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Sample records for spontaneous sourdough fermentations

  1. Volatile Compounds and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Spontaneous Fermented Sourdough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, W.Y.; Aida, W.M.W.; Sahilah, A.M.; Maskat, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the predominating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in a spontaneous fermented wheat sourdough. At the same time, an investigation towards volatile compounds that were produced was also carried out. Lactobacillus plantarum has been identified as the dominant species of lactobacilli with characters of a facultative heterofermentative strain. The generated volatile compounds that were produced during spontaneous fermentation were isolated by solvent extraction method, analysed by gas chromatography (GC), and identified by mass spectrophotometer (MS). Butyric acid has been found to be the main volatile compound with relative abundance of 6.75 % and acetic acid at relative abundance of 3.60 %. Esters that were formed at relatively low amount were butyl formate (1.23 %) and cis 3 hexenyl propionate (0.05 %). Butanol was also found at low amount with relative abundance of 0.60 %. The carbohydrate metabolism of Lactobacillus plantarum may contributed to the production of acetic acid in this study via further catabolism activity on lactic acid that was produced. However, butyric acid was not the major product via fermentation by LAB but mostly carried out by the genus Clostridium via carbohydrate metabolism which needs further investigation. (author)

  2. Biodiversity and technological potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from spontaneously fermented amaranth sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Rodríguez, L; Vera Pingitore, E; Rollan, G; Martos, G; Saavedra, L; Fontana, C; Hebert, E M; Vignolo, G

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous fermented sourdoughs prepared from amaranth flour were investigated for the presence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominating microbiota. The doughs were fermented with daily backslopping on a laboratory scale at 30°C for 10 days. LAB counts ranged from 2·60 to 8·54 log CFU g(-1) with a pH declined from 6·2 to 3·8 throughout fermentation. The combined use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA was applied for LAB intraspecies differentiation and taxonomic identification, respectively. Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus species were present in amaranth sourdoughs (AS). After the first refreshment step, Lactobacillus plantarum dominated AS until the end of fermentation. In coincidence, when DGGE analysis was performed, the occurrence of a progressive change in bacterial communities allowed the selection of Lact. plantarum as a dominant species. Moreover, technological, functional and safety characteristics of representative RAPD-biotypes were investigated. Lact. plantarum CRL1898 was selected as a potential candidate for gluten-free amaranth sourdough starter. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in ancient noncereal gluten-free (GF) crops such as amaranth, due to their reported nutritional and health benefits. However, the use of these grains is still limited to traditional foods and bread making processes that are not yet well standardized. Results on the dynamics of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota during laboratory spontaneous amaranth sourdoughs (AS) fermentation will contribute to overcome challenges for GF-fermented products development. In addition, knowledge about LAB diversity involving Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus species, with Lactobacillus plantarum predominating during AS fermentation, and their technological and functional properties provides the basis for the selection of autochthonous strains as starters cultures

  3. Biodiversity and technological-functional potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from spontaneously fermented quinoa sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Rodríguez, L; Vera Pingitore, E; Rollan, G; Cocconcelli, P S; Fontana, C; Saavedra, L; Vignolo, G; Hebert, E M

    2016-05-01

    To analyse lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity and technological-functional and safety properties of strains present during spontaneous fermented quinoa sourdoughs. Fermentation was performed by daily backslopping at 30°C for 10 days. Autochthonous LAB microbiota was monitored by a biphasic approach combining random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and rRNA gene sequencing with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Identification and intraspecies differentiation allowed to group isolates within nine LAB species belonging to four genera. A succession of LAB species occurred during 10-days backslopping; Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis were detected as dominant species in the consortium. The characterization of 15 representative LAB strains was performed based on the acidifying capacity, starch and protein hydrolysis, γ-aminobutyric acid and exopolysaccharides production, antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance. Strains characterization led to the selection of Lact. plantarum CRL1905 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides CRL1907 as candidates to be assayed as functional starter culture for the gluten-free (GF) quinoa fermented products. Results on native LAB microbiota present during quinoa sourdough fermentation will allow the selection of strains with appropriate technological properties to be used as a novel functional starter culture for GF-fermented products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

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    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-02

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pHbakery productions (slow pH decrease, pH4.0 after eight backslopping steps). In both sourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation

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    Savić Dragiša S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The baking of sourdough breads represents one of the oldest biotechnological processes. Despite traditionality, sourdough bread has great potential because of its benefits. Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water that is dominated by a complex microflora composed of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria that are crucial in the preparation of bread dough. Lactic acid bacteria cause acidification by producing lactic acid that increases the shelf life of bread by preventing the growth of undesirable microorganisms and affects the nutritional value of bread by increasing the availability of minerals. In addition to these advantages, the use of sourdough fermentation also improves dough machinability, breadcrumb structure and the characteristic flavour of bread. Lactic acid bacteria in sourdough fermentation are well known representing both homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria. They may originate from selected natural contaminants in the flour or from a starter culture containing one or more known species of lactic acid bacteria. Sourdough can be cultivated in bakeries or obtained from commercial suppliers. However, many bakeries in Europe still use spontaneously fermented sourdoughs, which have been kept metabolically active for decades by the addition of flour and water at regular intervals. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation and their influence on dough and bread quality was discussed on the basis of research and literature data.

  6. Evolution of bacterial consortia in spontaneously started rye sourdoughs during two months of daily propagation.

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    Marianna Bessmeltseva

    Full Text Available The evolution of bacterial consortia was studied in six semi-solid rye sourdoughs during long-term backslopping at different temperatures. Each rye sourdough was started spontaneously in a laboratory (dough yield 200, propagated at either 20°C or 30°C, and renewed daily at an inoculation rate of 1∶10 for 56 days. The changes in bacterial diversity over time were followed by both DGGE coupled with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pyrosequencing of bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Four species from the genus Lactobacillus (brevis, crustorum, plantarum, and paralimentarius were detected in different combinations in all sourdoughs after 56 propagation cycles. Facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 30°C, while both obligate and facultative heterofermentative LAB were found to dominate in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C. After 56 propagation cycles, Kazachstania unispora (formerly Saccharomyces unisporus was identified as the only yeast species that dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C, while different combinations of strains from four yeast species (Kazachstania unispora, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata were detected in sourdoughs propagated at 30°C. The evolution of bacterial communities in sourdoughs fermented at the same temperature did not follow the same time course and changes in the composition of dominant and subdominant bacterial communities occurred even after six weeks of backslopping.

  7. Yeast species composition differs between artisan bakery and spontaneous laboratory sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Van der Meulen, Roel; Huys, Geert; Vandamme, Peter; Daniel, Heide-Marie

    2010-06-01

    Sourdough fermentations are characterized by the combined activity of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. An investigation of the microbial composition of 21 artisan sourdoughs from 11 different Belgian bakeries yielded 127 yeast isolates. Also, 12 spontaneous 10-day laboratory sourdough fermentations with daily backslopping were performed with rye, wheat, and spelt flour, resulting in the isolation of 217 yeast colonies. The isolates were grouped according to PCR-fingerprints obtained with the primer M13. Representative isolates of each M13 fingerprint group were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences, and partial actin gene sequences, leading to the detection of six species. The dominant species in the bakery sourdoughs were Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus (formerly Pichia anomala), while the dominant species in the laboratory sourdough fermentations were W. anomalus and Candida glabrata. The presence of S. cerevisiae in the bakery sourdoughs might be due to contamination of the bakery environment with commercial bakers yeast, while the yeasts in the laboratory sourdoughs, which were carried out under aseptic conditions with flour as the only nonsterile component, could only have come from the flour used.

  8. Microbial behavior and changes in food constituents during fermentation of Japanese sourdoughs with different rye and wheat starting materials.

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    Fujimoto, Akihito; Ito, Keisuke; Itou, Madoka; Narushima, Noriko; Ito, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Akihisa; Hirayama, Satoru; Furukawa, Soichi; Morinaga, Yasushi; Miyamoto, Takahisa

    2018-01-01

    Sourdough is a food item made by kneading grain flour and water together and allowing fermentation through the action of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillales) and yeast. Typically, Japanese bakeries make sourdough with rye flour, wheat flour, malt extract, and water and allow spontaneous fermentation for 6 days. We compared the microbial behavior and food components, such as organic acids, sugars, and free amino acids, of sourdoughs made using two different rye and wheat flours during the 6-day fermentation period. Comparisons were made for two types of rye and wheat flours, using different production sites and different milling, distribution, and storage conditions. The microbial count was evaluated using different culture media. All sourdough types showed a significant increase in lactic acid levels on fermentation day 2 and a decrease in free amino acid levels on day 4. Low overall lactic acid production and little fluctuation in sugar levels occurred in sourdough made from French ingredients. For sourdough made from Japanese ingredients, sugar levels (chiefly glucose, sucrose, and maltose) declined on fermentation day 1, increased on day 2, and declined by day 5. With the French ingredients, no yeast cells were detected until day 3, and many acid precursors of sourdough flavor components were detected. Yet with the Japanese ingredients, 10 6 /g yeast cells were detected on days 3-5, as well as sourdough-flavor esters and alcohols. Differences in raw material quality affected the microbial behavior and changes in food constituents during the fermentation process and, consequently, the sourdough flavor. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tunisian cereals and exploitation of the use as starters for sourdough fermentation.

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    Mamhoud, Asma; Nionelli, Luana; Bouzaine, Taroub; Hamdi, Moktar; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2016-05-16

    Wheat bread is the most popular staple food consumed in Tunisia and, despite the niche production of some typical breads (e.g. Tabouna, Mlawi, Mtabga), the major part is currently produced with baker's yeast at industrial or, mainly, at artisanal level, while the use of sourdough fermentation is rarely reported. Considering the growing national demand for cereal baked goods, it can be hypothesized that sourdough fermentation through the use of selected lactic acid bacteria as starters could improve the overall quality and the diversification of local products. Different cereal grains were collected from the regions of Ariana, Bizerta, Beja Nabeul, and Seliana, and the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria were isolated, identified, characterized and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification, the proteolytic activity, and the quotient of fermentation. Lactobacillus curvatus MA2, Pediococcus pentosaceus OA2, and Pediococcus acidilactici O1A1 were used together as mixed starter to obtain a selected sourdough. According to the backslopping procedure, a type I sourdough was made from a Tunisian flour (spontaneous sourdough). Compared to the use of the spontaneous sourdough, the one obtained with selected and mixed starters by a unique fermentation step, favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids, phenols, and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities, that increased ca. 20% compared to the control. Moreover, the selected starters improved the in vitro protein digestibility (ca. 82% when selected sourdough was used), textural and sensory features of the breads, as determined by textural profile analysis and panel test, respectively. This study aimed at exploiting the potential of selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria and extending the use of a sourdough (type II), thanks to the set-up of a two-step fermentation protocol designed for application at the

  10. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

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    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutually stimulating interactions between lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sourdough fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieuwerts, Sander; Bron, Peter A.; Smid, Eddy J.

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between microorganisms are key to their performance in food habitats. Improved understanding of these interactions supports rational improvement of food fermentations. This study aimed at identifying interactions between lactic acid bacteria and yeast during sourdough fermentation.

  12. Effect of short-term sourdough fermentation on wheat protein

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    Raushid Ahmad Siddiqi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, baked goods are currently manufactured by accelerated processes. Under these circumstances, proteins are subjected to mild or no degradation during manufacturing. An effort was made to study effect of short-time sourdough fermentation on wheat protein. For this purpose, dough was prepared by mixing refined wheat flour with appropriate amount of water along with 20% curd, 2% yeast and 20% curd + 2% yeast followed by fermentation for 90 min at 37°C to study effect of fermentation. The moisture content of dough decreased with increase in fermentation time. The wet gluten content of dough inoculated with curd, yeast and curd + yeast was 27.01, 28.97 and 28.71%, respectively, and remained unaffected during fermentation. SDS-PAGE revealed that intensities of some of the higher molecular weight protein bands decreased in curd and curd + yeast treated dough. The colour parameters (L, a, b values remain almost unaltered with fermentation.

  13. Change in Glutenin Macropolymer Secondary Structure in Wheat Sourdough Fermentation by FTIR.

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    Wang, Jinshui; Yue, Yuanyuan; Liu, Tiantian; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Zhenlei; Zhang, Changfu

    2017-06-01

    Wheat sourdough was prepared by fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum M616 and yeast in the present study. The change in secondary structure of glutenin macropolymer (GMP) in wheat sourdough fermentation for 4 and 12 h was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and then the resultant spectra were Fourier self-deconvoluted of the amide I band in the region from 1600 to 1700 cm -1 . Significant different spectra especially in the amide I band for GMP from sourdough fermented with L. plantarum M616 (SL) and with L. plantarum M616 and yeast (SLY) were found in respect of control dough (CK), dough with acids (SA), and sourdough fermented with yeast (SY) at 4 and 12 h of fermentation. The loss of α-helix structure in SL, SLY, and SA samples was noticed during fermentation. Compared with CK and SY, SL, SLY, and SA samples showed significant decrease (p fermentation. In addition, β-turns in SL sourdough decrease, and the relative areas of random coil increase significantly (p fermentation. The modified secondary structure of GMP makes more sensitive to proteolysis by means of cereal enzymes.

  14. Synthesis of Taste-Active γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides during Sourdough Fermentation by Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cindy J; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-10-12

    This study aimed to assess whether peptides influence the taste of sourdough bread. γ-Glutamyl dipeptides with known kokumi taste threshold, namely γ-Glu-Glu, γ-Glu-Leu, γ-Glu-Ile, γ-Glu-Phe, γ-Glu-Met, and γ-Glu-Val, were identified in sourdough by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in MRM mode. γ-Glutamyl dipeptides were found in higher concentrations in sourdough fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri when compared to the chemically acidified controls. Proteolysis was an important factor for generation of γ-glutamyl dipeptides. Sourdoughs fermented with four strains of L. reuteri had different concentrations of γ-Glu-Glu, γ-Glu-Leu, and γ-Glu-Met, indicating strain-specific differences in enzyme activity. Buffer fermentations with L. reuteri confirmed the ability of the strains to convert amino acids to γ-glutamyl dipeptides as well as the strain-specific differences. Sensory evaluation of bread revealed that sourdough bread with higher concentrations of γ-glutamyl dipeptides ranked higher with respect to the taste intensity when compared to regular bread and type I sourdough bread. Sourdough breads fermented with L. reuteri LTH5448 and L. reuteri 100-23 differed with respect to the intensity of the salty taste; this difference corresponded to a different concentration of γ-glutamyl dipeptides. These results suggest a strain-specific contribution of γ-glutamyl dipeptides to the taste of bread. The use of sourdough fermented with glutamate and kokumi peptide accumulating lactobacilli improved the taste of bread without adverse effect on other taste or quality attributes.

  15. Contribution of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus reuteri to acid resistance and persistence in sourdough fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Marcia S; Schlicht, Sabine; G?nzle, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Acid stress impacts the persistence of lactobacilli in industrial sourdough fermentations, and in intestinal ecosystems. However, the contribution of glutamate to acid resistance in lactobacilli has not been demonstrated experimentally, and evidence for the contribution of acid resistance to the competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough is lacking. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the ecological role of glutamate decarboxylase in L. reuteri. Results...

  16. Kefir immobilized on corn grains as biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation and sourdough bread making.

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    Plessas, Stavros; Alexopoulos, Athanasios; Bekatorou, Argyro; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia

    2012-12-01

    The natural mixed culture kefir was immobilized on boiled corn grains to produce an efficient biocatalyst for lactic acid fermentation with direct applications in food production, such as sourdough bread making. The immobilized biocatalyst was initially evaluated for its efficiency for lactic acid production by fermentation of cheese whey at various temperatures. The immobilized cells increased the fermentation rate and enhanced lactic acid production compared to free kefir cells. Maximum lactic acid yield (68.8 g/100 g) and lactic acid productivity (12.6 g/L per day) were obtained during fermentation by immobilized cells at 37 °C. The immobilized biocatalyst was then assessed as culture for sourdough bread making. The produced sourdough breads had satisfactory specific loaf volumes and good sensory characteristics. Specifically, bread made by addition of 60% w/w sourdough containing kefir immobilized on corn was more resistant regarding mould spoilage (appearance during the 11(th) day), probably due to higher lactic acid produced (2.86 g/Kg of bread) compared to the control samples. The sourdough breads made with the immobilized biocatalyst had aroma profiles similar to that of the control samples as shown by headspace SPME GC-MS analysis. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Diversity of the Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiota in the Switch from Firm- to Liquid-Sourdough Fermentation

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    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Lattanzi, Anna; Valerio, Francesca; Calasso, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Four traditional type I sourdoughs were comparatively propagated (28 days) under firm (dough yield, 160) and liquid (dough yield, 280) conditions to mimic the alternative technology options frequently used for making baked goods. After 28 days of propagation, liquid sourdoughs had the lowest pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), the lowest concentrations of lactic and acetic acids and free amino acids, and the most stable density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria. The cell density of yeasts was the highest in liquid sourdoughs. Liquid sourdoughs showed simplified microbial diversity and harbored a low number of strains, which were persistent. Lactobacillus plantarum dominated firm sourdoughs over time. Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus brevis dominated only some firm sourdoughs, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis persisted for some time only in some firm sourdoughs. Leuconostoc citreum persisted in all firm and liquid sourdoughs, and it was the only species detected in liquid sourdoughs at all times; it was flanked by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in some sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida humilis, Saccharomyces servazzii, Saccharomyces bayanus-Kazachstania sp., and Torulaspora delbrueckii were variously identified in firm and liquid sourdoughs. A total of 197 volatile components were identified through purge and trap–/solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT–/SPME–GC-MS). Aldehydes, several alcohols, and some esters were at the highest levels in liquid sourdoughs. Firm sourdoughs mainly contained ethyl acetate, acetic acid, some sulfur compounds, and terpenes. The use of liquid fermentation would change the main microbial and biochemical features of traditional baked goods, which have been manufactured under firm conditions for a long time. PMID:24632249

  18. Italian legumes: effect of sourdough fermentation on lunasin-like polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Fernández-Tomé, Samuel; Curiel, José Antonio; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-10-22

    There is an increasing interest toward the use of legumes in food industry, mainly due to the quality of their protein fraction. Many legumes are cultivated and consumed around the world, but few data is available regarding the chemical or technological characteristics, and especially on their suitability to be fermented. Nevertheless, sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria has been recognized as the most efficient tool to improve some nutritional and functional properties. This study investigated the presence of lunasin-like polypeptides in nineteen traditional Italian legumes, exploiting the potential of the fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the native concentration. An integrated approach based on chemical, immunological and ex vivo (human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell cultures) analyses was used to show the physiological potential of the lunasin-like polypeptides. Italian legume varieties, belonging to Phaseulus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum species, were milled and flours were chemically characterized and subjected to sourdough fermentation with selected Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7, expressing different peptidase activities. Extracts from legume doughs (unfermented) and sourdoughs were subjected to western blot analysis, using an anti-lunasin primary antibody. Despite the absence of lunasin, different immunoreactive polypeptide bands were found. The number and the intensity of lunasin-like polypeptides increased during sourdough fermentation, as the consequence of the proteolysis of the native proteins carried out by the selected lactic acid bacteria. A marked inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was observed using extracts from legume sourdoughs. In particular, sourdoughs from Fagiolo di Lamon, Cece dell'Alta Valle di Misa, and Pisello riccio di Sannicola flours were the most active, showing a decrease

  19. Contribution of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus reuteri to acid resistance and persistence in sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Marcia S; Schlicht, Sabine; Gänzle, Michael G

    2011-08-30

    Acid stress impacts the persistence of lactobacilli in industrial sourdough fermentations, and in intestinal ecosystems. However, the contribution of glutamate to acid resistance in lactobacilli has not been demonstrated experimentally, and evidence for the contribution of acid resistance to the competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough is lacking. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the ecological role of glutamate decarboxylase in L. reuteri. A gene coding for a putative glutamate decarboxylase, gadB, was identified in the genome of L. reuteri 100-23. Different from the organization of genetic loci coding for glutamate decarboxylase in other lactic acid bacteria, gadB was located adjacent to a putative glutaminase gene, gls3. An isogenic deletion mutant, L. reuteri ∆gadB, was generated by a double crossover method. L. reuteri 100-23 but not L. reuteri ∆gadB converted glutamate to γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) in phosphate butter (pH 2.5). In sourdough, both strains converted glutamine to glutamate but only L. reuteri 100-23 accumulated GABA. Glutamate addition to phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, improved survival of L. reuteri 100-23 100-fold. However, survival of L. reuteri ∆gadB remained essentially unchanged. The disruption of gadB did not affect growth of L. reuteri in mMRS or in sourdough. However, the wild type strain L. reuteri 100-23 displaced L. reuteri ∆gadB after 5 cycles of fermentation in back-slopped sourdough fermentations. The conversion of glutamate to GABA by L. reuteri 100-23 contributes to acid resistance and to competitiveness in industrial sourdough fermentations. The organization of the gene cluster for glutamate conversion, and the availability of amino acids in cereals imply that glutamine rather than glutamate functions as the substrate for GABA formation. The exceptional coupling of glutamine deamidation to glutamate decarboxylation in L. reuteri likely reflects adaptation to cereal substrates.

  20. Contribution of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus reuteri to acid resistance and persistence in sourdough fermentation

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    Gänzle Michael G

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid stress impacts the persistence of lactobacilli in industrial sourdough fermentations, and in intestinal ecosystems. However, the contribution of glutamate to acid resistance in lactobacilli has not been demonstrated experimentally, and evidence for the contribution of acid resistance to the competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough is lacking. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the ecological role of glutamate decarboxylase in L. reuteri. Results A gene coding for a putative glutamate decarboxylase, gadB, was identified in the genome of L. reuteri 100-23. Different from the organization of genetic loci coding for glutamate decarboxylase in other lactic acid bacteria, gadB was located adjacent to a putative glutaminase gene, gls3. An isogenic deletion mutant, L. reuteri ∆gadB, was generated by a double crossover method. L. reuteri 100-23 but not L. reuteri ∆gadB converted glutamate to γ-aminobutyrate (GABA in phosphate butter (pH 2.5. In sourdough, both strains converted glutamine to glutamate but only L. reuteri 100-23 accumulated GABA. Glutamate addition to phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, improved survival of L. reuteri 100-23 100-fold. However, survival of L. reuteri ∆gadB remained essentially unchanged. The disruption of gadB did not affect growth of L. reuteri in mMRS or in sourdough. However, the wild type strain L. reuteri 100-23 displaced L. reuteri ∆gadB after 5 cycles of fermentation in back-slopped sourdough fermentations. Conclusions The conversion of glutamate to GABA by L. reuteri 100-23 contributes to acid resistance and to competitiveness in industrial sourdough fermentations. The organization of the gene cluster for glutamate conversion, and the availability of amino acids in cereals imply that glutamine rather than glutamate functions as the substrate for GABA formation. The exceptional coupling of glutamine deamidation to glutamate decarboxylation in L. reuteri likely

  1. Contribution of glutamate decarboxylase in Lactobacillus reuteri to acid resistance and persistence in sourdough fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Acid stress impacts the persistence of lactobacilli in industrial sourdough fermentations, and in intestinal ecosystems. However, the contribution of glutamate to acid resistance in lactobacilli has not been demonstrated experimentally, and evidence for the contribution of acid resistance to the competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough is lacking. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the ecological role of glutamate decarboxylase in L. reuteri. Results A gene coding for a putative glutamate decarboxylase, gadB, was identified in the genome of L. reuteri 100-23. Different from the organization of genetic loci coding for glutamate decarboxylase in other lactic acid bacteria, gadB was located adjacent to a putative glutaminase gene, gls3. An isogenic deletion mutant, L. reuteri ∆gadB, was generated by a double crossover method. L. reuteri 100-23 but not L. reuteri ∆gadB converted glutamate to γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) in phosphate butter (pH 2.5). In sourdough, both strains converted glutamine to glutamate but only L. reuteri 100-23 accumulated GABA. Glutamate addition to phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, improved survival of L. reuteri 100-23 100-fold. However, survival of L. reuteri ∆gadB remained essentially unchanged. The disruption of gadB did not affect growth of L. reuteri in mMRS or in sourdough. However, the wild type strain L. reuteri 100-23 displaced L. reuteri ∆gadB after 5 cycles of fermentation in back-slopped sourdough fermentations. Conclusions The conversion of glutamate to GABA by L. reuteri 100-23 contributes to acid resistance and to competitiveness in industrial sourdough fermentations. The organization of the gene cluster for glutamate conversion, and the availability of amino acids in cereals imply that glutamine rather than glutamate functions as the substrate for GABA formation. The exceptional coupling of glutamine deamidation to glutamate decarboxylation in L. reuteri likely reflects adaptation to cereal

  2. Comparative genomics Lactobacillus reuteri from sourdough reveals adaptation of an intestinal symbiont to food fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Xin; Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael

    2015-12-11

    Lactobacillus reuteri is a dominant member of intestinal microbiota of vertebrates, and occurs in food fermentations. The stable presence of L. reuteri in sourdough provides the opportunity to study the adaptation of vertebrate symbionts to an extra-intestinal habitat. This study evaluated this adaptation by comparative genomics of 16 strains of L. reuteri. A core genome phylogenetic tree grouped L. reuteri into 5 clusters corresponding to the host-adapted lineages. The topology of a gene content tree, which includes accessory genes, differed from the core genome phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the differentiation of L. reuteri is shaped by gene loss or acquisition. About 10% of the core genome (124 core genes) were under positive selection. In lineage III sourdough isolates, 177 genes were under positive selection, mainly related to energy conversion and carbohydrate metabolism. The analysis of the competitiveness of L. reuteri in sourdough revealed that the competitivess of sourdough isolates was equal or higher when compared to rodent isolates. This study provides new insights into the adaptation of L. reuteri to food and intestinal habitats, suggesting that these two habitats exert different selective pressure related to growth rate and energy (carbohydrate) metabolism.

  3. Codominance of Lactobacillus plantarum and obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Giusi; Alfonzo, Antonio; Galluzzo, Paola; Corona, Onofrio; Francesca, Nicola; Caracappa, Santo; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2015-10-01

    Fifteen sourdoughs produced in western Sicily (southern Italy) were analysed by classical methods for their chemico-physical characteristics and the levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). pH and total titratable acidity (TTA) were mostly in the range commonly reported for similar products produced in Italy, but the fermentation quotient (FQ) of the majority of samples was above 4.0, due to the low concentration of acetic acid estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Specific counts of LAB showed levels higher than 10(8) CFU g(-1) for many samples. The colonies representing various morphologies were isolated and, after the differentiation based on phenotypic characteristics, divided into 10 groups. The most numerous group was composed of facultative heterofermentative isolates, indicating a relevance of this bacterial group during fermentation. The genetic analysis by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCRs identified 33 strains as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus and Lactobacillus graminis. Due to the consistent presence of L. plantarum, it was concluded that this species codominates with obligate heterofermentative LAB in sourdough production in this geographical area. In order to evaluate the performances at the basis of their fitness, the 29 L. plantarum strains were investigated for several technological traits. Twelve cultures showed good acidifying abilities in vitro and L. plantarum PON100148 produced the highest concentrations of organic acids. Eleven strains were positive for extracellular protease activity. Bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) production and antifungal activity was scored positive for several strains, included L. plantarum PON100148 which was selected as starter for experimental sourdough production. The characteristics of the sourdoughs and the resulting breads indicated that the best productions were obtained in presence of L

  4. Ecological parameters influencing microbial diversity and stability of traditional sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-02-03

    The quality of some leavened, sourdough baked goods is not always consistent, unless a well propagated sourdough starter culture is used for the dough fermentation. Among the different types of sourdough used, the traditional sourdough has attracted the interest of researchers, mainly because of its large microbial diversity, especially with respect to lactic acid bacteria. Variation in this diversity and the factors that cause it will impact on quality and is the subject of this review. Sourdough microbial diversity is mainly caused by the following factors: (i) sourdough is obtained through spontaneous, multi-step fermentation; (ii) it is propagated using flour, whose nutrient content may vary according to the batch and to the crop, and which is naturally contaminated by microorganisms; and (iii) it is propagated under peculiar technological parameters, which vary depending on the historical and cultural background and type of baked good. In the population dynamics leading from flour to mature sourdough, lactic acid bacteria (several species of Lactobacillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., and Weissella sp.) and yeasts (mainly Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida sp.) outcompete other microbial groups contaminating flour, and interact with each other at different levels. Ecological parameters qualitatively and quantitatively affecting the dominant sourdough microbiota may be classified into specific technological parameters (e.g., percentage of sourdough used as inoculum, time and temperature of fermentation) and parameters that are not fully controlled by those who manage the propagation of sourdough (e.g., chemical, enzyme and microbial composition of flour). Although some sourdoughs have been reported to harbour a persistent dominant microbiota, the stability of sourdough ecosystem during time is debated. Indeed, several factors may interfere with the persistence of species and strains associations that are typical of a given sourdough: metabolic adaptability to the

  5. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from SpontaneousSourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaičiulytė-Funk, Lina; Šalomskienė, Joana; Alenčikienė, Gitana; Mieželienė, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Summary Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb firmness of the final product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically differ from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread. PMID:27956866

  6. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from Spontaneous Sourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaičiulytė-Funk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb fi rmness of the fi nal product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically diff er from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread.

  7. Variations of internal pH in typical Italian sourdough yeasts during co-fermentation with lactobacilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valmorri, Sara; Mortensen, Henrik Dam; Jespersen, Lene

    2008-01-01

    The effects of organic acids (lactic and acetic) and extracellular pH (pHex) on the intracellular pH (pHi) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida milleri during co-fermentation with lactobacilli were investigated by using Fluorescence-Ratio-Imaging-Microscopy (FRIM). Yeasts were grown in a system...... that partially mimics sourdough composition, using individual fermentation and combinations with lactic acid bacteria. Fermentations were carried out at 25 C for 22 h at an initial pH of 5.3. The two yeast species grew equally well during the co-fermentations with lactobacilli. Our results reveal large...

  8. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Laatikainen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h, would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs, and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26. Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03, but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.

  10. Sourdough Fermentation of Wheat Flour does not Prevent the Interaction of Transglutaminase 2 with α2-Gliadin or Gluten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Engström

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2 plays a crucial role in the initiation of celiac disease by catalyzing the deamidation of gluten peptides. In susceptible individuals, the deamidated peptides initiate an immune response leading to celiac disease. Several studies have addressed lactic fermentation plus addition of enzymes as a means to degrade gluten in order to prevent adverse response in celiacs. Processing for complete gluten degradation is often harsh and is not likely to yield products that are of comparable characteristics as their gluten-containing counterparts. We are concerned that incomplete degradation of gluten may have adverse effects because it leads to more available TG2-binding sites on gluten peptides. Therefore, we have investigated how lactic acid fermentation affects the potential binding of TG2 to gluten protein in wheat flour by means of estimating TG2-mediated transamidation in addition to measuring the available TG2-binding motif QLP, in α2-gliadin. We show that lactic fermentation of wheat flour, as slurry or as part of sourdough bread, did not decrease the TG2-mediated transamidation, in the presence of a primary amine, to an efficient level (73%–102% of unfermented flour. Nor did the lactic fermentation decrease the available TG2 binding motif QLP in α2-gliadin to a sufficient extent in sourdough bread (73%–122% of unfermented control to be useful for celiac safe food.

  11. Use of hop extract as antifungal ingredient for bread making and selection of autochthonous resistant starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2018-02-02

    Aiming at meeting the consumers' demand in terms of bio-preservation, the potential of the combination of the lactic acid bacteria fermentation and the addition of hop extract as natural preservative in breadmaking, was exploited. The antifungal properties of a hop (Humulus lupulus) extract were investigated, showing a significant inhibition of the hyphal growth of Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium carneum, Penicillium polonicum, Penicillium paneum, Penicillium chermesinum, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium roqueforti. Lactic acid bacteria belonging to species of Enterococcus feacium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Pediococcus acidilactici were isolated from hop and subjected to selection based on kinetics of growth and acidification. The sourdough (hS) enriched with hop extract (hE), started with three selected strains, had phenols concentration and antioxidant activity higher than those obtained in the same condition but without the hE. Hop-sourdough used in breadmaking delayed the fungal growth (14 days), giving a bread characterized by free aminoacids concentration, antioxidant and phytase activities higher than bread started only with baker's yeast, with or without the addition of hE. Specific volume and cell-total area of the bread containing hE improved, and its sensory profile was characterized by typical sourdough attributes, and a moderate bitter/herbaceous perception.

  12. Sourdough products for convenient use in baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Markus J

    2007-04-01

    Sourdough fermentations require a specific knowledge on the effects of process parameters, raw materials and micro-organisms in order to obtain a specific, reproducible sourdough and bread quality. This knowledge is not necessarily available in bakeries. Sourdough starter cultures, either active sourdoughs (Reinzuchtsauerteig) or freeze-dried micro-organisms are used to start sourdough fermentation with the required micro-flora. As sourdough fermentation is a labour-intensive and a time-consuming process, a growing demand for convenient products arised early. First organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid) and mixtures thereof came in use. These agents were used directly without or in combination with a sourdough; however, flavour and taste of the resulting breads were unsatisfactory. Based on modified and optimized traditional sourdough processes, dried, pasty and liquid sourdoughs were developed. Companies which produce such ready-to-use products, claim for a convenient, direct production of baked goods in constant quality, in combination with all advantages of a biological sourdough fermentation, e.g. flavour and taste, fresh keeping and prolonged microbial shelf-life. Currently, a broad variety of sourdough products with different fermented cereals is available on the market. In order to obtain a stable product, it is a necessity to inactivate the sourdough micro-biota by e.g. pasteurization, drying or autosterilization.

  13. Development of a method for the direct fermentation of semolina by selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Antonio; Urso, Valeria; Corona, Onofrio; Francesca, Nicola; Amato, Gaetano; Settanni, Luca; Di Miceli, Giuseppe

    2016-12-19

    Three obligately heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis PON100336, Leuconostoc citreum PON10079 and Weissella cibaria PON10030) were used in this study as a multi-species starter culture for sourdough production. The starter inoculum was prepared and propagated in sterile semolina extract (SSE) broth. Acidification kinetics, microbiological counts detected on specific media for sourdough LAB, polymorphic profile comparison and species-specific PCRs evidenced a stability of the liquid inoculum over time determining its suitability for direct addition to semolina. In order to validate this innovative method for the production of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) sourdoughs, 15 semolinas (from ten old and five modern genotypes cultivated in Sicily, southern Italy) were used to prepare the SSEs and to produce sourdoughs and finally breads. Chemical and microbiological analyses of the sourdoughs and the evaluation of the quality parameters (weight loss, height, crumb and crust colour, image analysis and volatile organic compound generation) of the resulting breads indicated that the direct addition of the liquid inocula propagated in SSE is a valuable method to stabilise the production of sourdoughs. The differences registered during the technological characterisation of the breads were underlined by the sensory tests and the multivariate analysis and are mainly imputable to the type of semolina. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  15. Exploitation of Albanian wheat cultivars: characterization of the flours and lactic acid bacteria microbiota, and selection of starters for sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nionelli, Luana; Curri, Nertila; Curiel, José Antonio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pontonio, Erica; Cavoski, Ivana; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Six Albanian soft and durum wheat cultivars were characterized based on chemical and technological features, showing different attitudes for bread making. Gliadin and glutenin fractions were selectively extracted from flours, and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. Linja 7 and LVS flours showed the best characteristics, and abundance of high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared through back slopping procedure, and the lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the predominant species. Thirty-eight representative isolates were singly used for sourdough fermentation of soft and durum wheat Albanian flours and their selection was carried out based on growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation, and proteolytic activity. Two different pools of lactic acid bacteria were designed to ferment soft or durum wheat flours. Sourdough fermentation with mixed and selected starters positively affected the quotient of fermentation, concentration of free amino acids, profile of phenolic acids, and antioxidant and phytase activities. This study provided the basis to exploit the potential of wheat Albanian flours based on an integrated approach, which considered the characterization of the flours and the processing conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of levan-producing acetic acid bacteria on buckwheat-sourdough breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ua-Arak, Tharalinee; Jakob, Frank; Vogel, Rudi F

    2017-08-01

    Buckwheat sourdoughs supplemented with molasses as natural sucrose source were fermented with levan-producing Gluconobacter (G.) albidus TMW 2.1191 and Kozakia (K.) baliensis NBRC 16680. Cell growth, concomitant levan and low-molecular-weight metabolite production were monitored. Sourdough breads were prepared with different sourdoughs from both strains (24, 30 and 48 h fermentation, respectively) and analyzed with respect to bread volume, crumb hardness and sensory characteristics. During fermentation, levan, acetic and gluconic acids were increasingly produced, while spontaneously co-growing lactic acid bacteria additionally formed acetic and lactic acids. Sourdoughs from both strains obtained upon 24 h of fermentation significantly improved the bread sensory and quality, including higher specific volume as well as lower crumb hardness. Buckwheat doughs containing isolated levan, with similar molecular size and mass compared to in situ produced levan in the sourdough at 48 h, verified the positive effect of levan on bread quality. However, the positive effects of levan were masked to a certain extent by the impact from the natural acidification during fermentations. While levan-producing acetic acid bacteria are a promising alternative for the development of clean-label gluten-free breads without the need of additives, an appropriate balance between acidification and levan production (amount and structure) must be reached. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  18. 1 INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION ON SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  19. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico- chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  20. Quality evaluation of the sourdough rye breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA BANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation is a biotechnological process that has been reported to improve dough properties, to increase bread flavor and taste, to enhance nutritional value and to extend shelf life of sourdough bread. The quality of rye breads prepared with 20 and 40% sourdough, fermented with different mixed starter cultures was investigated in this study. The bread quality was evaluated in terms of specific volume, humidity, total titratable acidity, crumb characteristics and sensory profiles. Digital image analysis revealed that rye bread with 40% sourdough had a considerably denser crumb structure. Rye bread with 20% sourdough maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period, while increasing the sourdough content to 40% had a negative effect on the texture. The sensory profiles of the bread highly depended on the type of starter cultures used for fermentation.

  1. Important aroma compounds in freshly ground wholemeal and white wheat flour-identification and quantitative changes during sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerny, Michael; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-11-06

    An investigation on the odor-active compounds of wholemeal (WWF) and white wheat flour (WF 550) by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) and by quantitative studies using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) revealed a significant number of odor-active compounds, such as (E)-2-nonenal, (E,Z)- and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, and vanillin, with high odor activities in both wheat flours. The amounts and, consequently, the aroma potencies of vanillin, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 3-(methylthio)propanal were much higher in the WWF than in the WF 550 samples. Fermentation of suspensions of both flours with lactic acid bacteria did not generate new odorants; however, many compounds, such as acetic acid or 3-methylbutanal, were increased, whereas aldehydes (formed from the degradation of unsaturated fatty acids) were decreased. Comparing the odorant concentrations present before and after fermentation gave evidence that the main influence of the microorganisms on sourdough aroma is to either enhance or decrease specific volatiles already present in the flour. A comparison with literature data indicated that most of these odorants are also important for the bread crumb aroma present after baking of the dough.

