Sample records for spontaneous sedimentation method

  1. Parasitological stool sample exam by spontaneous sedimentation method using conical tubes: effectiveness, practice, and biosafety

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    Steveen Rios Ribeiro


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous sedimentation is an important procedure for stool examination. A modification of this technique using conical tubes was performed and evaluated. METHODS: Fifty fecal samples were processed in sedimentation glass and in polypropylene conical tubes. Another 50 samples were used for quantitative evaluation of protozoan cysts. RESULTS: Although no significant differences occurred in the frequency of protozoa and helminths detected, significant differences in protozoan cyst counts did occur. CONCLUSIONS: The use of tube predicts a shorter path in the sedimentation of the sample, increases concentration of parasites for microscopy analysis, minimizes the risks of contamination, reduces the odor, and optimizes the workspace.

  2. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments (United States)

    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto


    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  3. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods




    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  4. Laboratory theory and methods for sediment analysis (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.


    The diverse character of fluvial sediments makes the choice of laboratory analysis somewhat arbitrary and the pressing of sediment samples difficult. This report presents some theories and methods used by the Water Resources Division for analysis of fluvial sediments to determine the concentration of suspended-sediment samples and the particle-size distribution of both suspended-sediment and bed-material samples. Other analyses related to these determinations may include particle shape, mineral content, and specific gravity, the organic matter and dissolved solids of samples, and the specific weight of soils. The merits and techniques of both the evaporation and filtration methods for concentration analysis are discussed. Methods used for particle-size analysis of suspended-sediment samples may include the sieve pipet, the VA tube-pipet, or the BW tube-VA tube depending on the equipment available, the concentration and approximate size of sediment in the sample, and the settling medium used. The choice of method for most bed-material samples is usually limited to procedures suitable for sand or to some type of visual analysis for large sizes. Several tested forms are presented to help insure a well-ordered system in the laboratory to handle the samples, to help determine the kind of analysis required for each, to conduct the required processes, and to assist in the required computations. Use of the manual should further 'standardize' methods of fluvial sediment analysis among the many laboratories and thereby help to achieve uniformity and precision of the data.

  5. A Review of Sediment Contamination Assessment Methods

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    İsmet BALIK


    Full Text Available The right way to reveal the anthropogenic heavy metal accumulation in sediments is the most important issue in understanding the inorganic pollution in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the determination of anthropogenic sourced metal input in sediment and the toxic effect to all the ecosystems is extremely important. To determine these entries and effect, many methods have been developed and lots of limit values have been determined. This study performed aims to demonstrate the toxic effect and risk values of human induced inorganic pollution more accurately, precision and detailed by collecting many different methods together. Thus, the most commonly used methods are grouped according to the similarities in the study. Therefore, it was provided to reveal the current situation of the study area the most truest and easily way by the researchers to select the most appropriate method. In addition,new studies to be carried out, it can be envisaged the time and financial loses to be prevented while providing to plan according to the classifications used here.

  6. Spontaneous baroreflex by sequence and power spectral methods in humans. (United States)

    Hughson, R L; Quintin, L; Annat, G; Yamamoto, Y; Gharib, C


    Beat-by-beat variations in blood pressure and RR-interval are interrelated by the actions of baroreflex and non-baroreflex responses. This study had two purposes: (1) to examine the spontaneous relationships between RR-interval and systolic blood pressure to determine the relative occurrence of baroreflex and non-baroreflex responses in humans, and (2) to compare the beat-sequence method with a cross spectral estimate of the baroreflex response slope. Eight healthy men were studied during 10 h of quiet, seated rest, and six men and three women were studied during rest, rest plus fixed pace breathing, and a cold pressor test. RR-interval and continuous, non-invasive arterial blood pressure were measured with a computerized system. A baroreflex sequence was defined by a series of at least three consecutive heart beats in which systolic pressure and the following RR-interval either both increased or both decreased. A non-baroreflex relationship was defined by sequences of at least three beats by opposite directional changes of RR-interval and systolic pressure of that beat. The results showed that there were approximately 30% as many non-baroreflex compared to baroreflex slopes. Individual subject mean baroreflex and non-baroreflex slopes were highly correlated (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). Absolute slope values were not different, and they were unaffected by time, fixed pace breathing, or cold pressor test. The data showed the relatively simple beat-by-beat sequence method to yield spontaneous baroreflex response slopes that were quantitatively similar to, and highly correlated with (r = 0.85-0.94), baroreflex response slopes calculated by spectral analysis methods.


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    Ľubica Darážová


    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls are toxic compounds which have accumulated in river sediments in Eastern Slovakia. Bioaccumulation could cause even cancer. Radiation degradation with electrons is new and perspective method to dechlorinate PCBs in sediment matrix. We tested the influence of two difference chemical pretreatments and electron irradiation on PCB contaminated sediments.

  8. A cell extraction method for oily sediments

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    Michael eLappé


    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons can be found in many different habitats and represent an important carbon source for microbes. As fossil fuels, they are also an important economical resource, through natural seepage or accidental release they can also be major pollutants. DNA-specific stains and molecular probes bind to hydrocarbons, causing massive background fluorescence and thereby hampering cell enumeration. The cell extraction procedure of Kallmeyer et al. (2008 separates the cells from the sediment matrix. In principle, this technique can also be used to separate cells from oily sediments, but it is not optimized for this application.Here we present a modified extraction method in which the hydrocarbons are removed prior to cell extraction. Due to the reduced background fluorescence the microscopic image becomes clearer, making cell identification and enumeration much easier. Consequently, the resulting cell counts from samples treated according to our new protocol are significantly higher than those treated according to Kallmeyer et al. (2008. We tested different amounts of a variety of solvents for their ability to remove hydrocarbons and found that n-hexane and – in samples containing more biodegraded oils – methanol, delivered the best results. However, as solvents also tend to lyse cells, it was important to find the optimum solvent to sample ratio, at which hydrocarbon extraction is maximised and cell lysis minimized. A ratio between slurry and solvent of 1:2 to 1:5 delivered the highest cell counts without lysing too many cells. The method provided reproducibly good results on samples from very different environments, both marine and terrestrial.

  9. Field methods for measurement of fluvial sediment (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas K.; Glysson, G. Douglas


    This chapter describes equipment and procedures for collection and measurement of fluvial sediment. The complexity of the hydrologic and physical environments and man's ever-increasing data needs make it essential for those responsible for the collection of sediment data to be aware of basic concepts involved in processes of erosion, transport, deposition of sediment, and equipment and procedures necessary to representatively collect sediment data. In addition to an introduction, the chapter has two major sections. The 'Sediment-Sampling Equipment' section encompasses discussions of characteristics and limitations of various models of depth- and point-integrating samplers, single-stage samplers, bed-material samplers, bedload samplers, automatic pumping samplers, and support equipment. The 'Sediment-Sampling Techniques'` section includes discussions of representative sampling criteria, characteristics of sampling sites, equipment selection relative to the sampling conditions and needs, depth and point-integration techniques, surface and dip sampling, determination of transit rates, sampling programs and related data, cold-weather sampling, bed-material and bedload sampling, measuring total sediment discharge, and measuring reservoir sedimentation rates.

  10. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S.H.; Tsang, Daniel C.W., E-mail:; Poon, Chi-Sun


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contaminated sediment can be recycled as fill material for site formation. • Thermal pretreatment of sediment permits non-load-bearing block application. • CO{sub 2} curing enhances strength and reduces carbon footprint. • Inclusion of granular wastes reinforces the solidified sediment matrix. • Sediment blocks are useful resources for construction use. - Abstract: Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO{sub 2} curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO{sub 2} (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources.

  11. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S.H.; Tsang, Daniel C.W.; Poon, Chi-Sun


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contaminated sediment can be recycled as fill material for site formation. • Thermal pretreatment of sediment permits non-load-bearing block application. • CO 2 curing enhances strength and reduces carbon footprint. • Inclusion of granular wastes reinforces the solidified sediment matrix. • Sediment blocks are useful resources for construction use. - Abstract: Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO 2 curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO 2 (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources

  12. Mixture design and treatment methods for recycling contaminated sediment. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Kwok, June S H; Tsang, Daniel C W; Poon, Chi-Sun


    Conventional marine disposal of contaminated sediment presents significant financial and environmental burden. This study aimed to recycle the contaminated sediment by assessing the roles and integration of binder formulation, sediment pretreatment, curing method, and waste inclusion in stabilization/solidification. The results demonstrated that the 28-d compressive strength of sediment blocks produced with coal fly ash and lime partially replacing cement at a binder-to-sediment ratio of 3:7 could be used as fill materials for construction. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that hydration products (calcium hydroxide) were difficult to form at high sediment content. Thermal pretreatment of sediment removed 90% of indigenous organic matter, significantly increased the compressive strength, and enabled reuse as non-load-bearing masonry units. Besides, 2-h CO2 curing accelerated early-stage carbonation inside the porous structure, sequestered 5.6% of CO2 (by weight) in the sediment blocks, and acquired strength comparable to 7-d curing. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated substantial weight loss corresponding to decomposition of poorly and well crystalline calcium carbonate. Moreover, partial replacement of contaminated sediment by various granular waste materials notably augmented the strength of sediment blocks. The metal leachability of sediment blocks was minimal and acceptable for reuse. These results suggest that contaminated sediment should be viewed as useful resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Methods in mooring deep sea sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.; Fernando, V.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Janakiraman, G.

    The experience gained during the process of deployment and retrieval of nearly 39 sets of deep sea sediment trap moorings on various ships like FS Sonne, ORV Sagarkanya and DSV Nand Rachit are outlined. The various problems encountered...

  14. Methods of assessment of stormwater sediments quality

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    Sałata Aleksandra


    Full Text Available Concentration of heavy metal (cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc in sediments collected from the stormwater treatment plant located in the urbanised catchment were investigated using geo-accumulation index and enrichment factor to determine metal accumulation and pollution status. Total metal concentrations varied widely in studied materials and the mean values were higher than their background values. The Igeo results indicate that tested sediments were uncontaminated with respect to Cd. The study area is moderately to strongly contaminated with Zn, Pb and Cu. The other elements are within the scope moderate contamination.

  15. A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material, Sediment Tracking, and Sediment Budget Studies (United States)


    ER D C TR -1 7- 3 Dredging Operations and Environmental Research Program A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material ...June 2017 A Guide for Using Geochemical Methods in Dredged Material , Sediment Tracking, and Sediment Budget Studies Heidi M. Wadman Coastal and...and Development Center Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Under Project 449021, “Geochemical and Other Tracers for Dredged Material Fate” ERDC TR-17-3 ii

  16. Sediment acoustic index method for computing continuous suspended-sediment concentrations (United States)

    Landers, Mark N.; Straub, Timothy D.; Wood, Molly S.; Domanski, Marian M.


    Suspended-sediment characteristics can be computed using acoustic indices derived from acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM) backscatter data. The sediment acoustic index method applied in these types of studies can be used to more accurately and cost-effectively provide time-series estimates of suspended-sediment concentration and load, which is essential for informed solutions to many sediment-related environmental, engineering, and agricultural concerns. Advantages of this approach over other sediment surrogate methods include: (1) better representation of cross-sectional conditions from large measurement volumes, compared to other surrogate instruments that measure data at a single point; (2) high temporal resolution of collected data; (3) data integrity when biofouling is present; and (4) less rating curve hysteresis compared to streamflow as a surrogate. An additional advantage of this technique is the potential expansion of monitoring suspended-sediment concentrations at sites with existing ADVMs used in streamflow velocity monitoring. This report provides much-needed standard techniques for sediment acoustic index methods to help ensure accurate and comparable documented results.

  17. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Image Analysis Methods: A Survey (United States)

    Pérez, Noel; Valdés, Jose; Guevara, Miguel; Silva, Augusto

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) account for 10-30% of all strokes and are a result of acute bleeding into the brain due to ruptures of small penetrating arteries. Despite major advancements in the management of ischemic strokes and other causes of hemorrhagic strokes, such as ruptured aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), or cavernous angioma, during the past several decades, limited progress has been made in the treatment of ICH, and the prognosis for patients who suffer them remains poor. The societal impact of these hemorrhagic strokes is magnified by the fact that affected patients typically are a decade younger than those afflicted with ischemic strokes. The ICH continues to kill or disable most of their victims. Some studies show that those who suffer ICH have a 30-day mortality rate of 35-44% and a 6-month mortality rate approaching 50%. Approximately 700,000 new strokes occur in the United States annually and approximately 15% are hem-orrhagic strokes related to ICH. The poor outcome associated with ICH is related to the extent of brain damage. ICH produces direct destruction and compression of surrounding brain tissue. Direct compression causes poor perfusion and venous drainage to surrounding penumbra at risk, resulting in ischemia to the tissues that most need perfusion [16].

  18. Assessing subjective memory complaints: a comparison of spontaneous reports and structured questionnaire methods. (United States)

    Burmester, Bridget; Leathem, Janet; Merrick, Paul


    Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are a common occurrence for adults, which increase with age, and cause considerable distress. Traditionally SMCs have been assessed by either questionnaires, which ask whether a person has experienced given examples of SMCs, or open-ended questions which elicit spontaneous reports of SMCs. However, little is known about how these methods of assessment might influence reporting of SMCs. Four hundred and twenty one adults aged 40 years and above were surveyed about SMCs using spontaneous report and questionnaire methods. As expected, spontaneously reported SMCs were fewer in number and rated more distressing overall than SMCs endorsed on a questionnaire. However, comparison of individual SMCs revealed that distress ratings tended to be higher when assessed in a questionnaire than spontaneously reported, which may be due to the context of a questionnaire causing inflated ratings. Participants also reported SMCs which were not well assessed by the questionnaire, including some which were among the most distressing SMCs overall. Conversely, other SMCs were over-sampled by the questionnaire and did not feature in spontaneous reports. Implications for clinical assessment of SMCs are that open-ended questioning might be preferable to initial use of prescriptive questionnaires, in order to elicit SMCs that are most distressing. While use of questionnaires may reveal endorsement of a wider range of SMCs than are spontaneously reported, they can take focus away from, or even fail to assess, those SMCs which cause most subjective distress (and therefore should be the target of interventions).

  19. Timber Harvest Effects on Sediment and Water Yields and Analysis of Sediment Load Calculation Methods in the Interior Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Elverson, C.; Karwan, D. L.


    Timber harvest practices have a long-standing association with changes in water and sediment yields. We quantify the trends in water and sediment yields in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in relation to management practices with linear regression and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). From 1991 to 2013, an increase in water yield resulted from both clearcutting and thinning treatments, with monthly water yield rate increases of 13-57% and annual water yield increases up to 210 mm (40%) in the clearcut watershed. Following treatment, annual sediment yields increased in the clearcut watershed by 40-131% and the thinned watershed by 33-163%, both relative to the control watershed, with statistically-significant monthly load increases in the year immediately following treatment. Water and sediment yield changes do not follow the same post-treatment patterns. Water yields increased immediately following treatment and, over time, gradually dropped towards pre-harvest levels. Annual sediment yields increased in some years after the harvest, but in some cases the increase was years after treatment. Monthly sediment yields increased in the first year following the clearcut harvest, but elevated monthly loads following the partial cut harvest came years later. Hence, we investigate the changes in sediment yield through an examination of water yield and sediment concentration and in response to events. We test the sensitivity of our results to different methods for computing sediment yields based on total suspended solids concentration and continuous discharge measurements. Flow-weighted sediment yield averaged 24% higher than sediment yield computed from linear-interpolated total suspended solids concentration values. During typical summer and fall conditions, flow-weighting was found to overweight storm measurements and produce large sediment yield estimates. Further work is suggested to test methods of calculating monthly sediment yields with irregularly

  20. Devices, systems, and methods for detecting nucleic acids using sedimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.


    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward devices, systems, and method for conducting nucleic acid purification and quantification using sedimentation. In one example, a method includes generating complexes which bind to a plurality of beads in a fluid sample, individual ones of the complexes comprising a nucleic acid molecule such as DNA or RNA and a labeling agent. The plurality of beads including the complexes may be transported through a density media, wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the beads and higher than a density of the fluid sample, and wherein the transporting occurs, at least in part, by sedimentation. Signal may be detected from the labeling agents of the complexes.

  1. A method of harvesting gas hydrates from marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.Q.; Brill, J.P.; Sarica, C. [Tulsa Univ., Tulsa, OK (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering


    Methane is known to exist in gas hydrates, but low productivity is expected for gas production from gas hydrates in marine sediments because of the shallow depths, low hydrate concentration, low permeability of the gas hydrate stability zone, lack of driving pressure and the slow melting process. This paper presented a newly developed methane harvesting method which aims to overcome technical barriers, maintain cost and energy efficiencies and minimize safety and environmental concerns. The method is based on the concept of capturing the gas released from hydrate dissociation in the sediments. The captured gases can reform hydrates inside and overhead receiver, which once full, can be lifted to shallow warm water for gas collection. This simple and open production system does not require high pressure and does not involve any flow assurance issues. As such, technical difficulties, safety issues and environmental concerns are minimized. The proposed gas harvesting method makes the best use of the nature of hydrates and the subsea pressure and temperature profiles. It combines many new concepts, including electrically adding heat inside the hydrate rich sediments to release gas, using an overhead receiver to capture the gas, allowing the gas to reform hydrates again in the overhead receiver, and lifting produced hydrates to warm water where it can be released and collected. It was concluded that this newly proposed production system enables the development of massive hydrate production fields on the sea bed with high production rates that are economically viable. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. A gravimetric method for the measurement of total spontaneous activity in rats. (United States)

    Biesiadecki, B J; Brand, P H; Koch, L G; Britton, S L


    Currently available methods for the measurement of spontaneous activity of laboratory animals require expensive, specialized equipment and may not be suitable for use in low light conditions with nocturnal species. We developed a gravimetric method that uses common laboratory equipment to quantify the total spontaneous activity of rats and is suitable for use in the dark. The rat in its home cage is placed on a top-loading electronic balance interfaced to a computer. Movements are recorded by the balance as changes in weight and transmitted to the computer at 10 Hz. Data are analyzed on-line to derive the absolute value of the difference in weight between consecutive samples, and the one-second average of the absolute values is calculated. The averages are written to file for off-line analysis and summed over the desired observation period to provide a measure of total spontaneous activity. The results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that: 1) recorded weight changes were not influenced by position of the weight on the bottom of the cage, 2) values recorded from a series of weight changes were not significantly different from the calculated values, 3) the constantly decreasing force exerted by a swinging pendulum placed on the balance was accurately recorded, 4) the measurement of activity was not influenced by the evaporation of a fluid such as urine, and 5) the method can detect differences in the activity of sleeping and waking rats over a 10-min period, as well as during 4-hr intervals recorded during active (night-time) and inactive (daytime) periods. These results demonstrate that this method provides an inexpensive, accurate, and noninvasive method to quantitate the spontaneous activity of small animals.

  3. Exploration of statistical shrinkage parameters of disproportionality methods in spontaneous reporting system of China. (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Ye, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Xiao-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Tian; Qi, Na; Hou, Yong-Fang; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Shi, Wen-Tao; Wei, Xin; Liu, Yu-Zhou; Wu, Gui-Zhi; He, Jia


    Statistical shrinkage is a potential statistical method to improve the accuracy of signal detection results and avoid spurious associations detected by disproportionality analyses. In this study, we introduced statistical shrinkage influence on disproportionality methods in spontaneous reporting system in China. We added the shrinkage parameters in the numerator and denominator, denoted as in the formula of disproportionality analysis. The shrinkage parameters were subjectively set to between 0 and 5, with an interval of 0.1. Adverse drug reaction product label database was deemed as a proxy of golden standard to evaluate the effect of statistical shrinkage. Reports in the years of 2010-2011 were extracted from the national spontaneous reporting system database as the data source for analysis in this study. When α was around 0.5, the Youden index reached the maximum for each disproportionality methods in this study. The value of 0.6 was suggested as the most appropriate statistical shrinkage parameter for reporting odds ratio and proportional reporting ratio and 0.2 for information component based on the spontaneous reporting system of China. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sedimentation (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening


    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  5. Accurate mass replacement method for the sediment concentration measurement with a constant volume container (United States)

    Ban, Yunyun; Chen, Tianqin; Yan, Jun; Lei, Tingwu


    The measurement of sediment concentration in water is of great importance in soil erosion research and soil and water loss monitoring systems. The traditional weighing method has long been the foundation of all the other measuring methods and instrument calibration. The development of a new method to replace the traditional oven-drying method is of interest in research and practice for the quick and efficient measurement of sediment concentration, especially field measurements. A new method is advanced in this study for accurately measuring the sediment concentration based on the accurate measurement of the mass of the sediment-water mixture in the confined constant volume container (CVC). A sediment-laden water sample is put into the CVC to determine its mass before the CVC is filled with water and weighed again for the total mass of the water and sediments in the container. The known volume of the CVC, the mass of sediment-laden water, and sediment particle density are used to calculate the mass of water, which is replaced by sediments, therefore sediment concentration of the sample is calculated. The influence of water temperature was corrected by measuring water density to determine the temperature of water before measurements were conducted. The CVC was used to eliminate the surface tension effect so as to obtain the accurate volume of water and sediment mixture. Experimental results showed that the method was capable of measuring the sediment concentration from 0.5 up to 1200 kg m-3. A good liner relationship existed between the designed and measured sediment concentrations with all the coefficients of determination greater than 0.999 and the averaged relative error less than 0.2%. All of these seem to indicate that the new method is capable of measuring a full range of sediment concentration above 0.5 kg m-3 to replace the traditional oven-drying method as a standard method for evaluating and calibrating other methods.

  6. A new method for fingerprinting sediments source contributions using distances from discriminant function analysis (United States)

    Mixing models have been used to predict sediment source contributions. The inherent problem of the mixing models limited the number of sediment sources. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a new method using Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) to fingerprint sediment source contr...

  7. A penalty-based nodal discontinuous Galerkin method for spontaneous rupture dynamics (United States)

    Ye, R.; De Hoop, M. V.; Kumar, K.


    Numerical simulation of the dynamic rupture processes with slip is critical to understand the earthquake source process and the generation of ground motions. However, it can be challenging due to the nonlinear friction laws interacting with seismicity, coupled with the discontinuous boundary conditions across the rupture plane. In practice, the inhomogeneities in topography, fault geometry, elastic parameters and permiability add extra complexity. We develop a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method to simulate seismic wave phenomenon with slipping boundary conditions, including the fluid-solid boundaries and ruptures. By introducing a novel penalty flux, we avoid solving Riemann problems on interfaces, which makes our method capable for general anisotropic and poro-elastic materials. Based on unstructured tetrahedral meshes in 3D, the code can capture various geometries in geological model, and use polynomial expansion to achieve high-order accuracy. We consider the rate and state friction law, in the spontaneous rupture dynamics, as part of a nonlinear transmitting boundary condition, which is weakly enforced across the fault surface as numerical flux. An iterative coupling scheme is developed based on implicit time stepping, containing a constrained optimization process that accounts for the nonlinear part. To validate the method, we proof the convergence of the coupled system with error estimates. We test our algorithm on a well-established numerical example (TPV102) of the SCEC/USGS Spontaneous Rupture Code Verification Project, and benchmark with the simulation of PyLith and SPECFEM3D with agreeable results.

  8. Movement recognition technology as a method of assessing spontaneous general movements in high risk infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMarcroft


    Full Text Available Preterm birth is associated with increased risks of neurological and motor impairments such as cerebral palsy. The risks are highest in those born at the lowest gestations. Early identification of those most at risk is challenging meaning that a critical window of opportunity to improve outcomes through therapy-based interventions may be missed. Clinically, the assessment of spontaneous general movements is an important tool which can be used for the prediction of movement impairments in high risk infants.Movement recognition aims to capture and analyze relevant limb movements through computerized approaches focusing on continuous, objective, and quantitative assessment. Different methods of recording and analyzing infant movements have recently been explored in high risk infants. These range from camera-based solutions to body-worn miniaturized movement sensors used to record continuous time-series data that represent the dynamics of limb movements. Various machine learning methods have been developed and applied to the analysis of the recorded movement data. This analysis has focused on the detection and classification of atypical spontaneous general movements. This paper aims to identify recent translational studies using movement recognition technology as a method of assessing movement in high risk infants. The application of this technology within pediatric practice represents a growing area of inter-disciplinary collaboration which may lead to a greater understanding of the development of the nervous system in infants at high risk of motor impairment.

  9. Remote sensing of suspended sediment water research: principles, methods, and progress (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Zhang, Jing


    In this paper, we reviewed the principle, data, methods and steps in suspended sediment research by using remote sensing, summed up some representative models and methods, and analyzes the deficiencies of existing methods. Combined with the recent progress of remote sensing theory and application in water suspended sediment research, we introduced in some data processing methods such as atmospheric correction method, adjacent effect correction, and some intelligence algorithms such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, support vector machines into the suspended sediment inversion research, combined with other geographic information, based on Bayesian theory, we improved the suspended sediment inversion precision, and aim to give references to the related researchers.

  10. Prediction method of sediment discharge from forested basin (United States)

    Kazutoki Abe; Ushio Kurokawa; Robert R. Ziemer


    An estimation model for sediment discharge from a forested basin using Universal Soil Loss Equation and delivery ratio was developed. Study basins are North fork and South fork in Caspar Creek, north California, where Forest Service, USDA has been using water and sediment discharge from both basins since 1962. The whole basin is covered with the forest, mainly...

  11. Sedimentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rixen, T.; Guptha, M.V.S.; Ittekkot, V.

    through the water column but their trapping efficiency, and thus, their accuracy can be biased by hydrodynamic and biological effects (Lee et al., 1988; Gust et al., 1992; 1994). Scholten et al. (2001) showed that the 230 Thorium trapping efficiency... of sediment traps moored at different sites and water depths in eastern North Atlantic Ocean varies between 9 and 143%. In general, these trapping efficiencies increase with increasing water-depth (Scholten et al., 2001). By comparing data from various ocean...

  12. Sedimentation rate estimates in Sorsogon Bay, Philippines using 210Pb method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Sta. Maria, Efren J.; Olivares, Ryan U.; Aniago, Ryan Joseph; Asa Anie Day DC; Dayaon, Jennyvi P.; Bulos, Adelina DM; Sombrito, Elvira Z.


    Sorsogon Bay has experienced a long history of recurring harmful algal blooms over the past few years. In an attempt to establish a chronology of events in the sediment layer, lead-210 ( 210 Pb) dating method has been utilized in estimating sedimentation rates from three selected areas along the bay. Based on the unsupported 210 Pb data and by applying the Constant Initial Concentration (CIC) model, the calculated sedimentation rates were 0.8, 1.3 and 1.8 cm yr 1 for sediment cores collected near the coastal areas of Castilla (SO-01), Sorsogon City (SO-07) and Cadacan River (SO-03), respectively. High sedimentation rates were measured in sediment cores believed to be affected from frequent volcanic ash releases and from areas near human settlement combined with intensive farming and agricultural activities. The collected sediments exhibited non-uniform down core values of dry bulk density and moisture content. This variation in measurements may indicate the general quality and composition of the sediment samples, i.e., amount of organic matter and grain size. The calculated sedimentation rates obtained provided an overview of the sedimentation processes and reflect the land use pattern around the bay which may help in understanding the history and distribution of materials and nutrient input relative to the occurrence of harmful algal bloom in the sediment columns. (author)

  13. Method for the analysis of polybrominated diphenylethers in sediments and biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Allchin, C.; Law, R.; Zegers, B.; Boon, J.P.


    Three institutes worked together on the development and improvement of methods for the analysis of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in sediments and biota. The methods developed consist of a Soxhlet, Ultra Turrax* (biota) or shake-flask extraction (sediment) using hexane (or pentane)/acetone

  14. Sediment Management Methods to Reduce Dredging: Part 2, Sediment Collector Technology (United States)


    Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)-managed lake. The system operates on the principle that sediment in bedload can be trapped by gravity and...possible applications , lessons learned, cost, and provides some general guidance for applying collector technology at other sites. Fountain Creek. Figure 3. Archimedes screw separator (left) and stacker (right). Figure 4. Electronic control panel and Archimedes screw

  15. A multi-method approach for the study of lanthanum speciation in coastal and estuarine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.; Sarma, V.V.

    Two independent analytical methods (sequential extraction and kinetic extraction methods) were applied in order to understand the distribution and speciation of La in the coastal and estuarine sediments from the central east coast of India...

  16. Signal Processing Methods for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Spontaneous Stability and Rough Combustion Assessments (United States)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Casiano, Matthew; Fischbach, Sean; Hulka, James R.


    Liquid rocket engine combustion stability assessments are traditionally broken into three categories: dynamic stability, spontaneous stability, and rough combustion. This work focuses on comparing the spontaneous stability and rough combustion assessments for several liquid engine programs. The techniques used are those developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the J-2X Workhorse Gas Generator program. Stability assessment data from the Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator (IPD), FASTRAC, and Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE) programs are compared against previously processed J-2X Gas Generator data. Prior metrics for spontaneous stability assessments are updated based on the compilation of all data sets.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanus Suryaman


    Full Text Available To shorten the biological treating time and to examine the effect of electrolytes in a model water on the photocatalytic treatment, the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was evaluated for removal of a mixture (total: 100 mg L-1, each: 25 mg L-1 of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP, and pentachlorophenol (PCP in tap water. The mineralization of the four phenols was performed by a flow (biological treatment-circulative flow (photocatalytic treatment operation under black light and sunlight irradiations. After a large portion of biodegradable 2-CP and 2,4-DCP, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-TCP were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant PCP, and  biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. The combined treatment significantly shortened the degradation time only the biotreatment. High circulative flow rate (600 mL min-1 enabled for TiO2 particles to completely suspend in a tubular photoreactor and resulted in high removals of chlorophenols and TOC. Sunlight irradiation was successfully used and the saving of the electric energy of black light was possible. Since TiO2 particles in the tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined system can be operated by integrating it with the TiO2 separation.   Keywords: photocatalysis, titanium dioxide, biodegradation, pollutant, wastewater

  18. Screening for microplastics in sediment, water, marine invertebrates and fish: method development and microplastic accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlsson, Therese; Vethaak, A.D.; Carney Almroth, Bethany; Ariese, Freek; van Velzen, M.J.M.; Hassellöv, Martin; Leslie, H.A.


    Measurements of microplastics in biota and abiotic matrices are key elements of exposure and risk assessments for this emerging environmental pollutant. We investigated the abundance of microplastics in field-collected biota, sediment and water. An improved sediment extraction method, based on

  19. Toward a quantitative account of pitch distribution in spontaneous narrative: method and validation. (United States)

    Matteson, Samuel E; Olness, Gloria Streit; Caplow, Nancy J


    Pitch is well-known both to animate human discourse and to convey meaning in communication. The study of the statistical population distributions of pitch in discourse will undoubtedly benefit from methodological improvements. The current investigation examines a method that parameterizes pitch in discourse as musical pitch interval H measured in units of cents and that disaggregates the sequence of peak word-pitches using tools employed in time-series analysis and digital signal processing. The investigators test the proposed methodology by its application to distributions in pitch interval of the peak word-pitch (collectively called the discourse gamut) that occur in simulated and actual spontaneous emotive narratives obtained from 17 middle-aged African-American adults. The analysis, in rigorous tests, not only faithfully reproduced simulated distributions imbedded in realistic time series that drift and include pitch breaks, but the protocol also reveals that the empirical distributions exhibit a common hidden structure when normalized to a slowly varying mode (called the gamut root) of their respective probability density functions. Quantitative differences between narratives reveal the speakers' relative propensity for the use of pitch levels corresponding to elevated degrees of a discourse gamut (the "e-la") superimposed upon a continuum that conforms systematically to an asymmetric Laplace distribution.

  20. Detection of dechallenge in spontaneous reporting systems: a comparison of Bayes methods. (United States)

    Banu, A Bazila; Alias Balamurugan, S Appavu; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah


    Dechallenge is a response observed for the reduction or disappearance of adverse drug reactions (ADR) on withdrawal of a drug from a patient. Currently available algorithms to detect dechallenge have limitations. Hence, there is a need to compare available new methods. To detect dechallenge in Spontaneous Reporting Systems, data-mining algorithms like Naive Bayes and Improved Naive Bayes were applied for comparing the performance of the algorithms in terms of accuracy and error. Analyzing the factors of dechallenge like outcome and disease category will help medical practitioners and pharmaceutical industries to determine the reasons for dechallenge in order to take essential steps toward drug safety. Adverse drug reactions of the year 2011 and 2012 were downloaded from the United States Food and Drug Administration's database. The outcome of classification algorithms showed that Improved Naive Bayes algorithm outperformed Naive Bayes with accuracy of 90.11% and error of 9.8% in detecting the dechallenge. Detecting dechallenge for unknown samples are essential for proper prescription. To overcome the issues exposed by Naive Bayes algorithm, Improved Naive Bayes algorithm can be used to detect dechallenge in terms of higher accuracy and minimal error.

  1. The application of backpropagation neural network method to estimate the sediment loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Gunawan Taufik


    Full Text Available Nearly all formulations of conventional sediment load estimation method were developed based on a review of laboratory data or data field. This approach is generally limited by local so it is only suitable for a particular river typology. From previous studies, the amount of sediment load tends to be non-linear with respect to the hydraulic parameters and parameter that accompanies sediment. The dominant parameter is turbulence, whereas turbulence flow velocity vector direction of x, y and z. They were affected by water bodies in 3D morphology of the cross section of the vertical and horizontal. This study is conducted to address the non-linear nature of the hydraulic parameter data and sediment parameter against sediment load data by applying the artificial neural network (ANN method. The method used is the backpropagation neural network (BPNN schema. This scheme used for projecting the sediment load from the hydraulic parameter data and sediment parameters that used in the conventional estimation of sediment load. The results showed that the BPNN model performs reasonably well on the conventional calculation, indicated by the stability of correlation coefficient (R and the mean square error (MSE.

  2. Development of a quality instrument for assessing the spontaneous reports of ADR/ADE using Delphi method in China. (United States)

    Chen, Lixun; Jiang, Ling; Shen, Aizong; Wei, Wei


    The frequently low quality of submitted spontaneous reports is of an increasing concern; to our knowledge, no validated instrument exists for assessing case reports' quality comprehensively enough. This work was conducted to develop such a quality instrument for assessing the spontaneous reports of adverse drug reaction (ADR)/adverse drug event (ADE) in China. Initial evaluation indicators were generated using systematic and literature data analysis. Final indicators and their weights were identified using Delphi method. The final quality instrument was developed by adopting the synthetic scoring method. A consensus was reached after four rounds of Delphi survey. The developed quality instrument consisted of 6 first-rank indicators, 18 second-rank indicators, and 115 third-rank indicators, and each rank indicator has been weighted. It evaluates the quality of spontaneous reports of ADR/ADE comprehensively and quantitatively on six parameters: authenticity, duplication, regulatory, completeness, vigilance level, and reporting time frame. The developed instrument was tested with good reliability and validity, which can be used to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the submitted spontaneous reports of ADR/ADE in China.

  3. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration in rivers using acoustic methods. (United States)

    Elçi, Sebnem; Aydin, Ramazan; Work, Paul A


    Acoustic Doppler current meters (ADV, ADCP, and ADP) are widely used in water systems to measure flow velocities and velocity profiles. Although these meters are designed for flow velocity measurements, they can also provide information defining the quantity of particulate matter in the water, after appropriate calibration. When an acoustic instrument is calibrated for a water system, no additional sensor is needed to measure suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This provides the simultaneous measurements of velocity and concentration required for most sediment transport studies. The performance of acoustic Doppler current meters for measuring SSC was investigated in different studies where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and suspended sediment concentration were related using different formulations. However, these studies were each limited to a single study site where neither the effect of particle size nor the effect of temperature was investigated. In this study, different parameters that affect the performance of an ADV for the prediction of SSC are investigated. In order to investigate the reliability of an ADV for SSC measurements in different environments, flow and SSC measurements were made in different streams located in the Aegean region of Turkey having different soil types. Soil samples were collected from all measuring stations and particle size analysis was conducted by mechanical means. Multivariate analysis was utilized to investigate the effect of soil type and water temperature on the measurements. Statistical analysis indicates that SNR readings ob tained from the ADV are affected by water temperature and particle size distribution of the soil, as expected, and a prediction model is presented relating SNR readings to SSC mea surements where both water temperature and sediment characteristics type are incorporated into the model. The coefficients of the suggested model were obtained using the multivariate anal ysis. Effect of high turbidity

  4. A reservoir operating method for riverine ecosystem protection, reservoir sedimentation control and water supply (United States)

    Yin, Xin-An; Yang, Zhi-Feng; Petts, Geoffrey E.; Kondolf, G. Mathias


    Riverine ecosystem protection requires the maintenance of natural flow and sediment regimes downstream from dams. In reservoir management schedules this requirement should be integrated with sedimentation control and human water supply. However, traditional eco-friendly reservoir operating methods have usually only considered the natural flow regime. This paper seeks to develop a reservoir operating method that accounts for both the natural flow and sediment regimes as well as optimizing the water supply allocations. Herein, reservoir water level (RWL), sediment-occupied ratio of reservoir volume (SOR) and rate of change of SOR (RCSOR) are adopted as three triggers of a drawdown-flushing-based sediment management policy. Two different groups of reservoir operating rule curves (RORCs) are designed for sediment-flushing and non-sediment-flushing years, and the three triggers, RWL, SOR and RCSOR, are used to change the “static” RORCs to “dynamic” ones. The approach is applied to the Wangkuai Reservoir, China to test its effectiveness. This shows that the approach can improve the flexibility of reservoir operators to balance the reservoir management, water supply management and the flow and sediment needs of the downstream riverine ecosystem.

  5. A rapid method of detecting autoantibody against FcεRIα for chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mey-Fann Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CU is a common skin disorder, with an estimated prevalence of 0.5-1.8% in most populations. Around 30-50% of CU patients have an autoimmune etiology, with autoantibodies (autoAbs against IgE, FcεRIα, and FcεRII/CD23. Although the in vivo autologous serum skin test (ASST and in vitro histamine release/activation assay are the most frequently used screening methods, these two have many limitations and do not directly measure susceptible autoAbs. This study aimed to establish an in vitro rapid screening test using recombinant autoantigen FcεRIα(rFcεRIα to improve the diagnosis of autoimmune urticaria. METHODS: Forty patients with CU and 20 healthy individuals were enrolled. After PCR-based cloning and the production of extracellular fragments of the FcεRIα protein using the E. coli expression system, serum autoAb to rFcεRIα was evaluated using in-house ELISA and rapid immunodot test. RESULTS: In ELISA-based detection, 14 out of 20 CU-ASST(+ patients exhibited anti- FcεRIα responses, whereas five of the 20 CU-ASST(- and two of the 20 non-CU patients showed autoantibody background in the assay. For the immunodot test, 55% (11/20 of the CU-ASST(+ sera exhibited anti-FcεRIα reactivity. There was no false positive among the CU-ASST(- and non-CU groups. Using clinical urticaria plus ASST(+ as the gold standard, in-house ELISA had 70% sensitivity, 82.5% specificity, and positive likelihood ratio of 4, while immunodot had 55% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and positive likelihood ratio >55. CONCLUSIONS: This study has developed a rapid immunodot method with high specificity for detecting autoAb to FcεRIαin patients with CU. Preliminary data indicates that this immunodot technique has the potential to be a routine diagnostic assay for autoimmune CU.

  6. Modified Laursen Method for Estimating Bed-Material Sediment Load (United States)


    Mr. 1Tnomas. At the time of publication of this report, Director of WES was Dr. Robert W. Whalin. Commander was COL Bruce K. Howard, EN . iv Conversion...GOrade near Bernalillo, New Mexico Middle Loop River at Dunning. Nebraska Niobrara River near Cody, Nebraska Arkansas River at Dardandle and Morrilton...comparable to results of other sediment load computation procedures. CWp 5 Appkaik of Modaed Laurmn FundconA RWtonsNp 13 IGO- 060OMM UM.TO.AM F~gur S

  7. A small-scale, portable method for extracting microplastics from marine sediments. (United States)

    Coppock, Rachel L; Cole, Matthew; Lindeque, Penelope K; Queirós, Ana M; Galloway, Tamara S


    Microplastics (plastic particles, 0.1 μm-5 mm in size) are widespread marine pollutants, accumulating in benthic sediments and shorelines the world over. To gain a clearer understanding of microplastic availability to marine life, and the risks they pose to the health of benthic communities, ecological processes and food security, it is important to obtain accurate measures of microplastic abundance in marine sediments. To date, methods for extracting microplastics from marine sediments have been disadvantaged by complexity, expense, low extraction efficiencies and incompatibility with very fine sediments. Here we present a new, portable method to separate microplastics from sediments of differing types, using the principle of density floatation. The Sediment-Microplastic Isolation (SMI) unit is a custom-built apparatus which consistently extracted microplastics from sediments in a single step, with a mean efficiency of 95.8% (±SE 1.6%; min 70%, max 100%). Zinc chloride, at a density of 1.5 g cm -3 , was deemed an effective and relatively inexpensive floatation media, allowing fine sediment to settle whilst simultaneously enabling floatation of dense polymers. The method was validated by artificially spiking sediment with low and high density microplastics, and its environmental relevance was further tested by extracting plastics present in natural sediment samples from sites ranging in sediment type; fine silt/clay (mean size 10.25 ± SD 3.02 μm) to coarse sand (mean size 149.3 ± SD 49.9 μm). The method presented here is cheap, reproducible and is easily portable, lending itself for use in the laboratory and in the field, eg. on board research vessels. By employing this method, accurate estimates of microplastic type, distribution and abundance in natural sediments can be achieved, with the potential to further our understanding of the availability of microplastics to benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  8. Estimate the Sediment Load Entering the Left Side of Mosul Dam Lake Using Four Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Qusay Mahmood Alkattan


    Full Text Available Mosul Dam is one of the important dams in Iraq, it suffers like other dams from the problem of sediment accumulation in the lake. The daily surface runoff was estimated from seven main valleys in the left bank of the lake during the period (1/1/1988-31/8/2016 by applying SWAT model. The model performance was assessed using the statistical criteria R2, IOA, NSE and T-Test, the results were good. The averages annual surface runoff from the main valleys to the lake ranged between 3.3*106 m3 to 42.1*106 m3. The daily sediment load was estimated by four methods, Bagnold method was used in SWAT sediments transport simulation, while Yang, Toffaletti methods and Excess Shear Theory were programed by MATLAB, The performance of sediments transport simulation using Bagnlod, Yang and Excess Shear Theory methods was assessed using the same four statistical criteria and the results were good, The averages annual sediment load from the main valleys to the lake were (5.78*103 - 68.62*103, (1.49*104 - 42.13*104, (8.46*103 - 160.77*103 and (4.26*104 - 78.6*104 tons for Bagnold, Yang, Excess Shear Theory and Toffaletti methods, respectively. The valley Jardiam is the main supplier of sediments to the left side of the dam lake with 56%.

  9. An acoustic method for predicting relative strengths of cohesive sediment deposits (United States)

    Reed, A. H.; Sanders, W. M.


    Cohesive sediment dynamics are fundamentally determined by sediment mineralogy, organic matter composition, ionic strength of water, and currents. These factors work to bind the cohesive sediments and to determine depositional rates. Once deposited the sediments exhibit a nonlinear response to stress and they develop increases in shear strength. Shear strength is critically important in resuspension, transport, creep, and failure predictions. Typically, shear strength is determined by point measurements, both indirectly from free-fall penetrometers or directly on cores with a shear vane. These values are then used to interpolate over larger areas. However, the remote determination of these properties would provide continuos coverage, yet it has proven difficult with sonar systems. Recently, findings from an acoustic study on cohesive sediments in a laboratory setting suggests that cohesive sediments may be differentiated using parametric acoustics; this method pulses two primary frequencies into the sediment and the resultant difference frequency is used to determine the degree of acoustic nonlinearity within the sediment. In this study, two marine clay species, kaolinite and montmorillonite, and two biopolymers, guar gum and xanthan gum were mixed to make nine different samples. The samples were evaluated in a parametric acoustic measurement tank. From the parametric acoustic measurements, the quadratic nonlinearity coefficient (beta) was determined. beta was correlated with the cation exchange capacity (CEC), an indicator of shear strength. The results indicate that increased acoustic nonlinearity correlates with increased CEC. From this work, laboratory measurements indicate that this correlation may be used evaluate geotechnical properties of cohesive sediments and may provide a means to predict sediment weakness in subaqueous environments.

  10. Evaluation and selection of test methods for assessment of contaminated sediments in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehtonen, Kari; Ahvo, Aino; Berezina, Nadya

    a set of pilot experiments, which were performed by the participating laboratories. Chemical analysis of the contaminated harbour sediment chosen as the test matrix confirmed the presence of high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organotins and trace metals, and the sediment......The purpose of the CONTEST project (2014-15) is to test, develop, evaluate and select suitable biological methods to be applied in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of toxicity of anthropogenically contaminated sediments in the Baltic Sea marine region. Here is presented results from...

  11. Sediment transport via needle ice: a new method for diffusive transport on laboratory-scale hillslopes (United States)

    Sweeney, K. E.; Roering, J. J.; Rempel, A. W.


    controlled by systematically varying the frequency and/or duration of temperature perturbations. The rate of sediment transport on soil mantled hillslopes depends on topographic slope and transport occurs in an "active layer", i.e., the soil mantle. We show that needle ice transports sediment diffusively and has great potential as a method for laboratory simulation of a soil-mantled hillslope since transport is confined to a layer only a few millimeters from the surface. Furthermore, while past experiments are limited to modeling landscape response to precipitation or uplift, our method to systematically control the vigor of hillslope processes will enable us to model potential climate-driven changes in hillslope transport efficiency.

  12. Comparison of objective methods to classify the pattern of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during mechanical ventilation and paced spontaneous breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, N C; Beda, A; Granja-Filho, P; Jandre, F C; Giannella-Neto, A; De Abreu, M G; Spieth, P M


    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a fluctuation of heart period that occurs during a respiratory cycle. It has been suggested that inspiratory heart period acceleration and expiratory deceleration during spontaneous ventilation (henceforth named positive RSA) improve the efficiency of gas exchange compared to the absence or the inversion of such a pattern (negative RSA). During mechanical ventilation (MV), for which maximizing the efficiency of gas exchange is of critical importance, the pattern of RSA is still the object of debate. In order to gain a better insight into this matter, we compared five different methods of RSA classification using the data of five mechanically ventilated piglets. The comparison was repeated using the data of 15 volunteers undergoing a protocol of paced spontaneous breathing, which is expected to result in a positive RSA pattern. The results showed that the agreement between the employed methods is limited, suggesting that the lack of a consensus about the RSA pattern during MV is, at least in part, of methodological origin. However, independently of the method used, the pattern of RSA within the respiratory cycle was not consistent among the subjects and conditions of MV considered. Also, the outcomes showed that even during paced spontaneous breathing a negative RSA pattern might be present, when a low respiratory frequency is imposed

  13. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Huang


    Full Text Available Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0–0.5 m, 0.5–1 m, 1–2 m, 2–3 m, 3–4 m, 4–5 m, 5–6 m, 6–7 m, 7–8 m, 8–10 m, and 10–12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  14. A method for disaggregating clay concretions and eliminating formalin smell in the processing of sediment samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas


    A complete handling procedure for processing sediment samples is described. It includes some improvements of conventional methods. The fixed sediment sample is mixed with a solution of the alkaline detergent AJAX® (Colgate-Palmolive). It is kept at 80-900 C for 20-40 min. This treatment facilitat...... subsequent sorting as it disaggregates clay concretions and faecal pellets ·but leaves even fragile organisms clean and unaffected. The ammonia in the detergent eliminates the formalin smell....

