity of five bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Lithuanian sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutaite, V; Fernandez, A; Horn, N; Juodeikiene, G; Narbad, A

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of four different baking enzymes on the inhibitory activity of five bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Lithuanian sourdoughs. The overlay assay and the Bioscreen methods revealed that the five BLIS exhibited an inhibitory effect against spore germination and vegetative outgrowth of Bacillus subtilis, the predominant species causing ropiness in bread. The possibility that the observed antibacterial activity of BLIS might be lost after treatment with enzymes used for baking purposes was also examined. The enzymes tested; hemicellulase, lipase, amyloglucosidase and amylase had little or no effect on the majority of the antimicrobial activities associated with the five BLIS studied. This study suggests a potential application in the sourdough baking industry for these antimicrobial producing LAB strains in the control of B. subtilis spore germination and vegetative outgrowth.

  14. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp.

  15. Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiotas of 19 Sourdoughs Used for Traditional/Typical Italian Breads: Interactions between Ingredients and Microbial Species Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Minervini, Fabio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Antonielli, Livio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Cappelle, Stefan; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The study of the microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional/typical breads allowed the identification, through a culture-dependent approach, of 20 and 4 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, respectively. Numerically, the most frequent LAB isolates were Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (ca. 28% of the total LAB isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (ca. 16%), and Lactobacillus paralimentarius (ca. 14%). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in 16 sou...

  16. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  17. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis. (orig.) [de

  18. Controlling alchohol fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leedham, P A; Tubb, R S

    1983-09-21

    In the initial stages of a fermentation of carbohydrate to EtOH, the growth of the yeast is controlled by monitoring the pH of a fermenting liquid or wort and controlling the supply of O/sub 2/ in accordance with the pH. The temperature of the fermenting liquid is also controlled in dependence upon the pH. The control of the fermentation process is carried out automatically by an apparatus including a fermentation vessel, a pH sensor arranged to provide an output signal representative of the pH of the liquid in the vessel, memory means to store information on the required pH with regard to the fermentation time, means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid and control means to compare the output signal of the pH sensor at a particular time with that of the required pH at that time, and in the event of the pH of the fermenting liquid lagging behind that required, actuate the means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid to increase the O/sub 2/ content of the fermenting liquid.

  19. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF BORASSUS AKEASSII WINES QUALITY BY CONTROLLED FERMENTATION USING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPSOBA François

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm wine produced traditionally and consumed by many people around the world and specifically in Burkina Faso posed health risks because of questionable quality of wine produced by mix culture fermentation and the use of antiseptics for the stabilization. In order to improve its quality, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii wines and identified by amplification and RFLP analysis of the 5-8S-ITS region were used for in vitro fermentation of unfermented palm sap. The physicochemical characteristics of the sap were measured before and after fermentation process by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and the microbiological quality were also performed. HPLC analysis showed that glucose and fructose concentration in palm sap were 37.0 and 27.6 g/L respectively, ethanol content was ranged between 2.76 and 5.31 % (g/mL for controlled fermentation and 2.20 % (g/mL for spontaneous fermentation. Lactic and acetic acids were ranged between 0.1 and 0.3 g/L and 1.5 and 1.6 g/L for controlled fermentation versus 2.5 and 3.1 g/L and the spontaneous fermentation respectively. Coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were detected only in the unfermented palm sap and the wine fermented spontaneously. Principal component analysis showed a good separation between spontaneous and controlled fermentation. Sterilization and controlled fermentation of the unfermented sap with palm wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains led to the improvement of palm wine quality.

  1. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  2. AKTIVITAS PROTEOLITIK BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT DALAM FERMENTASI SUSU KEDELAI [Proteolytic Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermentation of Soymilk

    OpenAIRE

    Yusmarini1,2)*; R. Indrati1); T. Utami1); Y. Marsono1)

    2010-01-01

    Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains had been isolated from spontaneously fermented soymilk which have proteolytic system. The purpose of this research was to study ability of isolates in fermentation of soymilk. The changes in bacterial growth, pH, titrable acidity, and proteolytic activities during fermentation were examined. Isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum 1 R.1.3.2; L. plantarum 1 R.11.1.2 and L. acidophilus FNCC 0051 (as a control) were capable growing in soymilk. The results indi...

  3. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  4. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52, belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil, and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  5. Studies on continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K

    1958-01-01

    Continuous fermentation of molasses with a combined system of agitated vessel and flow pipe is studied. A new apparatus was designed. The rate of the fermentation was faster with this apparatus than with the former apparatus which was composed of two vessels.

  6. Food Technologies: Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical

  7. Research in fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A K

    1966-01-01

    The following aspects of the biochemistry of fermentation were discussed: carbohydrate, amino acid, S, and phosphate metabolisms in the yeast cell; pantothenic acid and biotin as the essential growth factors in yeast metabolisms; effects of different aeration conditions on yeast growth, mitochondria development, and lipid contents. Gas chromatographic studies of fermentation products are also discussed.

  8. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  10. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  11. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been used. However, new frontiers have been recently explored. Sourdough turned out an ancient but novel technology to preserve standard and gluten-free bread. Promising results have also been obtained by application of alternative bio-preservation techniques, including antifungal peptides and plant extracts. Active packaging, with absorbing and/or releasing compounds effective against bread staling and/or with antimicrobials preventing growth of undesirable microorganisms, showed up an emerging area of food technology which can confer many preservation benefits. Nanotechnologies are also opening up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry and the consumers. This work thus aims to provide an overview of opportunities and challenges that traditional and innovative anti-staling and anti-spoilage methods can offer to extend bread shelf-life and to provide a basis for driving further research on nanotechnology applications into the bakery industry.

  13. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  14. Carrot Juice Fermentations as Man-Made Microbial Ecosystems Dominated by Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Sander; Van Beeck, Wannes; Oerlemans, Eline F M; Wittouck, Stijn; Claes, Ingmar J J; De Boeck, Ilke; Weckx, Stefan; Lievens, Bart; De Vuyst, Luc; Lebeer, Sarah

    2018-06-15

    Spontaneous vegetable fermentations, with their rich flavors and postulated health benefits, are regaining popularity. However, their microbiology is still poorly understood, therefore raising concerns about food safety. In addition, such spontaneous fermentations form interesting cases of man-made microbial ecosystems. Here, samples from 38 carrot juice fermentations were collected through a citizen science initiative, in addition to three laboratory fermentations. Culturing showed that Enterobacteriaceae were outcompeted by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) between 3 and 13 days of fermentation. Metabolite-target analysis showed that lactic acid and mannitol were highly produced, as well as the biogenic amine cadaverine. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that mainly species of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus (as identified by 8 and 20 amplicon sequence variants [ASVs], respectively) mediated the fermentations in subsequent order. The analyses at the DNA level still detected a high number of Enterobacteriaceae , but their relative abundance was low when RNA-based sequencing was performed to detect presumptive metabolically active bacterial cells. In addition, this method greatly reduced host read contamination. Phylogenetic placement indicated a high LAB diversity, with ASVs from nine different phylogenetic groups of the Lactobacillus genus complex. However, fermentation experiments with isolates showed that only strains belonging to the most prevalent phylogenetic groups preserved the fermentation dynamics. The carrot juice fermentation thus forms a robust man-made microbial ecosystem suitable for studies on LAB diversity and niche specificity. IMPORTANCE The usage of fermented food products by professional chefs is steadily growing worldwide. Meanwhile, this interest has also increased at the household level. However, many of these artisanal food products remain understudied. Here, an extensive microbial analysis was performed of spontaneous fermented

  15. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var....... oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum. Residual antigenicity against antipea antibodies was reduced to 10% by the three lactic acid bacteria and R. microsporus. Reactions to anti-pea profilin and anti-Bet v I were still detectable after fermentation. The contents of lectin and pea protease inhibitor were...

  16. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  17. Definition of spontaneous reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his view of driven versus spontaneous. There is a close link between ''spontaneous'' and ''instability.'' One of the prominent examples for instability is the thermal convection instability. Just to remind you, if you heat a fluid layer from below, it takes a certain Rayleigh number to make it unstable. Beyond the onset point you find qualitatively new features. That is called ''spontaneous,'' and this is a bit more than semantics. It's a new qualitative property that appears and it is spontaneous although we have an energy flux through the system. It's a misconception, to call this ''driven'' pointing at the energy flux through it. Of course, the convection would not exist without this energy flux. But what makes it ''spontaneous'' is that without any particular external signal, a new qualitative feature appears. And this is what is called an ''instability'' and ''spontaneous.'' From these considerations the author got a little reassured of what distinction should be made in the field of the magnetosphere. If we have a smooth energy transport into the magnetosphere and suddenly we have this qualitatively new feature (change of B-topology) coming up; then, using this terminology we don't have a choice other than calling this spontaneous or unstable, if you like. If we ''tell'' the system where it should make its neutral line and where it should make its plasmoids, then, it is driven. And this provides a very clear-cut observational distinction. The author emphasizes the difference he sees is a qualitative difference, not only a quantitative one

  18. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  19. Ferment first, then compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2012-11-01

    If communal organic waste is simply dumped, it is harmful to the environment. But if it is used to produce biogas, it can become a significant source of energy. Currently, there are two dry fermentation processes available. (orig.)

  20. Methanic fermentation of manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadeo, M

    1954-06-01

    A comparison between the chemical composition of manure ripened in conventional ditches and that of manure anaerobically fermented in tanks led to the conclusion that the latter was not satisfactory; the resulting manure was less valuable.

  1. Solid substrate fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tengerdy, R P

    1985-04-01

    Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) describes the microbiological tranformation of biological materials in their natural state, in contrast with liquid or submerged fermentations which are carried out in dilute solutions or slurries. The most important industrial microorganisms used in SSF are filamentous fungi and the critical factors in their growth are the control of the moisture level and the temperature. Traditionally, most SSFs are conducted in shallow trays (so that heat build up is avoided) and stacked in a moist chamber, however, the modern SSF should be able to mix large amounts of substrate for a uniform fermentation, maximum automization scale-up of the process, continuous operation and fermentation control and a promising new design is the Helical screw fermenter. At the present time SSF is used in the production of foods (e.g. mushrooms and oriental foods) in municipal, agricultural and industrial solid waste disposal and in the production of enzymes and speciality chemicals but it does not seem likely that it will replace prevalent liquid fermentation technologies. 29 references.

  2. Potentiel nutritionnel du microbiote d’aliments fermentés à base de céréales : le cas des folates

    OpenAIRE

    Saubade, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Cereals are staple foods in most African countries. Numerous African cereal-based foods are spontaneously fermented. As the nutritional quality of cereal products could be enhanced through spontaneous fermentation, these food products might be good sources of micronutrients. However, various micronutrients deficiencies, such as folate deficiency, are still common in many African countries where these food products are consumed. Folate deficiency leads to different pathologies, such as megalob...

  3. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-10-31

    We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported.Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  4. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  5. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  6. Rapid Quantification of Major Volatile Metabolites in Fermented Food and Beverages Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana R. Pinu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS library. We determined different analytical parameters of these metabolites including the limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantitation (LOQ and range of quantification. In order to validate the method, we also determined detailed analytical characteristics of five major fermentation end products including ethanol, acetic acid, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl-L-lactate and, acetoin. The method showed very low technical variability for the measurements of these metabolites in different matrices (<3% with an excellent accuracy (100% ± 5%, recovery (100% ± 10%, reproducibility and repeatability [Coefficient of variation (CV 1–10%]. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we analysed different fermented products including balsamic vinegars, sourdough, distilled (whisky and non-distilled beverages (wine and beer.

  7. Rapid Quantification of Major Volatile Metabolites in Fermented Food and Beverages Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2017-07-26

    Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS) library. We determined different analytical parameters of these metabolites including the limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and range of quantification. In order to validate the method, we also determined detailed analytical characteristics of five major fermentation end products including ethanol, acetic acid, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl-L-lactate and, acetoin. The method showed very low technical variability for the measurements of these metabolites in different matrices (<3%) with an excellent accuracy (100% ± 5%), recovery (100% ± 10%), reproducibility and repeatability [Coefficient of variation (CV) 1-10%)]. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we analysed different fermented products including balsamic vinegars, sourdough, distilled (whisky) and non-distilled beverages (wine and beer).

  8. Studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts during Alcoholic Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri

    The early death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during mixed culture spontaneous wine fermentation has traditionally been attributed to the lower capacity of these yeast species to withstand high levels of ethanol, low pH, and other media properties that are a part of progressing fermentation. However......, other yeast-yeast interactions, such as cell-cell contact mediated growth arrest and/or toxininduced death may also be a significant factor in the relative fragility of these non-Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed culture fermentation. In the present work we evaluate the combined roles of cell-cell contact...... and/or antimicrobial peptides on the early death of Lachancea thermotolerans during mixed culture fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a specially designed double compartment fermentation system, we established that both cell-to-cell contact and antimicrobial peptides contribute...

  9. Spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber

    2015-07-01

    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  11. The role of Staphylococcus species in the production of iru during the fermentation of African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amao, J.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus spp. are regularly isolated from iru, but the role(s they play in the fermentation process has not yet been determined; this work thus seeks to determine if Staphylococcus spp. isolated from iru play any role in the fermentation of African locust bean. Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. isolated from spontaneously fermented African locust bean (iru were used to ferment African locust beans. The temperature, pH and moisture content were determined as fermentation progress while the total soluble sugar and total free amino acid were determined after fermentation. The microbial load for the three iru products increased gradually until the end of fermentation. The total free amino acids increased in all three iru (1.10, 1.51 and 2.35 mg leucine ml-1 for Staphylococcus spp. iru, Bacillus spp. iru and iru produced with combination of the two species of bacteria when compared with that of the unfermented bean, while the total soluble sugars reduced after fermentation with Staphylococcus spp. iru having 3.84, Bacillus spp. iru has 3.60, and the unfermented bean has 5.30 mg glucose ml-1 total soluble sugar. The increased free amino acids in the iru fermented with Staphylococcus spp. and the ability of the Staphylococcus spp. to produce lipase showed that Staphylococcus spp. isolated from iru has the ability to ferment African locust bean and carry out the lipolytic activity during the fermentation.

  12. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  13. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  14. MUTU GIZI DAN KEAMANAN BEKASAM PRODUK FERMENTASI IKAN TERI SECARA SPONTAN DAN PENAMBAHAN KULTUR MURNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uken SS Soetrisno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Many kind of foods based on fermentation products are used as traditional foods in Indonesia. Such products are tape the sweet fermented cassava as source of carbohydrates, tempe the delicious fermented soybean or other beans as source of  protein, dadih the sour fermented buffalo milk as source of calcium and protein, and many others made of  animal protein source such as from small fish. Fermentation of foods will increase the nutrient content and absorbability of the nutrient, besides will increase sensoric or acceptability value of the products. Objectives: The study objectives are to evaluate the nutrient quality and sensoric quality of  the salt-fermentation product of small fish, so called teri, both using spontaneous fermentation and selected culture-fermentation those producing lactic acid bacteria. Methods: This was a food experimental study to explore the quality improvement  of acid bacteria fermentation products using spontaneous or sellected culture on protein source foods. Ingredients were consist of small fish with steam rice at 1 to 1 by weight with addition of salt at 5-6% and fermented spontaneously or with addition of 1% level selected culture, which contain lactic acid producing bacteria. Fermentation were done for 4 to 5 days, depent on the type of culture. Results: Bekasam produced from both type of fermentation had lower protein content due to the addition of rice as carbohydrate source, while ash content became higher due to the addition of NaCl salt. The products had sweet smell besides sour taste due to carbohydrate fermentation which could increase the absorbability of the products especially vitamins and minerals those needed lower pH. Generally, fermented bekasam had higher vitamin content and changed fatty acid composition. Vitamin B12 increased by 2 folds and vitamin A by 3-4 folds, compared with those of fresh small fish. Linoleic acid increased by 2-4 folds followed by decreased of other

  15. AKTIVITAS PROTEOLITIK BAKTERI ASAM LAKTAT DALAM FERMENTASI SUSU KEDELAI [Proteolytic Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fermentation of Soymilk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmarini1,2*

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains had been isolated from spontaneously fermented soymilk which have proteolytic system. The purpose of this research was to study ability of isolates in fermentation of soymilk. The changes in bacterial growth, pH, titrable acidity, and proteolytic activities during fermentation were examined. Isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum 1 R.1.3.2; L. plantarum 1 R.11.1.2 and L. acidophilus FNCC 0051 (as a control were capable growing in soymilk. The results indicated that initial pH of soymilk was 6,6 and decreased to 4,6 after fermentation and titrable acidity of 0.11 increased to 0.34 after fermentation. The proteolytic activities were 0.352 U/ml – 0.468 U/ml. The electrophoretic pattern of the proteins showed changes during fermentation of soymilk.