  2. Lactic Acid Bacteria Combinations for Wheat Sourdough Preparation and Their Influence on Wheat Bread Quality and Acrylamide Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Bartkevics, Vadims; Krungleviciute, Vita; Pugajeva, Iveta; Zadeike, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina

    2017-10-01

    Different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spontaneous wheat sourdough were isolated, identified, and characterized by their growth, acidification rate, and carbohydrate metabolism. The combinations of isolated LAB (Pediococcus pentosaceus LUHS183 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides LUHS242, P. pentosaceus LUHS183 and Lactobacillus brevis LUHS173, P. pentosaceus LUHS183 and Enterococcus pseudoavium LUHS 234, P. pentosaceus LUHS183 and Lactobacillus curvatus LUHS51, Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 and L. curvatus LUHS51, L. plantarum LUHS135 and P. pentosaceus LUHS183) were used for wheat sourdough production, and the effects of LAB fermentation in sourdoughs on wheat bread quality parameters and acrylamide formation were evaluated. All of the tested strains (except E. pseudoavium LUHS 234) were able to ferment l-arabinose, d-ribose, d-galactose, d-fructose, and d-maltose and showed high tolerance to acidic conditions. The highest overall acceptability (135.8 ± 5.5 mm) was found in the bread produced with L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus sourdough. This group of bread also showed the highest shape coefficient (2.59 ± 0.02), the highest specific volume (3.40 ± 0.03 cm 3 /g), the highest porosity (76.6 ± 0.3%), and the highest moisture content (33.7%). Selected sourdoughs reduced acrylamide content in bread samples by 29.5% (sourdough prepared with P. pentosaceus and L. mesenteroides) to 67.2% (sourdough prepared with P. pentosaceus and L. curvatus). These cultures potentially can be used to reduce acrylamide in breads. The data of this study have practical applications. L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus sourdoughs increases overall acceptability, specific volume, and porosity of wheat bread. Besides the fact that sourdoughs produced by using combinations of selected LAB strains improved the quality parameters of bread, fermentation with prepared sourdoughs also reduced the acrylamide content in wheat bread samples by 29.5% (sourdough prepared with P. pentosaceus

  3. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE EFFECT OF SOME TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS ON THE RYE SOURDOUGH BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biotechnology of bread production uses sourdough as a natural leavening agent. In rye bread making the sourdough is essential. The aim of this paper was to examine the influence of starter culture types, flour extraction rate, dough yield and temperature of fermentation on the quality of the sourdough rye bread. The sourdough was prepared using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis. The rye breads prepared with 20% sourdough and bread with no sourdough were investigated. The addition of sourdough increases the loaf specific volume relative to control sample. The best results were obtained in case of sourdough made from dark rye flour, 300 dough yield, after 24 h fermentation at 30 °C. The porosity of the bread was estimated by analyzing the scanned images of the vertically halved bread. Digital image analysis revealed that the cell-to-total area ratio was lower for the sourdough prepared with whole rye bread.

  5. Composition and function of sourdough microbiota: From ecological theory to bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gänzle, Michael; Ripari, Valery

    2016-12-19

    Sourdough has traditionally been used as leavening agent in artisanal baking. The production of baked and steamed cereal products increasingly employs sourdough as baking improver to achieve improved bread quality, or to obtain "clean label" products. Sourdoughs are maintained in bakeries by continuous propagation; composition and metabolic activity of sourdough microbiota and their impact on bread quality are therefore shaped by processing parameters and fermentation substrates. The diversity of fermentation processes leads to diverse compositions of sourdough microbiota. This communication explores whether concepts in community assembly support an improved understanding of the microbial ecology of sourdough. Community assembly is determined by diversification, drift, dispersal, and selection. Evidence for diversification in sourdoughs is inconclusive. Drift has been shown to shape sourdough microbiota only in specific cases. Increasing knowledge on the primary habitat of sourdough lactobacilli indicates that dispersal (limitation) is an important determinant in sourdoughs that are propagated only for short periods of time. In contrast, selection of adapted organisms mainly determines the microbiota of sourdoughs that are propagated for a long time. Bacterial metabolic traits that determine competitiveness in sourdough fermentation, i.e. effective use of maltose, exopolysaccharide formation from sucrose, the use of electron acceptors by heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, and acid resistance mediated by arginine and glutamine conversion, also determine bread quality. The concepts in community assembly thus provide a valuable tool to understand the influence of the technology of sourdough fermentation on microbial ecology and on bread quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  7. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis on technological properties of sourdough and voluminous bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gharekhani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough applications in bread production are rising in recent decades continuously due to consumers' desire for natural products containing less chemical preservatives. In sourdough, lactic acid bacteria play a key role in the fermentation process. In this study Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis as single starter and their mixture as a mixed starter were used in the preparation of sourdough. The results showed that the use of single starters increased diacetyl and hydrogen peroxide of sourdough and sourdough fermented with mixed starter had the highest content of diacetyl and hydrogen peroxide. In the end sourdough fermentation period the highest lactic acid bacteria count was associated with sourdough containing L. sanfranciscensis. Effects of different starters were significant on the pH of TTA of sourdough, dough and bread, and also resulted in decreased pH and increased of TTA compared to control bread. The results of the assessment of physicochemical and organoleptic properties of bread showed that sourdough containing mixed starter resulted in increasing of height, specific volume and porosity; however, it reduced the hardness of bread crust and crumb, and retarded the emergence of mold colonies. Sourdough bread containing mixed starter gained the highest score of organoleptic properties. Therefore the use of mixed starters consisting of L. plantarum and L. sanfranciscensis could be considered as a suitable starter culture for the production of sourdough and high quality bread.

  8. Effect of lineage-specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on sourdough microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increases acid resistance by generating a proton motive force. Glycerol and glutamate metabolisms are lineage-specific traits in L. reuteri; therefore, this study employed glycerol dehydratase-positive sourdough isolates of human-adapted L. reuteri lineage I, glutamate decarboxylase-positive strains of rodent-adapted L. reuteri lineage II, as well as mutants with deletions in gadB or gupCDE. The competitivenesses of the strains were quantified by inoculation of wheat and sorghum sourdoughs with defined strains, followed by propagation of doughs with a 10% inoculum and 12-h or 72-h fermentation cycles. Lineage I L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 12-h fermentation cycles; lineage II L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 72-h fermentation cycles. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with 72-h fermentation cycles; L. reuteri FUA3400ΔgupCDE was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with both 12-h and 72-h fermentation cycles. Competition experiments with isogenic pairs of strains resulted in a constant rate of strain displacement of the less competitive mutant strain. In conclusion, lineage-specific traits of L. reuteri determine the competitiveness of this species in sourdough fermentations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    JAMILI; NUR ARFA YANTI; PRIMA ENDANG SUSILOWATI

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a coco...

  10. Effect of Lineage-Specific Metabolic Traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on Sourdough Microbial Ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaoxi B.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increas...

  11. Yeast Population Dynamics in Spontaneous and Inoculated Alcoholic Fermentations of Zametovka Must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Cus

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculated fermentations, which are more rapid and more reliable than spontaneous fermentations, and assure predictable wine quality, are nowadays prevalent in Slovenia’s large-scale wine production. However, spontaneous fermentation strengthens local characteristics of wine and offers opportunities for technological innovation. In the 1999 vintage, spontaneous and inoculated fermentations of Zametovka (Vitis vinifera grape must were studied. Zametovka is the main red variety in production of traditional Slovene red blend wine, Cvicek. The diversity of yeast species and strains in both of the investigated fermentations was determined by molecular and traditional identification methods. The outset of alcoholic fermentation, yeast growth kinetics, and yeast population dynamics presents the main differences between the examined fermentations. Yeast population diversity was higher in the spontaneous process. Dominant yeast isolates from spontaneous fermentation were identified as Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; whereas Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia membranifaciens and Torulaspora delbrueckiim were found less frequently. Dominant species in the inoculated fermentation was Saccharomyces cerevisiae; other species found in smaller numbers were Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii. Using PFGE, we were able to distinguish among 15 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and three different Saccharomyces bayanus strains isolated from spontaneous fermentation, whereas, in the case of inoculated fermentation, only two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were found. Their chromosomal patterns coincide with the chromosomal patterns of the starter culture strains.

  12. Yeast dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of mawe and tchoukoutou, two traditional products from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Rantisou, Kalliopi; Padonou, Wilfrid

    2013-01-01

    Mawe and tchoukoutou are two traditional fermented foods largely consumed in Benin, West Africa. Their preparations remain as a house art and they are the result of spontaneous fermentation processes. In this study, dynamics of the yeast populations occurring during spontaneous fermentations...... of mawe and tchoukoutou were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. For each product, two productions were followed. Samples were taken at different fermentation times and yeasts were isolated, resulting in the collection of 177 isolates. They were identified by the PCR...

  13. Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented camel milk and selection of strains for fermentation of camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Angelina June Brandt; Berhe, Tesfemariam; Kiran, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The microbial communities in spontaneously fermented camel milk from Ethiopia were characterised through metagenomic 16S rRNA sequencing and lactic acid bacteria were isolated with the goal of selecting strains suitable as starter cultures. The fermented camel milk microbiota was dominated either...... by Lactobacillales or by Enterobacteriaceae, depending on incubation temperature and the provider of the milk. Strains of species with a potential use as starter cultures i.e., Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici, were isolated. Fast acidifiers of camel milk have been isolated...... from the species of Lc. lactis, P. acidilactici, and Streptococcus infantarius. Gram-negative and potentially pathogenic microorganisms were frequent in spontaneously fermented camel milk, indicating the need for improved hygiene in Ethiopian camel farms. The profiled microbiota of spontaneously...

  14. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMILI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a cocoa farmer in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi using yeast mannitol agar (YMA media. Yeast was characterized and identified using phenotypic characters based on numeric-phenetic analysis. Yeast isolates applied to cocoa bean to determine its role in cocoa bean fermentation. The result was obtained seven isolates the dominant yeast during cocoa bean fermentation in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi. The result of numerical-phenetic analysis based on phenotypic characters to seven yeast isolates showed that 1 isolates (Klk1 identical with Candida krusei. Three isolates (Klk4, Klk5 and Klk7 identical with Candida tropicalis, one isolate (Klk2 identical with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, one isolate (Klk3 identical with Kloeckera sp. and one isolate (Klk6 identical with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result also showed that fermentation of cocoa with seeding of yeast inoculums served to increase the quality of cocoa beans than spontaneous fermentation. Therefore, the seven yeast isolates potentially be used as an inoculum to improve the cocoa quality.

  15. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS DURING SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF MAIZE [Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroorganisme pada Fermentasi Spontan Jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati1,2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize was traditionally the second most common staple food in Indonesia. Conversion to maize flour has been accomplished to improve its convenience. Traditionally, maize flour is produced by soaking the kernels in water followed by grinding. It was reported that final physicochemical characteristics of the maize flour were influenced by spontaneous fermentation which occurred during soaking. This research aimed to isolate and identify important microorganisms that grew during fermentation thus a standardized starter culture can be developed for a more controlled fermentation process. Soaking of maize grits was conducted in sterile water (grits:water=1:2, w/v in a closed container at room temperature (±28ºC for 72 hours. After 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 hours, water and maize grits were sampled and tested for the presence of mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Isolates obtained from the spontaneous fermentation were reinoculated into the appropriate media containing starch to observe their amylolytic activity. Individual isolate was then identified; mold by slide culture method, while yeast and LAB by biochemical rapid kits, i.e. API 20C AUX and API CH50, respectively. The number of each microorganism was plotted against time to obtain the growth curve of the microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, R.oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Acremonium strictum, Candida famata, Kodamaea ohmeri, Candida krusei/incospicua, Lactobacillus plantarum 1a, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. brevis 1, L. plantarum 1b, and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 3. Four molds and one yeast were amylolytic while none of the LAB was capable of starch hydrolysis. The growth curve suggested that the amylolitic mold and yeast grew to hydrolyze starch during the course of fermentation, while the LABs benefited from the hydrolyzed products and dominated the later

  16. Behavior and viability of spontaneous oxidative stress-resistant Lactococcus lactis mutants in experimental fermented milk processing

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, M. N.; ALMEIDA, K. E.; DAMIN, M. R.; ROCHAT, T.; GRATADOUX, J. -J.; MIYOSHI, A.; LANGELLA, P.; AZEVEDO, V.

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we isolated two strains of spontaneous oxidative (SpOx2 and SpOx3) stress mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris. Herein, we compared these mutants to a parental wild- type strain (J60011) and a commercial starter in experimental fermented milk production. Total solid contents of milk and fermentation temperature both affected the acidification profile of the spontaneous oxidative stress- resistant L. lactis mutants during fermented milk production. Fermentation times to pH ...

  17. Development of fermented milk “Leben” made from spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... products. Final characteristics of fermented milks depend on milk composition, heat treatment of milk, fermentation conditions and the composition of the starter's cultures. (Chammas ... dardization of the product (Tantaoui-Elaraki et al., 1983;. Guizani et ..... micellar structure and then to the modification in the.

  18. Diet-derived changes by sourdough-fermented rye bread in exhaled breath aspiration ion mobility spectrometry profiles in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa; Lappi, Jenni; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; Raatikainen, Olavi

    2017-12-01

    The potential of utilising exhaled breath volatile organic compound (VOC) profiles in studying diet-derived metabolic changes was examined. After a four-week initial diet period with white wheat bread (WW), seven participants received in randomised order high-fibre diets containing sourdough whole grain rye bread (WGR) or white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (WW + BRB), both for 4 weeks. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analysed with ChemPro ® 100i analyser (Environics OY, Mikkeli, Finland) at the end of each diet period in fasting state and after a standardised meal. The AIMS signal intensities in fasting state were different after the WGR diet as compared to other diets. The result suggests that WGR has metabolic effects not completely explained by the rye fibre content of the diet. This study encourages to utilise the exhaled breath VOC profile analysis as an early screening tool in studying physiological functionality of foods.

  19. Antifungal sourdough lactic acid bacteria as biopreservation tool in quinoa and rice bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Claudia; Brosnan, Brid; Zannini, Emanuele; Furey, Ambrose; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-12-19

    The use of sourdough fermented with specific strains of antifungal lactic acid bacteria can reduce chemical preservatives in bakery products. The main objective of this study was to investigate the production of antifungal carboxylic acids after sourdough fermentation of quinoa and rice flour using the antifungal strains Lactobacillus reuteri R29 and Lactobacillus brevis R2Δ as bioprotective cultures and the non-antifungal L. brevis L1105 as a negative control strain. The impact of the fermentation substrate was evaluated in terms of metabolic activity, acidification pattern and quantity of antifungal carboxylic acids. These in situ produced compounds (n=20) were extracted from the sourdough using a QuEChERS method and detected by a new UHPLC-MS/MS chromatography. Furthermore, the sourdough was applied in situ using durability tests against environmental moulds to investigate the biopreservative potential to prolong the shelf life of bread. Organic acid production and TTA values were lowest in rice sourdough. The sourdough fermentation of the different flour substrates generated a complex and significantly different profile of carboxylic acids. Extracted quinoa sourdough detected the greatest number of carboxylic acids (n=11) at a much higher concentration than what was detected from rice sourdough (n=9). Comparing the lactic acid bacteria strains, L. reuteri R29 fermented sourdoughs contained generally higher concentrations of acetic and lactic acid but also the carboxylic acids. Among them, 3-phenyllactic acid and 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid were present at a significant concentration. This was correlated with the superior protein content of quinoa flour and its high protease activity. With the addition of L. reuteri R29 inoculated sourdough, the shelf life was extended by 2 days for quinoa (+100%) and rice bread (+67%) when compared to the non-acidified controls. The L. brevis R2Δ fermented sourdough bread reached a shelf life of 4 days for quinoa (+100%) and

  20. Antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk on spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Mohammed A; Alhaj, Omar A; Al-Khalifah, Abdullrahman S

    2017-03-30

    Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in worldwide, thus prevention of hypertension is important in reducing the risks of cardiovascular disease. Milk contains bioactive peptides released during milk fermentation which lead to exhibit angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on rats and compared with unfermented skim camel milk as control. The antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on thirty six male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was carried out for (short-term) and (long-term) using different doses (80, 240 and 1200 mg/kg body weight). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was also measured using ACE Kit. The blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in short term administration (24 hours) of 1200 mg/kg body weight fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk for long-term (20 days) decreased and affected the heart rate (beats/min). The lowest record of systolic (41 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (19 mmHg) were at dose of 1200 mg/kg body weight of fermented skim camel milk at 15 days of administration. Likewise, ACE activity in plasma of SHR administered fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk by L. helveticus and S. thermophillus in SHR rats depends on the high dose of fermented skim camel milk in short and long-term. The ACE activity inhibitory was clear with fermented skim camel milk.

  1. The Biodiversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Greek Traditional Wheat Sourdoughs Is Reflected in Both Composition and Metabolite Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Luc; Schrijvers, Vincent; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Hoste, Bart; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Kalantzopoulos, George; Tsakalidou, Effie; Messens, Winy

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs manufactured without the addition of baker's yeast. Application of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total cell protein, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, DNA-DNA hybridization, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis, in combination with physiological traits such as fructose fermentation and mannitol production, allowed us to classify the isolated bacteria into the species Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, and Weissella cibaria. This consortium seems to be unique for the Greek traditional wheat sourdoughs studied. Strains of the species W. cibaria have not been isolated from sourdoughs previously. No Lactobacillus pontis or Lactobacillus panis strains were found. An L. brevis-like isolate (ACA-DC 3411 t1) could not be identified properly and might be a new sourdough LAB species. In addition, fermentation capabilities associated with the LAB detected have been studied. During laboratory fermentations, all heterofermentative sourdough LAB strains produced lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol. Mannitol was produced from fructose that served as an additional electron acceptor. In addition to glucose, almost all of the LAB isolates fermented maltose, while fructose as the sole carbohydrate source was fermented by all sourdough LAB tested except L. sanfranciscensis. Two of the L. paralimentarius isolates tested did not ferment maltose; all strains were homofermentative. In the presence of both maltose and fructose in the medium, induction of hexokinase activity occurred in all sourdough LAB species mentioned above, explaining why no glucose accumulation was found extracellularly. No maltose phosphorylase activity was found either. These data produced a variable fermentation coefficient and a unique sourdough metabolite composition. PMID:12450829

  2. Influence of Barley Sourdough and Vacuum Cooling on Shelf Life Quality of Partially Baked Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Driven by the bakery industry urge to satisfy consumer demand for fresh, diverse and high quality bakery products, we investigated the influence of barley sourdough and vacuum cooling on shelf life quality of partially baked bread stored in modified atmosphere packaging at ambient conditions. Barley sourdough was fermented with Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 20016, F275). Partially baked bread with sourdough was microbiologically acceptable during 30 days of storage, while bread without sourdough had detectable mould on the 30th day. Stored bread samples were rebaked after 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days to determine moisture content, physical and sensorial properties. Moisture loss (5%) was detected on the 15th day, after which it remained stable until the end of investigated storage period. Nevertheless, textural quality of stored bread continuously declined due to crumb firming. Bread flavour did not change during mould-free storage time. The principal component analysis identified major differences in the flavour of sour and control bread, also in crumb firmness and moisture content of samples. This study indicates the positive role of barley sourdough fermented with L. reuteri in improving crumb texture for at least 15 days, and ensuring mould- and bacteria-free partially baked bread for 30 days. Vacuum cooling combined with sourdough improved bread shape, porosity, and reduced sour taste, crust colouring and crumbliness. Hence, it can successfully extend shelf life quality of partially baked bread in modified atmosphere packaging. PMID:29540981

  3. Physicochemical characterization and sensory analysis of yeast-leavened and sourdough soy breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezbick, Gabrielle; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer; Schwartz, Steven J; Vodovotz, Yael

    2013-10-01

    Sourdough fermentation has been shown to have numerous beneficial effects on bread quality, and nutritionally enhance soy-supplemented bread by altering isoflavone chemical forms. Given this, the objective of this study was to compare the loaf quality and shelf life of sourdough and yeast-leavened soy breads by various physical, thermal, and sensorial methods, and to assess the effects of fermentation by various microorganisms on isoflavone profile in dough and breads using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Sourdough fermentation yielded a less extensible dough compared to yeast-leavened soy dough (P bread crumb (P bread (Y-B). Sensory analysis revealed a significantly higher overall liking of Y-B compared to sourdough soy bread (SD-B) (P bread consumption frequency may be determinants of Y-B or SD-B preference. SD-B and Y-B exhibited similar shelf-life properties. Despite significantly different enthalpies associated with the melting of amylose-lipid complexes, thermal analysis of the 2 soy breads stored for 10 d (ambient conditions) demonstrated no significant difference in water distribution and starch retrogradation (P < 0.05). Lastly, SD-B was determined to have 32% of total isoflavones occurring in the aglycone form compared to 17% in Y-B. These findings warrant further investigation of sourdough fermentation as a processing technique for quality and nutritional enhancement of soy-based baked goods. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Characterization and Dynamic Behavior of Wild Yeast during Spontaneous Wine Fermentation in Steel Tanks and Amphorae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Cecilia; Molina, Ana María; Nähring, Jörg; Fischer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    We studied the dynamic behavior of wild yeasts during spontaneous wine fermentation at a winery in the Valais region of Switzerland. Wild yeasts in the winery environment were characterized using a PCR-RFLP method. Up to 11 different yeast species were isolated from the vineyard air, whereas only seven were recovered from the grapes surface. We initially investigated a cultureindependent method in pilot-scale steel fermentation tanks and found a greater diversity of yeasts in the musts from two red grape varieties compared to three white grape varieties. We found that the yeasts Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia kluyveri, P. membranifaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae remained active at the end of the fermentation. We also studied the dynamic behavior of yeasts in Qvevris for the first time using a novel, highlysensitive quantitative real-time PCR method. We found that non-Saccharomyces yeasts were present during the entire fermentation process, with R. mucilaginosa and P. anomala the most prominent species. We studied the relationship between the predominance of different species and the output of the fermentation process. We identified so-called spoilage yeasts in all the fermentations, but high levels of acetic acid accumulated only in those fermentations with an extended lag phase. PMID:23738327

  5. Evolution of the population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from grape to wine in a spontaneous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeune, Christine; Erny, Claude; Demuyter, Catherine; Lollier, Marc

    2006-12-01

    To determine the grape or winery origin of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in spontaneous fermentation, musts were collected at different stages of wine-making process and fermented. First, grapes were collected in two different vineyards and crushed at the laboratory. Second, musts were collected after crushing and clarification in the cellar. Third, musts collected in the cellar were sterilized and inoculated with tartar deposit collected in the vats. The fourth fermentation was in the cellar. For the two vineyards, two hundred of S. cerevisiae clones were isolated for each of the four fermentations, driving to a library of 1600 clones. All the library was analysed by inter-delta PCR with a basic set of primers and about 20% of the library was further analysed by inter-delta PCR with an improved set of primers. Six, and more than 30 different PCR patterns were obtained from basic- and improved-PCR analysis, respectively. The amounts of each family were analysed at the different stages of wine making. Our study demonstrates that the two vineyards present different S. cerevisiae populations. Moreover the S. cerevisiae strains involved in spontaneous fermentation in the cellar originate partly from the vineyard and partly from the winery, in amounts varying with the must.

  6. Dynamic changes in microbiota and mycobiota during spontaneous 'Vino Santo Trentino' fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Cavazza, Agostino; Franciosi, Elena; De Filippo, Carlotta; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-03-01

    Vino Santo is a sweet wine produced from late harvesting and pressing of Nosiola grapes in a small, well-defined geographical area in the Italian Alps. We used metagenomics to characterize the dynamics of microbial communities in the products of three wineries, resulting from spontaneous fermentation with almost the same timing and procedure. Comparing fermentation dynamics and grape microbial composition, we show a rapid increase in a small number of wine yeast species, with a parallel decrease in complexity. Despite the application of similar protocols, slight changes in the procedures led to significant differences in the microbiota in the three cases of fermentation: (i) fungal content of the must varied significantly in the different wineries, (ii) Pichia membranifaciens persisted in only one of the wineries, (iii) one fermentation was characterized by the balanced presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora osmophila during the later phases. We suggest the existence of a highly winery-specific 'microbial-terroir' contributing significantly to the final product rather than a regional 'terroir'. Analysis of changes in abundance during fermentation showed evident correlations between different species, suggesting that fermentation is the result of a continuum of interaction between different species and physical-chemical parameters. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Effect of Glutathione on the Taste and Texture of Type I Sourdough Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai Xing; Zhao, Cindy J; Gänzle, Michael G

    2017-05-31

    Type I sourdough fermentations with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis as predominant organism accumulate reduced glutathione through glutathione reductase (GshR) activity of L. sanfranciscensis. Reduced glutathione acts as chain terminator for gluten polymerization but is also kokumi-active and may thus enhance bread taste. This study implemented a type I model sourdough fermentations to quantitate glutathione accumulation sourdough, bread dough, and bread and to assess the effect of L. sanfranciscensis GshR on bread volume by comparison of L. sanfranciscensis and an isogenic strain devoid of GshR. L. sanfranciscensis sourdough accumulated the highest amount of reduced glutathione during proofing. Bread produced with the wild type strain had a lower volume when compared to the gshR deficient mutant. The accumulation of γ-glutamyl-cysteine was also higher in L. sanfranciscensis sourdoughs when compared to doughs fermented with the gshR mutant strain. The accumulation of reduced glutathione in L. sanfranciscensis bread did not enhance the saltiness of bread.

  8. Sourdough-Based Biotechnologies for the Production of Gluten-Free Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Nionelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation, a traditional biotechnology for making leavened baked goods, was almost completely replaced by the use of baker’s yeast and chemical leavening agents in the last century. Recently, it has been rediscovered by the scientific community, consumers, and producers, thanks to several effects on organoleptic, technological, nutritional, and functional features of cereal-based products. Acidification, proteolysis, and activation of endogenous enzymes cause several changes during sourdough fermentation, carried out by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, which positively affect the overall quality of the baked goods. In particular, the hydrolysis of native proteins of the cereal flours may improve the functional features of baked goods. The wheat flour processed with fungal proteases and selected lactic acid bacteria was demonstrated to be safe for coeliac patients. This review article focuses on the biotechnologies that use selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria to potentially counteract the adverse reactions to gluten, and the risk of gluten contamination.

  9. DGGE and multivariate analysis of a yeast community in spontaneous cocoa fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C R; Marques, E L S; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2015-12-28

    Cocoa bean is the main raw material used in the production of chocolate. In southern Bahia, Brazil, cocoa farming and processing is an important economic activity. The fermentation of cocoa is the processing stage that yields important chocolate flavor precursors and complex microbial involvement is essential for this process. In this study, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses (DGGE) was used to investigate the diversity of yeasts present during the spontaneous fermentation of cocoa in southern Bahia. The DGGE analysis revealed a richness of 8 to 13 distinct bands of varied intensities among the samples; and samples taken at 24, 36, and 48 h into the fermentation process were found to group with 70% similarity and showed the greatest diversity of bands. Hierarchical clustering showed that all samples had common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the highest number of OTUs was found in the 48 h sample. Variations in pH and temperature observed within the fermenting mass over time possibly had direct effects on the composition of the existing microbial community. The findings reported here indicate that a heterogeneous yeast community is involved in the complex cocoa fermentation process, which is known to involve a succession of specialized microorganisms.

  10. Analysis of the cocobiota and metabolites of Moniliophthora perniciosa - resistant Theobroma cacao beans during spontaneous fermentation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Valdeci S; Santos, Maria F S; Gomes, Laidson P; Leite, Analy M O; Flosi Paschoalin, Vânia M; Del Aguila, Eduardo M

    2018-03-25

    Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities; yeasts, lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria. The spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans by Theobroma cacao TSH565 clonal variety, a highly productive hybrid resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa and Phytophthora spp. was investigated. The natural cocobiota involved in the spontaneous fermentation of this hybrid, in Southern Brazil, was investigated by using both a culture-dependent microbiological and a molecular analysis. The changes in physicochemical characteristics and the kinetics of substrate utilization and metabolite production during fermentation were also evaluated. Yeasts (178) and bacteria (244) isolated during fermentation were identified by partial sequencing of the ITS and 16S rDNAs, respectively. After 144h of fermentation, the indigenous yeast community was composed of Hanseniaspora spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Pichia spp. The bacterial population comprised Lactococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Acetobacter spp. and Lactobacilli strains. The kinetics of substrate transformation reflected the dynamic composition of the cocobiota. Substrates as glucose, fructose, sucrose and citric acid present at the beginning of fermentation were metabolized to produce ethanol, acetic acid and lactic acid. The results described herein provide new insights into the microbial diversity in cocoa bean-pulp mass fermentation and the kinetic of metabolites synthesis, and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency to obtain homogeneous and best-quality cocoa products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of spontaneous fermentation of Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca eBleve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. In the Greek style, table olives are obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. Evolution of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, mono and polyphenol compounds and volatile compounds associated with the fermentative metabolism of yeasts and bacteria throughout the natural fermentation process of the two Italian olive cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Leccino were determined. A protocol was developed and applied aimed at the technological characterization of LAB and yeast strains as possible candidate autochthonous starters for table olive fermentation from Cellina di Nardò and Leccino cultivars. The study of the main physic-chemical parameters and volatile compounds during fermentation helped to determine chemical descriptors that may be suitable for monitoring olive fermentation. In both the analyzed table olive cultivars, aldehydes proved to be closely related to the first stage of fermentation (30 days, while higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol; 3-methyl-1-butanol, styrene, and o-cymene were associated with the middle stage of fermentation (90 days and acetate esters with the final step of olive fermentation (180 days.

  12. Composition of lactic acid bacteria during spontaneous curly kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Magdalena; Gustaw, Klaudia; Waśko, Adam; Polak-Berecka, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The present work is the first report on spontaneous fermentation of curly kale and characteristics of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Our results indicate that curly kale fermentation is the new possibility of the technological use of this vegetable. Bacteria representing ten different species were isolated from three phases of curly kale fermentation and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among them, four species were identified as Lactobacillus spp. (Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, Lb. brevis R413, Lb. curvatus 154), two as Weissella spp. (W. hellenica 152, W. cibaria G44), two as Pediococcus spp. (P. pentosaceus 45AN, P. acidilactici 2211), one as Leuconostoc mesenteroides 153, and one as Lactococcus lactis 37BN. The functional properties of isolates, i.e. acid, NaCl and bile salt tolerance, enzyme activities, adhesion to hydrocarbons, and antibiotic resistance, were examined. Among the tested strains, Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, P. pentosaceus 2211, and Lb. brevis R413 exhibited the best hydrophobicity value and high tolerance to bile salts, NaCl, and low pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke; Gänzle, Michael

    2010-05-12

    The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS.

  14. Evaluation of the microbial community in industrial rye sourdough upon continuous back-slopping propagation revealed Lactobacillus helveticus as the dominant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viiard, E; Mihhalevski, A; Rühka, T; Paalme, T; Sarand, I

    2013-02-01

    To assess the structure and stability of a dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population during the propagation of rye sourdough in an industrial semi-fluid production over a period of 7 months. The sourdough was started from a 6-year-old freeze-dried sourdough originating from the same bakery. A unique microbial consortium consisting mainly of bacteria belonging to species Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus panis and Lactobacillus pontis was identified based on culture-dependent (Rep-PCR) and culture-independent [denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] methods. Three of the isolated Lact. helveticus strains showed remarkable adaptation to the sourdough conditions. They differed from the type strain by the ability to ferment compounds specific to plant material, like salicin, cellobiose and sucrose, but did not ferment lactose. We showed remarkable stability of a LAB consortium in rye sourdough started from lyophilized sourdough and propagated in a large bakery for 7 months. Lactobacillus helveticus was detected as the dominant species in the consortium and was shown to be metabolically adapted to the sourdough environment. The use of an established and adapted microbial consortium as a starter is a good alternative to commercial starter strains. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Behavior and viability of spontaneous oxidative stress-resistant Lactococcus lactis mutants in experimental fermented milk processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M N; Almeida, K E; Damin, M R; Rochat, T; Gratadoux, J-J; Miyoshi, A; Langella, P; Azevedo, V

    2009-07-21

    Previously, we isolated two strains of spontaneous oxidative (SpOx2 and SpOx3) stress mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris. Herein, we compared these mutants to a parental wild-type strain (J60011) and a commercial starter in experimental fermented milk production. Total solid contents of milk and fermentation temperature both affected the acidification profile of the spontaneous oxidative stress-resistant L. lactis mutants during fermented milk production. Fermentation times to pH 4.7 ranged from 6.40 h (J60011) to 9.36 h (SpOx2); V(max) values were inversely proportional to fermentation time. Bacterial counts increased to above 8.50 log(10) cfu/mL. The counts of viable SpOx3 mutants were higher than those of the parental wild strain in all treatments. All fermented milk products showed post-fermentation acidification after 24 h of storage at 4 degrees C; they remained stable after one week of storage.

  16. Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Meersman

    Full Text Available The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts, and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts. Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency.

  17. Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-Jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency.

  18. Impact of process parameters on the sourdough microbiota, selection of suitable starter strains, and description of the novel yeast Cryptococcus thermophilus sp. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelmann, Stephanie Anke

    2013-01-01

    The microbiota of a ripe sourdough consists of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially of the genus Lactobacillus, and yeasts. Their composition is influenced by the interplay of species or strains, the kind of substrate as well as the process parameters temperature, dough yield, redox potential, refreshment time, and number of propagation steps (Hammes and Gänzle, 1997). As taste and quality of sourdough breads are mainly influenced by the fermentation microbiota, intense research has been fo...

  19. Investigating the sourdough potential for enhance microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... Bacteria or LAB (Simsek et al., 2006). The influence of sourdough on bread flavor is .... Microsoft Office Excel, CurveExpert 1.3 SlideWrite 2 and Sigma stat was employed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ... et al., 2008) activities of sourdough LAB on Iranian traditional breads have been studied previously.

  20. Diversity and functionality of Bacillus and related genera isolated from spontaneously fermented soybeans (Indian Kinema) and locus beans (African Soumbala)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Hasenack, B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 126 isolates of Bacillus and related genera from indigenous, spontaneously fermented soybeans (Kinema) and locust beans (Soumbala) were characterized with the purpose of defining interspecific, as well as intraspecific relationships among the components of their microflora. B. subtilis

  1. Sulfur dioxide addition at crush alters Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain composition in spontaneous fermentations at two Canadian wineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sydney C; Scholl, Chrystal M; Benson, Natasha L; Stone, Morgan L; Durall, Daniel M

    2017-03-06

    During winemaking, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is often added prior to the onset of alcoholic fermentation to prevent the growth of spoilage microorganisms and to create an environment that promotes the rapid colonization of the grape must by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most recent research has focused on the impacts of SO 2 additions on spoilage microorganisms or on the yeast community at a species level, but less is known about the impacts that SO 2 additions have on S. cerevisiae populations. We investigated whether different levels of SO 2 addition at crush (0, 20, or 40mg/L SO 2 ) have an effect upon the relative abundance and composition of S. cerevisiae strains conducting spontaneous fermentations of two grape varietals at two commercial wineries. Yeast isolates collected from fermentations were identified to the strain level using microsatellite analysis. Commercial strains made up the majority (64-98%) of the S. cerevisiae strains isolated during fermentation, and most of these commercial strains were used as inoculants by their respective wineries. Different SO 2 additions were found to significantly alter S. cerevisiae strain compositions at both wineries (p≤0.002). The results of this study demonstrate that initial SO 2 addition significantly alters the S. cerevisiae strain composition in spontaneous fermentations, and highlights the dominance of commercial strains in commercial winery environments. Because different yeast strains are known to produce different chemical and sensory profiles, our findings have important implications for winemakers. In addition, adding different concentrations of SO 2 may be a way for winemakers to manage or control the strain composition during spontaneous fermentations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  3. Identification and characterization of wild lactobacilli and pediococci from spontaneously fermented Mountain cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Larcher, Roberto; Viola, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran; Franciosi, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The Traditional Mountain Malga (TMM) cheese is made from raw cow's milk by spontaneously fermentation in small farms called "Malga" located in Trentino region. This study was designed to characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growing on MRS medium, of TMM-cheese at the end of the ripening. Ninety-five LAB were isolated and genotypically characterized by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) with two primers, species-specific PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The 95 LAB clustered in 70 biotypes. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus paracasei were the dominant species. Isolates were tested for their growth properties, carbohydrate metabolism, acidifying ability, proteolytic and lipolytic activities, acetoin production, amino-peptidase (AP) activity, biogenic amines production, bile salts hydrolysis, conjugated linoleic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid production. Lb. paracasei isolates resulted to be well adapted to Malga environment and to show the best AP activity and acetoin production. TMM-cheese related LAB showed also interesting health promoting properties and produced bioactive substances. In particular, one Lb. brevis biotype produced a GABA mean value of 129 mg/L that is considered a high concentration. The results confirmed that TMM-cheese resident LAB could be exploited for dairy production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and Identification of the Indigenous Yeast Population during Spontaneous Fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) Grape Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Eder, María L.; Reynoso, Cristina; Lauret, Santiago C.; Rosa, Alberto L.

    2017-01-01

    Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) grape must. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted using standard enological practices, and the associated non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast community was analyzed using selective growth media and 5.8-ITS DNA sequencing. Candida californica, Candida hellenica, Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Hanseniaspora vineae were the main non-Saccharomyces species identified on Isabella fermenting must. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a yeast species rarely found on Vitis vinifera L. grapes, was also recognized on Isabella grape must. Candida azymoides, Candida californica and Pichia cecembensis, identified in this work on Isabella fermenting must, have not previously been found on Vitis vinifera L. grape must. Interestingly, C. azymoides, I. hanoiensis and P. cecembensis have recently been isolated from the surface of Vitis labrusca L. grapes from vineyards in the Azores archipelago, suggesting that specific Vitis-yeast species associations are formed independently of geographic origin. We suggest that C. azymoides, C. californica, and P. cecembensis are yeast species preferentially associated with Vitis labrusca L. grapes. Specific biological interactions between grapevines and yeast species may underlie the assembly of differential Vitis-microbial communities. PMID:28424672

  5. Different flour microbial communities drive to sourdoughs characterized by diverse bacterial strains and free amino acid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIUSEPPE CELANO

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate whether different microbial assemblies in flour may influence the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sourdough. To reach this purpose, members of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, and yeasts were isolated from durum wheat flour. Secondly, the isolated microorganisms (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Escherichia hermanni were inoculated in doughs prepared with irradiated flour (gamma rays at 10 kGy, so that eight different microbial assemblies were obtained. Two non-inoculated controls were prepared, one of which (C-IF using irradiated flour and the other (C using non-irradiated flour.As shown by plate counts, irradiation of flour caused total inactivation of yeasts and a decrease of all the other microbial populations. However acidification occurred also in the dough C-IF, due to metabolic activity of P. pentosaceus that had survived irradiation. After six fermentations, P. pentosaceus was the dominant lactic acid bacterium species in all the sourdoughs produced with irradiated flour (IF. Yet, IF-based sourdoughs broadly differed from each other in terms of strains of P. pentosaceus, probably due to the different microorganisms initially inoculated. Quantitative and qualitative differences of free amino acids concentration were found among the sourdoughs, possibly because of different microbial communities. In addition, as shown by culture-independent analysis (16S metagenetics, irradiation of flour lowered and modified microbial diversity of sourdough ecosystem.