  15. Developing the new method measuring thickness and quality of bottom sediments in using ultrasonic wave (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tomonari; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Naohiro


    Measuring the quality and thickness of bottom sediment that it causes some environmental problem, the shortage of water storage volume and anaerobic zone in the bottom of reservoirs, takes huge costs and long time. The purpose of our research is to develop a new method to measure the thickness and size characteristics of bottom sediment using ultrasonic waves that allow obtaining the quality of it indirectly. This new method applies the echo characteristic of bottom sediment in each particle size using the higher frequency than another method, which uses for measuring geological layer at seabed survey. In this research, we attempted to estimate the particle size of bottom sediment by ultrasonic waves irradiating from two different directions such as horizontal and vertical direction, and compare these experiments. We use sediment that we sampled from the lake bottom classified by particle size. At first, we acquired the results that show a relation between particle size and intensity; the obtained echo intensities, which were observed with oscilloscope, were changed depending on the particle sizes. In addition, peaks, which were obtained by power spectrum analysis, appeared on the same frequency band even though the different particle size. However the relation between the experiments of horizontal and vertical direction is not clear. This research indicated the possibility of estimating the characteristics of each particle size in bottom sediment by ultrasonic waves.

  16. Evaluating sediment transport in flood-driven ephemeral tributaries using direct and acoustic methods. (United States)

    Stark, K.


    One common source of uncertainty in sediment transport modeling of large semi-arid rivers is sediment influx delivered by ephemeral, flood-driven tributaries. Large variations in sediment delivery are associated with these regimes due to the highly variable nature of flows within them. While there are many sediment transport equations, they are typically developed for perennial streams and can be inaccurate for ephemeral channels. Discrete, manual sampling is labor intensive and requires personnel to be on site during flooding. In addition, flooding within these tributaries typically last on the order of hours, making it difficult to be present during an event. To better understand these regimes, automated systems are needed to continuously sample bedload and suspended load. In preparation for the pending installation of an automated site on the Arroyo de los Piños in New Mexico, manual sediment and flow samples have been collected over the summer monsoon season of 2017, in spite of the logistical challenges. These data include suspended and bedload sediment samples at the basin outlet, and stage and precipitation data from throughout the basin. Data indicate a complex system; flow is generated primarily in areas of exposed bedrock in the center and higher elevations of the watershed. Bedload samples show a large coarse-grained fraction, with 50% >2 mm and 25% >6 mm, which is compatible with acoustic measuring techniques. These data will be used to inform future site operations, which will combine direct sediment measurement from Reid-type slot samplers and non-invasive acoustic measuring methods. Bedload will be indirectly monitored using pipe-style microphones, plate-style geophones, channel hydrophones, and seismometers. These instruments record vibrations and acoustic signals from bedload impacts and movement. Indirect methods for measuring of bedload have never been extensively evaluated in ephemeral channels in the southwest United States. Once calibrated

  17. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar Supported by Mineralogical-Geochemical Methods for Mapping Unroofed Cave Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teja Čeru


    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR using a special unshielded 50 MHz Rough Terrain Antenna (RTA in combination with a shielded 250 MHz antenna was used to study the capability of this geophysical method for detecting cave sediments. Allochthonous cave sediments found in the study area of Lanski vrh (W Slovenia are now exposed on the karst surface in the so-called “unroofed caves” due to a general lowering of the surface (denudation of carbonate rocks and can provide valuable evidence of the karst development. In the first phase, GPR profiles were measured at three test locations, where cave sediments are clearly evident on the surface and appear with flowstone. It turned out that cave sediments are clearly visible on GPR radargrams as areas of strong signal attenuation. Based on this finding, GPR profiling was used in several other places where direct indicators of unroofed caves or other indicators for speleogenesis are not present due to strong surface reshaping. The influence of various field conditions, especially water content, on GPR measurements was also analysed by comparing radargrams measured in various field conditions. Further mineralogical-geochemical analyses were conducted to better understand the factors that influence the attenuation in the area of cave sediments. Samples of cave sediments and soils on carbonate rocks (rendzina were taken for X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence (XRF analyses to compare the mineral and geochemical compositions of both sediments. Results show that cave sediments contain higher amounts of clay minerals and iron/aluminium oxides/hydroxides which, in addition to the thickness of cave sediments, can play an important role in the depth of penetration. Differences in the mineral composition also lead to water retention in cave sediments even through dry periods which additionally contribute to increased attenuation with respect to surrounding soils. The GPR method has proven to be reliable for

  18. Uranium distribution in Baikal sediments using SSNTD method for paleoclimate reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Zhmodik, S M; Nemirovskaya, N A; Zhatnuev, N S


    First data on local distribution of uranium in the core of Lake Baikal floor sediments (Academician ridge, VER-95-2, St 3 BC, 53 deg. 113'12'N/108 deg. 25'01'E) are presented in this paper. They have been obtained using (n,f)-radiography. Various forms of U-occurrence in floor sediments are shown, i.e. evenly disseminated, associated with clayey and diatomaceous components; micro- and macroinclusions of uranium bearing minerals - microlocations with uranium content 10-50 times higher than U-concentrations associated with clayey and diatomaceous components. Relative and absolute U-concentration can be determined for every mineral. Signs of various order periodicity of U-distribution in the core of Lake Baikal floor sediments have been found. Using (n,f)-radiography method of the study of Baikal floor sediment permits gathering of new information that can be used at paleoclimate reconstruction.

  19. Obstetric and perinatal outcomes of dichorionic twin pregnancies according to methods of conception: spontaneous versus in-vitro fertilization. (United States)

    Yang, Hyoin; Choi, Young Sik; Nam, Ka Hyun; Kwon, Ja Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han


    We have observed the inconsistent findings from various studies on twin pregnancy outcomes obtained by assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception. In most studies, however, the concrete chorionicity, regarded as a confounding factor for predicting the perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies, has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to compare obstetric and perinatal outcomes of only the dichorionic twin pregnancies according to the methods of conception: spontaneous and in-vitro fertilization (IVF). The twin pairs with dichorionicity reported from 1995 to 2008 were investigated and we divided them into two groups which consisted of 286 and 134 twins by spontaneous conception and IVF, respectively. Odds ratios for associations between IVF and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed after adjustment for maternal age and parity. There were no risk differences between the two groups regarding the obstetric complications, which include preterm delivery, preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preeclampsia, placenta previa, and abruption. Any differences were not shown in the two groups for the risk estimates of perinatal outcomes, such as low birthweight, very low birthweight, small for gestational age, Apgar scores of conception.

  20. Rapid diffusion method for physicochemical characterization of metal ligands in soils and sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.; Pelroy, R.A.


    A diffusion method is described that allows preliminary characterization of metals in soils and sediments while minimizing the potential for alteration of metal form. In addition, examples of the application of the method to model compounds of Pu in the soil are given

  1. Quasi-static method and finite element method for obtaining the modifications of the spontaneous emission rate and energy level shift near a plasmonic nanostructure. (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Jin; Tian, Meng; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Heping; Huang, Yong-Gang


    We provide numerical demonstrations of the applicability and accuracy of the quasi-static method and the finite-element method in the investigation of the modifications of the spontaneous emission rate and the energy level shift of an emitter placed near a silver-air interface or a silver nano-sphere. The analytical results are presented as a reference. Our calculations show that the finite element method is an accurate and general method. For frequency away from the radiative mode, the quasi-static method can be applied more effectively for calculating the energy level shift than the spontaneous emission rate. But for frequency around, there is a blue shift for both and this shift increases with the increasing of emitter-silver distance. Applying the theory to the nanosphere dimmer, we see similar phenomenon and find extremely large modifications of the spontaneous emission rate and energy level shift. These findings are instructive in the fields of quantum light-matter interactions.

  2. Sediment Core Extrusion Method at Millimeter Resolution Using a Calibrated, Threaded-rod. (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T; Romero, Isabel C; Larson, Rebekka A; O'Malley, Bryan J; Fridrik, Erika E; Goddard, Ethan A; Brooks, Gregg R; Hastings, David W; Rosenheim, Brad E; Hollander, David J; Grant, Guy; Mulhollan, Jim


    Aquatic sediment core subsampling is commonly performed at cm or half-cm resolution. Depending on the sedimentation rate and depositional environment, this resolution provides records at the annual to decadal scale, at best. An extrusion method, using a calibrated, threaded-rod is presented here, which allows for millimeter-scale subsampling of aquatic sediment cores of varying diameters. Millimeter scale subsampling allows for sub-annual to monthly analysis of the sedimentary record, an order of magnitude higher than typical sampling schemes. The extruder consists of a 2 m aluminum frame and base, two core tube clamps, a threaded-rod, and a 1 m piston. The sediment core is placed above the piston and clamped to the frame. An acrylic sampling collar is affixed to the upper 5 cm of the core tube and provides a platform from which to extract sub-samples. The piston is rotated around the threaded-rod at calibrated intervals and gently pushes the sediment out the top of the core tube. The sediment is then isolated into the sampling collar and placed into an appropriate sampling vessel (e.g., jar or bag). This method also preserves the unconsolidated samples (i.e., high pore water content) at the surface, providing a consistent sampling volume. This mm scale extrusion method was applied to cores collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon submarine oil release. Evidence suggests that it is necessary to sample at the mm scale to fully characterize events that occur on the monthly time-scale for continental slope sediments.

  3. Sediment Core Extrusion Method at Millimeter Resolution Using a Calibrated, Threaded-rod (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T.; Romero, Isabel C.; Larson, Rebekka A.; O'Malley, Bryan J.; Fridrik, Erika E.; Goddard, Ethan A.; Brooks, Gregg R.; Hastings, David W.; Rosenheim, Brad E.; Hollander, David J.; Grant, Guy; Mulhollan, Jim


    Aquatic sediment core subsampling is commonly performed at cm or half-cm resolution. Depending on the sedimentation rate and depositional environment, this resolution provides records at the annual to decadal scale, at best. An extrusion method, using a calibrated, threaded-rod is presented here, which allows for millimeter-scale subsampling of aquatic sediment cores of varying diameters. Millimeter scale subsampling allows for sub-annual to monthly analysis of the sedimentary record, an order of magnitude higher than typical sampling schemes. The extruder consists of a 2 m aluminum frame and base, two core tube clamps, a threaded-rod, and a 1 m piston. The sediment core is placed above the piston and clamped to the frame. An acrylic sampling collar is affixed to the upper 5 cm of the core tube and provides a platform from which to extract sub-samples. The piston is rotated around the threaded-rod at calibrated intervals and gently pushes the sediment out the top of the core tube. The sediment is then isolated into the sampling collar and placed into an appropriate sampling vessel (e.g., jar or bag). This method also preserves the unconsolidated samples (i.e., high pore water content) at the surface, providing a consistent sampling volume. This mm scale extrusion method was applied to cores collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon submarine oil release. Evidence suggests that it is necessary to sample at the mm scale to fully characterize events that occur on the monthly time-scale for continental slope sediments. PMID:27585268

  4. Extraction of spiked metals from contaminated coastal sediments: a comparison of different methods. (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Wang, Wen-Xiong


    Various extraction methods have been developed to assess metal bioavailability from sediments. In this study, we compared the extraction of Cd, Cr, and Zn from contaminated sediments using different extractants (normal seawater, acidic seawater of pH = 5. seawater with 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], and gut digestive fluids collected in vitro from deposit-feeding peanut worm Sipunculus nudus) coupled with concurrent metal speciation measurements. The influences of sediment aging on metal extraction were also examined using radiotracer-spiked techniques. Sediments aging up to 100 d did not significantly affect the partitioning of spiked Cd and Cr in different geochemical phases, but the spiked Zn was partitioned more into the reducible fraction and less into the carbonate phase with increasing sediment aging. There was a major difference in the partitioning into different geochemical phases between the spiked metals and the native metals within the 100-d sediment aging. The difference between the spiked and native Cd and Zn extraction using gut juices was somewhat smaller than the strong geochemical contrast. Metals bound with the anoxic sediments were hardly extracted by different extractants. There was a significant relationship between the extraction of spiked Cd and its distribution in the exchangeable phase (positive correlation) or in the reducible phase (negative correlation). For Cr and Zn, extraction was not correlated with their partitioning in any of the geochemical phases. Further, extraction of all three metals by digestive gut fluids was not correlated with the concentrations of simultaneously extractable metals (SEM), nor with the difference between SEM and acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Our study suggests that there were large differences in extraction among metals using different extractants and only Cd extraction was significantly related to its geochemical speciation in sediments.

  5. Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) ammocoetes exposed to contaminated Portland Harbor sediments: Method development and effects on survival, growth, and behavior. (United States)

    Unrein, Julia R; Morris, Jeffrey M; Chitwood, Rob S; Lipton, Joshua; Peers, Jennifer; van de Wetering, Stan; Schreck, Carl B


    Many anthropogenic disturbances have contributed to the decline of Pacific lampreys (Entosphenus tridentatus), but potential negative effects of contaminants on lampreys are unclear. Lamprey ammocoetes are the only detritivorous fish in the lower Willamette River, Oregon, USA, and have been observed in Portland Harbor sediments. Their long benthic larval stage places them at risk from the effects of contaminated sediment. The authors developed experimental methods to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on the growth and behavior of field-collected ammocoetes reared in a laboratory. Specifically, they developed methods to assess individual growth and burrowing behavior. Burrowing performance demonstrated high variability among contaminated sediments; however, ammocoetes presented with noncontaminated reference sediment initiated burrowing more rapidly and completed it faster. Ammocoete reemergence from contaminated sediments suggests avoidance of some chemical compounds. The authors conducted long-term exposure experiments on individually held ammocoetes using sediment collected from their native Siletz River, which included the following: contaminated sediments collected from 9 sites within Portland Harbor, 2 uncontaminated reference sediments collected upstream, 1 uncontaminated sediment with characteristics similar to Portland Harbor sediments, and clean sand. They determined that a 24-h depuration period was sufficient to evaluate weight changes and observed no mortality or growth effects in fish exposed to any of the contaminated sediments. However, the effect on burrowing behavior appeared to be a sensitive endpoint, with potentially significant implications for predator avoidance. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2092-2102. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Laboratory Evaluation of Acoustic Backscatter and LISST Methods for Measurements of Suspended Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Meral


    Full Text Available The limitation of traditional sampling method to provide detailed spatial andtemporal profiles of suspended sediment concentration has led to an interest in alternativedevices and methods based on scattering of underwater sound and light . In the presentwork, acoustic backscatter and LISST (the Laser In Situ Scattering Transmissometrydevices, and methodologies were given. Besides a laboratory study was conducted tocompare pumping methods for different sediment radiuses at the same concentration. Theglass spheres (ballotini of three different radiuses of 115, 137 and 163 μm were used toobtain suspension in the sediment tower at laboratory. A quite good agreement wasobtained between these methods and pumping results with the range at 60.6-94.2% forsediment concentration and 91.3-100% for radius measurements. These results and theother studies show that these methods have potential for research tools for sedimentstudies. In addition further studies are needed to determine the ability of these methods forsediment measurement under different water and sediment material conditions.

  7. Autoclave decomposition method for metals in soils and sediments. (United States)

    Navarrete-López, M; Jonathan, M P; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Salgado-Galeana, J A


    Leaching of partially leached metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was done using autoclave technique which was modified based on EPA 3051A digestion technique. The autoclave method was developed as an alternative to the regular digestion procedure passed the safety norms for partial extraction of metals in polytetrafluoroethylene (PFA vessel) with a low constant temperature (119.5° ± 1.5°C) and the recovery of elements were also precise. The autoclave method was also validated using two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs: Loam Soil B and Loam Soil D) and the recoveries were equally superior to the traditionally established digestion methods. Application of the autoclave was samples from different natural environments (beach, mangrove, river, and city soil) to reproduce the recovery of elements during subsequent analysis.

  8. Influence of polynucleosome preparation methods on sedimentation velocity analysis of chromatin. (United States)

    Kujirai, Tomoya; Machida, Shinichi; Osakabe, Akihisa; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi


    Chromatin dynamics and higher order structures play essential roles in genomic DNA functions. Histone variants and histone post-translational modifications are involved in the regulation of chromatin structure and dynamics, cooperatively with DNA methylation and chromatin binding proteins. Therefore, studies of higher-order chromatin conformations have become important to reveal how genomic DNA is regulated during DNA transcription, replication, recombination and repair. The sedimentation velocity analysis by analytical ultracentrifugation has been commonly used to evaluate the higher-order conformation of in vitro reconstituted polynucleosomes, as model chromatin. Three major preparation methods for the unpurified, purified, and partially purified polynucleosomes have been reported so far. It is important to clarify the effects of the different polynucleosome preparation methods on the sedimentation profiles. To accomplish this, in the present study, we prepared unpurified, purified and partially purified polynucleosomes, and compared their sedimentation velocity profiles by analytical ultracentrifugation. In addition, we tested how the histone occupancy affects the sedimentation velocities of polynucleosomes. Our results revealed how free histones and polynucleosome aggregates affect the sedimentation velocity profiles of the polynucleosomes, in the absence and presence of Mg2+ ions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Methods of analysis-Determination of pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; McWayne, Megan M.


    A method for the determination of 119 pesticides in environmental sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in support of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The pesticides included in this method were chosen through prior prioritization. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides along with degradates are included in this method and span a variety of chemical classes including, but not limited to, chloroacetanilides, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, triazines, and triazoles. Sediment samples are extracted by using an accelerated solvent extraction system (ASE®, and the compounds of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences (including sulfur) by passing the extracts through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) along with the use of either stacked graphitized carbon and alumina solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges or packed Florisil®. Chromatographic separation, detection, and quantification of the pesticides from the sediment-sample extracts are done by using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 micrograms per kilogram (μg/kg) dry weight ranged from 75 to 102 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 3 to 13 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated by using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), ranged from 0.6 to 3.4 μg/kg dry weight.

  10. Using an integrated method to estimate watershed sediment yield during heavy rain period: a case study in Hualien County, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hsu


    Full Text Available A comprehensive approach estimating sediment yield from a watershed is needed to develop better measures for mitigating sediment disasters and assessing downstream impacts. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop an integrated method, considering sediment supplies associated with soil erosion, shallow landslide and debris flow to estimate sediment yield from a debris-flow-prone watershed on a storm event basis. The integrated method is based on the HSPF and TRIGRS models for predicting soil erosion and shallow landslide sediment yield, and the FLO-2D model for calculating debris flow sediment yield. The proposed method was applied to potential debris-flow watersheds located in the Sioulin Township of Hualien County. The available data such as hourly rainfall data, historical streamflow and sediment records as well as event-based landslide inventory maps have been used for model calibration and validation. Results for simulating sediment yield have been confirmed by comparisons of observed data from several typhoon events. The verified method employed a 24-h design hyetograph with the 100-yr return period to simulate sediment yield within the study area. The results revealed that the influence of shallow landslides on sediment supply as compared with soil erosion was significant. The estimate of landslide transport capacity into a main channel indicated the sediment delivery ratio on a typhoon event basis was approximately 38.4%. In addition, a comparison of sediment yields computed from occurrence and non-occurrence of debris flow scenarios showed that the sediment yield from an occurrence condition was found to be increasing at about 14.2 times more than estimated under a non-occurrence condition. This implied watershed sediment hazard induced by debris flow may cause severe consequences.

  11. Comparability of river suspended-sediment sampling and laboratory analysis methods (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Johnson, Gregory D.


    Accurate measurements of suspended sediment, a leading water-quality impairment in many Minnesota rivers, are important for managing and protecting water resources; however, water-quality standards for suspended sediment in Minnesota are based on grab field sampling and total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis methods that have underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment in rivers compared to U.S. Geological Survey equal-width-increment or equal-discharge-increment (EWDI) field sampling and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) laboratory analysis methods. Because of this underrepresentation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, collected concurrent grab and EWDI samples at eight sites to compare results obtained using different combinations of field sampling and laboratory analysis methods.Study results determined that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis results were biased substantially low compared to EWDI sampling and SSC laboratory analysis results, respectively. Differences in both field sampling and laboratory analysis methods caused grab and TSS methods to be biased substantially low. The difference in laboratory analysis methods was slightly greater than field sampling methods.Sand-sized particles had a strong effect on the comparability of the field sampling and laboratory analysis methods. These results indicated that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods fail to capture most of the sand being transported by the stream. The results indicate there is less of a difference among samples collected with grab field sampling and analyzed for TSS and concentration of fines in SSC. Even though differences are present, the presence of strong correlations between SSC and TSS concentrations provides the opportunity to develop site specific relations to address transport processes not captured by grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods.

  12. Changes in pancreatic somatostatin content in spontaneously diabetic mice, as determined by radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, H.; Matsushima, Y.; Kanatsuka, A.; Yamamoto, M.; Kumagai, A.; Nishimura, M.


    A specific RIA for somatostatin (SRIF) was used to determine the SRIF content of the pancreas and hypothalamus in spontaneously diabetic C57BL/KsJ dbdb and C57BL/6J obob mice. In addition, SRIF- and glucagon-containing cells were examined in the pancreatic islets with an immunohistochemical technique. In dbdb mice, immunoassayable pancreatic SRIF content was increased, as was the number of SRIF- or glucagon-containing cells. In obob mice, immunoassayable pancreatic SRIF content was also increased, but no increase was noted in the number of SRIF- or glucagon-containing cells. The hypothalamic SRIF content of either strain was not different from that of controls. These results regarding pancreatic SRIF content were in accord with some but not all previous reports. These differences may be related to the age of the mice or to the conditions in which they were bred. The pancreatic SRIF increase in both dbdb and obob mice may be attributable to hyperglucagonemia, hyperglycemia, or a decrease in insulin action. Further work is necessary to clearly delineate the mechanism

  13. Comparison of the electrophoretic method with the sedimentation method for the analysis of DNA strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Osamu; Ogawa, Masaaki; Hoshi, Masaharu


    Application of electrophoresis to the analysis of DNA strand breaks was studied comparing with the sedimentation analysis. A BRL gel electrophoresis system (Type V16) was used for this study. Calf thymus DNA (1 mg/ml) irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays in SSC solution was applied to both the electrophoretic analysis and the sedimentation analysis. Lamda phage DNA and its fragments were employed as the standard size molecules. In a range from 1 k base pairs to 6 k base pairs in length for double stranded DNA or from 2 k bases to 12 k bases for single stranded DNA, the calculated average molecular weight from the electrophoresis coincided with that from the sedimentation. Number of single strand breaks and double strand breaks were 1.34 x 10 11 breaks/mg/rad (G = 0.215) and 0.48 x 10 5 breaks/mg/rad 2 , respectively. (author)

  14. Development of a sample preparation method for the analysis of current-use pesticides in sediment using gas chromatography. (United States)

    Wang, Dongli; Weston, Donald P; Ding, Yuping; Lydy, Michael J


    Pyrethroid insecticides have been implicated as the cause of sediment toxicity to Hyalella azteca in both agricultural and urban areas of California; however, for a subset of these toxic sediments (approximately 30%), the cause of toxicity remains unidentified. This article describes the analytical method development for seven additional pesticides that are being examined to determine if they might play a role in the unexplained toxicity. A pressurized liquid extraction method was optimized to simultaneously extract diazinon, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, dicofol, fenpropathrin, pyraclostrobin, and indoxacarb from sediment, and the extracts were cleaned using a two-step solid-phase extraction procedure. The final extract was analyzed for the target pesticides by gas chromatography/nitrogen-phosphorus detector (GC/NPD), and gas chromatography/electron capture detector (GC/ECD), after sulfur was removed by shaking with copper and cold crystallization. Three sediments were used as reference matrices to assess method accuracy and precision. Method detection limits were 0.23-1.8 ng/g dry sediment using seven replicates of sediment spiked at 1.0 ng/g dry sediment. Recoveries ranged from 61.6 to 118% with relative standard deviations of 2.1-17% when spiked at 5.0 and 50 ng/g dry sediment. The three reference sediments, spiked with 50 ng/g dry weight of the pesticide mixture, were aged for 0.25, 1, 4, 7, and 14 days. Recoveries of the pesticides in the sediments generally decreased with increased aging time, but the magnitude of the decline was pesticide and sediment dependent. The developed method was applied to field-collected sediments from the Central Valley of California.

  15. Early detection of Toxoplasma gondii by real-time polymerase chain reaction methods in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Saleh


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the causes of recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA is an infection by the toxoplasmosis Protozoa. In comparison, we present detailed results using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods of detection. In this study, it was tried to detect Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii by real-time PCR methods in patients with RSA. Methods: Amniotic fluid sampling was performed in the 16-20th weeks of gestation in 50 pregnant women with a history of RSA. The extracted deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In all the cases, the detection of T. gondii was negative in the peripheral blood, and amniotic fluid samples by using the molecular methods (real-time PCR. Using the serological detection methods, 6% of patients were diagnosed as positive for the immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody. In addition, the IgG antibody was positive in 46% of the patients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the serological methods lack specificity.

  16. Simulation of pure sedimentation of raindrops using quadrature method of moments (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Achintya; Jasor, Gary; Polifke, Wolfgang


    The quadrature method of moments (QMOM) is used for simulation of pure sedimentation of raindrops in a one-dimensional rainshaft. The moments have been calculated in three ways, based either on droplet diameter using two and three nodes or on droplet volume using two nodes. The method gives useful information on the range of sizes and also on spatial segregation of the droplets. The results show that all three methods give useful information about the transport processes involved and compare satisfactorily with the spectral (bin) method although use of diameter as internal coordinate is preferable from the viewpoint of quantitative agreement.

  17. Arsenic Mobility and Availability in Sediments by Application of BCR Sequential Extractions Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larios, R.; Fernandez, R.; Rucandio, M. I.


    Arsenic is a metalloid found in nature, both naturally and due to anthropogenic activities. Among them, mining works are an important source of arsenic release to the environment. Asturias is a region where important mercury mines were exploited, and in them arsenic occurs in para genesis with mercury minerals. The toxicity and mobility of this element depends on the chemical species it is found. Fractionation studies are required to analyze the mobility of this metalloid in soils and sediments. Among them, the proposed by the Bureau Community of Reference (BCR) is one of the most employed. This method attempts to divide up, by operationally defined stages, the amount of this element associated with carbonates (fraction 1), iron and manganese oxy hydroxides (fraction 2), organic matter and sulphides (fraction 3), and finally as the amount associated residual fraction to primary and secondary minerals, that is, from the most labile fractions to the most refractory ones. Fractionation of arsenic in sediments from two mines in Asturias were studied, La Soterrana and Los Rueldos. Sediments from La Soterrana showed high levels of arsenic in the non-residual phases, indicating that the majority of arsenic has an anthropogenic origin. By contrast, in sediments from Los Rueldos most of the arsenic is concentrated in the residual phase, indicating that this element remains bound to very refractory primary minerals, as is also demonstrated by the strong correlation of arsenic fractionation and the fractionation of elements present in refractory minerals, such as iron, aluminum and titanium. (Author) 51 refs.

  18. Study on small-strain behaviours of methane hydrate sandy sediments using discrete element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yanxin; Cheng Yipik [Department of Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London (UCL), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Xu Xiaomin; Soga, Kenichi [Geotechnical and Environmental Research Group, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)


    Methane hydrate bearing soil has attracted increasing interest as a potential energy resource where methane gas can be extracted from dissociating hydrate-bearing sediments. Seismic testing techniques have been applied extensively and in various ways, to detect the presence of hydrates, due to the fact that hydrates increase the stiffness of hydrate-bearing sediments. With the recognition of the limitations of laboratory and field tests, wave propagation modelling using Discrete Element Method (DEM) was conducted in this study in order to provide some particle-scale insights on the hydrate-bearing sandy sediment models with pore-filling and cementation hydrate distributions. The relationship between shear wave velocity and hydrate saturation was established by both DEM simulations and analytical solutions. Obvious differences were observed in the dependence of wave velocity on hydrate saturation for these two cases. From the shear wave velocity measurement and particle-scale analysis, it was found that the small-strain mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sandy sediments are governed by both the hydrate distribution patterns and hydrate saturation.

  19. Artificial soft sediment resuspension and high density opportunistic macroalgal mat fragmentation as method for increasing sediment zoobenthic assemblage diversity in a eutrophic lagoon. (United States)

    Martelloni, Tatiana; Tomassetti, Paolo; Gennaro, Paola; Vani, Danilo; Persia, Emma; Persiano, Marco; Falchi, Riccardo; Porrello, Salvatore; Lenzi, Mauro


    Superficial soft sediment resuspension and partial fragmentation of high density opportunistic macroalgal mats were investigated by boat to determine the impact on zoobenthic assemblages in a eutrophic Mediterranean lagoon. Sediment resuspension was used to oxidise superficial organic sediments as a method to counteract the effects of eutrophication. Likewise, artificial decay of macroalgal mat was calculated to reduce a permanent source of sediment organic matter. An area of 9ha was disturbed (zone D) and two other areas of the same size were left undisturbed (zones U). We measured chemical-physical variables, estimated algal biomass and sedimentary organic matter, and conducted qualitative and quantitative determinations of the zoobenthic species detected in sediment and among algal mats. The results showed a constant major reduction in labile organic matter (LOM) and algal biomass in D, whereas values in U remained stable or increased. In the three zones, however, bare patches of lagoon bed increased in size, either by direct effect of the boats in D or by anaerobic decay of the algal mass in U. Zoobenthic assemblages in algal mats reduced the number of species in D, probably due to the sharp reduction in biomass, but remained stable in U, whereas in all three areas abundance increased. Sediment zoobenthic assemblages increased the number of species in D, as expected, due to drastic reduction in LOM, whereas values in U remained stable and again abundance increased in all three zones. In conclusion, we confirmed that reduction of sediment organic load enabled an increase in the number of species, while the algal mats proved to be an important substrate in the lagoon environment for zoobenthic assemblages, especially when mat alternated with bare intermat areas of lagoon bed. Sediment resuspension is confirmed as a management criterion for counteracting the effects of eutrophication and improving the biodiversity of zoobenthic assemblages in eutrophic lagoon

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the simultaneous determination of emerging contaminants in freshwater sediments. (United States)

    de Sousa, Diana Nara Ribeiro; Grosseli, Guilherme Martins; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Fadini, Pedro Sergio


    Sediments are the fate of several emerging organic contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, personal care products and hormones, and therefore an important subject in environmental monitoring studies. In the present work, a simple and sensitive method was developed, validated and applied for the simultaneous extraction of atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen, propranolol, triclosan, estrone, 17-β-estradiol and 17-α-ethinylestradiol using ultrasound-assisted extraction from freshwater sediment samples followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The solvent type and extraction pH were evaluated to obtain the highest recoveries of the compounds. The best method shows absolute recoveries between 54.0 and 94.4% at 50 ng/g concentration. The method exhibits good precision with relative standard deviation ranging from 1.0-16%. The detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.006-0.067 and 0.016-0.336 ng/g, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to freshwater sediment samples collected from different sites in Jundiaí River basin of São Paulo State, Brazil. The compounds atenolol, caffeine, propranolol and triclosan were detected in all the sampling sites with concentrations of 13.8, 41.0, 28.5 and 176 ng/g, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Correlation properties of spontaneous motor activity in healthy infants: a new computer-assisted method to evaluate neurological maturation. (United States)

    Waldmeier, Sandra; Grunt, Sebastian; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Latzin, Philipp; Steinlin, Maja; Fuhrer, Katharina; Frey, Urs


    Qualitative assessment of spontaneous motor activity in early infancy is widely used in clinical practice. It enables the description of maturational changes of motor behavior in both healthy infants and infants who are at risk for later neurological impairment. These assessments are, however, time-consuming and are dependent upon professional experience. Therefore, a simple physiological method that describes the complex behavior of spontaneous movements (SMs) in infants would be helpful. In this methodological study, we aimed to determine whether time series of motor acceleration measurements at 40-44 weeks and 50-55 weeks gestational age in healthy infants exhibit fractal-like properties and if this self-affinity of the acceleration signal is sensitive to maturation. Healthy motor state was ensured by General Movement assessment. We assessed statistical persistence in the acceleration time series by calculating the scaling exponent α via detrended fluctuation analysis of the time series. In hand trajectories of SMs in infants we found a mean α value of 1.198 (95 % CI 1.167-1.230) at 40-44 weeks. Alpha changed significantly (p = 0.001) at 50-55 weeks to a mean of 1.102 (1.055-1.149). Complementary multilevel regression analysis confirmed a decreasing trend of α with increasing age. Statistical persistence of fluctuation in hand trajectories of SMs is sensitive to neurological maturation and can be characterized by a simple parameter α in an automated and observer-independent fashion. Future studies including children at risk for neurological impairment should evaluate whether this method could be used as an early clinical screening tool for later neurological compromise.

  2. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R


    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  3. Modeling artifacts in the simulation of the sedimentation of raindrops with a Quadrature Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Jasor


    Full Text Available The Quadrature Method of Moments (QMoM is applied to a one-dimensional test case for sedimentation of raindrops. Comparison of the results with a reference spectral method exhibits discrepancies (“step patterns” that must be considered as modeling artifacts. As the QMoM has been demonstrated to be effective and accurate in various contexts, the origin of these artifacts is investigated and found to be related to the transport of the quadrature abscissas. Further test cases are considered to examine the influence of different initial conditions on the development of the modeling artifacts. The study shows that these artifacts are inherent to the application of QMoM in pure sedimentation context.

  4. A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of total arsenic in sediments and its application to kinetic speciation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; RaghunadhBabu, P.V.; Sarma, V.V.

    disturbances was determined by using this method. It was observed that total As content does not correlate with the dynamic fraction of As in the sediments. Total organic carbon present in the sediments played a crucial role in controlling its bioavailability...

  5. Soil erosion planning using sediment yield index method in the Nun Nadi watershed, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Raja Naqvi


    Full Text Available The study identifies the extent of soil loss and proposes a method for prioritization of micro-watershed in the Nun Nadi watershed. The study used the Sediment Yield Index (SYI method, based on weighted overlays of soil, topography, rainfall erosivity and land use parameters in 24 micro watersheds. Accordingly the values and thematic layers were integrated as per the SYI model, and minimum and maximum sediment yield values were calculated. The priority ranks as per the sediment yield values were assigned to all micro-watersheds. Then the values were classified into four priority zones according to their composite scores. Almost 14 percent area of three micro-watersheds (SW5b, SW6a and SW7b showed very high priority; approximately 30.57 percent of the study area fell under the high priority zones. These areas require immediate attention. Conservation methods are suggested, and the locations of check dams are proposed after considering drainage, slope and soil loss. Keywords: Check dam, Prioritization, Nun Nadi watershed, Soil loss, SYI


    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  7. Microperforation prolotherapy: a novel method for successful nonsurgical treatment of atraumatic spontaneous anterior sternoclavicular subluxation, with an illustrative case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein A


    Full Text Available Alvin Stein1, Scott McAleer2, Marty Hinz31Stein Orthopedic Associates, PA, Plantation, FL, USA; 2University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA; 3Clinical Research, Neuroresearch Clinics, Inc, Cape Coral, FL, USABackground: Surgical repair of an atraumatic spontaneous anterior subluxation of the sternoclavicular joint (herein referred to as the “SCJ” is often associated with poor outcome expectations. With traditional treatment, successful conservative therapy usually incorporates major lifestyle alterations. This manuscript discusses a novel approach known as “microperforation prolotherapy”. To illustrate the technique, the care of a patient who benefitted from this treatment is reviewed.Purpose: To present a novel form of treatment with an illustrative case that demonstrates the potential efficacy of microperforation prolotherapy of the SCJ.Patient and methods: A novel approach to treatment of bilateral subluxation of the sternoclavicular joint with microperforation prolotherapy is discussed. The clinical course of a 21-year-old male with bilateral subluxation of the SCJ, which seriously hampered the patient's athletic and daily living activities, is used as a backdrop to the discussion.Results: Following microperforation prolotherapy, the instability of the SCJ was replaced by full stability, complete range of motion, and the opportunity to engage in all of the athletic endeavors previously pursued. There is no scar or other cosmetic defect resulting from the treatment received.Conclusion: Anterior sternoclavicular joint subluxation has a poor record of complete recovery with surgical procedures or conservative measures with regard to providing restoration of full lifestyle function. This manuscript documents a novel microperforation prolotherapy treatment that induced healing and restored full stability to the ligament structures responsible for the condition in a completely safe and effective fashion, allowing the patient to resume

  8. A novel method for sampling the suspended sediment load in the tidal environment using bi-directional time-integrated mass-flux sediment (TIMS) samplers (United States)

    Elliott, Emily A.; Monbureau, Elaine; Walters, Glenn W.; Elliott, Mark A.; McKee, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.


    Identifying the source and abundance of sediment transported within tidal creeks is essential for studying the connectivity between coastal watersheds and estuaries. The fine-grained suspended sediment load (SSL) makes up a substantial portion of the total sediment load carried within an estuarine system and efficient sampling of the SSL is critical to our understanding of nutrient and contaminant transport, anthropogenic influence, and the effects of climate. Unfortunately, traditional methods of sampling the SSL, including instantaneous measurements and automatic samplers, can be labor intensive, expensive and often yield insufficient mass for comprehensive geochemical analysis. In estuaries this issue is even more pronounced due to bi-directional tidal flow. This study tests the efficacy of a time-integrated mass sediment sampler (TIMS) design, originally developed for uni-directional flow within the fluvial environment, modified in this work for implementation the tidal environment under bi-directional flow conditions. Our new TIMS design utilizes an 'L' shaped outflow tube to prevent backflow, and when deployed in mirrored pairs, each sampler collects sediment uniquely in one direction of tidal flow. Laboratory flume experiments using dye and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to characterize the flow within the sampler, specifically, to quantify the settling velocities and identify stagnation points. Further laboratory tests of sediment indicate that bidirectional TIMS capture up to 96% of incoming SSL across a range of flow velocities (0.3-0.6 m s-1). The modified TIMS design was tested in the field at two distinct sampling locations within the tidal zone. Single-time point suspended sediment samples were collected at high and low tide and compared to time-integrated suspended sediment samples collected by the bi-directional TIMS over the same four-day period. Particle-size composition from the bi-directional TIMS were representative of the array of

  9. Preparation Of Deposited Sediment Sample By Casting Method For Environmental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutabarat, Tommy; Ristin PI, Evarista


    The preparation of deposited sediment sample by c asting m ethod for environmental study has been carried out. This method comprises separation of size fraction and casting process. The deposited sediment samples were wet sieved to separate the size fraction of >500 mum, (250-500) mum, (125-250) mum and (63-125) mum and settling procedures were followed for the separation of (40-63) mum, (20-40) mum, (10-20) mum and o C, ashed at 450 o C, respectively. In the casting process of sample, it was used polyester rapid cure resin and methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) hardener. The moulded sediment sample was poured onto caster, allow for 60 hours long. The aim of this method is to get the casted sample which can be used effectively, efficiently and to be avoided from contamination of each other samples. Before casting, samples were grinded up to be fine. The result shows that casting product is ready to be used for natural radionuclide analysis

  10. A robust feldspar luminescence dating method for Middle and Late Pleistocene sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.


    of the quartz luminescence signal with dose. In contrast, the feldspar infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dose–response curve grows to much higher doses; this has the potential to extend the datable age range by a factor of 4–5 compared with quartz OSL. However, it has been known for several decades...... that this IRSL signal is unstable, and this instability often gives rise to significant age underestimation. Here we test against independent age control the recently developed feldspar post-IR IRSL approach to the dating of sediments, which appears to avoid signal instability. A physical model explaining our...... observations is discussed, and the method is shown to be accurate back to 600 ka. The post-IR IRSL signal is reduced by exposure to daylight more slowly than that from quartz and low-temperature IRSL, preventing its general application to young (e.g. Holocene) sediments. Nevertheless, this new approach...

  11. Modeling artifacts in the simulation of the sedimentation of raindrops with a Quadrature Method of Moments


    Gary Jasor; Ulrike Wacker; Klaus Dieter Beheng; Wolfgang Polifke


    The Quadrature Method of Moments (QMoM) is applied to a one-dimensional test case for sedimentation of raindrops. Comparison of the results with a reference spectral method exhibits discrepancies (“step patterns”) that must be considered as modeling artifacts. As the QMoM has been demonstrated to be effective and accurate in various contexts, the origin of these artifacts is investigated and found to be related to the transport of the quadrature abscissas. Further test cases are considered to...

  12. Dispatching the wandering mind? Toward a laboratory method for cuing "spontaneous" off-task thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. McVay


    Full Text Available Cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists study most phenomena of attention by measuring subjects’ overt responses to discrete environmental stimuli that can be manipulated to test competing theories. The mind-wandering experience, however, cannot be locally instigated by cleverly engineered stimuli. Investigators must therefore rely on correlational and observational methods to understand subjects’ flow of thought, which is only occasionally and indirectly monitored. In an effort toward changing this state of affairs, we present four experiments that develop a method for inducing mind-wandering episodes – on demand – in response to task-embedded cues. In an initial laboratory session, subjects described their personal goals and concerns across several life domains (amid some filler questionnaires. In a second session, 48 hours later, subjects completed a go/no-go task in which they responded to the perceptual features of words; unbeknownst to subjects, some stimulus words were presented in triplets to represent the personal concerns they had described in session 1. Thought probes appearing shortly after these personal-goal triplets indicated that, compared to control triplets, priming subjects’ concerns increased mind-wandering rate by about 3 – 4%. We argue that this small effect is, nonetheless, a promising development toward the pursuit of an experimentally informed, theory-driven science of mind wandering.

  13. Determination of methylmercury in marine sediment samples: Method validation and occurrence data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, Luis; Vassileva, Emilia


    Highlights: • A method for MeHg determination at trace level in marine sediments is completely validated. • Validation is performed according to ISO-17025 and Eurachem guidelines. • The extraction efficiency of four sample preparation procedures is evaluated. • The uncertainty budget is used as a tool for evaluation of main uncertainty contributors. • Comparison with independent methods yields good agreement within stated uncertainty. - Abstract: The determination of methylmercury (MeHg) in sediment samples is a difficult task due to the extremely low MeHg/THg (total mercury) ratio and species interconversion. Here, we present the method validation of a cost-effective fit-for-purpose analytical procedure for the measurement of MeHg in sediments, which is based on aqueous phase ethylation, followed by purge and trap and hyphenated gas chromatography–pyrolysis–atomic fluorescence spectrometry (GC–Py–AFS) separation and detection. Four different extraction techniques, namely acid and alkaline leaching followed by solvent extraction and evaporation, microwave-assisted extraction with 2-mercaptoethanol, and acid leaching, solvent extraction and back extraction into sodium thiosulfate, were examined regarding their potential to selectively extract MeHg from estuarine sediment IAEA-405 certified reference material (CRM). The procedure based on acid leaching with HNO 3 /CuSO 4 , solvent extraction and back extraction into Na 2 S 2 O 3 yielded the highest extraction recovery, i.e., 94 ± 3% and offered the possibility to perform the extraction of a large number of samples in a short time, by eliminating the evaporation step. The artifact formation of MeHg was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP–MS), using isotopically enriched Me 201 Hg and 202 Hg and it was found to be nonexistent. A full validation approach in line with ISO 17025 and Eurachem guidelines was followed

  14. Can causality assessment fulfill the new European definition of adverse drug reaction? A review of methods used in spontaneous reporting. (United States)

    Mascolo, Annamaria; Scavone, Cristina; Sessa, Maurizio; di Mauro, Gabriella; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Orlando, Valentina; Rossi, Francesco; Sportiello, Liberata; Capuano, Annalisa


    Causality assessment is a fundamental biomedical technique for the signal detection performed by Pharmacovigilance centers in a Spontaneous reporting system. Moreover, it is a crucial and important practice for detecting preventable adverse drug reactions. Among different methods for causality assessment, algorithms (such as the Naranjo, or Begaud Methods) seem for their operational procedure and easier applicability one of the most commonly used methods. With the upcoming of the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation including in the definition of the adverse event also effects resulting from abuse, misuse and medication error, all well-known preventable causes of ADRs, there was an emerging need to evaluate whether algorithms could fulfill this new definition. In this review, twenty-two algorithmic methods were identified and none of them seemed to fulfill perfectly the new criteria of adverse event although some of them come close. In fact, several issues were arisen in applying causality assessment algorithms to these new definitions as for example the impossibility to answer the rechallenge question in case of medication error or AEFI (Adverse Event Following Immunization). Moreover, the exact conditions at which events occurred, as for example dosage or mode of administration should be considered to better assess causality in conditions of abuse/overdose, or misuse as well as in conditions of lack of expected efficacy reports for biotechnological drugs and adverse event occurring after mixing of vaccines. Therefore, this review highlights the need of updating algorithmic methods to allow a perfect applicability in all possible clinical scenarios accordingly or not with the terms of marketing authorization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A New Radiometric Correction Method for Side-Scan Sonar Images in Consideration of Seabed Sediment Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Zhao


    Full Text Available Affected by the residual of time varying gain, beam patterns, angular responses, and sonar altitude variations, radiometric distortion degrades the quality of side-scan sonar images and seriously affects the application of these images. However, existing methods cannot correct distortion effectively, especially in the presence of seabed sediment variation. This study proposes a new radiometric correction method for side-scan sonar images that considers seabed sediment variation. First, the different effects on backscatter strength (BS are analyzed, and along-track distortion is removed by establishing a linear relationship between distortion and sonar altitude. Second, because the angle-related effects on BSs with the same incident angle are the same, a novel method of unsupervised sediment classification is proposed for side-scan sonar images. Finally, the angle–BS curves of different sediments are obtained, and angle-related radiometric distortion is corrected. Experiments prove the validity of the proposed method.

  16. Method for the purification of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment for compound-specific isotope analysis. (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hua-Shan; Chen, She-Jun; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian


    A purification method for lower polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, from tri- to hexa-BDE) in sediment for compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was developed in this study. The compounds were extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus with addition of activated alumina and Florisil in the paper tube during the Soxhlet extraction provided for less complex extracts. Then, the extract was isolated from polar compounds using a multi-layer silica gel column, separated into different fractions using alumina/silica (Al/Si) gel columns and finally purified using a Florisil column. The mean recoveries of the major PBDE congeners in the spiked samples ranged from 76.2% to 82.4%. The purity of the samples was verified by GC-MS in full scan mode. The stable isotopic integrity of the spiked samples after the purification was tested by comparing the stable carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) of the processed and the unprocessed standard materials. The differences in the δ(13)C values for each compound between the processed and unprocessed standards were less than 0.5‰, with the exception of BDE100 (0.54‰). Finally, the purification and isotope analysis method was successfully applied to measure the δ(13)C of PBDEs in sediments. This application of the method indicated that CSIA seems to be a promising method for providing intrinsic characteristics for further environmental fate studies of PBDEs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A New Search Method Using Association Rule Mining for Drug-Drug Interaction Based on Spontaneous Report System. (United States)

    Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Ueno, Anri; Otsubo, Manami; Katsuno, Hayato; Sugita, Ikuto; Kanematsu, Yuta; Yoshida, Aki; Esaki, Hiroki; Tachi, Tomoya; Teramachi, Hitomi


    Background: Adverse events (AEs) can be caused not only by one drug but also by the interaction between two or more drugs. Therefore, clarifying whether an AE is due to a specific suspect drug or drug-drug interaction (DDI) is useful information for proper use of drugs. Whereas previous reports on the search for drug-induced AEs with signal detection using spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) are numerous, reports on drug interactions are limited. This is because in methods that use "a safety signal indicator" (signal), which is frequently used in pharmacovigilance, a huge number of combinations must be prepared when signal detection is performed, and each risk index must be calculated, which makes interaction search appear unrealistic. Objective: In this paper, we propose association rule mining (AR) using large dataset analysis as an alternative to the conventional methods (additive interaction model (AI) and multiplicative interaction model (MI)). Methods: The data source used was the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. The combination of drugs for which the risk index is detected by the "combination risk ratio (CR)" as the target was assumed to be true data, and the accuracy of signal detection using the AR methods was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, F -score. Results: Our experimental results targeting Stevens-Johnson syndrome indicate that AR has a sensitivity of 99.05%, specificity of 92.60%, Youden's index of 0.917, F -score of 0.876, AI has a sensitivity of 95.62%, specificity of 96.92%, Youden's index of 0.925, and F -score of 0.924, and MI has a sensitivity of 65.46%, specificity of 98.78%, Youden's index of 0.642, and F -score of 0.771. This result was about the same level as or higher than the conventional method. Conclusions: If you use similar calculation methods to create combinations from the database, not only for SJS, but for all AEs, the number of combinations would be so enormous that it would be

  18. Suspended sediment assessment by combining sound attenuation and backscatter measurements - analytical method and experimental validation (United States)

    Guerrero, Massimo; Di Federico, Vittorio


    The use of acoustic techniques has become common for estimating suspended sediment in water environments. An emitted beam propagates into water producing backscatter and attenuation, which depend on scattering particles concentration and size distribution. Unfortunately, the actual particles size distribution (PSD) may largely affect the accuracy of concentration quantification through the unknown coefficients of backscattering strength, ks2, and normalized attenuation, ζs. This issue was partially solved by applying the multi-frequency approach. Despite this possibility, a relevant scientific and practical question remains regarding the possibility of using acoustic methods to investigate poorly sorted sediment in the spectrum ranging from clay to fine sand. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of combining the measurement of sound attenuation and backscatter to determine ζs for the suspended particles and the corresponding concentration. The proposed method is moderately dependent from actual PSD, thus relaxing the need of frequent calibrations to account for changes in ks2 and ζs coefficients. Laboratory tests were conducted under controlled conditions to validate this measurement technique. With respect to existing approaches, the developed method more accurately estimates the concentration of suspended particles ranging from clay to fine sand and, at the same time, gives an indication on their actual PSD.