  16. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  17. Exploitation of vegetables and fruits through lactic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Coda, Rossana; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-02-01

    Lactic acid fermentation represents the easiest and the most suitable way for increasing the daily consumption of fresh-like vegetables and fruits. Literature data are accumulating, and this review aims at describing the main features of the lactic acid bacteria to be used for fermentation. Lactic acid bacteria are a small part of the autochthonous microbiota of vegetables and fruits. The diversity of the microbiota markedly depends on the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the plant matrix. Notwithstanding the reliable value of the spontaneous fermentation to stabilize and preserve raw vegetables and fruits, a number of factors are in favour of using selected starters. Two main options may be pursued for the controlled lactic acid fermentation of vegetables and fruits: the use of commercial/allochthonous and the use of autochthonous starters. Several evidences were described in favour of the use of selected autochthonous starters, which are tailored for the specific plant matrix. Pro-technological, sensory and nutritional criteria for selecting starters were reported as well as several functional properties, which were recently ascribed to autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. The main features of the protocols used for the manufacture of traditional, emerging and innovative fermented vegetables and fruits were reviewed. Tailored lactic acid bacteria starters completely exploit the potential of vegetables and fruits, which enhances the hygiene, sensory, nutritional and shelf life properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as β -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

  19. Koji for alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, T; Ogihara, H

    1956-06-25

    The pressed cake of fermented alcohol mash was used for preparing koji. The cake included considerable amounts of sugar, N-containing materials, enzymes, and vitamins, and gave a high-quality koji for alcohol fermentation. For example, the cake can be mixed with wheat bran and rice husks in the proportion 6:5:0 or 6:2:3 to make koji in the usual way. The saccharification power of the new koji was about 1.1 to 1.2 times as strong as that of usual koji prepared from wheat bran and rice husks.

  20. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such c...

  1. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  2. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Madera, Axel O; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Weng, Yiqun; Havey, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbred lines were produced in different environments, plants were grown in the field and greenhouse, and flow cytometry was used to establish ploidies. From 1422 greenhouse-grown plants, the overall relative frequency of spontaneous polyploidy was 2.2%. Plants possessed nuclei of different ploidies in the same leaves (mosaic) and on different parts of the same plant (chimeric). Our results provide evidence of endoreduplication and polysomaty in cucumber, and that it is an on-going and dynamic process. There was a significant effect (p = 0.018) of seed production environment on the occurrence of polyploid plants. Seed and seedling traits were not accurate predictors of eventual polyploids, and we recommend that cucumber producers rogue plants based on stature and leaf serration to remove potential polyploids.

  3. Effect of Microbial Interaction on Urea Metabolism in Chinese Liquor Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Lin, Jianchun; Cui, Kaixiang; Du, Rubin; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is the primary precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate in fermented foods. Understanding urea metabolism is important for controlling ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor as a model system, we used metatranscriptome analysis to investigate urea metabolism in spontaneous food

  4. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  5. Ethyl alcohol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1952-02-13

    Ethanol is made from solutions poor in sugar and free of yeast carriers, e.g. from whey, by fermentation under sterile conditions. The CO/sub 2/ formed in the decomposition of sugar is used as an agitating medium to ensure good contact between the yeast and the sugar.

  6. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  7. Fermentative production of isobutene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Bianca N M; van der Wulp, Albertus M; Duijnstee, Isabelle; van Maris, Antonius J A; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2012-02-01

    Isobutene (2-methylpropene) is one of those chemicals for which bio-based production might replace the petrochemical production in the future. Currently, more than 10 million metric tons of isobutene are produced on a yearly basis. Even though bio-based production might also be achieved through chemocatalytic or thermochemical methods, this review focuses on fermentative routes from sugars. Although biological isobutene formation is known since the 1970s, extensive metabolic engineering is required to achieve economically viable yields and productivities. Two recent metabolic engineering developments may enable anaerobic production close to the theoretical stoichiometry of 1isobutene + 2CO(2) + 2H(2)O per mol of glucose. One relies on the conversion of 3-hydroxyisovalerate to isobutene as a side activity of mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the other on isobutanol dehydration as a side activity of engineered oleate hydratase. The latter resembles the fermentative production of isobutanol followed by isobutanol recovery and chemocatalytic dehydration. The advantage of a completely biological route is that not isobutanol, but instead gaseous isobutene is recovered from the fermenter together with CO(2). The low aqueous solubility of isobutene might also minimize product toxicity to the microorganisms. Although developments are at their infancy, the potential of a large scale fermentative isobutene production process is assessed. The production costs estimate is 0.9 Euro kg(-1), which is reasonably competitive. About 70% of the production costs will be due to the costs of lignocellulose hydrolysate, which seems to be a preferred feedstock.

  8. Recent advances in microbial fermentation for dairy and health [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daragh Hill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour. Lactic acid bacteria can produce a number of bioactive metabolites during fermentation, such as bacteriocins, biogenic amines, exopolysaccharides, and proteolytically released peptides, among others. Prebiotics are added to food fermentations to improve the performance of probiotics. It has also been found that prebiotics fermented in the gut can have benefits that go beyond helping probiotic growth. Studies are now looking at how the fermentation of prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides can help in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis, obesity, and colorectal cancer. The potential to prevent or even treat disease through the fermentation of food is a medically and commercially attractive goal and is showing increasing promise. However, the stringent regulation of probiotics is beginning to detrimentally affect the field and limit their application.

  9. Brewhouse-resident microbiota are responsible for multi-stage fermentation of American coolship ale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Bokulich

    Full Text Available American coolship ale (ACA is a type of spontaneously fermented beer that employs production methods similar to traditional Belgian lambic. In spite of its growing popularity in the American craft-brewing sector, the fermentation microbiology of ACA has not been previously described, and thus the interface between production methodology and microbial community structure is unexplored. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP, barcoded amplicon sequencing (BAS, quantitative PCR (qPCR and culture-dependent analysis, ACA fermentations were shown to follow a consistent fermentation progression, initially dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and a range of oxidative yeasts in the first month, then ceding to Saccharomyces spp. and Lactobacillales for the following year. After one year of fermentation, Brettanomyces bruxellensis was the dominant yeast population (occasionally accompanied by minor populations of Candida spp., Pichia spp., and other yeasts and Lactobacillales remained dominant, though various aerobic bacteria became more prevalent. This work demonstrates that ACA exhibits a conserved core microbial succession in absence of inoculation, supporting the role of a resident brewhouse microbiota. These findings establish this core microbial profile of spontaneous beer fermentations as a target for production control points and quality standards for these beers.

  10. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-02

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  12. Diversity of Saccharomyces strains on grapes and winery surfaces: analysis of their contribution to fermentative flora of Malbec wine from Mendoza (Argentina) during two consecutive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, L; Dalcero, A; Masuelli, R; Combina, M

    2007-06-01

    Spontaneous fermentations are still conducted by several wineries in different regions of Argentina as a common practice. Native Saccharomyces strains associated with winery equipment, grape and spontaneous fermentations of Malbec musts from "Zona Alta del Río Mendoza" region (Argentina) were investigated during 2001 and 2002 in the same cellar. Low occurrence of Saccharomyces on grapes and their limited participation during fermentation were confirmed. Strain sequential substitution during fermentation was observed. Between 30% and 60% of yeast population at the end of fermentation was coming from yeasts already present in the winery. A stable and resident Saccharomyces micro-flora in the winery was confirmed. It exhibited a dynamic behaviour during season and between years. Commercial strains were found during fermentation in different percentages, but their presence on winery equipment was low. The present work represents a first approach to winery yeast and spontaneous fermentation Saccharomyces population dynamics in an important viticultural region from Argentina that has never been characterized before. The results obtained have an important significance for the local industry, showing for the first time the real situation of the microbial ecology of alcoholic fermentation in an industrial winery from Mendoza, Argentina.

  13. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  15. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, C.; Cox, I.; Baldey, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  16. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, C; Cox, I; Baldey, A [St. F.X. Cabrini Hospital, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    2002-07-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  17. Continuous alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidrkal, M; Nejedly, A

    1956-01-01

    Results are given of investigations on the continuous production of ethanol on a laboratory and on a semi-commercial scale. The suggested devices are particularly described. Under constant conditions the production cycle required 12 to 17 days, the acidity being 4.0 to 415 ml. 0.1 N NaOH/100 ml and the concentration of fermented wort 10.5 to 11%. The maximum production from 1 h of fermentation space during 24 h was 8.67 l of absolute alcohol when the efflux was divided into several basins; when the efflux of sweet wort was collected into one basin only, the maximum production was 7.20 l of absolute alcohol. The amount of alcohol produced was 62.20 l/100 kg sugar.

  18. Butanol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hongo, M

    1960-07-19

    BuOH is produced by inoculating a carbohydrate mash with Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum (ATCC 13564), fermenting the inoculated mash, and recovering the BuOH by fractional distillation. Thus, a medium containing sugar 4, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.2, Ca superphosphate 0.1, and CoCO/sub 3/ 0.3% is inoculated with a C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum culture and cultivated at 30/sup 0/ until the acidity begins to decrease. Then the culture is transferred to a second medium of similar composition. This transfer is repeated a third time, and then the culture is transferred to the main mash (same composition) and fermented for 60 hours at 30/sup 0/. The yield of BuOH is 11.5 g/1 or 25.5% of the sugar supplied.

  19. Kivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karenzi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve the use of indigenous microorganisms, leading to the production of a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product, which is popular in Rwanda. Kivuguto is produced by traditional spontaneous acidification of raw milk by a microflora present both on utensils and containers used for milk preservation and in the near environment of cattle. Thus, this method does not allow the shelf stability of the product. Faced to such a situation, modern dairies now produce fermented milk and other dairy products using exotic strains. The main objectives of this paper are firstly, to provide documentation on the traditional production of kivuguto, as well as its by-products, and secondly, to describe the current situation of the dairy industry in Rwanda.

  20. Continuous alcoholic fermentation of molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierz, J

    1962-01-01

    The first Polish plant for ontinuous alcohol fermentation of molasses is described. Continuous fermentation permits a better use of the installation, automatic control, and shorter fermentation time. It yields more CO/sub 2/ for dry ice manufacture and decreases corrosion of apparatus. From 22 to 24% mash is used, giving a yield of 61.1 of 100-proof alc./kg. sucrose and an average of 37 kg. of dry yeast/1000 l. alcohol

  1. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  2. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  4. Identification of the potential inhibitors of malolactic fermentation in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da MOTA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This exploratory work aims to identify the potential inhibitors of lactic bacterial growth and to propose enological practices to guarantee the occurrence of spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF in wines from traditional and double-pruning management harvests in southeast Brazil. One white wine from a summer harvest and one red wine from a winter harvest that failed to complete MLF were utilized as comparative models to identify inhibitor compounds to lactic bacteria. Wine composition, alcoholic-fermentation temperature and bacterial strain contribute to the success or failure of MLF. Temperatures below 12 °C during alcoholic fermentation decrease lactic bacterial metabolism and may impair the bacteria’s growth after yeast cells lysis. A must pH below 3.2 in a summer harvest impairs bacterial growth, and the association of low pH with a free-SO2 concentration above 10 mg L-1 may inhibit MLF. For grapes with a high sugar content, harvested in the winter cycle, enologists should keep the alcohol content below 15% and control the alcoholic-fermentation temperature.

  5. The environmental and intrinsic yeast diversity of Cuban cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Maura, Yurelkys; Balzarini, Tom; Clapé Borges, Pablo; Evrard, Pierre; De Vuyst, Luc; Daniel, H-M

    2016-09-16

    The environmental yeast diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations in east Cuba was investigated. Seven fermentations, 25 equipment- and handling-related samples, and 115 environmental samples, such as flowers, leaf and cocoa pod surfaces, as well as drosophilid insects, were analysed. The basic fermentation parameters temperature and pH were recorded during five fermentations for at least six days. A total of 435 yeast isolates were identified by a combination of PCR-fingerprinting of genomic DNA with the M13 primer and sequence analysis of DNA from representative isolates, using the internal transcribed spacer region, the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, and an actin gene-encoding fragment, as required. Among 65 yeast species detected, Pichia manshurica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae were the most frequently isolated species, obtained from five and four fermentations, followed in frequency by Pichia kudriavzevii from two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only occasionally. Cocoa fermentation yeast species were also present on processing equipment. The repeated isolation of a preliminarily as Yamadazyma sp. classified species, a group of strains similar to Saccharomycopsis crataegensis from fermentations and equipment, and the isolation of fifteen other potentially novel yeast species in low numbers provides material for further studies. Environmental samples showed higher yeast diversity compared to the fermentations, included the most frequent fermentation species, whereas the most frequently isolated environmental species were Candida carpophila, Candida conglobata, and Candida quercitrusa. Potential selective advantages of the most frequently isolated species were only partly explained by the physiological traits tested. For instance, tolerance to higher ethanol concentrations was more frequent in strains of Pichia spp. and S. cerevisiae compared to Hanseniaspora spp.; the ability to also assimilate ethanol might have

  6. Protein extraction method for the proteomic study of a Mexican traditional fermented starchy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, C; Barkla, B J; Wacher, C; Delgado-Olivares, L; Rodríguez-Sanoja, R

    2014-12-05

    Pozol is a traditional fermented maize dough prepared in southeastern Mexico. Wide varieties of microorganisms have already been isolated from this spontaneously fermented product; and include fungi, yeasts, and lactic- and non-lactic acid bacteria. Pozol presents physicochemical features different from that of other food fermentation products, such as a high starch content, in addition to a low protein content. It is these qualities that make it intractable for protein recovery and characterization. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to optimize the recovery of proteins from the pozol dough following fermentation, by reducing the complexity of the mixture prior to 2D-PAGE analysis and sequencing, to allow the characterization of the metaproteome of the dough. The proteome of 15day fermented maize dough was characterized; proteins were separated and analyzed by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Subsequent sequence homology database searching, identified numerous bacterial and fungi proteins; with a predominance of lactic acid bacterial proteins, mainly from the Lactobacillus genus. Fungi are mainly represented by Aspergillus. For dominant genera, the most prevalent proteins belong to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, which suggest that at 15days of fermentation not only fungi but also bacteria are metabolically active. Several methodologies have been employed to study pozol, with a specific focus toward the identification of the microbiota of this fermented maize dough, using both traditional cultivation techniques and culture independent molecular techniques. However to date, the dynamics of this complex fermentation is not well understood. With the purpose to gain further insight into the nature of the fermentation, we used proteomic technologies to identify the origin of proteins and enzymes that facilitate substrate utilization and ultimately the development of the microbiota and fermentation. In this paper we overcome the first general

  7. Fermentation of sugar-beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Krishtul, F B

    1956-08-25

    Sugar-beet molasses is fermented with yeast separated from the mash, sterilized, and reactivated. To reduce sugar losses and hasten fermentation, the yeast is removed from the mash as the cells fall to the bottom during the fermentation process.