  6. Different Flour Microbial Communities Drive to Sourdoughs Characterized by Diverse Bacterial Strains and Free Amino Acid Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celano, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Maria; Minervini, Fabio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate whether different microbial assemblies in flour may influence the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of traditional sourdough. To reach this purpose, members of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, and yeasts were isolated from durum wheat flour. Secondly, the isolated microorganisms (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Escherichia hermannii) were inoculated in doughs prepared with irradiated flour (gamma rays at 10 kGy), so that eight different microbial assemblies were obtained. Two non-inoculated controls were prepared, one of which (C-IF) using irradiated flour and the other (C) using non-irradiated flour. As shown by plate counts, irradiation of flour caused total inactivation of yeasts and a decrease of all the other microbial populations. However, acidification occurred also in the dough C-IF, due to metabolic activity of P. pentosaceus that had survived irradiation. After six fermentations, P. pentosaceus was the dominant lactic acid bacterium species in all the sourdoughs produced with irradiated flour (IF). Yet, IF-based sourdoughs broadly differed from each other in terms of strains of P. pentosaceus, probably due to the different microorganisms initially inoculated. Quantitative and qualitative differences of free amino acids concentration were found among the sourdoughs, possibly because of different microbial communities. In addition, as shown by culture-independent analysis (16S metagenetics), irradiation of flour lowered and modified microbial diversity of sourdough ecosystem. PMID:27877165

  7. How organic farming of wheat may affect the sourdough and the nutritional and technological features of leavened baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontonio, Erica; Rizzello, Carlo G; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Dousset, Xavier; Clément, Héliciane; Filannino, Pasquale; Onno, Bernard; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-19

    Organic farming is gaining broad recognition as a system that complies well with sustainability, an overarching principle that should drive agriculture now and in the coming year. Different cultivars and products can harbour different abundances of specific bacterial groups, farming system may influence the composition and abundances of microbial communities found on food product. Despite the growing interest towards organic foods, we still have a limited understanding of the diversity of food-associated microbial communities and the factors that influence the composition of these communities. Consumers in developed nations are commonly exposed to differences in farming practices through their choice between organic and conventionally farmed foods. Organic farming practices can differ from conventional farming practices in a variety of ways, including the types of fertilizer and pesticides that are used. This review aiming to gather current knowledge on chemical, technological, toxicological and functional properties and microbiota composition of wheat flours originating from organic and conventional farming systems and how the use of these may affect the sourdough fermentation and breadmaking. Sourdough fermentation is the most natural and best-performing process to ensure optimal sensory and functional characteristics. It fits perfectly into the processing chain that starts with the organic farming, especially for old wheat varieties with weaker technological properties. Recently, organic and sourdough microbiota diversity was investigated and in some case a comparison between organic and conventional microbial ecosystem was also carried out. Opposites evidences arise. Once a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria species was found in conventional wheat sourdoughs, while when the diversity of Firmicutes was investigated, organic sourdoughs showed the highest complexity. When occurring, the differences between conventional and organic sourdough microbiota and

  8. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Jonathan T; Pacheco, Braydon; Russell, Gordon; Tong, Stephanie; Backstrom, Ian; Measday, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards.

  9. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Jonathan T.; Pacheco, Braydon; Russell, Gordon; Tong, Stephanie; Backstrom, Ian; Measday, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards. PMID:27551920

  10. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T Martiniuk

    Full Text Available Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards.

  11. Diversity and Stability of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Rye Sourdoughs of Four Bakeries with Different Propagation Parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Viiard

    Full Text Available We identified the lactic acid bacteria within rye sourdoughs and starters from four bakeries with different propagation parameters and tracked their dynamics for between 5-28 months after renewal. Evaluation of bacterial communities was performed using plating, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus frumenti or Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus panis prevailed in sourdoughs propagated at higher temperature, while ambient temperature combined with a short fermentation cycle selected for Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus pontis, and Lactobacillus zymae or Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus zymae. The ratio of species in bakeries employing room-temperature propagation displayed a seasonal dependence. Introduction of different and controlled propagation parameters at one bakery (higher fermentation temperature, reduced inoculum size, and extended fermentation time resulted in stabilization of the microbial community with an increased proportion of L. helveticus and L. pontis. Despite these new propagation parameters no new species were detected.

  12. Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Khunjamayum Romapati; Deka, Manab; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-04-16

    Ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish Puntius sophore (Ham.) in Manipur state of Northeast India. The microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. The culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community structural change in comparison to its raw material. To understand the bacterial dynamics during this dry fermentation, time series samples collected over a period of nine months through destructive sampling from two indigenous ngari production centres were analysed by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. A total of 210 bacteria isolated from the samples were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) based grouping and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis. The dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii (38.0%), Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis (16.8%), a novel phylotype related to Lactobacillus pobuzihii (7.2%), Enterococcus faecium (7.2%), Bacillus indicus (6.3%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (3.8%). Distinct bacterial dynamics with the emergence of T. halophilus at third month (10(6)CFU/g), L. pobuzihii at sixth month (10(6)CFU/g), S. carnosus at three to six months (10(4)CFU/g) and B. indicus at six to nine months (10(5)CFU/g) in both the production centres was observed during ngari fermentation. However, the other two dominant bacteria S. cohnii and E. faecium were isolated throughout the fermentation with the population of 10(6)CFU/g and 10(4)CFU/g respectively. Culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis further showed the presence of additional species, in which Kocuria halotolerans and Macrococcus caseolyticus disappeared during fermentation while Clostridium irregulare and

  13. Dynamic study of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc in Jingyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. AN INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS MICROFLORA OF FERMENTED HORSEMEAT PRODUCTS ON THE FORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PEPTIDES

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    I. M. Chernukha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, different methods are used to accumulate functional peptides in meat raw materials, including the use of spontaneous microflora during autolysis, the use of the microbial enzymes (the application of starter cultures and the use of the non-microbial enzymes (enzymes of animals and plant origin. Each method has its own specific characteristics of an impact on raw materials, which requires their detail study. This paper examines an effect of spontaneous microflora of fermented meat products from horsemeat on formation of biologically active peptides. Using the T-RFLP analysis, it was established that in air dried and uncooked smoked sausages produced with the use of the muscle tissue of horsemeat as a raw material, a significant proportion of microflora was presented by lactic acid microorganisms. The highest content of lactic acid microflora was observed in sample 1 (52.45 %, and the least in sample 3 (29.62 %. Sample 2 had the medium percent content of microflora compared to samples 1 and 3 — 38.82 %. It is necessary to note that about 25 % of microflora was unculturable; i.e., it had metabolic processes but did not grow on culture media. In the samples, the representatives of Actinobacteria and Pseudomonadales were found. Pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora was not detected. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the studied samples. For example, in samples 1 and 2, the fractions of amilo-1,6-glucosidase, fast-type muscle myosin-binding-protein C; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; fast skeletal muscle troponin I, phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and skeletal muscle actin were found, which were absent or reduced in sample 3. Therefore, in the studied product, good preservation of the main spectra of muscle proteins was observed, and the identified fractions, apparently, can be sources of new functional peptides. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the

  15. Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-05-01

    To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Industrial application of selected lactic acid bacteria isolated from local semolinas for typical sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Onofrio; Alfonzo, Antonio; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Nasca, Anna; Francesca, Nicola; Martorana, Alessandra; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Four obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Weissella cibaria PON10030 and PON10032 and Leuconostoc citreum PON 10079 and PON10080) were tested as single strain starters, mono-species dual strain starters, and multiple strain starter for the preparation and propagation of sourdoughs for the production of a typical bread at industrial level. The kinetics of pH and TTA during the daily sourdough refreshments indicated a correct acidification process for all trials. The concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased consistently during fermentation. The resulting molar ratios between these two organic acids in the experimental trials were lower than those observed in the control trial. The microbiological investigation showed levels of approximately 10(9) CFU/mL in almost all sourdoughs and the comparison of the genetic polymorphisms of the dominating LAB with those of the pure cultures evidenced the persistence of the added strains over time. The resulting breads were evaluated for several quality parameters. The breads with the greatest height were obtained with the quadruple combination of leuconostocs and weissellas. The highest softness was registered for the breads obtained from fermentations performed by W. cibaria PON10032 alone and in combination. The different inocula influenced also the color, the void fraction, the cell density and the mean cell area of the breads. Different levels of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, furans and phenol were emitted by the breads. The sensory tests indicated the breads from the sourdoughs fermented with the seven LAB inocula as sweeter and less acidic than control breads and the breads from the trials with the highest complexity of LAB inoculums were those more appreciated by tasters. A multivariate approach found strong differences among the trials. In particular, control breads and the breads obtained with different starter LAB were quite distant and a more

  17. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF WINE MICROBIOTA DURING THE SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF RED GRAPES JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep its place on the wine international market, Romania should produce typical wines starting from localgrape varieties and conducting the alcoholic fermentation by starter cultures obtained from local isolated wine yeast.The present study was initiated due to the fact that there are few informations regarding the evolution of winemicrorganisms in plantations and in the fermentations process for quantitative point of view.The population dynamics of microbiota in Valea Calugareasca vineyard was analysed during the alcoholicfermentation. No yeast starter cultures had been used in order to investigate the dynamics of grape-related indigenousmicroorganisms population. Classical works and methods for alcoholic fermentation monitoring have been employed atthis level.At the beginning of fermentation the total number of yeasts found is doubling, while the number of bacteria is stabilizedat a value of 103 CFU/ml. During the alcoholic fermentation the yeasts become predominant (107–108 cfu/ml andcontinue the fermentation until its completion. Significant differences regarding the evolution of yeast microbiota forquantitative point of view between varieties have been recorded.

  18. Investigating the sourdough potential for enhance microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survival of indicator microorganisms in finished-products were decreased. But intensity of crust roasty aroma did not have the same profile. Therefore, process requirements for optimum microbiological shelf life and roasty aroma were different, which should be taken into account in designing sourdough baking processes.

  19. Identification and characterization of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by culture dependent and independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Michela; Cristani, Caterina; Giovannetti, Manuela; Agnolucci, Monica

    2017-06-05

    Sourdough fermentation has been increasingly used worldwide, in accordance with the demand of consumers for tasty, natural and healthy food. The high diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast species, detected in sourdoughs all over the world, may affect nutritional, organoleptic and technological traits of leavened baked goods. A wide regional variety of traditional sourdough breads, over 200 types, has been recorded in Italy, including special types selected as worthy of either Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) or Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), whose sourdough microbiota has been functionally and molecularly characterized. As, due to the very recent designation, the microbiota of Tuscan bread sourdough has not been investigated so far, the aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize the species composition of LAB and yeasts of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by culture-independent and dependent methods. A total of 130 yeasts from WLN medium and 193 LAB from both mMRS and SDB media were isolated and maintained to constitute the germplasm bank of PDO Tuscan bread. Ninety six LAB from mMRS medium and 68 yeasts from WLN medium were randomly selected and molecularly identified by ARDRA (Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis) and PCR-RFLP analysis of the ITS region, respectively, and sequencing. The yeast identity was confirmed by 26S D1/D2 sequencing. All bacterial isolates showed 99% identity with Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, 65 yeast isolates were identified as Candida milleri, and 3 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Molecular characterization of PDO Tuscan bread sourdough by PCR-DGGE confirmed such data. The distinctive tripartite species association, detected as the microbiota characterizing the sourdough used to produce PDO Tuscan bread, encompassed a large number of L. sanfranciscensis and C. milleri strains, along with a few of S. cerevisiae. The relative composition and specific physiological characteristics of such microbiota

  20. Microbiota and metabolome during controlled and spontaneous fermentation of Nocellara Etnea table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Todaro, Aldo; Pino, Alessandra; Pitino, Iole; Corona, Onofrio; Caggia, Cinzia

    2017-08-01

    This study is aimed to investigate bacterial community and its dynamics during the fermentation of Nocellara Etnea table olives and to study its effect on metabolome formation. Six different combination of bacterial cultures (BC1-BC6) were used as starters for table olive fermentation and one additional process, conducted without addition of any starters, was used as control (C). The processes were conducted in triplicate and, overall, 21 vessels were performed at industrial scale. The fermentation was monitored for 120 days through culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Microbial counts of the main microbial groups revealed slight differences among brine samples, with the exception of LAB counts and Enterobacteriaceae, which were higher and lower, respectively, in most of the inoculated samples than the control ones. In addition, results demonstrated that the use of bacterial cultures (except the BC1), singly or in different combinations, clearly influenced the fermentation process reducing the final pH value below 4.50. When microbiota was investigated through sequencing analysis, data revealed the presence of halophilic bacteria and, among lactobacilli, the dominance of Lactobacillus plantarum group at the initial stage of fermentation, in all brine samples, except in the BC5 in which dominated Lactobacillus casei group. At 60 and 120 days of fermentation, an overturned bacterial ecology and an increase of biodiversity was observed in all samples, with the occurrence of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Pediococcus parvulus. Correlation between bacterial OTU and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed that, aldehydes and alcohol compounds exhibited a positive correlation with Proteobacteria, while several esters with LAB and Hafnia. In particular, esters, associated with fruity and floral notes, were positively correlated to L. paracollinoides, L. acidipiscis, and P. parvulus species. Although the VOCs amounts were sample

  1. Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Vrancken, Gino; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and citric acid) by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, mannitol, and/or acetic acid. Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the predominating bacterial species of the fermentations as revealed through (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of isolates and PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of DNA directly extracted from fermentation samples. Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Also, three novel LAB species were found. This study emphasized the possible participation of Enterobacteriaceae in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Tatumella ptyseos and Tatumella citrea were the prevailing enterobacterial species in the beginning of the fermentations as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-PCR-DGGE. Finally, it turned out that control over a restricted bacterial species diversity during fermentation through an ideal post-harvest handling of the cocoa beans will allow the production of high-quality cocoa and chocolates produced thereof, independent of the fermentation method or farm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of novel starter cultures for sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Mantzourani, I; Koutinas, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Sourdough application has been extensively increased in the last years due to the consumers demand for food consumption without the addition of chemical preservatives. Several starter cultures have been applied in sourdough bread making targeting the increase of bread self-life and the improvement of sensorial character. More specific, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus sakei as single and mixed cultures were used for sourdough bread making. Various sourdough breads were produced with the addition of sourdough perviously prepared with 10% w/w L. acidophilus, 10% w/w L. sakei and 5% w/w L. acidophilus and 5% w/w L. sakei at the same time. Various chemical parameters were determined such as lactic acid, total titratable acidity and pH. The results revealed that the produced sourdough bread made with sourdough containing the mixed culture was preserved for more days (12 days) than all the other breads produced in the frame of this study, since it contained lactic acid in higher concentrations. The respective total titratable acidity varied between 10.5 and 11 ml NaOH N/10. The same sourdough bread had a firmer texture, better aroma, flavor and overall quality compared to other sourdough breads examined in this study, as shown by sensory evaluation tests and results obtained through SPME GC-MS analysis, which revealed significant differences among the different bread types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solid-State Fermentation of Silybum marianum L. Seeds Used as Additive to Increase the Nutritional Value of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Cizeikiene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Silybum marianum L. seeds were fermented using solid-state fermentation (SSF with several lactic acid bacteria (LAB of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus genera, isolated from spontaneously fermented Lithuanian rye sourdough. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavour of Silybum marianum L. seeds using LAB fermentation was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of the unfermented and LAB-fermented seeds of this plant was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Fermented seeds have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of higher alcohols. Total amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of unfermented and fermented seeds were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results indicate that Silybum marianum L. seeds are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. The highest content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids (4596 and 1346 mg of rutin equivalents (RE per 100 g, respectively was determined in the seeds fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria in solid-state fermentation. Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 and Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-9 showed stronger antioxidant activity (1263 and 1041 mg of RE per 100 g, respectively, compared to the unfermented seeds (805 mg of RE per 100 g. The addition of Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria had the highest effect on the decrease of the bacterial spoilage of bread. The aroma compounds from the fermented seeds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. Ultrasonic pretreatment of the seeds reduced the total amount of microorganisms in the raw material. Microbiological tests revealed that the highest antimicrobial effect was achieved using the solid-state fermentation conditions. This

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Illeghems

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni. Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

  6. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation carried out in a novel-design stainless steel tank: influence on the dynamics of microbial populations and physical-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga; da Silva Coelho, Irene; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out in a novel-design 40-kg-capacity stainless steel tank (SST) was studied in parallel to traditional Brazilian methods of fermentation in wooden boxes (40-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB1) and 600-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB2)) using a multiphasic approach that entailed culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa bean pulp samples and target metabolite analyses of both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both microbiological approaches revealed that the dominant species of major physiological roles were the same for fermentations in SST, relative to boxes. These species consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora sp. in the yeast group; Lactobacillus fermentum and L. plantarum in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group; Acetobacter tropicalis belonging to the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) group; and Bacillus subtilis in the Bacillaceae family. A greater diversity of bacteria and non-Saccharomyces yeasts was observed in box fermentations. Additionally, a potentially novel AAB belonging to the genus Asaia was isolated during fermentation in WB1. Cluster analysis of the rRNA genes-PCR-DGGE profiles revealed a more complex picture of the box samples, indicating that bacterial and yeast ecology were fermentation-specific processes (wooden boxes vs. SST). The profile of carbohydrate consumption and fermentation products in the pulp and beans showed similar trends during both fermentation processes. However, the yeast-AAB-mediated conversion of carbohydrates into ethanol, and subsequent conversion of ethanol into acetic acid, was achieved with greater efficiency in SST, while temperatures were generally higher during fermentation in wooden boxes. With further refinements, the SST model may be useful in designing novel bioreactors for the optimisation of cocoa fermentation with starter cultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of sourdough and calcium propionate on the microbial shelf-life of salt reduced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Markus C E; Mairinger, Regina; Zannini, Emanuele; Ryan, Liam A M; Cashman, Kevin D; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    The consumption of low-salt bread represents an efficient way to improve public health by decreasing cardiovascular health issues related to increased intakes of sodium chloride (NaCl). The reduction of NaCl influences the bread quality characteristics, in particular the shelf-life. Calcium propionate (CP) is commonly used in bread as an antifungal agent. Alternatively, sourdough can be used as a natural preservative. This work addresses the feasibility of NaCl reduction in wheat bread focussing on shelf-life and the compensation using sourdough as well as chemical preservatives. The impact of NaCl reduction and the addition of preservative agents in conjunction with different NaCl concentrations on the shelf-life of bread were tested under 'environmental' conditions in a bakery as well as using challenge tests against selected fungi. The challenge tests were performed using fungi commonly found in the bakery environment such as Penicillium expansum, Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus niger. NaCl reduction decreased the shelf-life by 1-2 days. The addition of sourdough with antifungal activity prolonged the shelf-life to 12-14 days whereas the addition of 0.3 % calcium propionate prolonged the shelf-life to 10-12 days only. The fungal challenge tests revealed differences in the determined shelf-life between the different fungi based on their resistance. Similar antifungal performance was observed in sourdough breads and calcium propionate breads when tested against the different indicator moulds. The findings of this study indicate that addition of sourdough fermented using a specifically selected antifungal Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 can replace the chemical preservative calcium propionate addition and compensate for the reduced level and, therefore, guarantee the product safety of low-salt bread.

  8. Microbiological diversity associated with the spontaneous wet method of coffee fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedroso; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of the microbiota present during coffee wet fermentation was done in two distinct regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil: one farm in the South of Minas Gerais (Lavras=L) and another farm in the savannah region (Monte Carmelo=MC). The yeast population ranged from 2.48 to 4.92 log CFU/g and from 2 to 4.81 log CFU/g, the mesophilic bacteria population ranged from 3.83 to 8.47 log CFU/g and from 5.37 to 7.36 log CFU/g, and the LAB population ranged from 2.57 to 5.66 log CFU/g and from 3.40 to 4.49 log CFU/g in the L and MC farms, respectively. Meyerozyma caribbica and Hanseniaspora uvarum were the dominant yeasts in coffee wet fermentation at L farm, and Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast at MC farm. The species Staphylococcus warneri and Erwinia persicina were the predominant bacteria at L farm, and Enterobacter asburiae and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the dominant species at MC farm. Lactic acid was the principal acid detected, reaching 2.33 g/kg at L farm and 1.40 g/kg at MC farm by the end of the process. The volatiles composition was similar for roasted coffee from the two different regions and furans, acids, and alcohol were the main groups detected. Temporal Dominance Sensation (TDS) analyses showed that the coffee beverage from L farm was dominated by citrus and herbaceous sensory characteristics, while the coffee from MC farm was dominated by citrus, herbaceous, and nuts sensory characteristics. Evaluating the microbiota in these two regions was important in improving the knowledge of the microbial species present during coffee wet fermentation in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacillus licheniformis affects the microbial community and metabolic profile in the spontaneous fermentation of Daqu starter for Chinese liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qun; Jiang, Xuejian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jingli; Xu, Yan

    2017-06-05

    Chinese liquor is produced from spontaneous fermentation starter (Daqu) that provides the microbes, enzymes and flavors for liquor fermentation. To improve the flavor character of Daqu, we inoculated Bacillus licheniformis and studied the effect of this strain on the community structure and metabolic profile in Daqu fermentation. The microbial relative abundance changed after the inoculation, including the increase in Bacillus, Clavispora and Aspergillus, and the decrease in Pichia, Saccharomycopsis and some other genera. This variation was also confirmed by pure culture and coculture experiments. Seventy-three metabolites were identified during Daqu fermentation process. After inoculation, the average content of aromatic compounds were significantly enriched from 0.37mg/kg to 0.90mg/kg, and the average content of pyrazines significantly increased from 0.35mg/kg to 5.71mg/kg. The increase in pyrazines was positively associated with the metabolism of the inoculated Bacillus and the native genus Clavispora, because they produced much more pyrazines in their cocultures. Whereas the increase in aromatic compounds might be related to the change of in situ metabolic activity of several native genera, in particular, Aspergillus produced more aromatic compounds in cocultures with B. licheniformis. It indicated that the inoculation of B. licheniformis altered the flavor character of Daqu by both its own metabolic activity and the variation of in situ metabolic activity. Moreover, B. licheniformis inoculation influenced the enzyme activity of Daqu, including the significant increase in amylase activity (from 1.3gstarch/g/h to 1.7gstarch/g/h), and the significant decrease in glucoamylase activity (from 627.6mgglucose/g/h to 445.6mgglucose/g/h) and esterase activity (from 28.1mgethylcaproate/g/100h to 17.2mgethylcaproate/g/100h). These effects of inoculation were important factors for regulating the metabolism of microbial communities, hence for improving the flavor profile

  10. Effect of spontaneous fermentation and amylase-rich flour on the nutritive value, functional and viscoelastic properties of cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Aidoo, Philip Roger; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-05-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of spontaneous fermentation and amylase-rich flours (ARF) on some nutritive value, functional and viscoelastic properties of cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. A 2 x 3 x 3 factorial design, with fermentation medium, fermentation time and ARF level, was performed. The blends were fermented for the specific times and analysed for their titratable acidity, pH, water absorption capacity, viscoelastic properties, texture, protein and mineral content. Fermentation and ARF addition influenced titratable acidity, pH, water absorption, viscoelastic properties and texture of the cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. Addition of ARF decreased the viscoelastic properties, texture and pH of all the blends with a corresponding increase in acidity. Slight increases in protein and ash contents were noted with products fermented in coconut water, but ARF addition had only a marginal effect. Thus, fermentation and ARF addition could be applied to cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize to enhance the functionalities with reduced viscosity and texture suitable for weaning food formulations.

  11. Genetic segregation of natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains derived from spontaneous fermentation of Aglianico wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiczki, M; Romano, P; Capece, A; Paraggio, M

    2004-01-01

    Investigation of the meiotic segregation of karyotypes and physiological traits in indigenous Saccharomyces strains isolated from Aglianico (South Italy) red wine. Segregation was studied in F1 and F2 descendants. Tetrads were isolated from sporulating cultures by micromanipulation. The spore clones were subjected to karyotype analysis by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (Bio-Rad model CHEF-DR II) and to various physiological tests. Certain chromosomes of the isolates showed 2:2 segregation patterns in F1 but proved to be stable in F2. The ability of cells to utilize maltose also segregated in a 2 : 2 manner in F1 and did not segregate in F2. Resistance to CuSO4, SO2 tolerance, the fermentative power and the production of certain metabolites segregated in both F1 and F2 generations and showed patterns indicating the involvement of polygenic regulation. The analysis revealed a high degree of genetic instability and demonstrated that meiosis can improve chromosomal and genetic stability. Winemaking is critically dependent on the physiological properties and genetic stability of the fermenting Saccharomyces yeasts. Selection of clones from F2 or later generations can be a method of reduction of genetic instability.

  12. Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Ángel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Addo, Solomon K.; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. PMID:17993565

  13. Influence of turning and environmental contamination on the dynamics of populations of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Angel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Addo, Solomon K; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing.

  14. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... osmotic pressure, ethanol stress and other metabolic inhibitors accumulation in broth. At 48 h, the maximum ethanol concentration reached 137 g L-1, after which fermentation ended with the residual glucose at approximately 4.71 g L-1 and the volumetric productivity at approximately 2.54 g L-1 h-1.

  15. The effect of hexose ratios on metabolite production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains obtained from the spontaneous fermentation of mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Hernández, Amanda A; Taillandier, Patricia; Reséndez Pérez, Diana; Narváez Zapata, José A; Larralde Corona, Claudia Patricia

    2013-04-01

    Mezcal from Tamaulipas (México) is produced by spontaneous alcoholic fermentation using Agave spp. musts, which are rich in fructose. In this study eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates obtained at the final stage of fermentation from a traditional mezcal winery were analysed in three semi-synthetic media. Medium M1 had a sugar content of 100 g l(-1) and a glucose/fructose (G/F) of 9:1. Medium M2 had a sugar content of 100 g l(-1) and a G/F of 1:9. Medium M3 had a sugar content of 200 g l(-1) and a G/F of 1:1. In the three types of media tested, the highest ethanol yield was obtained from the glucophilic strain LCBG-3Y5, while strain LCBG-3Y8 was highly resistant to ethanol and the most fructophilic of the mezcal strains. Strain LCBG-3Y5 produced more glycerol (4.4 g l(-1)) and acetic acid (1 g l(-1)) in M2 than in M1 (1.7 and 0.5 g l(-1), respectively), and the ethanol yields were higher for all strains in M1 except for LCBG-3Y5, -3Y8 and the Fermichamp strain. In medium M3, only the Fermichamp strain was able to fully consume the 100 g of fructose l(-1) but left a residual 32 g of glucose l(-1). Regarding the hexose transporters, a high number of amino acid polymorphisms were found in the Hxt1p sequences. Strain LCBG-3Y8 exhibited eight unique amino acid changes, followed by the Fermichamp strain with three changes. In Hxt3p, we observed nine amino acid polymorphisms unique for the Fermichamp strain and five unique changes for the mezcal strains.

  16. Applying meta-pathway analyses through metagenomics to identify the functional properties of the major bacterial communities of a single spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data, the current knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of bacterial members involved in the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem was extended. Functional meta-pathway analysis revealed the distribution of the metabolic pathways between the bacterial members involved. The metabolic capabilities of the lactic acid bacteria present were most associated with the heterolactic fermentation and citrate assimilation pathways. The role of Enterobacteriaceae in the conversion of substrates was shown through the use of the mixed-acid fermentation and methylglyoxal detoxification pathways. Furthermore, several other potential functional roles for Enterobacteriaceae were indicated, such as pectinolysis and citrate assimilation. Concerning acetic acid bacteria, metabolic pathways were partially reconstructed, in particular those related to responses toward stress, explaining their metabolic activities during cocoa bean fermentation processes. Further, the in-depth metagenomic analysis unveiled functionalities involved in bacterial competitiveness, such as the occurrence of CRISPRs and potential bacteriocin production. Finally, comparative analysis of the metagenomic data with bacterial genomes of cocoa bean fermentation isolates revealed the applicability of the selected strains as functional starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization, Ecological Distribution, and Population Dynamics of Saccharomyces Sensu Stricto Killer Yeasts in the Spontaneous Grape Must Fermentations of Southwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Matilde; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L.

    2012-01-01

    Killer yeasts secrete protein toxins that are lethal to sensitive strains of the same or related yeast species. Among the four types of Saccharomyces killer yeasts already described (K1, K2, K28, and Klus), we found K2 and Klus killer yeasts in spontaneous wine fermentations from southwestern Spain. Both phenotypes were encoded by medium-size double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses, Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus (ScV)-M2 and ScV-Mlus, whose genome sizes ranged from 1.3 to 1.75 kb and from 2.1 to 2.3 kb, respectively. The K2 yeasts were found in all the wine-producing subareas for all the vintages analyzed, while the Klus yeasts were found in the warmer subareas and mostly in the warmer ripening/harvest seasons. The middle-size isotypes of the M2 dsRNA were the most frequent among K2 yeasts, probably because they encoded the most intense K2 killer phenotype. However, the smallest isotype of the Mlus dsRNA was the most frequent for Klus yeasts, although it encoded the least intense Klus killer phenotype. The killer yeasts were present in most (59.5%) spontaneous fermentations. Most were K2, with Klus being the minority. The proportion of killer yeasts increased during fermentation, while the proportion of sensitive yeasts decreased. The fermentation speed, malic acid, and wine organoleptic quality decreased in those fermentations where the killer yeasts replaced at least 15% of a dominant population of sensitive yeasts, while volatile acidity and lactic acid increased, and the amount of bacteria in the tumultuous and the end fermentation stages also increased in an unusual way. PMID:22101056

  18. Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-11-01

    Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans.

  19. Utilization of indigenously isolated single strain starter cultures for the production of sourdough bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saeed

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sourdoughs were prepared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 and indigenously isolated starter cultures i.e Lactobacillus brevis (T1, Lactobacillus fermentum (T2 and Lactobacillus plantarum (T3. Breads were prepared from all sourdoughs samples in triplicate and analyzed for pH, Total Titratable Acidity (TTA, loaf volume, microbial characteristics (total plate count and fungal count and sensory profile (internal and external in triplicate. The breads prepared from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (T0 exhibited the highest pH with the lowest TTA while T1 showed the lowest pH with the highest TTA. The T0 breads got the highest values for loaf volume followed by T1. The breads produced with the addition of hetero-fermentative starter cultures (T1 and T2 showed resistance against the growth of the contaminating microorganisms. In the sensory evaluation, the breads produced with T1 ranked the best for color (crust and crumb, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability by the panelists. 

  20. Physico-chemical and functional properties of spray-dried sourdough in breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafti, Abolfazl Golshan; Peighambardoust, Seyed Hadi; Hesari, Javad; Bahrami, Akbar; Bonab, Elnaz Shakuoie

    2013-06-01

    In present study, spray-dried sourdough was produced using a pilot scale spray dryer and the physico-chemical and microbial characteristics of the obtained sourdough powder were investigated. The application of the spray-dried sourdough at different levels (3%, 6%, 9% and 15%) in breadmaking was also evaluated. Bulk density, wettability and suspensibility of the sourdough powder were 0.6 g/cm(3), 98 s and 29%, respectively. The most of the powder particles were in a range of 106-250 µm. The spray-dried sourdough had a moisture content and ash content of 3.72% and 1.9% (db), respectively. The pH and total titratable acidity of the sourdough powder were 3.26 and 59 (mL of 0.1 N NaOH/10 g powder), respectively. Spray drying reduced lactic acid bacteria population of the sourdough to 2 × 10(5) CFU/g compared to the initial value of 10(9) CFU/g. Iranian traditional flat bread (Sangak) made with different levels of the sourdough powder had significantly (p spray-dried sourdough delayed bread staling, as judged by sensory panel. The results suggest that spray-dried sourdough at the level of 9% can be successfully used for Sangak breadmaking, leading to bread with an improved flavor and delayed staling.

  1. Phytase-active lactic acid bacteria from sourdoughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuobariene, Lina; Cizeikiene, Dalia; Gradzeviciute, Egle

    2015-01-01

    bacteria (LAB) which could be used as a starter to increase mineral bioavailability in whole-meal bread. Hence, LAB isolates were isolated from Lithuanian sourdoughs, tested for phytase activity, and phytase active isolates were identified. Studies of phytase activity of the isolates were carried out...

  2. Toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    to be potentially pathogenic by harboring and expressing enterotoxin and emetic genes. Isolates from afiitin were the most cytotoxic as detected by a Vero-cell assay, while an isolate from sonru was a potent cereulide producer. Interestingly B. cereus food poisoning frm the consumption of the fermented condiments...

  3. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid and nattokinase-enriched fermented beans on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanintra Suwanmanon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have evaluated the changes in arterial blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR caused by the short-term intake of Bacillus subtilis B060-fermented beans with significant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and nattokinase activity. After being weaned, 7-week-old male SHR and 7-week-old male Wistar–Kyoto (WKY rats were randomized into seven groups. Until the 8th week of life, the rats in each group were given one of the following: Group 1, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SHD; Group 2, medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SMD; Group 3, low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SLD; Group 4, negative control in the SHR (SD; Group 5, positive control in the SHR (SM; Group 6, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY (WHD; and Group 7, negative control in the WKY (WD. Distilled water served as the negative control, and captopril (50 mg/kg, a known ACE inhibitor, served as the positive control. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure values were measured weekly from the 8th week to the 16th week of life using the tail-cuff method. A definite decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values could be observed in the rats treated with captopril and in the rats that received GABA and nattokinase. The greatest antihypertensive effect was observed when the pharmacological treatment was administered. The effect of the daily intake of fermented beans containing GABA and nattokinase may be helpful in controlling blood pressure levels in hypertensive model animals. The fermentation of beans with B. subtilis B060 may therefore constitute a successful strategy for producing a functional food with antihypertensive activity.

  4. Lactic acid bacteria dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans verified by culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T F; Santana, L K A; Santos, A C F; Silva, G S; Romano, C C; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2011-11-04

    Cocoa is naturally fermented in the field before the cocoa seeds are removed for processing. We assessed the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria during cocoa fermentation in Bahia, Brazil. During five days of fermentation, temperature and pH were measured and beans were collected for genomic DNA extraction every 12 h. The DNA was used as a template for amplification with Lac1-Lac2 and Lac3-Lac2 for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. pH values ranged from 3.34 to 4.98, while the temperature varied from 23° to 50°C. Lac1-Lac2 primers permitted detection of 11 operational taxonomic units. Twenty-eight operational taxonomic units were obtained with the primer pair Lac3-Lac2. It was observed that there were variations between the numbers of operational taxonomic units throughout the process, probably because of changes in pH and temperature. The greatest similarity in amplified samples was obtained with the primers Lac3-Lac2.

  5. Hydroxylated phenylacetamides derived from bioactive benzoxazinoids are bioavailable in humans after habitual consumption of whole grain sourdough rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Manfred; Lloyd, Amanda J; Haldar, Sumanto; Seal, Chris; Brandt, Kirsten; Draper, John

    2013-10-01

    Understanding relationships between dietary whole grain and health is hindered by incomplete knowledge of potentially bioactive metabolites derived from these foods. We aimed to discover compounds in urine correlated with changes in amounts of whole grain rye consumption. After a wash-out period, volunteers consumed 48-g whole grain rye foods per day for 4 wk and then doubled their intake for a further 4 wk. Samples of 24-h urines were analyzed by flow infusion electrospray MS followed by supervised multivariate data analysis. Urine samples from participants who reported high intakes of rye flakes, rye pasta, or total whole grain rye products could not be discriminated adequately from their wash-out samples. However, discrimination was seen in urine samples from participants who reported high whole grain sourdough rye bread consumption. Accurate mass analysis of explanatory signals followed by fragmentation identified conjugates of the benzoxazinoid lactam 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one and hydroxylated phenyl acetamide derivatives. Statistical validation showed sensitivities of 84-96% and specificities of 70-81% (p values bread consumption. Several potentially bioactive alkaloids have been identified in humans consuming fermented whole grain sourdough rye bread. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Lactic Acid Fermentation Improved Textural Behaviour, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Chia 
(Salvia hispanicaL.) Dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Ana Yanina; Gerez, Carla Luciana; Mohtar Mohtar, Lina Goumana; Paz Zanini, Verónica Irene; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Taranto, María Pía; Iturriaga, Laura Beatriz

    2017-09-01

    In this work, autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) dough and selected on the basis of the kinetics of acidification and proteolytic activity. Strain no. C8, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum C8, was selected and used as starter to obtain chia sourdough. Lactic acid fermentation increased the organic acid mass fractions (lactic, acetic and phenyl lactic acids to 12.3 g, 1.0 g and 23.8 µg per kg of dough respectively), and antioxidant activities, which increased by approx. 33-40% compared to unfermented chia flour dough. In addition, total phenolic content increased 25% and its composition was strongly modified after 24 h of fermentation by L. plantarum C8. Chlorogenic acid was only found in the fermented dough (2.5 mg/g), while ferulic acid was detected from the beginning of fermentation, being 32% higher in chia sourdough (5.6 mg/g). The use of fermented chia sourdough improved the overall characteristics of white bread, including physical ( e.g. reduced hardness and chewiness of the crumb) and antioxidant properties (25% on average), compared to the white bread. These results indicate that the use of chia sourdough could be a promising alternative to improve the technological and antioxidant properties of wheat bread. In addition, this work has shown, for the first time, that lactic acid bacterium is able to ferment chia dough, improving its overall characteristics.

  7. Reduction of acrylamide in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Esfahani, Behnaz; Kadivar, Mahdi; Shahedi, Mohammad; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2017-11-01

    This study mainly focuses on a strategy for reducing acrylamide content in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast in sourdough breadmaking. Combinations of sourdough (fermented dough using different Lactobacillus strains including Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1896 [probiotic], L. sakei DSM 20,017, L. rhamnosus DSM 20,021, and L. delbrueckii DSM 20,081) and yeast, in comparison with yeast alone, were used for breadmaking. The results showed that acrylamide levels in breads fermented using sourdough+yeast were in all cases much lower (6.9-20 μg/kg on a dry weight basis [d.b.]) than those in the yeast-only fermented bread (47.6 μg/kg d.b.). Significant (p bread (r = 0.925, p breads and either the reducing sugar or free amino acid contents in dough samples. According to the different effects of Lactobacillus strains, it could be concluded that the acrylamide reducing potential of lactobacilli was strain-specific, with L. rhamnosus being the most effective. This suggests that sourdough fermentation with appropriate Lactobacillus strains can be used as an advantageous technology to reduce the acrylamide content of whole-wheat breads.