  19. Solvent-free method for the determination of lignin-derived phenols in sediments. (United States)

    Pinto, Mayara; Frena, Morgana; Dos Santos Madureira, Luiz Augusto


    A solvent-free method that uses headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with flame ionization detection is proposed for the determination of lignin-derived phenols in sediments. The extraction and derivatization conditions for the simultaneous analysis of acetosyringone, acetovanillone, syringaldehyde, vanillin, ferulic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid were optimized using a central composite design. After optimization, the best results were obtained with the following conditions: exposure of the polyacrylate fiber to the headspace with 60 μL of N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide as a derivatizing agent for 15 min and then extraction in the headspace of 100 mg of sediment (previously spiked with lignin-derived phenols) for 35 min. The accuracy of the method was estimated based on recovery tests at two concentration levels and by comparison with a high-performance liquid chromatography method reported in the literature. Based on the t-test with a confidence level of 95%, no statistical differences were observed. The detection and quantification limits for the target compounds varied according to their characteristics: values at the microgram per gram level for nonacid compounds and milligram per gram level for phenolic acids, due to the lower volatility of the derivatives. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The T-TEL Method for Assessing Water, Sediment, and Chemical Connectivity (United States)

    Ali, Genevieve; Oswald, Claire; Spence, Christopher; Wellen, Christopher


    The concept of connectivity has been the subject of a great deal of recent research and provided new insights and breakthroughs on runoff generation processes and watershed biogeochemistry. However, a consensus definition and cohesive mathematical framework that would permit the consistent quantification of hydrologic connectivity, the examination of the interrelationships between water and material (e.g., sediment and chemicals) connectivity, or rigorous study intercomparison, have not been presented by the water resource community. Building on previous conceptualizations and site-specific or process-specific metrics, this paper aimed to review the current state of science on hydrologic connectivity and its role in water-mediated connectivity of material such as solutes and sediment before introducing a conceptual and a mathematical connectivity assessment framework. These frameworks rely on the quantification of Time scales, Thresholds, Excesses and Losses related to water and water-mediated material transport dynamics and are referred to as the T-TEL method. Through a small case study, we show how the T-TEL method allows a wide range of properties to be quantified, namely the occurrence, frequency, duration, magnitude, and spatial extent of water and water-mediated material connectivity. We also propose a research agenda to refine the T-TEL method and ensure its usefulness for facilitating the research and management of connectivity in pristine and human-impacted landscapes.

  1. Microbial Communities and Diversities in Mudflat Sediments Analyzed Using a Modified Metatranscriptomic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Wei Yan


    Full Text Available Intertidal mudflats are land–sea interaction areas and play important roles in global nutrient cycles. However, a comprehensive understanding of microbial communities in these mudflats remains elusive. In this study, mudflat sediment samples from the Dongtan wetland of Chongming Island, the largest alluvial island in the world, were collected. Using a modified metatranscriptomic method, the depth-wise distributions of potentially active microbial communities were investigated based on small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA sequences. Multiple environmental factors were also measured and analyzed in conjunction with the prokaryotic composition profiles. A prokaryotic diversity analysis based on the metatranscriptome datasets revealed two or threefold higher diversity indices (associated with potentially active microbes participating in biogeochemical processes in Dongtan compared with the diversity indices based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Bacteria were numerically dominant relative to archaea, and the potentially active prokaryotic taxa were mostly assigned to the bacterial phyla Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and the classes Delta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, along with the archaeal lineages phylum Bathyarchaeota and the order Thermoplasmatales. The total nitrogen and carbon content of the sediment samples were environmental factors that significantly affected the depth-wise distributions of both bacterial and archaeal communities. Furthermore, the activity of potentially active taxa (including the prevalent order Desulfobacterales and family Anaerolineaceae appeared to be significantly underestimated by PCR-based methods, notably at the DNA level, and indicates that using normal PCR amplification of DNA limits the study of potential microbial activity. This is the first study of potentially active microbial communities in depth-wise sediments from Dongtan. The improved knowledge of microbial communities in Dongtan provides a

  2. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloeve, B.


    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs.

  3. Comparison of different water pollution control methods in decreaseing sediment load from peat mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeve, B.


    Different water treatment alternatives used to reduce sediment from peat mines were compared with a mathematical model. The simulation tested the benefit of different alternatives to reduce sediment transport during a simulated storm. Traditional structures such as bed ditch pipe barriers, sedimentation ponds were compared against new alternatives such as artificial floodplains, and peak runoff control structures. The results of simulations show that detention of peak discharge is the most efficient way to reduce sediment transport. When runoff peaks are reduced traditional sedimentation ponds seem to have a smaller effect on sediment transport; increased settling is achieved by using shallow settling basins such as artificial floodplains. (orig.) 21 refs

  4. A field-based microcosm method to assess the effects of polluted urban stream sediments on aquatic macroinvertebrates. (United States)

    Pettigrove, Vincent; Hoffmann, Ary


    A method using field-based microcosms was developed to determine the effects of contaminated sediments on aquatic macroinvertebrates. Fine sediments from nonpolluted, moderately polluted, and severely polluted bodies of water were placed in microcosms positioned within the littoral zone of a nonpolluted wetland near Melbourne (Victoria, Australia). In three experiments, 47 taxa, including 18 Chironomidae, 6 taxa from other Diptera families, and 7 Hemiptera taxa, colonized the microcosms, mostly via eggs deposited by flying adults. The effects of sediment type on the presence and abundance of common taxa were considered statistically. Pollution levels in sediments (indexed either by a principal components analysis or by the concentration of zinc, the predominant metal) resulted in reduced occurrence and abundance of eight taxa but had no effect on another five taxa. These findings were validated with an extensive field database for the distribution of macroinvertebrates and associated concentrations of zinc in sediments from streams and wetlands in the Melbourne region. The occurrence of eight taxa and the abundance of two taxa varied at similar zinc concentrations in sediments from both the microcosms and the field. Patterns for another two species did not match the microcosm results, but these groups contained multiple species with potentially diverse responses. The present results suggest that contaminant levels in sediments probably have a direct effect on the occurrence and abundance of macroinvertebrates in bodies of water in urban areas. The microcosm method can be used to gather information regarding the effects of sediment quality on macroinvertebrates in lentic habitats, particularly for indigenous species that cannot be easily reared or tested in laboratory conditions. Because almost all macroinvertebrates in microcosms develop from eggs, the most sensitive life stages (i.e., first and second instars) are exposed to polluted sediments.

  5. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  6. Mercury flux from salt marsh sediments: Insights from a comparison between 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium and core incubation methods (United States)

    Shi, Xiangming; Mason, Robert P.; Charette, Matthew A.; Mazrui, Nashaat M.; Cai, Pinghe


    In aquatic environments, sediments are the main location of mercury methylation. Thus, accurate quantification of methylmercury (MeHg) fluxes at the sediment-water interface is vital to understanding the biogeochemical cycling of mercury, especially the toxic MeHg species, and their bioaccumulation. Traditional approaches, such as core incubations, are difficult to maintain at in-situ conditions during assays, leading to over/underestimation of benthic fluxes. Alternatively, the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium method for tracing the transfer of dissolved substances across the sediment-water interface, has proven to be a reliable approach for quantifying benthic fluxes. In this study, the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium and core incubation methods were compared to examine the benthic fluxes of both 224Ra and MeHg in salt marsh sediments of Barn Island, Connecticut, USA from May to August, 2016. The two methods were comparable for 224Ra but contradictory for MeHg. The radiotracer approach indicated that sediments were always the dominant source of both total mercury (THg) and MeHg. The core incubation method for MeHg produced similar results in May and August, but an opposite pattern in June and July, which suggested sediments were a sink of MeHg, contrary to the evidence of significant MeHg gradients between overlying water and porewater at the sediment-water interface. The potential reasons for such differences are discussed. Overall, we conclude that the 224Ra/228Th disequilibrium approach is preferred for estimating the benthic flux of MeHg and that sediment is indeed an important MeHg source in this marshland, and likely in other shallow coastal waters.

  7. Acoustic characterization of seafloor sediment employing a hybrid method of neural network architecture and fuzzy algorithm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, C.; Chakraborty, B.

    Seafloor sediment is characterized acoustically in the western continental shelf of India using the echo features extracted from normal incidence single-beam echo sounder backscatter returns at 33 and 210 kHz. The seafloor sediment characterization...

  8. The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation (United States)

    Durner, Wolfgang; Iden, Sascha C.; von Unold, Georg


    The particle-size distribution (PSD) of a soil expresses the mass fractions of various sizes of mineral particles which constitute the soil material. It is a fundamental soil property, closely related to most physical and chemical soil properties and it affects almost any soil function. The experimental determination of soil texture, i.e., the relative amounts of sand, silt, and clay-sized particles, is done in the laboratory by a combination of sieving (sand) and gravitational sedimentation (silt and clay). In the latter, Stokes' law is applied to derive the particle size from the settling velocity in an aqueous suspension. Traditionally, there are two methodologies for particle-size analysis from sedimentation experiments: the pipette method and the hydrometer method. Both techniques rely on measuring the temporal change of the particle concentration or density of the suspension at a certain depth within the suspension. In this paper, we propose a new method which is based on the pressure in the suspension at a selected depth, which is an integral measure of all particles in suspension above the measuring depth. We derive a mathematical model which predicts the pressure decrease due to settling of particles as function of the PSD. The PSD of the analyzed sample is identified by fitting the simulated time series of pressure to the observed one by inverse modeling using global optimization. The new method yields the PSD in very high resolution and its experimental realization completely avoids any disturbance by the measuring process. A sensitivity analysis of different soil textures demonstrates that the method yields unbiased estimates of the PSD with very small estimation variance and an absolute error in the clay and silt fraction of less than 0.5%

  9. New Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Smear Slides in Pelagic and Hemi-Pelagic Sediments of the Bering Sea (United States)

    Drake, M. K.; Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.


    Petrographic microscopy of smear slides is the standard method to initially investigate marine sediments in core sediment studies (e.g. IODP expeditions). The technique is not commonly used in more complex analysis due to concerns over the subjectivity of the method and variability in operator training and experience. Two initiatives sponsored by Ocean Leadership, a sedimentology training workshop and a digital reference of smear slide components (Marsaglia et al., 2013) have been implemented to address the need for advanced training. While the influence of subjectivity on the quality of data has yet to be rigorously tested, the lack of standardization in the current method of smear slide analysis (SSA) remains a concern. The relative abundance of the three main components, (total diatoms, silt-to-sand sized siliciclastics, and clay minerals) of high and low density Bering Sea hemi-pelagic sediments from the ocean margin (Site U144; Site U1339) and pelagic sediments from the open-ocean (Site U1340) were analyzed. Our analyses show visual estimation is a reproducible method to quantify the relative abundance of the main sediment components. Furthermore, we present a modified method for SSA, with procedural changes objectively guided by statistical analyses, including constraints to increase randomness and precision in both the preparation and analysis of the smear slide. For example, repeated measure ANOVAs found a smear slide could be accurately quantified by counting three fields of view. Similarly, the use of replicate smear slides to quantify a sample was analyzed. Finally, the data produced from this modified SSA shows a strong correlation to continuously logged physical parameters of sediment such as gamma ray attenuation (Site U1339 r2= 0.41; Site U1340 r2= 0.36). Therefore, the modified SSA combined with other independent methods (e.g. laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical properties) can be a very effective tool for the

  10. A flexible and accurate method to estimate the mode and stability of spontaneous coordinated behaviors: The index-of-stability (IS) analysis. (United States)

    Zelic, Gregory; Varoqui, Deborah; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris


    Patterns of coordination result from the interaction between (at least) two oscillatory components. This interaction is typically understood by means of two variables: the mode that expresses the shape of the interaction, and the stability that is the robustness of the interaction in this mode. A potent method of investigating coordinated behaviors is to examine the extent to which patterns of coordination arise spontaneously. However, a prominent issue faced by researchers is that, to date, no standard methods exist to fairly assess the stability of spontaneous coordination. In the present study, we introduce a new method called the index-of-stability (IS) analysis. We developed this method from the phase-coupling (PC) analysis that has been traditionally used for examining locomotion-respiration coordinated systems. We compared the extents to which both methods estimate the stability of simulated coordinated behaviors. Computer-generated time series were used to simulate the coordination of two rhythmic components according to a selected mode m:n and a selected degree of stability. The IS analysis was superior to the PC analysis in estimating the stability of spontaneous coordinated behaviors, in three ways: First, the estimation of stability itself was found to be more accurate and more reliable with the IS analysis. Second, the IS analysis is not constrained by the limitations of the PC analysis. Third and last, the IS analysis offers more flexibility, and so can be adapted according to the user's needs.

  11. Evaluation methods for assessing effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals. (United States)

    Song, Biao; Zeng, Guangming; Gong, Jilai; Liang, Jie; Xu, Piao; Liu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen; Cheng, Min; Liu, Yang; Ye, Shujing; Yi, Huan; Ren, Xiaoya


    Soil and sediment contamination has become a critical issue worldwide due to its great harm to the ecological environment and public health. In recent years, many remediation technologies including physical, chemical, biological, and combined methods have been proposed and adopted for the purpose of solving the problems of soil and sediment contamination. However, current research on evaluation methods for assessing these remediation technologies is scattered and lacks valid and integrated evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness. This paper provides a comprehensive review with an environmental perspective on the evaluation methods for assessing the effectiveness of in situ remediation of soil and sediment contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals. The review systematically summarizes recent exploration and attempts of the remediation effectiveness assessment based on the content of pollutants, soil and sediment characteristics, and ecological risks. Moreover, limitations and future research needs of the practical assessment are discussed. These limitations are not conducive to the implementation of the abatement and control programs for soil and sediment contamination. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the evaluation methods for assessing the remediation effectiveness while developing new in situ remediation technologies in future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H.J. de [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands); Centre for Ecosystem Studies, Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail:; Griethuysen, C. van; Koelmans, A.A. [Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen (Netherlands)


    Sediment treatment and sediment storage may alter sediment toxicity, and consequently biotic response. Purpose of our study was to combine these three aspects (treatment-toxicity-biotic response) in one integrated approach. We used Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) concentrations as a proxy of the disturbance of the sediment. AVS and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) concentrations were compared to bioassay responses with the freshwater benthic macroinvertebrate Asellus aquaticus. Storage conditions and sediment treatment affected AVS but not SEM levels. AVS can be used as a proxy for sediment disturbance. The best way to pretreat the sediment for use in a bioassay in order to maintain initial AVS conditions was to sample the sediment with an Ekman grab, immediately store it in a jar without headspace, and freeze it as soon as possible. In a survey using seven different sediments, bioassay responses of A. aquaticus were correlated with SEM and AVS characteristics. - Change in AVS is a good proxy for sediment disturbance and combined with SEM it can be used as a suitable predictor for biotic effects of sediment contamination.

  13. Luminescence Dating of Sediments: An Increasingly Diverse Family of Methods and Range of Applications (United States)

    Roberts, H. M.


    In recent years, the term 'luminescence dating' has expanded its meaning such that today it encompasses a range of luminescence dating methods and materials. Whilst the fundamental principles that underlie these different dating methods are essentially the same, namely that the event typically being recorded is the last exposure of the material to light or to heat, the various luminescence dating techniques do differ in their suitability in different situations. Today, in the field of luminescence dating of sediments, there are a number of minerals that can be used for dating (quartz and feldspar being the most commonly used), and for each mineral it is possible to obtain a number of different luminescence signals (some obtained using optical stimulation, and some obtained by heating). These different luminescence signals may build-up and deplete in the natural environment at different rates from each other, and can span quite different time ranges. Additionally, the scale of analysis used in luminescence dating can now be varied (ranging from single sand-sized grains to multiple grains), as can the size range of the materials used for dating (ranging from fine-silt, coarse-silt, and sand-sized grains, through to large clasts and rock surfaces). Having such flexibility in the range of minerals, luminescence signals, grain sizes, and the scales of analysis available for dating, means that it is now possible to optimise the materials and methods selected for dating in any particular study in response to the precise scientific question to be addressed, the time-range of interest, and the likely mechanisms of re-setting of the luminescence signal in the context that is to be dated. In this paper, the flexibility offered by the growing family of luminescence techniques will be outlined by considering some of the different minerals, luminescence signals, and dramatically different timescales (tens of years to millions of years) potentially available for sediment dating

  14. An improved method for counting bacteria from sediments and turbid environments by epifluorescence microscopy. (United States)

    Lunau, Mirko; Lemke, Andreas; Walther, Katja; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Simon, Meinhard


    We present a new procedure for effectively detaching particle-associated bacteria by 10% (v/v) methanol and sonication which is particularly suitable for samples with a high particle load and sediments. We also optimized the sample preparation by applying the highly dsDNA-specific fluorescent stain SybrGreen I together with an optically brilliant mounting medium (polyvinylalcohol 4-88, 'moviol') in one step. The new protocol allows a much faster, easy and less toxic handling of samples as compared to other methods. Cells are stained directly on a black Nuclepore filter and show an intensive fluorescence signal with low background. The detachment procedure was optimized with respect to the temperature of the 10% methanol solution (35 degrees C), ultrasonication and centrifugation. The application of the new method in comparison with detachment procedures with pyrophosphate and Tween-80 with various types of marine samples including sediments always yielded higher numbers and/or higher fractions of particle-associated cells. Staining and mounting the samples with the moviol-SybrGreen I solution allowed an accurate and highly reproduceable enumeration of bacteria also in samples with high concentrations of SPM. Fixation of bacteria by glutardialdehyde resulted in a brighter fluorescence as compared to fixation by formalin. Because of the high specificity to dsDNA and bright fluorescence of SybrGreen I, the fast and easy handling and the possibility to store stained samples for at least several months at -20 degrees C without any loss in fluorescence intensity, the newly developed method is also an attractive alternative to DAPI staining of aquatic bacteria.

  15. Analysis of methods to determine the sediment retained by check dams and to estimate erosion rates in badlands. (United States)

    Ramos-Diez, Iván; Navarro-Hevia, Joaquín; San Martín Fernández, Roberto; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Virginia; Mongil-Manso, Jorge


    Check dams are useful structures at a catchment scale to determine erosion rates using the sediment retained in their wedges. Several studies employ different complex, accurate methods to estimate them. We likewise evaluate which catchment variables affect these erosion rate values. Our study aims to compare five frequently used methods (two prismatic and three topographic) to evaluate how they estimate total sediment yield (TSY) at two locations in Central Spain. For this purpose, we determine the sediment trapped in each area by 25 check dams built during the twentieth century. We also evaluate the catchment variables influencing TSY rates. Results show differences between methods in TSY determinations at the 90 % confidence level, although there are no differences between locations or the location-method iteration. We found that the natural logarithm of the drainage area was the factor that best explained TSY, presenting a negative trend (partial correlation coefficient, 0.83). Vegetation cover factor had no influence in estimating TSY for the two locations. We conclude that the determination of TSY rates depends on the chosen method and four related variables: check dam length, check dam height, wedge length and check dam drainage area. Furthermore, it is important to analyse and select the best method to estimate erosion rates based on the sediment retained by check dams depending on the characteristics of the study area (channel and sediment wedge shape), method accuracy and field effort. A more accurate estimation of erosion rates will allow researchers to determine the role of check dams in controlling sediment in each specific restoration project.

  16. Assessment of Sediment Heavy Metals Pollution Using Screening Methods (XRF, TGA/MS, XRPD and Earthworms Bioassay) (United States)

    Findoráková, Lenka; Šestinová, Ol'ga; Hančul'ák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Zorkovská, Anna


    The aim of this study is focused on the use of screening methods (TG/DTA coupled with MS, XRF, AAS, XRPD and earthworm bioassay) for sediments pollution assessing by heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg) coming from the former mining workloads in the central Spis, Eastern Slovakia. The screening methods (XRF, AAS) indicated pollution of studied sediments by Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg. The earthworms Dendrobaena veneta caused in some studied samples decrease of heavy metals concentration after their 7 days’ exposure in sediments. The other screening methods such as thermal analysis and XRPD analysis, does not confirm the specifically changes in physicochemical properties comparing the properties before and after 7 days’ earthworm's exposure.

  17. A disintegration method for direct counting of bacteria in clay-dominated sediments: dissolving silicates and subsequent fluorescent staining of bacteria. (United States)

    Boenigk, Jens


    The masking of bacteria by abundant microparticles of the clay and silt fraction and cell losses due to sonication hampered direct enumeration of bacteria in sediments dominated by fine sediments. These problems can be circumvented by dissolving silicate fine particles using hydrofluoric acid and subsequent staining of bacteria by DTAF. The developed disintegration method partly replaces mechanical separation of bacteria from sediment particles by chemical disintegration of the silicates. Recovery efficiency ranged from 90% to 111% for different clays and clay-dominated sediments. Especially for the analysis of fine sediments and clays, this method circumvents both strong dilution of the sediment sample and harsh sonication. The method can also therefore be used in sediments where particle abundance is several orders of magnitude higher than bacterial abundance and simple dilution would not suffice in reliably counting bacteria.

  18. Analytical method comparisons for the accurate determination of PCBs in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M.; Yarita, T.; Aoyagi, Y.; Yamazaki, M.; Takatsu, A. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)


    National Metrology Institute of Japan in National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has been developing several matrix reference materials, for example, sediments, water and biological tissues, for the determinations of heavy metals and organometallic compounds. The matrix compositions of those certified reference materials (CRMs) are similar to compositions of actual samples, and those are useful for validating analytical procedures. ''Primary methods of measurements'' are essential to obtain accurate and SI-traceable certified values in the reference materials, because the methods have the highest quality of measurement. However, inappropriate analytical operations, such as incomplete extraction of analytes or crosscontamination during analytical procedures, will cause error of analytical results, even if one of the primary methods, isotope-dilution, is utilized. To avoid possible procedural bias for the certification of reference materials, we employ more than two analytical methods which have been optimized beforehand. Because the accurate determination of trace POPs in the environment is important to evaluate their risk, reliable CRMs are required by environmental chemists. Therefore, we have also been preparing matrix CRMs for the determination of POPs. To establish accurate analytical procedures for the certification of POPs, extraction is one of the critical steps as described above. In general, conventional extraction techniques for the determination of POPs, such as Soxhlet extraction (SOX) and saponification (SAP), have been characterized well, and introduced as official methods for environmental analysis. On the other hand, emerging techniques, such as microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), give higher recovery yields of analytes with relatively short extraction time and small amount of solvent, by reasons of the high

  19. Characterization of bottom sediments in lakes using hydroacoustic methods and comparison with laboratory measurements. (United States)

    Anderson, Michael A; Pacheco, Porfirio


    The acoustical properties of bottom sediments in two lakes were shown to be strongly correlated with clay content, organic C and total N concentrations, and other important sediment properties. The fractal dimension of the bottom echo was more strongly correlated with sediment physical and chemical properties than energy-based measures. The fractal dimension was also related to rates of PO4-P and NH4-N release from intact sediment cores and sediment oxygen demand. Measurements made at 430-kHz were more sensitive to differences in sediment properties than 201- or 38-kHz. Hydroacoustic measurements allow rapid assessment of properties important in lake restoration and water resource management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.


    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  1. Estimating Population Turnover Rates by Relative Quantification Methods Reveals Microbial Dynamics in Marine Sediment. (United States)

    Kevorkian, Richard; Bird, Jordan T; Shumaker, Alexander; Lloyd, Karen G


    The difficulty involved in quantifying biogeochemically significant microbes in marine sediments limits our ability to assess interspecific interactions, population turnover times, and niches of uncultured taxa. We incubated surface sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, USA, anoxically at 21°C for 122 days. Sulfate decreased until day 68, after which methane increased, with hydrogen concentrations consistent with the predicted values of an electron donor exerting thermodynamic control. We measured turnover times using two relative quantification methods, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the product of 16S gene read abundance and total cell abundance (FRAxC, which stands for "fraction of read abundance times cells"), to estimate the population turnover rates of uncultured clades. Most 16S rRNA reads were from deeply branching uncultured groups, and ∼98% of 16S rRNA genes did not abruptly shift in relative abundance when sulfate reduction gave way to methanogenesis. Uncultured Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales increased at the onset of methanogenesis with population turnover times estimated from qPCR at 9.7 ± 3.9 and 12.6 ± 4.1 days, respectively. These were consistent with FRAxC turnover times of 9.4 ± 5.8 and 9.2 ± 3.5 days, respectively. Uncultured Syntrophaceae , which are possibly fermentative syntrophs of methanogens, and uncultured Kazan-3A-21 archaea also increased at the onset of methanogenesis, with FRAxC turnover times of 14.7 ± 6.9 and 10.6 ± 3.6 days. Kazan-3A-21 may therefore either perform methanogenesis or form a fermentative syntrophy with methanogens. Three genera of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulfovibrio , Desulfobacter , and Desulfobacterium , increased in the first 19 days before declining rapidly during sulfate reduction. We conclude that population turnover times on the order of days can be measured robustly in organic-rich marine sediment, and the transition from sulfate-reducing to methanogenic conditions stimulates

  2. Terrestrial photography as method to identify sediment sources in eroding rills (United States)

    Wirtz, Stefan; Remke, Alexander; Wengel, René; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.


    One weak point in available studies on erosion processes in eroding rills is the lack of information about the real source of transported sediment. So far, such sources can only be identified by observation during the event or the experiment. Quantification is not possible by this way, additionally only large and clear visible changes are considered. In this study we present a method to quantify even small topographical changes in eroding rills during experiments or real rainfall events. We tested the suitability of DEMs created from terrestrial stereo photographies before and after application of artificial runoff to quantify eroded, transported and sedimented material in the rill. In 1 m intervals, pairs of photos are taken along the tested rills. The setup ensures that both cameras are moved with a constant parallax. The height of only about 1 m above ground level ensures that even low quantities of moved material can be identified. Based on technical data of the camera and the shot level, the theoretical accuracy of the images is below 1 mm horizontal ground resolution. The camera carrier bases on a rotating tower crane which has been developed from a customary survey tripod. The stereo images are combined with free-hand photographies from different angles of view to reach overhangs in rill sidewalls and ensure a fully 3D representation of the rill. In the analyses of the photographies 2 different kinds of software are used: The standard software Leica Photogrammetry Suite requires stereo images and ground control points whereas the open source software package is able to handle either stereo images as well as free-hand photographies. Ground control points are not needed, the software identifies point clusters which are to find in overlapping images. Using these feature-points, spatial marks are positioned which are used to match and rectify the single images to get an apposite panorama. By this way images from very different angles of view can be combined. The

  3. Evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula environment by NAA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muryono, H.; Sumining; Agus Taftazani; Kris Tri Basuki; Sukarman, A.


    The evaluation of trace elements distribution in water, sediment, soil and cassava plant in Muria peninsula by NAA method were done. The nuclear power plant (NPP) and the coal power plant (CPP) will be built in Muria peninsula, so, the Muria peninsula is an important site for samples collection and monitoring of environment. River-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant were choosen as specimens samples from Muria peninsula environment. The analysis result of trace elements were used as a contributed data for environment monitoring before and after NPP was built. The trace elements in specimens of river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava plant samples were analyzed by INAA method. It was found that the trace elements distribution were not evenly distributed. Percentage of trace elements distribution in river-water, sediment, dryland-soil and cassava leaves were 0.00026-0.037% in water samples, 0.49-62.7% in sediment samples, 36.29-99.35% in soil samples and 0.21-99.35% in cassava leaves. (author)

  4. Modeling water and sediment trapping by vegetated filters using vfsmod: comparing methods for estimating infiltration parameters (United States)

    Amanda L. Fox; Dean E. Eisenhauer; Michael G. Dosskey


    Vegetated filters (buffers) are used to intercept overland runoff and reduce sediment and other contaminant loads to streams (Dosskey, 2001). Filters function by reducing runoff velocity and volume, thus enhancing sedimentation and infiltration. lnfiltration is the main mechanism for soluble contaminant removal, but it also plays a role in suspended particle removal....


    Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely distributed over the earth's surface occurring in almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments (Schnitzer, 1978). Soils and sediments contain a large variety of organic materials ranging from simple sugars and carbohydrates to th...

  6. Comparison of three persulfate digestion methods for total phosphorus analysis and estimation of suspended sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayton, Elizabeth Ann; Whitacre, Shane; Holloman, Christopher


    As a result of impairments to fresh surface water quality due to phosphorus enrichment, substantial research effort has been put forth to quantify agricultural runoff phosphorus as related to on-field practices. While the analysis of runoff dissolved phosphorus is well prescribed and leaves little room for variability in methodology, there are several methods and variations of sample preparation reagents as well as analysis procedures for determining runoff total phosphorus. Due to the variation in methodology for determination of total phosphorus and an additional laboratory procedure required to measure suspended solids, the objectives of the current study are to i. compare the performance of three persulfate digestion methods (Acid Persulfate, USGS, and Alkaline Persulfate) for total phosphorus percent recovery across a wide range of suspended sediments (SS), and ii. evaluate the ability of using Al and/or Fe in digestion solution to predict SS as a surrogate to the traditional gravimetric method. Percent recovery of total phosphorus was determined using suspensions prepared from soils collected from 21 agricultural fields in Ohio. The Acid Persulfate method was most effective, with an average total phosphorus percent recovery of 96.6%. The second most effective method was the USGS with an average total phosphorus recovery of 76.1%. However, the Alkaline Persulfate method performed poorly with an average 24.5% total phosphorus recovery. As a result application of Alkaline Persulfate digestion to edge of field monitoring may drastically underestimated runoff total phosphorus. In addition to excellent recovery of total phosphorus, the Acid Persulfate method combined with analysis of Al and Fe by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry provides a robust estimate of total SS. Due to the large quantity of samples that can result from water quality monitoring, an indirect measure of total SS could be very valuable when time and budget constraints limit

  7. Accretion rate in mangroves sediment at Sungai Miang, Pahang, Malaysia: 230Thexcess versus artificial horizon marker method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman Yunus; Jamil Tajam; Hasrizal Shaari; Noor Azhar Mohd Shazili; Misbahul Mohd Amin


    Mangroves have enormous ecological value and one of their important role is to act as an efficient sediment trappers which dominantly supplied by rivers and the atmosphere to the oceans. Applying the 230 Th excess method, an average accretion rate of 0.54 cm yr -1 was obtained. this is comparable to that of an artificial horizon marker method giving an average of 0.54 cm yr -1 . The 230 Th excess method provides a rapid and simple method of evaluating 230 Th excess accumulation histories in sediment cores. Sample preparation is also significantly simplified, thus providing a relatively quick and easy method for the determination of the accretion rate in mangrove area. (author)

  8. A Novel Selective Deep Eutectic Solvent Extraction Method for Versatile Determination of Copper in Sediment Samples by ICP-OES. (United States)

    Bağda, Esra; Altundağ, Huseyin; Tüzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa


    In the present study, a simple, mono step deep eutectic solvent (DES) extraction was developed for selective extraction of copper from sediment samples. The optimization of all experimental parameters, e.g. DES type, sample/DES ratio, contact time and temperature were performed with using BCR-280 R (lake sediment certified reference material). The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were found as 1.2 and 3.97 µg L -1 , respectively. The RSD of the procedure was 7.5%. The proposed extraction method was applied to river and lake sediments sampled from Serpincik, Çeltek, Kızılırmak (Fadl and Tecer region of the river), Sivas-Turkey.

  9. Multivariate methods for evaluating the efficiency of electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    Chemometrics was used to develop a multivariate model based on 46 previously reported electrodialytic remediation experiments (EDR) of five different harbour sediments. The model predicted final concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn as a function of current density, remediation time, stirring rate......, dry/wet sediment, cell set-up as well as sediment properties. Evaluation of the model showed that remediation time and current density had the highest comparative influence on the clean-up levels. Individual models for each heavy metal showed variance in the variable importance, indicating...

  10. An alternative radiometric method for calculating the sedimentation rates: Application to an intertidal region (SW of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, R.A., E-mail: rufino.ligero@uca.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Barrera, M. [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Barbero, L. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Melendez, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)


    A new method using the inventory determined for the activity of the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs, coming from global radioactive fallout has been utilised to calculate the sedimentation rates. The method has been applied in a wide intertidal region in the Bay of Cadiz Natural Park (SW Spain). The sedimentation rates estimated by the {sup 137}Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the {sup 210}Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physico-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest. This area, which is representative of common environmental coastal scenarios, is particularly sensitive to perturbations related to climate change, and the results of the study will allow to make short and medium term evaluations of this change.

  11. Development of analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in sediment with Neutron ActivAtion method (NAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Jin; Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha


    The analytical methods for the determination of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) in sediment have been investigated with ICP-MS. The analytical results of major elements with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA. NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment, and NAA is a non-destructive analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) in sediment have been also studied with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration with ICP-MS were not accurate due to matrix interferences. Thus, internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor element with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments

  12. Effect of annealing temperature on a polycrystalline lead oxide film derived by using the sedimentation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang-Sik; Choi, Young-Zun; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Jung, Bong-Jae; Park, Ji-Koon [International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang-Hee; Cho, Kyu-Seuk [InJe University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of)


    Polycrystalline PbO has a low effective work function, a high atomic number and the possibility of large-area deposition. In this research, fine lead-oxide particles were synthesized using a solution-combustion method, and PbO films of 200 {mu}m in thickness were deposited by a special wet sedimentation coating process at room temperature. The influences of annealing temperature on the X-ray detection properties of the film were investigated in detail. From the experimental results, the dark current was stable in about 0.4 second at a 500 .deg. C annealing temperature, but with no annealing, several tens of seconds were required for dark-current stability. In addition, the dark current density decreased rapidly with increasing annealing temperature, and the value was below 2 nA/cm{sup 2} after 300 .deg. C annealing. The X-ray sensitivity was about 2 {approx} 4 nC/mR-cm{sup 2} at 500 .deg. C annealing and this value is higher by 10 time than that of a commercial 500 {mu}m a-Se film. Finally, the signal loss of the 300 {approx} 500 .deg. C annealed sample was lower by 2% at five continuous X-ray exposures.

  13. A principal-component and least-squares method for allocating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment to multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.A.; Mankiewicz, P.J.; Bence, A.E.; Page, D.S.; Parker, K.R.


    A method was developed to allocate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment samples to the PAH sources from which they came. The method uses principal-component analysis to identify possible sources and a least-squares model to find the source mix that gives the best fit of 36 PAH analytes in each sample. The method identified 18 possible PAH sources in a large set of field data collected in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, including diesel oil, diesel soot, spilled crude oil in various weathering states, natural background, creosote, and combustion products from human activities and forest fires. Spill oil was generally found to be a small increment of the natural background in subtidal sediments, whereas combustion products were often the predominant sources for subtidal PAHs near sites of past or present human activity. The method appears to be applicable to other situations, including other spills

  14. An improved SPE-LC-MS/MS method for multiclass endocrine disrupting compound determination in tropical estuarine sediments. (United States)

    Omar, Tuan Fauzan Tuan; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Mustafa, Shuhaimi


    Estuary sediments are one of the important components of coastal ecosystems and have been regarded as a sink for various types of organic pollutants. Organic pollutants such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) which have been associated with various environmental and human health effects were detected in the estuary sediment at trace level. Considering various interferences that may exist in the estuarine sediment, a sensitive and selective method, capable of detecting multiclass EDC pollutants at the trace levels, needs to be developed and optimized to be applied for environmental analysis. A combination of Soxhlet extraction followed by offline solid phase extraction (SPE) cleaned up with detection based on LC triple quadrupole MS was optimized and validated in this study. The targeted compounds consisted of ten multiclass EDCs, namely, diclofenac, primidone, bisphenol A, estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), progesterone, and testosterone. The method showed high extraction efficiency with percentage of recovery from 78% to 108% and excellent sensitivity with detection limit between 0.02ngg -1 and 0.81ngg -1 . Excellent linearity from 0.991 to 0.999 was achieved for the developed compounds and the relative standard deviation was less than 18%, an indication of good precision analysis. Evaluation of the matrix effects showed ionization suppression for all the developed compounds. Verification of the method was carried out by analyzing the estuarine sediment collected from Langat River. The analyzed estuarine sediments showed a trace concentration of diclofenac, bisphenol A, progesterone, testosterone, primidone, and E1. However, E2, EE2, 4-OP, and 4-NP were below the method's detection limit. Diclofenac exhibited the highest concentration at 2.67ngg -1 followed by bisphenol A (1.78ngg -1 ) while E1 showed the lowest concentration at 0.07ngg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Dredged Material Analysis Tools; Performance of Acute and Chronic Sediment Toxicity Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steevens, Jeffrey; Kennedy, Alan; Farrar, Daniel; McNemar, Cory; Reiss, Mark R; Kropp, Roy K; Doi, Jon; Bridges, Todd


    .... Environmental Protection Agency Region 2. The work was conducted to provide insight into the potential advantages and disadvantages of using chronic sediment toxicity tests with relevant benthic macroinvertebrates as part of dredged material...

  16. An alternative method for the estimation of sedimentation rates using radiometric measurements in an intertidal region (sw of spain) (United States)

    Ligero, Rufino; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Barrera, Manuel; Barbero, Luis


    The techniques for the direct measurement of the sedimentation rate are reliable but slow and imprecise, given that the time intervals of measurement cannot be very long. Consequently it is an extremely laborious task to obtain a representative map of the sedimentation rates and such maps are available for very few zones. However, for most environmental studies, it is very important to know the sedimentation rates. The high degree of accuracy of the gamma spectrometric techniques together with the application of the model describes in this work, has allowed the determination of the sedimentation rates in a wide spatial area such of the Bay of Cadiz to be obtained with precision and consuming considerably less time in comparison to the traditional techniques. Even so, the experimental conditions required for the sample cores are fairly restrictive, and although the radiological method provides a quantitative advance in measurement, the experimental difficulty in the execution of the study is not greatly diminished. For this reason, a second model has been derived based on the measurement of the inventory, which offers economies in time and financial cost, and which allows the sedimentation rate in a region to be determined with satisfactory accuracy. Furthermore, it has been shown that the application of this model requires a precise determination of 137Cs inventories. The sedimentation rates estimated by the 137Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the 210Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physical-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest

  17. The sediment accumulation rates measured in Lake Poyang using 210Pb dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuyu; Zeng Erkang; Wan Yusong; Liu Xiaosong


    The sediment accumulation rates were estimated from the vertical distribution of excess 210 Pb measured in sediment cores collected from Lake Poyang, Jiangxi Provence of China. These rates were various with the differences in hydrology. The sedimentation rates are the lowest in the middle region of the lake, in which the rates could not be determined from the two samples and the other one is 0.14 cm/a. The sedimentation rates are lower in the northeast basin section, averaging to 0.19 cm/a. The sediment rates in the diffusion area of the lake from which 5 rivers enter sand deposion is more than the rates in other areas of the lake (0.08 cm/a to 0.28 cm/a) and the hydrology factors are various. Because of the sand from the Yangzhi River the sedimentation rates are the highest in the water-way section of the lake, averaging from 0.23 to 0.62 cm/a

  18. Methods of Analysis - Determination of Pyrethroid Insecticides in Water and Sediment Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn


    A method for the determination of 14 pyrethroid insecticides in environmental water and sediment samples is described. The method was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in response to increasing concern over the effects of pyrethroids on aquatic organisms. The pyrethroids included in this method are ones that are applied to many agricultural and urban areas. Filtered water samples are extracted for pyrethroids using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with no additional cleanup steps. Sediment and soil samples are extracted using a microwave-assisted extraction system, and the pyrethroids of interest are separated from co-extracted matrix interferences by passing the extracts through stacked graphitized carbon and alumina SPE cartridges, along with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography (HPLC/GPC). Quantification of the pyrethroids from the extracted water and sediment samples is done using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Recoveries in test water samples fortified at 10 ng/L ranged from 83 to 107 percent, and recoveries in test sediment samples fortified at 10 ug/kg ranged from 82 to 101 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 5 to 9 percent in the water samples and 3 to 9 percent in the sediment samples. Method detection limits (MDLs), calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency procedures (40 CFR 136, Appendix B), in water ranged from 2.0 to 6.0 ng/L using GC/MS and 0.5 to 1.0 ng/L using GC/MS/MS. For sediment, the MDLs ranged from 1.0 to 2.6 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS and 0.2 to 0.5 ug/kg dry weight using GC/MS/MS. The matrix-spike recoveries for each compound, when averaged for 12 environmental water samples, ranged from 84 to 96 percent, and when averaged for 27 environmental sediment samples, ranged from 88 to 100 percent.

  19. Application of a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of Butyltin Compounds in Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Min Young; Kim, Byung Joo; Yim, Yong Heon; So, Hun Young; Won, Yong Il; Jung, Pyong Gil; Kim, Yong Seong


    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method has been developed for the determination of trace mono-n-butyltin (MBT), di-n-butyltin (DBT), and tri-n-butyltin (TBT) compounds in sediments. Samples were extracted by 10% acetic acid in methanol containing 0.03% tropolone and were then derivatized for GC/MS analysis. Ethylation by sodium tetraethylborate and phenylation by sodium tetraphenylborate were evaluated as a derivatization reaction of the organotins in sample extract. n-Hexane was added into reaction media in the beginning of the reaction for the continuous extraction of derivatized organotins. Ethylation requires less than 2 hours to get proper derivatization yields for MBT, DBT, and TBT altogether and produces relatively low amounts of side reaction products. Compared to ethylation, phenylation requires much longer time but provides relatively lower yield and produces considerable amounts of side reaction products. Therefore, the ethylation reaction was applied for the analysis of organotin compounds in sediment. An isotope dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method based on GC/MS has been applied to the accurate determination of DBT compounds in the sediments. The IDMS results from the analyses of sediment samples showed a reasonable repeatability and a good agreement with the values obtained by IDMS based on liquid chromatography/induced coupled plasma/mass spectrometry

  20. A sediment extraction and cleanup method for wide-scope multitarget screening by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Massei, Riccardo; Byers, Harry; Beckers, Liza-Marie; Prothmann, Jens; Brack, Werner; Schulze, Tobias; Krauss, Martin


    Previous studies on organic sediment contaminants focused mainly on a limited number of highly hydrophobic micropollutants accessible to gas chromatography using nonpolar, aprotic extraction solvents. The development of liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) permits the spectrum of analysis to be expanded to a wider range of more polar and ionic compounds present in sediments and allows target, suspect, and nontarget screening to be conducted with high sensitivity and selectivity. In this study, we propose a comprehensive multitarget extraction and sample preparation method for characterization of sediment pollution covering a broad range of physicochemical properties that is suitable for LC-HRMS screening analysis. We optimized pressurized liquid extraction, cleanup, and sample dilution for a target list of 310 compounds. Finally, the method was tested on sediment samples from a small river and its tributaries. The results show that the combination of 100 °C for ethyl acetate-acetone (50:50, neutral extract) followed by 80 °C for acetone-formic acid (100:1, acidic extract) and methanol-10 mM sodium tetraborate in water (90:10, basic extract) offered the best extraction recoveries for 287 of 310 compounds. At a spiking level of 1 μg mL -1 , we obtained satisfactory cleanup recoveries for the neutral extract-(93 ± 23)%-and for the combined acidic/basic extracts-(42 ± 16)%-after solvent exchange. Among the 69 compounds detected in environmental samples, we successfully quantified several pharmaceuticals and polar pesticides.

  1. A simple screening method for the determination of 230Th in soil and sediment samples by gamma-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.C.; Rodriguez, P.B.; Tome, F.V.


    A simple and easy to perform method for the determination of 230 Th in soil and sediment samples using gamma-spectrometry is proposed and compared with the more usual procedure using alpha-particle spectrometry. The proposed method involves an efficiency calibration for the specific determination of this radionuclide instead of a complete calibration of the spectra. A single density parameter is introduced to correct the efficiencies obtained from the reference sources. The activities of 230 Th determined by gamma-spectrometry and alpha-particle spectrometry are compared. The minimum detectable activity values obtained are completely adequate for 230 Th determination in soil and sediment samples, in which 230 Th activities are usually fairly high. Thus, this procedure is intended as a very easy way to obtain the activity of this radionuclide in these types of samples, at least as a screening method before carrying out other more laborious procedures. (author)

  2. Shortened screening method for phosphorus fractionation in sediments A complementary approach to the standards, measurements and testing harmonised protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, Patricia; Rauret, Gemma; Lopez-Sanchez, Jose Fermin


    The SMT protocol, a sediment phosphorus fractionation method harmonised and validated in the frame of the standards, measurements and testing (SMT) programme (European Commission), establishes five fractions of phosphorus according to their extractability. The determination of phosphate extracted is carried out spectrophotometrically. This protocol has been applied to 11 sediments of different origin and characteristics and the phosphorus extracted in each fraction was determined not only by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, but also by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The use of these two determination techniques allowed the differentiation between phosphorus that was present in the extracts as soluble reactive phosphorus and as total phosphorus. From the comparison of data obtained with both determination techniques a shortened screening method, for a quick evaluation of the magnitude and importance of the fractions given by the SMT protocol, is proposed and validated using two certified reference materials

  3. GC-MS method for determining faecal sterols as biomarkers of human and pastoral animal presence in freshwater sediments. (United States)

    Battistel, Dario; Piazza, Rossano; Argiriadis, Elena; Marchiori, Enrico; Radaelli, Marta; Barbante, Carlo


    In order to determine sterols and stanols in freshwater sediments to reconstruct the past presence of humans and pastoral animals, we developed an analytical method based on pressurised liquid extraction (PLE), clean-up performed using solid phase extraction (SPE) and sterol determination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. PLE extraction conditions were optimised using dichloromethane (DCM) and DCM/methanol mixtures. Clean-up was performed with 2 g silica SPE cartridges, and the concentrated extracts were eluted with 70 mL DCM. Extraction yield was evaluated using an in-house reference material spiked with (13)C-labelled cholesterol and aged for 10 days. In comparison with pre-extraction, where the sediment is extracted and then spiked with a known analyte concentration, this approach preserves the original composition of the sediment. DCM and DCM/methanol mixtures resulted in high extraction yields ranging from 86 to 92 % with good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) 5-8 %). PLE extraction yields obtained with DCM as the extracting solvent were about 1.5 times higher than extractions using an ultrasonic bath. The solvent extraction mixture and matrix composition strongly affected the solvent extraction composition where higher overall recoveries (70-80 %) for each compound were obtained with DCM. The extraction mixture and matrix composition also affected the analyte concentrations, resulting in a method precision ranging from 1 to 18 %. Diatomaceous earth spiked with 10 to 100 ng of sterols, and environmental samples fortified with suitable amounts of sterols provided apparent recovery values ranging from 90 to 110 %. We applied the method to environmental samples both close to and upstream from sewage discharge zones, resulting in substantially higher faecal sterol (FeSt) concentrations near the sewage. In addition, we also applied the method to a 37-cm freshwater sediment core in order to evaluate its applicability for

  4. A new method for measuring bioturbation rates in sandy tidal flat sediments based on luminescence dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni T.; Murray, Andrew S.; Jain, Mayank


    The rates of post-depositional mixing by bioturbation have been investigated using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating in two sediment cores (BAL2 and BAL5), retrieved from a sandy tidal flat in the Danish part of the Wadden Sea. A high-resolution chronology, consisting of thirty-six OSL...