  8. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  9. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  10. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  11. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  12. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  13. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  14. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  15. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal accumulation of air in the ...

  17. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tarhana, a traditional Turkish fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengun, Ilkin Yucel; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Karapinar, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Tarhana is a traditional fermented product produced from a mixture of spontaneously fermented yogurt and wheat flour in Turkey. The aims of the present study were to enumerate and identify for the first time by molecular biology-based methods predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated during...... processing of Tarhana. Samples were collected from eight different regions of Turkey. In order to explore the relationship between raw material and the microbiology of Tarhana, yogurt and wheat flour were also analyzed. A total of 226 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates were obtained from MRS, M17...... and S. thermophilus was found to be the yogurt....

  18. Carbon source for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-25

    Molasses is hydrolyzed and treated with Ca/sup 2 +/ to produce fructose and a good C-source for glutamic acid and lysine fermentation. Thus, sugarcane molasses was diluted with H/sub 2/O, adjusted to pH 1.5, and kept at 60/sup 0/ for 4 hr. Three liters of this solution was cooled to 0/sup 0/ and 262 g Ca(OH)/sub 2/ in a 30% solution was added, along with seed crystals of Ca-fructose additional product. Crystal addition product was recovered and dissolved; the solution contained 6.4g glucose and 168 g fructose, a 50% yield of fructose. The mother liquor was neutralized with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to precipitate the Ca. The supernatant contained 284 g glucose and 159 g fructose and was used as the C source in a fermentation medium in which Coryne-bacterium lilum produced glutamic acid. Yield was 49.0 g/L compared to 48.3 g/L when molasses was used as the C source.

  19. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ziprasidone-induced spontaneous orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boora, K; Chiappone, K; Dubovsky, S; Xu, J

    2010-06-01

    Neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenic patients has been associated with sexual dysfunction, including impotence and decreased libido. Spontaneous ejaculation without sexual arousal during typical antipsychotic treatment is a rare condition that has been described with zuclopentixol, trifluoperazine, and thiothixene. Here, we are reporting a case of spontaneous orgasm with ziprasidone in a bipolar patient. This patient began to repeatedly experience spontaneous sexual arousal and orgasm, which she had never experienced in the past. Ziprasidone might be causing an increase in sexual orgasm by 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, which preclinical evidence suggests that it facilitates dopamine release in the cortex.

  1. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eLiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72. The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  2. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Qiao, Kai; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zi-Yong; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-01-01

    Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72). The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  3. Effect of bioaugmented inoculation on microbiota dynamics during solid-state fermentation of Daqu starter using autochthonous of Bacillus, Pediococcus, Wickerhamomyces and Saccharomycopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Lin, Weifeng; Liu, Xiong; Wang, Xiaowen; Gan, Xing; Luo, Lixin; Lin, Wei-Tie

    2017-02-01

    Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor and vinegar production, is still manufactured through a traditional spontaneous solid-state fermentation process with no selected microorganisms are intentionally inoculated. The aim of this work was to analyze the microbiota dynamics during the solid-state fermentation process of Daqu using a traditional and bioaugmented inoculation with autochthonous of Bacillus, Pediococcus, Saccharomycopsis and Wickerhamomyces at an industrial scale. Highly similar dynamics of physicochemical parameters, enzymatic activities and microbial communities were observed during the traditional and bioaugmented solid-state fermentation processes. Both in the two cases, groups of Streptophyta, Rickettsiales and Xanthomonadales only dominated the first two days, but Bacillales and Eurotiales became predominant members after 2 and 10 days fermentation, respectively. Phylotypes of Enterobacteriales, Lactobacillales, Saccharomycetales and Mucorales dominated the whole fermentation process. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in microbial structure was observed between the traditional and bioaugmented fermentation processes. However, slightly higher microbial richness was found during the bioaugmented fermentation process after 10 days fermentation. Our results reinforced the microbiota dynamic stability during the solid-state fermentation process of Daqu, and might aid in controlling the traditional Daqu manufacturing process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quark potential of spontaneous strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Kleinert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings

  5. Hematome Extra - Dural Rachidien Spontane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cl. Gros

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Four personal cases of Spontaneous Spinal Epidurdl Hemerrhage are Reported. And 29 additional cases have been analysed by reviewing the literature. The clinical radiologcal and surgical aspects were discussed.

  6. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  7. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  8. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  9. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.

  10. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  11. Energy consumption in fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, P

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the present publication is to limit energy used to aerate the anaerobic fermentation processes. In yeast production the aeration process consumes the greatest part of the total energy required. A mathematical model, based on literature data, is presented for a yeast fermenter. the effect of various aeration and raw product strategies can be calculated. Simulation of yeast fermentation proves it to be independent of oxygen transport. However interaction between flow conditions and biological kinetics (glucose effect) is a limiting factor. With many feeding point the use of enegy for aeration (mixing) can be reduced to 1/3 of the present one.

  12. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-δ region with primer pair δ2/δ12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  13. Fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) using L. plantarum BFE 5092 and L. fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Kabisch, Jan; Rösch, Niels; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Frommherz, Lara; Nielsen, Dennis S; Krych, Lukasz; Franz, Charles M A P

    2016-12-05

    Vegetables produced in Africa are sources of much needed micronutrients and fermentation is one way to enhance the shelf life of these perishable products. To prevent post-harvest losses and preserve African leafy vegetables, Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 and Lactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains were investigated for their application in fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) leaves. They were inoculated at 1×10 7 cfu/ml and grew to a maximum level of 10 8 cfu/ml during 24h submerged fermentation. The strains utilized simple sugars (i.e., glucose, fructose, and sucrose) in the kale to quickly reduce the pH from pH6.0 to pH3.6 within 24h. The strains continued to produce both d and l lactic acid up to 144h, reaching a maximum concentration of 4.0g/l. Fermentations with pathogens inoculated at 10 4 cfu/ml showed that the quick growth of the starters inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as other enterobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4-region) amplicon sequencing showed that in the spontaneous fermentations a microbial succession took place, though with marked differences in biodiversity from fermentation to fermentation. The fermentations inoculated with starters however were clearly dominated by both the inoculated strains throughout the fermentations. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting showed that the strains established themselves at approx. equal proportions. Although vitamins C, B 1 and B 2 decreased during the fermentation, the final level of vitamin C in the product was an appreciable concentration of 35mg/100g. In conclusion, controlled fermentation of kale offers a promising avenue to prevent spoilage and improve the shelf life and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Feng Chan; Ching-Cheng Huang; Ming-Yuan Lee; Yung-Sheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  15. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  16. The impact of yeast starter cultures on the microbial communities and volatile compounds in cocoa fermentation and the resulting sensory attributes of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Nádia Nara; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2016-02-01

    Theobroma cacao seeds are the main raw material for chocolate production. During their fermentation, a succession of microorganisms are responsible for the physicochemical changes occurring in the pulp and inside the beans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast inoculation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA11, Pichia kluivery CCMA0237, and Hanseniaspora uvarum CCMA0236) on the profile of the volatile compounds and microbial communities in cocoa fermentation. The resulting chocolate was also evaluated by temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) analyses. The dominant microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation were S. cerevisiae, H. uvarum, H. guilliermondii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus sp., and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Similarly, S. cerevisiae, P. kluyveri, Candida sp., Pediococcus sp., and A. pasteurianus were the predominant microorganisms assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) in inoculated fermentation. Sixty-seven volatile compounds were detected and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) at the end of fermentation and chocolates. The main group of volatile compound found after the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations was esters (41 and 39 %, respectively). In the chocolates, the main group was acids (73 and 44 % from the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations, respectively). The TDS analyses showed a dominance of bitter and cocoa attributes in both chocolates. However, in the inoculated chocolate, lingering fruity notes were more intense, while the chocolate produced by spontaneous fermentation was more astringent. Thus, the inoculation of yeast influenced the microbial profile, which likely affected the volatile compounds that affect sensory characteristics, resulting in chocolate with dominant bitter, cocoa, and fruity attributes.

  17. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  18. Free Sorting and Association Task: A Variant of the Free Sorting Method Applied to Study the Impact of Dried Sourdough as an Ingredienton the Related Bread Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétel, Cécile; Courcoux, Philippe; Génovesi, Noémie; Rouillé, Jocelyn; Onno, Bernard; Prost, Carole

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new variant of the free sorting method developed to analyze the relationship between dried sourdough (DSD) and corresponding DSD-bread (bread) odors. The comparison of DSD and bread sensory characteristics is complicated due to their specific features (for example, acidity for DSD and a characteristic "baked bread" aroma for breads). To analyze them at the same time, this study introduces a new variant of the free sorting method, which adds an association task between DSD and bread after those of free sorting and verbalization. This separation makes it possible to change the product between tasks. It was applied to study the impact of 6 European commercial DSDs on their related DSD-bread. According to our results, this methodology enabled an association between different kinds of products and thus underlined the relationship between them. Moreover, as this methodology contains a verbalization task, it provides product descriptions. Compared with the standard free sorting method, free sorting with an association task gives the distance (i) between DSDs, (ii) between breads, and (iii) between DSDs and breads. The separation of product assessment through sorting and association avoids the separation of products according to their category (DSD or bread). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  20. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as well as sustainability. Meanwhile, the hidden knowledge behind the complicated and somehow empirical solid-state fermentation process of Chinese liquor can enrich the food sector to improve our qua...

  1. Molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Jayaprabha Agaliya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are non pathogenic organism widely distributed in nature typically involved in a large number of spontaneous food fermentation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteriocinogenic lactobacilli from fermented idli batter which can find application in biopreservation and biomedicine. Eight most promising lactobacilli were chosen from twenty two isolates based on their spectrum of activity against other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens. The eight lactobacilli were characterized based on the various classical phenotypic tests, physiological tests and biochemical tests including various carbohydrate utilization profiles. All isolates were homo fermentative, catalase, and gelatin negative. Molecular characterization was performed by RAPD, 16S rRNA analysis, 16S ARDRA, and Multiplex PCR for species identification. RAPD was carried out using the primer R2 and M13. Five different clusters were obtained based on RAPD indicating strain level variation. 16S rRNA analysis showed 99 to 100% homology towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The restriction digestion pattern was similar for all the isolates with the restriction enzyme AluI. The subspecies were identified by performing Multiplex PCR using species specific primer. Among the five clusters, three clusters were clearly identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis.

  2. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  3. Effect of solid state fermentation of peanut shell on its dye adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayang; Wang, Zhixin; Li, Hongyan; Hu, Changwei; Raymer, Paul; Huang, Qingguo

    2018-02-01

    The effect of solid state fermentation of peanut shell to produce beneficial laccase and on its dye adsorption performance was evaluated. The resulting residues from solid fermentation were tested as sorbents (designated as SFs) in comparison to the raw peanut shell (RPS) for their ability to remove crystal violet from water. The fermentation process reduced the adsorption capacity (q m ) of SF by about 50%, and changed the sorptive behavior when compared to the RPS. The Langmuir model was more suitable for fitting adsorption by SFs. q m was positively correlated with the surface area of peanut shell, but negatively correlated with acid detergent lignin content. For all the sorbents tested, the process was spontaneous and endothermic, and the adsorption followed both the pseudo 1st and 2nd order kinetic model and the film diffusion model. Dye adsorption efficiency was greater when SFs dispersed solution than when placed in filter packets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Lefeber, Timothy; Bahrim, Bakhtiar; Lee, Ong Seng; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2013-09-01

    Two spontaneous Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations (one farm, two plantation plots) were investigated. Physical parameters, microbial community dynamics, yeast and bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the respective fermented dry cocoa beans. Similar microbial growth and metabolite profiles were obtained for the two fermentations. Low concentrations of citric acid were found in the fresh pulp, revealing low acidity of the raw material. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates glucose, fructose, and citric acid by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the prevalent species of the two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Acetobacter ghanensis were also found during the mid-phase of the fermentation processes. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Tatumella saanichensis and Enterobacter sp. were present in the beginning of the fermentations and they could be responsible for the degradation of citric acid and/or the production of gluconic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The presence of facultative heterofermentative LAB during the fermentations caused a high production of lactic acid. Finally, as these fermentations were carried out with high-quality raw material and were characterised by a restricted microbial species diversity, resulting in successfully fermented dry cocoa beans and good chocolates produced thereof, it is likely that the prevailing species H. opuntiae, S. cerevisiae, Lb. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus were responsible for it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of natural fermentation process of Conservolea and Kalamàta table olives and developement of a protocol for the pre-selection of fermentation starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleve, Gianluca; Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Grieco, Francesco; Ramires, Francesca Anna; Mita, Giovanni; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. Conservolea and Kalamàta are the most important table olives Greek varieties. In the Greek system, the final product is obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. This natural fermentation process is not predictable and strongly influenced by the physical-chemical conditions and by the presence of microorganisms contaminating the olives. Natural fermentations of Conservolea and Kalamàta cultivars black olives were studied in order to determine microbiological, biochemical and chemical evolution during the process. Following the process conditions generally used by producers, in both cultivars, yeasts were detected throughout the fermentation, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appeared in the last staged of the process. A new optimized specific protocol was developed to select autochthonous yeast and LAB isolates that can be good candidates as starters. These microorganisms were pre-selected for their ability to adapt to model brines, to have beta-glucosidase activity, not to produce biogenic amines. Chemical compounds deriving by microbiological activities and associated to the three different phases (30, 90 and 180 days) of the fermentation process were identified and were proposed as chemical descriptors to follow the fermentation progress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  7. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  8. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus helveticus strains from traditional fermented dairy foods and antihypertensive effect of fermented milk of strain H9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongfu; Liu, Wenjun; Xue, Jiangang; Yang, Jie; Chen, Xia; Shao, Yuyu; Kwok, Lai-yu; Bilige, Menghe; Mang, Lai; Zhang, Heping

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension is a major global health issue which elevates the risk of a large world population to chronic life-threatening diseases. The inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an effective target to manage essential hypertension. In this study, the fermentation properties (titratable acidity, free amino nitrogen, and fermentation time) and ACE-inhibitory (ACEI) activity of fermented milks produced by 259 Lactobacillus helveticus strains previously isolated from traditional Chinese and Mongolian fermented foods were determined. Among them, 37 strains had an ACEI activity of over 50%. The concentrations of the antihypertensive peptides, Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro, were further determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The change of ACEI activity of the fermented milks of 3 strains exhibiting the highest ACEI activity upon gastrointestinal protease treatment was assayed. Fermented milks produced by strain H9 (IMAU60208) had the highest in vitro ACEI activity (86.4 ± 1.5%), relatively short fermentation time (7.5 h), and detectable Val-Pro-Pro (2.409 ± 0.229 µM) and Ile-Pro-Pro (1.612 ± 0.114 µM) concentrations. Compared with the control, a single oral dose of H9-fermented milk significantly attenuated the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by 15 to 18 mmHg during the 6 to 12 h after treatment. The long-term daily H9-fermented milk intake over 7 wk exerted significant antihypertensive effect to SHR, but not normotensive rats, and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower, by 12 and 10 mmHg, respectively, compared with the control receiving saline. The feeding of H9-fermented milk to SHR resulted in a significantly higher weight gain at wk 7 compared with groups receiving saline, commercial yogurt, and captopril. Our study identified a novel probiotic L. helveticus strain originated from kurut sampled from Tibet

  10. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  11. Fermentation reactions of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHITE, T G; SHUMAN, R D

    1961-10-01

    White, Thomas G. (U. S. Department of Agriculture, Ames, Iowa), and Richard D. Shuman. Fermentation reactions of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. J. Bacteriol. 82:595-599. 1961.-A study was made to determine the effect of four different basal media, to which fermentable carbon compounds had been added, upon 22 selected strains of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (insidiosa). Acid production was measured by (i) chemical indicator, (ii) change in pH, and (iii) production of titrable acidity. At least two determinations, usually four, were made for each test on each strain. The fermentation pattern varied according to the medium, the indicator, and the method of measuring acid production. Andrade's base plus serum was the most dependable medium because it permitted the least variation in the total number of different patterns. Of the three methods used to measure acid production, the chemical indicator gave the most valid and reproducible results. The within-strain variation was not extreme and most strains persisted in a given fermentation pattern under like conditions of growth and acid production. Results of the study indicated that, regardless of the medium and indicator routinely used, one should be familiar with the fermentation pattern of known strains of the erysipelas organism.