  8. Investigating the association between African spontaneously fermented dairy products, faecal carriage of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and colorectal adenocarcinoma in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindi, Dasel W M; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lule, Godfrey N; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Renault, Pierre; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Jans, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Consumption of traditional fermented dairy products (tFDP) in Africa leads to the ingestion of up to 10 8 Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius (Sii) per millilitre of spontaneously fermented milk. Sii is a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) for which some members are associated particularly with colorectal cancer or endocarditis. The extent of health risks to tFDP consumers is largely unknown. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi (Kenya) on 80 cases and 193 controls that were selected exhaustively from patients attending colonoscopy at the hospital. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and residency were used in the statistical analysis. Consumption of tFDP was not associated with CRC (odds ratio (OR) 1.4; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.7; p=0.34). Risk factors associated with CRC included age above 40 years, and consumption of processed meat and alcohol. Faecal carriage of Sii was significantly higher in persons with colon tumours and polyps compared to controls (8.4% vs 21.6%: OR: 4.6; CI 1.3-15.9). Patients with haemorrhoids represented an unexpected carrier group with significantly higher Sii faecal carriage (30.4%, CI: 17.7-45.8). Consumption of tFDP does not represent risk factors for CRC whereas Sii seems to be associated with CRC. However, there is urgent need to assess this finding also in the general population, investigate the causality of SBSEC, Sii and CRC as well as compare the phylogenetic, functional and genomic relationship between human and dairy Sii with regards to the ongoing application of Sii in FDP production. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drivers for the establishment and composition of the sourdough lactic acid bacteria biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, Marco; Minervini, Fabio; Pontonio, Erica; Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria

    2016-12-19

    The drivers for the establishment and composition of the sourdough microbiota, with particular emphasis on lactic acid bacteria, are reviewed and discussed. More than 60 different species of lactobacilli were identified from sourdoughs, showing the main overlapping between sourdough and human intestine ecosystems. The microbial kinetics during sourdough preparation was described by several studies using various methodological approaches, including culture-dependent and -independent (e.g., high throughput sequencing), and metabolite and meta-transcriptome analyses. Although the abundant microbial diversity harbored by flours, a succession of dominating and sub-dominating populations of lactic acid bacteria suddenly occurred during sourdough propagation, leading to the progressive assembly of the bacterial community. The contribution of all the potential sources (house microbiota, flour, types of flours and additional ingredients) for contaminating lactic acid bacteria was compared with the aim to find overlapping or specific routes that affect the sourdough microbiota. Once established and mature, pros and cons regarding the stability of the sourdough lactic acid bacteria biota were also reviewed, showing contradictory results, which were mainly dependent on the species/strains. Probably, the future research efforts should be dedicated to decrease the sources/drivers of noticeable variation rather than to full standardization of the process for sourdough preparation and use. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. House microbiotas as sources of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in traditional Italian sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Celano, Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at understanding the extent of contamination by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from the house microbiotas during sourdough back-slopping. Besides sourdoughs, wall, air, storage box, dough mixer and flour of four bakeries were analyzed. Based on plate counts, LAB and yeasts dominated the house microbiota. Based on high throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, flour harbored the highest number of Firmicutes, but only few of them adapted to storage box, dough mixer and sourdough. Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis showed the highest abundance in dough mixer and sourdoughs. Lactobacillus plantarum persisted only in storage box, dough mixer and sourdough of two bakeries. Weissella cibaria also showed higher adaptability in sourdough than in bakery equipment, suggesting that flour is the main origin of this species. Based on 18S rRNA data, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the dominant yeast in house and sourdough microbiotas, excepted one bakery dominated by Kazachstania exigua. The results of this study suggest that the dominant species of sourdough LAB and yeasts dominated also the house microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of the microbial dynamics and biochemistry of laboratory sourdoughs prepared with grape, apple and yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Gordún Quiles, Elena; Valle Mendoza, Luis Javier del; Ginovart Gisbert, Marta; Carbó Moliner, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    The microbiological culture-dependent characterization and physicochemical characteristics of laboratory sourdough prepared with grape (GS) were evaluated and compared with apple (AS) and yogurt (YS), which are the usual Spanish sourdough ingredients. Ripe GS took longer than AS and YS to reach the appropriate acidity and achieved lower values of lactic acid

  12. Microbiological characterization and probiotic potential of koko and koko sour water, African spontaneously fermented millet porridge and drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, V; Jakobsen, M

    2004-01-01

    To identify and examine the diversity of predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in koko and koko sour water (KSW) from different Ghanaian production sites with regard to pattern of fermentation (API 50 CHL), genotype, antimicrobial activity, and resistance to low pH and bile salts. In total 215 LAB were isolated from koko and KSW. The isolates were identified using intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS)-PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), API 50 CHL, restriction enzyme analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REA-PFGE) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The dominating micro-organisms in koko was found to be Weisella confusa and Lactobacillus fermentum, followed by Lact. salivarius and Pediococcus spp. Chemometric data analysis were used to link the LAB species to the different production stages and production sites. At intra-species level the isolates were found to have a great diversity. The isolates were investigated for antimicrobial activity using agar diffusion assays, and acid and bile tolerance. Most isolates showed low levels of antimicrobial activity towards the indicator strain Listeria innocua, but not towards the bacteriocin-sensitive Lact. sakei. Growth of all LAB isolates was unaffected by the presence of 0.3% (v/v) oxgall bile. The isolates were able to survive, but were not able to grow in growth medium adjusted to pH 2.5. The dominating LAB of koko and KSW were W. confusa and Lact. fermentum showing a pronounced taxonomic biodiversity at sub-species level between stages within the production as well as between production sites. Other species observed in KSW were Lact. salivarius, Ped. pentosaceus, Ped. acidilactici and Lact. paraplantarum. They occurred in levels of 108 CFU ml-1 in fresh KSW and showed uniform antimicrobial activity, and acid and bile tolerance. The present study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of LAB in an African-fermented millet product that may have potential as a probiotic product

  13. Comparative sensory and proximate evaluation of spontaneously fermenting kunu-zaki made from germinated and ungerminated composite cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwajoba, Solakunmi O; Akinyosoye, Felix A; Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the sensory properties, proximate composition, and overall consumer acceptability of kunu-zaki using germinated and ungerminated Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Pennisetum americanum (millet), and Digitaria exilis (acha) cereal grains. The three cereal grains were used in nongerminated and germinated composite and noncomposite proportions coded A (Acha), S (Sorghum), M (Millet), AS (Acha-Sorghum), AM (Acha-Millet), SM (Sorghum-Millet), ASG (Acha-Sorghum Germinated), AMG (Acha-Millet Germinated), and SMG (Sorghum-Millet Germinated). Proximate analysis determined the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, and crude protein content of the fermented grains. The 9-point hedonic scale was used to judge the sensory parameters of taste, color, and aroma. The paired comparison test was used to judge consumer preference between kunu-zaki made from germinated grains and the ungerminated counterpart. Scores were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test in the SPSS analytical software package. Panelists ranked the ASG-coded drink highest in terms of taste and aroma, the AMG-coded drink highest in terms of color. SM ranked least in terms of taste; SMG ranked least in terms of aroma; and AM ranked the least in terms of color. Preference for each parameter was significantly different (P drinks from the most liked to the least liked in the order ASG>AMG>A>AS>S>M>SMG>AM>SM. The overall preference for the drinks was also significantly different (P drinks with the germinated drinks ranked the ungerminated drink AS as most preferred in terms of taste, color, and aroma above its germinated counterpart ASG with preference not significantly dependent on the parameters (P = 0.065 > 0.05). Ungerminated AM was also preferred above the germinated counterpart AMG in terms of taste, color, and aroma with preference not significantly dependent on parameters (P = 0.055 > 0.05). However, panelists showed preference for the taste and aroma of the germinated drink SMG

  14. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of biochemical changes during alcoholic fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whatever the type of fermentation, yields of ethanol was highest at 30°C. Fermentation conducted with controlled yeast gave a better yield of ethanol with 8.4 % than spontaneous fermentation that yielded only 4.3 %. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between both alcohol productivity and yield at spontaneous and ...

  16. Postprandial Gastrointestinal Function Differs after Acute Administration of Sourdough Compared with Brewer's Yeast Bakery Products in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Barbara; Nicolai, Emanuele; Genovese, Daniela; Verlezza, Viviana; La Sala, Carmine N; Aiello, Marco; Inglese, Marianna; Incoronato, Mariarosaria; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Rosa, Tiziana; Schiatti, Alfio; Mondelli, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo; Cuomo, Rosario

    2018-02-01

    Europeans consume large quantities of bakery products, although these are known as one of the food categories that potentially leads to postprandial symptoms (such as fullness and bloating). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sourdough baked goods on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal fermentation and symptoms in healthy people. In a double-blind, randomized crossover study, 2 sourdough croissants (SCs) or 2 brewer's yeast croissants (BCs) were served as single meals to 17 healthy adults [9 women; age range: 18-40 y; body mass index range (in kg/m2): 18-24]. Gastric volume (GV) was evaluated by magnetic resonance to calculate gastric-emptying rate in the 3-h interval after croissant ingestion. A hydrogen breath test was performed to measure hydrogen production after SC and BC ingestion. Palatability and postprandial gastrointestinal symptoms (discomfort, nausea, fullness, and bloating) over a 4-h period after the meal were evaluated. The area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the overall effects on all variables tested. The total GV AUC was reduced by 11% during the 3 h after the consumption of SCs compared with BCs (P = 0.02). Hydrogen production during the 4-h interval after ingestion of SCs was 30% lower than after BCs (P = 0.03). SCs were rated as being >2 times as palatable as BCs (P bakery products could promote better postprandial gastrointestinal function in healthy adults and be more acceptable than those prepared with brewer's yeast. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03207516.

  17. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed......, the results indicate, that Gergoush produced at the traditional production site is safe for human consumption. This study is the first to identify the Bacillus of Gergoush to species level, and it is the first to perform a safety evaluation of the product, based on the dominant B. cereus species....

  18. Molecular identification and technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fermented kidney beans flours (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P. coccineus) in northwestern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Gabriel D; Hébert, Elvira M; Saavedra, Lucila; Zárate, Gabriela

    2017-12-01

    Legumes are an important protein source in developing countries and their flours represent an attractive alternative for the manufacture of gluten free products. In the present study, 4 kidney bean varieties (Alubia, Pallar, Black and Red beans) commonly cultivated in northwestern Argentina, were milled and spontaneously fermented in order to isolate and select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with relevant technological and functional properties for usage as starter cultures. Twelve doughs were fermented with daily back-slopping at 37°C for 6days and evolution of total mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds populations were followed by plate counting. A combination of phenotypic and genotypic methods including (GTG) 5 -based PCR fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were used to differentiate and identify the isolated LAB to species level. LAB counts ranged from around 0.89±0.81 to 8.74±0.03logcfu/g with a pH decline from 6.4 to 3.9 throughout fermentation. Four genera and nine species of LAB: Enterococcus durans, E. faecium, E. mundtii, E. casseliflavus; Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus garvieae, Weissella cibaria and W. paramesenteroides were found on kidney beans. Twenty five LAB strains were assessed for their abilities to grow on kidney bean extracts, acidifying capacities (pH and acidification rates), amylolytic, proteolytic, tannase and gallate decarboxylase activities as well as pathogens inhibition by antimicrobials. Based on these properties E. durans CRL 2178 and W. paramesenteroides CRL 2182 were inoculated singly and combined in Alubia kidney bean flour and fermented for 24h at 37°C. LAB strains were beneficial for removing trypsin inhibitors and tannins from sourdoughs and for improving amino acids and phenolics contents, increasing the antioxidant activities of kidney bean matrices. Selected strains have potential as starter cultures for obtaining fermented bean products with high nutritional and functional

  19. Sourdough microbial community dynamics: An analysis during French organic bread-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Urien, Charlotte; Legrand, Judith; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard; Sicard, Delphine

    2016-02-01

    Natural sourdoughs are commonly used in bread-making processes, especially for organic bread. Despite its role in bread flavor and dough rise, the stability of the sourdough microbial community during and between bread-making processes is debated. We investigated the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast communities in traditional organic sourdoughs of five French bakeries during the bread-making process and several months apart using classical and molecular microbiology techniques. Sourdoughs were sampled at four steps of the bread-making process with repetition. The analysis of microbial density over 68 sourdough/dough samples revealed that both LAB and yeast counts changed along the bread-making process and between bread-making runs. The species composition was less variable. A total of six LAB and nine yeast species was identified from 520 and 1675 isolates, respectively. The dominant LAB species was Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, found for all bakeries and each bread-making run. The dominant yeast species changed only once between bread-making processes but differed between bakeries. They mostly belonged to the Kazachstania clade. Overall, this study highlights the change of population density within the bread-making process and between bread-making runs and the relative stability of the sourdough species community during bread-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the microbial dynamics and biochemistry of laboratory sourdoughs prepared with grape, apple and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordún, Elena; del Valle, Luis J; Ginovart, Marta; Carbó, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    The microbiological culture-dependent characterization and physicochemical characteristics of laboratory sourdough prepared with grape (GS) were evaluated and compared with apple (AS) and yogurt (YS), which are the usual Spanish sourdough ingredients. Ripe GS took longer than AS and YS to reach the appropriate acidity and achieved lower values of lactic acid. In all sourdoughs, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased during processing and were the dominant microorganisms (>1E+8 CFU/g). GS, as well as AS, had high diversity of LAB species. In ripe YS, Pediococcus pentosaceus was the only species identified; in GS and AS, several Lactobacilli were also found, Lb. plantarum, Lb. brevis, and Lb. sakei; in addition, in GS Weisella cibaria also appeared. Regarding the yeast population, non-Saccharomyces yeasts from GS and AS showed a very high specific population (>1E+7 CFU/g), but this was reduced in ripe sourdough (<1E+4 CFU/g). Finally, the Saccharomyces group dominated in all sourdoughs. Starting ingredients or raw material provided microbiological specificity to sourdoughs, and grape could be considered one of them. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The evolution of lactic acid bacteria community during the development of mature sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dragiša S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to follow the composition and changes in lactic acid bacteria (LAB population of rye flour sourdough that was continuously propagated by a repeated inoculation, sixty-two strains of LAB were isolated and characterized. The LAB were the only bacteria detected, both at the end of the second propagation step and in the stage of mature sourdough (after two weeks of continuous daily refreshment. The stable ecological system in rye sourdough could be established from the second propagation step onward. The predominant genera of LAB during the development of sourdough were lactobacilli, which were grouped in eight clusters. Heterofermentative lactobacilli were in majority in both propagation step two and a mature sourdough participating 56% and 70% of total bacterial count, respectively. The identification based on a phenotypic characterization that was carried out by using a set of 36 tests, showed that the lactobacilli contained in the two sourdough steps did not clearly belong to any known species of the genus Lactobacillus. In addition, the structure of the bacterial population were monitored by two statistical techniques (Hierachical Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis, being applied to phenotypical characteristics of the isolates.

  2. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of bifidobacterial phytases in Lactobacillus casei and their application in a food model of whole-grain sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Yebra, María J; Haros, Monika; Monedero, Vicente

    2016-01-04

    Phytases are enzymes capable of sequentially dephosphorylating phytic acid to products of lower chelating capacity and higher solubility, abolishing its inhibitory effect on intestinal mineral absorption. Genetic constructions were made for expressing two phytases from bifidobacteria in Lactobacillus casei under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter. L. casei was able of producing, exporting and anchoring to the cell wall the phytase of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum. The phytase from Bifidobacterium longum spp. infantis was also produced, although at low levels. L. casei expressing any of these phytases completely degraded phytic acid (2mM) to lower myo-inositol phosphates when grown in MRS medium. Owing to the general absence of phytase activity in lactobacilli and to the high phytate content of whole grains, the constructed L. casei strains were applied as starter in a bread making process using whole-grain flour. L. casei developed in sourdoughs by fermenting the existing carbohydrates giving place to an acidification. In this food model system the contribution of L. casei strains expressing phytases to phytate hydrolysis was low, and the phytate degradation was mainly produced by activation of the cereal endogenous phytase as a consequence of the drop in pH. This work shows the capacity of lactobacilli to be modified in order to produce enzymes with relevance in food technology processes. The ability of these strains in reducing the phytate content in fermented food products must be evaluated in further models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Germination and Fermentation on the Functionality of Whole Soy Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Patrascu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional quality and technological performances of grains can be modulated through germination and controlled fermentation. The aim of the work was to estimate the effect of germination (72 h at 23oC and fermentation on the fundamental rheological properties of the soy flour based suspensions and sourdoughs, and to assess the bread making potential of the whole soy flours by considering the thermo-mechanical functionality of soy in admixture with white wheat flour. Soy flour based sourdough were prepared using three different starter cultures, consisting of mixtures of lactic acid bacteria like Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. casei, Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium BB12®, and Streptococcus thermophilus and/or yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus subsp. Marxianus. The rheological behaviour of the suspensions and sourdoughs was influenced by the soy germination and fermentation processes. The stress sweep tests indicated significant narrowing of the linear viscoelastic regions, as well as the decrease of the stress values required for the beginning of flow. The temperature ramp test showed more intense swelling in case of the germinated and fermented samples. Both native and germinated soy flours were used to replace 15% of the wheat flour, and the Mixolab test indicated that the germination process caused the decrease of protein weakening and dough stability. The sourdoughs addition to the wheat flour resulted in significant changes of the thermo-mechanical properties of the dough. Properties related to stability of starch gel during heating, starch gelatinization and retrogradation depended on the type of starter culture used for fermentation.

  5. Molecular source tracking of predominant lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs and their production environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheirlinck, I; Van der Meulen, R; De Vuyst, L; Vandamme, P; Huys, G

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the circulation of predominant sourdough lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species in the production environment of two Belgian artisan sourdough bakeries. Isolates were collected from sourdoughs, flour, hands of the baker and air in the bakery setting and taxonomically characterized using repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting, pheS and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. In parallel, PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) analysis of V3-16S rDNA amplicons was applied to visualize the predominant bacterial population in the sourdoughs and the corresponding bakery environment (flour, hands of the baker, air and bakery equipment). Both approaches revealed that sourdoughs produced at D01 and D10 were mainly dominated by Lactobacillus spicheri and L. plantarum and by L. sanfranciscensis, respectively, and that these LAB species also circulated in the corresponding bakery environment. Furthermore, AFLP fingerprinting demonstrated that sourdough and bakery environment isolates of these species were genetically indistinguishable. For more sensitive source-tracking, SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays were developed using species-specific primers targeting the pheS gene of L. plantarum and L. sanfranciscensis, detected in air samples from D01 and D10, respectively. The results obtained in this study indicate that specific strains of LAB persist in artisan doughs over years and circulate in the bakery environment. Furthermore, the importance of air as a potential carrier of LAB in artisan bakery environments was demonstrated. PheS-based real-time PCR can be used to detect, quantify and/or monitor specific LAB species (e.g. starter cultures) in sourdough and bakery environment samples.

  6. Influence of artisan bakery- or laboratory-propagated sourdoughs on the diversity of lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA band corresponding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was no longer detectable in several sourdoughs. Twelve species of lactic acid bacteria were variously identified through a culture-dependent approach. All sourdoughs harbored a certain number of species and strains, which were dominant throughout time and, in several cases, varied depending on the environment of propagation. As shown by statistical permutation analysis, the lactic acid bacterium populations differed among sourdoughs propagated at artisan bakery and laboratory levels. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Weissella cibaria dominated in only some sourdoughs back-slopped at artisan bakeries, and Leuconostoc citreum seemed to be more persistent under laboratory conditions. Strains of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis were indifferently found in some sourdoughs. Together with the other stable species and strains, other lactic acid bacteria temporarily contaminated the sourdoughs and largely differed between artisan bakery and laboratory levels. The environment of propagation has an undoubted influence on the composition of sourdough yeast and lactic acid bacterium microbiotas.

  7. Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and

  8. Dynamics and biodiversity of populations of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous heap fermentation of cocoa beans in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-03-01

    The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as "Weissella ghanaensis," was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named "Acetobacter senegalensis" (A. tropicalis-like) and "Acetobacter

  9. Waktu Optimum Biokonversi Spontan Biji Asam Guna Meningkatkan Kandungan Nilai Gizinya Sebagai Pakan Ternak Alternatif (OPTIMUM TIME OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION TO NUTRIENT VALUE OF TAMARIND SEED AS ALTERNATIF FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redempta Wea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate nutrition value and optimum time of spontaneous bioconversionof tamarind seed. This research was conducted using complete random design experimental methodswith five bioconversion time treatments ie R0 0 hour; R1 24 hours; R2 48 hours; R3 72 hours; and R4 96hours respectively and each treatment consist of four replications. The data were then analysis usingvariants analysis and Duncan’s test. The research variable was nutrition value of tamarind seed spontaneousbioconversion. Results showed that spontaneous bioconvertion was not effecting to dry matter, crude fiber,and crude fat but effected to ash, crude protein, and metabolism energy and the best treatment wasspontaneous bio-conversion until 72 hours and make decreasing at 96 hours treatment Based on thoseresult, for getting the best result,it is suggesting to use spontaneous bioconversion until 72 hours.

  10. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Filiz; Karbancıoglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Structure-function relationships of bacterial and enzymatically produced reuterans and dextran in sourdough bread baking application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Yan; Levy, Clemens; Gänzle, Michael G

    2016-12-19

    Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria may improve texture and shelf life of bread. The effect of exopolysaccharides on bread quality, however, depends on properties of the EPS and the EPS producing strain. This study investigated structure-function relationships of EPS in baking application. The dextransucrase DsrM and the reuteransucrase GtfA were cloned from Weissella cibaria 10M and Lactobacillus reuteri TMW1.656, respectively, and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Site-directed mutagenesis of GtfA was generates reuterans with different glycosidic bonds. NMR spectrum indicated reuteranPI, reuteranNS and reuteranPINS produced by GtfA-V1024P:V1027I, GtfA-S1135N:A1137S and GtfA-V1024P:V1027I:S1135N:A1137S, respectively, had a higher proportion of α-(1→4) linkages when compared to reuteran. ReuteranNS has the lowest molecular weight as measured by asymmetric flow-field-flow fractionation. The reuteransucrase negative mutant L. reuteri TMW1.656ΔgtfA was generated as EPS-negative derivative of L. reuteri TMW1.656. Cell counts, pH, and organic acid levels of sourdough fermented with L. reuteri TMW1.656 and TMW1.656ΔgtfA were comparable. Reuteran produced by L. reuteri TMW1.656 during growth in sourdough and reuteran produced ex situ by GtfA-ΔN had comparable effects on bread volume and crumb hardness. Enzymatically produced dextran improved volume and texture of wheat bread, and of bread containing 20% rye flour. ReuteranNS but not reuteranPI or reuteran was as efficient as dextran in enhancing wheat bread volume and texture. Overall, reuteran linkage type and molecular weight are determinants of EPS effects on bread quality. This study established a valuable method to elucidate structure-function relationships of glucans in baking applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Misihairabgwi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.

  13. KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN KRISTALINITAS TEPUNG PISANG TERMODIFIKASI SECARA FERMENTASI SPONTAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN BERTEKANAN-PENDINGINAN (Chemical Composition and Crystallinity of Modified Banana Flour by Spontaneous Fermentation and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-07-01

    (39,13 – 42,68% bk dibandingkan dengan yang satu siklus (29,34 – 35,93% bk. Proses pemanasan bertekananpendinginan menurunkan kristalinitas tepung pisang dari 18,74-20,08% menjadi 6,98-9,52%. Difraksi sinar X menunjukkan granula pati pisang adalah granula tipe C yang merupakan campuran dari granula tipe A dan tipe B. Kata kunci: Tepung pisang termodifikasi, fermentasi spontan, autoclaving-cooling cycles

  14. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S; Rønsbo, Mie H; Abban, Stephen; Hamad, Siddig H; Nielsen, Dennis S; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-04-29

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200 °C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a traditional production site in Khartoum, Sudan in 2006 and 2009, respectively. In 2006 four different milk/legume based primary starters (faba bean, chick pea, lentil and white bean) were sampled in order to enumerate and identify the Bacillus at species or group level. In 2009 specific focus was on the enumeration and safety evaluation of the dominant Bacillus cereus group species occurring during various Gergoush productions (including the three fermentations steps and after baking). In 2006, the primary starters contained Bacillus spp. in the order of between 7.7 and 8.1 log(10) CFU/g. Species identifications were performed by M13-PCR typing using the Escherichia coli phage M13 derived primer PM13 combined with internally transcribed 16-23S rRNA PCR, 16S rRNA gene and gyrA or gyrB gene sequencing, and selected phenotypic tests. Depending on the legume used, 40-68% of the isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato, 16-27% as Bacillus licheniformis, 8-32% as Bacillus subtilis and 4-20% as Bacillus sonorensis. During the second set of fermentation trials performed in 2009, the Bacillus spp. and B. cereus occurred in numbers of between 7.7-9.9 and 6.1-7.8 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, while no bacteria were detected after baking. A total of 180 B. cereus sensu lato isolates from four different primary starters, adapted starters and final doughs were further identified as B. cereus sensu stricto (118 isolates) and Bacillus thuringiensis (62 isolates). The safety of Gergoush was evaluated based on the counts and toxin gene profiles of the dominant B. cereus species. Considering that no bacteria survived the baking process, and that the cereulide synthetase gene ces

  15. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. The lactic acid bacteria and yeast microbiota of eighteen sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional Italian sweet leavened baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, Anna; Minervini, Fabio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Diviccaro, Annamaria; Antonielli, Livio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Cappelle, Stefan; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2013-05-15

    The lactic acid bacteria and yeast microbiota of eighteen sourdoughs used for the manufacture of some traditional Italian sweet leavened baked goods were studied through culture-dependent method and pyrosequencing. Flours used for back slopping and sourdoughs were also biochemically characterized. Principal component analysis was applied to explore eventual correlations between process parameters applied during back slopping, some flour nutrients, profile of microbiota, and biochemical characteristics of sourdoughs. The median values of the cell density of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were 8.05 and 7.03 log CFU/g, respectively. As shown by culture-dependent method, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was identified in all the sourdoughs, except for Panaredda and Torcolo di San Costanzo. For eleven sourdoughs, all the lactic acid bacteria isolates were allotted to this species. For Buccellato di Lucca, Mbriagotto, Pandoro, and Nadalin sourdoughs, at least 80% of the isolates was allotted to this species. Other lactic acid bacteria isolated with a relatively high frequence were Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc citreum. Pyrosequencing confirmed and complemented the culture-dependent approach, detecting L. sanfranciscensis also in Panaredda and Torcolo di San Costanzo sourdoughs. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in all the sourdoughs, except for Mbriagotto, Ciambella di Mosto and Pandolce Genovese. These latter sourdoughs harbored strains of Candida humilis, whereas five sourdoughs combined the presence of both yeast species. Positive correlations were found between time of back slopping and cell density and main metabolites of lactic acid bacteria. Percentage of sourdough used as inoculum was mainly correlated with the cell density of yeasts and the concentration of ethanol. This study provided a comprehensive and comparative approach to highlight the dominant microbiota of Italian sourdoughs, which could be exploited further to guarantee a highly

  17. Toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    of toxin genes related to food poisoning using PCR. Isolates harboring the emetic specific gene fragment EM1 where highly representative, being one out of ten isolates from afitin, one of one isolate from iru and five of eight isolates from sonru. Three of the isolates from afitin harbored the cytotoxin K...... gene. The non hemolytic enterotoxin complex genes were present in all isolates, while the hemolytic enterotoxin complex genes were present in only one isolate from afitin. Food poisoning potential was evaluated using a Vero-cell assay measuring cytotoxity, and the toxin titers ranged between 80...... fermentation of locust beans has not been demonstrated. Interestingly afitin, iru and sonru are considered safe food products, and as far as is known there has been no reports on diarrhea or vomiting due to the consumption of the three condiments....

  18. Potential of Lactobacillus plantarum ccm 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis ccm 1815 for fermentation of cereal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Romanová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus is the most representative strain in a group of lactic acid bacteria, which perform an essential role in the preservation and production of wholesome foods. Lactic acid fermentation is the oldest traditional method for preparation of fermented vegetables, meat products, dairy products and cereal foods. Cereal grains are considered to be one of the most important sources of dietary proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibre for people. The main exploitation of cereals is to prepare sourdough, which is a mixture of wheat, rye or other cereal flour with water and contains yeasts and lactobacilli. The basic biochemical changes that occur in sourdough bread fermentation are acidification of the dough with organic acids produced by the lactobacilli and leavening with carbon dioxide produced by the yeast and the lactobacilli. Acidification perhaps initiate enzymatic processes of proteins and phytates degradation. Lactobacilli produce various enzymes which make flavour precursors, improve of mineral bioavailability or degrade celiac active peptides, because some species of lactobacilli produce specific peptidases during growth, which are capable to hydrolyze hardly cleavable, celiac-active proline-rich peptides. Microbial fermentation with selected strains of lactobacilli may be new alternative approach for modification of gluten by hydrolysis. In this paper are described growth characteristics and intracellular aminopeptidases activities of Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3627 and Lactobacillus brevis CCM 1815. Work was focused on characterization of the lactobacilli for potential usage as a starter culture in further fermentation experiments.

  19. Effects of a novel propionate-rich sourdough bread on appetite and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi, J; Frost, G S; Robertson, M D

    2012-07-01

    There is evidence linking oral propionate to a reduction in food intake, which could confer functional food properties in the fight against obesity. However, propionate is typically volatile with a pungent smell and taste and so incorporating into foods naturally, at levels acceptable to the consumer is a novel approach. Twenty healthy, young, normal weight unrestrained eaters underwent an acute feeding study using a palatable sourdough and an identical control bread of a similar palatability, in a randomized cross-over balanced design for the assessment of appetite and energy intake. No difference in energy intake of an ad libitum test meal, 180 min after the bread-based breakfast or in energy and macronutrient intake over the entire 24 h period was found between breads. Visual analogue scale ratings for appetite were not influenced by bread type, except the desire to eat something sweet. Elevated plasma insulin concentrations were observed following the propionate-rich sourdough breakfast (P=0.033 no effects of treatment on postprandial glycaemia were found. These findings suggest propionate-rich sourdough bread does not influence appetite and food intake unlike larger doses of the food preservative N-propionate.

  20. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Cappa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD, compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae or their mixture (SDCY as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY.

  1. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  2. Control of mixing step in the bread production with weak wheat flour and sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several old Italian grain varieties have been reinstated, and the market seems to reward the breads made with these flours. Among such varieties, cultivar Verna appears to be interesting because the regular consumption of bread obtained by this variety and sourdough provides beneficial effects on human health such as the improving of the lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological profiles. However, flours derived from Verna shows low technological performances. For example, the W value of these flours, obtained with alveoghraphic tests and considered as the commercial standard for the flour “strength” evaluation, is largely inferior than the W values of the commercial flour blends currently used in the bread making process. Moreover, the W values broadly change among the batches of Verna flours, whereas, usually, commercial blends are provided to bakeries with standard technological properties. Hence, these properties of Verna flour could lead to developed or overworked doughs and therefore to breads of worse quality. In addition, the previous mentioned large variability of flours from Verna can affect also the sourdough microbiota. For these reasons the composition and activity of the sourdough microorganisms should be controlled while the mixing process should be able to adapt to the different flour properties. Some works, in literature, report that monitoring the electrical consumption could provide useful information about the dough rheology, and this could be used to monitor the mixing step. In the present work the effect of different mixing times are evaluated on breads made with Verna flour type 2 leavened with sourdough. Tests were carried out at industrial scale in two different days. During the tests the electric consumption was monitored to highlight some features suitable for the mixing phase control. The breads were evaluated in terms of loaf volume measurement, crumb image analysis and losses of moisture content during

  3. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  4. Novel starters for old processes: use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdough for craft beer production at a brewery scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Antonella; Zara, Giacomo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Del Caro, Alessandra; Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Budroni, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The deliberate inoculation of yeast strains isolated from food matrices such as wine or bread, could allow the transfer of novel properties to beer. In this work, the feasibility of the use of baker's yeast strains as starters for craft beer production has been evaluated at laboratory and brewery scale. Nine out of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdoughs metabolized 2 % maltose, glucose and trehalose and showed growth rates and cell populations higher than those of the brewer's strain Safbrew-S33. Analysis of allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci clustered seven baker's strains and Safbrew-S33 in the main group of bread isolates. Chemical analyses of beers produced at a brewery scale showed significant differences among the beers produced with the baker's strain S38 or Safbrew-S33, while no significant differences were observed when S38 or the brewer's strain Safbrew-F2 was used for re-fermentation. The sensory profile of beers obtained with S38 or the brewer's yeasts did not show significant differences, thus suggesting that baker's strains of S. cerevisiae could represent a reservoir of biodiversity for the selection of starter strains for craft beer production.

  5. Microbiota of sausages obtained by spontaneous fermentation produced in the South of Brazil Microbiota de salames obtidos por fermentação espontânea produzidos no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ecology of fermented sausage is fundamental to understand the physical and chemical changes that happen during fermentation and maturation. The aim of the present study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation. Fifty samples of sausages produced in the South of Brazil by different small manufacturers were analyzed for the following microbiota: aerobic mesophilic bacteria; Micrococcaceae; mold and yeast; lactic acid bacteria; total and fecal coliforms; coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. In most samples (72%, the count of lactic bacteria was higher than 6 log10 cfu.g-1, and the samples with the highest counts were above 8 log10 cfu.g-1. The counts of Micrococcaceae in most samples were between 5 log10 and 7 log10 cfu.g-1. With respect to the presence of molds and yeasts, there was a significant variation among the samples with counts ranging from 2 log10 cfu.g-1 and 6 log10 cfu.g-1. From the data obtained, it was possible to conclude that 24% of the analyzed samples did not comply with the current law in Brazil since the levels of fecal coliforms or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus exceeded the maximum limit allowed.O estudo da ecologia de salames fermentados faz-se necessário para entender as mudanças físicas e químicas que ocorrem durante a fermentação e maturação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as características microbiológicas de salames produzidos por fermentação espontânea. Foram analisadas cinquenta amostras de salames de diferentes pequenas indústrias em relação à seguinte microbiota: bactérias aeróbias mesófilas; Micrococcaceae; bolores e leveduras; bactérias lácticas; coliformes totais e fecais; Staphylococcus coagulase positiva; e Salmonella. Na grande maioria das amostras (72%, a presença de bactérias lácticas foi superior a 10(6 ufc.g-1, sendo que as amostras com as maiores contagens tiveram quantidades

  6. Structural analysis of the alpha-D-glucan produced by the sourdough isolate Lactobacillus brevis E25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal associated Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are well known for homopolymeric exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Herein, the structure of an EPS isolated from sourdough isolate Lactobacillus brevis E25 was determined. A modified BHI medium was used for production of EPS-E25 in order to eliminate po...

  7. Spontaneous pneumothorax

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    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  8. Vegetable Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Eifert, Joell

    2014-01-01

    People have been fermenting vegetables for centuries to increase the stability of fresh foods, to make the foods safer to eat in the absence of refrigeration and to enhance their flavor. Today, vegetable fermentation is done on a large-scale setting in factories as well as in households across the world. In the United States, the primary vegetables fermented are cucumbers (pickles), cabbage (sauerkraut and Kimchi) and olives. In many parts of the world, especially in developing countries wher...

  9. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  11. Diversity and Stability of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Rye Sourdoughs of Four Bakeries with Different Propagation Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Viiard, Ene; Bessmeltseva, Marianna; Simm, Jaak; Talve, Tiina; Aasp?llu, Anu; Paalme, Toomas; Sarand, Inga

    2016-01-01

    We identified the lactic acid bacteria within rye sourdoughs and starters from four bakeries with different propagation parameters and tracked their dynamics for between 5-28 months after renewal. Evaluation of bacterial communities was performed using plating, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus frumenti or Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus pontis and Lactobacillus panis prevailed in sourdoug...

  12. Influence of Artisan Bakery- or Laboratory-Propagated Sourdoughs on the Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacterium and Yeast Microbiotas

    OpenAIRE

    Minervini, Fabio; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Seven mature type I sourdoughs were comparatively back-slopped (80 days) at artisan bakery and laboratory levels under constant technology parameters. The cell density of presumptive lactic acid bacteria and related biochemical features were not affected by the environment of propagation. On the contrary, the number of yeasts markedly decreased from artisan bakery to laboratory propagation. During late laboratory propagation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the DNA ...

  13. Molecular characterization and technological properties of wine yeasts isolated during spontaneous fermentation of Vitis vinifera L.cv. Narince grape must grown in ancient wine making area Tokat, Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Zeynep Dilan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera L grown in Tokat and produces rich and balanced wines often with a greenish yellow tint and delicate fruity flavour. Fermentation by indigenous yeasts may produce wines with complex oenological properties that are unique to specific region. In this study yeast population during alcoholic fermentation of Narince was investigated. Yeasts were identified by PCR-RFLP analysis of the 5.8 ITS rRNA region and sequence information for the D1/D2 domains of the 26S gene. Eight different species belonging to nine genera were identified as: Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hansenispora guilliermondii, Pichia kluyveri, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Candida zemplinina, Lachancea thermotolerance and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Metschnikowiaspp., Pichia occidentalis and Pichia kluyveri were identified only in the early stage of fermentation. Selected yeasts tested for their physiological traits, ethanol, SO2, temperature, pH tolerance, H2S production, killer and enzymatic activity, fermentation rate, flocculation characteristic, foam, volatile acid and volatile compounds production. Among the yeasts, one,Lachancea thermotolerance and four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain showed remarkable technological properties and results were compared with those obtained by using commercial starter culture.

  14. Utilization of mouldy sorghum and Cassia tora through fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study the potential of developing a probiotic feed ingredient from a combination of mouldy sorghum and Cassia tora seeds, using spontaneous fermentation was explored. The effect of fermentation at 0, 24 and 36 h on the microflora, ergosterol, mycotoxins and nutritive value, of mouldy sorghum was assessed ...

  15. Effect of Fermentation Methods on Chemical and Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mung flours were fermented using spontaneous and backslopping methods for 72 h and microbial analysis over a period of 72 h fermentation was carried out. The samples were subjected to biochemical test, anti-nutrient and selected mineral and vitamin contents evaluation using standard methods. There was a gradual ...

  16. An untargeted metabolomic assessment of cocoa beans during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Gross, Ana Lucía; Quirós Guerrero, Luis Manuel; Fourny, G.; Vaillant Barka, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is a critical step in the processing of high quality cocoa; however, the biochemistry behind is still not well understood at a molecular level. In this research, using a non-targeted approach, the main metabolomic changes that occur throughout the fermentation process were explored. Genetically undefined cocoa varieties from Trinidad and Tobago (n = 3), Costa Rica (n = 1) and one clone IMC-67 (n = 3) were subjected to spontaneous fermentation using farm-based and pilot plant cont...