  5. In-situ measurements of rare earth elements in deep sea sediments using nuclear methods. (United States)

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Meric, Ilker; Pettersen, Helge E S; Uroić, Milivoj; Nađ, Karlo; Valković, Vlado


    The prospecting activities for finding new rare earth elements (REE) sources have increased greatly in recent years. One of the main discoveries was announced in 2011 by Japanese researchers who found large quantities of REE on the ocean seafloor at the sea depths greater than 4,000 m. The classic approach to investigate REE in deep sea sediments is to obtain sediment samples by drilling that is followed by laborious laboratory analysis. This is very expensive, time consuming and not appropriate for exploring vast areas. In order to efficiently explore the ocean floor for REE deposits, the further development of affordable sensors is needed. Here, we propose two nuclear techniques for exploring REE in surface deep sea sediments: i) Passive measurement of lutetium-176 radioactivity, appropriate if long-term in-situ measurements are possible, and ii) The use of the neutron sensor attached to a remotely operated vehicle for rapid in-situ measurement of gadolinium by thermal neutron-capture. Since concentrations of lutetium and gadolinium show strong linear correlation to the total REE concentrations in deep sea sediments, it is possible to deduce the total REE content by measuring Lu or Gd concentrations only.

  6. A method for measuring effects of bioturbation and consolidation on erosion resistance of aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambrano, L.; Beijer, J.A.J.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.; Scheffer, M.


    Sediment erosion by water movement affects turbidity and thus benthic communities in numerous aquatic systems. This aspect has been widely studied in coastal habitats and estuaries, but less studied in freshwater systems such as shallow lakes. Here we present a simple device to study the effects of

  7. Revisiting geochemical methods of distinguishing natural concentrations and pollution by risk elements in fluvial sediments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Popelka, J.


    Roč. 170, NOV (2016), s. 39-57 ISSN 0375-6742 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00340S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Enrichment * Fluvial sediments * Heavy metals Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  8. Differential sedimentation versus coring artifacts: a comparison of two widely used piston-coring methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotter, A.F.; Merkt, J.; Sturm, M.


    In order to compare two widely used piston-coring techniques, parallel cores were taken with both a Kullenberg and a Livingstone corer in the deepest part of Soppensee (25 m), a small eutrophic Swiss lake containing varved sediments. The cores were taken within a horizontal distance of 3 m and

  9. Fingerprint methods for suspended sediment transport processes by using X-ray fluorescence analysis (United States)

    Nakayama, K.; Beitia, C.; Ohtsu, N.; Yamasaki, S.; Yasuyuki, M.; Yamane, M.


    Suspended sediment (SS) can have significant impacts on ecological system, and high SS concentration can have significant impacts on human life. In the previous studies, radionuclide analysis has been applied to evaluate the production of SS in the river basins, which demonstrated that the surface soil erosion can be estimated by using radionuclide Pb-210ex. However, radionuclide analysis cannot indicate the relative amounts of SS transported from each individual sub-basin to the downstream end. Thus, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF Analysis) can be considered as an alternative method to radionuclide analysis because the XRF Analysis can measure 21 chemical compositions, Na2O, MgO, Al2O3, SiO2, P2O5, SO3, Cl, K2O, CaO, TiO2, Cr2O3, MnO, Fe2O3, Co2O3, NiO, CuO, ZnO, Rb2O, SrO, BaO, and Y2O3 by using X-ray Fluorescence Analyzer. In June of 2007, high turbidity, which is more than 10,000 (NTU), was measured in the Oromushi River basin of Hokkaido in Japan. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the mechanism of the transport of SS in the Oromushi River basin. We measured chemical compositions of soil with diameter less than 63 μm in the Oromushi River basin in order to pay attention to SS by using XRF. The Principal Component Analysis revealed that SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO and Na2O are the dominant chemical compositions. Although the predominant composition was the same in a river basin including the downstream end, significant differences were found in the pattern of chemical compositions. Therefore, by using the chemical compositions of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO and Na2O, the Mixing Stable Isotope Analysis in R model (MixSIAR) based on Bayesian statistics was applied to estimate the transportation rate of SS from each sub-basin to the downstream end, which agreed with the field experiment results very well. As a result, spatial patterns of SS transportation rate are found to be strongly related to surface soil type.

  10. A PTV method based on ultrasound imaging and feature tracking in a low-concentration sediment-laden flow (United States)

    Ma, Zhimin; Hu, Wenbin; Zhao, Xiaohong; Tao, Weiliang


    This study aims to provide a particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method based on ultrasound imaging and feature-tracking in a low-concentration sediment-laden flow. A phased array probe is used to generate a 2D ultrasound image at different times. Then, the feature points are extracted to be tracked instead of the centroids of the particle image. In order to better identify the corresponding feature point, each feature is described by an oriented angle and its location. Then, a statistical interpolation procedure is used to yield the displacement vector on the desired grid point. Finally a correction procedure is adopted because the ultrasound image is sequentially acquired line by line through the field of view. A simple test experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance. The ultrasound PTV system was applied to a sediment-laden flow with a low concentration of 1‰, and the speed was up to 10 cm s-1. In comparison to optical particle image velocimetry (PIV), ultrasound imaging does not have a limitation in optical access. The feature-tracking method does not have a binarisation and segmentation procedure, which can result in overlapping particles or a serious loss of particle data. The feature-tracking algorithm improves the peak locking effect and measurement accuracy. Thus, the ultrasound PTV algorithm is a feasible alternative and is significantly more robust against gradients than the correlation-based PIV algorithms in a low-concentration sediment-laden fluid.

  11. UriSed 3 and UX-2000 automated urine sediment analyzers vs manual microscopic method: A comparative performance analysis. (United States)

    Laiwejpithaya, Sathima; Wongkrajang, Preechaya; Reesukumal, Kanit; Bucha, Chonticha; Meepanya, Suriya; Pattanavin, Chanutchaya; Khejonnit, Varanya; Chuntarut, Achara


    Fully automated urine analyzers now play an important role in routine urinalysis in most laboratories. The recently introduced UriSed 3 has a new automated digital imaging urine sediment analyzer with a phase contrast feature. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the UriSed 3 and UX-2000 automated urine sediment analyzers with each other and with the results of the manual microscopic method. Two hundred seventy-seven (277) samples of leftover fresh urine from our hospital's central laboratory were evaluated by two automated urine sediment analyzers-UriSed 3 and UX-2000. The results of urine sediment analysis were compared between the two automated analyzers and against the results of the manual microscopic method. Both devices demonstrated excellent agreement for quantitative measurement of red blood cells and white blood cells. UX-2000 had a lower coefficient correlation and demonstrated slightly lower agreement for squamous epithelial cells. Regarding semiquantitative analysis, both machines demonstrated very good concordance, with all applicable rates within one grade difference of the other machine. UriSed 3 had higher sensitivity for small round cells, while UX-2000 showed greater sensitivity for detecting bacteria and hyaline casts. UriSed 3 demonstrated slightly better specificity, especially in the detection of hyaline and pathological casts. Both instruments had nearly similar performance for red blood cells and white blood cells measurement. UriSed 3 was more reliable for measuring squamous epithelial cells and small round cells, while the UX-2000 was more accurate for detecting bacteria and hyaline casts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  13. Particle size distribution in soils and marine sediments by laser diffraction using Malvern Mastersizer 2000—method uncertainty including the effect of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Keck, Hannes; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest


    Purpose: Methods for particle size distribution (PSD) determination by laser diffraction are not standardized and differ between disciplines and sectors. The effect of H2O2 pretreatment before a sonication treatment in laser diffraction analysis of soils and marine sediments was examined on soils...... with less than 1% C and some marine sediments. Materials and methods: The method uncertainty for particle size analysis by the laser diffraction method using or not using H2O2 pretreatment followed by 2 min ultrasound and 1-mm sieving was determined for two soil samples and two aquatic sediments...... by analyzing ten replicates on a Malvern M2000 instrument. The carbon content was in the normal range for upland soils 0.1–0.9% C, but one of the aquatic sediment samples had a high carbon content (16.3% C) for which the H2O2 pretreatment was not feasible. Results and discussion: The effect of H2O2...

  14. Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Measuring Stream Bank Erosion within Legacy Sediments: Data Processing and Analysis Methods (United States)

    Starek, M. J.; Mitasova, H.; Wegmann, K. W.


    Land clearing for agricultural purposes following European settlement of America resulted in upland erosion rates 50-400 times above long-term geologic rates in much of the North Carolina Piedmont region. A considerable amount of the eroded sediment was subsequently aggraded on floodplains and impounded in the slackwater ponds behind milldams. This trapped "legacy" sediment is commonly mistaken for natural floodplain deposition and has remained largely unrecognized as a potential source of accelerated sediment erosion contributing to modern water quality impairment. In this study, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is utilized to monitor stream bank evolution along a reach that has breached a former millpond. Due to the unique surface geometry and orientation of the stream bank, vegetation occlusion, and true 3D structure of the point cloud, a systematic data processing approach is implemented to compute the change in sediment volume between repeat TLS surveys. The processing approach consists of the following four steps: 1) segmentation of the stream bank point cloud; 2) transformation of the point cloud such that the xy plane is parallel to the trend of the bank; 3) filter vegetation by selecting local lowest point within a grid cell; 4) smooth high frequency noise 5) generate bare earth digital elevation model (DEM). From the DEMs, change in volume was quantified for a 13 m x 3.5 m section of the stream bank providing an estimate on erosion rates and slumping between surveys. The major mechanisms for the observed changes are freeze-thaw events and fluvial entrainment. To evaluate the surface evolution between the distinct sedimentary layers (legacy vs non-legacy) that comprise the stream bank, elevation change is modeled as a continuous trivariate function z = f(x,y,t) where x,y is horizontal location, t is time, and z is a first-surface referenced elevation. Hence, z=0 for all x,y at t=0, time of first survey. The filtered, transformed, and first

  15. An optimised method for electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.


    A 2-compartment electrodialytic cell set-up for treatment of solid materials has in many respects proven superior to other types of cells in removing heavy metals from sediments. Most notably, remediation times were shorter, energy consumption was lower and higher removal efficiencies were observed....... By employing m1ultivariate modelling and investigating additional experimental variables, the relative importance of variables effecting remediation was determined and response surfaces for heavy metal removal were calculated. Employing optimal conditions it was possible to remove targeted metals (Pb, Cu, Zn...

  16. Determination of U, Pu and Am isotopes in Irish Sea sediment by a combination of AMS and radiometric methods. (United States)

    Srncik, M; Hrnecek, E; Steier, P; Wallner, G


    Samples from a marine sediment core from the Irish Sea (54.416 N, 3.563 W) were analyzed for the isotopic composition of uranium, plutonium and americium by a combination of radiometric methods and AMS. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a Pu separation step by anion exchange, subsequent U separation by extraction chromatography using UTEVA® and finally Am separation with TRU® Resin. Additionally to radiometric determination of these isotopes by alpha spectrometry, the separated samples were also used for the determination of (236)U/(238)U and plutonium isotope ratios by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the VERA facility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A closed-chamber method to measure greenhouse gas fluxes from dry aquatic sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lesmeister


    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from dry aquatic sediments are a relevant process in the freshwater carbon cycle. However, fluxes are difficult to measure because of the often rocky substrate and the dynamic nature of the habitat. Here we tested the performance of different materials to seal a closed chamber to stony ground both in laboratory and field experiments. Using on-site material consistently resulted in elevated fluxes. The artefact was caused both by outgassing of the material and production of gas. The magnitude of the artefact was site dependent – the measured CO2 flux increased between 10 and 208 %. Errors due to incomplete sealing proved to be more severe than errors due to non-inert sealing material.Pottery clay as sealing material provided a tight seal between the chamber and the ground and no production of gases was detected. With this approach it is possible to get reliable gas fluxes from hard-substrate sites without using a permanent collar. Our test experiments confirmed that CO2 fluxes from dry aquatic sediments are similar to CO2 fluxes from terrestrial soils.

  18. Utilizing of 2-D resistivity with geotechnical method for sediment mapping in Sungai Batu, Kedah (United States)

    Taqiuddin, Z. M.; Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.; Mokhtar, S.


    Sungai Batu is Lembah Bujang subdistrict, located at northern region of Peninsular Malaysia, recognized as an international cultural and commercial crossroad for 2000 years ago, and recorded as the oldest archaeological site in southeast Asia. The discovering of iron smelting area (1st-4th century) shows the evidence of important iron industry in Malay Peninsular to others civilization. Nowadays, a lot of interdisciplinary research was conducted in this area including geophysical prospect to understand the subsurface profile for this locality. Geophysical approach such as 2-D resistivity was performed with the main objective is to identify sediment deposit for this area. Three 2-D resistivity survey lines were design across borehole and data acquired using ABEM SAS4000 system with Pole-dipole array using 2.5 m minimum electrode spacing. The data obtained was process using Res2Dinv software to produce inversion model and Surfer10 software used for interpretation and correlation with respective borehole record. The 2-D resistivity inversion model shows that, the area dominated by clay soil with resistivity values of 500 Ωm interpreted as hard layer. The saturated zone (25 m which consider large volume of soil deposit during sedimentation process. The correlation with the borehole record shows that clay profile distributed at depth of >20 m. The present of shale in certain borehole record indicate that the environment deposit is clam/stagnant water condition during the formation process which suspected controlled by the deposition process from the land deposit.

  19. How to bridge the gap between "unresolved" model and "resolved" model in CFD-DEM coupled method for sediment transport? (United States)

    Liu, D.; Fu, X.; Liu, X.


    In nature, granular materials exist widely in water bodies. Understanding the fundamentals of solid-liquid two-phase flow, such as turbulent sediment-laden flow, is of importance for a wide range of applications. A coupling method combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) is now widely used for modeling such flows. In this method, when particles are significantly larger than the CFD cells, the fluid field around each particle should be fully resolved. On the other hand, the "unresolved" model is designed for the situation where particles are significantly smaller than the mesh cells. Using "unresolved" model, large amount of particles can be simulated simultaneously. However, there is a gap between these two situations when the size of DEM particles and CFD cell is in the same order of magnitude. In this work, the most commonly used void fraction models are tested with numerical sedimentation experiments. The range of applicability for each model is presented. Based on this, a new void fraction model, i.e., a modified version of "tri-linear" model, is proposed. Particular attention is paid to the smooth function of void fraction in order to avoid numerical instability. The results show good agreement with the experimental data and analytical solution for both single-particle motion and also group-particle motion, indicating great potential of the new void fraction model.

  20. Spontaneous renal hematoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrzut, M.; Obrzut, M.; Homa, J.; Obrzut, B.


    Spontaneous pararenal hematoma is a rare pathology most frequently coexisting with renal tumours, vascular anomalies and inflammatory processes. In some cases one cannot establish its etiology. The paper describes a case of a 58-year-old man with a spontaneous pararenal hematoma and presents a diagnostic algorithm. Ultrasonography and CT play an important role in diagnostics of spontaneous pararenal haemorrhages. These methods enable a precise evaluation of size and location of hematoma and its evolution. (author)

  1. Two treatment methods for stormwater sediments--pilot plant and landfarming--and reuse of the treated sediments in civil engineering. (United States)

    Petavy, F; Ruban, V; Conil, P; Viau, J Y; Auriol, J C


    The aim of this research was to present a pilot plant for the treatment of stormwater sediments and to compare the decontamination rate to that obtained by landfarming. The possibilities for reuse of the treated sediments in civil engineering are also studied. Four sediments from retention/infiltration ponds or from street sweeping were studied. In each case organic matter (OM), total hydrocarbons (TH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured. Geotechnical tests were carried out to evaluate the reuse possibilities of the treated sediments. Treatment by means of the pilot plant was efficient at reducing TH and PAH concentrations: THs were reduced by 53-97% and PAHs were decreased by 60-95%. By comparison, a reduction of 45-75% in TH concentration is obtained with landfarming, whereas there is no significant decrease in PAHs. Furthermore, geotechnical tests showed that the treated fractions from the pilot plant can be reused as road embankments and as a capping layer. These results are most encouraging and show that stormwater sediments can valuably be reused after treatment in a pilot plant. Landfarming is less efficient but this technique could be used as a pretreatment in the case of high TH pollution.

  2. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters. (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J


    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  3. Geochemical analysis of soils and sediments, Coeur d'Alene drainage basin, Idaho: sampling, analytical methods, and results (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Ikramuddin, Mohammed; Lindsay, James


    This report presents the locations, descriptions, analytical procedures used, and an inter-lab comparison of over 1100 geochemical analyses of samples of soil and sediment in and downstream of a major lead-zinc-silver mining district in the Coeur d'Alene (CdA) drainage basin of northern Idaho. The samples fall in 3 broad categories: (1) samples from vertical profiles of floodplain soils in the valley of the main stem of the CdA River (767 samples) and of the South Fork of the CdA River (38 samples), (2) size fractionated surficial samples of sediment bedload within the channel of the South Fork of the CdA River (68 samples), and (3) samples from vertical profiles of sediment bedload within the channel of the main stem of the CdA River (260 samples). Five different laboratories contributed geochemical data for this report. Four of the five laboratories employed analytical methods that require sample dissolution prior to analysis; one laboratory (US Geological Survey) used analytical instrumentation (energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence [EDXRF]) that is applied to pulverized samples. Some dissolution procedures use four acids (hydrochloric, nitric, perchloric, and hydrofluoric; Eastern Washington University [EWU] Geochemical Laboratory and XRAL Laboratories, Inc.), others use two acids (nitric acid and aqua regia; CHEMEX Labs, Inc.), and some use only concentrated nitric acid (ACZ Laboratories, Inc.). Most analyses of dissolved samples were done by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) or by ICP - MS (Mass Spectroscopy). Some analyses for Ag and K were done by Flame Atomic Absorption (FAA). Inter-laboratory comparisons are made for 6 elements: lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), iron

  4. An ecological risk investigation of marine sediment from the northern Mediterranean coasts (Aegean Sea) using multiple methods of pollution determination. (United States)

    Tunca, Evren; Aydın, Mehmet; Şahin, Ülkü Alver


    The aim of this study is an assessment of metal pollution levels in Aegean Sea sediment. Sediment samples collected from 7 different locations (Yeniköy, Edremit, Ayvalık, Dikili, Aliağa, Hekimadası, and Ildır) along the northern Mediterranean region of Turkey were investigated for 11 elements (Cu, Fe, Zn, V, Cd, Ni, As, Pb, Mn, Co, and Cr). Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) were used for elemental analysis. The findings were evaluated with sediment assessment methods by taking two different values as a reference and then investigating the adverse biological effects of elemental profiles on living organisms. Pb, Mn, As, Cd, and Cr concentrations were within a moderate to significant range in terms of contamination factor [Formula: see text]), albeit varying according to reference and location. The most problematic region and elements regarding the enrichment factor (EF) was Ayvalık and As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Co, and Cd. However, according to the EF, the anthropogenic effect was not at an alarming level. This was further supported by the results of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo). The findings of the modified degree of contamination (mC d ) and the pollution load index (PLI) suggested that the accumulation was greatest in Ayvalık, and the least in Hekimadası and Ildır. The location with the highest elemental total toxic unit (ΣTU) was Edremit. The effect of the existing element profile on organisms was 21% in this location when the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q) was considered. As and Ni concentrations in all stations were found to be higher than threshold effect level (TEL) and Effect Range Low (ERL). Ni levels in Edremit exceeded the probable effect level (PEL) and Effect Range Median (ERM). Toxic unit (TU) values of these two elements in all stations ranged from 59.30 to 80.43%.

  5. Comparison of real-time PCR methods for the detection of Naegleria fowleri in surface water and sediment. (United States)

    Streby, Ashleigh; Mull, Bonnie J; Levy, Karen; Hill, Vincent R


    Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic free-living ameba found in freshwater environments worldwide. It is the cause of a rare but potentially fatal disease in humans known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Established N. fowleri detection methods rely on conventional culture techniques and morphological examination followed by molecular testing. Multiple alternative real-time PCR assays have been published for rapid detection of Naegleria spp. and N. fowleri. Foursuch assays were evaluated for the detection of N. fowleri from surface water and sediment. The assays were compared for thermodynamic stability, analytical sensitivity and specificity, detection limits, humic acid inhibition effects, and performance with seeded environmental matrices. Twenty-one ameba isolates were included in the DNA panel used for analytical sensitivity and specificity analyses. N. fowleri genotypes I and III were used for method performance testing. Two of the real-time PCR assays were determined to yield similar performance data for specificity and sensitivity for detecting N. fowleri in environmental matrices.

  6. Chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment in Great Lakes areas of concern, 2010 to 2011-Collection methods, analyses methods, quality assurance, and data (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Menheer, Michael A.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Smith, Steven G.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperated with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on a study to identify the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in water and bottom-sediment samples collected during 2010–11 at sites in seven areas of concern (AOCs) throughout the Great Lakes. Study sites include tributaries to the Great Lakes in AOCs located near Duluth, Minn.; Green Bay, Wis.; Roches­ter, N.Y.; Detroit, Mich.; Toledo, Ohio; Milwaukee, Wis.; and Ashtabula, Ohio. This report documents the collection meth­ods, analyses methods, quality-assurance data and analyses, and provides the data for this study. Water and bottom-sediment samples were analyzed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, Colo., for a broad suite of CECs. During this study, 135 environmental and 23 field dupli­cate samples of surface water and wastewater effluent, 10 field blank water samples, and 11 field spike water samples were collected and analyzed. Sixty-one of the 69 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 4433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 11.2 micrograms per liter. Twenty-eight of the 48 pharmaceuticals (research method 8244) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.0029 to 22.0 micro­grams per liter. Ten of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols analyzed (research method 4434) were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.16 to 10,000 nanograms per liter. During this study, 75 environmental, 13 field duplicate samples, and 9 field spike samples of bottom sediment were collected and analyzed for a wide variety of CECs. Forty-seven of the 57 wastewater indicator chemicals (laboratory method 5433) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.921 to 25,800 nanograms per gram. Seventeen of the 20 steroid hormones and sterols (research method 6434) analyzed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 8,921 nanograms per gram. Twelve of

  7. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.


    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  8. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  9. High-Performance Method for Determination of Pu Isotopes in Soil and Sediment Samples by Sector Field-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Wang, Zhongtang; Zheng, Jian; Ni, Youyi; Men, Wu; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo


    Plutonium is extensively studied in radioecology (e.g., soil to plant transfer and radiological assessment) and geochemistry (e.g., sediment dating). Here, we reported a new chemical separation method for rapid determination of Pu in soil and sediment samples, based on the following investigations: extraction behaviors of interfering elements (IEs, for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) measurement) on TEVA resin; decontamination of U using TEVA, UTEVA, and DGA resins; and the impact of coprecipitation on Pu determination. The developed method consists of four steps: HNO 3 leaching for Pu release; CaF 2 /LaF 3 coprecipitation for the removal of major metals and U; the proposed TEVA + UTEVA + DGA procedure for the removal of U, Pb, Bi, Tl, Hg, Hf, Pt, and Dy; and ICPMS measurement. The accuracy of this method in determining 239+240 Pu activity and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 239 Pu isotopic ratios was validated by analyzing five standard reference materials (soil, fresh water sediment, and ocean sediment). This method is characterized by its stable and high Pu recovery (90-97% for soil; 92-98% for sediment) and high decontamination factor of U (1.6 × 10 7 ), which is the highest reported for soil and sediment samples. In addition, the short analytical time of 12 h and the method detection limits, which are the lowest yet reported in literature, of 0.56 μBq g -1 (0.24 fg g -1 ) for 239 Pu, 1.2 μBq g -1 (0.14 fg g -1 ) for 240 Pu, and 0.34 mBq g -1 (0.09 fg g -1 ) for 241 Pu (calculated on the basis of a 1 g soil sample) allow the rapid determination of ultratrace level Pu in soil and sediment samples.

  10. The Use of Modified Annandale’s Method in the Estimation of the Sediment Distribution in Small Reservoirs—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Michalec


    Full Text Available In the current study, the applicability of the Annandale method was verified based on the results of silting and sediment distribution measurements carried out in eight small reservoirs, with a capacity that does not exceed 5 million m3. It was found that the application of this method is possible only in the case of small reservoirs, in which the sediment load is deposited in the near-dam zone. The results of studies conducted on small reservoirs allowed the construction of a graph presenting the relationship of a sum of dimensionless sediment load volume as a function of relative distance from the dam, which became the modification of the graph in Annandale’s method. The proposed modification of Annandale’s method considers reservoirs with a length less than 1000 m and capacity-inflow ratio ranging from a few per mille to a percent.

  11. Evaluation of the method of collecting suspended sediment from large rivers by discharge-weighted pumping and separation by continuous- flow centrifugation (United States)

    Moody, J.A.; Meade, R.H.


    The efficacy of the method is evaluated by comparing the particle size distributions of sediment collected by the discharge-weighted pumping method with the particle size distributions of sediment collected by depth integration and separated by gravitational settling. The pumping method was found to undersample the suspended sand sized particles (>63 ??m) but to collect a representative sample of the suspended silt and clay sized particles (<63??m). The success of the discharge-weighted pumping method depends on how homogeneously the silt and clay sized particles (<63 ??m) are distributed in the vertical direction in the river. The degree of homogeneity depends on the composition and degree of aggregation of the suspended sediment particles. -from Authors

  12. The assessment of different production methods for hydrate bearing sediments - results from small and large scale experiments (United States)

    Schicks, Judith; Heeschen, Katja; Spangenberg, Erik; Luzi-Helbing, Manja; Beeskow-Strauch, Bettina; Priegnitz, Mike; Giese, Ronny; Abendroth, Sven; Thaler, Jan


    Natural gas hydrates occur at all active and passive continental margins, in permafrost regions, and deep lakes. Since they are supposed to contain enormous amounts of methane, gas hydrates are discussed as an energy resource. For the production of gas from hydrate bearing sediments, three different production methods were tested during the last decade: depressurization, thermal and chemical stimulation as well as combinations of these methods. In the framework of the SUGAR project we developed a Large Scale Reservoir Simulator (LARS) with a total volume of 425L to test these three methods in a pilot plant scale. For this purpose we formed hydrate from methane saturated brine in sediments under conditions close to natural gas hydrate deposits. The obtained hydrate saturations varied between 40-90%. Hydrate saturation and distribution were determined using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The volumes of the produced gas and water were determined and the gas phase was analyzed via gas chromatography. Multi-step depressurization, thermal stimulation applying in-situ combustion as well as chemical stimulation via the injection of CO2 and a CO2-N2-mixture were tested. Depressurization and thermal stimulation appear to be less complicated compared to the chemical stimulation. For the understanding of the macroscopically observed processes on a molecular level, we also performed experiments on a smaller scale using microscopic observation, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results of these experiments are of particular importance for the understanding of the processes occurring during the CO2-CH4 swapping. Under the chosen experimental conditions the observations indicate a (partial) decomposition and reformation of the hydrate structure rather than a diffusion-controlled exchange of the molecules.

  13. Antifouling booster biocide extraction from marine sediments: a fast and simple method based on vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase extraction. (United States)

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Soares, Bruno Meira; Abreu, Fiamma; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto


    This paper reports the development of an analytical method employing vortex-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) for the extraction of diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMTB (2-thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole), DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-3-(2H)-isothiazolin-3-one), and dichlofluanid from sediment samples. Separation and determination were performed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Important MSPD parameters, such as sample mass, mass of C18, and type and volume of extraction solvent, were investigated by response surface methodology. Quantitative recoveries were obtained with 2.0 g of sediment sample, 0.25 g of C18 as the solid support, and 10 mL of methanol as the extraction solvent. The MSPD method was suitable for the extraction and determination of antifouling biocides in sediment samples, with recoveries between 61 and 103% and a relative standard deviation lower than 19%. Limits of quantification between 0.5 and 5 ng g -1 were obtained. Vortex-assisted MPSD was shown to be fast and easy to use, with the advantages of low cost and reduced solvent consumption compared to the commonly employed techniques for the extraction of booster biocides from sediment samples. Finally, the developed method was applied to real samples. Results revealed that the developed extraction method is effective and simple, thus allowing the determination of biocides in sediment samples.

  14. Biological validation of a sample preparation method for ER-CALUX bioanalysis of estrogenic activity in sediments using mixtures of xeno-estrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Houten, Y.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Brouwer, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.


    The combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of environmental pollutants in the in vitro ER-CALUX (chemical activated luciferase gene expression) bioassay were examined to biologically validate a sample preparation method for the analysis of estrogenic compounds in sediment. The method used

  15. Biolonical validation of a sample preparation method for ER-CALUX bioanalysis of estrogenic activity in sediment using mixtures of xeno-estrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Houten, Van Y.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Brouwer, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.


    The combined estrogenic effects of mixtures of environmental pollutants in the in vitro ER-CALUX (chemical activated luciferase gene expression) bioassay were examined to biologically validate a sample preparation method for the analysis of estrogenic compounds in sediment. The method used

  16. Role of sediment-trace element chemistry in water-quality monitoring and the need for standard analytical methods (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.


    Multiple linear regression models calculated from readily obtainable chemical and physical parameters can explain a high percentage (70% or greater) of observed sediment trace-element variance for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Sb, Se, and Hg. Almost all the factors used in the various models fall into the category of operational definitions (e.g., grain size, surface area, and geochemical substrates such as amorphous iron and manganese oxides). Thus, the concentrations and distributions used in the various models are operationally defined, and are subject to substantial change depending on the method used to determine them. Without standardized procedures, data from different sources are not comparable, and the utility and applicability of the various models would be questionable.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Ferro


    Full Text Available In this paper a brief review of the laser diffraction method is firstly carried out. Then, for 30 soil samples having a different texture classification sampled in Sicilian basin, a comparison between the two techniques is developed. The analysis demonstrated that the sand content measured by Sieve-Hydrometer method can be assumed equal to the one determinated by laser diffraction technique while an overestimation of the clay fraction measured by Sieve-Hydrometer method respect to laser diffraction technique was obtained. Finally a set of equations useful to refer LD measurements to SH method was proposed.

  18. Using SOTEM Method to Detect BIF Bodies Buried Under Very Thick and Conductive Quaternary Sediments, Huoqiu Deposit, China (United States)

    Chen, Weiying; Xue, Guoqiang; Khan, Muhammad Younis; Li, Hai


    Huoqiu iron deposit is a typical Precambrian banded iron-formation (BIF) field which is located in the North China Craton (NCC). To detect the deep ore bodies around Dawangzhuang Village in Yingshang County, north of the Huoqiu deposit field, electromagnetic methods were tested. As the ore bodies are buried under very thick conductive Quaternary sediments, the use of EM methods is a great challenge. Short-offset transient electromagnetic method (SOTEM) was applied in the area as we wanted to test due to its detection depth and resolution. A 2D model was first built according to the geology information and magnetic measurement results. Then, 2D forward and 1D inversion were carried out using FDTD and Occam's algorithm, respectively. The synthetic modeling results helped us with the survey design and interpretation. Two 1400-m-long survey lines with offset of 500 and 1000 m were laid perpendicular to the BIF's strike, and the transmitting parameters were selected by a test measurement at the vicinity of a local village. Finally, the structure of survey area and BIF bodies were determined based on the 1D inversion results of real data, and showed a consistency with the subsequent drill results. Our application of SOTEM in detecting hidden BIF buried under very thick conductive layer has shown that the method is capable of penetrating great depth more than 1000 m even in a very conductive environment and will be an effective tool for deep resources investigation.

  19. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  20. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L


    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  1. Application of experimental design in a method for screening sediments for global determination of organic tin by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arambarri, I.; Garcia, R.; Millan, E. [Dept. de Quimica Aplicada, Univ. del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain)


    An experimental design was developed to obtain a simple procedure for global determination of organic tin compounds in sediment. Sediment was extracted by a two-phase method and tin was determined in the organic extract by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), with palladium as chemical modifier. A Plackett-Burman design for screening and a fractional central composite design (CCD) for optimizing were used for evaluation of the effects of several variables. The results showed that sediment mass, volume and concentration of extracting acid, pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, and modifier concentration affect the determination. Reference material PACS-2 was analyzed to evaluate the procedure. It was possible to extract 82% of the organotin content certified in the reference sediment. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}and the relative standard deviation was 4%. The method was applied to the analysis of estuarine superficial sediments from Gipuzkoa (Spain). The organotin content of these samples ranged from 0.7 to 7.7 {mu}g g {sup -1}, as tin, on a dry-weight basis. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of elemental carbon in lake sediments measured by three different methods and 150-year pollution history in Eastern China. (United States)

    Han, Y M; Cao, J J; Yan, B Z; Kenna, T C; Jin, Z D; Cheng, Y; Chow, Judith C; An, Z S


    Concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) were measured in a 150 yr sediment record collected from Lake Chaohu in Anhui Province, eastern China, using three different thermal analytical methods: IMPROVE_A thermal optical reflectance (TOR), STN_thermal optical transmittance (TOT), and chemothermal oxidation (CTO). Distribution patterns for EC concentrations are different among the three methods, most likely due to the operational definition of EC and different temperature treatments prescribed for each method. However, similar profiles were found for high-temperature EC fractions among different methods. Historical soot(TOR) (high-temperature EC fractions measured by the IMPROVE_A TOR method) from Lake Chaohu exhibited stable low concentrations prior to the late 1970s and a sharp increase thereafter, corresponding well with the rapid industrialization of China in the last three decades. This may suggest that high-temperature thermal protocols are suitable for differentiating between soot and other carbon fractions. A similar soot(TOR) record was also obtained from Lake Taihu (~200 km away), suggesting a regional source of soot. The ratio of char(TOR) (low-temperature EC fraction measured by the IMPROVE_A TOR method, after correction for pyrolysis) to soot(TOR) in Lake Chaohu shows an overall decreasing trend, consistent with gradual changes in fuel use from wood burning to increasing fossil fuel combustions. Average higher char(TOR)/soot(TOR) was observed in Lake Taihu than in Lake Chaohu in the past 150 years, consistent with the longer and more extensive industrialization around the Taihu region.

  3. Measuring sedimentation in tidal marshes: a review on methods and their applicability in biogeomorphological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, S.; Koppenaal, E.C.; Esselink, P.; Dijkema, K.S.; Schuerch, M.; Groot, de A.V.; Bakker, J.P.; Temmerman, S.


    It is increasingly recognised that interactions between geomorphological and biotic processes control the functioning of many ecosystem types as described e.g. by the ecological theory of ecosystem engineering. Consequently, the need for specific bio-geomorphological research methods is growing

  4. Measuring sedimentation in tidal marshes : a review on methods and their applicability in biogeomorphological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolte, S.; Koppenaal, E. C.; Esselink, Peter; Dijkema, K. S.; Schuerch, M.; De Groot, A. V.; Bakker, J. P.; Temmerman, S.

    It is increasingly recognised that interactions between geomorphological and biotic processes control the functioning of many ecosystem types as described e.g. by the ecological theory of ecosystem engineering. Consequently, the need for specific bio-geomorphological research methods is growing

  5. Determination of copper in natural waters and sediments by extraction spectroscopic method

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.

    A sensitive extraction spectrophotometric method has been developed based on the formation and extraction of Cu(II)-neocuproine-rosenbengal into chloroform. The molar extinction coefficient of the system is 55.500 and Beer's law is obeyed up to 15...

  6. Development of a one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction and cleanup method for determining polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments. (United States)

    Choi, Minkyu; Kim, Ye-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Hee-Gu


    A rapid and accurate one-step integrated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and cleanup method was developed and validated for 34 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments, giving an extract that could be analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry without further cleanup. Marine sediment (5 g) was loaded into the stainless-steel extraction cell above activated copper (5 g) and activated silica gel (5 g). An extraction temperature of 100°C and two 5 min extraction cycles using a 4:1 (v/v) hexane-dichloromethane mixture gave a good extraction efficiency. The integrated method gave extracts that were as clean as those obtained using PLE, followed by separate activated copper and silica gel cleanups. The method was validated, in terms of its accuracy, precision, and application using a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1944), marine sediments spiked at low and high concentrations, and contaminated harbor sediments. The mean recoveries were 92% and 94% for the low and high spike concentrations, respectively, and the accuracy was good (giving a mean of 86% of the certified reference material concentrations). The method developed gave a precision and accuracy equal to or better than the precision and accuracy found using PLE with separate cleanups. The method developed gives a shorter sample preparation time and uses much less solvent than PLE and separate cleanups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A method of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment using environmental radionuclides. A case study of Tsuzura river watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizugaki, Shigeru; Onda, Yuichi; Fukuyama, Taijiro; Koga, Satoko; Hiramatsu, Shinya


    To study the fluvial sediment sources in forested watershed in Shikoku Island, Japan, the concentration of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex and U decay series radionuclides were analyzed. The study area in the midstream of Shimanto River basin, located 700 km southwest of Tokyo. The 0.33 km 2 area watershed ranges in elevation from 170 m to 560 m above sea level. The soil sampling was conducted in hillslopes in various locations such as landslide scar, soil surface in unmanaged Hinoki (Chamacecyparis obtusa) plantation and unsealed forest road, and detailed sampling in the stream bed and bank was also conducted in several tributaries. Time-integrated suspended sediment sampler was adopted to obtain enough volume of sample to determine the radionuclides. The activities of Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-214 and Bi-214 of soils and fluvial sediments were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Correction for the effect of particle size distribution and organic matter content on the radionuclides were conducted to compare the radionuclides concentration between the soils of potential suspended sediment sources and fluvial sediments. It was found that there were significant differences of Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration between forest floor or runoff sediment and forest road or stream bank. The Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex concentration of suspended sediment varied among them, suggesting the possibility of fingerprinting the sources of fluvial sediment by Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex . (author)

  8. Bacteria in ancient sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, G.


    In order to ascertain the role of biological activity in ancient sediments, two microbiological studies were carried out. The first was on pleistocenic clay sediments on land, the second on deep oceanic sediments. In the present paper by direct counting the samples is demonstrated the presence of bacteria in a range of 10 5 to 10 7 . Further studies must be carried out to ascertain the activities by in situ incubation methods

  9. Measuring sedimentation in tidal marshes: a review on methods and their applicability in biogeomorphological studies


    Nolte, S.; Koppenaal, E.C.; Esselink, P.; Dijkema, K.S.; Schuerch, M.; De Groot, A.V.; Bakker, J.P.; Temmerman, S.


    It is increasingly recognised that interactions between geomorphological and biotic processes control the functioning of many ecosystem types as described e.g. by the ecological theory of ecosystem engineering. Consequently, the need for specific bio-geomorphological research methods is growing recently. Much research on bio-geomorphological processes is done in coastal marshes. These areas provide clear examples of ecosystem engineering as well as other bio-geomorphological processes: Marsh ...

  10. An inter-laboratory comparison of different analytical methods for the determination of monomethylmercury in various soil and sediment samples: A platform for method improvement. (United States)

    Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Balogh, Steven J; Nollet, Yabing H; Matsuyama, Akito; Fajon, Vesna; Horvat, Milena; Tomiyasu, Takashi


    An inter-laboratory study was conducted to compare results from different analytical methods for monomethylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in 17 soil and sediment samples. The samples were collected from mercury-contaminated areas, including Minamata Bay and Kagoshima Bay in Japan, the Idrija mercury mine in Slovenia, and an artisanal small-scale gold mining area in Indonesia. The Hg in these samples comes from several different sources: industrial waste from an acetaldehyde production facility, volcanic activity, Hg mining activity, and artisanal and small-scale gold mining activity (ASGM). MeHg concentrations in all the samples were measured in four separate laboratories, using three different determination methods: Kagoshima University (Japan), using high-performance liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection (HPLC-CL); National Institute for Minamata Disease (Japan), using gas chromatography-electron capture detection; and Metropolitan Council Environmental Services (USA) and Jozef Stefan Institute (Slovenia), both using alkylation-gas chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. The methods gave comparable MeHg results for most of the samples tested, but for some samples, the results exhibited significant variability depending on the method used. The HPLC-CL method performed poorly when applied to samples with elevated sulfur concentrations, producing MeHg concentrations that were much lower than those from the other methods. Additional analytical work demonstrated the elimination of this sulfur interference when the method was modified to bind sulfur prior to the analytical step by using Hg 2+ as a masking agent. These results demonstrate the value of laboratory intercomparison exercises in contributing to the improvement of analytical methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of preparation methods for organic phosphorus analysis in phosphorus-polluted Fe/Al-rich Haihe river sediments using solution 31P-NMR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Zhang

    Full Text Available Fe/Al-rich river sediments that were highly polluted with phosphorus (P were used in tests to determine the optimum preparation techniques for measuring organic P (Po using solution (31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-NMR. The optimum pre-treatment, extraction time, sediment to solution ratio and sodium hydroxide-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaOH-EDTA extractant solution composition were determined. The total P and Po recovery rates were higher from freeze- and air-dried samples than from fresh samples. An extraction time of 16 h was adequate for extracting Po, and a shorter or longer extraction time led to lower recoveries of total P and Po, or led to the degradation of Po. An ideal P recovery rate and good-quality NMR spectra were obtained at a sediment:solution ratio of 1:10, showing that this ratio is ideal for extracting Po. An extractant solution of 0.25 M NaOH and 50 mM EDTA was found to be more appropriate than either NaOH on its own, or a more concentrated NaOH-EDTA mixture for (31P-NMR analysis, as this combination minimized interference from paramagnetic ions and was appropriate for the detected range of Po concentrations. The most appropriate preparation method for Po analysis, therefore, was to extract the freeze-dried and ground sediment sample with a 0.25 M NaOH and 50 mM EDTA solution at a sediment:solution ratio of 1:10, for 16 h, by shaking. As lyophilization of the NaOH-EDTA extracts proved to be an optimal pre-concentration method for Po analysis in the river sediment, the extract was lyophilized as soon as possible, and analyzed by (31P-NMR.

  12. Development of a dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for on-site analysis of sulfur mustard degradation products in sediments. (United States)

    Magnusson, R; Nordlander, T; Östin, A


    Sampling teams performing work at sea in areas where chemical munitions may have been dumped require rapid and reliable analytical methods for verifying sulfur mustard leakage from suspected objects. Here we present such an on-site analysis method based on dynamic headspace GC-MS for analysis of five cyclic sulfur mustard degradation products that have previously been detected in sediments from chemical weapon dumping sites: 1,4-oxathiane, 1,3-dithiolane, 1,4-dithiane, 1,4,5-oxadithiephane, and 1,2,5-trithiephane. An experimental design involving authentic Baltic Sea sediments spiked with the target analytes was used to develop an optimized protocol for sample preparation, headspace extraction and analysis that afforded recoveries of up to 60-90%. The optimized method needs no organic solvents, uses only two grams of sediment on a dry weight basis and involves a unique sample presentation whereby sediment is spread uniformly as a thin layer inside the walls of a glass headspace vial. The method showed good linearity for analyte concentrations of 5-200 ng/g dw, good repeatability, and acceptable carry-over. The method's limits of detection for spiked sediment samples ranged from 2.5 to 11 μg/kg dw, with matrix interference being the main limiting factor. The instrumental detection limits were one to two orders of magnitude lower. Full-scan GC-MS analysis enabled the use of automated mass spectral deconvolution for rapid identification of target analytes. Using this approach, analytes could be identified in spiked sediment samples at concentrations down to 13-65 μg/kg dw. On-site validation experiments conducted aboard the research vessel R/V Oceania demonstrated the method's practical applicability, enabling the successful identification of four cyclic sulfur mustard degradation products at concentrations of 15-308μg/kg in sediments immediately after being collected near a wreck at the Bornholm Deep dumpsite in the Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Least square method of estimation of ecological half-lives of radionuclides in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranade, A.K.; Pandey, M.; Datta, D.; Ravi, P.M.


    Long term behavior of radionuclides in the environment is an important issue for estimating probable radiological consequences and associated risks. It is also useful for evaluating potential use of contaminated areas and the possible effectiveness of remediation activities. The long term behavior is quantified by means of ecological half life, a parameter that aggregates all processes except radioactive decay which causes a decrease of activity in a specific medium. The process involved in ecological half life depends upon the environmental condition of the medium involved. A fitting model based on least square regression approach was used to evaluate the ecological half life. This least square method has to run several times to evaluate the number of ecological half lives present in the medium for the radionuclide. The case study data considered here is for 137 Cs in Mumbai Harbour Bay. The study shows the trend of 137 Cs over the years at a location in Mumbai Harbour Bay. First iteration model illustrate the ecological half life as 4.94 y and subsequently it passes through a number of runs for more number of ecological half-life present by goodness of fit test. The paper presents a methodology for evaluating ecological half life and exemplifies it with a case study of 137 Cs. (author)

  14. An optimized method for the analysis of cyclic and linear siloxanes and their distribution in surface and core sediments from industrialized bays in Korea. (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Lee, Sunggyu; Choi, Minkyu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Moon, Hyo-Bang


    Environmental contamination by siloxanes is a matter of concern due to their widespread consumption in personal care as well as industrial products and potential toxicity. Nevertheless, methods for simultaneous determination of cyclic and linear siloxanes in sediment are lacking. In this study, we developed an optimized analytical method to determine cyclic and linear siloxanes based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). This method was applied to determine concentrations of 19 siloxane compounds in surface and core sediments from industrialized bays in Korea to assess contamination status, spatial distribution, and historical trends. Total concentrations of siloxanes ranged from 15.0 to 11730 (mean: 712) ng/g dry weight, which were similar to or higher than those reported in other countries. The highest concentrations of siloxanes were found in rivers/streams that discharge into coastal waters and bays close to industrial complexes, indicating that industrial activities are major sources of siloxane contamination. Cyclic siloxanes such as D5 and D6 were predominant in surface and core sediments. A significant correlation existed between the concentrations of cyclic and linear siloxanes, suggesting similar sources in the marine coastal environment. The historical record of cyclic siloxanes in core sediments revealed a clear increasing trend since the 1970s. This finding is consistent with the history of local industrialization and global production of siloxanes. This is the first study of historical trends in siloxanes in the coastal environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Snow on the Seafloor? Methods to Detect Carbohydrates in Deep-sea Sediments Impacted by the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (United States)

    Lincoln, S. A.; Freeman, K. H.


    A significant portion of the oil released from the Macondo well after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DwH) explosion reached the seafloor (1,2). The transfer of buoyant hydrocarbons from the sea surface and subsurface plumes to depths >1500 m, however, is not well understood. A prominent role for sinking marine snow--small, composite particles composed largely of extracellular polymeric substances exuded by algae and bacteria--has been proposed. Snow particles, rich in carbohydrates, may have sorbed and physically entrained oil from the water column as they sank. Several lines of evidence support this scenario: abundant snow was observed 3-4 weeks after the oil spill (3); oil and dispersants can induce marine snow formation (4); and flocculent material covering deep-sea corals near the DwH site contained biomarkers consistent with Macondo oil (5). To investigate whether the chemically complex marine oil snow leaves a direct sedimentary record, we analyzed carbohydrates at high resolution (2 mm intervals) in sediment cores collected at 4 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico in 2013 using a modified phenol-sulfuric acid spectrophotometric method. We detected a sharp subsurface peak in carbohydrate concentrations near the Macondo well; we interpret this peak as post-DwH marine snow. Coeval carbohydrate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and hopane profiles suggest a clear link between marine snow and Macondo oil components, as documented in a 3-year time-series at one site, and enable preliminary conclusions about the delivery and fate of marine snow components in sediments. We also characterized carbohydrates near the wellhead using fluorescent lectin-binding analyses developed for applications in cell biology. Particle morphologies include collapse structures suggestive of a water column origin. Finally, we explore the extent to which polysaccharide residues detected with selective lectins can be used to determine the provenance of marine snow (e.g., bacterial v. algal

  16. Onset of industrial pollution recorded in Mumbai mudflat sediments, using integrated magnetic, Chemical, sup(210) Pb dating, and microscopic methods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Blaha, U.; Basavaiah, N.; Deenadayalan, K.; Borole, D.V.; Mohite, R.D.