  12. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  13. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary bullae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Sekizawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural history of pulmonary bullae is often characterized by gradual, progressive enlargement. Spontaneous regression of bullae is, however, very rare. We report a case in which complete resolution of pulmonary bullae in the left upper lung occurred spontaneously. The management of pulmonary bullae is occasionally made difficult because of gradual progressive enlargement associated with abnormal pulmonary function. Some patients have multiple bulla in both lungs and/or have a history of pulmonary emphysema. Others have a giant bulla without emphysematous change in the lungs. Our present case had treated lung cancer with no evidence of local recurrence. He had no emphysematous change in lung function test and had no complaints, although the high resolution CT scan shows evidence of underlying minimal changes of emphysema. Ortin and Gurney presented three cases of spontaneous reduction in size of bulla. Interestingly, one of them had a marked decrease in the size of a bulla in association with thickening of the wall of the bulla, which was observed in our patient. This case we describe is of interest, not only because of the rarity with which regression of pulmonary bulla has been reported in the literature, but also because of the spontaneous improvements in the radiological picture in the absence of overt infection or tumor. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  15. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  16. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  17. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  18. Profiling of dynamic changes in the microbial community during the soy sauce fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Quanzeng; Wang, Hongbin; Chen, Zhixin; Lv, Zhijia; Xie, Yufeng; Lu, Fuping

    2013-10-01

    Soy sauce is a traditional condiment manufactured by natural inoculation and mixed culture fermentation. As is well known, it is the microbial community that plays an important role in the formation of its flavors. However, to date, its dynamic changes during the long period of fermentation process are still unclear, intensively constraining the improvement and control of the soy sauce quality. In this work, we revealed the dynamic changes of the microbial community by combining a cultured dependent method and a cultured independent method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results indicated that the two methods verified and complemented each other in profiling microbial community, and that significant dynamics of the microbial community existed during the fermentation process, especially the strong inhibition of the growth of most of the microbes when entering into the mash stage from the koji stage. In the analysis of bacterial community, Staphylococcus and Bacillus were found to be the dominant bacteria and detected in the whole fermentation process. Kurthia and Klebsiella began to appear in the koji stage and then fade away in the early stage of the mash fermentation. In the analysis of fungal community, Aspergillus sojae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were found to be the dominant fungi in the koji and mash fermentation, respectively. It was clearly shown that when A. sojae decreased and disappeared in the middle stage of the mash fermentation, Z. rouxii appeared and increased at the meantime. Aspergillus parasiticus, Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon asahii also appeared in the koji and the early period of the mash fermentation and disappeared thereafter. Similar to Z. rouxii, Millerozyma farinosa and Peronospora farinosa were also found spontaneously which appeared in the mid-late period of the mash fermentation. The principal component analysis suggested that the microbial community underwent significant changes in

  19. Lactic acid bacteria as bio-preservatives in bakery – Role of sourdough systems in the quality, safety and shelf life of bread

    OpenAIRE

    Koy, Rebaz

    2017-01-01

    Microbial contamination and survival during storage of bread are a cause of both health concerns and economic losses. Traditional fermentation systems were studied as sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antagonistic potential against foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms, with the aim to improve the safety and shelf life of bakery products. The antagonistic activity of four types of buttermilk (BM) products fermented with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was evaluated against a...

  20. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  1. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  2. Alcoholic fermentation of starchy and sugary materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, S P

    1958-06-25

    To promote complete fermentation of the sugar and to reduce the formation of glycerol and other by-products, the ester-aldehyde fraction is introduced to the fermentation mixture at the beginning of the process.

  3. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  4. Enhanced substrate conversion effiency of fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate and the second fermentation product is in a more oxidised state than the substrate yet in a less oxidised state than the final oxidation product CO2, such that the concurrent synthesis of the firs...

  5. Enterobacter xiangfangensis sp. nov., isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough, and reclassification of Enterobacter sacchari Zhu et al. 2013 as Kosakonia sacchari comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng

    2014-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain, 10-17(T), was isolated from traditional sourdough in Heilongjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) gene sequence analysis, DNA gyrase (gyrB) gene sequence analysis, initiation translation factor 2 (infB) gene sequence analysis, ATP synthase β subunit (atpD) gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 10-17(T) was phylogenetically related to Enterobacter hormaechei CIP 103441(T), Enterobacter cancerogenus LMG 2693(T), Enterobacter asburiae JCM 6051(T), Enterobacter mori LMG 25706(T), Enterobacter ludwigii EN-119(T) and Leclercia adecarboxylata LMG 2803(T), having 99.5%, 99.3%, 98.7%, 98.5%, 98.4% and 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the present study, a novel species, Enterobacter xiangfangensis sp. nov., is proposed and the type strain is 10-17(T) ( = LMG 27195(T) = NCIMB 14836(T) = CCUG 62994(T)). Enterobacter sacchari Zhu et al. 2013 was reclassified as Kosakonia sacchari comb. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB, infB and atpD gene sequence analysis and the type strain is strain SP1(T)( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  6. Performance evaluation of Pichia kluyveri, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial tequila fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Delgado, L; Herrera-López, E J; Arrizon, Javier; Arellano-Plaza, M; Gschaedler, A

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, industrial tequila production has used spontaneous fermentation or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. Despite the potential of non-Saccharomyces strains for alcoholic fermentation, few studies have been performed at industrial level with these yeasts. Therefore, in this work, Agave tequilana juice was fermented at an industrial level using two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus) with fermentation efficiency higher than 85 %. Pichia kluyveri (GRO3) was more efficient for alcohol and ethyl lactate production than S. cerevisiae (AR5), while Kluyveromyces marxianus (GRO6) produced more isobutanol and ethyl-acetate than S. cerevisiae (AR5). The level of volatile compounds at the end of fermentation was compared with the tequila standard regulation. All volatile compounds were within the allowed range except for methanol, which was higher for S. cerevisiae (AR5) and K. marxianus (GRO6). The variations in methanol may have been caused by the Agave tequilana used for the tests, since this compound is not synthesized by these yeasts.

  7. Monitoring of the microbiota profile in nukadoko, a naturally fermented rice bran bed for pickling vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shoko; Tsurii, Jun; Kawamoto, Tetsuhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2014-11-01

    Nukadoko is a fermented rice bran mash traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan. To date, the production of both homemade and commercial nukadoko depends on natural fermentation without using starter cultures. Here, we monitored chemical and microbiological changes in the initial batch fermentation of nukadoko. Nukadoko samples were prepared by spontaneous fermentation of four different brands of rice bran, and microbiome dynamics were analyzed for 2 months. In the first week, non-Lactobacillales lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which differed among the samples, grew proportionally to pH decrease and lactate increase. Thereafter, Lactobacillus plantarum started growing and consumed residual sugars, causing further lactate increase in nukadoko. Finally, microbial communities in all tested nukadoko samples were dominated by L. plantarum. Taken together, our results suggest that the mixture of the fast-growing LAB species and slow-growing L. plantarum may be used as a suitable starter culture to promote the initial fermentation of nukadoko. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing flora balance in the gastrointestinal tract of mice by lactic acid bacteria from Chinese sourdough and enzyme activities indicative of metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate by the flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Yu, Xiaomin; Wu, Yaoping; Chen, Xingxing; Wei, Hua; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of administration of 5 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Chinese sourdough on the flora balance of gastrointestinal tract of mice. We specifically measured Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus by plate count and real-time PCR methods, and α-glucosidase, lactate dehydrogenase, esterase, and aminopeptidase activities as indicative of metabolism of sugar, fat, and protein from LAB isolated from feces of mice in vitro. The results showed that administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201 and Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 lowered the uricacid index of serum. Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201, L. fermentum LFE0302, as well as Lactobacillus curvatus LCU0401 administration resulted in a reduction in the opportunistic pathogens (i.e., Enterococcus and Enterobacter), meanwhile, administration of L. fermentum LFE0302 and Lactobacillus sp. ULA0104 resulted in an increase in the counts of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 administration increased starch digestion of intestinal flora after 4wk of feeding and also resulted in increased α-glucosidase activity in the intestinal flora after 3wk of feeding. We found a similar trend in esterase activity after administration of L. acidophilus LAC0201 for 3wk. Hence, our study suggested that LAB from Chinese sourdough might be used as potential probiotics to strengthen the flora balance in gastrointestinal tract and positively change the metabolism of nutrients through bacterial enzyme activities. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case of Spontaneously Resolved Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kahraman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A condition of intrapleural air-space accumulation in individuals without any history of trauma or lung disease is called as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP. Sixteen-years-old male patient admitted with complains of chest pain and dyspnea beginning 3 day ago. On physical examination, severity of breath sounds decreased on right side. Chest radiograph was taken and right-sided pneumothorax was detected and tube thoracostomy was inserted. Two months ago the patient referred to a doctor with similar complaints and physical examination and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The radiograph was retrospectively examined and bilateral PSP was detected. We presented the case duo to spontaneous recovery of bilateral PSP is seen very rarely and so contributes data to the literature. In patients admitted to the clinic with chest pain and shortness of breath, pneumothorax should be considered at differential diagnosis.

  10. Alcoholic fermentation of stored sweet potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yutaka, Y; One, H

    1958-01-01

    Sweet potatoes were ground and stored in a ground hold. The stored sweet potatoes gave about 90% fermentation efficiency by the koji process. A lower fermentation efficiency by the amylo process was improved by adding 20 to 30 mg/100 ml of organic N. Inorganic N has no effect in improving the fermentation efficiency of the stored sweet potatoes by the amylo process.

  11. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... fermented ground cassava. J. T. Nwabanne ... The drying characteristics of fermented ground local variety of ... effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented .... Figure 2 shows that the bulk density of each cultivar ... very close thermal conductivities as depicted in the shape of Figure ...

  12. Enhanced substrate conversion efficiency of fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate

  13. Enhanced substrate conversion effiency of fermentation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Mooibroek, H.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fermentation technology. In particular the invention relates to fermentation processes for the production of a first and a second fermentation product by a single production organism wherein the first product is in a more reduced state than the substrate

  14. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  15. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used...

  16. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...

  17. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  18. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  19. Fermentation performance optimization in an ectopic fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotong; Geng, Bing; Zhu, Changxiong; Li, Hongna; He, Buwei; Guo, Hui

    2018-07-01

    Ectopic fermentation systems (EFSs) were developed for wastewater treatment. Previous studies have investigated the ability of thermophilic bacteria to improve fermentation performance in EFS. Continuing this research, we evaluated EFS performance using principle component analysis and investigated the addition of different proportions of cow dung. Viable bacteria communities were clustered and identified using BOX-AIR-based repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and 16S rDNA analysis. The results revealed optimal conditions for the padding were maize straw inoculated with thermophilic bacteria. Adding 20% cow dung yielded the best pH values (6.94-8.56), higher temperatures, increased wastewater absorption, improved litter quality, and greater microbial quantities. The viable bacteria groups were enriched by the addition of thermophilic consortium, and exogenous strains G21, G14, G4-1, and CR-15 were detected in fermentation process. The proportion of Bacillus species in treatment groups reached 70.37% after fermentation, demonstrating that thermophilic bacteria, especially Bacillus, have an important role in EFS, supporting previous predictions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of two osmoethanol tolerant yeast strain to ferment must from Tempranillo dried grapes: effect on wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lerma, N; Peinado, R A

    2011-01-31

    The must from Tempranillo dried grapes was divided into four batches to produce sweet wine. The first one was fortified with ethanol up to 12% (v/v) to avoid fermentation (traditional way). Other two batches were partially fermented with two osmoethanol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (X4 and X5). The last one was fermented with native yeast by spontaneous fermentation. Wines fermented partially with the strains X4 and X5 show high volatile acidity values (above 2g/L expressed as acetic acid), and a glycerol concentration around 20 g/L. Both strains also produce high amount of carboxylic acids and therefore the wines show a high ethyl ester concentration. Aromatic series were obtained for all the wines by grouping aroma compounds according to their odor descriptors. The series of the fermented wines with higher values in relation with the control wine were fruity, sweet and fatty, emphasizing the fruity series in the samples fermented with the X4 and X5 strains. The sensorial analysis of the wine samples by a tasting panel put in evidence that the musts fermented with the osmoethanol tolerant yeasts were better valued than the rest of the wine samples. The must fermented with the X4 strain obtained the maximum score in terms of aroma and flavour. So, the use of these osmoethanol tolerant S. cerevisiae strains could be a suitable alternative to produce sweet wines from must with high sugar concentration. The wines obtained this way are chemically and organoleptically more complex than those elaborated traditionally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Viabilitas Lactobacillus Plantarum 1 yang Diisolasi dari Susu Kedelai Terfermentasi Spontan terhadap Asam Klorida dan Garam Empedu

    OpenAIRE

    Apridani, Elisa; ', Yusmarini; ', Rahmayuni

    2014-01-01

    Most of probiotic isolate is from overseas therefore it needs effort to obtain probiote acid lactid bacteria indigenus.Thepurposeof the research was to obtain viability of Lactobacillus plantarum 1 that isolated from spontaneous fermented soymilk on acid chloride and oxgall. This research used isolate of Lactobacillus plantarum 1 R.11.1.2, Lactobacillus plantarum 1 R.1.3.2,Lactobacillus acidophilus FNCC 0051 and Streptococcus thermophilus FNCC 0040 on medium addition with chloride acid at pH...