  17. Characterization of relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria species in French organic sourdough by cultural, qPCR and MiSeq high-throughput sequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Elisa; Monfort, Clarisse; Deffrasnes, Marion; Guezenec, Stéphane; Lhomme, Emilie; Barret, Matthieu; Sicard, Delphine; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard

    2016-12-19

    In order to contribute to the description of sourdough LAB composition, MiSeq sequencing and qPCR methods were performed in association with cultural methods. A panel of 16 French organic bakers and farmer-bakers were selected for this work. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity of their organic sourdoughs was investigated quantitatively and qualitatively combining (i) Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis-specific qPCR, (ii) global sequencing with MiSeq Illumina technology and (iii) molecular isolates identification. In addition, LAB and yeast enumeration, pH, Total Titratable Acidity, organic acids and bread specific volume were analyzed. Microbial and physico-chemical data were statistically treated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC). Total yeast counts were 6 log 10 to 7.6 log 10 CFU/g while LAB counts varied from 7.2 log 10 to 9.6 log 10 CFU/g. Values obtained by L. sanfranciscensis-specific qPCR were estimated between 7.2 and 10.3 log 10 CFU/g, except for one sample at 4.4 log 10 CFU/g. HAC and PCA clustered the sixteen sourdoughs into three classes described by their variables but without links to bakers' practices. L. sanfranciscensis was the dominant species in 13 of the 16 sourdoughs analyzed by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), by the culture dependent method this species was dominant only in only 10 samples. Based on isolates identification, LAB diversity was higher for 7 sourdoughs with the recovery of L. curvatus, L. brevis, L. heilongjiangensis, L. xiangfangensis, L. koreensis, L. pontis, Weissella sp. and Pediococcus pentosaceus, as the most representative species. L. koreensis, L. heilongjiangensis and L. xiangfangensis were identified in traditional Asian food and here for the first time as dominant in organic sourdough. This study highlighted that L. sanfranciscensis was not the major species in 6/16 sourdough samples and that a relatively high LAB diversity can be observed in French organic

  18. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788 as a starter culture to control vegetable fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Dorrit; Grosu-Tudor, Silvia; Zamfir, Medana; De Vuyst, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Fermentation of vegetables and fruits is a traditional preservation technique, e.g. in Eastern Europe. Although usually spontaneous fermentation processes are applied, the addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures could accelerate processing and improve the consistency and quality of the end-products. The application of Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788 as a starter culture strain for cauliflower and mixed vegetable fermentations resulted in accelerated acidification as compared with the spontaneous fermentations. The strain dominated the background microbiota throughout the process, whereas the spontaneous fermentations were characterised by widely variable species diversity. During the spontaneous fermentations, almost all carbohydrates were converted into lactic acid, ethanol, mannitol and acetic acid, indicating the participation of both heterofermentative and homofermentative LAB species. During the starter culture-added fermentations, residual carbohydrates were found and lactic acid and ethanol were the main end-metabolites. Vegetable-associated aromas, ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate were produced during all fermentations. The high concentration of ethanol and the production of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate suggested the involvement of yeasts during all fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788 was an adequate starter culture strain for vegetable fermentations, prevailing over endogenous LAB communities. Further optimisation of the starter culture formulation is necessary to avoid yeast growth. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Medical nutrition therapy: use of sourdough lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients in gluten free bread

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease, triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingesting gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. Currently, the estimated prevalence of CD is around 1 % of the population in the western world and medical nutritional therapy (MNT) is the only accepted treatment for celiac disease. To date, the replacement of gluten in bread presents a significant technological challenge for the cereal scientist due to the low baking performance of gluten free products (GF). The increasing demand by the consumer for high quality gluten-free (GF) bread, clean labels and natural products is rising. Sourdough has been used since ancient times for the production of rye and wheat bread, its universal usage can be attributed to the improved quality, nutritional properties and shelf life of sourdough based breads. Consequently, the exploitation of sourdough for the production of GF breads appears tempting. This review will highlight how sourdough LAB can be an efficient cell factory for delivering functional biomolecules and food ingredients to enhance the quality of gluten free bread.

  3. Effect of the spontaneous fermentation and the ageing on the chemo-sensory quality of Brazilian organic cachaça Efeito da fermentação natural e do envelhecimento sobre a qualidade química e sensorial de cachaça orgânica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afra Vital Matos Dias Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the effect of the spontaneous fermentation/natural ferment (NF on the chemo-sensory quality of cachaça, comparing to the commercial ferment (CF. The effect of ageing (maturation was also analysed in the beverage. Microbiological analysis (plating on selective media for total/wild yeast and bacteria counting and physico-chemical analysis (pH, acidity and soluble solids were performed in the samples of the must and the ferment collected during three cycles of fermentation in a semi-industrial scale. Samples of cachaça were stored in 5-L oak containers for 45 days, subsequently analyzing the physico-chemical characteristics (pH, acidity, alcohol content, copper and secondary compounds and sensory acceptability (aroma, flavour, colour, body and global impression. The fermentation with NF showed higher number of wild yeasts; however there was no difference in the number of bacteria comparing to CF. An intense acidification occurred during the preparation of NF, which was also observed in the initial cycles of fermentation, but decreased afterwards. Greater alterations in cachaça composition were found to be more exclusively related to the maturation than to the type of ferment, except for the acidity. However, there was a significant loss of aroma, flavour and global impression after maturation but only in cachaça produced with the CF. The results revealed a strong interaction between ferment and maturation of the beverage, suggesting that substances produced by the microorganisms from different inocula during fermentation reacted differently with the wood components of the barrels influencing the sensory attributes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da fermentação espontânea/fermento natural (NF sobre a qualidade fisico-química e aceitabilidade da cachaça, comparando-se com o fermento comercial (CF. O efeito do envelhecimento (maturação da bebida foi também avaliado. Análises microbiol

  4. Monitoring of wheat lactic acid bacteria from the field until the first step of dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Antonio; Miceli, Claudia; Nasca, Anna; Franciosi, Elena; Ventimiglia, Giusi; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tuohy, Kieran; Francesca, Nicola; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The present work was carried out to retrieve the origin of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in sourdough. To this purpose, wheat LAB were monitored from ear harvest until the first step of fermentation for sourdough development. The influence of the geographical area and variety on LAB species/strain composition was also determined. The ears of four Triticum durum varieties (Duilio, Iride, Saragolla and Simeto) were collected from several fields located within the Palermo province (Sicily, Italy) and microbiologically investigated. In order to trace the transfer of LAB during the consecutive steps of manipulation, ears were transformed aseptically and, after threshing, milling and fermentation, samples of kernels, semolinas and doughs, respectively, were analysed. LAB were not found to dominate the microbial communities of the raw materials. In general, kernels harboured lower levels of microorganisms than ears and ears than semolinas. Several samples showing no development of LAB colonies acidified the enrichment broth suggesting the presence of LAB below the detection limit. After fermentation, LAB loads increased consistently for all doughs, reaching levels of 7.0-7.5 Log CFU/g on M17. The values of pH (5.0) and TTA (5.6 mL NaOH/10 g of dough) indicated the occurrence of the acidification process for several doughs. LAB were phenotypically and genotypically differentiated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR into eight groups including 51 strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus garvieae, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc citreum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Lactobacilli constituted a minority the LAB community, while lactococci represented more than 50% of strains. Lower LAB complexity was found on kernels, while a richer biodiversity was observed in semolinas and fermented doughs. For broader microbiota characterisation in

  5. Evaluation of growth, metabolism and production of potentially bioactive components during fermentation of barley with Lactobacillus reuteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallin, Anton; Agback, Peter; Jonsson, Hans; Roos, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Eighteen bacterial isolates from millet, buckwheat and rye flour were identified as Lactobacillus reuteri. Genomic fingerprinting (rep-PCR) revealed that they represented five strains and phylogenetic analyses using multi locus sequence analysis (MLSA) showed that all clustered with strains of rodent origin. Two strains (SU12-3 and SU18-3) from different phylogenetic clades were used in fermentations of six varieties of barley, both untreated and heat-treated (with inactivated indigenous enzymes) flour. They were compared with two probiotic strains of human origin (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 6475), one previously isolated sourdough strain (LTH 5531) and one strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (36E). Analyses of growth (CFU) and metabolism (1H-NMR) revealed differences at species level, with L. plantarum showing a higher capacity to assimilate nutrients without help of the cereal enzymes. Similarities were observed between L. reuteri strains isolated from sourdough, while the greatest differences between L. reuteri strains were observed between strains 6475 and 17938. Multivariate analysis of the metabolic profiles revealed clear clustering according to flour treatment, species of bacteria and barley variety and to some extent also bacterial strain. Possible bioactive compounds such as γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 1,3- propanediol (sign of reuterin production) and histamine were identified and quantified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fate of aflatoxin B 1 during fermentation of maize into \\"ogi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fate of aflatoxins in fermented maize (Ogi) was investigated. The effect of spontaneous fermentation and storage under refrigeration temperature (4°C) and ambient tropical condition (28°C) was studied. Levels as high as 50µg/kg was recorded for the control sample. Aflatoxins present in the maize grains persisted after ...

  7. Yeast Diversity and Persistence in Botrytis-Affected Wine Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David A.; Johannsen, Eric A.; Cocolin, Luca

    2002-01-01

    Culture-dependent and -independent methods were used to examine the yeast diversity present in botrytis-affected (“botrytized”) wine fermentations carried out at high (∼30°C) and ambient (∼20°C) temperatures. Fermentations at both temperatures possessed similar populations of Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Pichia, Metschnikowia, Kluyveromyces, and Candida species. However, higher populations of non-Saccharomyces yeasts persisted in ambient-temperature fermentations, with Candida and, to a lesser extent, Kluyveromyces species remaining long after the fermentation was dominated by Saccharomyces. In general, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of yeast ribosomal DNA or rRNA amplified from the fermentation samples correlated well with the plating data. The direct molecular methods also revealed a Hanseniaspora osmophila population not identified in the plating analysis. rRNA analysis also indicated a large population (>106 cells per ml) of a nonculturable Candida strain in the high-temperature fermentation. Monoculture analysis of the Candida isolate indicated an extreme fructophilic phenotype and correlated with an increased glucose/fructose ratio in fermentations containing higher populations of Candida. Analysis of wine fermentation microbial ecology by using both culture-dependent and -independent methods reveals the complexity of yeast interactions enriched during spontaneous fermentations. PMID:12324335

  8. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Fermentation kinetics and chemical characterisation of vino tostado, a traditional sweet wine from Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Sandra; Salgado, José M; Rivas, Beatriz; Torrado, Ana M; Domínguez, José M

    2010-01-15

    Grapes after harvesting are air dried and pressed in order to concentrate sugars, acids and flavour compounds to produce vino tostado (toasted wine), a wine with intense aroma and flavour notes and high residual sugar concentration. In order to get a better knowledge of the difficulties involved, several fermentations were conducted at 12 and 28 degrees C using 0, 15 and 30 g hL(-1) ammonium sulfate and 0, 25 and 50 g hL(-1) exogenous commercial yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. bayanus) to study the kinetics of sugar consumption and ethanol, acetic acid and glycerol production. Fermentation kinetic parameters were calculated and metal concentrations and antioxidant activity were analysed. The spontaneous fermentation at 12 degrees C and all fermentations conducted with the commercial yeast gave vino tostado of adequate quality, while the spontaneous fermentation at 28 degrees C was sluggish. High-temperature fermentations led to sweeter wines with higher volumetric productivities, although low-temperature fermentations produced better wines in terms of higher glycerol and lower acetic acid levels. Fructose was the only sugar to be consumed during spontaneous fermentations, while both glucose and fructose were consumed during fermentations of the inoculated musts, with preference for each monosaccharide depending on temperature. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J

    1995-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  11. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var. oligosp...

  12. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  13. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  14. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  15. The potential for upgrading traditional fermented foods through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These include the use of starter cultures, stabilization of spontaneous fermentations, and production of food processing enzymes. In view of the considerable range of technologies for improving traditional bioprocessing, the challenges and potential application of biotechnology in upgrading these foods will be discussed.

  16. Enzymatic Reduction of Anti-nutritional Factors in Fermenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work, therefore, was to use microorganisms, specifically Lactobacillus plantarum and the enzymes it produces to reduce anti-nutritional factors and improve the nutritional composition of such food blends. Nine strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from spontaneously fermenting cereals, identified ...

  17. Recent advances in microbial fermentation for dairy and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Elke; Hill, Colin; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2017-01-01

    Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour. Lactic acid bacteria can produce a number of bioactive metabolites during fermentation, such as bacteriocins, biogenic amines, exopolysaccharides, and proteolytically released peptides, among others. Prebiotics are added to food fermentations to improve the performance of probiotics. It has also been found that prebiotics fermented in the gut can have benefits that go beyond helping probiotic growth. Studies are now looking at how the fermentation of prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides can help in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis, obesity, and colorectal cancer. The potential to prevent or even treat disease through the fermentation of food is a medically and commercially attractive goal and is showing increasing promise. However, the stringent regulation of probiotics is beginning to detrimentally affect the field and limit their application. PMID:28649371

  18. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp.

  19. Bacterial community dynamics, lactic acid bacteria species diversity and metabolite kinetics of traditional Romanian vegetable fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Dorrit; Grosu-Tudor, Silvia; Zamfir, Medana; De Vuyst, Luc

    2013-03-15

    Artisanal vegetable fermentations are very popular in Eastern European countries. Fresh vegetables undergo a spontaneous fermentation in the presence of salt, which is mainly carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses of end-samples of various spontaneous vegetable fermentations carried out in houses of the Chiodju region (central Romania) revealed Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis as the most frequently isolated LAB species. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc citreum were also found. Furthermore, the community dynamics of spontaneous cauliflower and mixed-vegetable (green tomatoes, carrots and cauliflower) fermentations revealed three steps: an initial phase characterised by the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and a wide LAB species diversity, encompassing Weissella species; a second phase from day 3 onwards wherein L. citreum and Lb. brevis occurred; and a final phase characterised by the prevalence of Lb. brevis and Lb. plantarum. Metabolite target analysis revealed that glucose and fructose were mostly depleted at the end of fermentation. The main products of carbohydrate metabolism were lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol and small amounts of mannitol, indicating heterolactate fermentation. Given their prevalence at the end of vegetable fermentations, Lb. brevis and Lb. plantarum appear to be good candidate starter cultures for controlled vegetable fermentation processes. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF BORASSUS AKEASSII WINES QUALITY BY CONTROLLED FERMENTATION USING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPSOBA François

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm wine produced traditionally and consumed by many people around the world and specifically in Burkina Faso posed health risks because of questionable quality of wine produced by mix culture fermentation and the use of antiseptics for the stabilization. In order to improve its quality, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii wines and identified by amplification and RFLP analysis of the 5-8S-ITS region were used for in vitro fermentation of unfermented palm sap. The physicochemical characteristics of the sap were measured before and after fermentation process by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and the microbiological quality were also performed. HPLC analysis showed that glucose and fructose concentration in palm sap were 37.0 and 27.6 g/L respectively, ethanol content was ranged between 2.76 and 5.31 % (g/mL for controlled fermentation and 2.20 % (g/mL for spontaneous fermentation. Lactic and acetic acids were ranged between 0.1 and 0.3 g/L and 1.5 and 1.6 g/L for controlled fermentation versus 2.5 and 3.1 g/L and the spontaneous fermentation respectively. Coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were detected only in the unfermented palm sap and the wine fermented spontaneously. Principal component analysis showed a good separation between spontaneous and controlled fermentation. Sterilization and controlled fermentation of the unfermented sap with palm wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains led to the improvement of palm wine quality.

  1. Development of fermented milk “Leben” made from spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formation and characterisation of Industrial Leben produced with Traditional Starters (ILTS) was investigated and compared with industrial Leben produced using commercial starters (ILCS). PH and titratable acidity determinations showed that both traditional and commercial starter cultures performed well in Leben ...

  2. Probiotic potential of spontaneously fermented cereal based foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The realization that food has a role beyond provision of energy and body forming substances has shifted scientific investigations with growing interest in the research and development of functional foods. A lot of attention is being focused on probiotics due to the enormous support showing health benefits. Probiotics are ...

  3. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been used. However, new frontiers have been recently explored. Sourdough turned out an ancient but novel technology to preserve standard and gluten-free bread. Promising results have also been obtained by application of alternative bio-preservation techniques, including antifungal peptides and plant extracts. Active packaging, with absorbing and/or releasing compounds effective against bread staling and/or with antimicrobials preventing growth of undesirable microorganisms, showed up an emerging area of food technology which can confer many preservation benefits. Nanotechnologies are also opening up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry and the consumers. This work thus aims to provide an overview of opportunities and challenges that traditional and innovative anti-staling and anti-spoilage methods can offer to extend bread shelf-life and to provide a basis for driving further research on nanotechnology applications into the bakery industry.

  4. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  5. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  6. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified othe...

  7. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52, belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil, and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  8. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis. PMID:28419110

  9. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  10. Studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts during Alcoholic Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri

    in completion of anaerobic alcoholic fermentation. For both S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, some 22 different nitrogenous sources were evaluated for effects on growth and fermentation ability during anaerobic alcoholic fermentation. The data revealed that nitrogen preference is a trait...... that is species-specific; as well, growth enhancement is also dependent upon the type of nitrogen supplementation for each yeast species. This work provides the first detailed analysis of appropriate nitrogen supplementation to improve yeast growth and alcoholic fermentative activity (i.e., glucose consumption......The early death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during mixed culture spontaneous wine fermentation has traditionally been attributed to the lower capacity of these yeast species to withstand high levels of ethanol, low pH, and other media properties that are a part of progressing fermentation. However...

  11. Studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts during Alcoholic Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri

    in completion of anaerobic alcoholic fermentation. For both S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, some 22 different nitrogenous sources were evaluated for effects on growth and fermentation ability during anaerobic alcoholic fermentation. The data revealed that nitrogen preference is a trait......The early death of non-Saccharomyces yeasts during mixed culture spontaneous wine fermentation has traditionally been attributed to the lower capacity of these yeast species to withstand high levels of ethanol, low pH, and other media properties that are a part of progressing fermentation. However......, other yeast-yeast interactions, such as cell-cell contact mediated growth arrest and/or toxininduced death may also be a significant factor in the relative fragility of these non-Saccharomyces yeasts in mixed culture fermentation. In the present work we evaluate the combined roles of cell-cell contact...

  12. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  13. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle i...

  15. Food Technologies: Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical

  16. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Carrot juice fermentations as man-made microbial ecosystems dominated by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuyts, Sander; Van Beeck, Wannes; Oerlemans, Eline F M; Wittouck, Stijn; Claes, Ingmar J J; De Boeck, Ilke; Weckx, Stefan; Lievens, Bart; De Vuyst, Luc; Lebeer, Sarah

    2018-04-13

    Spontaneous vegetable fermentations, with their rich flavors and postulated health benefits, are regaining popularity. However, their microbiology is still poorly understood, so that concerns about food safety are raised. In addition, such spontaneous fermentations form interesting cases of man-made microbial ecosystems. Here, samples from 38 carrot juice fermentations were collected through a citizen science initiative in addition to three laboratory fermentations. Culturing showed that Enterobacteriaceae were out-competed by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) between three and thirteen days of fermentation. Metabolite-target analysis showed that lactic acid and mannitol were highly produced, as well as the biogenic amine cadaverine. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that mainly species of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus (as identified by 8 and 20 amplicon sequence variants or ASVs, respectively) mediated the fermentations in subsequent order. The analyses at DNA level still detected a high number of Enterobacteriaceae, but their relative abundance was low when RNA-based sequencing was performed to detect presumptive metabolically active bacterial cells. In addition, this method greatly reduced host read contamination. Phylogenetic placement indicated a high LAB diversity, with ASVs from nine different phylogenetic groups of the Lactobacillus genus complex. However, fermentation experiments with isolates showed that only strains belonging to the most prevalent phylogenetic groups preserved the fermentation dynamics. The carrot juice fermentation thus forms a robust man-made microbial ecosystem suitable for studies on LAB diversity and niche specificity. Importance The usage of fermented food products by professional chefs is steadily growing worldwide. Meanwhile, this interest is also regained at household level. However, many of these artisanal food products remain understudied. Here, an extensive microbial analysis was performed of spontaneous fermented

  18. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  19. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  20. Potentiel nutritionnel du microbiote d’aliments fermentés à base de céréales : le cas des folates

    OpenAIRE

    Saubade, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Cereals are staple foods in most African countries. Numerous African cereal-based foods are spontaneously fermented. As the nutritional quality of cereal products could be enhanced through spontaneous fermentation, these food products might be good sources of micronutrients. However, various micronutrients deficiencies, such as folate deficiency, are still common in many African countries where these food products are consumed. Folate deficiency leads to different pathologies, such as megalob...

  1. Rapid Quantification of Major Volatile Metabolites in Fermented Food and Beverages Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinu, Farhana R; Villas-Boas, Silas G

    2017-07-26

    Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS) library. We determined different analytical parameters of these metabolites including the limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ) and range of quantification. In order to validate the method, we also determined detailed analytical characteristics of five major fermentation end products including ethanol, acetic acid, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl-L-lactate and, acetoin. The method showed very low technical variability for the measurements of these metabolites in different matrices (<3%) with an excellent accuracy (100% ± 5%), recovery (100% ± 10%), reproducibility and repeatability [Coefficient of variation (CV) 1-10%)]. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we analysed different fermented products including balsamic vinegars, sourdough, distilled (whisky) and non-distilled beverages (wine and beer).

  2. Rapid Quantification of Major Volatile Metabolites in Fermented Food and Beverages Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana R. Pinu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a method for the accurate quantification of major volatile metabolites found in different food and beverages, including ethanol, acetic acid and other aroma compounds, using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The method is combined with a simple sample preparation procedure using sodium chloride and anhydrous ethyl acetate. The GC-MS analysis was accomplished within 4.75 min, and over 80 features were detected, of which 40 were positively identified using an in-house and a commercialmass spectrometry (MS library. We determined different analytical parameters of these metabolites including the limit of detection (LOD, limit of quantitation (LOQ and range of quantification. In order to validate the method, we also determined detailed analytical characteristics of five major fermentation end products including ethanol, acetic acid, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl-L-lactate and, acetoin. The method showed very low technical variability for the measurements of these metabolites in different matrices (<3% with an excellent accuracy (100% ± 5%, recovery (100% ± 10%, reproducibility and repeatability [Coefficient of variation (CV 1–10%]. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, we analysed different fermented products including balsamic vinegars, sourdough, distilled (whisky and non-distilled beverages (wine and beer.

  3. A lab-scale model system for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanens, Edwina; Näf, Rebecca; Lobmaier, Tobias; Pedan, Vasilisa; Leischtfeld, Susette Freimüller; Meile, Leo; Schwenninger, Susanne Miescher

    2018-04-01

    Lab-scale systems modelling the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process are useful tools to research the influence of process parameters on the fermentation and the final bean quality. In this study in Honduras, a 1-kg lab-scale fermentation (LS-F) was compared to a 300-kg on-farm fermentation (OF-F) in a multiphasic approach, analysing microbial counts, microbial species diversity, physico-chemical parameters, and final dried bean quality. Yeast and total aerobic counts of up to 8 log CFU/g during the LS-F were comparable to the OF-F, while counts for lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria were up to 3 log CFU/g lower during the LS-F than during the OF-F. While species of the genera Hansenia, Saccharomyces, and Acetobacter dominated most of the fermentation processes, the genera dominating the drying phases were Pichia, Trichosporon, Pediococcus, and Acetobacter. Dried beans resulting from the LS-F, compared to the OF-F, were similar in contents of acetic acid, 6 times lower in lactic acid, up to 4 times higher in residual sugars, and 3-12 times higher in polyphenols. Dried beans processed at LS showed a similar flavour profile in terms of astringency, bitterness, acidity, and brown, fine, and cocoa flavours, but 2 units higher off-flavours than OF processed beans. With 81%, the share of well-fermented beans from the LS-F complied with industrial standards, whereas 7% over-fermented beans were above the threshold. Conclusively, the 5-day model fermentation and subsequent drying successfully mimicked the on-farm process, providing a high-throughput method to screen microbial strains to be used as starter cultures.

  4. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  5. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  6. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  7. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  8. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  9. MUTU GIZI DAN KEAMANAN BEKASAM PRODUK FERMENTASI IKAN TERI SECARA SPONTAN DAN PENAMBAHAN KULTUR MURNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uken SS Soetrisno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Many kind of foods based on fermentation products are used as traditional foods in Indonesia. Such products are tape the sweet fermented cassava as source of carbohydrates, tempe the delicious fermented soybean or other beans as source of  protein, dadih the sour fermented buffalo milk as source of calcium and protein, and many others made of  animal protein source such as from small fish. Fermentation of foods will increase the nutrient content and absorbability of the nutrient, besides will increase sensoric or acceptability value of the products. Objectives: The study objectives are to evaluate the nutrient quality and sensoric quality of  the salt-fermentation product of small fish, so called teri, both using spontaneous fermentation and selected culture-fermentation those producing lactic acid bacteria. Methods: This was a food experimental study to explore the quality improvement  of acid bacteria fermentation products using spontaneous or sellected culture on protein source foods. Ingredients were consist of small fish with steam rice at 1 to 1 by weight with addition of salt at 5-6% and fermented spontaneously or with addition of 1% level selected culture, which contain lactic acid producing bacteria. Fermentation were done for 4 to 5 days, depent on the type of culture. Results: Bekasam produced from both type of fermentation had lower protein content due to the addition of rice as carbohydrate source, while ash content became higher due to the addition of NaCl salt. The products had sweet smell besides sour taste due to carbohydrate fermentation which could increase the absorbability of the products especially vitamins and minerals those needed lower pH. Generally, fermented bekasam had higher vitamin content and changed fatty acid composition. Vitamin B12 increased by 2 folds and vitamin A by 3-4 folds, compared with those of fresh small fish. Linoleic acid increased by 2-4 folds followed by decreased of other

  10. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  11. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  12. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  13. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  14. Table Olive Fermentation Using Starter Cultures with Multifunctional Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatoula Bonatsou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the most popular plant-derived fermented products. Their enhanced nutritional value due to the presence of phenolic compounds and monounsaturated fatty acids makes olives an important food commodity of the Mediterranean diet. However, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is mainly craft-based and empirically driven by the autochthonous microbiota of the olives depending on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to a spontaneous process and a final product of variable quality. The use of microorganisms previously isolated from olive fermentations and studied for their probiotic potential and technological characteristics as starter cultures may contribute to the reduction of spoilage risk resulting in a controlled fermentation process. This review focuses on the importance of the development and implementation of multifunctional starter cultures related to olives with desirable probiotic and technological characteristics for possible application on table olive fermentation with the main purpose being the production of a health promoting and sensory improved functional food.

  15. The Fermentative and Aromatic Ability of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Montaño, Dulce M.; de Jesús Ramírez Córdova, J.

    Spontaneous alcoholic fermentation from grape, agave and others musts into an alcoholic beverage is usually characterized by the presence of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. These genera yeasts are dominant in the early stages of the alcoholic fermentation. However the genera Hanseniaspora and Kloeckera may survive at a significant level during fermentation and can influence the chemical composition of the beverage. Several strains belonging to the species Kloeckera api-culata and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii have been extensively studied in relation to the formation of some metabolic compounds affecting the bouquet of the final product. Indeed some apiculate yeast showed positive oenological properties and their use in the alcoholic fermentations has been suggested to enhance the aroma and flavor profiles. The non- Saccharomyces yeasts have the capability to produce and secrete enzymes in the medium, such as β -glucosidases, which release monoterpenes derived from their glycosylated form. These compounds contribute to the higher fruit-like characteristic of final product. This chapter reviews metabolic activity of Kloeckera and Hanseniaspora yeasts in several aspects: fermentative capability, aromatic compounds production and transformation of aromatic precursor present in the must, also covers the molecular methods for identifying of the yeast

  16. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia ePinto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapes and wine musts harbour a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation – Initial Must (IM, and Start and End of alcoholic fermentation (SF and EF, respectively.The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p<0.05 were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF and EF, and in the bacterial population between MI and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the initial musts, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida and Schizosaccharomyces. Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of

  17. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Cardoso, Remy; Custódio, Valéria; Fernandes, Joana; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C

    2015-01-01

    Grapes and wine musts harbor a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation - Initial Musts (IM), and Start and End of alcoholic fermentations (SF and EF, respectively). The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF, and EF, and in the bacterial population between IM and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the IM, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida, and Schizosaccharomyces). Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of regional wines.

  18. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  19. Fermentative Alcohol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín, Mariano; Sánchez, Antonio; Woodley, John M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter we present some of key principles of bioreactor design for the production of alcohols by fermentation of sugar and syngas . Due to the different feedstocks, a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamics inside the units , bubble columns or stirred tank reactors , the gas-liquid mass...

  20. Recent advances in microbial fermentation for dairy and health [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daragh Hill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fermentation has been used historically for the preservation of foods, the health benefits of which have since come to light. Early dairy fermentations depended on the spontaneous activity of the indigenous microbiota of the milk. Modern fermentations rely on defined starter cultures with desirable characteristics to ensure consistency and commercial viability. The selection of defined starters depends on specific phenotypes that benefit the product by guaranteeing shelf life and ensuring safety, texture, and flavour. Lactic acid bacteria can produce a number of bioactive metabolites during fermentation, such as bacteriocins, biogenic amines, exopolysaccharides, and proteolytically released peptides, among others. Prebiotics are added to food fermentations to improve the performance of probiotics. It has also been found that prebiotics fermented in the gut can have benefits that go beyond helping probiotic growth. Studies are now looking at how the fermentation of prebiotics such as fructo-oligosaccharides can help in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis, obesity, and colorectal cancer. The potential to prevent or even treat disease through the fermentation of food is a medically and commercially attractive goal and is showing increasing promise. However, the stringent regulation of probiotics is beginning to detrimentally affect the field and limit their application.

  1. Redox reactions in food fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2018-01-01

    Food fermentations are typically performed without actively supplying air. Except for possible surface microorganisms, oxygen will only be transiently available and the redox reactions during the fermentation need to be in balance. Production of ATP from fermentation of carbohydrates typically in...... of the redox properties of strains used to compose food cultures.......Food fermentations are typically performed without actively supplying air. Except for possible surface microorganisms, oxygen will only be transiently available and the redox reactions during the fermentation need to be in balance. Production of ATP from fermentation of carbohydrates typically...... involves oxidative steps in the early part of the pathways whereas a multitude of different reactions are used as compensating reductions. Much of the diversity seen between food fermentations arise from the different routes and the different electron acceptors used by microorganisms to counterbalance...

  2. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  3. Brewhouse-Resident Microbiota Are Responsible for Multi-Stage Fermentation of American Coolship Ale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Bamforth, Charles W.; Mills, David A.

    2012-01-01

    American coolship ale (ACA) is a type of spontaneously fermented beer that employs production methods similar to traditional Belgian lambic. In spite of its growing popularity in the American craft-brewing sector, the fermentation microbiology of ACA has not been previously described, and thus the interface between production methodology and microbial community structure is unexplored. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), barcoded amplicon sequencing (BAS), quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture-dependent analysis, ACA fermentations were shown to follow a consistent fermentation progression, initially dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and a range of oxidative yeasts in the first month, then ceding to Saccharomyces spp. and Lactobacillales for the following year. After one year of fermentation, Brettanomyces bruxellensis was the dominant yeast population (occasionally accompanied by minor populations of Candida spp., Pichia spp., and other yeasts) and Lactobacillales remained dominant, though various aerobic bacteria became more prevalent. This work demonstrates that ACA exhibits a conserved core microbial succession in absence of inoculation, supporting the role of a resident brewhouse microbiota. These findings establish this core microbial profile of spontaneous beer fermentations as a target for production control points and quality standards for these beers. PMID:22530036

  4. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-02

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  6. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbohydrates for fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dietmar

    2006-01-01

    Biomass accumulated by the photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide is the only renewable carbon source, and hence, the only renewable raw material for the chemical industry. Carbohydrates are the main constituents of biomass and occur as cell wall and storage carbohydrates, transportation carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Cellulose, hemicelluloses and starch in particular as well as pectin, inulin and saccharose to a smaller extent are the most abundant carbohydrates. Glucose is the most important monosaccharide and monomer of polysaccharides in natural carbohydrates. Thus, it is the most abundant organic compound on earth. Production of pulp from wood cellulose, applications of starch for paper making as well as uses of glucose and saccharose for fermentation are the most important chemical and technical uses of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates used as fermentation feedstock are essential for the chemical industry. Their importance is steadily growing due to the increasing implementation of biotechnological processes.

  8. Kivuguto traditional fermented milk and the dairy industry in Rwanda. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karenzi, E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of fermenting milk involve the use of indigenous microorganisms, leading to the production of a variety of tastes in fermented milk products. Kivuguto is a fermented milk product, which is popular in Rwanda. Kivuguto is produced by traditional spontaneous acidification of raw milk by a microflora present both on utensils and containers used for milk preservation and in the near environment of cattle. Thus, this method does not allow the shelf stability of the product. Faced to such a situation, modern dairies now produce fermented milk and other dairy products using exotic strains. The main objectives of this paper are firstly, to provide documentation on the traditional production of kivuguto, as well as its by-products, and secondly, to describe the current situation of the dairy industry in Rwanda.

  9. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  10. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  11. Rationale for Using of Bifidobacterium Probiotic Strains-Fermented Milk Against Colitis Based on Animal Experiments and Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Akemi; Umesaki, Yoshinori

    2009-06-01

    Probiotic foods such as probiotic strain-fermented milk or supplements proposing various health claims are now available. The beneficial effects of these probiotic foods on the digestive system are expected for not only healthy persons but also patients with diseases of the alimentary tract. This review focused on the rationale of using our Bifidobacterium strains-fermented milk as an adjunct for the prevention of recurrence or exacerbation of colitis. Animal experiments using gnotobiotic colitis or spontaneously colitis models and also human clinical trials of ulcerative colitis patients showed the potential of Bifidobacterium strains-fermented milk as a beneficial anti-colitis adjunct.

  12. Health benefits of fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Gökcen, Büşra Başar; Sezgin, Aybüke Ceyhun

    2017-09-25

    In the past, the beneficial effects of fermented foods on health were unknown, and so people primarily used fermentation to preserve foods, enhance shelf life, and improve flavour. Fermented foods became an important part of the diet in many cultures, and over time fermentation has been associated with many health benefits. Because of this, the fermentation process and the resulting fermented products have recently attracted scientific interest. In addition, microorganisms contributing to the fermentation process have recently been associated with many health benefits, and so these microorganisms have become another focus of attention. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been some of the most studied microorganisms. During fermentation, these bacteria synthesize vitamins and minerals, produce biologically active peptides with enzymes such as proteinase and peptidase, and remove some non-nutrients. Compounds known as biologically active peptides, which are produced by the bacteria responsible for fermentation, are also well known for their health benefits. Among these peptides, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a blood pressure lowering effect, exopolysaccharides exhibit prebiotic properties, bacteriocins show anti-microbial effects, sphingolipids have anti-carcinogenic and anti-microbial properties, and bioactive peptides exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, opioid antagonist, anti-allergenic, and blood pressure lowering effects. As a result, fermented foods provide many health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic activity. However, some studies have shown no relationship between fermented foods and health benefits. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the health effects of fermented foods.

  13. Identification of the potential inhibitors of malolactic fermentation in wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vieira da MOTA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This exploratory work aims to identify the potential inhibitors of lactic bacterial growth and to propose enological practices to guarantee the occurrence of spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF in wines from traditional and double-pruning management harvests in southeast Brazil. One white wine from a summer harvest and one red wine from a winter harvest that failed to complete MLF were utilized as comparative models to identify inhibitor compounds to lactic bacteria. Wine composition, alcoholic-fermentation temperature and bacterial strain contribute to the success or failure of MLF. Temperatures below 12 °C during alcoholic fermentation decrease lactic bacterial metabolism and may impair the bacteria’s growth after yeast cells lysis. A must pH below 3.2 in a summer harvest impairs bacterial growth, and the association of low pH with a free-SO2 concentration above 10 mg L-1 may inhibit MLF. For grapes with a high sugar content, harvested in the winter cycle, enologists should keep the alcohol content below 15% and control the alcoholic-fermentation temperature.

  14. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to high-fibre sourdough rye bread and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    . A reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses might be a beneficial physiological effect. The Panel notes that in the four human intervention studies submitted as pertinent to the health claim the consumption of high-fibre sourdough rye bread induced a significant reduction of post-prandial blood glucose...... on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to high‑fibre sourdough rye bread and a reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses. The Panel considers that the food, high-fibre sourdough rye bread, and its “comparator”, glucose, are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect....... In addition, foods containing low amounts of, or no available carbohydrates, will also induce lower post-prandial blood glucose responses when compared with glucose. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of almost any food and a reduction of post...

  15. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  16. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  17. The environmental and intrinsic yeast diversity of Cuban cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Maura, Yurelkys; Balzarini, Tom; Clapé Borges, Pablo; Evrard, Pierre; De Vuyst, Luc; Daniel, H-M

    2016-09-16

    The environmental yeast diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations in east Cuba was investigated. Seven fermentations, 25 equipment- and handling-related samples, and 115 environmental samples, such as flowers, leaf and cocoa pod surfaces, as well as drosophilid insects, were analysed. The basic fermentation parameters temperature and pH were recorded during five fermentations for at least six days. A total of 435 yeast isolates were identified by a combination of PCR-fingerprinting of genomic DNA with the M13 primer and sequence analysis of DNA from representative isolates, using the internal transcribed spacer region, the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, and an actin gene-encoding fragment, as required. Among 65 yeast species detected, Pichia manshurica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae were the most frequently isolated species, obtained from five and four fermentations, followed in frequency by Pichia kudriavzevii from two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only occasionally. Cocoa fermentation yeast species were also present on processing equipment. The repeated isolation of a preliminarily as Yamadazyma sp. classified species, a group of strains similar to Saccharomycopsis crataegensis from fermentations and equipment, and the isolation of fifteen other potentially novel yeast species in low numbers provides material for further studies. Environmental samples showed higher yeast diversity compared to the fermentations, included the most frequent fermentation species, whereas the most frequently isolated environmental species were Candida carpophila, Candida conglobata, and Candida quercitrusa. Potential selective advantages of the most frequently isolated species were only partly explained by the physiological traits tested. For instance, tolerance to higher ethanol concentrations was more frequent in strains of Pichia spp. and S. cerevisiae compared to Hanseniaspora spp.; the ability to also assimilate ethanol might have

  18. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  19. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  20. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  1. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  2. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  3. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  4. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  5. Free Sorting and Association Task: A Variant of the Free Sorting Method Applied to Study the Impact of Dried Sourdough as an Ingredienton the Related Bread Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétel, Cécile; Courcoux, Philippe; Génovesi, Noémie; Rouillé, Jocelyn; Onno, Bernard; Prost, Carole

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a new variant of the free sorting method developed to analyze the relationship between dried sourdough (DSD) and corresponding DSD-bread (bread) odors. The comparison of DSD and bread sensory characteristics is complicated due to their specific features (for example, acidity for DSD and a characteristic "baked bread" aroma for breads). To analyze them at the same time, this study introduces a new variant of the free sorting method, which adds an association task between DSD and bread after those of free sorting and verbalization. This separation makes it possible to change the product between tasks. It was applied to study the impact of 6 European commercial DSDs on their related DSD-bread. According to our results, this methodology enabled an association between different kinds of products and thus underlined the relationship between them. Moreover, as this methodology contains a verbalization task, it provides product descriptions. Compared with the standard free sorting method, free sorting with an association task gives the distance (i) between DSDs, (ii) between breads, and (iii) between DSDs and breads. The separation of product assessment through sorting and association avoids the separation of products according to their category (DSD or bread). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Alcohol by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamoki, H.

    1973-08-22

    Alcohol was obtained by culturing Saccharomyces diastaticus and S. cerevisiae on a medium containing saccharified starch as the main carbon source. Starch was saccharified with either acid or enzyme. Thus, 185 ml fermented mash (10.52% EtOH) was obtained by culturing yeast starter on 200 ml saccharified solution containing yeast extract 2 and peptone 2 g for 94 hours at 30 degrees; the saccharified solution was prepared by adding 0.006 mole NaCl, 0.001 mole CaCl2, and 40 mg bacterial dextrinogenic amylase to 20% potato starch suspension and allowed to react for 30 minutes at 75 degrees.

  7. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  8. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  9. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  10. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tarhana, a traditional Turkish fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengun, Ilkin Yucel; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Karapinar, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Tarhana is a traditional fermented product produced from a mixture of spontaneously fermented yogurt and wheat flour in Turkey. The aims of the present study were to enumerate and identify for the first time by molecular biology-based methods predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated during...... processing of Tarhana. Samples were collected from eight different regions of Turkey. In order to explore the relationship between raw material and the microbiology of Tarhana, yogurt and wheat flour were also analyzed. A total of 226 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates were obtained from MRS, M17...... and S. thermophilus was found to be the yogurt....