    The onset and rise of urban and industrial pollution in the Mumbai region was reconstructed from an anthropogenically contaminated mudflat sediment profile from the adjacent Thane creek using magnetic parameters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH...

  17. Comparison of infrared spectroscopy techniques: developing an efficient method for high resolution analysis of sediment properties from long records (United States)

    Hahn, Annette; Rosén, Peter; Kliem, Pierre; Ohlendorf, Christian; Persson, Per; Zolitschka, Bernd; Pasado Science Team


    The analysis of sediment samples in visible to mid-infrared spectra is ideal for high-resolution records. It requires only small amounts (0.01-0.1g dry weight) of sample material and facilitates rapid and cost efficient analysis of a wide variety of biogeochemical properties on minerogenic and organic substances (Kellner et al. 1998). One of these techniques, the Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (DRIFTS), has already been successfully applied to lake sediment from very different settings and has shown to be a promising technique for high resolution analyses of long sedimentary records on glacial-interglacial timescales (Rosén et al. 2009). However, the DRIFTS technique includes a time-consuming step where sediment samples are mixed with KBr. To assess if alternative and more rapid infrared (IR) techniques can be used, four different IR spectroscopy techniques are compared for core catcher sediment samples from Laguna Potrok Aike - an ICDP site located in southernmost South America. Partial least square (PLS) calibration models were developed using the DRIFTS technique. The correlation coefficients (R) for correlations between DRIFTS-inferred and conventionally measured biogeochemical properties show values of 0.80 for biogenic silica (BSi), 0.95 for total organic carbon (TOC), 0.91 for total nitrogen (TN), and 0.92 for total inorganic carbon (TIC). Good statistical performance was also obtained by using the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy ATR-FTIRS technique which requires less sample preparation. Two devices were used, the full-sized Bruker Equinox 252 and the smaller and less expensive Bruker Alpha. R for ATR-FTIRS-inferred and conventionally measured biogeochemical properties were 0.87 (BSi), 0.93 (TOC), 0.90 (TN), and 0.91 (TIC) for the Alpha, and 0.78 (TOC), 0.85 (TN), 0.79 (TIC) for the Equinox 252 device. As the penetration depth of the IR beam is frequency dependent, a firm surface contact of

  18. A Method for Simulating Sedimentation of Fish Eggs to Generate Biological Effects Data for Assessing Dredging Impacts (United States)


    used to attach a 150 µm screen (Nylon screen, Pentair Aquatic Eco- Systems ; Sanford, NC) onto the end of the elbow located inside the chamber cast a shadow on the depth plunger to help detect when it touched the sediment surface. Last, the fine adjustment knob was used to slowly lower...experiment. Sedimentation experiments were performed in the Fish Larvae and Egg Exposure System (FLEES) located at the ERDC (Lutz et al. 2012). The

  19. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke


    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  20. Temporal changes in Hg, Pb, Cd and Zn environmental concentrations in the southern Baltic Sea sediments dated with 210Pb method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Zalewska


    Full Text Available The article presents data on heavy metal – Hg, Pb, Cd and Zn – distribution in the layers of marine sediments from the off-shore areas of the southern Baltic Sea: Gdańsk Deep, SE Gotland Basin and Bornholm Deep. Depth profiles of metal concentrations were converted to time-based profiles using the 210Pb dating method and verified by 137Cs distribution in the vertical profile. The linear sedimentation rates in the Gdańsk Deep and SE Gotland Basin are similar, 0.18 cm yr−1 and 0.14 cm yr−1, respectively, while the region of the Bornholm Deep is characterized by a greater sedimentation rate: 0.31 cm yr−1. Regarding anthropogenic pressure, Gdańsk Deep receives the largest share among the analyzed regions. The maximal metal concentrations detected in this area were Zn – 230 mg kg−1, Pb – 77 mg kg−1, Cd – 2.04 mg kg−1 and Hg – 0.27 mg kg−1. The least impact of anthropogenic pressure was noticeable in SE Gotland Basin. The combination of sediment dating with the analysis of vertical distribution of heavy metals in sediments benefited in the determination of target metal concentrations used in environmental status assessments. Reference values of heavy metal concentrations in marine sediments were determined as: Zn – 110 mg kg−1, Pb – 30 mg kg−1, Cd – 0.3 mg kg−1 and Hg – 0.05 mg kg−1 from the period of minor anthropogenic pressure. Basing on the determined indices: enrichment factor (EF, geoaccumulation indicator (Igeo and contamination factor (CF the status of marine environment was assessed regarding the pollution with heavy metals.

  1. New method of suspended sediment flux collection in the estuarine environment using bi-directional time-integrated mass-flux samplers (TIMs) (United States)

    Monbureau, E.; Elliott, E. A.; Walters, G.; McKee, B. A.; Rodriguez, A. B.


    Understanding the source and abundance of sediment transported within tidal creeks is essential for studying the connectivity between coastal watersheds and estuaries under conditions of changing land use, storminess and sea-level rise. Furthermore, analysis of the fine grained suspended sediment load (SSL) carried through the system is critical in our understanding of nutrient and contaminant transport, human-induced change, and the effects of climate. Unfortunately traditional methods of SSL collection, including instantaneous measurements and automatic samplers, can be labor intensive, expensive and are often inadequate for geochemical analysis. In estuaries this issue is even more pronounced, due to tidal bi-directional flow. This study tests the efficacy of a modification to an established uni-directional time-integrated sediment sampler (TIMs) design. Our new bi-directional TIMs design utilizes a 'L' shaped outflow tube to collect sediment uniquely in each direction of tidal flow. Laboratory flume experiments using dye and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to characterize the flow within the collector, specifically, to quantify the settling velocities and identify the stagnation points. Further laboratory tests of chemically dispersed sediment indicate that bi-directional TIMs capture nearly all incoming particles greater than 4 μm across a range of flow velocities. Field trials were employed in two distinct sampling locations within the tidal zone. Samples of single time point SSL were collected over a four day period and compared to sediment collected by the bi-directional TIMs over the same time frame. Particle size composition from the bi-directional TIMs were representative of the array of single time point samples, but yielded greater mass and proved to be more representative of the overall tidal flux. This work proves the efficacy of the modified bi-directional TIMs design, offering a novel tool for collection of SSL in the tidally dominated

  2. Physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size using multi-frequency arrays of acoustic-doppler profilers (United States)

    Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.; Griffiths, Ronald; Dean, David


    As the result of a 12-year program of sediment-transport research and field testing on the Colorado River (6 stations in UT and AZ), Yampa River (2 stations in CO), Little Snake River (1 station in CO), Green River (1 station in CO and 2 stations in UT), and Rio Grande (2 stations in TX), we have developed a physically based method for measuring suspended-sediment concentration and grain size at 15-minute intervals using multifrequency arrays of acoustic-Doppler profilers. This multi-frequency method is able to achieve much higher accuracies than single-frequency acoustic methods because it allows removal of the influence of changes in grain size on acoustic backscatter. The method proceeds as follows. (1) Acoustic attenuation at each frequency is related to the concentration of silt and clay with a known grain-size distribution in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (2) The combination of acoustic backscatter and attenuation at each frequency is uniquely related to the concentration of sand (with a known reference grain-size distribution) and the concentration of silt and clay (with a known reference grain-size distribution) in a river cross section using physical samples and theory. (3) Comparison of the suspended-sand concentrations measured at each frequency using this approach then allows theory-based calculation of the median grain size of the suspended sand and final correction of the suspended-sand concentration to compensate for the influence of changing grain size on backscatter. Although this method of measuring suspended-sediment concentration is somewhat less accurate than using conventional samplers in either the EDI or EWI methods, it is much more accurate than estimating suspended-sediment concentrations using calibrated pump measurements or single-frequency acoustics. Though the EDI and EWI methods provide the most accurate measurements of suspended-sediment concentration, these measurements are labor-intensive, expensive, and

  3. Analysis of factors controlling sediment phosphorus flux potential of wetlands in Hulun Buir grassland by principal component and path analysis method. (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Ye, Shengxing; Zheng, Zhirong


    Phosphorus (P) flux potential can predict the trend of phosphorus release from wetland sediments to water and provide scientific parameters for further monitoring and management for phosphorus flux from wetland sediments to overlying water. Many studies have focused on factors affecting sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface, but rarely on the relationship among these factors. In the present study, experiment on sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface was conducted in six wetlands in Hulun Buir grassland, China and the relationships among sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface, sediment physical properties, and sediment chemical characteristics were examined. Principal component analysis and path analysis were used to discuss these data in correlation coefficient, direct, and indirect effects on sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface. Results indicated that the major factors affecting sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface were amount of organophosphate-degradation bacterium in sediment, Ca-P content, and total phosphorus concentrations. The factors of direct influence sediment P flux potential were sediment Ca-P content, Olsen-P content, SOC content, and sediment Al-P content. The indirect influence sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface was sediment Olsen-P content, sediment SOC content, sediment Ca-P content, and sediment Al-P content. And the standard multiple regression describing the relationship between sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface and its major effect factors was Y = 5.849 - 1.025X 1  - 1.995X 2  + 0.188X 3  - 0.282X 4 (r = 0.9298, p properties to analyze the interrelation among sediment properties factors, main vegetable factors, and environment factors which influence the sediment P flux potential in sediment-water interface.

  4. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha


    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  5. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organophosphate pesticides in bottom sediment by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (United States)

    Jha, Virendra Kumar; Wydoski, Duane S.


    A method for the isolation of 20 parent organophosphate pesticides and 5 pesticide degradates from bottom-sediment samples is described. The compound O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-proplyphosphorothioate is reported as an estimated concentration because of variable performance. In this method, the sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess waster mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate and Soxhlet extracted overnight with dichloromethane (93 percent) and methanol (7 percent). The extract is concentrated and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoroethylene membrane syringe filter. An aliquot of the sample extract is quantitatively injected onto two polystyrene-divinylbenzene gel-permeation chromatographic columns connected in series. The compounds are eluted with dichloromethane and a fraction is collected for analysis, with some coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, separated and discarded. The aliquot is concentrated and solvent exchanged to ethyl acetate. The extract is analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Single-operator method detection limits in sodium sulfate matrix samples ranged from 0.81 to 2 micrograms per kilogram. Method performance was validated by spiking all compounds into three different solid matrices (sodium sulfate, bed sediment from Clear Creek, and bed sediment from Evergreen Lake) at three different concentrations. Eight replicates were analyzed at each concentration in each matrix. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in Clear Creek samples ranged from 43 to 110 percent, and those in Evergreen Lake samples ranged from 62 to 118 percent for all pesticides. Mean recoveries of method compounds spiked in reagent sodium sulfate samples ranged from 41 to 101 percent for all pesticides. The only exception was O-ethyl-O-methyl-S-propylphosphorothioate, which had an average recovery of 35 percent, and, thus, sample concentration is reported as estimated ('E' remark code).

  6. A comparison of four porewater sampling methods for metal mixtures and dissolved organic carbon and the implications for sediment toxicity evaluations. (United States)

    Cleveland, Danielle; Brumbaugh, William G; MacDonald, Donald D


    Evaluations of sediment quality conditions are commonly conducted using whole-sediment chemistry analyses but can be enhanced by evaluating multiple lines of evidence, including measures of the bioavailable forms of contaminants. In particular, porewater chemistry data provide information that is directly relevant for interpreting sediment toxicity data. Various methods for sampling porewater for trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is an important moderator of metal bioavailability, have been employed. The present study compares the peeper, push point, centrifugation, and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) methods for the quantification of 6 metals and DOC. The methods were evaluated at low and high concentrations of metals in 3 sediments having different concentrations of total organic carbon and acid volatile sulfide and different particle-size distributions. At low metal concentrations, centrifugation and push point sampling resulted in up to 100 times higher concentrations of metals and DOC in porewater compared with peepers and DGTs. At elevated metal levels, the measured concentrations were in better agreement among the 4 sampling techniques. The results indicate that there can be marked differences among operationally different porewater sampling methods, and it is unclear if there is a definitive best method for sampling metals and DOC in porewater. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2906-2915. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  7. Improved Method for the Detection and Quantification of Naegleria fowleri in Water and Sediment Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Real-Time PCR (United States)

    Mull, Bonnie J.; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hill, Vincent R.


    Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare and typically fatal infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. In 2010, the first confirmed case of PAM acquired in Minnesota highlighted the need for improved detection and quantification methods in order to study the changing ecology of N. fowleri and to evaluate potential risk factors for increased exposure. An immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedure and real-time PCR TaqMan assay were developed to recover and quantify N. fowleri in water and sediment samples. When one liter of lake water was seeded with N. fowleri strain CDC:V212, the method had an average recovery of 46% and detection limit of 14 amebas per liter of water. The method was then applied to sediment and water samples with unknown N. fowleri concentrations, resulting in positive direct detections by real-time PCR in 3 out of 16 samples and confirmation of N. fowleri culture in 6 of 16 samples. This study has resulted in a new method for detection and quantification of N. fowleri in water and sediment that should be a useful tool to facilitate studies of the physical, chemical, and biological factors associated with the presence and dynamics of N. fowleri in environmental systems. PMID:24228172

  8. Improved Method for the Detection and Quantification of Naegleria fowleri in Water and Sediment Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie J. Mull


    Full Text Available Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM is a rare and typically fatal infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. In 2010, the first confirmed case of PAM acquired in Minnesota highlighted the need for improved detection and quantification methods in order to study the changing ecology of N. fowleri and to evaluate potential risk factors for increased exposure. An immunomagnetic separation (IMS procedure and real-time PCR TaqMan assay were developed to recover and quantify N. fowleri in water and sediment samples. When one liter of lake water was seeded with N. fowleri strain CDC:V212, the method had an average recovery of 46% and detection limit of 14 amebas per liter of water. The method was then applied to sediment and water samples with unknown N. fowleri concentrations, resulting in positive direct detections by real-time PCR in 3 out of 16 samples and confirmation of N. fowleri culture in 6 of 16 samples. This study has resulted in a new method for detection and quantification of N. fowleri in water and sediment that should be a useful tool to facilitate studies of the physical, chemical, and biological factors associated with the presence and dynamics of N. fowleri in environmental systems.

  9. Recent Advances in the Analysis of Macromolecular Interactions Using the Matrix-Free Method of Sedimentation in the Analytical Ultracentrifuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Harding


    Full Text Available Sedimentation in the analytical ultracentrifuge is a matrix free solution technique with no immobilisation, columns, or membranes required and can be used to study self-association and complex or “hetero”-interactions, stoichiometry, reversibility and interaction strength of a wide variety of macromolecular types and across a very large dynamic range (dissociation constants from 10−12 M to 10−1 M. We extend an earlier review specifically highlighting advances in sedimentation velocity and sedimentation equilibrium in the analytical ultracentrifuge applied to protein interactions and mucoadhesion and to review recent applications in protein self-association (tetanus toxoid, agrin, protein-like carbohydrate association (aminocelluloses, carbohydrate-protein interactions (polysaccharide-gliadin, nucleic-acid protein (G-duplexes, nucleic acid-carbohydrate (DNA-chitosan and finally carbohydrate-carbohydrate (xanthan-chitosan and a ternary polysaccharide complex interactions.

  10. Aquatic sediments pollution estimate using the metal fractionation, secondary phase enrichment factor calculation, and used statistical methods. (United States)

    Sakan, Sanja; Popović, Aleksandar; Anđelković, Ivan; Đorđević, Dragana


    The sequential extraction procedure of the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) was applied for the fractionation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, and V in the Serbian river sediments. The aim of this paper was to describe a new approach in detection of anthropogenic elements in sediments, related to the Serbian river courses in order to assess their metal contamination. For sediment pollution evaluation, the risk assessment code (RAC) and the secondary phase enrichment factor (KSPEF) were used. Metal fractionation showed more easily mobilized forms predominant for copper, zinc, cadmium, manganese, and lead, which can be one of the indicators for anthropogenic source input. Chromium, nickel, iron, and vanadium found in the residual fraction indicate these metals may be an indicator for natural sources input. Based on RAC classification, results of sediments show no risk (Cr and V), low risk (Ni, Pb, and Fe), medium risk (Cu), high risk (Cd and Zn), and very high risk (Mn). The mean values of KSPEF were Cd > Cu > Zn > Ni > Mn > Pb > Fe > Cr > V, decreasing scale of no to moderately severe enrichment. The sediments were found to be contaminated by heavy metals to various extents, mostly Cd, Cu, and Zn. Research has shown the importance of KSPEF in quantifying degree of metal enrichment in sediments using results of sequential extraction. With the application of this factor, which is not frequently used in the scientific literature, the results obtained with sequential extraction can be used not only for assessment of mobility but also to quantify the metal pollution.

  11. Radiotracer method to study the transport of mercury(II)chloride from water to sediment and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, F.; Aras, N.K.


    The fate of dissolved Hg(II) in surface waters is an important component of the Hg cycle. A simple experimental methodology was used to understand and measure the transport of Hg(II) from water to air and sediment. The use of radioactive dissolved Hg tracer for the determination of evasion and deposition is found to be a very useful technique. The evasion of mercury was investigated during a 140-hour period. It was observed that about a quarter of mercury chloride remained in the water phase, the other quarter was emitted via the evasion process and half of it deposited in sediment. (author)

  12. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd


    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  13. Multiresidue method for the determination of 32 human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in soil and sediment by pressurized-liquid extraction and LC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Pérez-Carrera, Erkuden; Hansen, Martin; León, Víctor M; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A; Halling-Sørensen, Bent; González-Mazo, Eduardo


    An analytical chemical method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 32 different pharmaceuticals in soils and sediments. The pharmaceuticals cover a varity of different compound groups. Soil samples were extracted with different solvents with the help of pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE) followed by clean-up using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The purified extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The extraction method was evaluated by testing the following variables: extraction solvents, solvent pH, and temperature. Applying 20 g of soil/sediment and extracting with a mixture of methanol with aqueous ammonia solution (0.1 mol L(-1)) at 80 degrees C for 5 min in five cycles provided satisfactory recoveries between 66 and 114% with SD of between 1 and 14%. For preconcentration and purification tandem MAX-HLB cartridges were used. The volume and composition was optimized and the highest recoveries were obtained with a combination of methanol-aqueous ammonia solution. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.2 and 2 ng g(-1) and linearity higher than 0.98 for the majority of the selected pharmaceuticals. The method was successfully applied to soil samples collected from the Jerez de la Frontera agricultural region, irrigated with treated wastewater, and to sediment samples from the River Guadalete. The detection of nine pharmaceuticals including stimulants, antirheumatics, analgesics, anti-inflammatories, tranquilizers, and veterinary medicines at ng g(-1) concentration levels was achieved.

  14. Evaluation of Contaminations and Sources of Heavy Metals in Sediments at Samrak Delta of Nakdong River in Busan, Korea Using Geostatistical Methods (United States)

    Chung, Sang Yong; Senapathi, Venkatramanan; Khakimov, Elyor; Selvam, Sekar; Oh, Yun Yeong


    This research used several geostatistical methods to assess heavy metal contaminations and their sources of sediments at Samrak Delta of Nakdong River in Busan, Korea. The mean concentration of heavy metals in sediments were Fe (16.42 %), Al (15.56 %), Mn (0.31 %), Zn, Pb, Cr (0.03 %), Ni (0.02 %) and Cu (0.008 %), which were mainly attributed to the intense industrial and irrigation activities, and also geogenic sources. Groundwater in the sediments also contains the high concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe and Mn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) exhibited a significant relationship between physicochemical parameters (sand, silt, clay, TOC, CaCO3) and heavy metals (Fe, Al, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu), and the importance of physicochemical parameters in regulating the amount of heavy metals in sediments. Artificial neural network (ANN) showed a good correlation and model efficiency for simulated outputs except Fe, Pb and Zn. Silt, Clay, TOC and CaCO3 controlled the concentrations of heavy metals in sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) produced two factor loadings of PCA 1 of Fe, Mn, Pb, TOC, Cr, silt and Al, 75.4 % in variance, and PCA 2 of Cu, Ni, Zn and CaCO3, 24.6 % in variance. It suggested that heavy metals were originated from geogenic sources and effluents from industries. Cluster analysis (CA) was helpful for the classification of contamination sources of heavy metals. This study suggests that geostatistical techniques are essentially necessary for the effective management of heavy metal contaminations and policy decision making processes to reduce the contamination level of heavy metals in deltaic region.

  15. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  16. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis]. (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina


    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  17. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations. (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn


    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  19. Spontaneous dimensional reduction? (United States)

    Carlip, Steven


    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  20. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2...

  1. Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous extraction and separate measurement of oxytetracycline, florfenicol, oxolinic acid and flumequine from marine sediments. (United States)

    Norambuena, Luis; Gras, Nuri; Contreras, Sergio


    A simple and rapid method for the detection and extraction of oxolinic acid, flumequine, florfenicol and oxytetracycline from marine sediments was developed and validated. The analytes were extracted from the marine sediment using a solution of oxalic acid diluted in methanol with sonication before detection by HPLC using a diode-array detector (florfenicol and oxytetracycline) and fluorescence (oxolinic acid and flumequine). The quantification limits (QL) were 100 ng/g for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 5 ng/g for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The coefficients of variation of the repeatability and intermediate precision were less than 10% in all of the analytes. The calibration curves were linear between 50 and 500 ng/ml for oxytetracycline and florfenicol and 1 and 20 ng/ml for oxolinic acid and flumequine. The recuperation rate for the analytes was above 86%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of the Taguchi Method for Optimizing the Process Parameters of Producing Lightweight Aggregates by Incorporating Tile Grinding Sludge with Reservoir Sediments. (United States)

    Chen, How-Ji; Chang, Sheng-Nan; Tang, Chao-Wei


    This study aimed to apply the Taguchi optimization technique to determine the process conditions for producing synthetic lightweight aggregate (LWA) by incorporating tile grinding sludge powder with reservoir sediments. An orthogonal array L 16 (4⁵) was adopted, which consisted of five controllable four-level factors (i.e., sludge content, preheat temperature, preheat time, sintering temperature, and sintering time). Moreover, the analysis of variance method was used to explore the effects of the experimental factors on the particle density, water absorption, bloating ratio, and loss on ignition of the produced LWA. Overall, the produced aggregates had particle densities ranging from 0.43 to 2.1 g/cm³ and water absorption ranging from 0.6% to 13.4%. These values are comparable to the requirements for ordinary and high-performance LWAs. The results indicated that it is considerably feasible to produce high-performance LWA by incorporating tile grinding sludge with reservoir sediments.

  3. A combined model of sediment production, supply and transport


    M. Fujita; K. Yamanoi; H. Izumiyama


    In previous sediment-runoff models, the sediment production rates of mountain slopes, and the sediment supply rates to streams typically have been developed using empirical methods. A process-based model for sediment production and supply is, however, required for more exact simulations of sediment runoff. In this study, we develop a method to calculate the sediment production rate due to both freeze-thaw action and the sediment supply rate (i.e. erosion rate of talus). These numerical models...

  4. Screening method for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in sediments based on water Soxhlet extraction assisted by focused microwaves with on-line preconcentration/derivatization/detection. (United States)

    Morales-Muñoz, S; Luque-García, J L; de Castro, Luque


    A screening method for linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sediments has been developed. Soxhlet extraction with water assisted by focused microwaves provides recoveries better (>90%) than obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction (70-80%). Coupling of the extractor with an on-line preconcentration/derivatization/detection manifold through a flow injection (FI) interface allows a fully automated screening approach. A yes/no answer can be obtained in less than 2 h (for the whole analytical process), a short time compared with the at least 24 h of Soxhlet extraction (without final detection). Due to the use of water as leaching agent, the proposed method is environmentally friendly.

  5. Aquatic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, J.S.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Schreiber, L.


    The authors present a literature review concerning sediment properties, interactions, and conditions. Topics of discussion include the following: biological activity and toxicity; nutrients; metals; organic compounds; dredging; radionuclides; oxygen demand and organic carbon; mathematical modeling; sediment transport and suspension; and paleolimnology

  6. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection. (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  7. Assessment of sediment quality in the Mediterranean Sea-Boughrara lagoon exchange areas (southeastern Tunisia): GIS approach-based chemometric methods. (United States)

    Kharroubi, Adel; Gargouri, Dorra; Baati, Houda; Azri, Chafai


    Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe) in surface sediments from 66 sites in both northern and eastern Mediterranean Sea-Boughrara lagoon exchange areas (southeastern Tunisia) were studied in order to understand current metal contamination due to the urbanization and economic development of nearby several coastal regions of the Gulf of Gabès. Multiple approaches were applied for the sediment quality assessment. These approaches were based on GIS coupled with chemometric methods (enrichment factors, geoaccumulation index, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis). Enrichment factors and principal component analysis revealed two distinct groups of metals. The first group corresponded to Fe and Mn derived from natural sources, and the second group contained Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu originated from man-made sources. For these latter metals, cluster analysis showed two distinct distributions in the selected areas. They were attributed to temporal and spatial variations of contaminant sources input. The geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) values explained that only Cd, Pb, and Cu can be considered as moderate to extreme pollutants in the studied sediments.

  8. Determination of toxic and trace elements in human hair and sediment samples by reactor neutron activation analysis technique based-on the k-zero method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho Manh Dung; Nguyen Mong Sinh; Nguyen Thanh Binh; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thi Si


    The analysis of human hair can evaluate the degree of environmental pollutants exposure to human body, intakes of food and metabolism. Also, the analysis of sediment can aid in reconstructing the history of changes, understanding human impact on the ecosystem, and suggesting possible remedial strategies. The k o -standardization method of neutron activation analysis (k o -NAA) on research reactor is capable to play an important role as a main analytical technique with the advantages of sensitivity, precision, accuracy, multielement and routine for the sample object. Therefore, the project's aim is to build the k o -NAA procedures on the Dalat research reactor for the analysis of human hair and sediment samples. The K o -NAA procedure on the Dalat research reactor is able to determine of multielement: Ag, Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K Mg, Mn, Na, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in The human hair; and of multielement: As, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mn, Na Rb, Sb, Sc, Yb and Zn in the sediment. (author)

  9. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.; Zozikov, B.; Otzetov, A.; Kamenova, M.; Martinova, F.; Kalyonski, R.


    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  10. Isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic study of ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments. (United States)

    Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Ćurković, Lidija; Grčić, Ivana; Šimić, Iva; Župan, Josip


    In this study, equilibrium isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of ciprofloxacin on seven sediments in a batch sorption process were examined. The effects of contact time, initial ciprofloxacin concentration, temperature and ionic strength on the sorption process were studied. The K d parameter from linear sorption model was determined by linear regression analysis, while the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) sorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms by linear and nonlinear methods. The estimated K d values varied from 171 to 37,347 mL/g. The obtained values of E (free energy estimated from D-R isotherm model) were between 3.51 and 8.64 kJ/mol, which indicated a physical nature of ciprofloxacin sorption on studied sediments. According to obtained n values as measure of intensity of sorption estimate from Freundlich isotherm model (from 0.69 to 1.442), ciprofloxacin sorption on sediments can be categorized from poor to moderately difficult sorption characteristics. Kinetics data were best fitted by the pseudo-second-order model (R 2  > 0.999). Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) were calculated to estimate the nature of ciprofloxacin sorption. Results suggested that sorption on sediments was a spontaneous exothermic process.

  11. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P


    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  12. Algal stabilisation of estuarine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The presence of benthic microalgae can increase the stability of intertidal sediments and influence sediment fluxes within an estuarine environment. Therefore the relative importance of algal stabilisation needs to be understood to help predict the effects of a tidal barrage. The biogenic stabilisation of intertidal estuarine sediments by epipelic diatom films and the macrophyte Vaucheria was studied at three sites on the Severn Estuary. The cohesive strength meter (CSM) was developed to measure surface critical shear stress with varied algal density. A number of techniques have been used to determine the general in situ erodibility of cohesive estuarine sediments. The measurements of sediment shear strength and critical erosion velocity were investigated. Field experiments were undertaken to investigate the effect of algae on binding sediments, and a predictive method for the assessment of sediment stabilisation by algal binding was developed. (author)

  13. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen


    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  14. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo


    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  15. Community structure and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in an intertidal surface sediment: a multi-method approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llobet-Brossa, Enrique; Rabus, Ralf; Böttcher, Michael E.


    The community structure of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in an intertidal mud flat of the German Wadden Sea (Site Dangast, Jade Bay) was studied and related to sedimentary biogeochemical gradients and processes. Below the penetration depths of oxygen (~3 mm) and nitrate (~4 mm), the presence...... and counting viable cells with the most probable number technique. Phylogenetic groups of SRB identified with these techniques were almost evenly distributed throughout the top 20 cm of the sediment. Application of fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, demonstrated a maximum of active members...

  16. Sediment problems in reservoirs. Control of sediment deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Tom


    When a reservoir is formed on a river, sediment will deposit in the reservoir. Such processes are unfortunate, for instance, for the implementation of hydroelectric energy. This thesis studies the problem of reservoir sedimentation and discusses methods of removing the sediments. Various aspects of reservoir sedimentation are discussed. Anthropogenic impacts seem to greatly affect the erosion processes. Temporal distribution is uneven, mainly because of the very large flood events. A world map showing the Reservoir Capacity: Annual Sediment Inflow ratio for reservoirs with volume equal to 10% of annual inflow has been prepared. The map shows that sedimentation is severe in the western parts of North and South America, eastern, southern and northern Africa, parts of Australia and most of Asia. The development of medium-sized reservoirs is difficult, as they are too large for conventional flushing technique and too small to store the sediment that accumulates during their economic lifetime. A computer model, SSIIM, was used with good results in a case study of two flood drawdown trials in Lake Roxburg, New Zealand. Two techniques have been developed that permits controlled suction of sediment and water into a pipe: the Slotted Pipe Sediment Sluicer (SPSS) and the Saxophone Sediment Sluicer (SSS). The techniques exploit the inflow pattern in through a slot in a pipe. An equation describing this inflow pattern was derived and verified experimentally. The SPSS is fixed near the reservoir bed, and sediment that deposits on top of it is removed in the sluicing process. The SSS sluices sediment from the surface of the sediment deposits. Some technical and economic conditions affecting the economics of sediment removal from reservoirs have been identified and studied. 79 refs., 112 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Use of fluorescence quenching method to measure sorption constants of phenolic xenoestrogens onto humic fractions from sediment. (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Lung; Yeh, Kuei-Jyum; Hsu, Liang-Fong; Yu, Wu-Chou; Lee, Ming-His; Chen, Ting-Chien


    Humic substance (HS) in sediment can affect hydrophobic organic compound distribution, transportation, bioavailability, and toxicity. This study investigated the HS (BKHS) extracted from sediment and separated it into low molecular humic (LMHS, xenoestrogenic endocrine-disrupting compounds that are widely produced and discharged to the environment. The log KHS values of the BKHS and HMHS solutions were between 4.74-5.09Lkg-C(-1) and 4.57-5.09Lkg-C(-1), respectively. However, the three compounds were not sorbed by the LMHS solution. The average values of SUVA254 for HMHS and LMHS were 4.29 and 1.31Lm(-1)mg-C(-1) and the average values of A250-400 for HMHS and LMHS were 18.1 and 4.51nmcm(-1), respectively. The HMHS peak position in the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix at longer wavelengths corresponded to the peak position of LMHS, which indicates that the HMHS had a higher degree of humification than the LMHS. The results suggested that the KHS value's dominant factor was the degree of HS humification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of hydrocarbons in marine sediments: comparison with the Soxhlet extraction method. (United States)

    Vázquez Blanco, E; López Mahía, P; Muniategui Lorenzo, S; Prada Rodríguez, D; Fernández Fernández, E


    Microwave energy was applied to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear aliphatic hydrocarbons (LAHs) from marine sediments. The influence of experimental conditions, such as different extracting solvents and mixtures, microwave power, irradiation time and number of samples extracted per run has been tested using real marine sediment samples; volume of the solvent, sample quantity and matrix effects were also evaluated. The yield of extracted compounds obtained by microwave irradiation was compared with that obtained using the traditional Soxhlet extraction. The best results were achieved with a mixture of acetone and hexane (1:1), and recoveries ranged from 92 to 106%. The extraction time is dependent on the irradiation power and the number of samples extracted per run, so when the irradiation power was set to 500 W, the extraction times varied from 6 min for 1 sample to 18 min for 8 samples. Analytical determinations were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet-visible photodiode-array detector for PAHs and gas chromatography (GC) using a FID detector for LAHs. To test the accuracy of the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique, optimized methodology was applied to the analysis of standard reference material (SRM 1941), obtaining acceptable results.

  19. Large microplastic particles in sediments of tributaries of the River Thames, UK - Abundance, sources and methods for effective quantification. (United States)

    Horton, Alice A; Svendsen, Claus; Williams, Richard J; Spurgeon, David J; Lahive, Elma


    Sewage effluent input and population were chosen as predictors of microplastic presence in sediments at four sites in the River Thames basin (UK). Large microplastic particles (1mm-4mm) were extracted using a stepwise approach to include visual extraction, flotation and identification using Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics were found at all four sites. One site had significantly higher numbers of microplastics than other sites, average 66 particles 100g -1 , 91% of which were fragments. This site was downstream of a storm drain outfall receiving urban runoff; many of the fragments at this site were determined to be derived of thermoplastic road-surface marking paints. At the remaining three sites, fibres were the dominant particle type. The most common polymers identified included polypropylene, polyester and polyarylsulphone. This study describes two major new findings: presence of microplastic particles in a UK freshwater system and identification of road marking paints as a source of microplastics. This study is the first to quantify microplastics of any size in river sediments in the UK and links their presence to terrestrial sources including sewage and road marking paints. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny


    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  1. Safety of Oral Clemastine – Analysis of Data from Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    event reporting system. Methods: We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on ... existing spontaneous monitoring system for adverse effects in Poland may not be sensitive enough and therefore, needs improvement. ... which is based on current EU legislation. As part.

  2. Safety of Oral Clemastine – Analysis of Data from Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyse the safety of oral clemastine marketed in Poland based on spontaneous adverse event reporting system. Methods: We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on the adverse effects of Clemastinum Hasco tablets (1.0 mg) and Clemastinum Hasco syrup (0.1 ...

  3. Sediment Acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stoll, R


    ... variables such as porosity and grain-size distribution. The model is based on the classical Biot theory extended to take into account various mechanisms of energy loss that are known to be important in marine sediments...

  4. Operative treatment of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas : a study of the factors determining postoperative outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, R J; van Alphen, H A

    OBJECTIVE: We clarify the factors affecting postoperative outcomes in patients who have suffered spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas. METHODS: We review 330 cases of spontaneous spinal epidural hematomas from the international literature and three unpublished cases of our own. Attention was

  5. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K


    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  6. Detection of water leaks in the dam Joumine and study of sedimentation in the dam Ghezela by nuclear method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari Souha


    The objective of this study is to determinate the paths of leaks observed in the dam Joumine and to identify the origin of salinity in the drain D2. In addition, the evaluation of the sedimentation measurement of suspended elements in the dam Ghezela is our second objective. The Joumine dam located in the North-east of Tunisia (governorate of Bizerte), was built in 1983 has an upstream watershed area of 418 km 2 . The reservoir capacity is 130 Mm 3 . This dam observed a water leakage from its implementation at the two drains D1 and D2 with a emerging flow rate reached a value close to 500 l/s, about 16 pour cent of its capacity. The injection of an insulating material in Karsts networks reduces the leakage rate to a value of 120 l / s in 1993 and 88 l / s in 2013, but this decrease was accompanied by an increase in salinity level in D2. The results from a multidisciplinary approach showed that the leakage path from the left bank of the reservoir where the leak was first detected, heading both D1 and D2 drains and the salinity in drain D2 due to the dissolution of the gypsum layer downstream of the dam and the contribution of brackish water from the left bank. The Ghezela dam located in the same area, was built in 1984 has an upstream watershed area of 48 km 2 . This dam has been an increase in sedimentation of 0.3 million m3 in 1994 to 1.7 million m 3 in 2010. In this study, the suspended elements were measured with a nuclear probe composed by a radioactive source of americium 241 and a NaI detector trained by a boat at different depth in the reservoir.

  7. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD


    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  8. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian


    predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...

  9. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPRSS technology is an in situ remediation technique for PCB-contaminated sediments. The technique provides an effective and safe method for sediment cleanup...

  10. Fractionation And Environmental Risk Of Trace Metals In Surface Sediment Of The East China Sea By Modified BCR Sequential Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Andreas


    Full Text Available Geochemical fractionation of Cadmium (Cd, Lead (Pb, Cobalt (Co, Zink (Zn, Iron (Fe and Manganese (Mn in sediment of the East China Sea were determined using four-stages of modified BCR sequential extraction method combination with ICP-MS. The total concentration of trace metals in sediment samples were in the following order: Fe >Mn>Pb> Zn > Co > Cd. Cd is present mainly in acid soluble fraction. Pb and Mn are in the group with presenting of easy reducible fraction and acid soluble fraction. Fe and Co were found in a group with mainly in residual fraction, while Zn was distributed in all four fractions. The highest contamination factors were found for Cd and Mn while the lowest were found for Fe and Co in almost station. The result showed low risk for Fe and Co in all station, Pb (except S2 and S3, Zn at S3,S6 and S7, and Mn at S1. A medium risk is indicated for Pb at S2 and S3, Zn at S1 and S5, and Mn at S2 and S6. A high risk showed for Zn at S2 and S4, and Mn at S4 and S5, while Cd at almost station (except S4 was very high risk.

  11. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.


    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  12. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.


    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  13. Comparison the effect of two weaning methods from mechanical ventilation “spontaneous breathing trial” with “Synchronized Intermittent-Mandatory” on physiological indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Mokhtar


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Weaning from mechanical ventilator due to the direct effect on patient’s physiologic indices is very risky action and if it is unsuccessful, it can lead to re-intubation of patient. The aim of the current study was to compare the effect of two weaning methods from mechanical ventilation “SBT” method with “SIMV” on physiological indices of ventilated patients. Materials and Method: In this clinical trial study, 44 intubated patients in intensive care units of one of the hospital in Arak in 2014 were selected through convenience sampling and then were randomly allocated into two intervention and control groups (each group 22 persons. In intervention group SBT method and in control group SIMV were used as weaning method from ventilation. Data collection was done thorugh using physiological indices and GCS score before, during and after the intervention Data were analyzed by using SPSS 20, paired T-test, independent T-test, repeated measures ANOVA and Greenhouse-Geisser. Results: In SBT group, the means of systolic blood pressure was (107.90 ± 5/2, heart rate (70.27 ± 7.2, respiration rate (14.90 ± 1.06 had significant reduction after intervention (from 9 to 12 Am (p < 0.001. Also, the mean of Pao2 (89.12 ± 1.16, mean of diastolic blood pressure (76.09 ± 4.6, O2 sat (93.09 ± 0.97 and  level of consciousness (14.90 ±0.21 had significant increase after intervention and physiologic status of patients was improved. In control group there was no significant difference among the measured indices. Conclusion: The results showed that “SBT” method leads to improvement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, Pao2, O2sat and level of consciousness of patients in intervention group. It is recommended to apply of this weaning method in intensive care unit.

  14. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.


    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  15. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS


    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  16. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  17. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior


    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  18. Fetal megacystis : prediction of spontaneous resolution and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanella, F.; Duin, L.; Adama van Scheltema, P. N.; Cohen-Overbeek, T. E.; Pajkrt, E.; Bekker, M.; Willekes, C.; Bax, C. J.; Bilardo, C. M.


    Objectives: To investigate the natural history of fetal megacystis from diagnosis in utero to postnatal outcome, and to identify prognostic indicators of spontaneous resolution and postnatal outcome after resolution. Methods: This was a national retrospective cohort study. Fetal megacystis was

  19. Particle interactions during sedimentation (United States)

    Michaelides, Efstathios; Xu, Zu-Jia


    The confined sedimentation process of two-dimensional particles with several initial configurations is numerically investigated at very low to moderate particle Reynolds numbers. The Lattice Boltzmann Method is used to simulate the hydrodynamic interactions between fluid and particles. We have found that, during the sedimentation process the displacement dispersion of particles in the horizontal direction fluctuates around zero, while the dispersion in the vertical direction increases monotonically and almost linearly. We also found that the increasing dispersion rate heavily depends on the initial layout and any symmetry of the suspension. The simulations for non-cohesive particles show that the process of sedimentation encompasses three stages: In the first stage, the initial particle configuration plays a major role on the average velocity of the particles. A V-shape or W-shape front may be formed by the particles close to that front. During the second stage, the concentration is lower, strong particle interactions dominate and the formation and destruction of particle clusters play a major role in the process. The sedimentation velocity depends to a large extend on the number of clusters formed and the velocity field developed. During the third stage, the suspension stretches, concentration becomes lower and particle clusters appear to be more stable. The wakes generated by individual particles and clusters, especially the wake of the leading cluster becomes very important in the process. Simulations were also performed with cohesive particles and we found out that the sedimentation process is essentially governed by the formation and size of flocs.

  20. The oceanic sediment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.J.G.; Searle, R.C.; Wilson, T.R.S.


    Burial within the sediments of the deep ocean floor is one of the options that have been proposed for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. An international research programme is in progress to determine whether oceanic sediments have the requisite properties for this purpose. After summarizing the salient features of this programme, the paper focuses on the Great Meteor East study area in the Northeast Atlantic, where most oceanographic effort has been concentrated. The geological geochemical and geotechnical properties of the sediments in the area are discussed. Measurements designed to determine the rate of pore water movement through the sediment column are described. Our understanding of the chemistry of both the solid and pore-water phases of the sediment are outlined, emphasizing the control that redox conditions have on the mobility of, for example, naturally occurring manganese and uranium. The burial of instrumented free-fall penetrators to depths of 30 m beneath the ocean floor is described, modelling one of the methods by which waste might be emplaced. Finally, the nature of this oceanic environment is compared with geological environments on land and attention is drawn to the gaps in our knowledge that must be filled before oceanic burial can be regarded as an acceptable disposal option. (author)

  1. Estimating long-term evolution of fine sediment budget in the Iffezheim reservoir using a simplified method based on classification of boundary conditions (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Hillebrand, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hinkelmann, Reinhard


    , and 2 longer ones, which include several short-term periods. Short-term periods spread from 1 to 3 months, whereas long-term periods indicate 2 and 5 years. The simulation results showed an acceptable agreement with the measurements. It was also found that the long-term periods had less deviation to the measurements than the short ones. This simplified method exhibited clear savings in computational time compared to the instationary simulations; in this case only 3 hours of computational time were needed for 5 years simulation period using the reference computer mentioned above. Further research is needed with respect to the limits of this linear approach, i.e. with respect to the frequency with which the set of steady simulations has to be updated due to significant changes in morphology and in turn in hydraulics. Yet, the preliminary results are promising, suggesting that the developed approach is very suitable for a long-term simulation of riverbed evolution. REFERENCES Olsen, N.R.B. 2014. A three-dimensional numerical model for simulation of sediment movements in water intakes with multiblock option. Version 1 and 2. User's manual. Department of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering. The Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway. Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt (WSA) Freiburg. 2011. Sachstandsbericht oberer Wehrkanal Staustufe Iffezheim. Technical report - Upper weir channel of the Iffezheim hydropower reservoir. Zhang, Q., Hillebrand, G. Moser, H. & Hinkelmann, R. 2015. Simulation of non-uniform sediment transport in a German Reservoir with the SSIIM Model and sensitivity analysis. Proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress. The Hague, The Netherland.

  2. A multivariate analytical method to characterize sediment attributes from high-frequency acoustic backscatter and ground-truthing data (Jade Bay, German North Sea coast) (United States)

    Biondo, Manuela; Bartholomä, Alexander


    One of the burning issues on the topic of acoustic seabed classification is the lack of solid, repeatable, statistical procedures that can support the verification of acoustic variability in relation to seabed properties. Acoustic sediment classification schemes often lead to biased and subjective interpretation, as they ultimately aim at an oversimplified categorization of the seabed based on conventionally defined sediment types. However, grain size variability alone cannot be accounted for acoustic diversity, which will be ultimately affected by multiple physical processes, scale of heterogeneity, instrument settings, data quality, image processing and segmentation performances. Understanding and assessing the weight of all of these factors on backscatter is a difficult task, due to the spatially limited and fragmentary knowledge of the seabed from of direct observations (e.g. grab samples, cores, videos). In particular, large-scale mapping requires an enormous availability of ground-truthing data that is often obtained from heterogeneous and multidisciplinary sources, resulting into a further chance of misclassification. Independently from all of these limitations, acoustic segments still contain signals for seabed changes that, if appropriate procedures are established, can be translated into meaningful knowledge. In this study we design a simple, repeatable method, based on multivariate procedures, with the scope to classify a 100 km2, high-frequency (450 kHz) sidescan sonar mosaic acquired in the year 2012 in the shallow upper-mesotidal inlet of the Jade Bay (German North Sea coast). The tool used for the automated classification of the backscatter mosaic is the QTC SWATHVIEWTMsoftware. The ground-truthing database included grab sample data from multiple sources (2009-2011). The method was designed to extrapolate quantitative descriptors for acoustic backscatter and model their spatial changes in relation to grain size distribution and morphology. The

  3. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.


    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  4. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.


    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  5. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat


    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  6. Review of the Methods to Obtain Paediatric Drug Safety Information: Spontaneous Reporting and Healthcare Databases, Active Surveillance Programmes, Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (United States)

    Gentili, Marta; Pozzi, Marco; Peeters, Gabrielle; Radice, Sonia; Carnovale, Carla


    Knowledge of drugs safety collected during the pre-marketing phase is inevitably limited because the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are rarely designed to evaluate safety. The small and selective groups of enrolled individuals and the limited duration of trials may hamper the ability to characterize fully the safety profiles of drugs. Additionally, information about rare adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in special groups is often incomplete or not available for most of the drugs commonly used in the daily clinical practice. In the paediatric setting several highimpact safety issues have emerged. Hence, in recent years, there has been a call for improved post-marketing pharmacoepidemiological studies, in which cohorts of patients are monitored for sufficient time in order to determine the precise risk-benefit ratio. In this review, we discuss the current available strategies enhancing the post-marketing monitoring activities of the drugs in the paediatric setting and define criteria whereby they can provide valuable information to improve the management of therapy in daily clinical practice including both safety and efficacy aspects. The strategies we cover include the signal detection using international pharmacovigilance and/or healthcare databases, the promotion of active surveillance initiatives which can generate complete, informative data sets for the signal detection and systematic review/meta-analysis. Together, these methods provide a comprehensive picture of causality and risk improving the management of therapy in a paediatric setting and they should be considered as a unique tool to be integrated with post-marketing activities. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  7. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection. (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis


    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  8. Kanawha River Basin Sediment Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set contains sediment size data collected at research sites using a Wolman Pebble Count method. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  9. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration of whole blood influences the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma obtained from centrifugation methods. (United States)

    Yin, Wenjing; Xu, Zhengliang; Sheng, Jiagen; Xie, Xuetao; Zhang, Changqing


    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which reflects the sedimentation rate of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes in response to centrifugal force, may influence the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained via centrifugation methods. However, no relevant studies have substantiated this. In the present study, blood was collected from 40 healthy volunteers and used to prepare PRP with two plasma-based preparation systems [YinPRP and Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) systems] and two buffy coat-based systems (RegenPRP and WEGOPRP systems) in a single-donor model. Volumes of PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) that were removed in the preparation process were recorded. Analyses of ESR, haematocrit, C-reaction protein, coagulation, serum glucose and serum lipid of the whole blood used for PRP preparation were performed to evaluate the levels of ESR and the factors known to influence it. Whole blood analysis was performed to evaluate the cellular composition of PRP. Results demonstrated that there were marked positive correlations between the ESR of the whole blood used for PRP preparation and PPP removal efficiencies, platelet concentrations, platelet capture efficiencies and platelet enrichment factors of PRP formulations obtained from plasma-based systems, and PRP yield efficiency of RegenPRP and PPP removal efficiency of WEGOPRP. Furthermore, there were marked negative correlations between ESR and concentrations and enrichment factors of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes of RegenPRP. Fibrinogen concentration of the whole blood, which had a marked positive correlation with ESR, also influenced the cellular composition of PRP. These findings may increase the understanding of PRP preparation and provide substantial evidence for the individualised optimisation of PRP preparation systems used in clinical practice.