  2. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  3. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  4. Identification of pOENI-1 and Related Plasmids in Oenococcus oeni Strains Performing the Malolactic Fermentation in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Marion; Bilhère, Eric; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Moine, Virginie; Lucas, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids in lactic acid bacteria occasionally confer adaptive advantages improving the growth and behaviour of their host cells. They are often associated to starter cultures used in the food industry and could be a signature of their superiority. Oenococcus oeni is the main lactic acid bacteria species encountered in wine. It performs the malolactic fermentation that occurs in most wines after alcoholic fermentation and contributes to their quality and stability. Industrial O. oeni starters may be used to better control malolactic fermentation. Starters are selected empirically by virtue of their fermentation kinetics and capacity to survive in wine. This study was initiated with the aim to determine whether O. oeni contains plasmids of technological interest. Screening of 11 starters and 33 laboratory strains revealed two closely related plasmids, named pOENI-1 (18.3-kb) and pOENI-1v2 (21.9-kb). Sequence analyses indicate that they use the theta mode of replication, carry genes of maintenance and replication and two genes possibly involved in wine adaptation encoding a predicted sulphite exporter (tauE) and a NADH:flavin oxidoreductase of the old yellow enzyme family (oye). Interestingly, pOENI-1 and pOENI-1v2 were detected only in four strains, but this included three industrial starters. PCR screenings also revealed that tauE is present in six of the 11 starters, being probably inserted in the chromosome of some strains. Microvinification assays performed using strains with and without plasmids did not disclose significant differences of survival in wine or fermentation kinetics. However, analyses of 95 wines at different phases of winemaking showed that strains carrying the plasmids or the genes tauE and oye were predominant during spontaneous malolactic fermentation. Taken together, the results revealed a family of related plasmids associated with industrial starters and indigenous strains performing spontaneous malolactic fermentation that possibly

  5. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  6. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  7. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  8. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20–40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting...... yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production...

  9. Korean traditional fermented soybean products: Jang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwa Shin

    2015-03-01

    Fermented products are going beyond the boundaries of their use as mere side dishes, and are seeing significant increases in their use as a functional food. Kanjang (fermented soy sauce, Doenjang (fermented soybean paste, and Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste are the most well-known fermented products in Korea. These products occupy an important place in people's daily lives as seasonings and are used in many side dishes. It has been proven through clinical studies that these products have many health benefits, such as their ability to fight cancer and diabetes, and to prevent obesity and constipation.

  10. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  11. Spontaneous fission of 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide 259 Md were obtained. 259 Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of 259 No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. 259 Md, together with 258 Fm and 259 Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of 258 Fm and 259 Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for 259 Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in 259 Md. 6 figures

  12. Spontaneous Scalarization: Dead or Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luis; Gerosa, Davide; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Horbatsch, Michael; Macedo, Caio; Okada da Silva, Hector; Pani, Paolo; Sotani, Hajime; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In 1993, Damour and Esposito-Farese showed that a wide class of scalar-tensor theories can pass weak-field gravitational tests and exhibit nonperturbative strong-field deviations away from General Relativity in systems involving neutron stars. These deviations are possible in the presence of ``spontaneous scalarization,'' a phase transition similar in nature to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. More than twenty years after the original proposal, binary pulsar experiments have severely constrained the possibility of spontaneous scalarization occurring in nature. I will show that these experimental constraints have important implications for the torsional oscillation frequencies of neutron stars and for the so-called ``I-Love-Q'' relations in scalar-tensor theories. I will also argue that there is still hope to observe strong scalarization effects, despite the strong experimental bounds on the original mechanism. In particular, I will discuss two mechanisms that could produce strong scalarization in neutron stars: anisotropy and multiscalarization. This work was supported by NSF CAREER Award PHY-1055103.

  13. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  14. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  15. ENDOSPORES OF THERMOPHILIC FERMENTATIVE BACTERIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Marta

    2016-01-01

    solely based on endospores of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which presumably constitute only a small fraction of the total thermophilic endospore community reaching cold environments. My PhD project developed an experimental framework for using thermophilic fermentative endospores (TFEs) to trace...

  16. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  17. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  18. Effects of dietary fibers with different fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza da Silva, Carol; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; van den Borne, Joost J G C

    2013-02-17

    Dietary fibers can be fermented in the colon, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and secretion of satiety-related peptides. Fermentation characteristics (fermentation kinetics and SCFA-profile) differ between fibers and could impact their satiating potential. We investigated the effects of fibers with varying fermentation characteristics on feeding motivation in adult female pigs. Sixteen pair-housed pigs received four diets in four periods in a Latin square design. Starch from a control (C) diet was exchanged, based on gross energy, for inulin (INU), guar gum (GG), or retrograded tapioca starch (RS), each at a low (L) and a high (H) inclusion level. This resulted in a decreased metabolizable energy intake when feeding fiber diets as compared with the C diet. According to in vitro fermentation measurements, INU is rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of propionate, GG is moderately rapidly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of acetate, and RS is slowly fermentable and yields relatively high amounts of butyrate. Feeding motivation was assessed using behavioral tests at 1h, 3h and 7h after the morning meal, and home pen behavioral observations throughout the day. The number of wheel turns paid for a food reward in an operant test was unaffected by diet. Pigs on H-diets ran 25% slower for a food reward in a runway test than pigs on L-diets, and showed less spontaneous physical activity and less stereotypic behavior in the hours before the afternoon meal, reflecting increased interprandial satiety. Reduced feeding motivation with increasing inclusion level was most pronounced for RS, as pigs decreased speed in the runway test and tended to have a lower voluntary food intake in an ad libitum food intake test when fed RS-H. In conclusion, increasing levels of fermentable fibers in the diet seemed to enhance satiety in adult pigs, despite a reduction in metabolizable energy supply. RS was the most satiating fiber

  19. Fermented Nut-Based Vegan Food: Characterization of a Home made Product and Scale-Up to an Industrial Pilot-Scale Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Pasini, Federica; Riciputi, Ylenia; Vannini, Lucia; Gozzi, Giorgia; Balestra, Federica; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2018-03-01

    Because of the impossibility to consume food of animal origin, vegan consumers are looking for substitutes that could enrich their diet. Among many substitutes, fermented nut products are made from different nut types and obtained after soaking, grinding, and fermentation. Although other fermented vegetable products have been deeply investigated, there are few data about the fermentative processes of nut-based products and the microbial consortia able to colonize these products are not yet studied. This study characterized a hand-made vegan product obtained from cashew nut. Lactic acid bacteria responsible for fermentation were identified, revealing a succession of hetero- and homo-fermentative species during process. Successively, some lactic acid bacteria isolates from the home-made vegan product were used for a pilot-scale fermentation. The products obtained were characterized and showed features similar to the home-made one, although the microbiological hazards have been prevented through proper and rapid acidification, enhancing their safety features. Spontaneous fermented products are valuable sources of microorganisms that can be used in many food processes as starter cultures. The lactic acid bacteria isolated in this research can be exploited by industries to develop new foods and therefore to enter new markets. The use of selected starter cultures guarantees good organoleptic characteristics and food safety (no growth of pathogens). © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  1. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  2. MASS TRANSFER IN FERMENTATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shevchenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of anaerobic fermentation processes with the accumulation of dissolved ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide in the culture media are considered in the article.The solubility of CO2 is limited by the state of saturation in accordance with Henry’s law. This, with all else being equal, limits the mass transfer on the interface surface of yeast cells and the liquid phase of the medium. A phenomenological model of the media restoration technologies based on the unsaturation index on СО2 is developed. It is shown that this restoration in the existing technologies of fermentation of sugar-rich media occurs, to a limited extent, in self-organized flow circuits, with variable values of temperatures and hydrostatic pressures, due to the creation of unsaturated local zones.It is shown that increasing the height of the media in isovolumetric apparatuses leads to an increase in the levels of flow circuits organization and to the improvement of the desaturation and saturation modes of the liquid phase and intensification of mass transfer processes. Among the deterministic principles of restoring the saturation possibilities of the media, there are forced variables of pressures with time pauses on their lower and upper levels. In such cases, the possibilities of short-term intensive desaturations in full media volumes, the restoration of their saturation perception of CO2, and the activation of fermentation processes are achieved. This direction is technically feasible for active industrial equipment.The cumulative effect of the action of variable pressures and temperatures corresponds to the superposition principle, but at the final stages of fermentation, the pressure and temperature values are leveled, so the restoration of the unsaturation state slows down to the level of the bacteriostatic effect. The possibility of eliminating the disadvantages of the final stage of fermentation by means of programmable variable pressures is shown

  3. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  4. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS SHOWN BY THE ACTION OF VARIOUS MICROORGANISMS ON THE LACTIC FERMENTATION OF JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Manea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has established the most effective lactic acid bacteria used for fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices. The cultures were used for Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and culture of micro flora obtained spontaneous shoots. Lactic fermented juice was obtained from cabbage, carrots and beetroot. Working in these variants were determined lactic fermentation parameters and some of the bioactive compounds from this process: pH, reducing sugars, viable cell counts. Determination of reducing sugars calculated as glucose was conducted using the 3.5 dinitrosalicilic acid method (DNS method, pH was determined with a pH meter electronics. Chemical parameters listed were determined every two hours during the first 24 hours, then 48 and 72 hours in thermostatic conditions at 37 degrees C and 7 days storage at refrigerator temperature. At the end of the lactic fermentation, the lowest pH 4.31, which also provide juice conservation was obtained using a pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Reducing sugar is metabolized significantly when the juice of beetroot, fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture, 75.19%. The results may be an argument for obtaining juice fermented lactic acid, which are popular functional foods, to obtain a chemical composition and sensory their optimum.

  5. Stability of the pyrethroid pesticide bifenthrin in milled wheat during thermal processing, yeast and lactic acid fermentation, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorđević, Tijana M; Šiler-Marinković, Slavica S; Ðurović, Rada D; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana I; Gajić Umiljendić, Jelena S

    2013-10-01

    Pesticide residues have become an unavoidable part of food commodities. In the context of increased interest for food processing techniques as a tool for reducing pesticide residues, it is interesting to study the potential loss of pesticides during lactic acid and yeast fermentation. In the present paper the effect of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and storage on 23 °C on bifenthrin in wheat was investigated. In addition, the effect of sterilisation (applied in order to avoid contamination with wild microorganism strains, i.e. to determine the individual effects of used strains) on bifenthrin degradation was tested as well. No significant loss of bifenthrin was observed during storage, or after the sterilisation. During the lactic acid fermentation, reduction within wheat fortified with 0.5 mg kg(-1) was 42%, while quite lower within samples fortified with 2.5 mg kg(-1) , maximum 18%. In contrast, bifenthrin concentration was not reduced during yeast fermentation, as the reduction in fortified samples was in the range of spontaneous chemical degradation during incubation period. Possible bifenthrin contamination in wheat, in amounts over the maximum residue limits, could not be reduced by sterilisation or by yeast fermentation, but lactic acid fermentation could be an effective tool for minimising residual contamination. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto)-fermented pigeon pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Wu, She-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight) significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg) in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto-fermented pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.

  8. Caracterización de ácidos orgánicos, fracción volátil y otros compuestos orgánicos de una masa madre espontánea

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Pardo, Camila

    2014-01-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS, VOLATILE FRACTION AND OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS OF A SPONTANEOUS SOURDOUGH. The use of sourdough to elaborate bread is a very antic baking practice, highly used in a lot of countries. The sourdough contains a microflora acidifier constituted essentially of lactic acid bacteria -homofermentative and heterofermentative- and yeast. The association yeast-lactic acid bacteria is highly stable. Due to that characteristic, some sourdoughs maintain their properties fo...

  9. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  10. Spontaneous coronary dissection: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Gustavo J. Ventura; Deslandes, Alexandre de O.; Santos, Paulo César de Souza; Cruz, Alexandre de Araújo; Saraiva, Roberto Santos

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar o caso de um homem de 62 anos, com quadro de dissecção coronariana espontânea, localizada em 1/3 inicial de coronária circunflexa esquerda, tratado cirurgicamente com revascularização miocárdica. A operação realizada com sucesso demonstra, nesse caso, ser o único meio possível de cura.The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the case of a 62-year-old man, with spontaneous coronary dissection of the left circumflex artery, treated surgically by myocardial ...

  11. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  12. 27 CFR 24.197 - Production by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production by fermentation... fermentation. In producing special natural wine by fermentation, flavoring materials may be added before or during fermentation. Special natural wine produced by fermentation may be ameliorated in the same manner...

  13. Microbiological and Biochemical Characterization of Cassava Retting, a Traditional Lactic Acid Fermentation for Foo-Foo (Cassava Flour) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Brauman, A.; Keleke, S.; Malonga, M.; Miambi, E.; Ampe, F.

    1996-01-01

    The overall kinetics of retting, a spontaneous fermentation of cassava roots performed in central Africa, was investigated in terms of microbial-population evolution and biochemical and physicochemical parameters. During the traditional process, endogenous cyanogens were almost totally degraded, plant cell walls were lysed by the simultaneous action of pectin methylesterase and pectate lysate, and organic acids (C2 to C4) were produced. Most microorganisms identified were found to be facultat...

  14. Characterization of Acetic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Acetic Acid Fermentation of Rice Vinegar (Komesu) and Unpolished Rice Vinegar (Kurosu) Produced in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kumiko; Taniguchi, Mariko; Ujike, Satoshi; Ishihara, Nobuhiro; Mori, Hirotaka; Ono, Hisayo; Murooka, Yoshikatsu

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial strains were isolated from samples of Japanese rice vinegar (komesu) and unpolished rice vinegar (kurosu) fermented by the traditional static method. Fermentations have never been inoculated with a pure culture since they were started in 1907. A total of 178 isolates were divided into groups A and B on the basis of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR and random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analyses. The 16S ribosomal DNA sequences of strains belonging to each group showed similarities of more than 99% with Acetobacter pasteurianus. Group A strains overwhelmingly dominated all stages of fermentation of both types of vinegar. Our results indicate that appropriate strains of acetic acid bacteria have spontaneously established almost pure cultures during nearly a century of komesu and kurosu fermentation. PMID:11157275

  15. Microprocessors control of fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawzy, A S; Hinton, O R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents three schemes for the solution of the optimal control of fermentation process. It also shows the advantages of using microprocessors in controlling and monitoring this process. A linear model of the system is considered. An optimal feedback controller is determined which maintains the states (substrate and organisms concentration) at desired values when the system is subjected to disturbances in the influent substrate and organisms concentration. Simulation results are presented for the three cases.

  16. Manioc alcohol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, V; de Queiroz Araujo, N; Miceli, A; Souza e Silva, P C; da Silva Burle, J A

    1976-01-01

    EtOH was produced from dry cassava meal by first obtaining a glucose syrup by enzymic action, then fermenting the syrup with yeast. Bacillus subtilis amylase and Aspergillus awamori amyloglucosidase were prepared by growing the organisms on cassava meal. Both enzymes were used to saccharify the cassava starch to syrup. Saccharomyces cervisiae ATCC 1133 was then used in a continuous process to produce EtOH.

  17. Probiotics in Dairy Fermented Products

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Emiliane Andrade; Pires, Ana Clarissa dos Santos; Pinto, Maximiliano Soares; Jan, Gwénaël; Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes de

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the role of probiotics for human health began as early as 1908 when Metchnikoff associated the intake of fermented milk with prolonged life (Lourens-Hattingh and Vilijoen, 2001b). However, the relationship between intestinal microbiota and good health and nutrition has only recently been investigated. Therefore, it was not until the 1960’s that health benefit claims began appearing on foods labels. In recent years,there has been an increasing interest in probiotic foods, which...

  18. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  19. Ultrafiltration of hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Desiriani, Ria; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Hemicelulosic material is often used as the main substrate to obtain high-value products such as xylose. The five carbon sugar, xylose, could be further processed by fermentation to produce xylitol. However, not only the hemicellulose hydrolysate fermentation broth contains xylitol, but also metabolite products, residual substances, biomass and mineral salts. Therefore, in order to obtain the end products, various separation processes are required to separate and purify the desired product from the fermentation broth. One of the most promising downstream processing methods of fermentation broth clarification is ultrafiltration due to its potential for energy saving and higher purity. In addition, ultrafiltration membrane has a high performance in separating inhibitory components in the fermentation broth. This paper assesses the influence of operating conditions; including trans-membrane pressure, velocity, pH of the fermentation broth solutions, and also to the xylitol concentration in the product. The challenges of the ultrafiltration process will be pointed out.