  11. Lactose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae capable of fermenting cellobiose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Guo-Chang; Oh, Eun Joong; Pathanibul, Panchalee; Turner, Timothy L; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-09-20

    Lactose is an inevitable byproduct of the dairy industry. In addition to cheese manufacturing, the growing Greek yogurt industry generates excess acid whey, which contains lactose. Therefore, rapid and efficient conversion of lactose to fuels and chemicals would be useful for recycling the otherwise harmful acid whey. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a popular metabolic engineering host, cannot natively utilize lactose. However, we discovered that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain (EJ2) capable of fermenting cellobiose can also ferment lactose. This finding suggests that a cellobiose transporter (CDT-1) can transport lactose and a β-glucosidase (GH1-1) can hydrolyze lactose by acting as a β-galactosidase. While the lactose fermentation by the EJ2 strain was much slower than the cellobiose fermentation, a faster lactose-fermenting strain (EJ2e8) was obtained through serial subcultures on lactose. The EJ2e8 strain fermented lactose with a consumption rate of 2.16g/Lh. The improved lactose fermentation by the EJ2e8 strain was due to the increased copy number of cdt-1 and gh1-1 genes. Looking ahead, the EJ2e8 strain could be exploited for the production of other non-ethanol fuels and chemicals from lactose through further metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eLiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72. The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  13. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Qiao, Kai; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zi-Yong; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-01-01

    Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72). The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  14. Influence of fermentation and other processing steps on the folate content of a traditional African cereal-based fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubade, Fabien; Hemery, Youna M; Rochette, Isabelle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Humblot, Christèle

    2018-02-02

    Folate deficiency can cause a number of diseases including neural tube defects and megaloblastic anemia, and still occurs in both developed and developing countries. Cereal-based food products are staple foods in many countries, and may therefore be useful sources of folate. The production of folate by microorganisms has been demonstrated in some cereal-based fermented foods, but has never been studied in a traditional African cereal based food spontaneously fermented. The microbiota of ben-saalga, a pearl-millet based fermented porridge frequently consumed in Burkina Faso, has a good genetic potential for the synthesis of folate, but the folate content of ben-saalga is rather low, suggesting that folate is lost during the different processing steps. The aim of this study was therefore to monitor changes in folate content during the different steps of preparing ben-saalga, from pearl-millet grains to porridge. Traditional processing involves seven different steps: washing, soaking, grinding, kneading, sieving, (spontaneous) fermentation, and cooking. Two type of porridge were prepared, one using a process adapted from the traditional process, the other a modified process based on fermentation by backslopping. Dry matter and total folate contents were measured at each step, and a mass balance assessment was performed to follow folate losses and gains. Folate production was observed during the soaking of pearl-millet grains (+26% to +79%), but the folate content of sieved batters (2.5 to 3.4μg/100g fresh weight) was drastically lower than that of milled soaked grains (17.3 to 19.4μg/100g FW). The final folate content of the porridges was very low (1.5 to 2.4μg/100g FW). The fermentation had no significant impact on folate content, whatever the duration and the process used. This study led to a better understanding of the impact on folate of the different processing steps involved in the preparation of ben-saalga. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  16. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  17. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  18. Formation of lactic acid bacteria-yeasts communities on the olive surface during Spanish-style Manzanilla fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Domínguez-Manzano, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodriguez-Gómez, F; García-García, P; Garrido-Fernández, A; Jiménez-Díaz, R

    2012-12-01

    This work examines the formation of poly-microbial communities adhered to the surface of Manzanilla olive fruits processed according to the Spanish style. The experimental design consisted of four pilot fermenters inoculated with four Lactobacillus pentosus strains, plus another fermenter which was not inoculated and fermented spontaneously. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were analysed in depth on olive epidermis throughout fermentation by plate count, molecular techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Data show that in all cases high population levels (above 8 log(10) CFU per olive) were reached for both groups of microorganisms at the second week of fermentation and that these counts never fell below 6 log(10) CFU per olive during the 3 months that fermenters were monitored. In situ observation of olive epidermis slices revealed a strong aggregation and adhesion between bacteria and yeasts by the formation of a matrix which embedded the microorganisms. Geotrichum candidum, Pichia galeiformis and Candida sorbosa were the main yeast species isolated from these biofilms at the end of fermentation (confirmed by RFLP analysis of the 5.8S-ITS region), while molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolates by means of RAPD-PCR with primer OPL(5) showed in many cases a high similarity in their banding profiles with the inoculated strains. Results obtained in this survey show the importance of studying the olive epidermis throughout fermentation, because ultimately, olives are ingested by consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. (AJST) INFLUENCE OF FERMENTATION AND COWPEA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opiyo

    Cowpeas was the main source of glucose/galactose. Fermentation caused a reduction in stacchyose and glucose/galactose. The mixing of cowpea flour with fermented maize dough prior to drying (single component fermentation) gave similar effects on sugar concentrations as detected in the co-fermented samples ...

  20. Viability of Lactobacillus paraplantarum DSM 14485 in human gastrointestinal tract and its molecular and biochemical identification after fermented vegetable consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Tuulikki Tamminen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study the viability of a potentially probiotic Lactobacillus paraplantarum DSM 14485 in the intestinal tract of 22 healthy test subjects was qualitatively assessed in a randomised double blinded cross-over study design lasting 2 x 4 weeks (interventions I and II with a 4-week washout period. The subjects were given in their diet either spontaneously fermented vegetables (SF or vegetables fermented by starter bacteria which contained  Lb. paraplantarum DSM 14485 (P. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB in fecal samples were at the level of 105 cfu g-1 in both groups. The presence of Lb. paraplantarum DSM 14485 was confirmed by biochemical and molecular methods. We were able to show that Lb. paraplantarum DSM 14485, isolated from spontaneously fermented cucumbers, was viable in the intestine of ten test subjects after taking P-diet when the numbers of LAB were sufficiently high in the product.

  1. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-δ region with primer pair δ2/δ12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  2. Fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) using L. plantarum BFE 5092 and L. fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Folarin A; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Kabisch, Jan; Rösch, Niels; Neve, Horst; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Frommherz, Lara; Nielsen, Dennis S; Krych, Lukasz; Franz, Charles M A P

    2016-12-05

    Vegetables produced in Africa are sources of much needed micronutrients and fermentation is one way to enhance the shelf life of these perishable products. To prevent post-harvest losses and preserve African leafy vegetables, Lactobacillus plantarum BFE 5092 and Lactobacillus fermentum BFE 6620 starter strains were investigated for their application in fermentation of African kale (Brassica carinata) leaves. They were inoculated at 1×10 7 cfu/ml and grew to a maximum level of 10 8 cfu/ml during 24h submerged fermentation. The strains utilized simple sugars (i.e., glucose, fructose, and sucrose) in the kale to quickly reduce the pH from pH6.0 to pH3.6 within 24h. The strains continued to produce both d and l lactic acid up to 144h, reaching a maximum concentration of 4.0g/l. Fermentations with pathogens inoculated at 10 4 cfu/ml showed that the quick growth of the starters inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis, as well as other enterobacteria. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4-region) amplicon sequencing showed that in the spontaneous fermentations a microbial succession took place, though with marked differences in biodiversity from fermentation to fermentation. The fermentations inoculated with starters however were clearly dominated by both the inoculated strains throughout the fermentations. RAPD-PCR fingerprinting showed that the strains established themselves at approx. equal proportions. Although vitamins C, B 1 and B 2 decreased during the fermentation, the final level of vitamin C in the product was an appreciable concentration of 35mg/100g. In conclusion, controlled fermentation of kale offers a promising avenue to prevent spoilage and improve the shelf life and safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Selection and use of indigenous mixed starter cultures for mustard leaves fermentation and the improvement of cuocai characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Zheng, Miao; Liu, Jia; Deng, Zeyuan; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hongyan

    2018-03-01

    To improve the characteristics and safety of traditional cuocai, the selection and use of mixed starter cultures is important. This study aimed to isolate the main indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LABs) and yeast species from spontaneous fermented mustard leaves, and they were used as starter cultures to ferment mustard leaves. Five predominant LABs, namely Q-1 (Enterococcus faecalis), G-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum), G-3 (Lactobacillus pentosus), and G-2 and G-4 (Lactobacillus buchneri) strains, and the two yeast strains J-1 (Issatchenkia orientalis) and J-2 (Issatchenkia occidentalis) were isolated from cuocai. From the results, Lb. plantarum and I. orientalis strains exhibited strong growth ability, fast acidification, and potent low-pH tolerance. Therefore, they were chosen as the mixed starter cultures to ferment mustard leaves. During the process of culture-dependent fermented mustard leaves, the changes of acidity, total crude protein, and total sugar were similar to those of culture-independent fermented mustard leaves, while the nitrite content of culture-dependent fermented mustard leaves was significantly lower than that of culture-independent fermented cuocai. According to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the main volatile flavor compounds of fermented mustard leaves were alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and sulfides. There was no significant difference of volatile flavor compounds between the processes of culture-dependent and culture-independent fermentations. Therefore, it was suggested that Lb. plantarum and I. orientalis strains could be used to ferment cuocai instead of the traditional ferment method to control the quality and shelf safety of cuocai. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii starter cultures on cocoa beans fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, Simonetta; Ramos, Lacerda; Batista, Nara; Dolci, Paola; Schwan, Freitas; Cocolin, Luca

    2017-09-18

    Aim of this work was to study the impact of mixed cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii and T. delbrueckii monoculture on the fermentation process conducted on two different cocoa hybrids, PS1319 and SJ02, in Bahia, Brazil. This was performed throughout studying physico-chemical changes during the fermentation process and analyzing volatile compounds and sensory analysis of chocolates. (GTG) 5 -PCR fingerprinting was used to type isolates at strain level allowing to assess the implantation of the starter cultures added. Resulted clusters were composed by T. delbrueckii strains isolated during the first 24h of fermentation. On the contrary, S. cerevisiae, the most strongly fermenting ethanol-tolerant species, took over the fermentation at a second stage. Quantification data of T. delbrueckii during spontaneous fermentation confirm the attitude of this species of not being so commonly involved in this process. This study also showed that the inoculum influenced the PS1319 hybrid end-product quality, changing analytic profile and sensory perception of chocolates. No big influences were recorded for SJ02 hybrid, but this may be improved. In combination with S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii had a positive influence on the analytical profile of chocolates. The application of starter cultures did change the aroma profile of the resulting chocolate as determined by GC-MS; in some case the differences observed had a significantly impact on the consumer perception of the chocolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of yeast starter cultures on the microbial communities and volatile compounds in cocoa fermentation and the resulting sensory attributes of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Nádia Nara; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2016-02-01

    Theobroma cacao seeds are the main raw material for chocolate production. During their fermentation, a succession of microorganisms are responsible for the physicochemical changes occurring in the pulp and inside the beans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast inoculation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA11, Pichia kluivery CCMA0237, and Hanseniaspora uvarum CCMA0236) on the profile of the volatile compounds and microbial communities in cocoa fermentation. The resulting chocolate was also evaluated by temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) analyses. The dominant microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation were S. cerevisiae, H. uvarum, H. guilliermondii, Lactobacillus fermentum, Pediococcus sp., and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Similarly, S. cerevisiae, P. kluyveri, Candida sp., Pediococcus sp., and A. pasteurianus were the predominant microorganisms assessed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) in inoculated fermentation. Sixty-seven volatile compounds were detected and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) at the end of fermentation and chocolates. The main group of volatile compound found after the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations was esters (41 and 39 %, respectively). In the chocolates, the main group was acids (73 and 44 % from the inoculated and spontaneous fermentations, respectively). The TDS analyses showed a dominance of bitter and cocoa attributes in both chocolates. However, in the inoculated chocolate, lingering fruity notes were more intense, while the chocolate produced by spontaneous fermentation was more astringent. Thus, the inoculation of yeast influenced the microbial profile, which likely affected the volatile compounds that affect sensory characteristics, resulting in chocolate with dominant bitter, cocoa, and fruity attributes.

  6. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Feng Chan; Ching-Cheng Huang; Ming-Yuan Lee; Yung-Sheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  7. Fermented Broth in Tyrosinase- and Melanogenesis Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Feng Chan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fermented broth has a long history of applications in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Recently, the use of fermented broth in skin care products is in ascendance. This review investigates the efficacy of fermented broth in inhibiting tyrosinase and melanogenesis. Possible active ingredients and hypopigmentation mechanisms of fermented broth are discussed, and potential applications of fermented broth in the cosmetic industry are also addressed.

  8. Modelling ethanol production from cellulose: separate hydrolysis and fermentation versus simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drissen, R.E.T.; Maas, R.H.W.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    In ethanol production from cellulose, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentative conversion may be performed sequentially (separate hydrolysis and fermentation, SHF) or in a single reaction vessel (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, SSF). Opting for either is essentially a trade-off between

  9. Enterobacter xiangfangensis sp. nov., isolated from Chinese traditional sourdough, and reclassification of Enterobacter sacchari Zhu et al. 2013 as Kosakonia sacchari comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chun Tao; Li, Chun Yan; Yang, Li Jie; Huo, Gui Cheng

    2014-08-01

    A Gram-stain-negative bacterial strain, 10-17(T), was isolated from traditional sourdough in Heilongjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) gene sequence analysis, DNA gyrase (gyrB) gene sequence analysis, initiation translation factor 2 (infB) gene sequence analysis, ATP synthase β subunit (atpD) gene sequence analysis, fatty acid methyl ester analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization and an analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 10-17(T) was phylogenetically related to Enterobacter hormaechei CIP 103441(T), Enterobacter cancerogenus LMG 2693(T), Enterobacter asburiae JCM 6051(T), Enterobacter mori LMG 25706(T), Enterobacter ludwigii EN-119(T) and Leclercia adecarboxylata LMG 2803(T), having 99.5%, 99.3%, 98.7%, 98.5%, 98.4% and 98.4% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the present study, a novel species, Enterobacter xiangfangensis sp. nov., is proposed and the type strain is 10-17(T) ( = LMG 27195(T) = NCIMB 14836(T) = CCUG 62994(T)). Enterobacter sacchari Zhu et al. 2013 was reclassified as Kosakonia sacchari comb. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB, infB and atpD gene sequence analysis and the type strain is strain SP1(T)( = CGMCC 1.12102(T) = LMG 26783(T)). © 2014 IUMS.

  10. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  11. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  12. Starter cultures for kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mo-Eun; Jang, Ja-Young; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae-Woong; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2015-05-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean vegetable product that is naturally fermented by various microorganisms present in the raw materials. Among these microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria dominate the fermentation process. Natural fermentation with unsterilized raw materials leads to the growth of various lactic acid bacteria, resulting in variations in the taste and quality of kimchi, which may make it difficult to produce industrial-scale kimchi with consistent quality. The use of starter cultures has been considered as an alternative for the industrial production of standardized kimchi, and recent trends suggest that the demand for starter cultures is on the rise. However, several factors should be carefully considered for the successful application of starter cultures for kimchi fermentation. In this review, we summarize recent studies on kimchi starter cultures, describe practical problems in the application of industrial-scale kimchi production, and discuss the directions for further studies.

  13. Molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Jayaprabha Agaliya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are non pathogenic organism widely distributed in nature typically involved in a large number of spontaneous food fermentation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteriocinogenic lactobacilli from fermented idli batter which can find application in biopreservation and biomedicine. Eight most promising lactobacilli were chosen from twenty two isolates based on their spectrum of activity against other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens. The eight lactobacilli were characterized based on the various classical phenotypic tests, physiological tests and biochemical tests including various carbohydrate utilization profiles. All isolates were homo fermentative, catalase, and gelatin negative. Molecular characterization was performed by RAPD, 16S rRNA analysis, 16S ARDRA, and Multiplex PCR for species identification. RAPD was carried out using the primer R2 and M13. Five different clusters were obtained based on RAPD indicating strain level variation. 16S rRNA analysis showed 99 to 100% homology towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The restriction digestion pattern was similar for all the isolates with the restriction enzyme AluI. The subspecies were identified by performing Multiplex PCR using species specific primer. Among the five clusters, three clusters were clearly identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis.

  14. Molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolated from fermented idli batter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaliya, Perumal Jayaprabha; Jeevaratnam, Kadirvelu

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are non pathogenic organism widely distributed in nature typically involved in a large number of spontaneous food fermentation. The purpose of this study was to characterize the bacteriocinogenic lactobacilli from fermented idli batter which can find application in biopreservation and biomedicine. Eight most promising lactobacilli were chosen from twenty two isolates based on their spectrum of activity against other lactic acid bacteria and pathogens. The eight lactobacilli were characterized based on the various classical phenotypic tests, physiological tests and biochemical tests including various carbohydrate utilization profiles. All isolates were homo fermentative, catalase, and gelatin negative. Molecular characterization was performed by RAPD, 16S rRNA analysis, 16S ARDRA, and Multiplex PCR for species identification. RAPD was carried out using the primer R2 and M13. Five different clusters were obtained based on RAPD indicating strain level variation. 16S rRNA analysis showed 99 to 100% homology towards Lactobacillus plantarum. The restriction digestion pattern was similar for all the isolates with the restriction enzyme AluI. The subspecies were identified by performing Multiplex PCR using species specific primer. Among the five clusters, three clusters were clearly identified as Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis.

  15. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  16. Enhancing flora balance in the gastrointestinal tract of mice by lactic acid bacteria from Chinese sourdough and enzyme activities indicative of metabolism of protein, fat, and carbohydrate by the flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Yu, Xiaomin; Wu, Yaoping; Chen, Xingxing; Wei, Hua; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of administration of 5 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from traditional Chinese sourdough on the flora balance of gastrointestinal tract of mice. We specifically measured Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus by plate count and real-time PCR methods, and α-glucosidase, lactate dehydrogenase, esterase, and aminopeptidase activities as indicative of metabolism of sugar, fat, and protein from LAB isolated from feces of mice in vitro. The results showed that administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201 and Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 lowered the uricacid index of serum. Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC0201, L. fermentum LFE0302, as well as Lactobacillus curvatus LCU0401 administration resulted in a reduction in the opportunistic pathogens (i.e., Enterococcus and Enterobacter), meanwhile, administration of L. fermentum LFE0302 and Lactobacillus sp. ULA0104 resulted in an increase in the counts of Lactobacillus. Lactobacillus fermentum LFE0302 administration increased starch digestion of intestinal flora after 4wk of feeding and also resulted in increased α-glucosidase activity in the intestinal flora after 3wk of feeding. We found a similar trend in esterase activity after administration of L. acidophilus LAC0201 for 3wk. Hence, our study suggested that LAB from Chinese sourdough might be used as potential probiotics to strengthen the flora balance in gastrointestinal tract and positively change the metabolism of nutrients through bacterial enzyme activities. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Screening of native yeast from Agave duranguensis fermentation for isoamyl acetate production

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Carbajal,Gerardo; Rutiaga-Quiñones,Olga Miriam; Pérez-Silva,Araceli; Saucedo-Castañeda,Gerardo; Medeiros,Adriane; Soccol,Carlos Ricardo; Soto-Cruz,Nicolás Óscar

    2013-01-01

    In this work, fifty yeast strains, isolated from the spontaneous alcoholic fermentation of Agave duranguensis to produce mezcal, were tested using the double coupling system. These yeasts were from the genera Pichia, Torulaspora, Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces, Deckera, Hanseniaspora, and Candida. P. fermentans ITD00165 was the best isoamyl acetate producer, yielding 0.38 g/L of ester after incubation for 24 h, while K. marxianus ITD00211 produced 0.32 g/L of ester. Thus P. fermentans TD00165 c...

  18. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  19. Selection of an autochthonous Saccharomyces strain starter for alcoholic fermentation of Sherry base wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palero, María Jesús; Fierro-Risco, Jesús; Codón, Antonio C; Benítez, Tahía; Valcárcel, Manuel J

    2013-06-01

    Several indigenous Saccharomyces strains from musts were isolated in the Jerez de la Frontera region, at the end of spontaneous fermentation, in order to select the most suitable autochthonous yeast starter, during the 2007 vintage. Five strains were chosen for their oenological abilities and fermentative kinetics to elaborate a Sherry base wine. The selected autochthonous strains were characterized by molecular methods: electrophoretic karyotype and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) and by physiological parameters: fermentative power, ethanol production, sugar consumption, acidity and volatile compound production, sensory quality, killer phenotype, desiccation, and sulphur dioxide tolerance. Laboratory- and pilot-scale fermentations were conducted with those autochthonous strains. One of them, named J4, was finally selected over all others for industrial fermentations. The J4 strain, which possesses exceptional fermentative properties and oenological qualities, prevails in industrial fermentations, and becomes the principal biological agent responsible for winemaking. Sherry base wine, industrially manufactured by means of the J4 strain, was analyzed, yielding, together with its sensory qualities, final average values of 0.9 g/l sugar content, 13.4 % (v/v) ethanol content and 0.26 g/l volatile acidity content; apart from a high acetaldehyde production, responsible for the distinctive aroma of "Fino". This base wine was selected for "Fino" Sherry elaboration and so it was fortified; it is at present being subjected to biological aging by the so-called "flor" yeasts. The "flor" velum formed so far is very high quality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study covering from laboratory to industrial scale of characterization and selection of autochthonous starter intended for alcoholic fermentation in Sherry base wines. Since the 2010 vintage, the indigenous J4 strain is employed to industrially manufacture a

  20. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  1. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  2. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen

    2016-01-01

    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus helveticus strains from traditional fermented dairy foods and antihypertensive effect of fermented milk of strain H9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongfu; Liu, Wenjun; Xue, Jiangang; Yang, Jie; Chen, Xia; Shao, Yuyu; Kwok, Lai-yu; Bilige, Menghe; Mang, Lai; Zhang, Heping

    2014-11-01

    Hypertension is a major global health issue which elevates the risk of a large world population to chronic life-threatening diseases. The inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is an effective target to manage essential hypertension. In this study, the fermentation properties (titratable acidity, free amino nitrogen, and fermentation time) and ACE-inhibitory (ACEI) activity of fermented milks produced by 259 Lactobacillus helveticus strains previously isolated from traditional Chinese and Mongolian fermented foods were determined. Among them, 37 strains had an ACEI activity of over 50%. The concentrations of the antihypertensive peptides, Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro, were further determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The change of ACEI activity of the fermented milks of 3 strains exhibiting the highest ACEI activity upon gastrointestinal protease treatment was assayed. Fermented milks produced by strain H9 (IMAU60208) had the highest in vitro ACEI activity (86.4 ± 1.5%), relatively short fermentation time (7.5 h), and detectable Val-Pro-Pro (2.409 ± 0.229 µM) and Ile-Pro-Pro (1.612 ± 0.114 µM) concentrations. Compared with the control, a single oral dose of H9-fermented milk significantly attenuated the systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by 15 to 18 mmHg during the 6 to 12 h after treatment. The long-term daily H9-fermented milk intake over 7 wk exerted significant antihypertensive effect to SHR, but not normotensive rats, and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly lower, by 12 and 10 mmHg, respectively, compared with the control receiving saline. The feeding of H9-fermented milk to SHR resulted in a significantly higher weight gain at wk 7 compared with groups receiving saline, commercial yogurt, and captopril. Our study identified a novel probiotic L. helveticus strain originated from kurut sampled from Tibet

  4. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  5. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  6. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  7. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  8. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  9. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  10. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia

    2003-12-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  11. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  12. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  13. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Tucker, Melvin [Lakewood, CO; Elander, Richard [Evergreen, CO; Hennessey, Susan M [Avondale, PA

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  14. Experiments with Fungi Part 2: Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michele; Hetherington, Shane

    1996-01-01

    Gives details of three experiments with alcoholic fermentation by yeasts which yield carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lists procedures for making cider, vinegar, and fermentation gases. Provides some historical background and detailed equipment requirements. (DDR)

  15. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  16. PYRUVATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEIBEL, R H; NIVEN, C F

    1964-07-01

    Deibel, R. H. (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), and C. F. Niven, Jr. Pyruvate fermentation by Streptococcus faecalis. J. Bacteriol. 88:4-10. 1964.-Streptococcus faecalis, as opposed to S. faecium, utilizes pyruvate as an energy source for growth. The fermentation is adaptive, as demonstrated by growth experiments in a casein-hydrolysate medium and the fermentation of pyruvate by cell suspensions. The principal products of pyruvate catabolism were acetoin, CO(2), and lactic, acetic, and formic acids, although carbon recoveries were low due to the formation of slime. End-product analyses suggested that both the phosphoroclastic and dismutation systems were active in pyruvate breakdown. Studies with cell-free extracts indicated a thiamine diphosphate requirement for active pyruvate catabolism. The involvement of lipoic acid in the phosphoroclastic system was investigated, and, although inconclusive results were obtained, no association of this cofactor with phosphoroclastic activity could be made.

  17. Monitoring of the microbiota profile in nukadoko, a naturally fermented rice bran bed for pickling vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Nishio, Shoko; Tsurii, Jun; Kawamoto, Tetsuhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2014-11-01

    Nukadoko is a fermented rice bran mash traditionally used for pickling vegetables in Japan. To date, the production of both homemade and commercial nukadoko depends on natural fermentation without using starter cultures. Here, we monitored chemical and microbiological changes in the initial batch fermentation of nukadoko. Nukadoko samples were prepared by spontaneous fermentation of four different brands of rice bran, and microbiome dynamics were analyzed for 2 months. In the first week, non-Lactobacillales lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which differed among the samples, grew proportionally to pH decrease and lactate increase. Thereafter, Lactobacillus plantarum started growing and consumed residual sugars, causing further lactate increase in nukadoko. Finally, microbial communities in all tested nukadoko samples were dominated by L. plantarum. Taken together, our results suggest that the mixture of the fast-growing LAB species and slow-growing L. plantarum may be used as a suitable starter culture to promote the initial fermentation of nukadoko. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Field survey and literature review on traditional fermented milk products of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonfa, A; Foster, H A; Holzapfel, W H

    2001-09-01

    The wide variety and the socio-economic and dietary importance of traditional fermented milk products of Ethiopia are discussed in this paper. Information on the microbiology of these products is sparse and has relevance to those organisms associated with spoilage and to those considered desirable for fermentation. There is a clear need to improve the production of African foods and beverages [Int. J. Food Microbiol. 18 (1993) 85]. The objective of this review was to document traditional technology used and information on the microbiology of the products, and to identify various constraints to the development and commercialisation of fermented milk products. Thereby the major problems and potential areas for improvement are pointed out. Ergo, the most important traditional product resembles yoghurt and, as the other traditional products, is prepared by "spontaneous" fermentation, commonly initiated by either "back slopping" or by repeated use of the same utensil. Other products include traditional fermented curd or ititu, traditional butter or kibe, neter kibe or traditional ghee, ayib resembling cottage cheese, arrera or defatted buttermilk and augat or traditional whey.

  19. Performance evaluation of Pichia kluyveri, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in industrial tequila fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Delgado, L; Herrera-López, E J; Arrizon, Javier; Arellano-Plaza, M; Gschaedler, A

    2013-05-01

    Traditionally, industrial tequila production has used spontaneous fermentation or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains. Despite the potential of non-Saccharomyces strains for alcoholic fermentation, few studies have been performed at industrial level with these yeasts. Therefore, in this work, Agave tequilana juice was fermented at an industrial level using two non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus) with fermentation efficiency higher than 85 %. Pichia kluyveri (GRO3) was more efficient for alcohol and ethyl lactate production than S. cerevisiae (AR5), while Kluyveromyces marxianus (GRO6) produced more isobutanol and ethyl-acetate than S. cerevisiae (AR5). The level of volatile compounds at the end of fermentation was compared with the tequila standard regulation. All volatile compounds were within the allowed range except for methanol, which was higher for S. cerevisiae (AR5) and K. marxianus (GRO6). The variations in methanol may have been caused by the Agave tequilana used for the tests, since this compound is not synthesized by these yeasts.

  20. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  1. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...

  2. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used...

  3. Biotransformation of algal waste by biological fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To treat this garbage of algae, we employed a biological fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria (BL11) and yeast (THE 16). These were isolated and selected for their acidifying and fermentation qualities, respectively. The fermentation resulted in a decrease of pH from 7.4 to 3.75 and a reduction of the different ...

  4. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  5. Fermentation of pretreated corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effect of unknown fermentation inhibitors in corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate processed by pretreatment and detoxification on fermentation, corncob hemicellulose acid hydrolysate and artificially prepared hydrolysate were fermented in parallel by Candida shehatae YHFK-2. The results show that ...

  6. Phytosynthesized iron nanoparticles: effects on fermentative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of FeSO4 and FeNPs on batch fermentative H2 production from glucose was investigated. The fermentation exper- iments reveal that the ... control (no supplementation) and FeSO4 containing media. The maximum H2 yield of 1.9 mol ... tion, dark fermentative process has been recognized as the most suitable because of its ...

  7. Fermentation du citron par inoculation microbienne | Bousmaha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work attempts to replace the traditional process known in Morocco by a controlled process allowing the fermentation and the preservation of lemon. We isolated and selected lactic bacteria and yeasts with big acidifying capacity and with high fermentative potential able to preserve and to ferment in a natural way ...

  8. Homogenization of Cocoa Beans Fermentation to Upgrade Quality Using an Original Improved Fermenter

    OpenAIRE

    Aka S. Koffi; N'Goran Yao; Philippe Bastide; Denis Bruneau; Diby Kadjo

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cocoa L.) are the main components for chocolate manufacturing. The beans must be correctly fermented at first. Traditional process to perform the first fermentation (lactic fermentation) often consists in confining cacao beans using banana leaves or a fermentation basket, both of them leading to a poor product thermal insulation and to an inability to mix the product. Box fermenter reduces this loss by using a wood with large thickness (e>3cm), but mixing to homogenize ...

  9. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  10. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  11. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  13. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  14. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  15. Identification of pOENI-1 and Related Plasmids in Oenococcus oeni Strains Performing the Malolactic Fermentation in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Marion; Bilhère, Eric; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline; Moine, Virginie; Lucas, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids in lactic acid bacteria occasionally confer adaptive advantages improving the growth and behaviour of their host cells. They are often associated to starter cultures used in the food industry and could be a signature of their superiority. Oenococcus oeni is the main lactic acid bacteria species encountered in wine. It performs the malolactic fermentation that occurs in most wines after alcoholic fermentation and contributes to their quality and stability. Industrial O. oeni starters may be used to better control malolactic fermentation. Starters are selected empirically by virtue of their fermentation kinetics and capacity to survive in wine. This study was initiated with the aim to determine whether O. oeni contains plasmids of technological interest. Screening of 11 starters and 33 laboratory strains revealed two closely related plasmids, named pOENI-1 (18.3-kb) and pOENI-1v2 (21.9-kb). Sequence analyses indicate that they use the theta mode of replication, carry genes of maintenance and replication and two genes possibly involved in wine adaptation encoding a predicted sulphite exporter (tauE) and a NADH:flavin oxidoreductase of the old yellow enzyme family (oye). Interestingly, pOENI-1 and pOENI-1v2 were detected only in four strains, but this included three industrial starters. PCR screenings also revealed that tauE is present in six of the 11 starters, being probably inserted in the chromosome of some strains. Microvinification assays performed using strains with and without plasmids did not disclose significant differences of survival in wine or fermentation kinetics. However, analyses of 95 wines at different phases of winemaking showed that strains carrying the plasmids or the genes tauE and oye were predominant during spontaneous malolactic fermentation. Taken together, the results revealed a family of related plasmids associated with industrial starters and indigenous strains performing spontaneous malolactic fermentation that possibly

  16. Use of two osmoethanol tolerant yeast strain to ferment must from Tempranillo dried grapes: effect on wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lerma, N; Peinado, R A

    2011-01-31

    The must from Tempranillo dried grapes was divided into four batches to produce sweet wine. The first one was fortified with ethanol up to 12% (v/v) to avoid fermentation (traditional way). Other two batches were partially fermented with two osmoethanol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (X4 and X5). The last one was fermented with native yeast by spontaneous fermentation. Wines fermented partially with the strains X4 and X5 show high volatile acidity values (above 2g/L expressed as acetic acid), and a glycerol concentration around 20 g/L. Both strains also produce high amount of carboxylic acids and therefore the wines show a high ethyl ester concentration. Aromatic series were obtained for all the wines by grouping aroma compounds according to their odor descriptors. The series of the fermented wines with higher values in relation with the control wine were fruity, sweet and fatty, emphasizing the fruity series in the samples fermented with the X4 and X5 strains. The sensorial analysis of the wine samples by a tasting panel put in evidence that the musts fermented with the osmoethanol tolerant yeasts were better valued than the rest of the wine samples. The must fermented with the X4 strain obtained the maximum score in terms of aroma and flavour. So, the use of these osmoethanol tolerant S. cerevisiae strains could be a suitable alternative to produce sweet wines from must with high sugar concentration. The wines obtained this way are chemically and organoleptically more complex than those elaborated traditionally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Korean traditional fermented soybean products: Jang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghwa Shin

    2015-03-01

    Fermented products are going beyond the boundaries of their use as mere side dishes, and are seeing significant increases in their use as a functional food. Kanjang (fermented soy sauce, Doenjang (fermented soybean paste, and Gochujang (fermented red pepper paste are the most well-known fermented products in Korea. These products occupy an important place in people's daily lives as seasonings and are used in many side dishes. It has been proven through clinical studies that these products have many health benefits, such as their ability to fight cancer and diabetes, and to prevent obesity and constipation.

  18. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20–40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting...... yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production...

  19. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  20. ENDOSPORES OF THERMOPHILIC FERMENTATIVE BACTERIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Marta

    2016-01-01

    solely based on endospores of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which presumably constitute only a small fraction of the total thermophilic endospore community reaching cold environments. My PhD project developed an experimental framework for using thermophilic fermentative endospores (TFEs) to trace...

  1. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  2. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  3. Lachancea thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous and sequential co-fermentation: a strategy to enhance acidity and improve the overall quality of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, Mirko; Comitini, Francesca; Domizio, Paola; Romani, Cristina; Lencioni, Livio; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Ciani, Maurizio

    2013-04-01

    In the last few years there is an increasing interest on the use of mixed fermentation of Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts for inoculation of wine fermentations to enhance the quality and improve complexity of wines. In the present work Lachancea (Kluyveromyces) thermotolerans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were evaluated in simultaneous and sequential fermentation with the aim to enhance acidity and improve the quality of wine. In this specific pairing of yeast strains in mixed fermentations (S. cerevisiae EC1118 and L. thermotolerans 101), this non-Saccharomyces yeast showed a high level of competitiveness. Nevertheless the S. cerevisiae strain dominated the fermentation over the spontaneous S. cerevisiae strains also under the industrial fermentation conditions. The different condition tested (modalities of inoculum, temperature of fermentation, different grape juice) influenced the specific interactions and the fermentation behaviour of the co-culture of S. cerevisiae and L. thermotolerans. However, some metabolic behaviours such as pH reduction and enhancement of 2-phenylethanol and glycerol, were shown here under all of the conditions tested. The specific chemical profiles of these wines were confirmed by the sensory analysis test, which expressed these results at the tasting level as significant increases in the spicy notes and in terms of total acidity increases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fermented Nut-Based Vegan Food: Characterization of a Home made Product and Scale-Up to an Industrial Pilot-Scale Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Pasini, Federica; Riciputi, Ylenia; Vannini, Lucia; Gozzi, Giorgia; Balestra, Federica; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2018-03-01

    Because of the impossibility to consume food of animal origin, vegan consumers are looking for substitutes that could enrich their diet. Among many substitutes, fermented nut products are made from different nut types and obtained after soaking, grinding, and fermentation. Although other fermented vegetable products have been deeply investigated, there are few data about the fermentative processes of nut-based products and the microbial consortia able to colonize these products are not yet studied. This study characterized a hand-made vegan product obtained from cashew nut. Lactic acid bacteria responsible for fermentation were identified, revealing a succession of hetero- and homo-fermentative species during process. Successively, some lactic acid bacteria isolates from the home-made vegan product were used for a pilot-scale fermentation. The products obtained were characterized and showed features similar to the home-made one, although the microbiological hazards have been prevented through proper and rapid acidification, enhancing their safety features. Spontaneous fermented products are valuable sources of microorganisms that can be used in many food processes as starter cultures. The lactic acid bacteria isolated in this research can be exploited by industries to develop new foods and therefore to enter new markets. The use of selected starter cultures guarantees good organoleptic characteristics and food safety (no growth of pathogens). © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  6. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  7. Commercialization of a novel fermentation concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar-Shaw, Kiran; Suryanarayan, Shrikumar

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation is the core of biotechnology where current methodologies span across technologies based on the use of either solid or liquid substrates. Traditionally, solid substrate fermentation technologies have been the widely practiced in the Far East to manufacture fermented foods such as soya sauce, sake etc. The Western World briefly used solid substrate fermentation for the manufacture of antibiotics and enzymes but rapidly replaced this technology with submerged fermentation which proved to be a superior technology in terms of automation, containment and large volume fermentation. Biocon India developed its enzyme technology based on solid substrate fermentation as a low-cost, low-energy option for the production of specialty enzymes. However, the limitations of applying solid substrate fermentation to more sophisticated biotechnology products as well as large volume fermentations were recognized by Biocon India as early as 1990 and the company embarked on a 8 year research and development program to develop a novel bioreactor capable of conducting solid substrate fermentation with comparable levels of automation and containment as those practiced by submerged fermentation. In addition, the novel technology enabled fed-batch fermentation, in situ extraction and other enabling features that will be discussed in this article. The novel bioreactor was christened the "PlaFractor" (pronounced play-fractor). The next level of research on this novel technology is now focused on addressing large volume fermentation. This article traces the evolution of Biocon India's original solid substrate fermentation to the PlaFractor technology and provides details of the scale-up and commercialization processes that were involved therein. What is also apparent in the article is Biocon India's commercially focused research programs and the perceived need to be globally competitive through low costs of innovation that address, at all times, processes and technologies that

  8. STUDY OF THE EFFECTS SHOWN BY THE ACTION OF VARIOUS MICROORGANISMS ON THE LACTIC FERMENTATION OF JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Manea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has established the most effective lactic acid bacteria used for fermentation of fruit and vegetables juices. The cultures were used for Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and culture of micro flora obtained spontaneous shoots. Lactic fermented juice was obtained from cabbage, carrots and beetroot. Working in these variants were determined lactic fermentation parameters and some of the bioactive compounds from this process: pH, reducing sugars, viable cell counts. Determination of reducing sugars calculated as glucose was conducted using the 3.5 dinitrosalicilic acid method (DNS method, pH was determined with a pH meter electronics. Chemical parameters listed were determined every two hours during the first 24 hours, then 48 and 72 hours in thermostatic conditions at 37 degrees C and 7 days storage at refrigerator temperature. At the end of the lactic fermentation, the lowest pH 4.31, which also provide juice conservation was obtained using a pure culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Reducing sugar is metabolized significantly when the juice of beetroot, fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus culture, 75.19%. The results may be an argument for obtaining juice fermented lactic acid, which are popular functional foods, to obtain a chemical composition and sensory their optimum.