  10. Visual sedimentation. (United States)

    Huron, Samuel; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel


    We introduce Visual Sedimentation, a novel design metaphor for visualizing data streams directly inspired by the physical process of sedimentation. Visualizing data streams (e. g., Tweets, RSS, Emails) is challenging as incoming data arrive at unpredictable rates and have to remain readable. For data streams, clearly expressing chronological order while avoiding clutter, and keeping aging data visible, are important. The metaphor is drawn from the real-world sedimentation processes: objects fall due to gravity, and aggregate into strata over time. Inspired by this metaphor, data is visually depicted as falling objects using a force model to land on a surface, aggregating into strata over time. In this paper, we discuss how this metaphor addresses the specific challenge of smoothing the transition between incoming and aging data. We describe the metaphor's design space, a toolkit developed to facilitate its implementation, and example applications to a range of case studies. We then explore the generative capabilities of the design space through our toolkit. We finally illustrate creative extensions of the metaphor when applied to real streams of data.

  11. Geometry of spontaneously broken local N=1 supersymmetry in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.


    The authers reveal the model-independent geometric content of spontaneous breakdown of local supersymmetry in N=1 supergravities (conformal and minimal Einstien ones) via constructing nonlinear realizations of their underlying superspace gauge group. A general method of implementing such realizations consistently with the intrinsic superspace geometry of supergravity theories is proposed and its relevance to description of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the theories of similar nature (strings, membranes) is pointed out. Superspace adequate to the nonlinear realizations constructed and find the explicit relation between them and conventional curved N=1 superspaces are defined. The implications of this relationship for the N = 1 supergravity actions with spontaneously broken supersymmetry are discussed. 29 refs

  12. Methods to measure biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microbiota and their application on illuminated lake sediments. A literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Eva


    In the work of finding a place for long time storage of radioactive waste it is of importance to understand the surrounding ecosystems. The storage is supposed to keep the radioactive waste away from humans and nature for some hundreds of thousands of years. It is important to be able to make risk assessments for a hypothetical release and understand by which ways the radionuclides could find their way into the biota. In lakes, released radionuclides would most probably find their way into the biota through heterotrophic bacteria or auto trophic microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to investigate how large the biomass and production of heterotrophic bacteria and photosynthetic organisms in lakes are. This report is an overview of methods that are commonly used today for measuring biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microorganisms in lakes. It elucidates advantages and drawbacks of the different methods. Some results from studies on illuminated lake sediment habitats are given. Biomass of bacteria is commonly measured in microscope after colouring the bacteria with a dye. Dyes commonly used are acridine orange and 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Biomass of photosynthetic microorganisms is also commonly measured in microscope but can also be determined by the amount of chlorophyll 'a' and other pigments. An advantage with measuring the biomass photosynthetic microorganisms in microscope is that a good resolution of the community is achieved. A disadvantage with determining the biomass by measuring the chlorophyll 'a' concentrations is that the concentrations may vary with light climate and nutrients even though the carbon biomass is constant. Methods for measuring bacterial production discussed in this report are the thymidine incorporation method, the leucine incorporation method and the frequency of dividing cell method (FDC). Methods for primary production discussed in this report are the 14 CO 2 -incorporation method, the O 2

  13. Methods to measure biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microbiota and their application on illuminated lake sediments. A literature study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Eva [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology


    In the work of finding a place for long time storage of radioactive waste it is of importance to understand the surrounding ecosystems. The storage is supposed to keep the radioactive waste away from humans and nature for some hundreds of thousands of years. It is important to be able to make risk assessments for a hypothetical release and understand by which ways the radionuclides could find their way into the biota. In lakes, released radionuclides would most probably find their way into the biota through heterotrophic bacteria or auto trophic microorganisms. Therefore, it is important to investigate how large the biomass and production of heterotrophic bacteria and photosynthetic organisms in lakes are. This report is an overview of methods that are commonly used today for measuring biomass and production of bacteria and photosynthetic microorganisms in lakes. It elucidates advantages and drawbacks of the different methods. Some results from studies on illuminated lake sediment habitats are given. Biomass of bacteria is commonly measured in microscope after colouring the bacteria with a dye. Dyes commonly used are acridine orange and 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Biomass of photosynthetic microorganisms is also commonly measured in microscope but can also be determined by the amount of chlorophyll 'a' and other pigments. An advantage with measuring the biomass photosynthetic microorganisms in microscope is that a good resolution of the community is achieved. A disadvantage with determining the biomass by measuring the chlorophyll 'a' concentrations is that the concentrations may vary with light climate and nutrients even though the carbon biomass is constant. Methods for measuring bacterial production discussed in this report are the thymidine incorporation method, the leucine incorporation method and the frequency of dividing cell method (FDC). Methods for primary production discussed in this report are the {sup 14}CO{sub 2

  14. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan


    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  15. Sample preparation method for the ER-CALUX bioassay screening of (xeno-)estrogenic activity in sediment extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Kapiteijn, W.; Bakker, J.F.; Brouwer, A.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.; Klamer, H.J.C.


    The application of bioassays to assess the occurrence of estrogenic compounds in the environment is increasing in both a scientific and statutory context. The availability of appropriate validated methods for sample pre-treatment and analysis is crucial for the successful implementation of

  16. A combined model of sediment production, supply and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fujita


    Full Text Available In previous sediment-runoff models, the sediment production rates of mountain slopes, and the sediment supply rates to streams typically have been developed using empirical methods. A process-based model for sediment production and supply is, however, required for more exact simulations of sediment runoff. In this study, we develop a method to calculate the sediment production rate due to both freeze-thaw action and the sediment supply rate (i.e. erosion rate of talus. These numerical models were then connected to an existing sediment transport model. The integrated model presented here was applied to a small mountainous watershed. We found that the calculated sediment production rate was within the range of values typically observed for this region. Additionally, the estimated annual sediment discharge using the model agreed with observational results. Lastly, we found that the model can be used to qualitatively characterize typical features of the actual sediment routine in mountainous watersheds.

  17. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.


    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  18. Spontaneity and international marketing performance


    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.


    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  19. Suspended-sediment transport and storage: A demonstration of acoustic methods in the evaluation of reservoir management strategies for a small water-supply reservoir in western Colorado (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Richards, Rodney J.; Collins, Kent L.


    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and local stakeholder groups are evaluating reservoir-management strategies within Paonia Reservoir. This small reservoir fills to capacity each spring and requires approximately half of the snowmelt-runoff volume from its sediment-laden source waters, Muddy Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently conducting high-resolution (15-minute data-recording interval) sediment monitoring to characterize incoming and outgoing sediment flux during reservoir operations at two sites on Muddy Creek. The high-resolution monitoring is being used to establish current rates of reservoir sedimentation, support USBR sediment transport and storage models, and assess the viability of water-storage recovery in Paonia Reservoir. These sites are equipped with in situ, single-frequency, side-looking acoustic Doppler current meters in conjunction with turbidity sensors to monitor sediment flux. This project serves as a demonstration of the capability of using surrogate techniques to predict suspended-sediment concentrations in small streams (less than 20 meters in width and 2 meters in depth). These two sites provide the ability to report near real-time suspended-sediment concentrations through the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System (NWIS) web interface and National Real-Time Water Quality websites (NRTWQ) to aid in reservoir operations and assessments.

  20. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek


    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  1. Integrating Passive Sampling Methods into Management of Contaminated Sediment Sites: A Guide for Department of Defense Remedial Project Managers (United States)


    provides insight regarding the premise that risk associated with certain groups of compounds - and management of that risk - are governed by the... feed on fish and invertebrates, while others can affect wildlife through direct contact or ingestion; regardless, both effects are influenced by and...efficacy for both freshwater (e.g., Great Lakes and rivers) and marine coastal environments. One of the more common methods is to insert probes containing

  2. Estimating sediment discharge: Appendix D (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Simões, Francisco J. M.


    Sediment-discharge measurements usually are available on a discrete or periodic basis. However, estimates of sediment transport often are needed for unmeasured periods, such as when daily or annual sediment-discharge values are sought, or when estimates of transport rates for unmeasured or hypothetical flows are required. Selected methods for estimating suspended-sediment, bed-load, bed- material-load, and total-load discharges have been presented in some detail elsewhere in this volume. The purposes of this contribution are to present some limitations and potential pitfalls associated with obtaining and using the requisite data and equations to estimate sediment discharges and to provide guidance for selecting appropriate estimating equations. Records of sediment discharge are derived from data collected with sufficient frequency to obtain reliable estimates for the computational interval and period. Most sediment- discharge records are computed at daily or annual intervals based on periodically collected data, although some partial records represent discrete or seasonal intervals such as those for flood periods. The method used to calculate sediment- discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterfield (1972) are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because suspended sediment composes the bulk of sediment dis- charges for many rivers. Discharge records for bed load, total load, or in some cases bed-material load plus wash load are less common. Reliable estimation of sediment discharges presupposes that the data on which the estimates are based are comparable and reliable. Unfortunately, data describing a selected characteristic of sediment were not necessarily derived—collected, processed, analyzed, or interpreted—in a consistent manner. For example, bed-load data collected with

  3. Spontaneous emission of semiconductors in the Wigner approach (United States)

    Filinov, V. S.; Hoyer, W.; Bonitz, M.; Kira, M.; Fortov, V. E.; Koch, S. W.


    This paper presents a first step towards combining two well-established methods used in semiconductor physicsmdashsemiconductor Bloch equations and the Wigner approach to quantum transport. This combination provides the possibility of including spontaneous emission, i.e., the spontaneous recombination of excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors, into the Wigner approach, which so far has been used only for systems with fixed particle number. The theory is presented and first numerical results for a three-dimensional system are shown.

  4. Spontaneous Regression of Intervertebral Disc Herniation – Case Reports


    Rapan, Saša; Gulan, Gordan; Lovrić, Ivan; Jovanović, Savo


    Lumbar disc hernia (LDH) is a common cause of low back pain and radicular leg pain. It is well known that the majority of LDH patients recover spontaneously. Since the advent of MRI, a spontaneous regression of fragment size of disc hernia occurs, as well as mitigation of subjective difficulties and neurological disorders. Therefore, surgical treatment is not always method of choice in this disease. Two cases of conservatively treated large disc extrusion which result in significant ...

  5. An efficient and economical method for extraction of DNA amenable to biotechnological manipulations, from diverse soils and sediments. (United States)

    Sharma, S; Sharma, K K; Kuhad, R C


    An attempt was made to optimize a new protocol for isolation of pure metagenomic DNA from soil samples. Various chemicals (FeCl3 , MgCl2 , CaCl2 and activated charcoal) were tested for their efficacy in isolation of metagenomic DNA from different soil and compost samples. Among these trials, charcoal and MgCl2 when used in combination yielded highly pure DNA free from humic acids and other contaminants. The DNA extracted with the optimized protocol was readily digested, amplified and cloned. Moreover, compared with a well-established commercial DNA isolation kit (UltraClean™ Soil DNA Isolation Kit), our method for DNA isolation was found to be economical. This demonstrated that the method developed can be applied to a wide variety of soil samples and allows handling of multiple samples at a given time. The optimized protocol developed has successfully yielded pure metagenomic DNA amenable to biotechnological manipulations. A user-friendly and economical protocol for isolation of DNA from soil and compost samples has been developed. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Geoinformatic and geophysical methods for evaluation of deposition and reworking of sediments with contaminants in floodplain of the Ploucnice River, Czech Republic (United States)

    Elznicova, Jitka; Matys Grygar, Tomas; Kiss, Timea; Babek, Ondrej; Popelka, Jan; Plotnarek, Lukas; Tumova, Stepanka; Majerova, Lucie; Hosek, Michal


    Complex study for the deposition and remobilization of pollutants in floodplain of the Ploucnice River requires geoinformatic, geomorphologic, geophysical and geochemical knowledge. Geoinformatic tools are usable in several science disciplines. Photogrammetric methods are a big tool for land-use change development and digital surface model (DSM) reconstruction. The historical photographs from 1938 till 1994 were orthorectified using ERDAS 2013 LPS software. Historical and actual orthophotos were used to study the channel migration of the Ploucnice River and lateral shifts of the channel in the last 70 years. Historical digital surfer model, which is reconstructed from historical orthophotos with 60% overlaps, were used for 3D visualisation of historical landscape and shows land-use changes. Accurate digital elevation model (DEM) from laser scanning dataset was created for geomorphological analysis. Topography was analysed with GIS methods and the geomorphologic interpretation was then performed. The subsurface architecture of the floodplain and distribution of the sediment bodies were studied using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). The Wenner-Schlumberger method with 104 electrodes in a single array was used. An inverse model resistivity section was produced from the apparent resistivity pseudosection by the least-square inversion method using RES2DINV software (Geotomo Software, Malaysia). The contamination of the floodplain was analysed with both field and laboratory instruments. The portable gamma-spectrometer DISA 400A was used for acquisition of the total surface gamma activity in field. Several hundreds of soil samples (from drill cores) and recent flood deposits (after 2013 flood) were analysed by laboratory X-ray fluorescence spectrometer to describe deposition and remobilization of pollutants in floodplain, of which most important are Ba, Ni, Pb, U and Zn. Geostatistical analysis was used for creation of a statistically valid prediction surface. The

  7. A Manual to Identify Sources of Fluvial Sediment (United States)

    Sedimentation is one of the main causes of stream/river aquatic life use impairments in R3. Currently states lack standard guidance on appropriate tools available to quantify sediment sources and develop sediment budgets in TMDL Development. Methods for distinguishing sediment t...

  8. Sedimentation rates of Sao Paulo coast by carbonate calcium content: an alternative for radiometric methods; Levantamento das taxas de sedimentacao do litoral de Sao Paulo a partir do teor de carbonato de calcio: uma alternativa aos metodos radiometricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail:;; Tessler, Moyses G.; Mahiques, Michel M. de; Fukumoto, Marina M.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Dept. de Oceanografia Geologica]. E-mail:;;


    In this work it is presented a methodology of sedimentation rate determination by carbonate calcium content. The technique developed is an alternative for radiometric methods where are used {sup 210}Pb{sub unsupported} and {sup 137}Cs radionuclides. This methodology consisted in a determination of chronologic event along sedimentary column. In this work two events were used: the tsunami in Sao Vicente city, in 1542, and the maximum of 1{sup 37}Cs radioactive fallout from nuclear atmospheric tests, in 1963-65. It was possible to calculate the accumulation rate of total sediments and precipitation rate of calcium carbonate, which values are necessary to determine the age of slice from sedimentary column and consequently the sedimentation rate. The results obtained for Sao Paulo Continental Shelf had a good agreement with radiometric methods, the values were: 0.32({+-}0.12) cm.y{sup -1}, 0.23({+-}0.08) cm.y{sup -1} and 0.25({+-}0.9) cm.y{sup -1} for carbonate method, {sup 210}Pb{sub unsupported} (CIC model) and {sup 137}Cs (radioactive fallout), respectively. The analytical procedure using carbonate calcium content showed to be fast, efficient and with low cost. However, it must be used carefully, because the results can be strongly influenced by environmental factors which could change the precipitation rate of calcium carbonate and it could cause errors on sedimentation rate values in a determined area (author)

  9. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes (United States)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos


    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  10. Spontaneous Large Serous Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voraporn Chaikitmongkol


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report cases of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE tear complicating serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Methods: The records of 3 Asian patients with spontaneous giant RPE tear were reviewed retrospectively by including clinical presentation, angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual outcome. Results: Three patients (4 eyes were included in this study, with a mean age of 48.3 (42–56 years, and a mean follow-up period of 7.75 (4–18 months. Fundus examination in all patients showed giant RPE tear associated with bullous PED. Two cases had a history of prior corticosteroid use, and 1 had no history of medication use. All 3 patients developed spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid with no treatment. However, in patients who used corticosteroids, initial progression of the tear and subretinal fluid were observed despite ceasing medication. On subsequent follow-up, an incomplete RPE regeneration was demonstrated by fundus autofluorescence imaging, and choroidal neovascularization developed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Large PED with RPE tear is a rare manifestation. When the fovea is spared, visual prognosis is favorable. No specific treatment is required, but careful choroidal neovascularization monitoring should be performed.

  11. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission. (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C


    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  12. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  13. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    given birth twice or more previously had increased odds ratio (OR), 1.78 (1.27-2.49), whereas women who were students had decreased OR, 0.55 (0.34-0.91) for having spontaneous abortions. Regarding lifestyle factors, the adjusted ORs among women who consumed 5 units or more alcohol per week or 375 mg......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  14. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    , and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  15. Comparison of analytical methods used to determine 235U, 238U and 210Pb from sediment samples by alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Klemola, S.; Salahel-Din, K.


    An intercomparison of the methodology (alpha, beta and gamma spectrometry) used for 238 U, 235 U and 210 Pb determination was carried out based on 38 sediment samples. The activity range of the samples varied from 10-700 Bq/kg for 210 Pb, 1-35 Bq/kg for 235 U and 10-800 Bq/ kg for 238 U. Results obtained using the three methods were not statistically different at high activity levels, but agreement between the results decreased at lower sample activity levels. For 210 Pb, the smallest difference was found between alpha and gamma spectrometry. A good correlation between results from alpha and gamma spectrometry was observed over the whole activity range. In beta spectrometry, the results were slightly higher than those obtained by alpha or gamma spectrometry due to the impurity of 228 Ra. In 238 U analysis, good correspondence was observed between 238 U determined by gamma and alpha spectrometry, particularly at higher 238 U activity concentrations over 100 Bq/kg. In 235 U analysis, attention needs to be paid to interference from 226 Ra and its reduction. (author)

  16. Mathematical theory of sedimentation analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Hiroshi; Van Rysselberghe, P


    Mathematical Theory of Sedimentation Analysis presents the flow equations for the ultracentrifuge. This book is organized into two parts encompassing six chapters that evaluate the systems of reacting components, the differential equations for the ultracentrifuge, and the case of negligible diffusion. The first chapters consider the Archibald method for molecular weight determination; pressure-dependent sedimentation; expressions for the refractive index and its gradient; relation between refractive index and concentration; and the analysis of Gaussian distribution. Other chapters deal with th

  17. Spontaneous indices are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex gain. (United States)

    Lipman, Ruth D; Salisbury, Julie K; Taylor, J Andrew


    Spontaneously occurring, parallel fluctuations in arterial pressure and heart period are frequently used as indices of baroreflex function. Despite the convenience of spontaneous indices, their relation to the arterial baroreflex remains unclear. Therefore, in 97 volunteers, we derived 5 proposed indices (sequence method, alpha-index, transfer function, low-frequency transfer function, and impulse response function), compared them with arterial baroreflex gain (by the modified Oxford pharmacologic technique), and examined their relation to carotid distensibility and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The subjects comprised men and women (n=41) aged 25 to 86 years, 30% of whom had established coronary artery disease. Generally, the indices were correlated with each other (except alpha-index and low-frequency transfer function) and with baroreflex gain. However, the Bland-Altman method demonstrated that the spontaneous indices had limits of agreement as large as the baroreflex gain itself. Even in individuals within the lowest tertile of baroreflex gain for whom baroreflex gain appears to be the most clinically relevant, spontaneous indices failed to relate to baroreflex gain. In fact, for these individuals, there was no correlation between any index and baroreflex gain. Forward stepwise linear regression showed that all spontaneous indices and baroreflex gain were related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia, but only baroreflex gain was related to carotid distensibility. Therefore, these data suggest that spontaneous indices are inadequate estimates of gain and are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex function.

  18. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.


    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  19. Chemistry of marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yen, T.F.


    Some topics considered are as follows: characterization of sediments in the vicinity of offshore petroleum production; thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis; composition of polluted bottom sediments in Great Lakes harbors; distribution of heavy metals in sediment fractions; recent deposition of lead off the coast of southern California; release of trace constituents from sediments resuspended during dredging operations; and migration of chemical constituents in sediment-seawater interfaces

  20. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk


    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  1. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)


    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  2. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen


    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  3. Sediment Sources Change for the Past 42 Years in a Small Watershed Located in the Black Soil Region of Northeastern China Based on Fingerprinting Method (United States)

    Du, P.; Huang, D.; Ning, D.


    The temporal change of sediment source in watershed is very helpful for evaluating the adopted soil conservation measures and the implemented land management practices. For this purpose, a sediment profile from Hebei watershed outlet and 59 samples from the three potential sediment sources were collected. The rediounuclide Pb-210 was then measured to obtain sedimentation rate for the past 42 years. Generally, the sedimentation rate was gradually decreased from 10.83 cm yr-1 in the 1970's to 1.50 cm yr-1in the 2010's. Taken the radiounulide Cs-137 as a fingerprinting identifying tracer, the mean contribution of sediment from cultivated lands, woodlands, and channel banks were 50.60%, 22.26%, and 26.74%, while the ranges varying from 20.16% to 84.02%, from 2.22% to 36.85%, and from 11.61% to 53.28%, respectively. The percentage of sediment sources from cultivated lands was decreased, whereas the percentages from woodlands and channel banks were both increased in the past 42 years. The results indicate that soil conservation measures adopted in the cultivated lands have been played a very important role in reducing erosion, however, more attention on land management practices implementation should be paid to maintain current woodland and to control serious gully erosion in the black soil region. (This paper is a contribution to the project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41501299), and the non-profit project of Ministry of Water Resources of China (No. 201501045).)

  4. Origin and transport of sediments in an alpine glaciated catchment (Bossons glacier, France): a quantification combining hydro-sedimentary data, radio-frequency identification of pebbles, cosmogenic nuclides content and probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillon, Herve


    Among the most efficient agents of erosion, glaciers react dynamically to climate change, leading to a significant adjustment of downstream sediment flux. Present-day global warming raises the question regarding the evolution of the sediment load originating from partially glaciated catchment. The detrital export from such environment results from erosion processes operating within distinct geomorphologic domains: supra-glacial rock-walls, ice-covered substratum and the pro-glacial area, downstream from the glacier. The general intent of this doctoral research is therefore to characterize the origin and transport of sediments in the watersheds of two streams draining Bossons glacier (Mont-Blanc massif, France).For this purpose, the components of the sediment flux coming from supra-glacial, sub-glacial and pro-glacial domains are separated and quantified by innovating methods: i. Using the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides concentrations as evidence of a supra-glacial transport; ii. Combining meteorological data and hydro-sedimentary data acquired at a high time resolution (2 min) and completed by multi-linear models; iii. Estimating sediment flux by source for 7 years and with a probabilistic method; iv. Associating radio-frequency identification of pebbles in the pro-glacial area with a stochastic transport analysis.Through numerical tools, applying the presented methodologies provides erosion rates of the supra-glacial, sub-glacial and pro-glacial domains, and determines the sediment transfer mechanisms within the catchment.Thus in the terminal part of the glacier, 52±14 to 9±4% of the supra-glacial load is transferred to the sub-glacial drainage network. Moreover, its evolution throughout the melt season leads to the export of the winter sediment production during a limited period. Furthermore, the drainage configuration beneath the glacier and its retreat control the remobilization of a long-term sediment stock. These processes explain the contrast between the

  5. Observation time and spontaneous resolution of primary phimosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda Lourenção

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate spontaneous resolution rate of a series of patients with physiologic phimosis in relation to observation time and presence of symptoms. Methods: retrospective and longitudinal follow-up study of patients with physiologic phimosis, that did not apply topic treatment. These patients were invited for a new visit for reevaluation, or recent data were obtained by chart analysis. Spontaneous resolution rate was determined and statistically compared to age, presence of symptoms at first medical visit and time until reevaluation. Results: seventy one patients were included. Medium time of observation from first visit to reevaluation was 37.4 months. There was spontaneous resolution of phimosis in 32 (45% patients. Children with spontaneous resolution were younger at initial diagnosis and were observed during a longer period of time. Most asymptomatic patients at first visit presented spontaneous resolution. However, it was not possible to stablish a significant relationship between presence of symptoms and evolution of physiologic phimosis. Conclusions: time of observation was the main determinant of spontaneous resolution of patients with physiologic phimosis, reinforcing the current more conservative approach regarding circumcision of those patients.

  6. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.


    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  7. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts (United States)

    Siegal, M.


    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  8. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter


    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  9. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien


    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  10. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  11. Sediment dynamics in restored riparian forest with agricultural surroundings (United States)

    Stucchi Boschi, Raquel; Cooper, Miguel; Alencar de Matos, Vitor; Ortega Gomes, Matheus; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Ricardo


    The riparian forests are considered Permanent Preservation Areas due to the ecological services provided by these forests. One of these services is the interception of the sediments before they reach the water bodies, which is essential to preserve water quality. The maintenance and restoration of riparian forests are mandatory, and the extent of these areas is defined based on water body width, following the Brazilian Forest Code. The method used to define the size of riparian forest areas elucidates the lack of accurate scientific data of the influence of the riparian forest in maintaining their ecological functions, particularly regarding the retention of sediments. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of erosion and sedimentation in restored riparian forests of a Semideciduous Tropical Forest situated in agricultural areas inserted in sugarcane landscapes in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. We defined two sites with soils of contrasting texture to monitor the dynamics and amount of deposited sediments. Site A is in the municipality of Araras and the soil is mainly clay. Site B is in the municipality of São Manuel and is dominated by sandy soils. In both areas, we defined plots to install graded metal stakes that were partially buried to monitor the dynamics of sediments. In site A, we defined eight plots and installed 27 metal stakes in each one. Three of the plots presented 30 m of riparian forest, two presented 15 m of riparian forest and three, 15 m of pasture followed by 15 m of forest. The design of the metal stakes was similar for all plots and was defined based on the type of erosion observed in site A. In site B, we defined seven points to monitor the sediments inside the reforested areas. Here, we observed erosive processes of great magnitude inside the forests, which results in a different design for the metal stakes. A total of nearly 150 metal stakes were installed to monitor these processes and also to verify the deposition in areas not yet

  12. Study on the method and mechanism of pre-pressure coagulation and sedimentation for Microcystis removal from drinking-water sources. (United States)

    Cong, Haibing; Sun, Feng; Chen, Wenjing; Xu, Yajun; Wang, Wei


    In order to effectively remove the Microcystis from drinking-water sources, pre-pressure treatment was first used to make the Microcystis lose buoyancy, and then it is easily removed by coagulation and sedimentation processes. The Microcystis-containing water from Taihu Lake was taken for the pre-pressure coagulation and sedimentation treatments in this study. Both intermittent laboratory experiment and continuous-flow field experiment were conducted. Experimental results showed that the optimum pre-pressure condition was pressuring at 0.6-0.8 MPa for at least 10 s, and 60 s was the best. Comparing with the pre-oxidation, pre-pressure could obviously increase the removal efficiency of Microcystis by following coagulation and sedimentation, and would not increase the dissolved microcystins. The mechanism of pre-pressure treatment was that the pre-pressure destroys the gas vesicles in Microcystis cells and the gas diffuses out of the cells, which leads the Microcystis to lose buoyancy and make them to sink. The recovery time of gas vesicles was longer than the sludge discharge period of sedimentation tank; therefore, the sinking Microcystis would not re-float in the sedimentation tank. In the practical application of drinking water treatment plant, the continuous-flow pressure device could be chosen, with the energy consumption of about 22.9 kw·h per 10,000 m 3 .

  13. Arsenic Mobility and Availability in Sediments by Application of BCR Sequential Extractions Method; Movilidad y Disponibilidad de Arsenico en Sedimentos Mediante la Aplicacion del Metodo de Extracciones Secuenciales BCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios, R.; Fernandez, R.; Rucandio, M. I.


    Arsenic is a metalloid found in nature, both naturally and due to anthropogenic activities. Among them, mining works are an important source of arsenic release to the environment. Asturias is a region where important mercury mines were exploited, and in them arsenic occurs in para genesis with mercury minerals. The toxicity and mobility of this element depends on the chemical species it is found. Fractionation studies are required to analyze the mobility of this metalloid in soils and sediments. Among them, the proposed by the Bureau Community of Reference (BCR) is one of the most employed. This method attempts to divide up, by operationally defined stages, the amount of this element associated with carbonates (fraction 1), iron and manganese oxy hydroxides (fraction 2), organic matter and sulphides (fraction 3), and finally as the amount associated residual fraction to primary and secondary minerals, that is, from the most labile fractions to the most refractory ones. Fractionation of arsenic in sediments from two mines in Asturias were studied, La Soterrana and Los Rueldos. Sediments from La Soterrana showed high levels of arsenic in the non-residual phases, indicating that the majority of arsenic has an anthropogenic origin. By contrast, in sediments from Los Rueldos most of the arsenic is concentrated in the residual phase, indicating that this element remains bound to very refractory primary minerals, as is also demonstrated by the strong correlation of arsenic fractionation and the fractionation of elements present in refractory minerals, such as iron, aluminum and titanium. (Author) 51 refs.

  14. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory : determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom and suspended sediment by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (United States)

    Noriega, Mary C.; Wydoski, Duane S.; Foreman, William T.


    A method applicable for the determination of 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides, including total toxaphene as a complex mixture, and 3 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures as Aroclor equivalents--Aroclor 1016/1242, 1254, and 1260--in soil, aquatic bottom sediment, and suspended sediment is described. Method performance data are presented. The solvent system is designed to extract simultaneously selected OC pesticides and PCBs from the same sample matrix. The compounds are extracted by conventional Soxhlet extraction with dichloromethane, followed by partial isolation using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to remove inorganic sulfur and large naturally present molecules from the sediment extract. The aliquot of extract collected from the GPC for OCs (OC pesticides and PCBs) is split into two sample fractions by alumina/silica combined-column chromatography, followed by Florisil adsorption chromatography to remove interfering compounds in the second fraction. The OC fractions are analyzed by dual capillary-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC/ECD). This report is limited to the determination of selected OC pesticides and PCBs by GC/ECD using this method. Interim reporting levels (IRLs) have been set at 0.400 to 3.12 micrograms per kilogram for 18 individual OC pesticides, 200 micrograms per kilogram for toxaphene, and 4.04 to 4.68 micrograms per kilogram for the PCBs, based on a sample size of 25-gram equivalent dry weight. These reporting levels may change following additional determinations of method detection limits.

  15. Guidelines for Statistical Treatment of Less Than Detection Limit Data in Dredged Sediment Evaluations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    This technical note provides recommendations for methods of handling less than detection limit data to permit statistical comparisons of sediment contaminant or bioaccumulation samples in dredged sediment evaluations...

  16. Testing single-grain quartz OSL methods using sediment samples with independent age control from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Roches d'Abilly site, Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Murray, Andrew Sean; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating and stan......We present quartz single-grain dose distributions for four well-bleached and unmixed sediment samples with independent age control (22–48 ka), from the archaeologically important Bordes-Fitte rockshelter at Roches d'Abilly, France. This site has previously been dated using 14C AMS dating...

  17. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a new method for rapid determination of total organic and inorganic carbon and biogenic silica concentration in lake sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Peter; Vogel, Hendrik; Cunningham, Laura


    We demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) to make quantitative measures of total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sediment. FTIRS is a fast and cost-effective technique and only small sediment samples...... varied between r = 0.84-0.99 for TOC, r = 0.85-0.99 for TIC, and r = 0.68-0.94 for BSi. Because FTIR spectra contain information on a large number of both inorganic and organic components, there is great potential for FTIRS to become an important tool in paleolimnology....

  18. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth


    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  20. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  1. Reservoir Sedimentation Based on Uncertainty Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Imanshoar


    Full Text Available Reservoir sedimentation can result in loss of much needed reservoir storage capacity, reducing the useful life of dams. Thus, sufficient sediment storage capacity should be provided for the reservoir design stage to ensure that sediment accumulation will not impair the functioning of the reservoir during the useful operational-economic life of the project. However, an important issue to consider when estimating reservoir sedimentation and accumulation is the uncertainty involved in reservoir sedimentation. In this paper, the basic factors influencing the density of sediments deposited in reservoirs are discussed, and uncertainties in reservoir sedimentation have been determined using the Delta method. Further, Kenny Reservoir in the White River Basin in northwestern Colorado was selected to determine the density of deposits in the reservoir and the coefficient of variation. The results of this investigation have indicated that by using the Delta method in the case of Kenny Reservoir, the uncertainty regarding accumulated sediment density, expressed by the coefficient of variation for a period of 50 years of reservoir operation, could be reduced to about 10%. Results of the Delta method suggest an applicable approach for dead storage planning via interfacing with uncertainties associated with reservoir sedimentation.

  2. X-ray fluorescence core scanning of wet marine sediments: methods to improve quality and reproducibility of high-resolution paleoenvironmental records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R.; de Lange, G.


    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core-scanning is a convenient non-destructive tool to rapidly assess elemental variations in unprocessed sediments. However, substantial analytical deviations may occur in such data due to physical sedimentary properties. The consequences of these artifacts on element

  3. Monitoring changes in stream bottom sediments and benthic invertebrates. (United States)


    The study was conducted to determine whether the analysis of stream bottom sediments could be used to assess sediment pollution generated by highway construction. Most of the work completed to date has involved testing and refining methods for the co...

  4. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.


    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  5. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain


    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  6. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer. (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki


    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  7. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation


    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide


    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  8. Sediment fingerprinting in Northern Jordan - approaching sediment comparability (United States)

    Kraushaar, Sabine; Schumann, Thomas; Ollesch, Gregor; Siebert, Christian; Vogel, Hans-Joerg


    Jordan has a quantitative and qualitative water problem in combination with a growing demand by population increase. Around 65% of the freshwater used in Jordan is reported to originate from surface waters and reservoirs. Sediment loads harm the quality of these water bodies and fill up dams. A sediment fingerprint pilot study was implemented in an exemplary catchment in the NW of Jordan to investigate the possibility of geochemical differentiation between 6 sediment sources and calculate their relative contribution to the sink, the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir. The sediment fingerprint method relies on the comparability of sediment properties of the sources and the sink. However, selection processes during transport, preferential adsorption of elements on fine particles, and differences in inorganic carbonate content prevent a direct comparison. In previous studies this has been solved through selective sampling and analyzing certain grain size fractions or the mathematical derivation of correction factors. As no pre-knowledge existed in the Wadi Al-Arab catchment, selective grain size sampling would have implied the risk of neglecting important information already during the sampling process. Hence, a method was established that includes several steps to identify influential parameters (IPs), eliminate their impact and take account of their interrelations. It is based on a stepwise multiple regression analysis model (SMRAM) and generates element specific correction factors that take account for possible interdependencies between influential parameters as clay percentage and total organic and inorganic carbonates. In the further selection process of suitable elements for the fingerprint, we complemented the common used methods by a solubility analysis. Therefore, water profiles were physicochemical investigated in the dam lake. Differences in the chemical milieus during transport and sedimentation that affect the conservativeness of the chosen elements could be detected

  9. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian


    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  10. Oxytetracycline Assay in Pond Sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nepejchalová


    Full Text Available The fate of drug residues and their metabolites in the environment is relatively rarely investigated in the conditions of the Czech Republic, resulting in limited availability of scientific information. To demonstrate one example, we prepared a model study with medicated feedstuff containing oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC HCl, which was used in fish under normal conditions of use. The oxytetracycline (OTC contents were determined in the sediments of the pond where the fish were treated. The ELISA method was used for OTC detection and the HPLC method was used for final quantification of OTC. The increasing contents of OTC in sediment depended on the repeated treatment and excretion of OTC by the fish. The concentration on day 59 after the last administration was 1516 μg kg-1 OTC in the sediment, which indicates a long-term persistence of the substance in the environment.

  11. Sediment exchange between groin fields and main-stream (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Zhong, Deyu; Wu, Teng; Wu, Lingli


    Sediment exchange between groin fields and the main-stream influences the transport and distribution of polluted sediment that represents a hazard for rivers and neighboring floodplains. Despite its practical significance, little research has been done on the sediment exchange process itself, and existing studies used to estimate the sediment exchange by morphological change. The sediment exchange process, however, differs from morphological variation and includes two behaviors: the entrance of main-stream sediment into groin fields and the movement of groin field sediment out of groin fields. Therefore, this study aims at examining this exchange process and exploring the mechanisms of different exchange phenomena. Experiments were conducted in a mobile-bed laboratory flume by using a novel experimental method that successfully separates the movement of groin fields sediment from that of main-stream sediment. In addition to traditional measurements, such as measurements of morphological changes, surface flow velocities, and bed-form propagation, the deposition of main-stream sediment in groin fields is measured in detail. The results demonstrate that morphological change cannot reflect the sediment exchange process. The deposition of main-stream sediment in groin fields is determined by the dynamics of sediment movement, in which bedload- and suspended-sediment-dominated processes exhibit different deposition patterns. The movement of groin field sediment out of groin fields is determined mainly by local scouring around groins.

  12. A Simple Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in River Sediment by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Followed by Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Díaz, Alejandro; Peña-Alvarez, Araceli


    A simple method was developed using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of eight different pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) (ibuprofen, 2-benzyl-4-chlorophenol, naproxen, triclosan, ketoprofen, diclofenac, bisphenol A and estrone) in river sediment. UAE conditions were optimized involving extraction variables such as extraction solvent, extraction time, sample amount, extraction temperature, pH and salt addition. A 100 mg of sediment was extracted by optimized UAE process using 7 mL deionized water (pH 3) + 1% methanol as solvent, room temperature and 1 min extraction at 70% of amplitude. A 5 mL of supernatant was subsequently extracted by SPME; the extracted analytes were derivatized on fiber in head-space mode with N-methyl-N-(tertbutyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and then analyzed by GC-MS. The developed method was evaluated by testing: precision (CV 0.98), recoveries (56-108%), limits of detection (simple and environmentally friendly, and provides straightforward analyses of these trace organic pollutants in sediment samples. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Determination of Leachable Vanadium (V) in Sediment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    A method for speciation of vanadium in solid samples was developed for quantification of vanadium(+5) in solid samples of sediment Certified Reference Materials ... element in such environmental samples as soil, sediments and plants.3,4–5 Validation of the ... Sample Preparation for the Determination of. Vanadium(+5).

  14. Spontaneous emission near non-trivial conducting surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo e Souza, Reinaldo de; Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Taddei, M.M.; Farina, C.


    Full text: One of the remarkable phenomena associated with the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field is the spontaneous emission, which accounts for the emission of photons by an excited atom placed in vacuum. As discovered by Purcell in the 1940's, the spontaneous emission rate depends not only on the atomic properties but also on the nearby bodies. This should be expected once the electromagnetic field modes are affected by the boundary conditions imposed by these bodies. We begin our presentation reviewing a method which establishes a striking connection between the spontaneous emission of an excited atom and the classical radiation emitted by an oscillating real dipole. In fact, it can be shown, the influence of the neighbouring bodies is the same in both cases. We use this approach to evaluate the influence of an infinite conducting plane with a circular aperture on the spontaneous emission rate of the atom. This geometry will be particularly interesting if the atom is placed on the axis of symmetry of the hole and if it is predominantly polarizable in this axis, once this configuration is one of the those rare configurations that give rise to repulsive dispersive interactions. It would be very interesting to establish some connection between how the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom is influenced by the presence of material bodies and the attractive or repulsive character of the dispersive force between that atom (in its ground state) and those material bodies. (author)

  15. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Computed Tomographic Characteristics and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimara de la Caridad Vergara Santos


    Full Text Available Background: strokes are the third leading cause of death among adults and 10-15 % of them are due to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Objective: to characterize spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage through computed tomography scan and its outcome. Methods: a case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to the Arnaldo Milián Castro Provincial University Hospital in Villa Clara from January 2009 to January 2010. Tomographic variables of interest were derived from evaluation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. Results: fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were studied, 23 were located in lobar regions, 4 had severe midline shift, and 2 showed volume greater than 80 ml. Eight out of eleven with extension into the ventricular system had an unfavorable outcome. Among those with thalamic hemorrhage, patients with diameter larger than 4cm and extension into the ventricular system died. Patients with putaminal hemorrhage larger than 4 cm and posterior fossa hematoma with hydrocephalus had a poor outcome, as well as most individuals (55 with other mass effects. Most lobar hematomas (14 out of 23 had a satisfactory outcome, unlike cerebellar and brainstem hematomas. Conclusions: tomographic variables that had a negative impact on the outcome were: volume greater than 80 ml, severe midline shift, diameter larger than 4 cm, extension into the ventricular system, hydrocephalus, other signs of mass effect and brainstem location.

  16. Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss in Denmark Following Economic Downturns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruckner, Tim A.; Mortensen, Laust H.; Catalano, Ralph A.


    ,449) and the unemployment rate in Denmark beginning in January 1995 and ending in December 2009. Our statistical methods controlled for temporal patterns in spontaneous abortion (e.g., seasonality, trend) and changes in the population of pregnancies at risk of loss. Unexpected increases in the unemployment rate preceded...... in elective abortions and in the cohort composition of high-risk pregnancies did not account for results. It appears that in Denmark, ambient stressors as common as increasing unemployment may precede a population-level increase in spontaneous abortion....

  17. Multivariate Analyses and Evaluation of Heavy Metals by Chemometric BCR Sequential Extraction Method in Surface Sediments from Lingdingyang Bay, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglong Cao


    Full Text Available Sediments in estuary areas are recognized as the ultimate reservoirs for numerous contaminants, e.g., toxic metals. Multivariate analyses by chemometric evaluation were performed to classify metal ions (Cu, Zn, As, Cr, Pb, Ni and Cd in superficial sediments from Lingdingyang Bay and to determine whether or not there were potential contamination risks based on the BCR sequential extraction scheme. The results revealed that Cd was mainly in acid-soluble form with an average of 75.99% of its total contents and thus of high potential availability, indicating significant anthropogenic sources, while Cr, As, Ni were enriched in the residual fraction which could be considered as the safest ingredients to the environment. According to the proportion of secondary to primary phases (KRSP, Cd had the highest bioavailable fraction and represented high or very high risk, followed by Pb and Cu with medium risks in most of samples. The combined evaluation of the Pollution Load Index (PLI and the mean Effect Range Median Quotient (mERM-Q highlighted that the greatest potential environmental risk area was in the northwest of Lingdingyang Bay. Almost all of the sediments had a 21% probability of toxicity. Additionally, Principal Component Analysis (PCA revealed that the survey region was significantly affected by two main sources of anthropogenic contributions: PC1 showed increased loadings of variables in acid-soluble and reducible fractions that were consistent with the input from industrial wastes (such as manufacturing, metallurgy, chemical industry and domestic sewages; PC2 was characterized by increased loadings of variables in residual fraction that could be attributed to leaching and weathering of parent rocks. The results obtained demonstrated the need for appropriate remediation measures to alleviate soil pollution problem due to the more aggregation of potentially risky metals. Therefore, it is of crucial significance to implement the targeted

  18. Scanning Emitter Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Spontaneous Emission Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimmer, Martin; Chen, Yuntian; Koenderink, A. Femius


    We report an experimental technique to map and exploit the local density of optical states of arbitrary planar nanophotonic structures. The method relies on positioning a spontaneous emitter attached to a scanning probe deterministically and reversibly with respect to its photonic environment while...

  19. Prevention of spontaneous combustion of backfilled plant waste material.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adamski, SA


    Full Text Available many large-scale and laboratory tests were conducted to determine the factors that contribute to spontaneous combustion, but no successful method of preventing or containing the problem was formulated. Further research into this problem during 1988 by a...

  20. Prevalence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver cirrhosis with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis and ascites requiring prompt recognition and treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and characteristics of SBP among in-patients with cirrhosis and ascites seen at our facility. Methods: ...

  1. Spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy and endometriosis: a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, M. van; Malik, R.F.; Waesberghe, J. van; Maas, J.W.; Rumpt-van de Geest, D.A. van; Coppus, S.F.P.J.; Berger, J.P.; Rijn, B.B. van; Janssen, P.F.; Boer, M.A. de; Vries, J.I.P. de; Jansen, F.W.; Brosens, I.A.; Lambalk, C.B.; Mijatovic, V.


    OBJECTIVE: To report pregnancy outcomes of SHiP (spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy) and the association with endometriosis. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review. SETTING: Dutch referral hospitals for endometriosis. SAMPLE: Eleven women presenting with 15 events of SHiP. METHODS: In

  2. Spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy and endometriosis : a case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, McI; Malik, R F; van Waesberghe, Jhtm; Maas, J W; van Rumpt-van de Geest, D A; Coppus, S F; Berger, J P; van Rijn, B B; Janssen, P F; de Boer, M. A; de Vries, Jip; Jansen, F. W.; Brosens, I A; Lambalk, C B; Mijatovic, V

    OBJECTIVE: To report pregnancy outcomes of SHiP (spontaneous haemoperitoneum in pregnancy) and the association with endometriosis. DESIGN: Retrospective case note review. SETTING: Dutch referral hospitals for endometriosis. SAMPLE: Eleven women presenting with 15 events of SHiP. METHODS: In

  3. Placental histology in spontaneous and indicated preterm birth : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, Tobias A J; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Benders, Manon J N; Mol, Ben Willem J; Franx, Arie; Nikkels, Peter G J; Oudijk, Martijn A


    INTRODUCTION: Placental pathology is an important contributor in preterm birth, both spontaneous and indicated. The aim of this study was to describe and compare placental histological features of spontaneous preterm birth versus indicated preterm birth. METHODS: A case control study was performed

  4. The predictive value of ovarian reserve tests for spontaneous pregnancy in subfertile ovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haadsma, M. L.; Groen, H.; Fidler, V.; Bukman, A.; Roeloffzen, E. M. A.; Groenewoud, E. R.; Broekmans, F. J. M.; Heineman, M. J.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value of ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) for spontaneous pregnancy is unclear. Our study aimed to determine whether ORTs have added value to previously identified prognostic factors for spontaneous pregnancy in subfertile ovulatory couples. METHODS: A prospective cohort study

  5. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes (United States)

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  6. Center for Contaminated Sediments (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Center for Contaminated Sediments serves as a clearinghouse for technology and expertise concerned with contaminated sediments. The...

  7. Modeling of growth, evaporation and sedimentation effects on transmission of visible and IR laser beams in artificial fogs (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Deepak, A.


    The dense polydisperse aerosol particles in a quiet chamber may spontaneously go through different microphysical processes including gravitational sedimentation, thermal coagulation, and growth or evaporation. In an earlier paper, we presented the results of a parametric study of the combined and separate effects of thermal coagulation and sedimentation on the time dependence of extinction of four visible and IR laser beams traversing an aerosol medium. As a continuation of this series of studies, the separate and combined effects of growth or evaporation and gravitational sedimentation on the time dependence of extinction of the same four visible and IR laser beams traversing in artificial fogs will be reported in this paper. The method of numerically modeling the change of water droplet size distribution with time due to growth/evaporation and the cutoff of larger aerosols due to gravitational sedimentation is described in detail. Factors governing the relative importance of these two processes are discussed. Results of this study show that the relative humidity or ambient temperature is a crucial parameter in determining the optical depth of the water droplet and aerosol media undergoing microphysical processes.

  8. Reliable, rapid and simple method for the analysis of phthalates in sediments by ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by head space-solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry determination. (United States)

    Fernández-González, V; Moscoso-Pérez, C; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D


    In this work, a new reliable, simple and fast method for the determination of six PAEs in sediments, based on ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE) followed by head space solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination (GC-MS), is proposed. The extraction parameters were studied, and the most favourable conditions were selected. The analytical features of the method were calculated: matrix effect, accuracy (ranged from 90% to 111%), repeatability and intermediate precision (RSD <10%), detection and quantification limits of the method (ranged from 0.001µgg -1 (DOP) to 0.142µgg -1 (DEP)), and satisfactory results were obtained. Major advantages of this approach are low consumption of reagents and solvents, no clean-up or evaporation steps were required and minimum sample manipulation. In addition, cross contamination from glassware, solvents and samples is minimized, thus procedural blanks are keeping to a minimum.. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated analysing sediment samples from Galician coast (NW Spain). The proposed method allows the application in routine laboratory conditions and its implementation in environmental monitoring studies under the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson


    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  10. General features of spontaneous baryogenesis (United States)

    Arbuzova, Elena


    The classical version of spontaneous baryogenesis is studied in details. It is shown that the relation between the time derivative of the (pseudo)goldstone field and the baryonic chemical potential essentially depends upon the representation chosen for the fermionic fields with non-zero baryonic number (quarks). The kinetic equation, used for the calculations of the cosmological baryon asymmetry, is generalized to the case of non-stationary background. The effects of the finite interval of the integration over time are also included into consideration.