  20. Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2012-04-01

    Quality of fermented sausages is affected by acidifying lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and colour- and flavour-promoting coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), whether or not used as starter culture. Artisan fermented sausages are often perceived as superior to industrial variants, partially because of the specific microbiota due to spontaneous acidification, which may be considered as an artisan characteristic. Therefore, two kinds of spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages were prepared (Belgian-type salami and Boulogne sausage), but with addition of a Staphylococcus carnosus culture. The Belgian-type salami was made from pork and beef, whereas the Boulogne sausage contained pork and horse meat. In all cases, Lactobacillus sakei was the dominant LAB species present on the raw materials and during fermentation, whereas enterococci remained present in the background. Enterobacteriaceae vanished after fermentation. The CNS species diversity on the raw materials was large and differed between the pork, beef, and horse meat. Nevertheless, this species diversity was annihilated during fermentation by the added S. carnosus culture. The volatiles fraction was mainly composed of aldehydes that originated from lipid oxidation and spices-derived compounds. Aromatic compounds that are typically associated to CNS activity, such as end-products from the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids, were not present in the Belgian-type salami and only marginally present in the Boulogne sausage. In conclusion, spontaneous acidification of Belgian-type fermented sausages leads to dominance of L. sakei and is no guarantee for bacterial contribution to the aroma profile when S. carnosus is added as a starter culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  2. Challenges in industrial fermentation technology research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Formenti, Luca Riccardo; Nørregaard, Anders; Bolic, Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Industrial fermentation processes are increasingly popular, and are considered an important technological asset for reducing our dependence on chemicals and products produced from fossil fuels. However, despite their increasing popularity, fermentation processes have not yet reached the same...... engineering challenges: scaling up and scaling down fermentation processes, the influence of morphology on broth rheology and mass transfer, and establishing novel sensors to measure and control insightful process parameters. The greatest emphasis is on the challenges posed by filamentous fungi, because...

  3. Clinical significance of fermentation and lactose malabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Merete; Gudmand-Høyer, Eivind

    2001-01-01

    Fermentation, the bacterial process of gaining energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates, takes place in the human large intestine as well as that of the animals. This process is important for the health of the colon. Due to changing dietary habits, the available substrates for fermentation in the human colon are scarce, and this fact may contribute to the increased number of colonic diseases in the Western world. Lactose in lactose-maldigesters increase the amounts of fermentable substrate,...

  4. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  5. Spontaneous pneumothorax in silicotuberculosis of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Vajo, J.; Krchnavy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the case of 62 years old man with the appearance of spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom the basic pulmonary disease was silicotuberculosis of the lung. At clinic of occupational diseases in Kosice have been evidence 965 cases of silicosis and silicotuberculosis. From 1971 they have now the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax. The authors make discussion about possible mechanical and biochemical factors, which cause relatively low incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis of the lung. (authors)

  6. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Brickwedde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion (“attenuation” of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  7. Controlled fermentation of Moroccan picholine green olives by oleuropein-degrading Lactobacilli strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, N.; Rokni, Y.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Chihib, N.E.; Peres, C.; Asehraou, A.

    2016-07-01

    The control of the spontaneous fermentation process of un-debittered Moroccan Picholine green olives was undertaken basing the inoculation with two lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus plantarum S175 and Lactobacillus pentosus S100). These strains, previously selected in our laboratory for their oleuropein-degrading capacity, were inoculated in olives brined at 5% of NaCl, and then incubated at 30 °C. The physico-chemical parameters (pH, free acidity, reducing sugars, sodium chloride, oleuropein and its hydrolysis products), and the microbiological parameters (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Staphylococcus, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds), were regularly analyzed during the fermentation time. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the lactic acid bacteria strains to develop suitable oleuropein biodegradation and controlled lactic fermentation processes more than the un-inoculated olives (control). This result was confirmed by the rapid elimination of coliforms and staphylococcus, the accumulation of hydroxytyrosol as a result of oleuropein biodegradation, and a drastic reduction in spoiled olives with good quality fermented olives. (Author)

  8. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickwedde, Anja; van den Broek, Marcel; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A; Magalhães, Frederico; Kuijpers, Niels G A; Gibson, Brian; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc G

    2017-01-01

    The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus , an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae , ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion ("attenuation") of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14 C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  9. Functional Characterization of Individual- and Mixed-Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates for Fermentation of Pinot Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Terrell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinot noir has traditionally been fermented by native flora of multiple yeasts producing a complex combination of aromas and flavors. With the use of industrial dry yeasts, winemakers gained enological reliability and consistency in their wines, but lost diversity and complexity. This research evaluated the use of co-culturing yeasts to fulfill this dual role. Fermentations of Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates and their mixtures were evaluated for their enological characteristics and production of volatile compounds, at 22 °C and 27 °C. The novel isolates were genetically unique and enologically equivalent to the industrial strains. Analysis of variance and principal component analysis of 25 headspace volatiles revealed differences among the yeasts and between the fermentation temperatures. Wines from the mixed-Burgundian isolates were most similar to one another and could be differentiated from the industrial strains at both 22 °C and 27 °C. Mixed-Burgundian wines at both temperatures had higher concentrations of ethyl esters and acetate esters, compared to the industrial strains which had higher concentrations of higher alcohols at 27 °C and higher concentration of other ethyl esters at 22 °C. Given the unique profiles of the co-cultured wines, this research offers winemakers a strategy for producing wines with unique and more complex characters without the risk of spontaneous fermentations.

  10. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  11. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  12. Nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw, partially fermented and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw and fermented seeds of Parkia ... between 4.27 and 8.33 % for the fully fermented and the partially fermented seeds, respectively.

  13. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  14. Process for the fermentative production of acetone, butanol and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, David A.; Jain, Mahendra K.; Datta, Rathin

    1991-01-01

    A process including multistage continuous fermentation followed by batch fermentation with carefully chosen temperatures for each fermentation step, combined with an asporogenic strain of C. acetobutylicum and a high carbohydrate substrate concentration yields extraordinarily high butanol and total solvents concentrations.

  15. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  16. Effect of Microbial Interaction on Urea Metabolism in Chinese Liquor Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Lin, Jianchun; Cui, Kaixiang; Du, Rubin; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-20

    Urea is the primary precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate in fermented foods. Understanding urea metabolism is important for controlling ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor as a model system, we used metatranscriptome analysis to investigate urea metabolism in spontaneous food fermentation processes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was dominant in gene transcription for urea biosynthesis and degradation. Lysinibacillus sphaericus was dominant for urea degradation. S. cerevisiae degraded 18% and L. sphaericus degraded 13% of urea in their corresponding single cultures, whereas they degraded 56% of urea in coculture after 12 h. Compared to single cultures, transcription of CAR1, DAL2, and argA, which are related to urea biosynthesis, decreased by 51, 36, and 69% in coculture, respectively. Transcription of DUR1 and ureA, which are related to urea degradation, increased by 227 and 70%, respectively. Thus, coexistence of the two strains promoted degradation of urea via transcriptional regulation of genes related to urea metabolism.

  17. Flavour Characters of Wines from Cool-Climate Grape Cultivars in Relation to Different Fermentation Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing

    -climate grape cultivars have been grown. However there is little knowledge on the flavour properties and potential of Danish wines. The overall aim of this project was to investigate the sensory characters and chemical composition of wines from different cool-climate grape cultivars and co-fermentations...... caused by inadequate sulphite management, which resulted in accelerated aging, oxidation and/or spontaneous malolactic fermentation. These findings indicated that producers in Denmark should be more cautious in their use and management of sulphite in wine making. To develop a rapid methodology...... for evaluating sensory properties of wines, different variations of Napping and Flash Profile methods were tested using model wines. It turned out that conducting Napping with panel training on either the method (training on how to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarization with the sensory...

  18. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to high-fibre sourdough rye bread and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    responses when compared with glucose. The Panel also notes that, when comparable amounts of available carbohydrates from different carbohydrate-containing foods are tested, almost any carbohydrate-containing food would induce a reduction of post-prandial blood glucose responses compared with glucose....... In addition, foods containing low amounts of, or no available carbohydrates, will also induce lower post-prandial blood glucose responses when compared with glucose. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of almost any food and a reduction of post...... on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to high‑fibre sourdough rye bread and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The Panel considers that the food, high-fibre sourdough rye bread, and its “comparator”, glucose, are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect...

  19. Spontaneous non aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Jieyong; Wang Zhong; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and the treatment of spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty five cases of cerebral vessel angiography negative patients were analysed retrospectively, the majority of them had been undergone CT, DSA, MRI examination in order to define the etiological factor. Results: Among them, there was 1 case of spinal arteria-vena malformation, 1 case of hemorrhagic blood and 2 cases according to the revealing of MRI could be explained as bled vascular-occult malformation or cavernous angioma. Conclusion: The management and prognosis of patients in whom non-aneurysm is founded on the initial angiogram depends on the pattern of hemorrhage of the initial CT scanning, repeated angiography should be avoided for the case of premise encephalic non-aneurysmal SAH and MRI examination may be indicated to defining of etiological factors

  20. Spontaneous baryogenesis in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Cottingham, W.N.; Whittingham, I.B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we extent the results of previous work on spontaneous baryogenesis to general models involving charge-parity (CP) violation in the Higgs sector. We show how to deal with Chern-Simons terms appearing in the effective potential arising from phase changes in the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields. In particular, this enables us to apply this mechanism to general supersymmetric models including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and the extended model with a gauge singlet. A comparison is made between this approach, and that in which one solves the equations of motion for Higgs winding modes. As anticipated in earlier work, the effect of the latter approach is found to be small. (Author)

  1. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  3. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  4. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein concentrations of sweet soysauces from Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus fermentation without moromi fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy sauce was produce from soybean that fermented with koji/tempeh fungi and thenfermented under salt solution or moromi fermentation. The objectives of this experiment was to compare of protein (total and soluble content of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation to the sweet soysauce with moromi fermentation one. The total and soluble proteins of sweet soy sauces that produce from soybean without moromi fermentation were higher that sweet soy sauces that produce with moromi fermentation. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation was 8.2% and meet to the highest quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oryzae without moromi fermentation was 4.1% and meet to the medium quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard.

  6. Characterization of fermented black soybean natto inoculated with Bacillus natto during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongjin; Ge, Changrong; Yuan, Wei; Zhu, Renjun; Zhang, Wujiu; Du, Lijuan; Xue, Jie

    2010-05-01

    To make nutrients more accessible and further increase biological activity, cooked black soybeans were inoculated with Bacillus natto and fermented at 37 degrees C for 48 h. The changes in physiochemical properties of fermented black soybean natto were investigated. The inoculation procedure significantly increased moisture, viscosity, color, polyphenol compounds and anthocyanin, and significantly decreased hardness after 48 h fermentation. Fibrinolytic and caseinolytic protease, beta-glucosidase activities, TCA-soluble nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen contents in the inoculated samples significantly increased as fermentation time increased. Genistin and daidzin concentrations gradually decreased with increased fermentation time. However, genistein and daidzein increased with fermentation time, which reached 316.8 and 305.2 microg g(-1) during 48 h fermentation, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activities of the fermented black soybeans increased linearly with fermentation time and concentration. Compared with the soaked black soybeans and cooked black soybeans, the fermented black soybeans with B. natto resulted in higher scavenging activity towards DPPH radicals, which correlated well with the content of total phenols (r = 0.9254, P natto fermented by B. natto has the potential to become a functional food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  7. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  8. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  9. Spontaneous onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, A.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Huygen, F.J.; van Eijs, F.; van Kleef, M.; Bauer, M.C.R.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) usually develops after a noxious event, but spontaneous onsets have been described in 3-11% of the cases. The existence of spontaneous-onset CRPS is highly debated and the aim of the present study was therefore to compare the phenotypic characteristics of CRPS

  10. Spontaneous CP violation on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    2000-01-01

    At finite temperatures around the electroweak phase transition, the thermodynamics of the MSSM can be described by a three-dimensional two Higgs doublet effective theory. This effective theory has a phase where CP is spontaneously violated. We study spontaneous CP violation with non-perturbative lattice simulations, and analyse whether one could end up in this phase for any physical MSSM parameter values.

  11. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued

  12. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after bench press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is often associated with asthma and mainly affects adolescent males with a tall, thin body habitus. A 17-year-old man complained of chest and pharyngeal pain after bench press training and spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain of uncertain cause.

  13. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  14. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  15. Children's Spontaneous Vocalisations during Play: Aesthetic Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, June; Gabriel, Martha; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of spontaneous vocalisations in the self-chosen, unstructured outdoor play of children aged 3-12. Spontaneous vocalisations encompass the whole range of children's unprompted, natural, expressive vocal soundings beyond spoken language. Non-participant observations at childcare centres and on elementary school…

  16. Redox reactions in food fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2018-01-01

    involves oxidative steps in the early part of the pathways whereas a multitude of different reactions are used as compensating reductions. Much of the diversity seen between food fermentations arise from the different routes and the different electron acceptors used by microorganisms to counterbalance...... and this contributes to the diversity in flavor, color, texture, and shelf life. The review concludes that these reactions are still only incompletely understood and that they represent an interesting area for fundamental research and also represent a fertile field for product development through a more conscious use...... of the redox properties of strains used to compose food cultures....

  17. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with traditional fermented dairy products in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Wang, W H; Menghe, B L G; Jiri, M T; Wang, H M; Liu, W J; Bao, Q H; Lu, Q; Zhang, J C; Wang, F; Xu, H Y; Sun, T S; Zhang, H P

    2011-07-01

    Spontaneous milk fermentation has a long history in Mongolia, and beneficial microorganisms have been handed down from one generation to the next for use in fermented dairy products. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities in fermented yak, mare, goat, and cow milk products by analyzing 189 samples collected from 13 different regions in Mongolia. The LAB counts in these samples varied from 3.41 to 9.03 log cfu/mL. Fermented yak and mare milks had almost identical mean numbers of LAB, which were significantly higher than those in fermented goat milk but slightly lower than those in fermented cow milk. In total, 668 isolates were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. Each isolate was considered to be presumptive LAB based on gram-positive and catalase-negative properties, and was identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multiplex PCR assay, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. All isolates from Mongolian dairy products were accurately identified as Enterococcus faecalis (1 strain), Enterococcus durans (3 strains), Lactobacillus brevis (3 strains), Lactobacillus buchneri (2 strains), Lactobacillus casei (16 strains), Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (142 strains), Lactobacillus diolivorans (17 strains), Lactobacillus fermentum (42 strains), Lactobacillus helveticus (183 strains), Lactobacillus kefiri (6 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum (7 strains), Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (7 strains), Leuconostoc lactis (22 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (21 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (195 strains), and Weissella cibaria (1 strain). The predominant LAB were Strep. thermophilus and Lb. helveticus, which were isolated from all sampling sites. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Mongolia have complex compositions of LAB species. Such diversity of

  18. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  19. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  20. Fermentation: From Sensory Experience to Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Eugene B.

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a laboratory exercise that utilizes the natural yeast carbonation method of making homemade root beer to study fermentation and the effect of variables upon the fermentation process. There are photographs, a sample data sheet, and procedural hints included. (Author/MA)

  1. Experimental study of methanic fermentation of straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dopter, P; Beerens, H

    1952-12-03

    The amount of liquid manure obtainable was a limiting factor in methanic fermentation of wheat straw. An equal volume of 0.2% aqueous solution of Na formate could be substituted for 90% of the normal requirements of liquid manure. This shortened the preliminary stages of cellulosic fermentation when no methane was produced and slightly increased the subsequent yield of methane.