  9. Stability of the pyrethroid pesticide bifenthrin in milled wheat during thermal processing, yeast and lactic acid fermentation, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorđević, Tijana M; Šiler-Marinković, Slavica S; Ðurović, Rada D; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana I; Gajić Umiljendić, Jelena S

    2013-10-01

    Pesticide residues have become an unavoidable part of food commodities. In the context of increased interest for food processing techniques as a tool for reducing pesticide residues, it is interesting to study the potential loss of pesticides during lactic acid and yeast fermentation. In the present paper the effect of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and storage on 23 °C on bifenthrin in wheat was investigated. In addition, the effect of sterilisation (applied in order to avoid contamination with wild microorganism strains, i.e. to determine the individual effects of used strains) on bifenthrin degradation was tested as well. No significant loss of bifenthrin was observed during storage, or after the sterilisation. During the lactic acid fermentation, reduction within wheat fortified with 0.5 mg kg(-1) was 42%, while quite lower within samples fortified with 2.5 mg kg(-1) , maximum 18%. In contrast, bifenthrin concentration was not reduced during yeast fermentation, as the reduction in fortified samples was in the range of spontaneous chemical degradation during incubation period. Possible bifenthrin contamination in wheat, in amounts over the maximum residue limits, could not be reduced by sterilisation or by yeast fermentation, but lactic acid fermentation could be an effective tool for minimising residual contamination. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Antioxidation, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, nattokinase, and antihypertension of Bacillus subtilis (natto-fermented pigeon pea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Hong Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian countries, traditional fermented foods from Asia have been increasingly investigated for antiatherosclerotic effects. This study investigated the production of nattokinase, a serine fibrinolytic enzyme, in pigeon pea by Bacillus subtilis fermentation. B. subtilis 14714, B. subtilis 14715, B. subtilis 14716, and B. subtilis 14718 were employed to produce nattokinase. The highest nattokinase activity in pigeon pea was obtained using B. subtilis 14715 fermentation for 32 hours. In addition, the levels of antioxidants (phenolics and flavonoids and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity were increased in B. subtilis 14715-fermented pigeon pea, compared with those in nonfermented pigeon pea. In an animal model, we found that both water extracts of pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight and water extracts of B. subtilis-fermented pigeon pea (100 mg/kg body weight significantly improved systolic blood pressure (21 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (30 mmHg in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These results suggest that Bacillus-fermented pigeon pea has benefits for cardiovascular health and can be developed as a new dietary supplement or functional food that prevents hypertension.

  11. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  12. General features of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuzova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    The classical version of spontaneous baryogenesis is studied in details. It is shown that the relation between the time derivative of the (pseudo)goldstone field and the baryonic chemical potential essentially depends upon the representation chosen for the fermionic fields with non-zero baryonic number (quarks). The kinetic equation, used for the calculations of the cosmological baryon asymmetry, is generalized to the case of non-stationary background. The effects of the finite interval of the integration over time are also included into consideration.

  13. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kattapuram, Susan V. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)], E-mail: skattapuram@partners.org

    2008-07-15

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'.

  14. Thermotolerant fermenting yeasts for simultaneous saccharification fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairam Choudhary

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant renewable source of energy that has been widely explored as second-generation biofuel feedstock. Despite more than four decades of research, the process of ethanol production from lignocellulosic (LC biomass remains economically unfeasible. This is due to the high cost of enzymes, end-product inhibition of enzymes, and the need for cost-intensive inputs associated with a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF process. Thermotolerant yeast strains that can undergo fermentation at temperatures above 40°C are suitable alternatives for developing the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process to overcome the limitations of SHF. This review describes the various approaches to screen and develop thermotolerant yeasts via genetic and metabolic engineering. The advantages and limitations of SSF at high temperatures are also discussed. A critical insight into the effect of high temperatures on yeast morphology and physiology is also included. This can improve our understanding of the development of thermotolerant yeast amenable to the SSF process to make LC ethanol production commercially viable.

  15. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  16. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  17. Spontaneity of communication in individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or measured. Several approaches to conceptualization of communicative spontaneity are examined with a particular focus on the continuum model and how it might be practically applied. A range of possible explanations for deficits in spontaneity of communication in children with autism is subsequently explored, including external factors (highly structured teaching programs, failure to systematically instruct for spontaneity) and intrinsic characteristics (intellectual disability, stimulus overselectivity, weak central coherence). Possible implications for future research are presented.

  18. Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2012-04-01

    Quality of fermented sausages is affected by acidifying lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and colour- and flavour-promoting coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), whether or not used as starter culture. Artisan fermented sausages are often perceived as superior to industrial variants, partially because of the specific microbiota due to spontaneous acidification, which may be considered as an artisan characteristic. Therefore, two kinds of spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages were prepared (Belgian-type salami and Boulogne sausage), but with addition of a Staphylococcus carnosus culture. The Belgian-type salami was made from pork and beef, whereas the Boulogne sausage contained pork and horse meat. In all cases, Lactobacillus sakei was the dominant LAB species present on the raw materials and during fermentation, whereas enterococci remained present in the background. Enterobacteriaceae vanished after fermentation. The CNS species diversity on the raw materials was large and differed between the pork, beef, and horse meat. Nevertheless, this species diversity was annihilated during fermentation by the added S. carnosus culture. The volatiles fraction was mainly composed of aldehydes that originated from lipid oxidation and spices-derived compounds. Aromatic compounds that are typically associated to CNS activity, such as end-products from the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids, were not present in the Belgian-type salami and only marginally present in the Boulogne sausage. In conclusion, spontaneous acidification of Belgian-type fermented sausages leads to dominance of L. sakei and is no guarantee for bacterial contribution to the aroma profile when S. carnosus is added as a starter culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkanuparph S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. However, spontaneous peritonitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is uncommon. Delayed diagnosis of cryptococcal peritonitis often results in death. We describe three cases of spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One case had associated symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical awareness of this entity may lead to the early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  20. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  1. Spontaneous renal hematoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrzut, M.; Obrzut, M.; Homa, J.; Obrzut, B.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous pararenal hematoma is a rare pathology most frequently coexisting with renal tumours, vascular anomalies and inflammatory processes. In some cases one cannot establish its etiology. The paper describes a case of a 58-year-old man with a spontaneous pararenal hematoma and presents a diagnostic algorithm. Ultrasonography and CT play an important role in diagnostics of spontaneous pararenal haemorrhages. These methods enable a precise evaluation of size and location of hematoma and its evolution. (author)

  2. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard; Dzogbefia, Victoria Pearl; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-06-16

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other micro-organisms may also be involved in the fermentation process. In this study we examined the occurrence of aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEB) in raw materials, during fermentation and in the final product at 2 production sites in Northern Ghana. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts increased from 5.4±0.1log10CFU/g in the raw materials to 8.9±0.1log10CFU/g in the final products, with the AEB accounting for between 23% and 80% of the total aerobic mesophilic (TAM) counts. A total of 196 AEB were identified at a species/subspecies level by the use of phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including M13-PCR typing, 16S rRNA and gyrA gene sequencing. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (63% of the AEB), Bacillus safensis (26% of the AEB) and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum/Bacillus methylotrophicus (9% of the AEB) were the predominant Bacillus species during fermentation and in the final products. B. amyloliquefaciens/B. methylotrophicus originated from cassava flour, B. safensis from seeds and cassava flour, while the origin of B. subtilis was less clear. Brevibacillus agri and Peanibacillus spp. occurred sporadically. Further investigations are required to elucidate the role of AEB occurring in high numbers, in the fermentation of Kantong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Probiotics in Dairy Fermented Products

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Araújo, Emiliane; Dos Santos Pires , Ana Clarissa; Soares Pinto, Maximiliano; Jan, Gwenael; De Carvahlo, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Interest in the role of probiotics for human health began as early as 1908 when Metchnikoff associated the intake of fermented milk with prolonged life (Lourens-Hattingh and Vilijoen, 2001b). However, the relationship between intestinal microbiota and good health and nutrition has only recently been investigated. Therefore, it was not until the 1960’s that health benefit claims began appearing on foods labels. In recent years,there has been an increasing interest in probiotic foods, which...

  4. Marine sponges as microbial fermenters

    OpenAIRE

    Hentschel, Ute; Usher, Kayley M.; Taylor, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of phylogenetically complex, yet highly sponge-specific microbial communities in marine sponges, including novel lineages and even candidate phyla, came as a surprise. At the same time, unique research opportunities opened up, because the microorganisms of sponges are in many ways more accessible than those of seawater. Accordingly, we consider sponges as microbial fermenters that provide exciting new avenues in marine microbiology and biotechnology. This review covers recent fi...

  5. Transcription profiling of sparkling wine second fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Penacho, Vanessa; Valero, Eva; González García, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    There is a specific set of stress factors that yeast cells must overcome under second fermentation conditions, during the production of sparkling wines by the traditional (Champenoise) method. Some of them are the same as those of the primary fermentation of still wines, although perhaps with a different intensity (high ethanol concentration, low pH, nitrogen starvation) while others are more specific to second fermentation (low temperature, CO 2 overpressure). The transcription profile of Sa...

  6. Controlled fermentation of Moroccan picholine green olives by oleuropein-degrading Lactobacilli strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabbour, N.; Rokni, Y.; Lamzira, Z.; Thonart, P.; Chihib, N.E.; Peres, C.; Asehraou, A.

    2016-07-01

    The control of the spontaneous fermentation process of un-debittered Moroccan Picholine green olives was undertaken basing the inoculation with two lactobacilli strains (Lactobacillus plantarum S175 and Lactobacillus pentosus S100). These strains, previously selected in our laboratory for their oleuropein-degrading capacity, were inoculated in olives brined at 5% of NaCl, and then incubated at 30 °C. The physico-chemical parameters (pH, free acidity, reducing sugars, sodium chloride, oleuropein and its hydrolysis products), and the microbiological parameters (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Staphylococcus, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds), were regularly analyzed during the fermentation time. The results obtained showed the effectiveness of the lactic acid bacteria strains to develop suitable oleuropein biodegradation and controlled lactic fermentation processes more than the un-inoculated olives (control). This result was confirmed by the rapid elimination of coliforms and staphylococcus, the accumulation of hydroxytyrosol as a result of oleuropein biodegradation, and a drastic reduction in spoiled olives with good quality fermented olives. (Author)

  7. Functional characterization of individual- and mixed-Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates for fermentation of Pinot noir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Emily; Cliff, Margaret A; Van Vuuren, Hennie J J

    2015-03-19

    Pinot noir has traditionally been fermented by native flora of multiple yeasts producing a complex combination of aromas and flavors. With the use of industrial dry yeasts, winemakers gained enological reliability and consistency in their wines, but lost diversity and complexity. This research evaluated the use of co-culturing yeasts to fulfill this dual role. Fermentations of Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates and their mixtures were evaluated for their enological characteristics and production of volatile compounds, at 22 °C and 27 °C. The novel isolates were genetically unique and enologically equivalent to the industrial strains. Analysis of variance and principal component analysis of 25 headspace volatiles revealed differences among the yeasts and between the fermentation temperatures. Wines from the mixed-Burgundian isolates were most similar to one another and could be differentiated from the industrial strains at both 22 °C and 27 °C. Mixed-Burgundian wines at both temperatures had higher concentrations of ethyl esters and acetate esters, compared to the industrial strains which had higher concentrations of higher alcohols at 27 °C and higher concentration of other ethyl esters at 22 °C. Given the unique profiles of the co-cultured wines, this research offers winemakers a strategy for producing wines with unique and more complex characters without the risk of spontaneous fermentations.

  8. Physicochemical characterization of pomegranate wines fermented with three different Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, María; Vegara, Salud; Barrajón, Enrique; Saura, Domingo; Valero, Manuel; Martí, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Three commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains: Viniferm Revelación, Viniferm SV and Viniferm PDM were evaluated for the production of pomegranate wine from a juice coupage of the two well-known varieties Mollar and Wonderfull. Further malolactic fermentation was carried out spontaneously. The same fermentation patterns were observed for pH, titratable acidity, density, sugar consumption, and ethanol and glycerol production. Glucose was exhausted while fructose residues remained at the end of alcoholic fermentation. A high ethanol concentration (10.91 ± 0.27% v/v) in combination with 1.49 g/L glycerol was achieved. Citric acid concentration increased rapidly a 31.7%, malic acid disappeared as result of malolactic fermentation and the lactic acid levels reached values between 0.40 and 0.96 g/L. The analysis of CIEa parameter and total anthocyanin content highlights a lower degradation of monomeric anthocyanins during winemaking with Viniferm PDM yeast. The resulting wine retains a 34.5% of total anthocyanin content of pomegranate juice blend. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickwedde, Anja; van den Broek, Marcel; Geertman, Jan-Maarten A; Magalhães, Frederico; Kuijpers, Niels G A; Gibson, Brian; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc G

    2017-01-01

    The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus , an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae , ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion ("attenuation") of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14 C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  10. The influence of Wickerhamomyces anomalus killer yeast on the fermentation and chemical composition of apple wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satora, Pawel; Tarko, Tomasz; Sroka, Pawel; Blaszczyk, Urszula

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different Wickerhamomyces anomalus strains, CBS 1982 and CBS 5759, on the chemical composition and sensory characteristics of Gloster apple wines. They were inoculated into unpasteurized as well as pasteurized apple musts together with a S. cerevisiae strain as a mixed culture. Fermentation kinetics, basic enological parameters, antioxidant properties as well as selected polyphenol, volatile compound, and organic acid contents were analyzed during the experiments. Apple wines obtained after spontaneous fermentation were characterized by high volatile acidity, increased concentrations of acetaldehyde, and volatile esters, as well as the lowest amounts of ethyl alcohol and higher alcohols compared with other samples. Addition of 0.05 g L(-1) W. anomalus killer strains to the unpasteurized must significantly changed the fermentation kinetics and chemical composition of apple wines. The value of volatile acidity was highly decreased, while the amount of higher alcohols and titratable acidity increased. Pasteurization of must improved the fermentation efficiency. Higher amounts of polyphenol compounds and lower amounts of malic acid were also detected. Application of W. anomalus strains together with S. cerevisiae yeast as a mixed culture positively influenced the chemical composition and sensory features of produced apple wines. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Functional Characterization of Individual- and Mixed-Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolates for Fermentation of Pinot Noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Terrell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinot noir has traditionally been fermented by native flora of multiple yeasts producing a complex combination of aromas and flavors. With the use of industrial dry yeasts, winemakers gained enological reliability and consistency in their wines, but lost diversity and complexity. This research evaluated the use of co-culturing yeasts to fulfill this dual role. Fermentations of Burgundian Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates and their mixtures were evaluated for their enological characteristics and production of volatile compounds, at 22 °C and 27 °C. The novel isolates were genetically unique and enologically equivalent to the industrial strains. Analysis of variance and principal component analysis of 25 headspace volatiles revealed differences among the yeasts and between the fermentation temperatures. Wines from the mixed-Burgundian isolates were most similar to one another and could be differentiated from the industrial strains at both 22 °C and 27 °C. Mixed-Burgundian wines at both temperatures had higher concentrations of ethyl esters and acetate esters, compared to the industrial strains which had higher concentrations of higher alcohols at 27 °C and higher concentration of other ethyl esters at 22 °C. Given the unique profiles of the co-cultured wines, this research offers winemakers a strategy for producing wines with unique and more complex characters without the risk of spontaneous fermentations.

  12. Evolutionary Engineering in Chemostat Cultures for Improved Maltotriose Fermentation Kinetics in Saccharomyces pastorianus Lager Brewing Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Brickwedde

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lager brewing yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecies hybrid of S. eubayanus and S. cerevisiae, ferments maltotriose, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose in wort to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Complete and timely conversion (“attenuation” of maltotriose by industrial S. pastorianus strains is a key requirement for process intensification. This study explores a new evolutionary engineering strategy for improving maltotriose fermentation kinetics. Prolonged carbon-limited, anaerobic chemostat cultivation of the reference strain S. pastorianus CBS1483 on a maltotriose-enriched sugar mixture was used to select for spontaneous mutants with improved affinity for maltotriose. Evolved populations exhibited an up to 5-fold lower residual maltotriose concentration and a higher ethanol concentration than the parental strain. Uptake studies with 14C-labeled sugars revealed an up to 4.75-fold higher transport capacity for maltotriose in evolved strains. In laboratory batch cultures on wort, evolved strains showed improved attenuation and higher ethanol concentrations. These improvements were also observed in pilot fermentations at 1,000-L scale with high-gravity wort. Although the evolved strain exhibited multiple chromosomal copy number changes, analysis of beer made from pilot fermentations showed no negative effects on flavor compound profiles. These results demonstrate the potential of evolutionary engineering for strain improvement of hybrid, alloploid brewing strains.

  13. GROWTH CAPACITY OF BACILLUS POTENTIAL STARTER STRAINS ISOLATED FROM COCOA BEANS FERMENTATION UNDER CULTURE STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WILFRIED YAO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the growth capacity of Bacillus with pectinolytic activity, acidifying and citrate metabolism capacities under culture stress conditions. Spontaneous heaps fermentation was conducted from cocoa of six producing regions of Côte d’Ivoire. Bacillus isolated using plate agar on nutrient medium were analyzed for pectinolytic enzymes production, citric acid breakdown, acidification and growth capacity under different stress conditions. A total of 970 Bacillus strains were isolated and 44.53 % of them produced pectinolytic activity. Among pectinolytic strains, 163 (37.73 % exhibited acidifying and citrate metabolism capacity. Five (5 of these strains exhibited a strong thermotolerance at 50 ºC with the optimal growth at 35 ºC and a good capacity to grow at pH 4 to pH 8. Moreover, sugar concentrations ranged 5 to 25 % showed low effect on all tested strains growth with a maximum growth at 5 % fructose and sucrose concentration and at 15% glucose concentration. However, ethanol stress conditions (up to 8 % repress strongly growth capacity of the strains analyzed. This study indicates that Bacillus strains involved in Ivorian cocoa fermentation possess some properties essential for a well-fermented cocoa. Therefore, these results show that Bacillus studied should be potential candidate as starter for cocoa beans fermentation control.

  14. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-01-01

    predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...

  15. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory....... Empirically, the analysis is founded on descriptive accounts from the five entrepreneurs. By highlighting the spontaneous strategies described by actors, we show how sites and objects are actively used as an element in their strategy, and also how the sites and objects end up facilitating new ways of thinking...

  16. Fermentation characteristics of yeasts isolated from traditionally fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.; Nout, M.J.R.; Smid, E.J.; Boekhout, C.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast strains were characterized to select potential starter cultures for the production of masau fermented beverages. The yeast species originally isolated from Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits and their traditionally fermented fruit pulp in Zimbabwe were examined for their ability to ferment

  17. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  18. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  20. PERVAPORATION MEMBRANE SYSTEMS FOR VOLATILE FERMENTATION PRODUCT RECOVERY AND DEHYDRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economics of fermentative production of fuels and commodity chemicals can be a strong function of the efficiency with which the fermentation products are removed from the biological media. Due to growth inhibition by some fermentation products, including ethanol, concentrati...

  1. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2014-01-01

    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  2. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  3. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  4. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  5. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  6. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  7. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  9. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Microbiology of keribo fermentation: an Ethiopian traditional fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abawari, Rashid Abafita

    2013-10-15

    Keribo is an indigenous traditional fermented beverage and is being served on holidays, wedding ceremony and also used as sources of income of many households in Jimma zone. The aim of this study was to document the microbiology of the product and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB. Samples of Keribo were collected from Jimma town and four of its districts. Keribo was fermented in the laboratory following the traditional techniques for microbial succession monitored at 6 h intervals. Finally, dominant LAB was evaluated for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns against eight antibiotics. Samples of Keribo from open markets and households in Jimma zone showed average Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (AMB), Aerobic Spore-formers (ASF) and yeasts with mean counts of (log CFU mL(-1)) 2.70 +/- 2.07, 2.34 +/- 2.37, 4.96 +/- 2.80 and 2.01 +/- 0.60, respectively. The mean counts of Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and moulds were below detectable levels. The early stage was dominated by AMB and ASF. However, the mean counts of LAB increased exponentially for the first 30 h and remain constant thereafter. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, identified as the most dominant LAB, were found to be susceptible to penicillin G, gentamicin, ampicilin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, bacitracin and norfloxacin but resistant to vancomycin.

  11. Marine sponges as microbial fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Ute; Usher, Kayley M; Taylor, Michael W

    2006-02-01

    The discovery of phylogenetically complex, yet highly sponge-specific microbial communities in marine sponges, including novel lineages and even candidate phyla, came as a surprise. At the same time, unique research opportunities opened up, because the microorganisms of sponges are in many ways more accessible than those of seawater. Accordingly, we consider sponges as microbial fermenters that provide exciting new avenues in marine microbiology and biotechnology. This review covers recent findings regarding diversity, biogeography and population dynamics of sponge-associated microbiota, and the data are discussed within the larger context of the microbiology of the ocean.

  12. Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk improves learning and memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsawa, Kazuhito; Uchida, Naoto; Ohki, Kohji; Nakamura, Yasunori; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of Calpis sour milk whey, a Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk product, on learning and memory. We evaluated improvement in scopolamine-induced memory impairment using the spontaneous alternation behaviour test, a measure of short-term memory. We also evaluated learning and working memory in mice using the novel object recognition test, which does not involve primary reinforcement (food or electric shocks). A total of 195 male ddY mice were used in the spontaneous alternation behaviour test and 60 in the novel object recognition test. Forced orally administered Calpis sour milk whey powder (200 and 2000 mg/kg) significantly improved scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments (P memory (2000 mg/kg; P learning and memory in healthy human subjects; however, human clinical studies are necessary.

  13. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with traditional fermented dairy products in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Wang, W H; Menghe, B L G; Jiri, M T; Wang, H M; Liu, W J; Bao, Q H; Lu, Q; Zhang, J C; Wang, F; Xu, H Y; Sun, T S; Zhang, H P

    2011-07-01

    Spontaneous milk fermentation has a long history in Mongolia, and beneficial microorganisms have been handed down from one generation to the next for use in fermented dairy products. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) communities in fermented yak, mare, goat, and cow milk products by analyzing 189 samples collected from 13 different regions in Mongolia. The LAB counts in these samples varied from 3.41 to 9.03 log cfu/mL. Fermented yak and mare milks had almost identical mean numbers of LAB, which were significantly higher than those in fermented goat milk but slightly lower than those in fermented cow milk. In total, 668 isolates were obtained from these samples using de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar and M17 agar. Each isolate was considered to be presumptive LAB based on gram-positive and catalase-negative properties, and was identified at the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multiplex PCR assay, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. All isolates from Mongolian dairy products were accurately identified as Enterococcus faecalis (1 strain), Enterococcus durans (3 strains), Lactobacillus brevis (3 strains), Lactobacillus buchneri (2 strains), Lactobacillus casei (16 strains), Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (142 strains), Lactobacillus diolivorans (17 strains), Lactobacillus fermentum (42 strains), Lactobacillus helveticus (183 strains), Lactobacillus kefiri (6 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum (7 strains), Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (7 strains), Leuconostoc lactis (22 strains), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (21 strains), Streptococcus thermophilus (195 strains), and Weissella cibaria (1 strain). The predominant LAB were Strep. thermophilus and Lb. helveticus, which were isolated from all sampling sites. The results demonstrate that traditional fermented dairy products from different regions of Mongolia have complex compositions of LAB species. Such diversity of

  14. Sensory Properties of Traditionally-Fermented Buttermilk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to test the hypothesis that the main problems of traditionally-fermented milk products processed in the rural setup are based on variable sensory quality, hygiene and unattractive presentation to consumers. Sensory evaluation scores of 9 samples of traditional fermented buttermilk and control ...

  15. Composition, Acceptability and Efficacy of Fermented and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective was to evaluate the efficacy of fermented and unfermented cereal-based-Oral Rehydration Solution (CB-ORS) for home management of diarrhoea in children. Materials and Methods: Local varieties of white maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oritz sativa) fermented (48h) and unfermented were ...

  16. Replacement Value of fermented millet ( Pennisetum americanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The replacement value of fermented millet for maize in the diets of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings reared in a recirculation system was determined. Five isonitrogenous diets were formulated to contain graded levels of fermented millet meal replacing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% of maize and fed to triplicate groups of fingerlings ...

  17. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  18. 7122 EFFECT OF FERMENTATION CONTAINERS ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIA

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... effectively eliminating much of the heat-sensitive indigenous micro flora [19]. However, the protein loss was much more in samples fermented banana leaf compared to plastic bowl. This could be as a result of leaching of some proteins into the porous banana leaf. Further decrease as fermentation ...

  19. Physicochemical and textural properties of kombucha fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of kombucha application cultivated on two different tea types in combination with probiotics for milk fermentation at different temperatures, as well as the physicochemical and textural properties of manufactured fermented milk products were investigated. Combination of probiotic starter culture and kombucha ...

  20. Characterization of antimicrobial activity in Kombucha fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sreeramulu, G.; Zhu, Y.; Knol, W.

    2001-01-01

    Fermented tea drink, Kombucha, can inhibit the growth of Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium. Several metabolites were analyzed every two days during a 14-day Kombucha fermentation. Levels of acetic acid and gluconic acid were found to increase with

  1. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  2. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  3. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  4. Characteristics of fermentation yeast isolated from traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous honey wine, known locally as ogol, was collected in a village of the Majangir ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia, and the procedure for ogol fermentation was investigated. A fermentation yeast was first isolated from ogol and identified as being a strain of the genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Honey wine made ...

  5. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang; Dong Hwa Shin; Soo Wan eChae; Su-Jin eJung

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some...

  6. Fermentation Studies on Roselle ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa ) Calyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of trona on the fermentation of roselle calyces was evaluated. The addition of trona to the calyces raised the initial pH from 3.3 to 5.3. The important microorganisms of roselle calyces fermentation were enumerated, isolated and identified. The fungi isolated consist of one yeast identified as Saccharomyces ...

  7. co-fermentation of kocho with barley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fermentation scheme was therefore developed for the production of injera with improved protein content in ... of more than one species of lactic acid bacteria has also been reported in the fermentation process of kocho ... cereals, liberation of amino acids, synthesis of certain vitamins and the availability of trace minerals ...

  8. Fermentation optimization and antioxidant activities of mycelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uwerhiavwe

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... esculenta mycelia made good use of soybean residues. The optimal media ... volume 10%, temperature 28°C, and fermentation time 56 h. ... seeding media. Soybean residues were used as the base for fermentation medium, with 20 g glucose, 1.5 g MgSO4, 1g KH2PO4 and 1000 ml of water. Soybean ...

  9. Handbook of Indigenous Foods Involving Alkaline Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This book details the basic approaches of alkaline fermentation, provides a brief history, and offers an overview of the subject. The book discusses the diversity of indigenous fermented foods involving an alkaline reaction, as well as the taxonomy, ecology, physiology, and genetics of predominant

  10. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  11. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  12. Physiochemical Properties and Antinutrient Content of Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popcorn and groundnut composite flours were fermented using pure strains of Rhizopus nigricans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by solid substrate fermentation method. There was decrease in pH with increase in total titrable acidity in all the samples. The result of the proximate analysis revealed that there was an ...

  13. Identification of predominant yeasts associated with artisan Mexican cocoa fermentations using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Sánchez, A; Segura-García, L E; Kirchmayr, M; Orozco-Ávila, I; Lugo-Cervantes, E; Gschaedler-Mathis, A

    2015-02-01

    The process of cocoa fermentation is a very important step for the generation or aromatic compounds, which are attributable to the metabolism of the microorganisms involved. There are some reports about this process and the identification of microorganisms; however, there are no reports identifying the yeasts involved in a Mexican cocoa fermentation process using molecular biology techniques, including restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The aim of this study was to identify the main yeast species associated with Mexican cocoa fermentations employing culture-dependent and -independent techniques achieving two samplings with a 1 year time difference at the same site. Isolation of the microorganisms was performed in situ. Molecular identification of yeast isolates was achieved by RFLP analysis and rDNA sequencing. Total DNA from the microorganisms on the cocoa beans was utilized for the DGGE analysis. Bands from the DGGE gels were excised and sequenced. Nineteen isolated yeasts were identified (al specie level), three of which had never before been associated with cocoa fermentations worldwide. The detected predominant yeast varied from one technique to another. Hanseniaspora sp. resulted dominant in DGGE however Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the principal isolated species. In conclusion, the culture-dependent and -independent techniques complement each other showing differences in the main yeasts involved in spontaneous cocoa fermentation, probably due to the physiological states of the viable but non culturable yeasts. Furthermore important differences between the species detected in the two samplings were detected.

  14. Naturally fermented ethnic soybean foods of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinema, hawaijar, tungrymbai, bekang, aakhone, and peruyaan are naturally fermented ethnic soybean foods of India; they are popular among the Mongolian-origin races in the Eastern Himalayas. Bacillus subtilis is the dominant functional bacterium in all naturally fermented soybean foods of these regions. Although there is a good demand for ethnic fermented soybean foods among local consumers in north-east India, the production is limited to household level. A ready-to-use pulverized starter culture for kinema production can be introduced to kinema-makers or similar sticky fermented soybean foods of north-east India and adapted to local conditions for additional income generation. Ethnic fermented soybeans are one of the major food resources in the Eastern Himalayas; they supplement inexpensive, high-digested plant protein in the local diet with low fat/cholesterol content and high nutritive value as well as antioxidant and other health-promoting properties.

  15. FERMENTED MILK AS A FUNCTIONAL FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rogelj

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain foods have been associated with health benefits for many years; fermented milks and yoghurt are typical examples. The health properties of these dairy products were a part of folklore until the concept of probiotics emerged, and the study of fermented milks and yoghurt containing probiotic bacteria has become more systematic. Functional foods have thus developed as a food, or food ingredient, with positive effects on host health and/or well-being beyond their nutritional value, and fermented milk with probiotic bacteria has again become the prominent representative of this new category of food. Milk alone is much more than the sum of its nutrients. It contains an array of bioactivities: modulating digestive and gastrointestinal functions, haemodynamics, controlling probiotic microbial growth, and immunoregulation. When fermented milk is enriched with probiotic bacteria and prebiotics it meets all the requirements of functional food. The possible positive effects of enriched fermented milk on host health will be reviewed.

  16. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  19. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  20. Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2013-10-01

    The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24 hour intervals during 120 h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12 h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12 h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed. © 2013.

  1. Yersinia enterocolitica in fermented sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, R.; Janković, V.; Baltić, B.; Ivanović, J.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of food, among them meat, can be the cause of food-borne diseases, and infections are commonly caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. All these bacteria, depending on a number of factors, including animal species, geographical origin, climatic factors, methods of animal breeding and meat production, could cause disease. Here, we summarise results on production of different groups of sausages produced with or without added starter culture, and contaminated with Y.enterocolitica (control sausages were not contaminated). During the ripening, changes in the microbiological status of the fermented sausages and their physical and chemical properties were monitored. For all tests, standard methods were used. In these fermented sausages, the number of Y. enterocolitica decreased during ripening. The number of Y. enterocolitica was statistically significantly lower in sausages with added starter culture on all days of the study Zoonotic pathogens in meat should be controlled through the complete production chain, from the farms to consumers, in order to reduce the probability of disease in humans. However, the necessary controls in the production chain are not the same for all bacteria.

  2. Clock frequency estimation under spontaneous emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xi-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Hao; Zhong, Hong-Hua; Lee, Chaohong

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a driven two-level system under spontaneous emission and its application in clock frequency estimation. By using the Lindblad equation to describe the system, we analytically obtain its exact solutions, which show three different regimes: Rabi oscillation, damped oscillation, and overdamped decay. From the analytical solutions, we explore how the spontaneous emission affects the clock frequency estimation. We find that under a moderate spontaneous emission rate, the transition frequency can still be inferred from the Rabi oscillation. Our results enable potential practical applications in frequency measurement and quantum control under decoherence.

  3. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  4. Spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutaka, Yojiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Shikuma, Kei; Okuda, Masato; Taki, Toshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Although there are many reports of spontaneous regression of noninvasive thymoma, there are no reports of spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. Moreover, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression is still unknown. The present case concerns a 47-year-old man who presented with chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with left pleural effusion that occluded the innominate vein. The tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery suggested a diagnosis of invasive thymic carcinoma. One month later CT showed prominent regression of the tumor, and the tumor was completely resected. On pathology, the diagnosis was thymoma type B3.

  5. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  6. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fermented Aloreña Table Olives as a Source of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Beatriz Pérez; Benomar, Nabil; Lavilla Lerma, Leyre; Castillo Gutiérrez, Sonia; Gálvez, Antonio; Abriouel, Hikmate

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate), good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli , and Salmonella Enteritidis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have the best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic L. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods.

  8. Fermented Aloreña table olives as a source of potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez Montoro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate, good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens. Moreover, co-aggregation of lactobacilli with pathogenic bacteria was shown with Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteriditis as good defense strategy against gut and food pathogens. Furthermore, they exhibited adherence to intestinal and vaginal cell lines, such property could be reinforced by their capacity of biofilm formation which is also important in food matrices such as the olive surface. Their antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria by means of acids and plantaricins, and also their different functional properties may determine their efficacy not only in the gastro-intestinal tract but also in food matrices. Besides their ability to ferment several prebiotics, the new evidence in the present study was their capacity to ferment lactose which reinforces their use in different food matrices including dairy as a dietary adjunct to improve lactose digestibility. Lactobacillus pentosus CF2-10N was selected to have best probiotic profile being of great interest in further studies. In conclusion, spontaneous fermented Aloreña table olives are considered a natural source of potential probiotic Lb. pentosus to be included as adjunct functional cultures in different fermented foods.

  9. Mathematical modeling of thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazutti, Marcio A.; Zabot, Giovani; Boni, Gabriela; Skovronski, Aline; de Oliveira, Debora; Di Luccio, Marco; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Treichel, Helen [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, P.O. Box 743, CEP 99700-000, Erechim - RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Maugeri, Francisco [Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Engineering, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6121, CEP 13083-862, Campinas - SP (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    This work reports hot-air convective drying of thin-layer fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse. For this purpose, experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale dryer assessing the effects of solid-state fermentation (SSF) on the drying kinetics of the processing material. The fermented sugarcane bagasse in SSF was obtained with the use of Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL Y-7571. Drying experiments were carried out at 30, 35, 40 and 45 C, at volumetric air flow rates of 2 and 3 m{sup 3} h{sup -1}. The ability of ten different thin-layer mathematical models was evaluated towards representing the experimental drying profiles obtained. Results showed that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presents a distinct, faster drying, behavior from that verified for the non-fermented material at the same conditions of temperature and volumetric air flow rate. It is shown that the fermented sugarcane bagasse presented effective diffusion coefficient values of about 1.3 times higher than the non-fermented material. A satisfactory agreement between experimental data and model results of the thin-layer drying of fermented and non-fermented sugarcane bagasse was achieved at the evaluated experimental conditions. (author)

  10. Biohydrogen production from soluble condensed molasses fermentation using anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lay, Chyi-How; Lin, Chiu-Yue [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724 (China); Wu, Jou-Hsien; Hsiao, Chin-Lang [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Feng Chia University (China); Chang, Jui-Jen [Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University (China); Chen, Chin-Chao [Environmental Resources Laboratory, Department of Landscape Architecture, Chungchou Institute of Technology (China)

    2010-12-15

    Using anaerobic micro-organisms to convert organic waste to produce hydrogen gas gives the benefits of energy recovery and environmental protection. The objective of this study was to develop a biohydrogen production technology from food wastewater focusing on hydrogen production efficiency and micro-flora community at different hydraulic retention times. Soluble condensed molasses fermentation (CMS) was used as the substrate because it is sacchariferous and ideal for hydrogen production. CMS contains nutrient components that are necessary for bacterial growth: microbial protein, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins and coenzymes. The seed sludge was obtained from the waste activated sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant in Central Taiwan. This seed sludge was rich in Clostridium sp. A CSTR (continuously stirred tank reactor) lab-scale hydrogen fermentor (working volume, 4.0 L) was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3-24 h with an influent CMS concentration of 40 g COD/L. The results showed that the peak hydrogen production rate of 390 mmol H{sub 2}/L-d occurred at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 320 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 3 h. The peak hydrogen yield was obtained at an OLR of 80 g COD/L-d at a HRT of 12 h. At HRT 8 h, all hydrogenase mRNA detected were from Clostridium acetobutylicum-like and Clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogen-producing bacteria by RT-PCR analysis. RNA based hydrogenase gene and 16S rRNA gene analysis suggests that Clostridium exists in the fermentative hydrogen-producing system and might be the dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria at tested HRTs (except 3 h). The hydrogen production feedstock from CMS is lower than that of sucrose and starch because CMS is a waste and has zero cost, requiring no added nutrients. Therefore, producing hydrogen from food wastewater is a more commercially feasible bioprocess. (author)

  11. Effects of submerged and anaerobic fermentations on cassava flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava tubers for processing into cassava flour, Lafun a Nigerian locally fermented product was subjected to two different types of fermentations: submerged and anaerobic fermentation for 72 h. Physicochemical changes that occurred during fermentation and their influence on the functional, rheological and sensory ...

  12. Prebiotics in piglet nutrition? Fermentation kinetics along the GI tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awati, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: fermentation, gas production, pigletsThe generalized theory behind the carbohydrate to protein fermentation in the GIT is that in presence of fermentable carbohydrate substrate, microbes prefer to ferment carbohydrate source to derive energy and use the nitrogen available for their own

  13. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  14. Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant gastroenteritis: report of a rare case. Duvuru Ram, Vilvapathy S. Karthikeyan, Sarath C. Sistla, Sheik M. Ali, Parnandi Sridhar, Nagarajan Rajkumar ...

  15. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.

  16. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  17. Discovery and History of Amino Acid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi

    There has been a strong demand in Japan and East Asia for L-glutamic acid as a seasoning since monosodium glutamate was found to present umami taste in 1907. The discovery of glutamate fermentation by Corynebacterium glutamicum in 1956 enabled abundant and low-cost production of the amino acid, creating a large market. The discovery also prompted researchers to develop fermentative production processes for other L-amino acids, such as lysine. Currently, the amino acid fermentation industry is so huge that more than 5 million metric tons of amino acids are manufactured annually all over the world, and this number continues to grow. Research on amino acid fermentation fostered the notion and skills of metabolic engineering which has been applied for the production of other compounds from renewable resources. The discovery of glutamate fermentation has had revolutionary impacts on both the industry and science. In this chapter, the history and development of glutamate fermentation, including the very early stage of fermentation of other amino acids, are reviewed.

  18. Transcription profiling of sparkling wine second fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penacho, Vanessa; Valero, Eva; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2012-02-01

    There is a specific set of stress factors that yeast cells must overcome under second fermentation conditions, during the production of sparkling wines by the traditional (Champenoise) method. Some of them are the same as those of the primary fermentation of still wines, although perhaps with a different intensity (high ethanol concentration, low pH, nitrogen starvation) while others are more specific to second fermentation (low temperature, CO(2) overpressure). The transcription profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during primary wine fermentation has been studied by several research groups, but this is the first report on yeast transcriptome under second fermentation conditions. Our results indicate that the main pathways affected by these particular conditions are related to aerobic respiration, but genes related to vacuolar and peroxisomal functions were also highlighted in this study. A parallelism between the transcription profile of wine yeast during primary and second fermentation is appreciated, with ethanol appearing as the main factor driving gene transcription during second fermentation. Low temperature seems to also influence yeast transcription profile under these particular winemaking conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial interactions associated with secondary cucumber fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, W; Pérez-Díaz, I M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the interaction between selected yeasts and bacteria and associate their metabolic activity with secondary cucumber fermentation. Selected yeast and bacteria, isolated from cucumber secondary fermentations, were inoculated as single and mixed cultures in a cucumber juice model system. Our results confirmed that during storage of fermented cucumbers and in the presence of oxygen, spoilage yeasts are able to grow and utilize the lactic and acetic acids present in the medium, which results in increased brine pH and the chemical reduction in the environment. These conditions favour opportunistic bacteria that continue the degradation of lactic acid. Lactobacillus buchneri, Clostridium bifermentans and Enterobacter cloacae were able to produce acetic, butyric and propionic acids, respectively, when inoculated in the experimental medium at pH 4.6. Yeast and bacteria interactions favoured the survival of Cl. bifermentans and E. cloacae at the acidic pH typical of fermented cucumbers (3.2), but only E. cloacae was able to produce a secondary product. The methodology used in this study confirmed that a complex microbiota is responsible for the changes observed during fermented cucumber secondary fermentation and that certain microbial interactions may be essential for the production of propionic and butyric acids. Understanding the dynamics of the development of secondary cucumber fermentation aids in the identification of strategies to prevent its occurrence and economic losses for the pickling industry. © 2012 No claim to US Government works.