  11. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kattapuram, Susan V. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)], E-mail:


    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'.

  12. Experimental Simulation of Methane Hydrate Extraction at High Pressure Conditions: Influence of the Sediment Bed (United States)

    Agudo, J. R.; Park, J.; Luzi, G.; Williams, M.; Rauh, C.; Wierschem, A.; Delgado, A.


    Being a clean alternative to other fossil fuels, Methane Hydrate (MH) is currently considered as one of the most important potential sources for hydrocarbon fuels [1]. In addition, the high energy density of MH and its stability at higher temperatures as compared to LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) makes MH a potential greener method for energy transportation. At the same time, the low thermodynamic stability of MH strongly questions the future exploitation of gas hydrate deposits, turning its extraction into a possible geohazard [2]. Fluctuations in pressure, temperature, salinity, degree of saturation or sediment bed properties may cause methane gas release from the water lattice. We experimentally study the influence of the sediment bed geometry during formation-dissociation of MH. For this purpose, MH is synthesized within regular substrates in a 93 cm3 high pressure vessel. The regular substrates are triangular and quadratic arrangements of identical glass spheres with a diameter of 2 and 5 mm, respectively. MH formation within regular substrate reduces the possibility of spontaneous nucleation to a unique geometrical configuration. This fact permits us to characterize the kinetics of MH formation-dissociation as a function of the sediment bed geometry. Preliminary experimental results reveal a strong dependence of MH formation on the geometry of the regular substrate. For instance, under the same pressure and temperature, the kinetics of MH production is found to change by a factor 3 solely depending on the substrate symmetry, i.e. triangular or quadratic.

  13. Combining sediment fingerprinting and a conceptual model for erosion and sediment transfer to explore sediment sources in an Alpine catchment (United States)

    Costa, A.; Stutenbecker, L.; Anghileri, D.; Bakker, M.; Lane, S. N.; Molnar, P.; Schlunegger, F.


    In Alpine basins, sediment production and transfer is increasingly affected by climate change and human activities, specifically hydropower exploitation. Changes in sediment sources and pathways significantly influence basin management, biodiversity and landscape evolution. We explore the dynamics of sediment sources in a partially glaciated and highly regulated Alpine basin, the Borgne basin, by combining geochemical fingerprinting with the modelling of erosion and sediment transfer. The Borgne basin in southwest Switzerland is composed of three main litho-tectonic units, which we characterised following a tributary-sampling approach from lithologically characteristic sub-basins. We analysed bulk geochemistry using lithium borate fusion coupled with ICP-ES, and we used it to discriminate the three lithologic sources using statistical methods. Finally, we applied a mixing model to estimate the relative contributions of the three sources to the sediment sampled at the outlet. We combine results of the sediment fingerprinting with simulations of a spatially distributed conceptual model for erosion and transport of fine sediment. The model expresses sediment erosion by differentiating the contributions of erosional processes driven by erosive rainfall, snowmelt, and icemelt. Soil erodibility is accounted for as function of land-use and sediment fluxes are linearly convoluted to the outlet by sediment transfer rates for hillslope and river cells, which are a function of sediment connectivity. Sediment connectivity is estimated on the basis of topographic-hydraulic connectivity, flow duration associated with hydropower flow abstraction and permanent storage in hydropower reservoirs. Sediment fingerprinting at the outlet of the Borgne shows a consistent dominance (68-89%) of material derived from the uppermost, highly glaciated reaches, while contributions of the lower part (10-25%) and middle part (1-16%), where rainfall erosion is predominant, are minor. This result is

  14. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  15. Characterization of phosphorus interaction with sediments affected by acid mine drainage - relation with the sediment composition


    Boukemara , Lamia; Boukhalfa , Chahrazed; Azzouz , Sarah; Reinert , Laurence; Duclaux , Laurent; Amrane , Abdeltif; Szymczyk , Anthony


    International audience; Phosphorus sorption capacity was investigated in surface sediments derived from an abandoned zinc-lead mine area located in northeastern Algeria. The forms and the distribution of phosphorus in the raw sediment were identified using the sequential chemical extractions method. Batch experiments were done to study the adsorption kinetics and isotherms. The pH effect was evaluated by macroscopic and infrared analyses. In raw sediment, speciation results show that phosphor...

  16. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.


    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  17. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri


    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  18. Spontaneity of communication in individuals with autism. (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark


    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or measured. Several approaches to conceptualization of communicative spontaneity are examined with a particular focus on the continuum model and how it might be practically applied. A range of possible explanations for deficits in spontaneity of communication in children with autism is subsequently explored, including external factors (highly structured teaching programs, failure to systematically instruct for spontaneity) and intrinsic characteristics (intellectual disability, stimulus overselectivity, weak central coherence). Possible implications for future research are presented.

  19. System Identification Theory Approach to Cohesive Sediment Transport Modelling




    Two aspects of the modelling sediment transport are investigated. One is the univariate time series modelling the current velocity dynamics. The other is the multivariate time series modelling the suspended sediment concentration dynamics. Cohesive sediment dynamics and numerical sediment transport model are reviewed and investigated. The system identification theory and time series analysis method are developed and applied to set up the time series model for current velocity a...

  20. Analysis of Sedimentation in Wonogiri Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Inti Budi Santosa


    Full Text Available The Wonogiri reservoir which has 730 million cubic meters of total storage, 90 square kilometers of water area, and 1260 square kilometers of catchment area, is located in the Wonogiri Regency, Central Java Province. It was first established in 1981 and began its operation in 1982 with the expectation that it would last for about 100 years. Today (2002 the reservoir has got a serious problem of sedimentation. The sedimentation is so large that it would decrease the capacity storage of the reservoir and would shorten the length of operation. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the sediment that comes into the reservoir. This research would be based on the total sediment calculation of the sedimentation, through some methods, such as echo sounding measured data, land erosion (USLE, the calculation of the sediment in rivers. This research calculates the sediment capacities based on the water flow data and the sediment rating curves in rivers of Keduang, Tirtomoyo, Temon, upstream reach of Bengawan Solo, Alang, and Wuryantoro. The suspended load was calculated based on the sediment rating curves, whereas the bed load was computed as the percentage of the suspended load. The sum of both calculation results would be the total sediment. The calculation result showed that the total sediment which has come into the reservoir is 6.68 million cubic meters per year. As a comparison, the writer noted that the former researcher using echo sounding method done by the Faculty of Geography of the Universitas Gadjah Mada in 1985, it found that the total sediment capacity which came into the reservoir was 6.60 million cubic meters per year or 5.40 mm per year of sheet erosion. The other research using echo sounding method done by JICA in 2000 found that the total sediment which had come into the reservoir was 4.50 million cubic meters per year or 3.50 mm per year of sheet erosion. By knowing the results of calculation of the total sediment, we can learn that

  1. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkanuparph S


    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. However, spontaneous peritonitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is uncommon. Delayed diagnosis of cryptococcal peritonitis often results in death. We describe three cases of spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One case had associated symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical awareness of this entity may lead to the early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  2. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu


    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  3. [Spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization]. (United States)

    Studničková, M; Holusková, I; Durdová, V; Kratochvílová, T; Strašilová, P; Marková, I; Lubušký, M


    Assess the incidence of spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization in RhD negative pregnant women with an RhD positive fetus. Clinical study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School and University Hospital Olomouc. A total of 906 RhD negative women with an RhD positive fetus and without the presence of anti-Dalloantibodies at the beginning of pregnancy were examined. Always it was a singleton pregnancy, RhD blood group of the pregnant women was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, RhD status of the fetus was determined after delivery. Screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies was performed in all women in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, at 28-32 weeks gestation and immediately prior to delivery at 38-42 weeks gestation. Screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies was performed also at 6 months following delivery in all cases of positive antibodies before delivery. Antibody screening was performed using the indirect antiglobulin (LISS/NAT) and enzyme (papain) test with their subsequent identification using a panel of reference erythrocytes by column agglutination method Dia-Med. After delivery, the volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage was assesed in all RhD negative women and RhD alloimmunization prophylaxis was performed by administering the necessary IgG anti-D dose; none of the women were administered IgG anti-D antepartally. During screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies at 28-32 weeks gestation, anti-D alloantibodies were diagnosed in 0.2% of the women (2/906); immediately prior to the delivery at 38-42 weeks gestation, anti-D alloantibodies were diagnosed in 2.3% of the women (21/906) and repeatedly even at 6 months following delivery (21/157). In 82.7% of the women (749/906), examination at 6 months following delivery was not performed, therefore in these women spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization cannot reliably be ruled out. Alloimmunization may not be diagnosed yet at term of delivery. If anti

  4. Investigation of trace element mobility in river sediments using ICP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the column method was used to determine the leachable trace metals present in selected river sediments. In addition the sediments were investigated using a shaker method and these two methods were compared for reliability. For both these methods extract solutions associated with a sequential extraction ...

  5. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory....... Empirically, the analysis is founded on descriptive accounts from the five entrepreneurs. By highlighting the spontaneous strategies described by actors, we show how sites and objects are actively used as an element in their strategy, and also how the sites and objects end up facilitating new ways of thinking...

  6. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness. (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas


    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  7. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning. (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward


    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of semivolatile organic compounds in bottom sediment by solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatographic fractionation, and capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (United States)

    Furlong, E.T.; Vaught, D.G.; Merten, L.M.; Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.


    A method for the determination of 79 semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) and 4 surrogate compounds in soils and bottom sediment is described. The SOCs are extracted from bottom sediment by solvent extraction, followed by partial isolation using high-performance gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The SOCs then are qualitatively identified and quantitative concentrations determined by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This method also is designed for an optional simultaneous isolation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) insecticides, including toxaphene. When OCs and PCBs are determined, an additional alumina- over-silica column chromatography step follows GPC cleanup, and quantitation is by dual capillary- column gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC/ECD). Bottom-sediment samples are centrifuged to remove excess water and extracted overnight with dichloromethane. The extract is concentrated, centrifuged, and then filtered through a 0.2-micrometer polytetrafluoro-ethylene syringe filter. Two aliquots of the sample extract then are quantitatively injected onto two polystyrene- divinylbenzene GPC columns connected in series. The SOCs are eluted with dichloromethane, a fraction containing the SOCs is collected, and some coextracted interferences, including elemental sulfur, are separated and discarded. The SOC-containing GPC fraction then is analyzed by GC/MS. When desired, a second aliquot from GPC is further processed for OCs and PCBs by combined alumina-over-silica column chromatography. The two fractions produced in this cleanup then are analyzed by GC/ECD. This report fully describes and is limited to the determination of SOCs by GC/MS.

  9. Error and Uncertainty in High-resolution Quantitative Sediment Budgets (United States)

    Grams, P. E.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.; Yackulic, C. B.


    Sediment budgets are a fundamental tool in fluvial geomorphology. The power of the sediment budget is in the explicit coupling of sediment flux and sediment storage through the Exner equation for bed sediment conservation. Thus, sediment budgets may be calculated either from the divergence of the sediment flux or from measurements of morphologic change. Until recently, sediment budgets were typically calculated using just one of these methods, and often with sparse data. Recent advances in measurement methods for sediment transport have made it possible to measure sediment flux at much higher temporal resolution, while advanced methods for high-resolution topographic and bathymetric mapping have made it possible to measure morphologic change with much greater spatial resolution. Thus, it is now possible to measure all terms of a sediment budget and more thoroughly evaluate uncertainties in measurement methods and sampling strategies. However, measurements of sediment flux and morphologic change involve different types of uncertainty that are encountered over different time and space scales. Three major factors contribute uncertainty to sediment budgets computed from measurements of sediment flux. These are measurement error, the accumulation of error over time, and physical processes that cause systematic bias. In the absence of bias, uncertainty is proportional to measurement error and the ratio of fluxes at the two measurement stations. For example, if the ratio between measured sediment fluxes is more than 0.8, measurement uncertainty must be less than 10 percent in order to calculate a meaningful sediment budget. Systematic bias in measurements of flux can introduce much larger uncertainty. The uncertainties in sediment budgets computed from morphologic measurements fall into three similar categories. These are measurement error, the spatial and temporal propagation of error, and physical processes that cause bias when measurements are interpolated or

  10. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien


    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  11. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  12. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  13. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  14. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  15. The Effect of Pore Volume of Hard Coals on Their Susceptibility to Spontaneous Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dudzińska


    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the experimental studies on a relationship between pore volume of hard coals and their tendency to spontaneous combustion are presented. Pore volumes were determined by the gas adsorption method and spontaneous combustion tendencies of coals were evaluated by determination of the spontaneous combustion indexes Sza and Sza′ on the basis of the current Polish standards. An increase in the spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal occurs in the case of the rise both in micropore volumes and in macropore surfaces. Porosity of coal strongly affects the possibility of oxygen diffusion into the micropores of coal located inside its porous structure. The volume of coal micropores determined on the basis of the carbon dioxide adsorption isotherms can serve as an indicator of a susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion.

  16. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth


    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  17. Experiments on Detection of Voiced Hesitations in Russian Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilisa Verkhodanova


    Full Text Available The development and popularity of voice-user interfaces made spontaneous speech processing an important research field. One of the main focus areas in this field is automatic speech recognition (ASR that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers. However, ASR systems often work less efficiently for spontaneous than for read speech, since the former differs from any other type of speech in many ways. And the presence of speech disfluencies is its prominent characteristic. These phenomena are an important feature in human-human communication and at the same time they are a challenging obstacle for the speech processing tasks. In this paper we address an issue of voiced hesitations (filled pauses and sound lengthenings detection in Russian spontaneous speech by utilizing different machine learning techniques, from grid search and gradient descent in rule-based approaches to such data-driven ones as ELM and SVM based on the automatically extracted acoustic features. Experimental results on the mixed and quality diverse corpus of spontaneous Russian speech indicate the efficiency of the techniques for the task in question, with SVM outperforming other methods.

  18. Surgical treatment versus conventional chest tube drainage in primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Winnie Hedevang; Katballe, Niels; Sindby, Jesper Eske


    OBJECTIVES: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax frequently recurs after chest tube management. Evidence is lacking whether patients may benefit from surgery following their first episode. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomized trial and enrolled young, otherwise healthy patients admitted wi...

  19. Reconstruction of lake history using nondestructive methods. A first record of organic endmember in sediments using solid phase fluorescence (Lake Noir Inférieur, Aiguilles Rouges Massif, France) (United States)

    Quiers, Marine; Develle, Anne-Lise; Perette, Yves; Sabatier, Pierre; Belle, Simon; Pignol, Cécile; Millet, Laurent; Arnaud, Fabien


    Mountain areas are known to be highly sensitive to environmental perturbations driven by climate changes and human activities. Thus, high altitude lake sediments represent interesting archives to reconstruct past environmental variations. Because of their difficult access and their low sedimentation rate, high resolution nondestructive methods are required to limit the loss of information induced by the use of destructive analyses. Moreover, when they are located at the top of drainage basins, their reduced catchment area leads to the dominance of organic matter in the sediment which would make interesting to complete the use of traditional high resolution sedimentary geochemistry tools, such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) logging, by organic matter-borne high resolution signals. Here we attempt to use UV-induced solid phase fluorescence (SPF) as a promising way to analyze the organic component of environmental archives as we already showed on speleothem records. A 70cm-long core was retrieved in 2012 from the high altitude Lake Noir Inférieur (2495 a.s.l.), located in the Aiguilles Rouges Massif (Northern French Alps). The catchment area, made by gneiss and amphibolites, is almost devoid of vegetation. Thus, the high OM content (up to 23.6%) of the homogenous dark brown sediments is assumed to be essentially related to autochtonous production. The preliminary age model suggests that the core spans the last 8000 yrs. In this work, we investigated the upper 15 cm of the core which represents the last 1300 yrs. We combined the two spectroscopic methods (XRF and SPF) at a 100µm step, in order to provide a high resolution overview of both mineral and organic endmembers. The XRF core scanner analytical settings were adjusted at 10 kV and 30kV in order to detect elements from Al to Pb. SPF measurements were performed with a spectrofluorimeter and emission spectra were recorded at 256 nm and 325 nm excitation wavelengths. Different organic matter types (chlorophyll

  20. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts. (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I


    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous revegetation vs. forestry reclamation in post-mining sand pits. (United States)

    Šebelíková, Lenka; Řehounková, Klára; Prach, Karel


    Vegetation development of sites restored by two different methods, spontaneous revegetation and forestry reclamation, was compared in four sand pit mining complexes located in the southern part of the Czech Republic, central Europe. The space-for-time substitution method was applied to collect vegetation records in 13 differently aged and sufficiently large sites with known history. The restoration method, age (time since site abandonment/reclamation), groundwater table, slope, and aspect in all sampled plots were recorded in addition to the visual estimation of percentage cover of all present vascular plant species. Multivariate methods and GLM were used for the data elaboration. Restoration method was the major factor influencing species pattern. Both spontaneously revegetated and forestry reclaimed sites developed towards forest on a comparable timescale. Although the sites did not significantly differ in species richness (160 species in spontaneously revegetated vs. 111 in forestry reclaimed sites), spontaneously revegetated sites tended to be more diverse with more species of conservation potential (10 Red List species in spontaneous sites vs. 4 Red List species in forestry reclaimed sites). These results support the use of spontaneous revegetation as an effective and low-cost method of sand pit restoration and may contribute to implementation of this method in practice.

  2. Sediment Core Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  3. Sediment Characteristics of Tennessee Streams and Reservoirs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Trimble, Stanley W; Carey, William P


    Suspended-sediment and reservoir sedimentation data have been analyzed to determine sediment yields and transport characteristics of Tennessee streams Data from 31 reservoirs plus suspended-sediment...

  4. Morphology of methane hydrate host sediments (United States)

    Jones, K.W.; Feng, H.; Tomov, S.; Winters, W.J.; Eaton, M.; Mahajan, D.


    The morphological features including porosity and grains of methane hydrate host sediments were investigated using synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) technique. The sediment sample was obtained during Ocean Drilling Program Leg 164 on the Blake Ridge at water depth of 2278.5 m. The CMT experiment was performed at the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source facility. The analysis gave ample porosity, specific surface area, mean particle size, and tortuosity. The method was found to be highly effective for the study of methane hydrate host sediments.

  5. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys. (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R


    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Spontaneous flocking in human groups. (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete


    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  8. A Manual to Identify Sources of Fluvial Sediment | Science ... (United States)

    Sedimentation is one of the main causes of stream/river aquatic life use impairments in R3. Currently states lack standard guidance on appropriate tools available to quantify sediment sources and develop sediment budgets in TMDL Development. Methods for distinguishing sediment types for TMDL development will focus stream restoration and soil conservation efforts in strategic locations in a watershed and may better target appropriate BMPs to achieve sediment load reductions. Properly identifying sediment sources in a TMDL will also help focus NPDES permitting, stream restoration activities and other TMDL implementation efforts. This project will focus on developing a framework that will be published as a guidance document that outlines steps and approaches to identify the significant sources of fine-grained sediment in 303D listed watersheds. In this framework, the sediment-fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches will be emphasized. This project will focus on developing a framework that will be published as a guidance document that outlines steps and approaches to identify the significant sources of fine-grained sediment in 303D listed watersheds. In this framework, the sediment-fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches will be emphasized.

  9. Field Data Collection Methods and Data Processing of the Influence of Low Momentum Ratio and the Rate of Sediment Transport Forcing on Confluence Hydrodynamics, Morphodynamics and Mixing (United States)

    Moradi, Gelare; Cardot, Romain; Lane, Stuart; Rennie, Colin


    River confluences are zones where two or more rivers join and form a single channel downstream of their junction. Because of their essential role in the dynamic of fluvial networks, there has been an increase in the attention given to their hydrodynamics and morphodynamics during last three decades. Despite this increased understanding of the complex flow behavior and morphological aspects, few studies has been focused on low momentum ratio river confluences and mixing processes. As among these few studies, most of them have been driven by the mean of laboratory experiments and numerical models, a combination of field data collection and data processing is required to study the effect of low momentum ratio on flow dynamic, rive morphology and rate of mixing in river confluences. In the present poster, the flow discharge and velocity data of two upper Rhône river confluences in Switzerland, which are characterized by low momentum ratio and a varied rate of poorly sorted sediment transport is shown. The data set is mostly collected, using spatial distributed acoustic Doppler current profiling (aDcp) measurements. The morphological changes are studied using a combination of high-resolution aerial imagery data obtained by a phantom drone and acoustic bathymetric surveys. The mixing processes are investigated by measuring the surface water temperature with a thermic camera mounted on an E-bee drone [, whereas sediment pathways can be explored through the use of the 'bottom-tracking' feature of the aDcp device (not sure there will be such results at the conference time)]. These collected data is processed using a matlab code, Pix4D and visualization software. These processed data then can be used to describe the flow behavior, morphological aspects and mixing processes at river confluences characterized by low momentum ratio and to test laboratory derived conceptual models of flow processes at such junctions. The obtained results can be used under a wider range of

  10. [Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies]. (United States)

    Sentilhes, L; Bouhours, A-C; Bouet, P-E; Boussion, F; Biquard, F; Gillard, P; Descamps, P


    To determine prenatal methods to predict and prevent spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies. Articles were searched using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library. Uterine activity monitoring and bacterial vaginosis screening are not useful to predict preterm birth (EL2 and EL3 respectively). Current literature data are contradictory and insufficient to determine whether fetal fibronectin and digital cervical assessment are predictors of preterm birth. History of preterm birth (EL4), and cervical length measurement by transvaginal ultrasonography (EL2) predict preterm birth. Nevertheless, there are no intervention studies that have evaluated cervical length measurement in the prevention of preterm birth. Hospital bedrest, prophylactic tocolytic and progesterone therapy, and prophylactic cervical cerclage in patients with or without short cervix have not been shown to be effective in preventing preterm birth. Prenatal methods to prevent spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic twin pregnancies are currently very limited. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Ensemble spontaneous activity alterations detected by CISA approach. (United States)

    Boudaoud, Sofiane; Rix, Hervé; Meste, Olivier; Cazals, Yves


    In this paper, we propose a method for detecting alterations in the Ensemble Spontaneous Activity (ESA), a random signal representing the composite spontaneous contribution of the auditory nerve recorded on the round window. The proposed method is based on shape analysis of the ESA amplitude histogram. For this task, we use a recent approach, the Corrected Integral Shape Averaging (CISA). Using this approach, a shape clustering algorithm is proposed to classify healthy and pathological ESA signals generated by a recent ESA model. This model allows a precise simulation of neural mechanisms occurring in the auditory nerve. The obtained results demonstrate that this shape analysis is very sensitive for detecting a small number of fibers with correlated firing, supposed to occur during a particular type of tinnitus. In comparison, the classical spectral index fails in this detection.

  12. Turbidimetry as an alternative method to determine the rating curve of suspended sediments Turbidímetro como método alternativo na determinação da curva-chave de sedimentos em suspensão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Poletto


    Full Text Available Understanding hydrosedimental behavior of a watershed is essential for properly managing and using its hydric resources. The objective of this study was to verify the feasibility of the alternative procedure for the indirect determination of the sediment key curve using a turbidimeter. The research was carried out on the São Francisco Falso River, which is situated in the west of the state of Paraná on the left bank of ITAIPU reservoir. The direct method was applied using a DH-48 sediment suspended sampler. The indirect method consisted of the use of a linigraph and a turbidimeter. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that the indirect method using a turbidimeter showed to be fully feasible, since it gave a power function-type mathematical model equal of the direct method. Furthermore, the average suspended sediment discharge into the São Francisco Falso River during the 2006/2007 harvest was calculated at 7.26 metric t day-1.O conhecimento do comportamento hidrossedimentológico de uma bacia hidrográfica é fundamental para a adequada gestão e uso de seus recursos hídricos. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de verificar a viabilidade de se determinar indiretamente a curva-chave de sedimentos usando como alternativa um turbidímetro. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Rio São Francisco Falso, situado no oeste do Paraná, na margem esquerda do lago de ITAIPU. O método direto foi realizado usando o molinete e amostrador de sedimentos em suspensão DH-48. O método indireto consistiu no uso de linígrafo e turbidímetro. A partir dos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que o método indireto usando um turbidímetro apresentou-se plenamente viável, pois encontrou-se modelo matemático do tipo potencial igual ao método direto. Determinou-se ainda que a descarga média de sedimentos em suspensão no Rio São Francisco Falso, no ano agrícola de 2006/2007, foi de 7,26 t dia-1.

  13. Spontaneous fission of neutron-rich superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherghiescu, R.A.


    Neutron-rich isotopes of the superheavy elements 112, 114, and 116 have been studied for neutron numbers 184, 186, and 188. The spontaneous fission life-time calculations have been performed within the WKB method. Large values have been obtained due to the proton-shell closure 114. The maximum of the fission lifetime occurs for the double-magic superheavy nucleus (114,184). (author)

  14. Clock frequency estimation under spontaneous emission (United States)

    Qin, Xi-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Hao; Zhong, Hong-Hua; Lee, Chaohong


    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a driven two-level system under spontaneous emission and its application in clock frequency estimation. By using the Lindblad equation to describe the system, we analytically obtain its exact solutions, which show three different regimes: Rabi oscillation, damped oscillation, and overdamped decay. From the analytical solutions, we explore how the spontaneous emission affects the clock frequency estimation. We find that under a moderate spontaneous emission rate, the transition frequency can still be inferred from the Rabi oscillation. Our results enable potential practical applications in frequency measurement and quantum control under decoherence.

  15. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta


    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  16. Spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. (United States)

    Yutaka, Yojiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Shikuma, Kei; Okuda, Masato; Taki, Toshihiko


    Although there are many reports of spontaneous regression of noninvasive thymoma, there are no reports of spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. Moreover, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression is still unknown. The present case concerns a 47-year-old man who presented with chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with left pleural effusion that occluded the innominate vein. The tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery suggested a diagnosis of invasive thymic carcinoma. One month later CT showed prominent regression of the tumor, and the tumor was completely resected. On pathology, the diagnosis was thymoma type B3.

  17. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.


    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  18. Sediment supply to beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels


    and this reduces confidence in predictions of long-term shoreline change. In this paper, field measurements of suspended sediment load and cross-shore transport on the lower shoreface are used to derive a model for sediment supply from the lower to the upper shoreface at large spatial and temporal scales. Data...

  19. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination? (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte


    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Possibilities for using a temperature-controlled pyrolysis method in order to determine the bonding form of mecury in soils and sediments; Moeglichkeiten der Anwendung eines temperaturgesteuerten Pyrolyseverfahrens zur Bestimmung der Bindungsform des Quecksilbers in Boeden und Sedimenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biester, H.


    The bonding behaviour of mercury in solids was investigated by means of a temperature-controlled pyrolysis method. Starting from the special property of elemental mercury to evaporate already at room temperature, a method was developed which permits to characterize different mercury bonding forms on the basis of Hg evaporation behaviour from solids at continuously increased temperature. The method starts from the assumption that it is possible to thermally reduce compounded mercury and release it in elemental form. The focus of the work was on the study of Hg bonding behaviour in soils and sediments. The soil samples used were from the areas of two mercury deposits, different kyanizing sites, some former mirror factories, and a chlor-alkali electrolysis workshop. The investigated sediments are a collection of mercury-polluted samples from the rivers Elbe, Rhine, Murg, the Rio Sao Joao de Meriti (Brazil) and some brooks and rivers of the Saar-Nahe depression. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das Bindungsverhalten von Quecksilber in Feststoffen mittels eines temperaturgesteuerten Pyrolyseverfahrens untersucht. Ausgehend von der besonderen Eigenschaften des elementaren Quecksilbers, bereits bei Zimmertemperatur zu verdampfen, wurde ein Verfahren entwickelt, das eine Charakterisierung verschiedener Quecksilberbindungsformen aufgrund des Abdampfverhaltens des Hg aus dem Feststoff unter kontinuierlicher Temperaturerhoehung zulaesst. Dem Verfahren liegt dabei die Annahme zugrunde, dass sich das Quecksilber in seinen Verbindungen thermisch reduzieren und in elementarer Form freisetzen laesst. Durch den kontinuierlichen Aufheizprozess erfolgt die Freisetzung des Quecksilbers in Abhaengigkeit von der Bindungsstaerke in unterschiedlichen Temperaturbereichen. Die Darstellung der Ergebnisse erfolgte in Form von Abdampfkurven, die die Extinktion in Abhaengigkeit von der Temperatur darstellen. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag auf der Untersuchung des

  1. Characteristics of sediment data and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields for selected lower Missouri River mainstem and tributary stations, 1976-2008 (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Cline, Teri L.; Pigue, Lori M.; Wagner, Holly R.


    Suspended-sediment data from 18 selected surface-water monitoring stations in the lower Missouri River Basin downstream from Gavins Point Dam were used in the computation of annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads for 1976 through 2008. Three methods of suspended-sediment load determination were utilized and these included the subdivision method, regression of instantaneous turbidity with suspended-sediment concentrations at selected stations, and regression techniques using the Load Estimator (LOADEST) software. Characteristics of the suspended-sediment and streamflow data collected at the 18 monitoring stations and the tabulated annual suspended-sediment and suspended-sand loads and yields are presented.

  2. Simulation of a flow spontaneously condensed moist steam in Laval nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetisyan, A.R.; Alipchenkov, V.M.; Zajchik, L.I.


    The method for simulating the evolution of the drops distribution by size in the course of commonly proceeding processes of nucleation (spontaneous condensation), heterogeneous condensation) evaporation and coagulation is proposed. The results of the analysis of the initial moisture effect on the steam spontaneous condensation in the transonic nozzles are presented. The availability of the minima in the output moisture dependences on the drops initial moisture and size is the most interesting result of the initial moisture effect on the spontaneous condensation in the Laval nozzles [ru

  3. Fluvial sediment fingerprinting: literature review and annotated bibliography (United States)

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Haj, Adel E.; Stamm, John F.; Valder, Joshua F.; Prautzch, Vicki L.


    The U.S. Geological Survey has evaluated and adopted various field methods for collecting real-time sediment and nutrient data. These methods have proven to be valuable representations of sediment and nutrient concentrations and loads but are not able to accurately identify specific source areas. Recently, more advanced data collection and analysis techniques have been evaluated that show promise in identifying specific source areas. Application of field methods could include studies of sources of fluvial sediment, otherwise referred to as sediment “fingerprinting.” The identification of sediment is important, in part, because knowing the primary sediment source areas in watersheds ensures that best management practices are incorporated in areas that maximize reductions in sediment loadings. This report provides a literature review and annotated bibliography of existing methodologies applied in the field of fluvial sediment fingerprinting. This literature review provides a bibliography of publications where sediment fingerprinting methods have been used; however, this report is not assumed to provide an exhaustive listing. Selected publications were categorized by methodology with some additional summary information. The information contained in the summary may help researchers select methods better suited to their particular study or study area, and identify methods in need of more testing and application.

  4. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi


    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  5. Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant gastroenteritis: report of a rare case. Duvuru Ram, Vilvapathy S. Karthikeyan, Sarath C. Sistla, Sheik M. Ali, Parnandi Sridhar, Nagarajan Rajkumar ...

  6. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media. (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja


    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.

  7. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal


    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  8. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A


    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  9. Postmenopausal spontaneous uterine perforation: Case report (United States)

    İşlek Seçen, Elçin; Ağış, Hilal; Altunkaya, Canan; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz


    Spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis caused by pyometra occurs rarely with high morbidity and mortality. A correct and definite diagnosis can be made with laparotomy or laparoscopy. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and gynecologic symptoms are less frequent, which makes preoperative diagnosis difficult. We report a case of a patient aged 82 years who underwent surgery for spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis as a result of pyometra. PMID:28913055

  10. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture. (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François


    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  11. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J


    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  12. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  13. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment. (United States)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jerônimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo


    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xareltor. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban.

  14. Review of sediment stabilisation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The best sites for tidal power schemes are found in estuaries with high tidal ranges which have complex ecosystems and include a wide and diverse range of habitats. If the tidal power is to be developed, therefore, it is important to determine the likely effect on the environment and any ameliorative measures which may be necessary. One possible change is likely to be the erosion of material from the bed or shoreline of the estuary, and possibly the adjacent coast. This is of particular concern if intertidal sandflats, mudflats and saltmarsh are affected, as these are important wildlife habitats. Moreover, largescale movement of sediments would be undesirable. Results of a desk study of methods of preventing the erosion of sediment deposits in or near an estuary in the conditions that may occur following the construction of a tidal power barrage are presented. (author)

  15. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others


    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  16. Spontaneous Cervical Artery Dissection: The Borgess Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas eAl-Ali


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground and Purpose: The pathogenesis of spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD and its best medical treatment are debated. This may be due to a lack of clear classification of sCAD. We propose the new Borgess classification of sCAD, based on the presence or absence of intimal tear as depicted on imaging studies and effect on blood flow. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center investigator-initiated registry on consecutive patients treated for sCAD. In the Borgess classification, type I dissections have intact intima and type II dissections have an intimal tear. Results: Forty-four patients and 52 dissected arteries were found. Forty-nine of 52 dissections (93% were treated with dual anti-platelet therapy. Twenty-one of 52 dissections were type I; 31 were type II. Type I dissections were more likely to present with ischemic symptoms (stroke, TIA (p=0.001. More type I dissections occurred in the vertebral artery, while more type II dissections occurred in the internal carotid artery (p

  17. Clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MICH. Methods Conservative therapy, puncture and drainage, hematoma removal and/or decompressive craniectomy were used in the treatment of 630 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH patients, who were divided into 2 groups: 30 cases with MICH and another 600 cases with solitary intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH. Three months after onset, modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to evaluate the prognosis of all cases. Results Compared with patients in SICH group, the occurrence rate of hypertension > 5 years (P = 0.008, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.024, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.050 and previous ischemic stroke (P = 0.026 were all significantly higher in MICH group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP level (P = 0.002 and the incidence of limb movement disorder (P = 0.000 were significantly higher in patients with MICH than those with SICH. Basal ganglia and thalamus were the predilection sites of hematoma (P = 0.001. Patients with MICH had worse prognosis compared to those with SICH 3 months after onset (P = 0.006. Conclusions Hypertension > 5 years, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and ischemic stroke were identified to be the pathophysiological basis of MICH in this study. All patients with MICH had more serious clinical manifestations after onset and worse prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.008

  18. Fluvial sedimentation in Kentucky (United States)

    Flint, R.F.


    Covering periods 1942-45 and 1951-81, this report documents the characteristics of sediments being transported from 79 drainage areas within the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and from eight stations on the main stem of the Ohio River. The drainage areas range in size from 0.67 square mile at Cane Branch near Parkers Lake to 40,330 square miles at Tennessee River near Paducah. Sediment yields and particle size of suspended and bed sediments are discussed by physiographic province. The Blue Grass had the highest average annual suspended-sediment yield for selected stations of 741 tons per square mile, and the Western Coal Field had the lowest with 197. The Eastern Coal Field had the broadest range of annual suspended-sediment yields. The range was from 25 tons per square mile at Helton Branch near Greenwood to 21,000 tons per square mile at Millers Creek near Phyllis. For selected stations bedload discharge was estimated to be 5 to 10 percent as much as the suspended-sediment discharge. Only three drainage areas had sediment yields that exceeded the average annual erosion rates for cultivated land in Kentucky of 9.93 tons per acre (6,355 tons per square mile). These three were in the Eastern Coal Field. (USGS)

  19. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.


    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  20. Spontaneous Hemothorax in Neurofibromatosis Treated with Percutaneous Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kazunori; Sanada, Junichiro; Kurozumi, Akiko; Watanabe, Toshio; Matsui, Osamu


    We evaluated the effectiveness of transcatheter arterial coil embolization therapy for the treatment of spontaneous hemothorax followed by aneurysm rupture in neurofibromatosis patients. Three patients were treated for massive hemothorax caused by arterial lesions associated with neurofibromatosis. Bleeding episodes were secondary to ascending cervical artery aneurysm and dissection of vertebral artery in 1 patient, and intercostal artery aneurysm with or without arteriovenous fistula in 2 patients. Patients were treated by transarterial coil embolization combined with chest drainage. In 1 patient, the ruptured ascending cervical artery aneurysm was well embolized but, shortly after the embolization, fatal hemorrhage induced by dissection of the vertebral artery occurred and the patient died. In the other 2 patients, the ruptured intercostal artery aneurysm was well embolized and they were successfully treated and discharged. Transcatheter arterial coil embolization therapy is an effective method for the treatment of spontaneous hemothorax followed by aneurysm rupture in neurofibromatosis patients

  1. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.


    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... of the sediment for the youngest 100 years. As a rule the mercury decreased with depth in the sediment with various degrees of significance. The increase of the mercury flux during the last 100 years is roughly a doubling. The increase may be of anthropogenic origin as it is restricted to the last 100 years....... In four cores the concentration of manganese was found also to increase in the top layers indicating diagenesis. In the other cases the higher concentrations were not accompanied by higher manganese concentrations. The mercury flux to the sediment surface was generally proportional to the Pb-210 flux...

  2. Composite fingerprinting of suspended-sediments in Sorsogon , Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.D.; Sta Maria, E.J.; Madrid, J.F.; Asa, A.D.D.; Aniago, R.J.; Bulos, A.D.; Zombrito, E.Z.


    Sediment-related environmental problems pose a threat not only in land management sustainability but also in management of aquatic ecosystem. Sediments often serve as sinks of nutrients and contaminants that regularly recharge overlying waters and could trigger harmful algal blooms (HAB) together with unfavorable environment conditions. One HAB affected area in the southernmost tip of Luzon, Philippines is Sorsogon Bay. In Sorsogon Bay, the harvest and consumption ban was declared for several years due to the level of toxins in shellfish which exceeded the regulatory limit. Identification of sediment sources is useful tool in planning effective sediment management strategies. A method to determine possible sources of sediment-associated nutrients is sediment fingerprinting. It characterizes land-based sediment sources to derive estimates of the portions of suspended sediment originating from discrete upstream source areas. There are wide ranges of diagnostic properties which can be possible fingerprints such as mineralogic, mineral-magnetic, geochemical, organic, isotopic, physical and radiometric parameters. This study investigates on potential source of sediments from Sampaloc River using different chemical, radiometric and isotopic parameters, Range test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test were employed and indicated that the calcium, titanium, δ”1”3C signal, and to tal carbon content are possible fingerprint parameters that will identify the sources of sediments. Results of a mathematical mixing model showed that channel banks (81.0%) are the largest sediment load contributors in Sampaloc River, followed by cultivated areas (15.5%) and woodlands (3.5%). (author)

  3. Developmental trends in different types of spontaneous false memories: implications for the legal field. (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Peters, Maarten; Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey


    In an emerging area of memory research, it is becoming apparent that one particular type of false memory, called spontaneous false memory, follows a developmental trajectory that is the opposite of what is commonly assumed in false memory research - that is, spontaneous false memories are more likely to occur in adults than in children. The present study focused on developmental trends of different types of spontaneous false memories. Specifically, in the current study, 6-8 year-olds, 10-12 year-olds, and adults were presented with two methods to induce spontaneous false memories: (i) semantically related word lists that are commonly used to evoke spontaneous false memories [i.e, Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm]; and (ii) a video in which related details were not shown but were presented during a recognition task. The results showed that children were more likely to form false memories than adults in the video false memory paradigm, whereas DRM false memories were more evident in adults than in children. Furthermore, we found that on a general level, DRM false memories were positively related to video spontaneous false memories. We explain that stimuli that contain obvious themes attenuate or even reverse developmental trends in spontaneous false memories. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Determination of Leachable Vanadium (V) in Sediment | Mampuru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for speciation of vanadium in solid samples was developed for quantification of vanadium(+5) in solid samples of sediment Certified Reference Materials (CRM) PACS-2 and MESS-3 (Trace Elements in Sediments) of known total vanadium content. The method relies on a classical analytical chemistry procedure ...

  5. The contribution of bank and surface sediments to fluvial sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment source studies involving a simple mixing model was undertaken in the Pra River Basin in Ghana using a single tracer 210Pb to determine the relative contribution of surface and bank sediments to the fluvial sediment transport. Sediment source tracing was performed on the basis of sub-basins by comparing the ...

  6. The analysis of initial cranial CT of early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage


    BEI Yu-zhang; CHEN Ben-yang; QI Hao-bo; ZHOU Zheng-ping; LI Yu-bo


    Objective To investigate the predictive effect of initial cranial CT on early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods Three hundred patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 6 hours after onset were studied. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to detect the related factors which may indicate hematoma enlargement. Results Sixty-one (20.33% ) patients presented hematoma enlargement on cranial CT. Single factor and multivariate...

  7. Outcome of primary spontaneous pneumothorax: Could drug abuse have an effect?


    Esmaeel, Hend M.; Radwan, Rania A.


    Background: The progressively rising issue of drug abuse in Egypt among young adults could affect the outcome of a well known problem encountered in such age group as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). Objective: To assess the impact of an oral drug abuse on the outcome of primary spontaneous pneumothorax. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 65 male patients, mean age 25.85 ± 5.08, admitted to the inpatient chest department, Sohag University hospital with...

  8. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia




    Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a coco...

  9. Endo- and exocytic rate constants for spontaneous and protein kinase C-activated T cell receptor cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, Charlotte; Møller Sørensen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert


    To determine the rate constants of spontaneous and activated TCR cycling, we examined TCR endo- and exocytosis in the human T cell line Jurkat by three different methods. Using a simple kinetic model for TCR cycling and non-linear regression analyses, we found that the spontaneous endocytic rate...

  10. Analysis and Modeling of the Galvanic Skin Response Spontaneous Component in the context of Intelligent Biofeedback Systems Development (United States)

    Unakafov, A.


    The paper presents an approach to galvanic skin response (GSR) spontaneous component analysis and modeling. In the study a classification of biofeedback training methods is given, importance of intelligent methods development is shown. The INTENS method, which is perspective for intellectualization, is presented. An important problem of biofeedback training method intellectualization - estimation of the GSR spontaneous component - is solved in the main part of the work. Its main characteristics are described; results of GSR spontaneous component modeling are shown. Results of small research of an optimum material for GSR probes are presented.

  11. The single water-surface sweep estimation method accurately estimates very low (n = 4) to low-moderate (n = 25-100) and high (n > 100) Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) pupae numbers in large water containers up to 13 times faster than the exhaustive sweep and total count method and without any sediment contamination. (United States)

    Romero-Vivas, C M; Llinás, H; Falconar, A K


    To confirm that a single water-surface sweep-net collection coupled with three calibration factors (2.6, 3.0 and 3.5 for 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 water levels, respectively) (WSCF) could accurately estimate very low to high Aedes aegypti pupae numbers in water containers more rapidly than the exhaustive 5-sweep and total count (ESTC) method recommended by WHO. Both methods were compared in semi-field trials using low (n = 25) to moderate (n = 50-100) pupae numbers in a 250-l drum at 1/3, 2/3 and 3/3 water levels, and by their mean-time determinations using 200 pupae in three 220- to 1024-l water containers at these water levels. Accuracy was further assessed using 69.1% (393/569) of the field-based drums and tanks which contained  100) pupae numbers/container and without sediment disturbance. The simple WSCF method sensitively, accurately and robustly estimated total pupae numbers in their principal breeding sites worldwide, containers with >20 l water volumes, significantly (2.7- to 13.0-fold: all P-values water by sediment disturbance which is generated using the WHO-recommended ESTC method. The WSCF method seems ideal for global community-based surveillance and control programmes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Offshore Surficial Sediment (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  13. Offshore Surficial Sediment (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data layer (PAC_EXT.txt and PAC_PRS.txt) represents two of five point coverages of known sediment samples, inspections, and probes from the usSEABED data...

  14. Sediment Resuspension Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The full report on sediment resuspension in drinking water storage tanks and a link to an animation of results. This dataset is associated with the following...

  15. Sediments and aquatic indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Determinations of 90 Sr, certain gamma emitting nuclides and 239,240 Pu in bottom sediment in the Baltic Sea area and in sedimenting material and biota near the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power stations were continued in 1984 and 1985. In the bottom sediments of the deep Baltic basins, the total amounts of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and Pu were 8.5-80 Bq m -2 , 83-3200 Bq m -2 and 4.7-190 Bq m -2 , respectively. The ranges were about the same as in the earlier reports 1,2 . In sedimenting material and biota the conentrations of 90 Sr and 239,240 Pu were roughly the same as in 1983. The amounts and selection of reactor originated activation products were not changed in the vicinity of the two nuclear power stations. Small amounts of 137 Cs and 134 Cs released from the Loviisa nuclear power station were detected in 1985

  16. Is there a predilection for breech infants to demonstrate spontaneous stabilization of DDH instability? (United States)

    Sarkissian, Eric J; Sankar, Wudbhav N; Baldwin, Keith; Flynn, John M


    Breech position subjects the fetal hip to abnormal mechanical forces. However, unlike genetic or tissue factors linked to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), the causative effect of the breech position ends when the infant is born. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rate of spontaneous stabilization in mildly unstable hips of breech-presenting infants compared with similarly lax hips in infants with a genetic or tissue-related cause of DDH. We studied a consecutive series of infants presenting to our institution at 8 weeks of age or younger with DDH from January 2008 to January 2012. Infants with increased hip laxity on dynamic ultrasound examination but without frank instability on clinical provocation maneuvers and no history of prior treatment were evaluated. The endpoint was spontaneous stabilization of ultrasound-detected instability, or intervention due to persistent instability on follow-up dynamic ultrasound. A logistic regression model using backward likelihood ratio method was used to analyze predictors of spontaneous stabilization. We identified 122 hips in 79 infants with instability on dynamic ultrasound evaluation but with stable clinical examinations. Spontaneous stabilization of sonographic instability occurred in 90 hips (74%) at a mean age of 9 weeks (range, 4 to 18 wk). Breech hips more frequently spontaneously stabilized compared with nonbreech hips (80% vs. 66%). Regression analysis determined that breech presentation was a strong independent predictor for spontaneous hip stabilization (odds ratio, 3.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-9.60; P=0.006). Sex, family history, intrauterine positioning syndromes, side involved, bilateralism, and grade of sonographic hip instability were not independently predictive of spontaneous hip stabilization. DDH infants with a history of breech presentation are 3.72 times more likely to experience spontaneous resolution of mild hip instability compared with nonbreech infants. Awareness that

  17. Aeolian Sediment Availability and Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoonhout, B.M.


    This thesis explores the nature of aeolian sediment availability and its influence on aeolian sediment transport. The aim is to improve large scale and long term aeolian sediment transport estimates in (nourished) coastal environments. The generally poor performance of aeolian sediment transport


    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both porewaters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question of whethe...


    Sediment Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed for both interstitial waters and whole sediments. These relatively simple laboratory methods are designed to identify specific toxicants or classes of toxicants in sediments; however, the question ...

  20. Assessing the composition of fragmented agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages in ancient sediments: comparison of counting and area-based methods in Famennian samples (Late Devonian) (United States)

    Girard, Catherine; Dufour, Anne-Béatrice; Charruault, Anne-Lise; Renaud, Sabrina


    Benthic foraminifera have been used as proxies for various paleoenvironmental variables such as food availability, carbon flux from surface waters, microhabitats, and indirectly water depth. Estimating assemblage composition based on morphotypes, as opposed to genus- or species-level identification, potentially loses important ecological information but opens the way to the study of ancient time periods. However, the ability to accurately constrain benthic foraminiferal assemblages has been questioned when the most abundant foraminifera are fragile agglutinated forms, particularly prone to fragmentation. Here we test an alternate method for accurately estimating the composition of fragmented assemblages. The cumulated area per morphotype method is assessed, i.e., the sum of the area of all tests or fragments of a given morphotype in a sample. The percentage of each morphotype is calculated as a portion of the total cumulated area. Percentages of different morphotypes based on counting and cumulated area methods are compared one by one and analyzed using principal component analyses, a co-inertia analysis, and Shannon diversity indices. Morphotype percentages are further compared to an estimate of water depth based on microfacies description. Percentages of the morphotypes are not related to water depth. In all cases, counting and cumulated area methods deliver highly similar results, suggesting that the less time-consuming traditional counting method may provide robust estimates of assemblages. The size of each morphotype may deliver paleobiological information, for instance regarding biomass, but should be considered carefully due to the pervasive issue of fragmentation.

  1. Multidetector computed tomography findings of spontaneous renal allograft ruptures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basaran, C. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail:; Donmez, F.Y.; Tarhan, N.C.; Coskun, M. [Department of Radiology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Haberal, M. [Department of General Surgery, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)


    Aim: To describe the characteristics of spontaneous renal allograft rupture using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Method: Five patients with spontaneous renal allograft rupture, as confirmed by pathologic examination, were referred to our institution between 1985 and 2008. The clinical records and preoperative MDCT findings of the patients were studied retrospectively. Results: Clinical and/or histological findings were consistent with acute rejection in all cases. Using MDCT, disruption of the capsular integrity and parenchymal rupture was seen in four patients. Four of the five patients showed decreased enhancement and swollen grafts. Perirenal (n = 4), subcapsular (n = 1), and intraparenchymal (n = 1) haematomas were also seen. In the patient with an intraparenchymal haematoma there was no disruption of capsular integrity, but capsular irregularities were seen near the haematoma. Conclusion: MDCT is a useful investigative tool for the evaluation of suspected spontaneous renal allograft rupture. As well as a swollen graft, disruption of the capsule, parenchyma, and/or haematoma should prompt the radiologist to consider this diagnosis.

  2. Anticardiolipin antibody in recurrent spontaneous aborting and fertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Couto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the presence of anticardiolipin antibody and a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: clinical controlled study LOCATION: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics - University of Campinas (UNICAMP SUBJECTS: 52 individuals with recurrent spontaneous abortion were included in Group 1 and 104 individuals with at least one live born child in Group 2. Elapsed time from last delivery to blood sampling varied from six months to two years. METHOD: Between November 1993 and November 1994, patients' blood samples were screened for anticardiolipin antibody by ELISA, as described by Triplett, Barna and Unger (1993. ANALYSIS: Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Student's "t" test was used to compare the means. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the presence of the anticardiolipin antibody between Group I (zero and 2.9% and Group 2 (7.7 and 5.8%. CONCLUSION: There was no association between the presence of anticardiolipin antibody and recurrent spontaneous abortion.

  3. Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Said Esgaib

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To study the diagnosis, prognosis and management of spontaneous rupture of the esophagus. DESIGN: This is a retrospective study through the analysis of two cases with delayed diagnosis and subsequent treatment at the Track Surgery Service. LOCALE: The study was performed at the Thoracic Surgery Unit of the Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual Francisco Morato de Oliveira in the city of São Paulo. This is a specialized service. PARTICIPANTS: The two patients reported on had suffered spontaneous rupture of the esophagus. They were transferred to the Thoracic Surgery Unit because of the worsening of their condition in the previous institution which they had been admitted into. MEASUREMENT: The two patients with esophagus pleural fistula received similar treatment, initially advocated by Kanashin in Russia and Hauer-Santos in the United States, which consists of washing the fistula and using continuous pleural aspiration. RESULTS: Although both patients had to spend a long period of time in hospital, their evolution was satisfactory with the treatment adopted, and the fistula closed. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that the method of lavage of the mediastinum and continuous pleural aspiration, in patients who after spontaneous rupture of the esophagus developed a pleural esophagus fistula due to belated diagnosis, is an alternative and satisfactory therapy. Furthermore, in order to have the best outcome, an early diagnosis is recommended and thoracostomy as the surgical procedure, with primary suture.

  4. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu


    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  5. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha


    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  6. Cursed lamp: the problem of spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Simkulet, William


    Many people believe human fetuses have the same moral status as adult human persons, that it is wrong to allow harm to befall things with this moral status, and thus voluntary, induced abortion is seriously morally wrong. Recently, many prochoice theorists have argued that this antiabortion stance is inconsistent; approximately 60% of human fetuses die from spontaneous abortion, far more than die from induced abortion, so if antiabortion theorists really believe that human fetuses have significant moral status, they have strong moral obligations to oppose spontaneous abortion. Yet, few antiabortion theorists devote any effort to doing so. Many prochoice theorists argue that to resolve this inconsistency, antiabortion theorists should abandon their opposition to induced abortion. Here, I argue that those who do not abandon their opposition to induced abortion but continue to neglect spontaneous abortion act immorally. Aristotle argues that moral responsibility requires both control and awareness; I argue that once an antiabortion theorist becomes aware of the frequency of spontaneous abortion, they have a strong moral obligation to redirect their efforts towards combating spontaneous abortion; failure to do so is morally monstrous. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Cisterns as sediment archives in arid environments (United States)

    Junge, Andrea; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Lomax, Johanna; Finkelstein, Israel; Fuchs, Markus


    Ancient cisterns are frequently occurring archaeological structures in semiarid, arid and hyperarid regions. These systems to collect and store water were constructed to enable the establishment of settlements, livestock farming and agricultural activity even under dry conditions. During precipitation events surface runoff from adjoining slopes erodes and transports sediments, which then can be deposited in the cistern. Therefore, these archaeological structures serve also as sediment traps and represent the fluvial processes of the cistern's catchment. Additionally, the cisterns are usually constructed to prevent any water outlet, resulting in an undisturbed, often continuous sediment record. Crucial for investigating cisterns and their sediments is the establishment of robust chronologies, with optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating as the preferred dating method. This enables to determine the time of construction, utilisation and abandonment of the cistern. In addition, the sediment record within the cistern represents an archive including numerous environmental proxies (e. g. pollen), which can be used for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, serving as an important paleoenvironmental archive in dryland areas, where continuous sediment records are rare.

  8. Mortality Prediction in Patients with Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Suárez Quesada


    Full Text Available Background: spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is the deadliest, most disabling, and least treatable form of stroke. No therapy has proven to improve its outcome or reduce its mortality. Objective: to identify predictors of mortality in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods: a single cohort study was conducted involving 176 patients admitted consecutively to the stroke ward of the Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Provincial General Hospital with neuroimaging and clinical diagnosis of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage from January 2013 to November 2015. Independent predictors were obtained using multivariable logistic regression. Results: seventy four point four percent of the patients were hypertensive. The median age among those who died was 67.45 ± 14.84 years. Forty three point eight percent of the patients under study died. Subjects with fatal outcome had lower score on the Glasgow Coma Scale (10.00 ± 3.47 vs. 14.00 ± 1.93, higher hematoma volume expressed in cubic centimeters (26.27 ± 36.86 vs. 6.19 ± 19.59, and displacement of the midline structures (2.00 ± 5.95 vs. 0.00 ± 4.49. The following predictors were identified: Glasgow score ≤ 10 points (Exp (B: 10.74; 95 % CI=4.69 to 24.59, hematoma volume ≥ 20 cm3 (Exp (B: 4.44; 95 % CI= 1.95 to 10.06, and pulse pressure ≥ 60 mmHg (Exp (B: 2.42, 95 % CI=1.10 to 5.33. The area under the ROC curve was 0.85. Conclusions: the Glasgow Coma Scale is the most significant independent variable to predict mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  9. On the temperature dependence of the spontaneous polarization of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailzade, I.G.; Ismailov, R.M.


    The temperature dependence of spontaneous polarization Psub(s)(T) of LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 ferroelectrics is studied by the precision X-ray diffraction method up to the Curie temperature - 1140 and 650 deg C, respectively. It is shown that for LiTaO 3 a deviation from continuous variation of spontaneous polarization with temperature is observed, expressing itself more disticntly at temperatures corresponding to intermediate ferroelectric phase transitions. The Psub(s)(T) obtained has whown that up to 210 deg C the value of LiNbO 3 spontaneous polarization practically remains constant and it decreases with the temperature increase, and near the phase transition temperature (transition of the first order) Psub(s)(T) is 40% of spontaneous polarization at room temperature. As in the case of lithium tantalate stepwise changes of Psub(s)(T) for LiNbO 3 are observed

  10. How to identify twins at low risk of spontaneous preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Kiil, C; Larsen, L U


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate transvaginal sonographic assessment of cervical length at 23 weeks as a screening test for spontaneous preterm delivery in order to define a cut-off value that could be used to select twin pregnancies at low risk of spontaneous preterm delivery....... METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study of 383 twin pregnancies included before 14 + 6 weeks a cervical scan with measurement of the cervical length was performed at 23 weeks' gestation. The results were blinded for the clinicians if the cervical length was > or = 15 mm. The rates of spontaneous...... delivery at different cut-off levels of cervical length were determined. RESULTS: Eighty-nine percent of the twins had dichorionic placentation and 58% were conceived after assisted reproduction. The rate of spontaneous preterm delivery was 2.3% (1.5% for dichorionic (DC) and 9.1% for (MC) monochorionic...

  11. Effects of Sediment Chemical Properties on Phosphorus Release Rates in the Sediment-Water Interface of the Steppe Wetlands. (United States)

    He, Jing; Su, Derong; Lv, Shihai; Diao, Zhaoyan; Xie, Jingjie; Luo, Yan


    Rising temperature causes a process of phosphorus release, which can be characterized well using phosphorus release rates (V P ). The objective of the present study was to investigate the major factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates through a wetland habitat simulation experiment. The results showed that the V P of different wetland sediments were different and changed with the order of W-R (river wetland) > W-L (lake wetland) > W-M (grassy marsh wetland) > W-A (reservoir wetland). The main driving factors which influenced sediment phosphorus flux velocity in the sediment-water interface were sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content. Path analysis and determination coefficient analysis indicated the standard multiple regression equation for sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface, and each main factor was Y = -0.105 + 0.096X₁ + 0.275X₂ - 0.010X₃ ( r = 0.416, p phosphorus release rates; X₁ is sediment B-SO₄ 2- content; X₂ is sediment B-MBN; and X₃ is sediment A-MBP content. Sediment B-SO₄ 2- , B-MBN and A-MBP content and the interaction between them were the main factors affecting sediment phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. Therefore, these results suggest that soil chemical properties and microbial activities likely play an important role in phosphorus release rates in the sediment-water interface. We hope to provide effective scientific management and control methods for relevant environmental protection departments.

  12. A new liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry method using atmospheric pressure photo ionization for the simultaneous determination of azaarenes and azaarones in Dutch river sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brulik, J.; Simek, Z.; de Voogt, P.


    A new method for the analysis of azaarenes and their degradation products (azaarones) was developed, optimized and validated using liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photo ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-APPI/MS/MS). Seventeen compounds including 4 PAHs

  13. Measuring water and sediment discharge from a road plot with a settling basin and tipping bucket (United States)

    Thomas A. Black; Charles H. Luce


    A simple empirical method quantifies water and sediment production from a forest road surface, and is well suited for calibration and validation of road sediment models. To apply this quantitative method, the hydrologic technician installs bordered plots on existing typical road segments and measures coarse sediment production in a settling tank. When a tipping bucket...

  14. On extracting sediment transport information from measurements of luminescence in river sediment (United States)

    Gray, Harrison J.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Mahan, Shannon; McGuire, Chris; Rhodes, Edward J.


    Accurately quantifying sediment transport rates in rivers remains an important goal for geomorphologists, hydraulic engineers, and environmental scientists. However, current techniques for measuring long-time scale (102–106 years) transport rates are laborious, and formulae to predict transport are notoriously inaccurate. Here we attempt to estimate sediment transport rates by using luminescence, a property of common sedimentary minerals that is used by the geoscience community for geochronology. This method is advantageous because of the ease of measurement on ubiquitous quartz and feldspar sand. We develop a model from first principles by using conservation of energy and sediment mass to explain the downstream pattern of luminescence in river channel sediment. We show that the model can accurately reproduce the luminescence observed in previously published field measurements from two rivers with very different sediment transport styles. The model demonstrates that the downstream pattern of river sand luminescence should show exponential-like decay in the headwaters which asymptotes to a constant value with further downstream distance. The parameters from the model can then be used to estimate the time-averaged virtual velocity, characteristic transport lengthscale, storage time scale, and floodplain exchange rate of fine sand-sized sediment in a fluvial system. The sediment transport values predicted from the luminescence method show a broader range than those reported in the literature, but the results are nonetheless encouraging and suggest that luminescence demonstrates potential as a sediment transport indicator. However, caution is warranted when applying the model as the complex nature of sediment transport can sometimes invalidate underlying simplifications.

  15. Spontaneous Regression of Lumbar Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Chang


    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation of the lumbar spine is a common disease presenting with low back pain and involving nerve root radiculopathy. Some neurological symptoms in the majority of patients frequently improve after a period of conservative treatment. This has been regarded as the result of a decrease of pressure exerted from the herniated disc on neighboring neurostructures and a gradual regression of inflammation. Recently, with advances in magnetic resonance imaging, many reports have demonstrated that the herniated disc has the potential for spontaneous regression. Regression coincided with the improvement of associated symptoms. However, the exact regression mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present 2 cases of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation with spontaneous regression. We review the literature and discuss the possible mechanisms, the precipitating factors of spontaneous disc regression and the proper timing of surgical intervention.

  16. Spontaneous hemothorax: primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Panjwani


    Full Text Available Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare condition seen in coagulation and vascular disorders. Uncommonly, malignant neoplasms may cause spontaneous hemothorax. Primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcomas (excluding the cases with pleuropulmonary or chest wall involvement are extremely rare pleural tumors, which may be mistaken for mesothelioma or adenocarcinoma, and only 19 cases (one of them from India have been reported in the English literature, to date. It commonly occurs in older men, has a nonspecific clinicoradiological presentation, and carries a poor prognosis with no survivors beyond a year of establishing the diagnosis. We report a case of primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma presenting as a life-threatening spontaneous hemothorax. We also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.

  17. Computed tomographic findings of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Young Chul [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Computed tomography (CT) was a reliable technique to evaluate the exact size and location of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and to predict it's prognosis. Fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and reviewed by CT scan. The following results were obtained. 1. The sex ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4, The highest incidence was in 6th and 7th decades. 2. The most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage was hypertension (74.6%), followed by the aneurysm (13.5%), arteriovenous malformation (5.1%), occlusive vascular disease (3.4%), and blood dyscrasia (3.4%). 3. The most common location was basal ganglia and thalamic hemorrhage (37.3%), followed by lobar hemorrhage (27.1%), cerebellar hemorrhage (13.5%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (11.9%). 4. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage carried the highest mortality. 5. The larger volume of hematoma, the higher the mortality rate.

  18. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  19. Hydrodynamics of sediment threshold (United States)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish


    A novel hydrodynamic model for the threshold of cohesionless sediment particle motion under a steady unidirectional streamflow is presented. The hydrodynamic forces (drag and lift) acting on a solitary sediment particle resting over a closely packed bed formed by the identical sediment particles are the primary motivating forces. The drag force comprises of the form drag and form induced drag. The lift force includes the Saffman lift, Magnus lift, centrifugal lift, and turbulent lift. The points of action of the force system are appropriately obtained, for the first time, from the basics of micro-mechanics. The sediment threshold is envisioned as the rolling mode, which is the plausible mode to initiate a particle motion on the bed. The moment balance of the force system on the solitary particle about the pivoting point of rolling yields the governing equation. The conditions of sediment threshold under the hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes are examined. The effects of velocity fluctuations are addressed by applying the statistical theory of turbulence. This study shows that for a hindrance coefficient of 0.3, the threshold curve (threshold Shields parameter versus shear Reynolds number) has an excellent agreement with the experimental data of uniform sediments. However, most of the experimental data are bounded by the upper and lower limiting threshold curves, corresponding to the hindrance coefficients of 0.2 and 0.4, respectively. The threshold curve of this study is compared with those of previous researchers. The present model also agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data of nonuniform sediments.

  20. Studying Suspended Sediment Mechanism with Two-Phase PIV (United States)

    Matinpour, H.; Atkinson, J. F.; Bennett, S. J.; Guala, M.


    Suspended sediment transport affects soil erosion, agriculture and water resources quality. Turbulent diffusion is the most primary force to maintain sediments in suspension. Although extensive previous literature have been studying the interactions between turbulent motion and suspended sediment, mechanism of sediments in suspension is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigate suspension of sediments as two distinct phases: one phase of sediments and another phase of fluid with turbulent motions. We designed and deployed a state-of-the-art two-phase PIV measurement technique to discriminate these two phases and acquire velocities of each phase separately and simultaneously. The technique that we have developed is employing a computer-vision based method, which enables us to discriminate sediment particles from fluid tracer particles based on two thresholds, dissimilar particle sizes and different particle intensities. Results indicate that fluid turbulence decreases in the presence of suspended sediments. Obtaining only sediment phase consecutive images enable us to compute fluctuation sediment concentration. This result enlightens understanding of complex interaction between the fluctuation velocities and the fluctuation of associated mass and compares turbulent viscosity with turbulent eddy diffusivity experimentally.

  1. Spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in IPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Torrubia, S.; Sabate, J.M.; Rodriguez-Arias, J.M.


    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are at risk for a variety of acute pulmonary complications, including pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Our aim was to describe the radiographic and CT findings and to determine the frequency of complicating spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in patients with IPF. A retrospective study was performed including 78 consecutive patients who underwent CT scanning of the chest and who had confirmed IPF. The chest radiographs and CT scans were reviewed by two chest radiologists and classified as showing features of extra-alveolar air collections. The CT scans showed extra-alveolar air in 9 (11.2 %) of 78 patients (six females and three males; age range 26-90 years, mean age 65 years). Pneumothorax was demonstrated in 5 patients and mediastinal air collections in 4 patients. All patients had dyspnea for 1-48 months (mean 14 months). Of the five cases with pneumothorax, four developed acute onset of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain, whereas 1 patient had a relatively stable functional status. Of the 4 patients with pneumomediastinum, three presented with nonpleuritic chest pain and acute dyspnea. Chest radiographs showed extra-alveolar air in 6 patients. Three cases were predicted to be negative by chest radiographs. Follow-up CT showed that air collections had resolved completely in 5 patients. Two patients died of respiratory failure within 4 months after CT. Extra-alveolar air should be recognized as a relatively common IPF-related complication. Chest CT is a useful imaging method in determining air collections in patients with IPF that become acutely breathless and their chest radiograph fails to reveal the presence of extra-alveolar air. (orig.)

  2. Probiotics and refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria. (United States)

    Nettis, E; Di Leo, E; Pastore, A; Distaso, M; Zaza, I; Vacca, M; Macchia, L; Vacca, A


    Background. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) first-line therapy with an antihistamine-based regimen may not achieve satisfactory control in patients. Thus, a continuing need exists for effective and safe treatments for refractory CSU. Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of an intake of a combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03) in patients with CSU who remain symptomatic despite concomitant H1-antihistamine therapy. Methods. This report analyzes the effects of therapy with two probiotic strains on the clinical progress of 52 unselected patients with difficulty to treat CSU underwent to medical examination in two Italian specialist urticaria Clinics between September 2013 and September 2014. A mixture of Lactobacillus LS01 and Bifidobacterium BR03 were administered in each patient twice daily for 8 weeks. To evaluate patients' improvement with probiotics, urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) was used at baseline and at week 8 in addition to a 5-question urticaria quality of life questionnaire. Results. Fifty-two patients with CSU were included in this study (10 male and 42 female, age range 19-72 years). Mean disease duration was 1.5 years. Fourteen patients discontinued treatment, so evaluable population consisted of 38 patients. Nine of the 38 patients experienced mild clinical improvement during probiotic treatment (23.7%); one patient reported significant clinical improvement (2.6%) and one patient had complete remission of urticaria (2.6%). Twenty-seven patients did not have improvement in symptoms (71.1%). No side effects during the course of therapy were reported. Conclusions. A combination of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 administered twice daily for 8 weeks might reduce the symptoms scores and improve quality of life scores in a part of patients with CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with H1 antihistamine mostly in subjects with allergic

  3. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex in humans. Comparison with drug-induced responses. (United States)

    Parlow, J; Viale, J P; Annat, G; Hughson, R; Quintin, L


    We compared two methods of assessment of baroreflex sensitivity in eight supine healthy volunteers during repeated baseline measurements and various conditions of cardiac autonomic blockade. The spontaneous baroreflex method involved computer scanning of recordings of continuous finger arterial pressure and electrocardiogram to locate sequences of three or more beats in which pressure spontaneously increased or decreased, with parallel changes in pulse intervals. The mean regression slope of all these sequences during each study condition was considered to represent the mean spontaneous baroreflex slope. In the drug-induced method, sigmoidal curves were constructed from data obtained by bolus injections of phenylephrine and nitroprusside; the tangents taken at the resting pressure of each of these curves were compared with the mean spontaneous baroreflex slopes. The two methods yielded slopes that were highly correlated (r = .96, P < .001), with significant but similar intraindividual baseline variability. Atropine virtually eliminated the baroreflex slope; subsequent addition of propranolol did not alter it further. Propranolol or clonidine alone increased average baroreflex slope to the extent that they increased resting pulse interval (r = .69 to .83). The spontaneous baroreflex method provides a reliable, noninvasive assessment of human vagal cardiac baroreflex sensitivity within its physiological operating range.

  4. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.


    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  5. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni


    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  7. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.


    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  8. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD


    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  10. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon


    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  11. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Urs [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    We discuss various strategies for regularising supersymmetric quantum field theories on a space-time lattice. In general, simulations of lattice models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We discuss a novel approach which evades this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. Then we present exact results on the spectrum and the Witten index for N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics and results from simulations of the spontaneously broken N=1 Wess-Zumino model.

  12. Preliminary magnetic studies of lagoon and stream sediments from Chascomús Area (Argentina)—magnetic parameters as indicators of heavy metal pollution and some results of using an experimental method to separate magnetic phases (United States)

    Chaparro, Marcos A. E.; Lirio, Juan M.; Nuñez, Héctor; Gogorza, Claudia S. G.; Sinito, Ana M.


    Magnetic properties of lagoon and stream sediments from Chascomús area (Buenos Aires Province) and the relevance of various magnetic parameters as giving pollution status are studied in the present work. This work is focussed on magnetic parameters, such as concentration-dependent (magnetic susceptibility, saturation anhysteric and isothermal remanent magnetisation) and feature-dependent parameters (S-ratio, coercivity of remanence, anhysteric susceptibility/magnetic susceptibility-ratio), as pollution indicators. Firstly and most importantly, different magnetic parameters and chemical measurements were correlated in order to investigate their goodness, obtaining the best results for feature-dependent magnetic parameters. Coercivity of remanence correlate very well with chemical variables, showing correlations at high level of significance up to 0.9094, and the anhysteric susceptibility/magnetic susceptibility-ratio also shows very good correlations (up to 0.8376). Some results and advantages of using a new experimental method in order to discriminate hard and soft magnetic phases are also shown. This method uses alternately backfield isothermal remanent magnetisation and alternating field demagnetisation. From the experimental separation, the presence of hard magnetic phases in some samples was confirmed.

  13. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Aug 2, 2015 ... The macroscopic–microscopic method is extended to calculate the deformation energy and penetrability for binary nuclear configurations typical for fission processes. The deformed two-centre shell model is used to obtain single-particle energy levels for the transition region of two partially overlapped ...

  14. Orimulsion penetration and retention in coarse sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.R.; Ward, S.; Brown, T.; Sergy, G.; Dempsey, M.


    Orimulsion is a fuel alternative composed of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. It is shipped from Venezuela to New Brunswick where it is used as fuel oil for power plants. While there have not been any major spills of Orimulsion, it is recognized that very little is known regarding the dispersal and weathering processes of Orimulsion, or the behaviour and cleanup of the product on both rocky and course sediment shorelines. For that reason, this study was conducted to evaluate Orimulsion penetration and retention in coarse sediments. The objectives were to develop a standardized method to apply dispersed and coalesced bitumen to the coarse grained sediment test substrates and to estimate the quantity of bitumen retained on and in the substrate. Another objective was to evaluate how the two forms of bitumen interact with coarse sediments in terms of penetration and retention characteristics. The impact of tides and temperature on penetration and retention in coarse sediments was also evaluated. The results were interpreted in terms of potential response options and cleanup options for coarse sediment shorelines. It was determined that spilled Orimulsion would be stranded in the form of tar balls. Initial penetration of coalesced bitumen would be limited in granules and pebbles, Penetration of more than 30 cm would occur in cobbles within 4 tidal cycles. Penetration is temperature sensitive. Cold temperatures would limit penetration in cobbles. No washing method was identified for removal of coalesced bitumen, but coalesced bitumen remains buoyant after penetration. The retention of dispersed bitumen is less than 50 mg of bitumen per kg of sediment. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  15. Sedimentation problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.T.


    Roseires Dam and reservoir are located in Sudan, Africa on the Blue Nile River. The hydropower from the reservoir provides approximately 80% of the power used in Sudan, thus having a tremendous economic impact on the country. The reservoir was first impounded in 1966 and has been filled annually since then. The Blue Nile has historically been known to carry heavy sediment loads which is associated with erosion from overgrazing in Ethiopia, the Blue Nile's headwaters. During the flood season, the dam's turbine intakes become blocked with debris and sediment. After a severe blockage in 1981, which prevented hydropower generation for several days, consultants from USAID were asked to make recommendations on reducing the sediment and debris impacts on reservoir operations. This led to debris clearing and dredging equipment acquisitions in 1982. In 1988, blockage occurred again during the flood season. This writer was asked by the World Bank to travel to Sudan, investigate the sediment and debris problems, examine the USAID recommendations, comment on potential sediment and debris problems associated with a proposed plan to raise the dam, make additional recommendations, and return to Sudan several times to determine the effectiveness of there recommendations. This paper discussed the results of the aforementioned activities and describes the new recommendations made by this writer

  16. Geomechanical property of gas hydrate sediment in the Nankai trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hato, M. [Earth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo (Japan); Matsuoka, T.; Ikeda, H. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering; Inamori, T.; Saeki, T. [Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technology Research Center


    Well logging data and core samples from the Nankai trough area were used to investigate the geomechanical properties and geological history of gas hydrate-bearing sediments. The Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion was used to calculate the mechanical strength of the hydrate sediments. The dynamic Young's modulus was calculated using theoretical and experimental data. The study showed that sediments below the gas hydrate later are mechanically weaker than sediments within the gas hydrate layer. The mechanical strength of the core samples was then measured both before and after dissociation. The study showed that saturated gas hydrates are 4 times stronger than gas hydrate-dissociated cores. It was concluded that hydrate-bearing sediments are mechanically stronger than non-hydrate-bearing sediments. Results of the study will be used to develop methods of predicting risk factors for sea floor deformations and well-bore collapse during gas hydrate extraction processes in hydrate reservoirs. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Mrica Reservoir Sedimentation: Current Situation and Future Necessary Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Utomo


    Full Text Available Mrica Reservoir is one of many reservoirs located in Central Java that experienced a considerably high sedimentation during the last ten years. This condition has caused a rapid decrease in reservoir capacity. Various countermeasures have been introduced to reduce the rate of the reservoir sedimentation through catchment management and reservoir operation by means of flushing and/or dredging. However, the sedimentation remains intensive so that the fulfillment of water demand for electrical power generation was seriously affected. This paper presents the results of evaluation on the dynamics of the purpose of this research is to evaluate the sediment balance of the Mrica Reservoir based on two different scenarios, i.e. the existing condition and another certain type of reservoir management. The study on sediment balance was carried out by estimating the sediment inflow applying sheet erosion method in combination with the analysis of sediment rating curve. The measurement of the deposited sediment rate in the reservoir was conducted through the periodic echo sounding, whereas identification of the number of sediment that has been released from the reservoir was carried out through the observation on both flushing and dredging activities. The results show that during the last decade, the rate of the sediment inflow was approximately 5.869 MCM/year, whereas the released sediment from the reservoir was 4.097 MCM/year. In order to maintain the reservoir capacity, therefore, at least 1.772 MCM/year should be released from the reservoir by means of either flushing or dredging. Sedimentation management may prolong the reservoir’s service life to exceed the design life. Without sediment management, the lifetime of the reservoir would have finished by 2016, whereas with the proper management the lifetime may be extended to 2025.

  18. Sedimentation studies at MUDA catchment area, Kedah, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin Samuding; Juhari Yusuf; Wan Abdul Aziz; Juhari Latiff


    A study on the sediment size distribution and determination of sediment density profile in the selected area of Muda dam catchment area, Kedah is presented. The objective of the study was to establish a base line data of the input sedimentation with regards to the effects of development within the catchment in the future. Three main sampling locations were identified namely at Sungai Teliang, Sungai Muda and Muda reservoir. Measurement of sediment thickness was performed by using nuclear gauges i.e. direct transmission and backscattering methods. Results showed that the grain size distribution of sediment ranges from gravel to clay sizes. In the reservoir and downstream of the river, most of the samples studied consisting of fine sediment i.e silt and clay sizes (<63,um). However, sediment distribution in the upstream section of Sungai Teliang mainly consist of fine to coarse sand. Sediment density profiles in the reservoir showed little changes, whereas bed sediment profiles in the river cross-sectional areas exhibit some changes. The results also showed that thickness of bedload sediment were different from one location to another, in which the thickness may achieve up to 0.75 metre in some areas. Based on the sediment distribution profile analysis, the study site could be divided into two parts comprising of dynamic area (region) covering selected locations along the river and deposited sediment in the reservoir. Basic information derived from this study may provide as one of the important inputs for the MADA reservoir management authority in monitoring, supervising y and identifying rate and source of sediment in the catchment area

  19. Sediment retention in a bottomland hardwood wetland in Eastern Arkansas (United States)

    Kleiss, B.A.


    One of the often-stated functions of wetlands is their ability to remove sediments and other particulates from water, thus improving water quality in the adjacent aquatic system. However, actual rates of suspended sediment removal have rarely been measured in freshwater wetland systems. To address this issue, suspended sediment dynamics were measured in a 85-km2 bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetland adjacent to the highly turbid Cache River in eastern Arkansas during the 1988-1990 water years. A suspended sediment mass balance was calculated using depth-integrated, flow-weighted daily measurements at wetland inflow and outflow points. Over the three-year period, suspended sediment load decreased an average of 14% between upstream and downstream sampling points. To test the idea that the suspended sediments were retained by the adjacent wetland and to determine what portion of the BLH forest was most responsible for retaining the suspended sediments, concurrent measurements of sediment accretion were made at 30 sites in the wetland using feldspar clay marker horizons, sedimentation disks, the 137cesium method, and dendrogeomorphic techniques. Sedimentation rates exceeding 1 cm/yr were measured in frequently flooded areas dominated by Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum. Maximum sedimentation rates did not occur on the natural levee, as would be predicted by classical fluvial geomorphology, but in the "first bottom," where retention time of the water reached a maximum. Multiple regression was used to relate sedimentation rates with several physical and biological factors. A combination of distance from the river, flood duration, and tree basal area accounted for nearly 90% of the variation in sedimentation rates.

  20. Assessment of baroreflex sensitivity from spontaneous oscillations of blood pressure and heart rate: proven clinical value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinna, Gian Domenico; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa


    The baroreceptor-heart rate reflex (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) is a key mechanism contributing to the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system. Several methods have been proposed so far to assess BRS by analyzing the spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. These methods are inherently simple, non-invasive and low-cost. This study is an attempt to address the question of whether spontaneous baroreflex methods have proven to be of value in the clinical setting. In the first part of this article, we critically review most representative clinical studies using spontaneous BRS techniques either for risk stratification or treatment evaluation, these being major issues in the clinical management of the patients. In the second part, we address two important aspects of spontaneous BRS measurements: measurability and reliability. Estimation of BRS in the studies selected for the review was performed according to the sequence, transfer function, alpha-index and phase-rectified signal averaging method. Arterial blood pressure was recorded non-invasively during supine, short-term (<30 min) laboratory recordings. The conclusion from this review is that spontaneous BRS techniques have been shown to be of great value in clinical practice but further work is needed to confirm the validity of previous findings and to widen the field of clinical applications. Measurability and reliability can be a major issue in the measurement of spontaneous BRS, particularly in some patient populations like post-myocardial infarction and heart failure patents. Main causes of poor measurability are: non-sinus rhythm, a high rate of ectopic beats and the need for recorded time series of RR interval and arterial blood pressure to satisfy the constraints of the different BRS estimation algorithms. As for reliability, within-subject variability is rather high in the measurements of spontaneous BRS and, therefore, should be carefully taken into account

  1. Biogeochemical processes in an urban, restored wetland of San Francisco Bay, California, 2007-2009; methods and data for plant, sediment and water parameters (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kieu, Le H.; Kakouros, Evangelos; Erikson, Li H.; Ward, Kristen


    The restoration of 18 acres of historic tidal marsh at Crissy Field has had great success in terms of public outreach and visibility, but less success in terms of revegetated marsh sustainability. Native cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) has experienced dieback and has failed to recolonize following extended flooding events during unintended periodic closures of its inlet channel, which inhibits daily tidal flushing. We examined the biogeochemical impacts of these impoundment events on plant physiology and on sulfur and mercury chemistry to help the National Park Service land managers determine the relative influence of these inlet closures on marsh function. In this comparative study, we examined key pools of sulfur, mercury, and carbon compounds both during and between closure events. Further, we estimated the net hydrodynamic flux of methylmercury and total mercury to and from the marsh during a 24-hour diurnal cycle. This report documents the methods used and the data generated during the study.

  2. Turbulence Flow Characteristics of Suspended Sediments and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an attempt to describe velocity distribution of suspended sediment laden flow by using a theory based on Monin-Obukhov Length L. It will be shown that experimental results from open channel flow with suspended sediments are better accounted for by this theory. The method involves the coupling of ...

  3. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, M.P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.H.


    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to

  4. The use of ecocores to evaluate biodegradation in marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Nielsen, Jef


    A laboratory sediment microcosm called the ecocore is described. It has been used to test the biodegradability of substances which predominantly enter the sediment. A new method for introducing hydrophobic test substances such as hydrocarbons to the test system is also described. In a series of t...

  5. Determination of cofactors in marine sediments; Bestimmung von Kofaktoren im marinen Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huschek, G.; Kayser, A.


    In respect to a sieving study of sediments in three different sediment locations (Wadden Sea (A), river Elbe-Aestuar (B), Baltic Sea (C)) a determination of selected organic compounds were carried out to study the influence of the sieving process on the variance of cofactors and analytical results. The organic pollutants PCB, Organochlorpesticides (OCP) and PAH were investigated in three fine sediment fractions <2 mm, > and < 63 {mu}m of the locations by accredited and standardised methods. At the same time the cofactor Organic Carbon (TOC) as well as Total Carbon (TC) and Total Nitrogen (TN) were determined in the fine sediment fractions. The endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A could be detected in the sediment locations B and C. The comparison of TOC, TC and TN average values by t-test showed significant differences between the fine fractions of location B and C. Because of low TOC values no signification was detectable in sediment A. The results show that the TOC values in fine sediments are affected by sieving. An enrichment of carbon was detected in the <63 {mu}m fraction in consideration of variance. A correlation between the cofactor TOC and the organic pollutant values could only be detected in the fine fractions of location B. The enrichment of pollutant values in the fine fractions was here analogue of TOC. For a comprehensive evaluation of the cofactor TOC no sufficient sieving sample materials were available in this study for location A and C. So a final statement regarding TOC in fine sediment fractions as a cofactor was not possible. The results show that a determination of organic contaminants in the fine sediment fraction <63 {mu}m make sense because of their enrichment in fine fractions in respect to the TOC values. (orig.)

  6. Calibration of Optical Back Scatterance for Suspended Sediment Concentration With San Francisco Bay Sediment (United States)

    Keller, B.


    Optical back scatterance (OBS) is used by USGS to indirectly quantify suspended sediment concentration in the waters of San Francisco Bay. The use of one of the types of OBS instruments that is used in the Bay was evaluated for quantification of discharge water from sand yards, where dredged bay floor sand is brought on land for commercial purposes. The instrument response was calibrated with synthetic samples prepared from settled, previously suspended fine sediment, collected on various dates and derived from the same general area of central San Francisco Bay. The sediment samples were washed with fresh water, oven dried, sieved, and mixed into water in a test chamber. The responses of various sediment samples were compared with that of silica flour, a commercially available industrial material with similar particle size and density, that is white in color. Multiple tests with sediment samples from individual dates yielded extremely repeatable, almost linear instrument responses as a function of varying concentration. Sediment samples from different dates yielded varying responses, ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 times the response of silica flour. This response difference, a factor of approximately 1.4, is interpreted to be due to small differences in the darkness ("color") of the sediment samples. In a comparison with an EPA test method that uses filtration and weighing, performed at commercial laboratories, the "total suspended solids" (TSS, used synonymously with the term "suspended sediment concentration") analyses of the mixed synthetic sample waters yielded very poor results. Saline water samples were often associated with TSS test results that were higher than the known synthetic sample concentrations, indicating that the lab tests were often measuring dissolved salt rather than suspended sediment.

  7. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of arsenic and selenium in water and sediment by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    Jones, Sandra R.; Garbarino, John R.


    Graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) is a sensitive, precise, and accurate technique that can be used to determine arsenic and selenium in samples of water and sediment. The GF-AAS method has been developed to replace the hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) methods because the method detection limits are similar, bias and variability are comparable, and interferences are minimal. Advantages of the GF-AAS method include shorter sample preparation time, increased sample throughput from simultaneous multielement analysis, reduced amount of chemical waste, reduced sample volume requirements, increased linear concentration range, and the use of a more accurate digestion procedure. The linear concentration range for arsenic and selenium is 1 to 50 micrograms per liter in solution; the current method detection limit for arsenic in solution is 0.9 microgram per liter; the method detection limit for selenium in solution is 1 microgram per liter. This report describes results that were obtained using stop-flow and low-flow conditions during atomization. The bias and variability of the simultaneous determination of arsenic and selenium by GF-AAS under both conditions are supported with results from standard reference materials--water and sediment, real water samples, and spike recovery measurements. Arsenic and selenium results for all Standard Reference Water Samples analyzed were within one standard deviation of the most probable values. Long-term spike recoveries at 6.25, 25.0, 37.5 micrograms per liter in reagent-, ground-, and surface-water samples for arsenic averaged 103 plus or minus 2 percent using low-flow conditions and 104 plus or minus 4 percent using stop-flow conditions. Corresponding recoveries for selenium were 98 plus or minus 13 percent using low-flow conditions and 87 plus or minus 24 percent using stop-flow conditions. Spike recoveries at 25 micrograms per liter in 120 water samples ranged from 97 to 99 percent

  8. Surgery for Patients With Spontaneous Deep Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; Zhao, He-Xiang; Guo, Rui; Lin, Sen; Dong, Wei; Ma, Lu; Fang, Yuan; Tian, Meng; Liu, Ming; You, Chao


    Abstract Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most dangerous cerebrovascular diseases, especially when in deep brain. The treatment of spontaneous deep supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study using propensity score matching to compare the efficacy of surgery and conservative treatment for patients with deep surpatentorial hemorrhage. We observed the outcomes of consecutive patients with spontaneous deep supratentorial hemorrhage retrospectively from December 2008 to July 2013. Clinical outcomes of surgery and conservative treatments were compared in patients with deep sICH using propensity score matching method. The primary outcome was neurological function status at 6 months post ictus. The second outcomes included mortality at 30 days and 6 months, and the incidence of complications. Subgroup analyses of 6-month outcome were conducted. Sixty-three (22.66%) of the 278 patients who received surgery had a favorable neurological function status at 6 months, whereas in the conservative group, 66 of 278 (23.74%) had the same result (P = 0.763). The 30-day mortality in the surgical group was 19.06%, whereas 30.58% in the conservative group (P = 0.002). There was significant difference in the mortality at 6 months after ictus as well (23.38% vs 36.33%, P = 0.001). The subgroup analyses showed significantly better outcomes for the surgical group when hematoma was >40 mL (13.33% vs 0%, P = 0.005) or complicated with intraventricular hemorrhage (16.67% vs 7.27%, P = 0.034). For complications, the risk of pulmonary infection, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, urinary infection, pulmonary embolus, and need for tracheostomy/long term ventilation in the surgical group was higher than the conservative group (31.29% vs 15.47%, P < 0.001; 6.83% vs 3.96%, P = 0.133; 2.88% vs 1.80%, P = 0.400; 1.80% vs 1.08%, P = 0.476; 32.73% vs 23.38%, P = 0

  9. Yeast Population Dynamics in Spontaneous and Inoculated Alcoholic Fermentations of Zametovka Must

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Cus


    Full Text Available Inoculated fermentations, which are more rapid and more reliable than spontaneous fermentations, and assure predictable wine quality, are nowadays prevalent in Slovenia’s large-scale wine production. However, spontaneous fermentation strengthens local characteristics of wine and offers opportunities for technological innovation. In the 1999 vintage, spontaneous and inoculated fermentations of Zametovka (Vitis vinifera grape must were studied. Zametovka is the main red variety in production of traditional Slovene red blend wine, Cvicek. The diversity of yeast species and strains in both of the investigated fermentations was determined by molecular and traditional identification methods. The outset of alcoholic fermentation, yeast growth kinetics, and yeast population dynamics presents the main differences between the examined fermentations. Yeast population diversity was higher in the spontaneous process. Dominant yeast isolates from spontaneous fermentation were identified as Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; whereas Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia membranifaciens and Torulaspora delbrueckiim were found less frequently. Dominant species in the inoculated fermentation was Saccharomyces cerevisiae; other species found in smaller numbers were Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii. Using PFGE, we were able to distinguish among 15 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and three different Saccharomyces bayanus strains isolated from spontaneous fermentation, whereas, in the case of inoculated fermentation, only two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were found. Their chromosomal patterns coincide with the chromosomal patterns of the starter culture strains.

  10. Effect of pH on the spontaneous synthesis of palladium nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaorui [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Ooki, Wataru; Kosaka, Yoshinori R.; Okonogi, Akinori [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Marzun, Galina; Wagener, Philipp; Barcikowski, Stephan [Technical Chemistry I and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 7, D-45141 Essen (Germany); NanoEnergieTechnikZentrum (NETZ), University of Duisburg-Essen, Carl-Benz-Strasse 199, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Kondo, Takahiro [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science (TIMS) & Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Engineering (CiRfSE), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8573 (Japan); Nakamura, Junji, E-mail: [Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science (TIMS) & Center for Integrated Research in Fundamental Science and Engineering (CiRfSE), University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, 305-8573 (Japan)


    Highlights: • Palladium metal nanoparticles were spontaneously formed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via a redox reaction in H{sub 2}O. • The amount of Pd deposited on rGO was affected by pH. • The amount of oxygen-containing functional groups in rGO was increased with the deposition of palladium. • The importance of redox potential in spontaneous deposition was demonstrated by an experiment with Zn, Ni, Pt, Pd, etc.. • The spontaneous redox deposition method is facile, environmentally friendly, and needs no external reducing agents. - Abstract: Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles were spontaneously deposited on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) without any external reducing agents. The prepared Pd/rGO composites were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spontaneous deposition occurred because of a redox reaction between the Pd precursor and rGO, which involved reduction of bivalent Pd to metallic Pd{sup 0} and oxidation of the sp{sup 2} carbon of rGO to oxygen-containing functional groups. The amount of Pd deposited on rGO varied with pH, and this was attributed to electrostatic interactions between the Pd precursor and rGO based on the results of zeta potential measurements. The importance of the redox reaction in the spontaneous deposition was demonstrated in the experiment with Zn, Ni, Cu, Ag, Pt, Pd, and Au.

  11. Sympathovagal effects of spinal anesthesia assessed by the spontaneous cardiac baroreflex. (United States)

    Gratadour, P; Viale, J P; Parlow, J; Sagnard, P; Counioux, H; Bagou, G; Annat, G; Hughson, R; Quintin, L


    The changes in sympathovagal balance induced by spinal anesthesia remain controversial. The spontaneous baroreflex method allows the continuous assessment of the spontaneous engagement of the cardiac baroreflex, giving an index of sympathovagal balance. The purpose of this study was to follow the effects of spinal anesthesia on spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity. Continuous electrocardiogram and noninvasive blood pressure were recorded in 24 patients scheduled for elective inguinal hernia repair and randomly assigned to three groups: (1) no volume loading, (2) volume loading of 15 ml/kg lactated Ringer's solution, and (3) continuous infusion of etilefrine (an ephedrine-like drug). Each patient was studied before, during, and after bupivacaine-induced spinal anesthesia (mean sensory block: T4). Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and parameters of time-domain analysis of heart rate variability were calculated from 30 min of recording of each period. No significant change in spontaneous baroreflex slope or parameters of time-domain analysis were observed after regional anesthesia in any group. However, three patients experienced episodes of bradycardia and hypotension in the absence of a high block; these three patients showed an increase in spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and time-domain parameters. Using a noninvasive, continuous technique to estimate cardiac sympathovagal balance, no significant variation in autonomic balance induced by spinal anesthesia was observed. However, untoward episodes of bradycardia and hypotension occurred in three patients, who could not be prospectively identified by the parameters studied.

  12. Frequency of microbial spectrum of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in established cirrhosis liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, A.; Kareem, R.; Khan, E.M.


    Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is one of the most frequent and serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites associated with high mortality. Empiric antibiotic therapy should be initiated before the results of ascitic fluid cultures are available, guided by knowledge of the microbial spectrum of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a particular population. Methods: This is a descriptive study which was carried out in the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Postgraduate Medical Institute Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from January 2007 to December 2007. Fifty consecutive patients of established cirrhosis liver with ascites presenting with suspicion and or risk factors for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were included in the study after informed consent. All selected patients were subjected to ascitic fluid tap. Twenty ml of ascitic fluid was aspirated in a heparinised disposable syringe; out of it 10 ml was immediately inoculated into blood culture bottle at bedside and sent for bacterial culture along with the remaining 10 ml for routine biochemical and cytological examination. Results: Out of 50 patients, 28 (56%) were diagnosed to have spontaneous bacterial peritonitis or its variants. Classic spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was present in 11 patients (39.28%), 16 (57.14%) patients were found to have culture negative neutrocytic ascites and one patient (3.57%) had bacterascites. Out of 28 cases of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis 12 samples of ascitic fluid showed positive culture reports. E. coli was the most frequently cultured organism isolated in 8 (66.66%) cases, Streptococcus pneumonae in 2 patients (16.66%), Staphylococcus aurus and Klebsiella each in 1 case (8.33%). Conclusion: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and its variants is a common complication of liver cirrhosis with ascites. E. coli is the most frequent offending organism in these cases. Knowledge of the microbial spectrum of spontaneous

  13. Original article Spontaneous Pregnancy Outcome after Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 28, 2011 ... Table 2: Spontaneous pregnancy in relation to postoperative semen parameters. (no statistically significant difference), comparable to the mean ages of 22, 28.4 and. 34.9 years, respectively, reported by Bach et al9, Abdel- Meguid et al10 and Baazeem et al11. The mean age of the wives who did or did.

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.


    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  15. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  18. Spontaneous regression of an intraspinal disc cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Eerens, I.; Wilms, G. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Goffin, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)


    We present a patient with a so-called disc cyst. Its location in the ventrolateral epidural space and its communication with the herniated disc are clearly shown. The disc cyst developed rapidly and regressed spontaneously. This observation, which has not been reported until now, appears to support focal degeneration with cyst formation as the pathogenesis. (orig.)

  19. Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, W.; Toelly, E.; Ebner, F.; Kullnig, P.


    Spontaneous or traumatic rupture of renal cysts is a rare occurrence. The contents of the cyst can perforate into the renal calyx system or into the perirenal space. Perforation into the peritoneal cavity has also been described (1, 2, 4, 5).

  20. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana


    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...