  2. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  3. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  4. Improving wood hydrolyzate fermentation by using schizosaccharomycetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyuzhnyi, M Ya; Ustinova, V I; Petrushko, G I

    1967-01-01

    The development of Schizosaccharomycetes (I) in wood hydrolyzates is not observed when fermentation is carried out by the convetional batch process, evidently because of the highly inhibitory action of the medium. More recently, with the introduction of continuous fermentation of wood and other hydrolyzates, the occurrence of I has been frequently reported, and in some hydrolysis plants, I became predominant, eliminating the budding yeast strains. The phenomenon can be attributed to higher temperatures employed in continuous fermentation, and to a more favorable medium, as the hydrolyzate is diluted with spent fermentation liquor (the flow of fresh medium constitutes about 20% of the fermentation-vat volume). The I cells, when grown under favorable conditions, have a high fermenting power, adapt easily to the fermentation of galactose, and give higher yields of ethanol than the budding yeast. As observed at plants using I, however, the cells are sensitive to variations in the fermentation process, and are inactivated upon storage. This is usually attributed to their inability to store polysaccharides, and especially glycogen. An experimental study undertaken to determine conditions under which reserve polysaccharides accumulate in I cells showed that the important factor is the quality of the medium in which the cells are grown and the conditions of storage. In media enriched with spent fermentaion liquor or with cell autolyzate and purified from toxic components, considerable amounts of glycogen accumulate in the cells.

  5. Effects of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yassine

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the ... 2003). Besides, several alcoholic beverages such as wine or liqueurs are obtained from fruit juices fermented by Saccharomyces ..... (2003). Kinetics of pigment release from hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris under the ...

  6. Characterization of antimicrobial activity in Kombucha fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreeramulu, G.; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    2001-01-01

    Fermented tea drink, Kombucha, can inhibit the growth of Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. Several metabolites were analyzed every two days during a 14-day Kombucha fermentation. Levels of acetic acid and gluconic acid were found to increase with

  7. Effects of fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yassine

    2013-02-13

    Feb 13, 2013 ... Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation on the ... beetroot, fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, betalain compounds. ... by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (González et al., .... Both red and yellow pigments were influenced during S. .... in beverages such as white wine, grape fruit, and green.

  8. (ajst) influence of fermentation and cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    Statgraphics (Graphics Software System, STCC, Inc. U.S.A). Comparisons .... 7 2. 0.473. 0.597. 1.056. 0.14. Co-fermentation. Fermented maize and cowpea blends showed varied effects ...... Oligosaccharides in eleven Legumes and their air-.

  9. Physiochemical Properties and Antinutrient Content of Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popcorn and groundnut composite flours were fermented using pure strains of Rhizopus nigricans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by solid substrate fermentation method. There was decrease in pH with increase in total titrable acidity in all the samples. The result of the proximate analysis revealed that there was an ...

  10. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  11. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  12. Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk improves learning and memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Kazuhito; Uchida, Naoto; Ohki, Kohji; Nakamura, Yasunori; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of Calpis sour milk whey, a Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk product, on learning and memory. We evaluated improvement in scopolamine-induced memory impairment using the spontaneous alternation behaviour test, a measure of short-term memory. We also evaluated learning and working memory in mice using the novel object recognition test, which does not involve primary reinforcement (food or electric shocks). A total of 195 male ddY mice were used in the spontaneous alternation behaviour test and 60 in the novel object recognition test. Forced orally administered Calpis sour milk whey powder (200 and 2000 mg/kg) significantly improved scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments (P memory (2000 mg/kg; P learning and memory in healthy human subjects; however, human clinical studies are necessary.

  13. Continuous alcoholic fermentation of blackstrap molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzani, W; Aquarone, E

    1957-01-01

    The sugar concentration and the fermentation-cycle time can be related by an equation, theoretically justified, if it is assumed that the sugar consumption has a reaction rate of -1. Agitation is probably the rate-determining factor for continous alcohol fermentation. Penicillin increases the efficiency by preventing contamination. After 30 hours of fermentation, the penicillin concentration was 25 to 60% of the initial antibiotic concentration. Laboratory and plant-scale fermentations with 1.0 unit/ml of penicillin were studied and found favorable. An increase in the alcohol yield (4.8 to 19.5%) and a reduction of the acid production (17.0 to 66.6%) were observed. Penicillin did not affect the final yeast count or the fermentation time, and Leuconostoc contamination was inhibited by 8.0 units/ml.

  14. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  15. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  16. A comparative secretome analysis of industrial Aspergillus oryzae and its spontaneous mutant ZJGS-LZ-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanyuan; Liang, Xinle; Zhang, Hong; Feng, Wei; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2017-05-02

    Aspergillus oryzae koji plays a crucial role in fermented food products due to the hydrolytic activities of secreted enzymes. In the present study, we performed a comparative secretome analysis of the industrial strain of Aspergillus oryzae 3.042 and its spontaneous mutantZJGS-LZ-21. One hundred and fifty two (152) differential protein spots were excised (p<0.05), and 25 proteins were identified. Of the identified proteins, 91.3% belonged to hydrolytic enzymes acting on carbohydrates or proteins. Consistent with their enzyme activities, the expression of 14 proteins involved in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, starch and proteins, increased in the ZJGS-LZ-21isolate. In particular, increased levels of acid protease (Pep) may favor the degradation of soy proteins in acidic environments and promote the cleavage of allergenic soybean proteins in fermentation, resulting in improvements of product safety and quality. The ZJGS-LZ-21 isolate showed higher protein secretion and increased hydrolytic activities than did strain 3.042, indicating its promising application in soybean paste fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Yersinia enterocolitica in fermented sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, R.; Janković, V.; Baltić, B.; Ivanović, J.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of food, among them meat, can be the cause of food-borne diseases, and infections are commonly caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. All these bacteria, depending on a number of factors, including animal species, geographical origin, climatic factors, methods of animal breeding and meat production, could cause disease. Here, we summarise results on production of different groups of sausages produced with or without added starter culture, and contaminated with Y.enterocolitica (control sausages were not contaminated). During the ripening, changes in the microbiological status of the fermented sausages and their physical and chemical properties were monitored. For all tests, standard methods were used. In these fermented sausages, the number of Y. enterocolitica decreased during ripening. The number of Y. enterocolitica was statistically significantly lower in sausages with added starter culture on all days of the study Zoonotic pathogens in meat should be controlled through the complete production chain, from the farms to consumers, in order to reduce the probability of disease in humans. However, the necessary controls in the production chain are not the same for all bacteria.

  18. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  19. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  2. Fermented Aloreña Table Olives as a Source of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Beatriz Pérez; Benomar, Nabil; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Castillo Gutiérrez, Sonia; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate), good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli , and Salmonella Enteritidis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have the best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic L. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods.

  3. Fermented Aloreña table olives as a source of potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez Montoro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate, good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteriditis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic Lb. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods.

  4. Spontaneous pneumothorax in diffuse cystic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Joseph; Lee, Yun Chor Gary; Gupta, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with varying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are characterized by the presence of air-filled lung cysts. These cysts are prone to rupture, leading to the development of recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, and management DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. DCLDs are responsible for approximately 10% of apparent primary spontaneous pneumothoraces. Computed tomography screening for DCLDs (Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) following the first spontaneous pneumothorax has recently been shown to be cost-effective and can help facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying disorders. Patients with DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax have a very high rate of recurrence, and thus pleurodesis should be considered following the first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients, rather than waiting for a recurrent episode. Prior pleurodesis is not a contraindication to future lung transplant. Although DCLDs are uncommon, spontaneous pneumothorax is often the sentinel event that provides an opportunity for diagnosis. By understanding the burden and implications of pneumothoraces in DCLDs, clinicians can facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of the underlying disorders.

  5. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  6. Prebiotics in piglet nutrition? Fermentation kinetics along the GI tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awati, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: fermentation, gas production, pigletsThe generalized theory behind the carbohydrate to protein fermentation in the GIT is that in presence of fermentable carbohydrate substrate, microbes prefer to ferment carbohydrate source to derive energy and use the nitrogen available for their own

  7. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  9. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  10. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  11. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  12. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan

    Bioprocesses are inherently sensitive to fluctuations in processing conditions and must be tightly regulated to maintain cellular productivity. Industrial fermentations are often difficult to replicate across production sites or between facilities as the small operating differences in the equipment...... of a fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes are typically operated in fed batch mode, which also poses specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This is due to many reasons including non-linear behaviour, and a relatively poor understanding of the system dynamics. It is therefore challenging...

  14. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  15. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  16. Novel Method of Lactic Acid Production by Electrodialysis Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hongo, Motoyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    1986-01-01

    In lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, the produced lactic acid affected the lactic acid productivity. Therefore, for the purpose of alleviating this inhibitory effect, an electrodialysis fermentation method which can continuously remove produced lactic acid from the fermentation broth was applied to this fermentation process. As a result, the continuation of fermentation activity was obtained, and the productivity was three times higher than in non-pH-controlled fermentati...

  17. Gauge theories as theories of spontaneous breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Any gauge theory is proved to arise from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under certain infinite parameter group, the corresponding gauge field being the Goldstone field by which this breakdown is accompanied

  18. Radiologic findings of acute spontaneous subdural hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Bae, Won Kyong; Gyu, Cha Jang; Kim, Gun Woo; Cho, Won Su; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Kyung Suk [Soonchunhyang University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of). Chonan Hospital

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the characteristic CT and cerebral angiographic findings in patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematomas and correlate these imaging findings with causes of bleeding and clinical outcome. Twenty-one patients with nontraumatic acute spontaneous subdural hematoma presenting during the last five years underwent CT scanning and cerebral angiography was performed in twelve. To determine the cause of bleedings, CT and angiographic findings were retrospectively analysed. Clinical history, laboratory and operative findings, and final clinical outcome were reviewed. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma is a rare condition, and the mortality rate is high. In patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematoma, as seen on CT, associated subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage is strongly indicative of intracerebral vascular abnormalities such as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation, and cerebral angiography is necessary. To ensure proper treatment and thus markedly reduce mortality, the causes of bleedings should be prompty determined by means of cerebral angiography. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  19. Spontaneous neonatal gastrointestinal perforation: surgical or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cases of spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation in neonates at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The perinatal stress factors were caesarian delivery, prematurity and fetal distress due to prolonged obstructed labour.

  20. Rapid and spontaneous recovery in autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Pargaonkar, Amol

    2009-01-01

    Recovery in autistic disorder is rare. There are few reports of recovery from autistic disorder after a few years of therapeutic intervention. We report here a case of autistic disorder who recovered spontaneously without any intervention in 13 days.

  1. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  2. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  3. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  4. Identification and functional properties of dominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kahudi, a traditional rapeseed fermented food product of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunajit Goswami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kahudi or Pani tenga is a very unique fermented mustard product of Assam that is prepared by mixing coarsely ground mustard with extracts of acidic Garcinia pedunculata (Thekera or tamarind. Kahudi is produced through a spontaneous and uncontrolled solid state fermentation and very little scientific effort has been directed to understand its microflora and their functional properties. In this paper, we report the microbial flora and their dynamics during Kahudi fermentation with special emphasis on lactic acid bacteria (LAB. LAB were found to be dominant (8 log CFU/g over other microbial flora (4 log CFU/g during the fermentation process leading to Kahudi formation. The microbial load in Kahudi did not include any mycelial molds or pathogenic enteric bacteria. Combination of phenotypic parameters, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed the dominant group of LAB as Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus casei. The sugar fermentation and enzyme profile analysis revealed the ability of the microbial consortia to metabolize an array of indigestible sugars including D-mannose, mannitol, sorbitol, methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside, methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, and arbutin. Although the isolates showed good acid phosphatase activity they had weak extracellular phytase activity. This is the first report on the microbial dynamics and involvement of LAB during Kahudi fermentation.

  5. Biodiversity of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in the fermentation of "Shanxi aged vinegar", a traditional Chinese vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia Jia; Ma, Ying Kun; Zhang, Fen Fen; Chen, Fu Sheng

    2012-05-01

    Shanxi aged vinegar is a famous traditional Chinese vinegar made from several kinds of cereal by spontaneous solid-state fermentation techniques. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of culturable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the indigenous microorganisms including 47 yeast isolates, 28 lactic acid bacteria isolates and 58 acetic acid bacteria isolates were recovered in different fermenting time and characterized based on a combination of phenotypic and genotypic approaches including inter-delta/PCR, PCR-RFLP, ERIC/PCR analysis, as well as 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA partial gene sequencing. In the alcoholic fermentation, the dominant yeast species Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae (96%) exhibited low phenotypic and genotypic diversity among the isolates, while Lactobacillus (Lb.) fermentum together with Lb. plantarum, Lb. buchneri, Lb. casei, Pediococcus (P.) acidilactici, P. pentosaceus and Weissella confusa were predominated in the bacterial population at the same stage. Acetobacter (A.) pasteurianus showing great variety both in genotypic and phenotypic tests was the dominant species (76%) in the acetic acid fermentation stage, while the other acetic acid bacteria species including A. senegalensis, A. indonesiensis, A. malorum and A. orientalis, as well as Gluconobacter (G.) oxydans were detected at initial point of alcoholic and acetic acid fermentation stage respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:22636007

  7. Bactéries lactiques de la pâte fermentée de maïs au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louembé, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in the Processing of Poto-Poto, a Fermented Maize Dough Congolese. Lactic acid bacteria and yeast involved in natural fermentation of "poto-poto" were investigated during fermentation period. The dominant micro-organisms involved in poto-poto are a mixed population of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The association of these two category of organisms responsible for the development of sensory qualities has been noticed in spontaneous fermentation. From a total of 131 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from product, four main lactic acid bacteria genus were identified: Lactobacillus (mainly Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus (with Lactococcus lactis sp. lactis, Leuconostoc (mainly Leuconostoc mesenteroïdes, Leuconostoc citreum and Pediococcus (with Pediococcus acidilactici. Lactobacillus constitued the predominant genus. Leuconostoc were only isolated at the early stage of fermentation, confirming the fact that they are initiating flora as generally repoted. This presumably a result of the low pH. The micro-organisms composition compared with ogi, uji are similar. Howewer, some differences exist particulary with mawe, beninese traditional product. Quantitatively, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are more numerous in natural fermentation of germinated grains maize than non germinated grains.

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N=3 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking without a cosmological term in N=3 supergravity is investigated. A new, dual version of N=3 supergravity - U(3)-supergravity is constructed. Such a theory is shown to admit a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without a cosmological term and with three arbitrary scales, including partial super-Higgs effect N=3 → N=2 and N=3 → N=1

  9. Spontaneously broken global symmetries and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.; Vilenkin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Phase transitions associated with spontaneously broken global symmetries, in case these occur in nature, can have important cosmological implications. This is illustrated through two examples. The first one shows how the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry, present, for instance, in the minimal SU(5) model, can lead to an inflationary phase. The second example illustrates how topologically stable strings associated with the breaking of U(1) symmetry make an appearance at (or near) the end of the inflationary era

  10. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Manoranjan Dash; Thitta Mohanty; Jyoti Patnaik; Narayan Mishra; Saswat Subhankar; Priyadarsini Parida

    2017-01-01

    Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a ra...

  11. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  12. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  13. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  14. Symmetry restoration in spontaneously broken induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Russo, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the recuperation of expected invariant behaviours in a non-metric gravity theory in which the full general relativistic invariance is broken spontaneously. We show how dangerous increasing energy behaviours of physical amplitudes cancel in a highly non-trivial way. This evidences the expected loss of the vacuum generated scale in the UV regime and gives support for the consistency of spontaneously broken gravity theories. (orig.)

  15. Group theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between the minimality of the Higgs field potential and the maximal little groups of its representation obtained by spontaneous symmetry breaking is analyzed. It is shown that for several representations the lowest minimum of the potential is related to the maximal little group of those representations. Furthermore, a practical necessity criterion is given for the representation of the Higgs field needed for spontaneous symmetry breaking

  16. FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LACTOSE-FERMENTATION YEAST IN WHEY-MALT WORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Greek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters of fermentation of whey-malt wort with the use of different strains of lactose-fermentation yeast was investigated experimentally. According to the findings of investigation of fermentive activity for different types of lactose-fermentation microorganisms in whey-malt wort it was found that the most active spirituous fermentation for all parameters was in wort fermented by microorganisms Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95. High capacity for utilization of malt carbohydrates represented by easily metabolized carbohydrates of malt extract was determined. Also organoleptic analysis of fermented whey drinks derived from the renewed mixtures of dry whey and fermented malt and yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95 was carried out. It was found that the drink fermented with yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K had intense refreshing flavor of rye bread with fruit tones. Intensity growth of aromatization for complex of sample with microorganisms Saccharomyces lactis 95, indicating high organoleptic indexes of the drink was observed.

  17. Monitoring Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations by mtDNA restriction analysis and other molecular typing methods during spontaneous fermentation for production of the artisanal cachaça Monitoramento das populações de Saccharomyces cerevisiae pela análise de restrição do mtDNA e outros métodos de tipagem molecular durante a fermentação espontânea para a produção da cachaça artesanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A.C. Araújo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study on Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations in spontaneous fermentation has been conducted in three vats of a cachaça distillery in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ninety-seven yeast isolates were collected at the beginning, the middle and at the end of the production period, and were identified by standard methods. Differentiation between the indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated was performed by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA restriction analysis, RAPD-PCR, and PCR fingerprint using an intron splice primer. Analysis of the mtDNA restriction profiles revealed 12 different patterns, 11 corresponding to indigenous yeasts (I to XI and one (XII to a commercial strain of the bakery yeast. Pattern II (53.6% of the population and pattern IV strains were present in all the vats. Pattern IV strain raised from the middle to the end of the period reaching proportions near those of pattern II strain. PCR methods allowed the differentiation of 41 molecular profiles. Both methods showed population fluctuation of S. cerevisiae strains along the period of cachaça production and among different vats of the distillery.Um estudo ecológico das populações de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em fermentações espontâneas foi conduzido em três dornas de uma destilaria de cachaça em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Noventa e sete isolados foram coletados no início, meio e final do período de produção, e identificados por métodos padrões. A diferenciação entre as linhagens isoladas de S. cerevisiae indígenas foi feita pela analise de restrição do DNA mitocondrial (mtDNA, RAPD-PCR, e PCR por impressão digital do DNA utilizando um iniciador complementar a sítios de processamento de íntron. As análises dos perfis de restrição do mtDNA mostraram a ocorrência de 12 perfis diferentes, sendo 11 correspondentes as leveduras indígenas (I ao XI e um (XII a uma linhagem comercial de levedura de panificação. Linhagens com o perfil II (53,6% da população e o perfil

  18. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  19. Spontaneous Vesicle Recycling in the Synaptic Bouton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eTruckenbrodt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca2+, which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca2+ levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca2+ sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca2+. The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs responding to Ca2+ fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover.

  20. Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna; Diender, Martijn; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj

    2017-01-01

    The use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases...... in the atmosphere. Together with the gasification of biomass and different waste streams, these gases have the potential for being utilized for production of chemicals through fermentation processes. Acetogens are among the most studied organisms capable of utilizing waste gases. Although engineering...... focus on the advantages of alternative fermentation scenarios, including thermophilic production strains, multi-stage fermentations, mixed cultures, as well as mixotrophy. Such processes have the potential to significantly broaden the product portfolio, increase the product concentrations and yields...

  1. Introduction of a cyclic-fermentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarova, C P

    1958-01-01

    Equipment is described, consisting of 8 kettles, which permits a cyclic fermentation process and continuous ethanol production; 100% yields of ethanol are obtained, based on the starch content in grain.

  2. Continuous saccharification and fermentation in alcohol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselov, I Ya; Gracheva, I M; Mikhailova, L E; Babaeva, S A; Ustinnikov, B A

    1968-01-01

    Submerged cultures of Aspergillus niger NRRL 337 and A. batatae 61, or a mixture of submerged A. niger culture with a surface culture of A. oryzae Kc are used for fermentations and compared with the usual barley malt procedure. The latter yields 71% maltose and 24 to 28% glucose, wherease the fungal procedure gives 14 to 21% maltose and 80 to 85% glucose in a continuous mashing-fermentation process with barley. The fungal method gives a higher degree of fermentation for sugars and dextrins and a lower content of total and high-molecular-weight residual dextrins. The amounts of propanol PrOH and iso-BuOH isobutyl alcohol are almost equal, whereas the amount of isoamylalcohol is lower in fungal fermentations.

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of yogurt fermentation process

    OpenAIRE

    IZBAIM , DRIS; FAIZ , BOUAZZA; MOUDDEN , ALI; MALAININE , MOHAMED; ABOUDAOUD , Idriss

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The objective of this work is to characterize the fermentation of yogurt based on an ultrasonic technique. Conventionally, the acidity of the yogurt is measured by a pH meter to determine the progress of fermentation. However, the pH meter should be cleaned and calibrated for each measurement and, therefore, this method is not practical. In this regard, ultrasonic techniques are fast, non-invasive and inexpensive. The measurement of ultrasonic parameters such as amplit...

  4. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  5. Gas engine supplied with fermentation gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupial, K

    1978-01-01

    A CH/sub 4/-rich fermentation gas from the waste-treatment plant at Czestochowa is used as fuel to drive the generating set composed of an electric generator and a piston diesel engine adapted to operation with the fermentation gas. The adaption involved the use of a classical car ignition installation instead of the injection pumps and injector. The gas contains approximately CH/sub 4/ 60, CO/sub 2/ 32, N 5, and H 3 volume%.

  6. Biodegradation of Ethyl Carbamate and Urea with Lysinibacillus sphaericus MT33 in Chinese Liquor Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kaixiang; Wu, Qun; Xu, Yan

    2018-02-14

    It is important to reduce the concentration of ethyl carbamate (EC) in fermented foods. However, controlling the formation of EC and its precursor urea is difficult in spontaneous food fermentation because urea is a natural product of nitrogen metabolism. Biodegradation is a better solution to reduce the concentration of EC. This study aimed to reduce the concentration of EC in Chinese liquor via an indigenous strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus MT33. This strain produced urethanase (940 U/L) and urease (1580 U/L) and degraded 76.52% of EC and 56.48% of urea. After inoculation in liquor fermentation, the maximal relative abundance of Lysinibacillus increased from 0.02% to 8.46%, the final EC and urea contents decreased by 41.77% and 28.15%. Moreover, the concentration of EC decreased by 63.32% in liquor. The negative correlation between abundance of Lysinibacillus and contents of EC and urea indicated the effect of L. sphaericus on EC and urea degradation.

  7. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  8. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  9. Evolution of Yeast Consortia during the Fermentation of Kalamata Natural Black Olives upon Two Initial Acidification Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatoula Bonatsou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to elucidate the yeast consortia structure and dynamics during Greek-style processing of Kalamata natural black olives in different brine solutions. Olives were subjected to spontaneous fermentation in 7% (w/v NaCl brine solution (control treatment or brine acidified with (a 0.5% (v/v vinegar, and (b 0.1% (v/v lactic acid at the onset of fermentation. Changes in microbial counts, pH, acidity, organic acids, sugars, and alcohols were analyzed for a period of 187 days. Yeast consortia diversity was evaluated at days 4, 34, 90, 140, and 187 of fermentation. A total of 260 isolates were characterized at sub-species level by rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting with the oligo-nucleotide primer (GTG5. The characterization of yeast isolates at species level was performed by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene. Results showed that yeasts dominated the process presenting a relatively broad range of biodiversity composed of 11 genera and 21 species. No lactic acid bacteria (LAB or Enterobacteriaceae could be enumerated after 20 and 10 days of fermentation, respectively. The dominant yeast species at the beginning were Aureobasidium pullulans for control and vinegar acidification treatments, and Candida naeodendra for lactic acid treatment. Between 34 and 140 days the dominant species were Candida boidinii, Candida molendinolei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the end of fermentation the dominant species in all processes were C. boidinii and C. molendinolei, followed by Pichia manshurica and S. cerevisiae in lactic acid acidification treatment, P. manshurica in vinegar acidification treatment, and Pichia membranifaciens in control fermentation.

  10. Comparative genome analysis of the candidate functional starter culture strains Lactobacillus fermentum 222 and Lactobacillus plantarum 80 for controlled cocoa bean fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Weckx, Stefan

    2015-10-12

    Lactobacillus fermentum 222 and Lactobacillus plantarum 80, isolates from a spontaneous Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation process, proved to be interesting functional starter culture strains for cocoa bean fermentations. Lactobacillus fermentum 222 is a thermotolerant strain, able to dominate the fermentation process, thereby converting citrate and producing mannitol. Lactobacillus plantarum 80 is an acid-tolerant and facultative heterofermentative strain that is competitive during cocoa bean fermentation processes. In this study, whole-genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis was used to investigate the mechanisms of these strains to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Through functional annotation and analysis of the high-coverage contigs obtained through 454 pyrosequencing, plantaricin production was predicted for L. plantarum 80. For L. fermentum 222, genes encoding a complete arginine deiminase pathway were attributed. Further, in-depth functional analysis revealed the capacities of these strains associated with carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, such as the ability to use alternative external electron acceptors, the presence of an extended pyruvate metabolism, and the occurrence of several amino acid conversion pathways. A comparative genome sequence analysis using publicly available genome sequences of strains of the species L. plantarum and L. fermentum revealed unique features of both strains studied. Indeed, L. fermentum 222 possessed genes encoding additional citrate transporters and enzymes involved in amino acid conversions, whereas L. plantarum 80 is the only member of this species that harboured a gene cluster involved in uptake and consumption of fructose and/or sorbose. In-depth genome sequence analysis of the candidate functional starter culture strains L. fermentum 222 and L. plantarum 80 revealed their metabolic capacities, niche adaptations and functionalities that enable them to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation

  11. Microbial diversity and their roles in the vinegar fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Li, Pan; Feng, Feng; Luo, Li-Xin

    2015-06-01

    Vinegar is one of the oldest acetic acid-diluted solution products in the world. It is produced from any fermentable sugary substrate by various fermentation methods. The final vinegar products possess unique functions, which are endowed with many kinds of compounds formed in the fermentation process. The quality of vinegar is determined by many factors, especially by the raw materials and microbial diversity involved in vinegar fermentation. Given that metabolic products from the fermenting strains are directly related to the quality of the final products of vinegar, the microbial diversity and features of the dominant strains involved in different fermentation stages should be analyzed to improve the strains and stabilize fermentation. Moreover, although numerous microbiological studies have been conducted to examine the process of vinegar fermentation, knowledge about microbial diversity and their roles involved in fermentation is still fragmentary and not systematic enough. Therefore, in this review, the dominant microorganism species involved in the stages of alcoholic fermentation and acetic acid fermentation of dissimilar vinegars were summarized. We also summarized various physicochemical properties and crucial compounds in disparate types of vinegar. Furthermore, the merits and drawbacks of vital fermentation methods were generalized. Finally, we described in detail the relationships among microbial diversity, raw materials, fermentation methods, physicochemical properties, compounds, functionality, and final quality of vinegar. The integration of this information can provide us a detailed map about the microbial diversity and function involved in vinegar fermentation.

  12. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  13. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  14. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  15. Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the nutritional quality of lupin and soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Krungleviciute, Vita; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Maknickiene, Zita

    2015-04-01

    The ability of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to degrade biogenic amines as well as to produce L(+) and D(-)-lactic acid during solid state fermentation (SSF) of lupin and soya bean was investigated. In addition, the protein digestibility and formation of organic acids during SSF of legume were investigated. Protein digestibility of fermented lupin and soya bean was found higher on average by 18.3% and 15.9%, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Tested LAB produced mainly L-lactic acid in soya bean and lupin (D/L ratio 0.38-0.42 and 0.35-0.54, respectively), while spontaneous fermentation gave almost equal amounts of both lactic acid isomers (D/L ratio 0.82-0.98 and 0.92, respectively). Tested LAB strains were able to degrade phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine, whereas they were able to produce putrescine, histamine and tyramine. SSF improved lupin and soya bean protein digestibility. BLIS-producing LAB in lupin and soya bean medium produced a mixture of D- and L-lactic acid with a major excess of the latter isomer. Most toxic histamine and tyramine in fermented lupin and soya bean were found at levels lower those causing adverse health effects. Selection of biogenic amines non-producing bacteria is essential in the food industry to avoid the risk of amine formation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. The contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanshun; Li, Lin; Regenstein, Joe Mac; Gao, Pei; Zang, Jinhong; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing

    2018-08-01

    To investigate the contribution of autochthonous microflora on free fatty acids (FFA) release and flavor development in low-salt fermented fish, three groups of processed fish, including bacteriostatic-acidification group (BAG), bacteriostatic group (BG), and spontaneous fermented fish (CG) were established. Results showed that addition of NaN 3 reduced microbial load in BAG and BG below 3.5 log CFU/g after 3 weeks of incubation. Activities of lipases and lipoxygenase declined markedly with increasing time, where BG had the highest activities, followed by CG and BAG. There is a 36.3% higher in the total FFA content in CG than that in BAG, indicating both microbial and endogenous lipases contributed to the FFA liberation in fermented fish while endogenous lipases play a major role. However, compared to BAG and BG, largely higher levels of volatile compounds were observed in CG, suggesting that autochthonous microflora dominated the generation of volatile flavor compounds in fermented fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of fermented probiotic beverages from milk permeate enriched with whey retentate and identification of present lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagoda Šušković

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research the application of bacterial strains Lactobacillus acidophilus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3 in the production of fermented probiotic beverages from milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v whey retentate, was investigated. In the previous researches of probiotic concept, probiotic properties of these three strains of lactic acid bacteria have been defined. At the end of controlled fermentation, probiotic strains have produced 7.4 g/L lactic acid, pH was decreased to 4.7, and number of live cells was around 108 CFU/mL. Number of viable count of probiotic bacteria, which were identified with RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAmethod, was maintained at around 107 CFU/mL during 28 days of the preservation at 4 °C. Furthermore, a spontaneous fermentation of milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v of whey retentate was carried out and lactic acid bacteria present in these substrates were isolated. All of these bacterial strains have rapidly acidified the growth media and have shown antibacterial activity against chosen test-microorganisms, what are important properties of potential starter cultures for the fermentation of dairy products. The results of biochemical API analysis have identified isolated strains as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus.

  19. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Production of tea vinegar by batch and semicontinuous fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Pardeep; Kocher, G. S.; Phutela, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    The fermented tea vinegar combines the beneficial properties of tea and vinegar. The complete fermentation takes 4 to 5 weeks in a batch culture and thus can be shortened by semi continuous/ continuous fermentation using immobilized bacterial cells. In the present study, alcoholic fermentation of 1.0 and 1.5% tea infusions using Saccharomyces cerevisae G was carried out that resulted in 84.3 and 84.8% fermentation efficiency (FE) respectively. The batch vinegar fermentation of these wines wit...