  20. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A

    2016-04-12

    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  1. Postmenopausal spontaneous uterine perforation: Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşlek Seçen, Elçin; Ağış, Hilal; Altunkaya, Canan; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis caused by pyometra occurs rarely with high morbidity and mortality. A correct and definite diagnosis can be made with laparotomy or laparoscopy. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and gynecologic symptoms are less frequent, which makes preoperative diagnosis difficult. We report a case of a patient aged 82 years who underwent surgery for spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis as a result of pyometra. PMID:28913055

  2. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  3. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  4. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  5. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jerônimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xareltor. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban.

  6. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  7. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  8. Biotechnology of Flavor Generation in Fermented Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toldrá, Fidel

    Traditionally, meat fermentation was based on the use of natural flora, including the “back-slopping”, or addition of a previous successful fermented sausage. However, these practices gave a great variability in the developed flora and affected the safety and quality of the sausages (Toldrá, 2002; Toldrá & Flores, 2007). The natural flora of fermented meat has been studied for many years (Leistner, 1992; Toldrá, 2006a), and more recently, these micro-organisms have been isolated and biochemically identified through molecular methods applied to extracted DNA and RNA (Cocolin, Manzano, Aggio, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Cocolin, Manzano, Cantoni, & Comi, 2001; Comi, Urso, Lacumin, Rantsiou, Cattaneo & Cantoni, 2005).

  9. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti P.; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Jung, Su-Jin; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers. PMID:27199913

  10. Researchers foment better ways to ferment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    Researchers in Australia and the US are experimenting with Zymomonas mobilis, the bacteria strain used to make tequila. It could reduce fermentation times because it can withstand substantially higher temperatures than yeast. MIT is experimenting with Clostridium thermocellum, a bacteria strain which has the ability to hydrolyze cellulose into glucose sugar and simultaneously ferment the glucose to ethanol. Purdue University is working with Rhizopus, used in the fermentation of certain Chinese wines where alcohol content approaches 18%. Other researchers are looking at enzyme-based processes to improve sugar yields from starch and cellulose, and Purdue is making a major effort to cut distillation energy consumption.

  11. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan

    Bioprocesses are inherently sensitive to fluctuations in processing conditions and must be tightly regulated to maintain cellular productivity. Industrial fermentations are often difficult to replicate across production sites or between facilities as the small operating differences in the equipment...... of a fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes are typically operated in fed batch mode, which also poses specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This is due to many reasons including non-linear behaviour, and a relatively poor understanding of the system dynamics. It is therefore challenging...

  12. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  13. Antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria and yeast-LAB cultures isolated from traditional fermented milk against pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufandaedza, J; Viljoen, B C; Feresu, S B; Gadaga, T H

    2006-04-15

    The survival and growth of Escherichia coli 3339 and Salmonella enteritidis 949575 isolated from human clinical samples, in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast strains previously isolated from Zimbabwean naturally fermented milk (NFM) was studied. The LAB starter cultures used were Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis C1 alone (C1) or in combination with Candida kefyr 23 (C1/23), L. lactis subsp. lactis Lc261 alone (LC261) or in combination with C. kefyr 23 (Lc261/23). The growth of the same pathogens in milk fermented with a commercial DL culture (CH-N 22) and spontaneously fermented raw milk was also monitored. The C1 and C1/23 cultures significantly (Pfermentation, both E. coli 3339 and S. enteritidis 949575 counts were significantly (Pmilk. However, in naturally fermented milk and the DL cultured milk, both E. coli 3339 and S. enteritidis 949575 grew and reached high populations of about 9 and 8.8 log cfu ml(-1), respectively, after 18 h. When E. coli 3339 was inoculated into previously fermented milk, the viable counts were significantly (Pfermented NFM and the commercial DL- (CH-N 22) cultured milk. The C1 strain, therefore, offered the best protection against the pathogens. Its inhibitory effect was mainly related to fast acid production.

  14. Bactéries lactiques de la pâte fermentée de maïs au Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louembé, D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic Acid Bacteria Involved in the Processing of Poto-Poto, a Fermented Maize Dough Congolese. Lactic acid bacteria and yeast involved in natural fermentation of "poto-poto" were investigated during fermentation period. The dominant micro-organisms involved in poto-poto are a mixed population of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. The association of these two category of organisms responsible for the development of sensory qualities has been noticed in spontaneous fermentation. From a total of 131 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from product, four main lactic acid bacteria genus were identified: Lactobacillus (mainly Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactococcus (with Lactococcus lactis sp. lactis, Leuconostoc (mainly Leuconostoc mesenteroïdes, Leuconostoc citreum and Pediococcus (with Pediococcus acidilactici. Lactobacillus constitued the predominant genus. Leuconostoc were only isolated at the early stage of fermentation, confirming the fact that they are initiating flora as generally repoted. This presumably a result of the low pH. The micro-organisms composition compared with ogi, uji are similar. Howewer, some differences exist particulary with mawe, beninese traditional product. Quantitatively, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are more numerous in natural fermentation of germinated grains maize than non germinated grains.

  15. Identification and functional properties of dominant lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kahudi, a traditional rapeseed fermented food product of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunajit Goswami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kahudi or Pani tenga is a very unique fermented mustard product of Assam that is prepared by mixing coarsely ground mustard with extracts of acidic Garcinia pedunculata (Thekera or tamarind. Kahudi is produced through a spontaneous and uncontrolled solid state fermentation and very little scientific effort has been directed to understand its microflora and their functional properties. In this paper, we report the microbial flora and their dynamics during Kahudi fermentation with special emphasis on lactic acid bacteria (LAB. LAB were found to be dominant (8 log CFU/g over other microbial flora (4 log CFU/g during the fermentation process leading to Kahudi formation. The microbial load in Kahudi did not include any mycelial molds or pathogenic enteric bacteria. Combination of phenotypic parameters, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA gene sequencing revealed the dominant group of LAB as Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus casei. The sugar fermentation and enzyme profile analysis revealed the ability of the microbial consortia to metabolize an array of indigestible sugars including D-mannose, mannitol, sorbitol, methyl-α-D-mannopyranoside, methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside, N-acetylglucosamine, amygdalin, and arbutin. Although the isolates showed good acid phosphatase activity they had weak extracellular phytase activity. This is the first report on the microbial dynamics and involvement of LAB during Kahudi fermentation.

  16. Diversity of the total bacterial community associated with Ghanaian and Brazilian cocoa bean fermentation samples as revealed by a 16 S rRNA gene clone library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Hendryckx, Hugo; Camu, Nicholas; Vrancken, Gino; De Vuyst, Luc; Cornelis, Pierre

    2010-08-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities, starting with yeasts, followed by lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. So far, all microbiological studies about cocoa bean fermentation were based on culture-dependent (isolation, cultivation, and identification), or, more recently, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE, or polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) methods. Using a metagenomic approach, total DNA was extracted from heap and box fermentations at different time points and from different locations (Ghana and Brazil, respectively) to generate a 16 S rDNA clone library that was sequenced. The sequencing data revealed a low bacterial diversity in the fermentation samples and were in accordance with the results obtained through culture-dependent and a second, culture-independent analysis (PCR-DGGE), suggesting that almost all bacteria involved in the fermentation process are cultivable. One exception was the identification by 16 S rDNA library sequencing of Gluconacetobacter species of acetic acid bacteria that were not detected by the two other approaches. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae related to Erwinia/Pantoea/Tatumella, as revealed by 16 S rDNA library sequencing, suggests an impact of these bacteria on fermentation.

  17. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of small-scale cocoa fermentations and screening of yeast and bacterial strains to develop a defined starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes.

  18. Monitoring Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations by mtDNA restriction analysis and other molecular typing methods during spontaneous fermentation for production of the artisanal cachaça Monitoramento das populações de Saccharomyces cerevisiae pela análise de restrição do mtDNA e outros métodos de tipagem molecular durante a fermentação espontânea para a produção da cachaça artesanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A.C. Araújo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study on Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations in spontaneous fermentation has been conducted in three vats of a cachaça distillery in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ninety-seven yeast isolates were collected at the beginning, the middle and at the end of the production period, and were identified by standard methods. Differentiation between the indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated was performed by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA restriction analysis, RAPD-PCR, and PCR fingerprint using an intron splice primer. Analysis of the mtDNA restriction profiles revealed 12 different patterns, 11 corresponding to indigenous yeasts (I to XI and one (XII to a commercial strain of the bakery yeast. Pattern II (53.6% of the population and pattern IV strains were present in all the vats. Pattern IV strain raised from the middle to the end of the period reaching proportions near those of pattern II strain. PCR methods allowed the differentiation of 41 molecular profiles. Both methods showed population fluctuation of S. cerevisiae strains along the period of cachaça production and among different vats of the distillery.Um estudo ecológico das populações de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em fermentações espontâneas foi conduzido em três dornas de uma destilaria de cachaça em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Noventa e sete isolados foram coletados no início, meio e final do período de produção, e identificados por métodos padrões. A diferenciação entre as linhagens isoladas de S. cerevisiae indígenas foi feita pela analise de restrição do DNA mitocondrial (mtDNA, RAPD-PCR, e PCR por impressão digital do DNA utilizando um iniciador complementar a sítios de processamento de íntron. As análises dos perfis de restrição do mtDNA mostraram a ocorrência de 12 perfis diferentes, sendo 11 correspondentes as leveduras indígenas (I ao XI e um (XII a uma linhagem comercial de levedura de panificação. Linhagens com o perfil II (53,6% da população e o perfil

  19. Antimutagenicity of fermented milk with lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    細野, 明義; Akiyoshi, Hosono; 信州大学大学院農学研究科; Graduate School of Agriculture, Shinshu University

    2002-01-01

    Fermented milk and lactic acid bacteria have been considered to provide potential health benefits to human beings. Milk containing casein has been shown to be highly antimutagenic, and fermentation by lactic acid bacteria produces various hydrolytic peptides which contribute to the high antimutagenicity of fermented milk. The antimutagenic property of fermented milk was dependent on the strains of lactic acid bacteria and the fermentation time. Not only the proteolytic products of casein, but...

  20. FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LACTOSE-FERMENTATION YEAST IN WHEY-MALT WORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Greek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters of fermentation of whey-malt wort with the use of different strains of lactose-fermentation yeast was investigated experimentally. According to the findings of investigation of fermentive activity for different types of lactose-fermentation microorganisms in whey-malt wort it was found that the most active spirituous fermentation for all parameters was in wort fermented by microorganisms Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95. High capacity for utilization of malt carbohydrates represented by easily metabolized carbohydrates of malt extract was determined. Also organoleptic analysis of fermented whey drinks derived from the renewed mixtures of dry whey and fermented malt and yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95 was carried out. It was found that the drink fermented with yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K had intense refreshing flavor of rye bread with fruit tones. Intensity growth of aromatization for complex of sample with microorganisms Saccharomyces lactis 95, indicating high organoleptic indexes of the drink was observed.

  1. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of...

  2. Study on Incentive Price of Fermented Cocoa to Overcome Reluctance of Farmer to Apply Fermentation : Case Study in Jembrana Regency

    OpenAIRE

    Soemarno, Joko; Hariyanti, Yuli; Soeparto, Soetanto Abdoellah; Sophia Hartatri, Diany Faila

    2015-01-01

    Improving cocoa quality through encouraging farmers to do fermentation is one of the ways to increase the added value of cocoa. However, majority ofIndonesian farmers are reluctance to do fermentation. This research aimed to study factors causing farmers reluctant to do fermentation, weight differencebetween fermented and unfermented cocoa, cocoa processing time difference between fermented and unfermented cocoa, quality difference between fermentedand unfermented coco refers to cocoa bean st...

  3. Methane fermentation of regionally accrued wet biomass

    OpenAIRE

    浅野, 憲哉

    2017-01-01

    The methane fermentation of Japanese mushroom ligneous bed waste was conducted for estimate steam explosion as pretreatment. Methane yield was improved to 50-75% by pretreatment of mushroom bed with severity factor 2.1-3.2

  4. Pervaporation of ethanol from lignocellulosic fermentation broth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykawad, S.S.; Zha, Y.; Punt, P.J.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pervaporation can be applied in ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Hydrophobic pervaporation, using a commercial PDMS membrane, was employed to concentrate the ethanol produced by fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysate. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing this.

  5. Nutraceutical impact of fermented products on human

    OpenAIRE

    KORANDOVÁ, Eliška

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with nutraceutical impact of fermented products on human immunity, on the state of oxidative stress and on the quality of life. It presents probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics and their expected influence on human health.

  6. [Fermentation transformed ginsenoside by Lactobacillus plantarum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Wang, Yi; Sun, Liang; Wang, Kang-Yu; Jiang, Shi-Cui; Sun, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Mei-Ping

    2014-04-01

    To explore ginseng fermentation process by Lactobacillus plantarum, and to make part of total saponins transformed into more reactive ginsenoside Rd. Microbial fermentation was carried out by still dark culture. Total saponins were extracted by Soxhlet extraction, and determined by UV visible spectrophotometry with colours reaction by vanillin-sulfuric acid. Ginsenoside Rd was determined by HPLC method. The fermentation process was: MRS medium, 35 degrees C, pH 5.0, cultured for 2 days. The content of total saponins was inhance 32%, and the content of ginsenoside Rd was increased 4.864 mg x g(-1). The fermentation system's process was reasonable, and it's suitable for mass production, important significance for ginsenoside microbial transformation.

  7. Phytosynthesized iron nanoparticles: effects on fermentative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Iron nanoparticles; green synthesis; Syzygium cumini; dark fermentation; biohydrogen production; Enterobacter cloacae. ... Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, Assam, India; Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Napaam, Tezpur 784 028, ...

  8. Exploiting the potential of gas fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna; Diender, Martijn; Jensen, Torbjørn Ølshøj

    2017-01-01

    The use of gas fermentation for production of chemicals and fuels with lower environmental impact is a technology that is gaining increasing attention. Over 38 Gt of CO2 is annually being emitted from industrial processes, thereby contributing significantly to the concentration of greenhouse gases...... in the atmosphere. Together with the gasification of biomass and different waste streams, these gases have the potential for being utilized for production of chemicals through fermentation processes. Acetogens are among the most studied organisms capable of utilizing waste gases. Although engineering...... focus on the advantages of alternative fermentation scenarios, including thermophilic production strains, multi-stage fermentations, mixed cultures, as well as mixotrophy. Such processes have the potential to significantly broaden the product portfolio, increase the product concentrations and yields...

  9. Investigating of yeast species in wine fermentation using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Liu, Yanlin

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potential of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) in monitoring yeast communities during wine fermentation and to reveal new information on yeast community of Chinese enology. Firstly, terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths database was constructed using 32 pure yeast species. Ten of these species were firstly documented. The species except for Candida vini, Issatchenkia orientalis/Candida krusei, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces kudriarzevii and Zygosaccharomyces bisporus could be distinguished by the T-RFLP targeting 5.8S-ITS rDNA. Moreover, the yeast communities in spontaneous fermentation of Chardonnay and Riesling were identified by T-RFLP and traditional methods, including colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis. The result showed that T-RFLP profiles of the yeast community correlated well with that of the results identified by the traditional methods. The TRFs with the highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Saccharomyces sp. Other species detected by both approaches were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia minuta var. minuta, Saccharomycodes ludwigii/Torulaspora delbrueckii and Candida zemplinina. This study revealed that T-RFLP technique is a rapid and useful tool for monitoring the composition of yeast species during wine fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology and safety assessment for lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Bulgarian fermented meat product "lukanka".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Stojanovski, Saso; Iliev, Ilia; Moncheva, Penka; Nero, Luis Augusto; Ivanova, Iskra Vitanova

    The present work discusses the technological and new selection criteria that should be included for selecting lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented meat. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian traditional fermented "lulanka" salami was studied regarding some positive technological parameters (growth at different temperature, pH, and proteolytic activity). The presence of genes related to the virulence factors, production of biogenic amines, and vancomycin resistance were presented in low frequency in the studied lactic acid bacteria. On the other hand, production of antimicrobial peptides and high spread of bacteriocin genes were broadly presented. Very strong activity against L. monocytogenes was detected in some of the studied lactic acid bacteria. In addition, the studied strains did not present any antimicrobial activity against tested closely related bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. or Pediococcus spp. To our knowledge this is the first study on the safety and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian lukanka obtained by spontaneous fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular identification and osmotolerant profile of wine yeasts that ferment a high sugar grape must.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Di Fabio, Federico; Schirone, Maria; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra; Paparella, Antonello; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2009-04-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeast populations involved in a spontaneous fermentation of a traditional high sugar must (Vino cotto) produced in central Italy. Molecular identification of a total of 78 isolates was achieved by a combination of PCR-RFLP of the 5.8S ITS rRNA region and sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. In addition, the isolates were differentiated by RAPD-PCR. Only a restricted number of osmotolerant yeast species, i.e. Candida apicola, Candida zemplinina and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, were found throughout all the fermentation process, while Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevailed after 15 days of fermentation. A physiological characterization of isolates was performed in relation to the resistance to osmotic stress and ethanol concentration. The osmotolerant features of C. apicola, C. zemplinina and Z. bailii were confirmed, while S. cerevisiae strains showed three patterns of growth in response to different glucose concentrations (2%, 20%, 40% and 60% w/v). The ability of some C. apicola and C. zemplinina strains to grow at 14% v/v ethanol is noteworthy. The finding that some yeast biotypes with higher multiple stress tolerance can persist in the entire winemaking process suggests possible future candidates as starter for Vino cotto production.

  12. Technology and safety assessment for lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Bulgarian fermented meat product "lukanka"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work discusses the technological and new selection criteria that should be included for selecting lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented meat. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian traditional fermented "lulanka" salami was studied regarding some positive technological parameters (growth at different temperature, pH, and proteolytic activity. The presence of genes related to the virulence factors, production of biogenic amines, and vancomycin resistance were presented in low frequency in the studied lactic acid bacteria. On the other hand, production of antimicrobial peptides and high spread of bacteriocin genes were broadly presented. Very strong activity against L. monocytogenes was detected in some of the studied lactic acid bacteria. In addition, the studied strains did not present any antimicrobial activity against tested closely related bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Lactococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. or Pediococcus spp. To our knowledge this is the first study on the safety and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bulgarian lukanka obtained by spontaneous fermentation.

  13. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  14. Fermentation based carbon nanotube bionic functional composites

    OpenAIRE

    Valentini, Luca; Bon, Silvia Bittolo; Signetti, Stefano; Tripathi, Manoj; Iacob, Erica; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of the processes used by microorganisms to digest nutrients for their growth can be a viable method for the formation of a wide range of so called biogenic materials that have unique mechanical and physical properties that are not produced by abiotic processes. Based on grape must and bread fermentation, a bionic composite made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, was prepared by fermentation of such microorganisms at r...

  15. Fermented dairy products: knowledge and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmat, Sharareh; Koba, Lesia

    2006-01-01

    Much has been published on the nutritional and health benefits of fermented dairy products, especially those containing probiotic microorganisms. However, consumers may not be familiar with the term "fermented dairy products," and therefore may not take full advantage of them. University students' knowledge and consumption patterns of fermented dairy products were assessed. University students (n=223) completed a survey consisting of a section on demographics and another on knowledge and consumption patterns. The majority of respondents (62%) were not familiar with the term "fermented dairy products." Most respondents consumed yogourt a few times a week (40%) or a few times a month (30%). Almost all respondents (92%) were unable to identify the difference between regular and probiotic yogourt. Most respondents (93%) had not heard of acidophilus milk, but the majority (65%) would be willing to try it. Most respondents were unsure whether sour cream (65%), yogourt beverages (74%), and cheddar cheese (61%) were fermented dairy products. Sixty percent of respondents never consumed yogourt drinks. Education is needed about fermented dairy products, especially probiotics, and their nutritional and health benefits. Such education may increase their acceptability and consumption.

  16. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  17. Acetone-butanol Fermentation of Marine Macroalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Urquhart, Lindsay A.; Gill, Gary A.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2012-03-01

    Mannitol and laminarin, which are present at high concentrations in the brown macroalga Saccharina spp., a type of kelp, are potential biochemical feedstocks for butanol production. To test their bioconversion potential, aqueous extracts of the kelp Saccharina spp., mannitol, and glucose (a product of laminarin hydrolysis) were subjected to acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum (ATCC 824). Both mannitol and glucose were readily fermented. Mixed substrate fermentations with glucose and mannitol resulted in diauxic growth of C. acetobutylicum with glucose depletion preceding mannitol utilization. Fermentation of kelp extract exhibited triauxic growth, with an order of utilization of free glucose, mannitol, and bound glucose, presumably laminarin. The lag in laminarin utilization reflected the need for enzymatic hydrolysis of this polysaccharide into fermentable sugars. The butanol and total solvent yields were 0.12 g/g and 0.16 g/g, respectively, indicating that significant improvements are still needed to make industrial-scale acetone-butanol fermentations of seaweed economically feasible.

  18. Nutritional Guidelines and Fermented Food Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Victoria; Ferrão, Jorge; Fernandes, Tito

    2017-08-07

    This review examines different nutritional guidelines, some case studies, and provides insights and discrepancies, in the regulatory framework of Food Safety Management of some of the world's economies. There are thousands of fermented foods and beverages, although the intention was not to review them but check their traditional and cultural value, and if they are still lacking to be classed as a category on different national food guides. For understanding the inconsistencies in claims of concerning fermented foods among various regulatory systems, each legal system should be considered unique. Fermented foods and beverages have long been a part of the human diet, and with further supplementation of probiotic microbes, in some cases, they offer nutritional and health attributes worthy of recommendation of regular consumption. Despite the impact of fermented foods and beverages on gastro-intestinal wellbeing and diseases, their many health benefits or recommended consumption has not been widely translated to global inclusion in world food guidelines. In general, the approach of the legal systems is broadly consistent and their structures may be presented under different formats. African traditional fermented products are briefly mentioned enhancing some recorded adverse effects. Knowing the general benefits of traditional and supplemented fermented foods, they should be a daily item on most national food guides.

  19. Fermentation performance of lager yeast in high gravity beer fermentations with different sugar supplementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hongjie; Xu, Huaide; Feng, Li; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhao, Mouming

    2016-11-01

    The effects of glucose, sucrose and maltose supplementations on the fermentation performance and stress tolerance of lager yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) during high gravity (18°P) and very high gravity (24°P) fermentations were studied. Results showed that throughout 18°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was significantly improved by glucose or sucrose supplementation, compared with maltose supplementation, especially for sucrose supplementation increasing wort fermentability and ethanol production by 6% and 8%, respectively. However, in the later stage of 24°P wort fermentation, fermentation performance of lager yeast was dramatically improved by maltose supplementation, which increased wort fermentability and ethanol production by 14% and 10%, respectively, compared with sucrose supplementation. Furthermore, higher HSP12 expression level and more intracellular trehalose accumulation in yeast cells were observed by maltose supplementation with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, indicating higher stress response of yeast cells. The excretion of Gly and Ala, and the absorption of Pro in the later stage of fermentation were promoted by maltose supplementation. In addition, with increase of the wort gravity from 18°P to 24°P, higher alcohols level was decreased with maltose supplementation, while esters formation was increased significantly with glucose supplementation. This study suggested that the choice of optimal fermentable sugars maintaining better fermentation performance of lager yeast should be based on not only strain specificity, but also wort gravity. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  1. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.; Zozikov, B.; Otzetov, A.; Kamenova, M.; Martinova, F.; Kalyonski, R.

    2002-01-01

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  2. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  3. Cursed lamp: the problem of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkulet, William

    2017-08-09

    Many people believe human fetuses have the same moral status as adult human persons, that it is wrong to allow harm to befall things with this moral status, and thus voluntary, induced abortion is seriously morally wrong. Recently, many prochoice theorists have argued that this antiabortion stance is inconsistent; approximately 60% of human fetuses die from spontaneous abortion, far more than die from induced abortion, so if antiabortion theorists really believe that human fetuses have significant moral status, they have strong moral obligations to oppose spontaneous abortion. Yet, few antiabortion theorists devote any effort to doing so. Many prochoice theorists argue that to resolve this inconsistency, antiabortion theorists should abandon their opposition to induced abortion. Here, I argue that those who do not abandon their opposition to induced abortion but continue to neglect spontaneous abortion act immorally. Aristotle argues that moral responsibility requires both control and awareness; I argue that once an antiabortion theorist becomes aware of the frequency of spontaneous abortion, they have a strong moral obligation to redirect their efforts towards combating spontaneous abortion; failure to do so is morally monstrous. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Effects of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides on bacterial growth, texture properties, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siqian; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-05-01

    Pleurotus eryngii is one of the most favored oyster mushrooms and contains various beneficial bioactive compounds. Polysaccharide extracted from P. eryngii (PEPS) was added as a natural-source ingredient to milk before fermentation, and the effects of additional PEPS on fermented milk were investigated in this study. The PEPS were extracted and added to reconstituted skim milk (12%, wt/vol) at 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125% (wt/vol) and fermented by a non-exopolysaccharide-producing strain, Streptococcus thermophilus Australian Starter Culture Collection (ASCC) 1303 (ST 1303), or an exopolysaccharide-producing Strep. thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275). Bacterial growth, texture properties, microstructure, proteolytic capacity, and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities of fermented milk (FM) were determined during refrigerated storage at 4°C for 21d. Viable counts of starter bacteria in FM with 0.5% PEPS added were the highest. Changes in pH were consistent with changes in titratable acidities for all samples. The FM samples with added PEPS showed denser protein aggregates containing larger serum pores in confocal micrographs compared with those without PEPS at d 0 and 21during refrigerated storage. The values for spontaneous whey separation of FM with added PEPS were significantly higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS. The proteolytic activities of ST 1303 of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS. The FM with added 0.125% PEPS had similar angiotensin-I-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity to that fermented by ST 1303 without PEPS; both were higher than those of other samples during refrigerated storage. Firmness and gumminess values of FM with added PEPS were higher than those of FM fermented by ST 1303 or ST 1275 without PEPS. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative genome analysis of the candidate functional starter culture strains Lactobacillus fermentum 222 and Lactobacillus plantarum 80 for controlled cocoa bean fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Weckx, Stefan

    2015-10-12

    Lactobacillus fermentum 222 and Lactobacillus plantarum 80, isolates from a spontaneous Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation process, proved to be interesting functional starter culture strains for cocoa bean fermentations. Lactobacillus fermentum 222 is a thermotolerant strain, able to dominate the fermentation process, thereby converting citrate and producing mannitol. Lactobacillus plantarum 80 is an acid-tolerant and facultative heterofermentative strain that is competitive during cocoa bean fermentation processes. In this study, whole-genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis was used to investigate the mechanisms of these strains to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Through functional annotation and analysis of the high-coverage contigs obtained through 454 pyrosequencing, plantaricin production was predicted for L. plantarum 80. For L. fermentum 222, genes encoding a complete arginine deiminase pathway were attributed. Further, in-depth functional analysis revealed the capacities of these strains associated with carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, such as the ability to use alternative external electron acceptors, the presence of an extended pyruvate metabolism, and the occurrence of several amino acid conversion pathways. A comparative genome sequence analysis using publicly available genome sequences of strains of the species L. plantarum and L. fermentum revealed unique features of both strains studied. Indeed, L. fermentum 222 possessed genes encoding additional citrate transporters and enzymes involved in amino acid conversions, whereas L. plantarum 80 is the only member of this species that harboured a gene cluster involved in uptake and consumption of fructose and/or sorbose. In-depth genome sequence analysis of the candidate functional starter culture strains L. fermentum 222 and L. plantarum 80 revealed their metabolic capacities, niche adaptations and functionalities that enable them to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation

  6. Coffee fermentation and flavor--An intricate and delicate relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang Wei; Cheong, Mun Wai; Curran, Philip; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan

    2015-10-15

    The relationship between coffee fermentation and coffee aroma is intricate and delicate at which the coffee aroma profile is easily impacted by the fermentation process during coffee processing. However, as the fermentation process in coffee processing is conducted mainly for mucilage removal, its impacts on coffee aroma profile are usually neglected. Therefore, this review serves to summarize the available literature on the impacts of fermentation in coffee processing on coffee aroma as well as other unconventional avenues where fermentation is employed for coffee aroma modulation. Studies have noted that proper control over the fermentation process imparts desirable attributes and prevents undesirable fermentation which generates off-flavors. Other unconventional avenues in which fermentation is employed for aroma modulation include digestive bioprocessing and the fermentation of coffee extracts and green coffee beans. The latter is an area that should be explored further with appropriate microorganisms given its potential for coffee aroma modulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Conducting starter culture-controlled fermentations of coffee beans during on-farm wet processing: Growth, metabolic analyses and sensorial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the potential use of Pichia fermentans YC5.2 as a starter culture to conduct controlled coffee bean fermentations during on-farm wet processing was investigated. Inoculated fermentations were conducted with or without the addition of 2% (w/v) sucrose, and the resultant microbial growth and metabolism, bean chemistry and beverage quality were compared with spontaneous (control) fermentation. In both inoculated treatments, P. fermentans prevailed over indigenous microbiota and a restricted microbial composition was observed at the end of fermentation process. The inoculation also increased the production of specific volatile aroma compounds (e.g., ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate) and decreased the production of lactic acid during the fermentation process. Sucrose supplementation did not significantly interfere with the growth and frequency of P. fermentans YC5.2 inoculum but maintained high levels of wild bacteria population and lactic acid production similar to the spontaneous process. In roasted beans, the content of sugars and organic acids were statistically (pcoffee beans by increasing the concentration of yeast-derived metabolites compared to control. Sensory analysis of coffee beverages demonstrated that the use of the YC5.2 strain was favorable for the production of high-quality coffees with distinctive characteristics, e.g., intense perception of 'vanilla' taste and 'floral' aromas. In conclusion, the use of P. fermentans YC5.2 in coffee processing was shown to be a viable alternative to control the fermentation step and to ensure consistent quality of finished products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of fermented Theobroma cacao pod husk extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R X; Oliveira, D A; Sodré, G A; Gosmann, G; Brendel, M; Pungartnik, C

    2014-09-26

    Theobroma cacao L. contains more than 500 different chemical compounds some of which have been traditionally used for their antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, immunomodulatory, vasodilatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial activities. Spontaneous aerobic fermentation of cacao husks yields a crude husk extract (CHE) with antimicrobial activity. CHE was fractioned by solvent partition with polar solvent extraction or by silica gel chromatography and a total of 12 sub-fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and bioactivity. CHE was effective against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa. Antibacterial activity was determined using 6 strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella choleraesuis (Gram-negative). At doses up to 10 mg/mL, CHE was not effective against the Gram-positive bacteria tested but against medically important P. aeruginosa and S. choleraesuis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 mg/mL. Sub-fractions varied widely in activity and strongest antibacterial activity was seen with CHE8 against S. choleraesuis (MIC of 1.0 mg/mL) and CHE9 against S. epidermidis (MIC of 2.5 mg/mL). All bioactive CHE fractions contained phenols, steroids, or terpenes, but no saponins. Fraction CHE9 contained flavonoids, phenolics, steroids, and terpenes, amino acids, and alkaloids, while CHE12 had the same compounds but lacked flavonoids.

  9. Spontaneous Regression of Lumbar Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Chang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation of the lumbar spine is a common disease presenting with low back pain and involving nerve root radiculopathy. Some neurological symptoms in the majority of patients frequently improve after a period of conservative treatment. This has been regarded as the result of a decrease of pressure exerted from the herniated disc on neighboring neurostructures and a gradual regression of inflammation. Recently, with advances in magnetic resonance imaging, many reports have demonstrated that the herniated disc has the potential for spontaneous regression. Regression coincided with the improvement of associated symptoms. However, the exact regression mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present 2 cases of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation with spontaneous regression. We review the literature and discuss the possible mechanisms, the precipitating factors of spontaneous disc regression and the proper timing of surgical intervention.

  10. Spontaneous hemothorax: primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Panjwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare condition seen in coagulation and vascular disorders. Uncommonly, malignant neoplasms may cause spontaneous hemothorax. Primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcomas (excluding the cases with pleuropulmonary or chest wall involvement are extremely rare pleural tumors, which may be mistaken for mesothelioma or adenocarcinoma, and only 19 cases (one of them from India have been reported in the English literature, to date. It commonly occurs in older men, has a nonspecific clinicoradiological presentation, and carries a poor prognosis with no survivors beyond a year of establishing the diagnosis. We report a case of primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma presenting as a life-threatening spontaneous hemothorax. We also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.

  11. Computed tomographic findings of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Young Chul [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) was a reliable technique to evaluate the exact size and location of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and to predict it's prognosis. Fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and reviewed by CT scan. The following results were obtained. 1. The sex ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4, The highest incidence was in 6th and 7th decades. 2. The most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage was hypertension (74.6%), followed by the aneurysm (13.5%), arteriovenous malformation (5.1%), occlusive vascular disease (3.4%), and blood dyscrasia (3.4%). 3. The most common location was basal ganglia and thalamic hemorrhage (37.3%), followed by lobar hemorrhage (27.1%), cerebellar hemorrhage (13.5%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (11.9%). 4. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage carried the highest mortality. 5. The larger volume of hematoma, the higher the mortality rate.

  12. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  13. Antihypertensive Effect of a Combination of Uracil and Glycerol Derived from Lactobacillus plantarum Strain TWK10-Fermented Soy Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Yen; Zeng, Shih-Yu; Leu, Yann-Lii; Tsai, Tsung-Yu

    2015-08-26

    We previously demonstrated that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) could be inhibited by soy milk that had been fermented with the Lactobacillus plantarum strain TWK10, suggesting great potential for the development of antihypertensive products. In this work, the bioactive ACE inhibitors in TWK10-fermented soy milk water extracts were isolated, and a combination of uracil and glycerol (CUG) was identified as one of the ACE inhibitors. We then examined the physiological effects of CUG treatment in short-term and long-term studies using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) as an experimental model. The results revealed that the fermented soy milk extracts and CUG decreased blood pressure by 11.97 ± 3.71 to 19.54 ± 9.54 mmHg, 8 h after oral administration, and exhibited antihypertensive effects in SHRs in a long-term study. In addition, CUG was shown to decrease blood pressure by suppressing either the renin activity or the ACE activity and, thus, decreasing the downstream vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II and the hormone aldosterone. CUG also promoted nitric oxide production, resulting in vasodilation and further improvement to hypertension. This important finding suggests that TWK10-fermented soy milk and its functional ingredients, uracil and glycerol, exhibit antihypertensive effects via multiple pathways and provide a healthier and more natural antihypertensive functional food.

  14. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Production of fermented probiotic beverages from milk permeate enriched with whey retentate and identification of present lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagoda Šušković

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research the application of bacterial strains Lactobacillus acidophilus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3 in the production of fermented probiotic beverages from milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v whey retentate, was investigated. In the previous researches of probiotic concept, probiotic properties of these three strains of lactic acid bacteria have been defined. At the end of controlled fermentation, probiotic strains have produced 7.4 g/L lactic acid, pH was decreased to 4.7, and number of live cells was around 108 CFU/mL. Number of viable count of probiotic bacteria, which were identified with RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAmethod, was maintained at around 107 CFU/mL during 28 days of the preservation at 4 °C. Furthermore, a spontaneous fermentation of milk permeate enriched with 10 % (v/v of whey retentate was carried out and lactic acid bacteria present in these substrates were isolated. All of these bacterial strains have rapidly acidified the growth media and have shown antibacterial activity against chosen test-microorganisms, what are important properties of potential starter cultures for the fermentation of dairy products. The results of biochemical API analysis have identified isolated strains as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus.

  16. Solid state fermentation with lactic acid bacteria to improve the nutritional quality of lupin and soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Krungleviciute, Vita; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Maknickiene, Zita

    2015-04-01

    The ability of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to degrade biogenic amines as well as to produce L(+) and D(-)-lactic acid during solid state fermentation (SSF) of lupin and soya bean was investigated. In addition, the protein digestibility and formation of organic acids during SSF of legume were investigated. Protein digestibility of fermented lupin and soya bean was found higher on average by 18.3% and 15.9%, respectively, compared to untreated samples. Tested LAB produced mainly L-lactic acid in soya bean and lupin (D/L ratio 0.38-0.42 and 0.35-0.54, respectively), while spontaneous fermentation gave almost equal amounts of both lactic acid isomers (D/L ratio 0.82-0.98 and 0.92, respectively). Tested LAB strains were able to degrade phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine, whereas they were able to produce putrescine, histamine and tyramine. SSF improved lupin and soya bean protein digestibility. BLIS-producing LAB in lupin and soya bean medium produced a mixture of D- and L-lactic acid with a major excess of the latter isomer. Most toxic histamine and tyramine in fermented lupin and soya bean were found at levels lower those causing adverse health effects. Selection of biogenic amines non-producing bacteria is essential in the food industry to avoid the risk of amine formation. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Improved fermentation performance in an expanded ectopic fermentation system inoculated with thermophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Zhu, Changxiong; Geng, Bing; Liu, Xue; Ye, Jing; Tian, Yunlong; Peng, Xiawei

    2015-12-01

    Previous research showed that ectopic fermentation system (EFS) inoculated with thermophilic bacteria is an excellent alternative for cow wastewater treatment. In this study, the effects of thermophilic bacterial consortium on the efficiency and quality of the fermentation process in EFS were evaluated by measuring physicochemical and environmental factors and the changes in organic matter composition. In parallel, the microbial communities correlated with fermentation performance were identified. Inoculation of EFS with thermophilic bacterial consortium led to higher temperatures, increased wastewater requirements for continuous fermentation, and improved quality of the litters in terms of physicochemical factors, security test, functional group analysis, and bacterial community composition. The relationship between the transformation of organic component and the dominant bacteria species indicated that environmental factors contributed to strain growth, which subsequently promoted the fermentation process. The results highlight the great potential of EFS model for wide application in cow wastewater treatment and re-utilization as bio-fertilizer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Importance of lactic acid bacteria in Asian fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sook Jong; Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Cherl-Ho

    2011-08-30

    Lactic acid bacteria play important roles in various fermented foods in Asia. Besides being the main component in kimchi and other fermented foods, they are used to preserve edible food materials through fermentation of other raw-materials such as rice wine/beer, rice cakes, and fish by producing organic acids to control putrefactive microorganisms and pathogens. These bacteria also provide a selective environment favoring fermentative microorganisms and produce desirable flavors in various fermented foods. This paper discusses the role of lactic acid bacteria in various non-dairy fermented food products in Asia and their nutritional and physiological functions in the Asian diet.

  19. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated